Science.gov

Sample records for nonlinear frequency generation

  1. Magnetoplasmonic RF mixing and nonlinear frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firby, C. J.; Elezzabi, A. Y.

    2016-07-01

    We present the design of a magnetoplasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator facilitating radio-frequency (RF) mixing and nonlinear frequency generation. This is achieved by forming the MZI arms from long-range dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides containing bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Bi:YIG). The magnetization of the Bi:YIG can be driven in the nonlinear regime by RF magnetic fields produced around adjacent transmission lines. Correspondingly, the nonlinear temporal dynamics of the transverse magnetization component are mapped onto the nonreciprocal phase shift in the MZI arms, and onto the output optical intensity signal. We show that this tunable mechanism can generate harmonics, frequency splitting, and frequency down-conversion with a single RF excitation, as well as RF mixing when driven by two RF signals. This magnetoplasmonic component can reduce the number of electrical sources required to generate distinct optical modulation frequencies and is anticipated to satisfy important applications in integrated optics.

  2. Nonlinear negative refraction by difference frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianjun; Shen, Dongyi; Feng, Yaming; Wan, Wenjie

    2016-05-01

    Negative refraction has attracted much interest for its promising capability in imaging applications. Such an effect can be implemented by negative index meta-materials, however, which are usually accompanied by high loss and demanding fabrication processes. Recently, alternative nonlinear approaches like phase conjugation and four wave mixing have shown advantages of low-loss and easy-to-implement, but associated problems like narrow accepting angles can still halt their practical applications. Here, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally a scheme to realize negative refraction by nonlinear difference frequency generation with wide tunability, where a thin Beta barium borate slice serves as a negative refraction layer bending the input signal beam to the idler beam at a negative angle. Furthermore, we realize optical focusing effect using such nonlinear negative refraction, which may enable many potential applications in imaging science.

  3. Guided wave methods and apparatus for nonlinear frequency generation

    DOEpatents

    Durfee, III, Charles G.; Rundquist, Andrew; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2000-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for the nonlinear generation of sum and difference frequencies of electromagnetic radiation propagating in a nonlinear material. A waveguide having a waveguide cavity contains the nonlinear material. Phase matching of the nonlinear generation is obtained by adjusting a waveguide propagation constant, the refractive index of the nonlinear material, or the waveguide mode in which the radiation propagates. Phase matching can be achieved even in isotropic nonlinear materials. A short-wavelength radiation source uses phase-matched nonlinear generation in a waveguide to produce high harmonics of a pulsed laser.

  4. Modulation of Radio Frequency Signals by Nonlinearly Generated Acoustic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Spencer Joseph

    Acousto-electromagnetic scattering is a process in which an acoustic excitation is utilized to induce modulation on an electromagnetic (EM) wave. This phenomenon can be exploited in remote sensing and detection schemes whereby target objects are mechanically excited by high powered acoustic waves resulting in unique object characterizations when interrogated with EM signals. Implementation of acousto-EM sensing schemes, however, are limited by a lack of fundamental understanding of the nonlinear interaction between acoustic and EM waves and inefficient simulation methods in the determination of the radiation patterns of higher order scattered acoustic fields. To address the insufficient simulation issue, a computationally efficient mathematical model describing higher order scattered sound fields, particularly of third-order in which a 40x increase in computation speed is achieved, is derived using a multi-Gaussian beam (MGB) expansion that expresses the sound field of any arbitrary axially symmetric beam as a series of Gaussian base functions. The third-order intermodulation (IM3) frequency components are produced by considering the cascaded nonlinear second-order effects when analyzing the interaction between the first- and second-order frequency components during the nonlinear scattering of sound by sound from two noncollinear ultrasonic baffled piston sources. The theory is extended to the modeling of the sound beams generated by parametric transducer arrays, showing that the MGB model can be efficiently used to calculate both the second- and third-order sound fields of the array. Additionally, a near-to-far-field (NTFF) transformation method is developed to model the far-field characteristics of scattered sound fields, extending Kirchhoff's theorem, typically applied to EM waves, determining the far-field patterns of an acoustic source from amplitude and phase measurements made in the near-field by including the higher order sound fields generated by the

  5. Aluminum nitride as nonlinear optical material for on-chip frequency comb generation and frequency conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hojoong; Tang, Hong X.

    2016-06-01

    A number of dielectric materials have been employed for on-chip frequency comb generation. Silicon based dielectrics such as silicon dioxide (SiO2) and silicon nitride (SiN) are particularly attractive comb materials due to their low optical loss and maturity in nanofabrication. They offer third-order Kerr nonlinearity (χ(3)), but little second-order Pockels (χ(2)) effect. Materials possessing both strong χ(2) and χ(3) are desired to enable selfreferenced frequency combs and active control of comb generation. In this review, we introduce another CMOS-compatible comb material, aluminum nitride (AlN),which offers both second and third order nonlinearities. A review of the advantages of AlN as linear and nonlinear optical material will be provided, and fabrication techniques of low loss AlN waveguides from the visible to infrared (IR) region will be discussed.We will then show the frequency comb generation including IR, red, and green combs in high-Q AlN micro-rings from single CW IR laser input via combination of Kerr and Pockels nonlinearity. Finally, the fast speed on-off switching of frequency comb using the Pockels effect of AlN will be shown,which further enriches the applications of the frequency comb.

  6. Direct generation of optical frequency combs in χ(2) nonlinear cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosca, Simona; Ricciardi, Iolanda; Parisi, Maria; Maddaloni, Pasquale; Santamaria, Luigi; De Natale, Paolo; De Rosa, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    Quadratic nonlinear processes are currently exploited for frequency comb transfer and extension from the visible and near infrared regions to other spectral ranges where direct comb generation cannot be accomplished. However, frequency comb generation has been directly observed in continuously pumped quadratic nonlinear crystals placed inside an optical cavity. At the same time, an introductory theoretical description of the phenomenon has been provided, showing a remarkable analogy with the dynamics of third-order Kerr microresonators. Here, we give an overview of our recent work on χ(2) frequency comb generation. Furthermore, we generalize the preliminary three-wave spectral model to a many-mode comb and present a stability analysis of different cavity field regimes. Although our work is a very early stage, it lays the groundwork for a novel class of highly efficient and versatile frequency comb synthesizers based on second-order nonlinear materials.

  7. Generation of nonlinear currents and low-frequency radiation upon interaction of a laser pulse with a metal

    SciTech Connect

    Bezhanov, S G; Uryupin, S A

    2013-11-30

    Nonlinear currents slowly varying in time are found in the skin layer of a metal irradiated by short laser pulses. The low-frequency field generated by the nonlinear currents in metal and vacuum is studied. The spectral composition, energy and shape of the low-frequency radiation pulse are described. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  8. Astronomical optical frequency comb generation in nonlinear fibres and ring resonators: optimization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez Boggio, J. M.; Fremberg, T.; Bodenmüller, D.; Wysmolek, M.; Sanyic, H.; Fernando, H.; Neumann, J.; Kracht, D.; Haynes, R.; Roth, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    We here discuss recent progress on astronomical optical frequency comb generation at innoFSPEC-Potsdam. Two different platforms (and approaches) are numerically and experimentally investigated targeting medium and low resolution spectrographs at astronomical facilities in which innoFSPEC is currently involved. In the first approach, a frequency comb is generated by propagating two lasers through three nonlinear stages - the first two stages serve for the generation of low-noise ultra-short pulses, while the final stage is a low-dispersion highly-nonlinear fibre where the pulses undergo strong spectral broadening. In our approach, the wavelength of one of the lasers can be tuned allowing the comb line spacing being continuously varied during the calibration procedure - this tuning capability is expected to improve the calibration accuracy since the CCD detector response can be fully scanned. The input power, the dispersion, the nonlinear coefficient, and fibre lengths in the nonlinear stages are defined and optimized by solving the Generalized Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation. Experimentally, we generate the 250GHz line-spacing frequency comb using two narrow linewidth lasers that are adiabatically compressed in a standard fibre first and then in a double-clad Er/Yb doped fibre. The spectral broadening finally takes place in a highly nonlinear fibre resulting in an astro-comb with 250 calibration lines (covering a bandwidth of 500 nm) with good spectral equalization. In the second approach, we aim to generate optical frequency combs in dispersion-optimized silicon nitride ring resonators. A technique for lowering and flattening the chromatic dispersion in silicon nitride waveguides with silica cladding is proposed and demonstrated. By minimizing the waveguide dispersion in the resonator two goals are targeted: enhancing the phase matching for non-linear interactions and producing equally spaced resonances. For this purpose, instead of one cladding layer our design

  9. Generation of an astronomical optical frequency comb in three fibre-based nonlinear stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez Boggio, J. M.; Rieznik, A. A.; Zajnulina, M.; Böhm, M.; Bodenmüller, D.; Wysmolek, M.; Sayinc, H.; Neumann, Jörg; Kracht, Dietmar; Haynes, R.; Roth, M. M.

    2012-06-01

    The generation of a broadband optical frequency comb with 80 GHz spacing by propagation of a sinusoidal wave through three dispersion-optimized nonlinear stages is numerically investigated. The input power, the dispersion, the nonlinear coefficient, and lengths are optimized for the first two stages for the generation of low-noise ultra-short pulses. The final stage is a low-dispersion highly-nonlinear fibre where the ultra-short pulses undergo self-phase modulation for strong spectral broadening. The modeling is performed using a Generalized Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation incorporating Kerr and Raman nonlinearities, self-steepening, high-order dispersion and gain. In the proposed approach the sinusoidal input field is pre-compressed in the first fibre section. This is shown to be necessary to keep the soliton order below ten to minimize the noise build-up during adiabatic pulse compression, when the pulses are subsequently amplified in the next fibre section (rare-earth-doped-fibre with anomalous dispersion). We demonstrate that there is an optimum balance between dispersion, input power and nonlinearities, in order to have adiabatic pulse compression. It is shown that the intensity noise grows exponentially as the pulses start to be compressed in the amplifying fibre. Eventually, the noise decreases and reaches a minimum when the pulses are maximally compressed. A train of 70 fs pulses with up to 3.45 kW peak power and negligible noise is generated in our simulations, which can be spectrally broadened in a highly-nonlinear fibre. The main drawback of this compression technique is the small fibre length tolerance where noise is negligible (smaller than 10 cm for erbium-doped fibre length of 15 m). We finally investigate how the frequency comb characteristics are modified by incorporating an optical feedback. We show that frequency combs appropriate for calibration of astronomical spectrographs can be improved by using this technique.

  10. A generator with nonlinear spring oscillator to provide vibrations of multi-frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Liu, Jingquan; Tang, Gang; Luo, Jiangbo; Yang, Chunsheng; Li, Yigui

    2011-11-01

    A piezoelectric generator with nonlinear spring oscillator is proposed to provide multiple resonant modes for operation and improve conversion efficiency. In order to scavenge the vibration energy of multiple frequencies from a certain vibration source, two types of nonlinear springs have been employed and tested. The maximum output power of 5, 17.83, and 23.39 μW for the nonlinear spring of 8.3 N/m with 1 g acceleration has been obtained under the resonant frequency of 89, 104, and 130 Hz, respectively. Its total output power of 46.22 μW is obviously larger than the one of 28.35 μW for traditional second-order spring-mass linear system.

  11. Wide operation frequency band magnetostrictive vibration power generator using nonlinear spring constant by permanent magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furumachi, S.; Ueno, T.

    2016-04-01

    We study magnetostrictive vibration based power generator using iron-gallium alloy (Galfenol). The generator is advantages over conventional, such as piezoelectric material in the point of high efficiency highly robust and low electrical impedance. Generally, the generator exhibits maximum power when its resonant frequency matches the frequency of ambient vibration. In other words, the mismatch of these frequencies results in significant decrease of the output. One solution is making the spring characteristics nonlinear using magnetic force, which distorts the resonant peak toward higher or lower frequency side. In this paper, vibrational generator consisting of Galfenol plate of 6 by 0.5 by 13 mm wound with coil and U shape-frame accompanied with plates and pair of permanent magnets was investigated. The experimental results show that lean of resonant peak appears attributed on the non-linear spring characteristics, and half bandwidth with magnets is 1.2 times larger than that without. It was also demonstrated that the addition of proof mass is effective to increase the sensitivity but also the bandwidth. The generator with generating power of sub mW order is useful for power source of wireless heath monitoring for bridge and factory machine.

  12. Temperature dependence of acoustic harmonics generated by nonlinear ultrasound wave propagation in water at various frequencies.

    PubMed

    Maraghechi, Borna; Hasani, Mojtaba H; Kolios, Michael C; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasound-based thermometry requires a temperature-sensitive acoustic parameter that can be used to estimate the temperature by tracking changes in that parameter during heating. The objective of this study is to investigate the temperature dependence of acoustic harmonics generated by nonlinear ultrasound wave propagation in water at various pulse transmit frequencies from 1 to 20 MHz. Simulations were conducted using an expanded form of the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov nonlinear acoustic wave propagation model in which temperature dependence of the medium parameters was included. Measurements were performed using single-element transducers at two different transmit frequencies of 3.3 and 13 MHz which are within the range of frequencies simulated. The acoustic pressure signals were measured by a calibrated needle hydrophone along the axes of the transducers. The water temperature was uniformly increased from 26 °C to 46 °C in increments of 5 °C. The results show that the temperature dependence of the harmonic generation is different at various frequencies which is due to the interplay between the mechanisms of absorption, nonlinearity, and focusing gain. At the transmit frequencies of 1 and 3.3 MHz, the harmonic amplitudes decrease with increasing the temperature, while the opposite temperature dependence is observed at 13 and 20 MHz. PMID:27250143

  13. Group velocity mismatch-absent nonlinear frequency conversions for mid-infrared femtosecond pulses generation

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Haizhe; Zhang, Lifu; Li, Ying; Fan, Dianyuan

    2015-01-01

    A novel group velocity mismatch (GVM) absent scheme for nonlinear optical parametric procedure in mid-infrared was developed with type-I quasi phase matching by use of an off-digital nonlinear optical coefficient d31. This was achieved by matching of the group velocities of the pump and the signal waves, while the phase velocities were quasi phase matched. The system employs MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 as the nonlinear medium. Desired group-velocity dispersion would be obtained via appropriately temperature regulation. To demonstrate its potential applications in ultrafast mid-infrared pulses generation, aiming at a typical mid-infrared wavelength of ~3.2 μm, design examples of two basic nonlinear frequency conversion procedures are studied for both the narrow-band seeding mid-IR optical parametric amplification (OPA) and the synchronously pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillation (SPOPO). Compared with the conventional scheme of type-0 QPM, the quantum-efficiency can be more than doubled with nearly unlimited bandwidth. The proposed GVM- absent phase matching design may provide a promising route to efficient and broadband sub-100 fs mid-infrared ultrafast pulses generation without group-velocity walk-off. PMID:26099837

  14. Generation of green frequency comb from chirped χ{sup (2)} nonlinear photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, C.-M.; Chang, K.-H.; Yang, Z.-Y.; Fu, S.-H.; Tsai, S.-T.; Hsu, C.-W.; Peng, L.-H.; Yu, N. E.; Boudrioua, A.; Kung, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Spectrally broad frequency comb generation over 510–555 nm range was reported on chirped quasi-phase-matching (QPM) χ{sup (2)} nonlinear photonic crystals of 12 mm length with periodicity stepwise increased from 5.9 μm to 7.1 μm. When pumped with nanosecond infrared (IR) frequency comb derived from a QPM optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and spanned over 1040 nm to 1090 nm wavelength range, the 520 nm to 545 nm up-converted green spectra were shown to consist of contributions from (a) second-harmonic generation among the signal or the idler modes, and (b) sum-frequency generation (SFG) from the neighboring pairs of the signal or the idler modes. These mechanisms led the up-converted green frequency comb to have the same mode spacing of 450 GHz as that in the IR-OPO pump comb. As the pump was further detuned from the aforementioned near-degeneracy point and moved toward the signal (1020–1040 nm) and the idler (1090–1110 nm) spectral range, the above QPM parametric processes were preserved in the chirped QPM devices to support up-converted green generation in the 510–520 nm and the 545–555 nm spectral regime. Additional 530–535 nm green spectral generation was also observed due to concurrence of multi-wavelength SFG processes between the (signal, idler) mode pairs. These mechanisms facilitate the chirped QPM device to support a single-pass up-conversion efficiency ∼10% when subject to an IR-OPO pump comb with 200 mW average power operated near- or off- the degeneracy point.

  15. Generation of green frequency comb from chirped χ(2) nonlinear photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, C.-M.; Chang, K.-H.; Yang, Z.-Y.; Fu, S.-H.; Tsai, S.-T.; Hsu, C.-W.; Yu, N. E.; Boudrioua, A.; Kung, A. H.; Peng, L.-H.

    2014-12-01

    Spectrally broad frequency comb generation over 510-555 nm range was reported on chirped quasi-phase-matching (QPM) χ(2) nonlinear photonic crystals of 12 mm length with periodicity stepwise increased from 5.9 μm to 7.1 μm. When pumped with nanosecond infrared (IR) frequency comb derived from a QPM optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and spanned over 1040 nm to 1090 nm wavelength range, the 520 nm to 545 nm up-converted green spectra were shown to consist of contributions from (a) second-harmonic generation among the signal or the idler modes, and (b) sum-frequency generation (SFG) from the neighboring pairs of the signal or the idler modes. These mechanisms led the up-converted green frequency comb to have the same mode spacing of 450 GHz as that in the IR-OPO pump comb. As the pump was further detuned from the aforementioned near-degeneracy point and moved toward the signal (1020-1040 nm) and the idler (1090-1110 nm) spectral range, the above QPM parametric processes were preserved in the chirped QPM devices to support up-converted green generation in the 510-520 nm and the 545-555 nm spectral regime. Additional 530-535 nm green spectral generation was also observed due to concurrence of multi-wavelength SFG processes between the (signal, idler) mode pairs. These mechanisms facilitate the chirped QPM device to support a single-pass up-conversion efficiency ˜10% when subject to an IR-OPO pump comb with 200 mW average power operated near- or off- the degeneracy point.

  16. On-chip frequency comb generation at visible wavelengths via simultaneous second- and third-order optical nonlinearities.

    PubMed

    Miller, Steven; Luke, Kevin; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Cardenas, Jaime; Gaeta, Alexander L; Lipson, Michal

    2014-11-01

    Microresonator-based frequency comb generation at or near visible wavelengths would enable applications in precise optical clocks, frequency metrology, and biomedical imaging. Comb generation in the visible has been limited by strong material dispersion and loss at short wavelengths, and only very narrowband comb generation has reached below 800 nm. We use the second-order optical nonlinearity in an integrated high-Q silicon nitride ring resonator cavity to convert a near-infrared frequency comb into the visible range. We simultaneously demonstrate parametric frequency comb generation in the near-infrared, second-harmonic generation, and sum-frequency generation. We measure 17 comb lines converted to visible wavelengths extending to 765 nm. PMID:25401803

  17. Generation of low-frequency nonlinear currents in plasma by an ultrashort pulse of high-frequency radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Grishkov, V. E.; Uryupin, S. A.

    2015-07-15

    A kinetic theory of low-frequency currents induced in plasma by an ultrashort high-frequency radiation pulse is developed. General expressions for the currents flowing along the propagation direction of the pulse and along the gradient of the field energy density are analyzed both analytically and numerically for pulse durations longer or shorter than or comparable with the electron collision time in plasma. It is demonstrated that the nonlinear current flowing along the gradient of the field energy density can be described correctly only when the modification of the isotropic part of the electron distribution function is taken into account.

  18. Transparency in nonlinear frequency conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Suppression of wave scattering and the realization of transparency effects in engineered optical media and surfaces have attracted great attention in the past recent years. In this work the problem of transparency is considered for optical wave propagation in a nonlinear dielectric medium with second-order χ(2 ) susceptibility. Because of nonlinear interaction, a reference signal wave at carrier frequency ω1 can exchange power, thus being amplified or attenuated, when phase-matching conditions are satisfied and frequency conversion takes place. Therefore, rather generally the medium is not transparent to the signal wave because of "scattering" in the frequency domain. Here we show that broadband transparency, corresponding to the full absence of frequency conversion in spite of phase matching, can be observed for the signal wave in the process of sum frequency generation whenever the effective susceptibility χ(2 ) along the nonlinear medium is tailored following a suitable spatial apodization profile and the power level of the pump wave is properly tuned. While broadband transparency is observed under such conditions, the nonlinear medium is not invisible owing to an additional effective dispersion for the signal wave introduced by the nonlinear interaction.

  19. Nonlinear Frequency Compression

    PubMed Central

    Scollie, Susan; Glista, Danielle; Seelisch, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Frequency lowering technologies offer an alternative amplification solution for severe to profound high frequency hearing losses. While frequency lowering technologies may improve audibility of high frequency sounds, the very nature of this processing can affect the perceived sound quality. This article reports the results from two studies that investigated the impact of a nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) algorithm on perceived sound quality. In the first study, the cutoff frequency and compression ratio parameters of the NFC algorithm were varied, and their effect on the speech quality was measured subjectively with 12 normal hearing adults, 12 normal hearing children, 13 hearing impaired adults, and 9 hearing impaired children. In the second study, 12 normal hearing and 8 hearing impaired adult listeners rated the quality of speech in quiet, speech in noise, and music after processing with a different set of NFC parameters. Results showed that the cutoff frequency parameter had more impact on sound quality ratings than the compression ratio, and that the hearing impaired adults were more tolerant to increased frequency compression than normal hearing adults. No statistically significant differences were found in the sound quality ratings of speech-in-noise and music stimuli processed through various NFC settings by hearing impaired listeners. These findings suggest that there may be an acceptable range of NFC settings for hearing impaired individuals where sound quality is not adversely affected. These results may assist an Audiologist in clinical NFC hearing aid fittings for achieving a balance between high frequency audibility and sound quality. PMID:23539261

  20. Frequency domain nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legare, Francois

    2016-05-01

    The universal dilemma of gain narrowing occurring in fs amplifiers prevents ultra-high power lasers from delivering few-cycle pulses. This problem is overcome by a new amplification concept: Frequency domain Optical Parametric Amplification - FOPA. It enables simultaneous up-scaling of peak power and amplified spectral bandwidth and can be performed at any wavelength range of conventional amplification schemes, however, with the capability to amplify single cycles of light. The key idea for amplification of octave-spanning spectra without loss of spectral bandwidth is to amplify the broad spectrum ``slice by slice'' in the frequency domain, i.e. in the Fourier plane of a 4f-setup. The striking advantages of this scheme, are its capability to amplify (more than) one octave of bandwidth without shorting the corresponding pulse duration. This is because ultrabroadband phase matching is not defined by the properties of the nonlinear crystal employed but the number of crystals employed. In the same manner, to increase the output energy one simply has to increase the spectral extension in the Fourier plane and to add one more crystal. Thus, increasing pulse energy and shortening its duration accompany each other. A proof of principle experiment was carried out at ALLS on the sub-two cycle IR beam line and yielded record breaking performance in the field of few-cycle IR lasers. 100 μJ two-cycle pulses from a hollow core fibre compression setup were amplified to 1.43mJ without distorting spatial or temporal properties. Pulse duration at the input of FOPA and after FOPA remains the same. Recently, we have started upgrading this system to be pumped by 250 mJ to reach 40 mJ two-cycle IR few-cycle pulses and latest results will be presented at the conference. Furthermore, the extension of the concept of FOPA to other nonlinear optical processes will be discussed. Frequency domain nonlinear optics.

  1. Influence of nanoscale temperature rises on photoacoustic generation: Discrimination between optical absorbers based on thermal nonlinearity at high frequency

    PubMed Central

    Simandoux, Olivier; Prost, Amaury; Gateau, Jérôme; Bossy, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we experimentally investigate thermal-based nonlinear photoacoustic generation as a mean to discriminate between different types of absorbing particles. The photoacoustic generation from solutions of dye molecules and gold nanospheres (same optical densities) was detected using a high frequency ultrasound transducer (20 MHz). Photoacoustic emission was observed with gold nanospheres at low fluence for an equilibrium temperature around 4 °C, where the linear photoacoustic effect in water vanishes, highlighting the nonlinear emission from the solution of nanospheres. The photoacoustic amplitude was also studied as a function of the equilibrium temperature from 2 °C to 20 °C. While the photoacoustic amplitude from the dye molecules vanished around 4 °C, the photoacoustic amplitude from the gold nanospheres remained significant over the whole temperature range. Our preliminary results suggest that in the context of high frequency photoacoustic imaging, nanoparticles may be discriminated from molecular absorbers based on nanoscale temperature rises. PMID:25893167

  2. Point-Wise Phase Matching for Nonlinear Frequency Generation in Dielectric Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Nan (Inventor); Strekalov, Dmitry V. (Inventor); Lin, Guoping (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An optical resonator fabricated from a uniaxial birefringent crystal, such as beta barium borate. The crystal is cut with the optical axis not perpendicular to a face of the cut crystal. In some cases the optical axis lies in the plane of the cut crystal face. An incident (input) electromagnetic signal (which can range from the infrared through the visible to the ultraviolet) is applied to the resonator. An output signal is recovered which has a frequency that is an integer multiple of the frequency of the input signal. In some cases a prism is used to evanescently couple the input and the output signals to the resonator.

  3. Second Harmonic Generation, Sum Frequency Generation, and χ(3): Dissecting Environmental Interfaces with a Nonlinear Optical Swiss Army Knife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, Franz M.

    2009-05-01

    This review discusses recent advances in the nonlinear optics of environmental interfaces. We discuss the quantitative aspects of the label-free approaches presented here and demonstrate that nonlinear optics has now assumed the role of a Swiss Army knife that can be used to dissect, with molecular detail, the fundamental and practical aspects of environmental interfaces and heterogeneous geochemical environments. In this work, nonlinear optical methods are applied to complex organic molecules, such as veterinary antibiotics, and to small inorganic anions and cations, such as nitrate and chromate, or cadmium, zinc, and manganese. The environmental implications of the thermodynamic, kinetic, spectroscopic, structural, and electrochemical data are discussed.

  4. Generation of microwaves by mixing two optical frequencies in a nonlinear crystal: a novel approach to high-bandwidth optical mixers.

    PubMed

    Tran, N H; Kachru, R; Gallagher, T F; Watjen, J P; Bjorklund, G C

    1984-04-01

    Optical mixing of waves separated in frequency by many gigahertz can be accomplished by allowing the waves to mix in a nonlinear medium to generate microwave difference frequencies. This basis for high-bandwidth optical mixers is demonstrated by mixing optical frequencies approximately 4 GHz apart of a pulsed dye-laser beam at approximately 660 nm in a LiTaO(3) crystal to produce readily detectable microwave power at approximately 4 GHz. PMID:19721519

  5. Laser-induced breakdown and damage generation by nonlinear frequency conversion in ferroelectric crystals: Experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Saito, Norihito; Wada, Satoshi; Hatano, Hideki; Kitamura, Kenji

    2013-11-28

    Using our experimental data for ns pulsed second harmonic generation (SHG) by periodically poled stoichiometric LiTaO{sub 3} (PPSLT) crystals, we consider in detail the mechanism underlying laser-induced damage in ferroelectric crystals. This mechanism involves generation and heating of free electrons, providing an effective kinetic pathway for electric breakdown and crystal damage in ns pulsed operation via combined two-photon absorption (TPA) and induced pyroelectric field. In particular, a temperature increase in the lattice of ≈1 K induced initially by ns SHG and TPA at the rear of operating PPSLT crystal is found to induce a gradient of spontaneous polarization generating a pyroelectric field of ≈10 kV/cm, accelerating free electrons generated by TPA to an energy of ≈10 eV, followed by impact ionization and crystal damage. Under the damage threshold for ns operation, the impact ionization does not lead to the avalanche-like increase of free electron density, in contrast to the case of shorter ps and fs pulses. However, the total number of collisions by free electrons, ≈10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} (generated during the pulse and accelerated to the energy of ≈10 eV), can produce widespread structural defects, which by entrapping electrons dramatically increase linear absorption for both harmonics in subsequent pulses, creating a positive feedback for crystal lattice heating, pyroelectric field and crystal damage. Under pulse repetition, defect generation starting from the rear of the crystal can propagate towards its center and front side producing damage tracks along the laser beam and stopping SHG. Theoretical analysis leads to numerical estimates and analytical approximation for the threshold laser fluence for onset of this damage mechanism, which agree well with our (i) experiments for the input 1064 nm radiation in 6.8 kHz pulsed SHG by PPSLT crystal, (ii) pulsed low frequency 532 nm radiation transmission experiments, and also (iii) with the data

  6. Generation of low-frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic waves as nonlinear consequences of beam-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Umeda, Takayuki

    2008-06-15

    Nonlinear evolution of the electron two-stream instability in a current-carrying plasma is examined by using a two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation. Formation of electron phase-space holes is observed as an early nonlinear consequence of electron-beam-plasma interactions. Lower-hybrid waves, electrostatic, and electromagnetic whistler mode waves are also excited by different mechanisms during the ensuing nonlinear wave-particle interactions. It is shown by the present computer simulation with a large simulation domain and a long simulation time that these low-frequency waves can disturb the electrostatic equilibrium of electron phase-space holes, suggesting that the lifetime of electron phase-space holes sometimes becomes shorter in a current-carrying plasma.

  7. Nonlinear waveform generation.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, L J; Rypins, E B

    1990-01-01

    We developed three analog logic SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis, developed at the University of California, Berkeley, CA) subcircuits, a voltage comparator and a nonlinear waveform generator to compliment the previously derived functions (Goldstein and Rypins, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 29 (1989) 161-172) that simplify modeling of physiologic systems. The logic elements are the 'AND', 'OR' and 'NOT' Boolean functions. In addition, we derived a voltage comparator for use in our composite waveform generator. All the circuits are analog so they can be incorporated into existing analog circuits while performing digital functions. PMID:2364683

  8. Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation

    SciTech Connect

    Pellin, M.J.; Biwer, B.M.; Schauer, M.W.; Frye, J.M.; Gruen, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are increasingly being used as in situ surface probes. These techniques are coherent and inherently surface sensitive by the nature of the mediums response to intense laser light. Here we will review these two techniques using aqueous corrosion as an example problem. Aqueous corrosion of technologically important materials such as Fe, Ni and Cr proceeds from a reduced metal surface with layer by layer growth of oxide films mitigated by compositional changes in the chemical makeup of the growing film. Passivation of the metal surface is achieved after growth of only a few tens of atomic layers of metal oxide. Surface Second Harmonic Generation and a related nonlinear laser technique, Sum Frequency Generation have demonstrated an ability to probe the surface composition of growing films even in the presence of aqueous solutions. 96 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Efficient generation of high-frequency terahertz waves from highly lossy second-order nonlinear medium at polariton resonance under transverse-pumping geometry.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yujie J

    2010-01-15

    Owing to strong coupling between transverse-optical phonons and high-frequency terahertz waves in zinc-blende semiconductors, second-order nonlinear coefficients can be dramatically enhanced within the forbidden band of the polariton resonance. However, linear absorption in this regime is also dramatically increased. We show that transverse-pumping geometry can be exploited for achieving an efficient terahertz generation at the polariton resonance. Our estimates illustrate that pump powers as low as 100 mW are sufficient for causing the significant depletion of the pump beams. PMID:20081988

  10. Simple sweep frequency generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yegorov, I.

    1985-01-01

    A sweep frequency generator is described whose center frequency can be varied from 10 kHz to 50 MHz, with seven 1 to 3 and 3 to 10 scales covering the 10 kHz to 30 MHz range and one 3 to 5 scale for the 30 to 50 MHz range. It consists of a tunable pulse generator with output voltage attenuator, a diode mixer for calibration, and a sawtooth voltage generator as a source of frequency deviation. The pulse generator is a multivibrator with two emitter coupled transistors and two diodes in the collector circuit of one. The first diode extends the tuning range and increases the frequency deviation, the second diode provides the necessary base bias to the other transistor. The pulse repetition rate is modulated either directly by the sweep voltage of the calibrating oscilloscope, this voltage being applied to the base of the transistor with the two diodes in its collector circuit through an additional attenuator or a special emitter follower, or by the separate sawtooth voltage generator. The latter is a conventional two transistor multivibrator and produces signals at any constant frequency within the 40 to 60 Hz range. The mixer receives unmodulated signals from a reference frequency source and produces different frequency signals which are sent through an RCR-filter to a calibrating oscilloscope.

  11. Nonlinear cloaking at microwave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurvitz, E. A.; Sedykh, E. A.; Khodzitskiy, M. K.

    The ideas of employing the unique properties of metamaterials for cloaking and invisibility applications has been recently suggested and investigated by several groups, because they may find numerous applications in physics and technology. While many of the recent designs of the cloaking structures are based on the transformation optics and exact formulas, the original concept suggested by Tretyakov employed the periodical set of parallel-plate waveguides with the height smoothly varying from H to h in order to reduce drastically the total scattering cross-section of a given object and to obtain broadband cloaking effect. Our paper is devoted to improvement of this design to make tunability and nonlinear effect. The Tretyakov's design was scaled for Ku-band frequencies and the cloak was placed into rectangular waveguide. The broad transmission band ("invisibility region") was obtained. The tunability of transmission band was realized by addition the capacitors into the cloak, between metallic plates. The cloaking system was simulated numerically by CST Microwave Studio. The possibility of invisibility switching on/off was shown by changing of capacity of varactor diodes from 0.4 to 3.4 pF by incident power. The nonlinear cloak behavior was shown at microwaves.

  12. Demonstration of tunable optical generation of higher-order modulation formats using nonlinearities and coherent frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Chitgarha, Mohammad Reza; Khaleghi, Salman; Ziyadi, Morteza; Almaiman, Ahmed; Mohajerin-Ariaei, Amirhossein; Gerstel, Ori; Paraschis, Loukas; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M; Touch, Joseph; Willner, Alan E

    2014-08-15

    We demonstrate a tunable, optical generation scheme of higher-order modulation formats including pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). Using this method, 100.4 Gbit/s 16-QAM and 120 Gbit/s 64-QAM were generated from 50.2 and 40 Gbit/s QPSK signals at EVMs of 7.8% and 6.4%, and 60 Gbit/s 8-PAM were generated at an EVM of 8.1% using three 20-Gbit/s BPSK signals. We also demonstrated a successful transmission of 80 Gbit/s 16-QAM through 80 km SMF-28 after compensating with 20 km DCF. All signals were generated, transmitted, and detected with BER below the forward error correction threshold. PMID:25121907

  13. Frequency Comb Generation in Superconducting Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, David; Erickson, Robert; Vissers, Michael; Ku, Hsiang-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    We have generated frequency combs spanning 0.5 to 20 GHz in superconducting λ = 2 resonators at T =3 K. Thin films of niobium-titanium nitride enabled this development due to their low loss, high nonlinearity, low frequency dispersion, and high critical temperature. The combs nucleate as sidebands around multiples of the pump frequency. Selection rules for the allowed frequency emission are calculated using perturbation theory, and the measured spectrum is shown to agree with the theory. Sideband spacing is measured to be accurate to 1 part in 108 The sidebands coalesce into a continuous comb structure observed to cover at least several frequency octaves. Generation of combs in this frequency range allows for unprecedented analysis of this non-linear phenomena in the time domain. We acknowledge DARPA and the NIST Quantum Information program.

  14. Nonlinear optical protection against frequency agile lasers

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, V.P.

    1988-08-04

    An eye-protection or equipment-filter device for protection from laser energy is disclosed. The device may be in the form of a telescope, binoculars, goggles, constructed as part of equipment such as image intensifiers or range designators. Optical elements focus the waist of the beam within a nonlinear frequency-doubling crystal or nonlinear optical element or fiber. The nonlinear elements produce a harmonic outside the visible spectrum in the case of crystals, or absorb the laser energy in the case of nonlinear fibers. Embodiments include protectors for the human eye as well as filters for sensitive machinery such as TV cameras, FLIR systems or other imaging equipment.

  15. Generation of Nonlinear Vortex Precursors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue-Yue; Feng, Xun-Li; Liu, Chengpu

    2016-07-01

    We numerically study the propagation of a few-cycle pulse carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) through a dense atomic system. Nonlinear precursors consisting of high-order vortex harmonics are generated in the transmitted field due to carrier effects associated with ultrafast Bloch oscillation. The nonlinear precursors survive to propagation effects and are well separated with the main pulse, which provides a straightforward way to measure precursors. By virtue of carrying high-order OAM, the obtained vortex precursors as information carriers have potential applications in optical information and communication fields where controllable loss, large information-carrying capacity, and high speed communication are required. PMID:27447507

  16. Generation of Nonlinear Vortex Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yue-Yue; Feng, Xun-Li; Liu, Chengpu

    2016-07-01

    We numerically study the propagation of a few-cycle pulse carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) through a dense atomic system. Nonlinear precursors consisting of high-order vortex harmonics are generated in the transmitted field due to carrier effects associated with ultrafast Bloch oscillation. The nonlinear precursors survive to propagation effects and are well separated with the main pulse, which provides a straightforward way to measure precursors. By virtue of carrying high-order OAM, the obtained vortex precursors as information carriers have potential applications in optical information and communication fields where controllable loss, large information-carrying capacity, and high speed communication are required.

  17. He's Frequency Formulation for Nonlinear Oscillators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Lei; Cai, Xu-Chu

    2007-01-01

    Based on an ancient Chinese algorithm, J H He suggested a simple but effective method to find the frequency of a nonlinear oscillator. In this paper, a modified version is suggested to improve the accuracy of the frequency; two examples are given, revealing that the obtained solutions are of remarkable accuracy and are valid for the whole solution…

  18. Efficient frequency conversion of laser sources in nonlinear crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The use of nonlinear crystals to extend the frequency range of solid-state laser sources is proposed. The harmonic generation of high-average-power laser sources and CW-laser-sources nonlinear crystals is considered. The development of Nd:YAG pumped parametric oscillators and optical parametric amplifiers using LiNbO3 or AgGaS2 is studied. The LiNbO3 oscillator has tunable output over the 1.4-4.0 micron range and is applicable for remote sensing measurements of molecules and of humidity and temperature; AgGaS2 oscillators provide the potential for 3-15 micron infrared generation. Advances in material synthesis techniques related to the design and synthesis of nonlinear media are discussed. Various procedures for the synthesis of nonlinear crystals are described.

  19. Generating Second Harmonics In Nonlinear Resonant Cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlovsky, William J.; Nabors, C. David; Byer, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    Single-axial-mode lasers pump very-low-loss doubling crystals. Important advance in making resonant generation of second harmonics possible for diode-laser-pumped solid-state lasers is recent development of monolithic nonplanar ring geometries in neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers that produce frequency-stable single-mode outputs. Other advance is development of high-quality MgO:LiNbO3 as electro-optically nonlinear material. Series of experiments devised to improve doubling efficiency of low-power lasers, and particularly of diode-laser-pumped continuous-wave Nd:YAG lasers.

  20. Image enhancement by non-linear extrapolation in frequency space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Charles H. (Inventor); Greenspan, Hayit K. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An input image is enhanced to include spatial frequency components having frequencies higher than those in an input image. To this end, an edge map is generated from the input image using a high band pass filtering technique. An enhancing map is subsequently generated from the edge map, with the enhanced map having spatial frequencies exceeding an initial maximum spatial frequency of the input image. The enhanced map is generated by applying a non-linear operator to the edge map in a manner which preserves the phase transitions of the edges of the input image. The enhanced map is added to the input image to achieve a resulting image having spatial frequencies greater than those in the input image. Simplicity of computations and ease of implementation allow for image sharpening after enlargement and for real-time applications such as videophones, advanced definition television, zooming, and restoration of old motion pictures.

  1. Nonlinear transmission spectroscopy with dual frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Rachel; Mukamel, Shaul

    2014-08-01

    We show how two frequency combs E1, E2 can be used to measure single-photon, two-photon absorption (TPA), and Raman resonances in a molecule with three electronic bands, by detecting the radio frequency modulation of the nonlinear transmission signal. Some peaks are independent of the carrier frequency of the comb and others shift with that frequency and have a width close to the comb width. TPA and Raman resonances independent of the carrier frequency are selected by measuring the transmission signal ˜E12E22 and the single-photon resonances are selected by measuring the transmission signal ˜E13E2. Sinusoidal spectral phase shaping strongly affects the TPA, but not the Raman resonances.

  2. Evaluation of nonlinear frequency compression: Clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Glista, Danielle; Scollie, Susan; Bagatto, Marlene; Seewald, Richard; Parsa, Vijay; Johnson, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated prototype multichannel nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) signal processing on listeners with high-frequency hearing loss. This signal processor applies NFC above a cut-off frequency. The participants were hearing-impaired adults (13) and children (11) with sloping, high-frequency hearing loss. Multiple outcome measures were repeated using a modified withdrawal design. These included speech sound detection, speech recognition, and self-reported preference measures. Group level results provide evidence of significant improvement of consonant and plural recognition when NFC was enabled. Vowel recognition did not change significantly. Analysis of individual results allowed for exploration of individual factors contributing to benefit received from NFC processing. Findings suggest that NFC processing can improve high frequency speech detection and speech recognition ability for adult and child listeners. Variability in individual outcomes related to factors such as degree and configuration of hearing loss, age of participant, and type of outcome measure. PMID:19504379

  3. NONLINEAR OPTICAL PHENOMENA: Generation of UV radiation in a lithium tetraborate crystal by walk-off compensated Type I sum-frequency mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhar, G. C.; Kumbhakar, P.; Chaudhary, A. K.

    2002-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is generated in two lithium tetraborate (Li2B4O7 or LB4) crystals by Type I walk-off compensated sum-frequency mixing (SFM) of the commonly available Nd:YAG laser radiation and radiation from a dye laser pumped by the second harmonic of the same YAG laser. In the walk-off compensated configuration, an enhancement in the conversion efficiency by a factor of 3.8 relative to the single pass generation is realised.

  4. Light beam frequency comb generator

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, Gordon J.; Kaskey, Jeffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    A light beam frequency comb generator uses an acousto-optic modulator to generate a plurality of light beams with frequencies which are uniformly separated and possess common noise and drift characteristics. A well collimated monochromatic input light beam is passed through this modulator to produce a set of both frequency shifted and unshifted optical beams. An optical system directs one or more frequency shifted beams along a path which is parallel to the path of the input light beam such that the frequency shifted beams are made incident on the modulator proximate to but separated from the point of incidence of the input light beam. After the beam is thus returned to and passed through the modulator repeatedly, a plurality of mutually parallel beams are generated which are frequency-shifted different numbers of times and possess common noise and drift characteristics.

  5. Light beam frequency comb generator

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, G.J.; Kaskey, J.A.

    1992-11-24

    A light beam frequency comb generator uses an acousto-optic modulator to generate a plurality of light beams with frequencies which are uniformly separated and possess common noise and drift characteristics. A well collimated monochromatic input light beam is passed through this modulator to produce a set of both frequency shifted and unshifted optical beams. An optical system directs one or more frequency shifted beams along a path which is parallel to the path of the input light beam such that the frequency shifted beams are made incident on the modulator proximate to but separated from the point of incidence of the input light beam. After the beam is thus returned to and passed through the modulator repeatedly, a plurality of mutually parallel beams are generated which are frequency-shifted different numbers of times and possess common noise and drift characteristics. 2 figs.

  6. Digital varying-frequency generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Generator employs up/down counters, digital-to-analog converters, and integrator to determine frequency and time duration of output. Circuit can be used where varying signal must be controlled accurately over long period of time.

  7. Frequency regulator for synchronous generators

    DOEpatents

    Karlicek, Robert F.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a novel frequency regulator which controls a generator output frequency for variations in both the input power to the generator and the power supplied to an uncontrolled external load. The present invention further includes over current and current balance protection devices which are relatively inexpensive to manufacture, which may be encapsulated to provide protection from the operating environment and which respond more quickly than previously known electromechanical devices.

  8. Frequency regulator for synchronous generators

    DOEpatents

    Karlicek, R.F.

    1982-08-10

    The present invention is directed to a novel frequency regulator which controls a generator output frequency for variations in both the input power to the generator and the power supplied to an uncontrolled external load. The present invention further includes over current and current balance protection devices which are relatively inexpensive to manufacture, which may be encapsulated to provide protection from the operating environment and which respond more quickly than previously known electromechanical devices. 11 figs.

  9. Measuring Complex Sum Frequency Spectra with a Nonlinear Interferometer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Bisson, Patrick J; Marmolejos, Joam M; Shultz, Mary Jane

    2016-06-01

    Currently, the only techniques capable of delivering molecular-level data on buried or soft interfaces are the nonlinear spectroscopic methods: sum frequency generation (SFG) and second harmonic generation (SHG). Deducing molecular information from spectra requires measuring the complex components-the amplitude and the phase-of the surface response. A new interferometer has been developed to determine these components with orders-of-magnitude improvement in uncertainty compared with current methods. Both the sample and reference spectra are generated within the interferometer, hence the label nonlinear interferometer. The interferometer configuration provides experimenters with wide latitude for both the sample enclosure and reference material choice and is thus widely applicable. The instrument is described and applied to the well-studied octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) film. The OTS spectra support the interpretation that variation in fabrication solvent water content and substrate preparation account for differences in OTS spectra reported in the literature. PMID:27159338

  10. Frequency Response and Gap Tuning for Nonlinear Electrical Oscillator Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Harish S.; Vaz, Garnet J.

    2013-01-01

    We study nonlinear electrical oscillator networks, the smallest example of which consists of a voltage-dependent capacitor, an inductor, and a resistor driven by a pure tone source. By allowing the network topology to be that of any connected graph, such circuits generalize spatially discrete nonlinear transmission lines/lattices that have proven useful in high-frequency analog devices. For such networks, we develop two algorithms to compute the steady-state response when a subset of nodes are driven at the same fixed frequency. The algorithms we devise are orders of magnitude more accurate and efficient than stepping towards the steady-state using a standard numerical integrator. We seek to enhance a given network's nonlinear behavior by altering the eigenvalues of the graph Laplacian, i.e., the resonances of the linearized system. We develop a Newton-type method that solves for the network inductances such that the graph Laplacian achieves a desired set of eigenvalues; this method enables one to move the eigenvalues while keeping the network topology fixed. Running numerical experiments using three different random graph models, we show that shrinking the gap between the graph Laplacian's first two eigenvalues dramatically improves a network's ability to (i) transfer energy to higher harmonics, and (ii) generate large-amplitude signals. Our results shed light on the relationship between a network's structure, encoded by the graph Laplacian, and its function, defined in this case by the presence of strongly nonlinear effects in the frequency response. PMID:24223751

  11. Frequency dependence of the nonlinear response in YBa2Cu3O7-x transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateu, Jordi; Booth, James C.; Moeckly, Brian H.

    2007-01-01

    The authors evaluate the frequency dependence of the nonlinear response in high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films by simultaneously measuring the nonlinear intermodulation products and harmonic generation in broadband superconducting transmission lines at 76K. The frequencies of the two-tone incident signal are set to produce spurious signals from 1to21GHz. They extract a nonlinear term ∣ΔR2+jωΔL2∣ by applying a model of spurious signal generation in superconducting transmission lines to their measurement results. They found that this nonlinear term follows a linear dependence on frequency, indicating a dominant contribution of the nonlinear inductance ΔL2 over the nonlinear resistance ΔR2, (ωΔL2≫ΔR2), for the superconducting nonlinear response.

  12. Numerical and experimental investigation of nonlinear ultrasonic Lamb waves at low frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Peng; Zhou, Yu; Fan, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Nonlinear ultrasonic Lamb waves are popular to characterize the nonlinearity of materials. However, the widely used nonlinear Lamb mode suffers from two associated complications: inherent dispersive and multimode natures. To overcome these, the symmetric Lamb mode (S0) at low frequency region is explored. At the low frequency region, the S0 mode is little dispersive and easy to generate. However, the secondary mode still exists, and increases linearly for significant distance. Numerical simulations and experiments are used to validate the nonlinear features and therefore demonstrate an easy alternative for nonlinear Lamb wave applications.

  13. Nonlinear harmonic generation in the STARS FEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo-Bakr, M.; Goldammer, K.; Kamps, T.; Knobloch, J.; Kuske, B.; Leitner, T.; Meseck, A.

    2008-08-01

    BESSY proposes to build STARS, an FEL to demonstrate cascaded High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG). In two HGHG stages, a laser source of 700-900 nm is converted down to a wavelength of 40-70 nm. The STARS facility consists of a normal-conducting RF photoinjector, three superconducting TESLA-type acceleration modules, a magnetic bunch compressor and two stages of HGHG, each consisting of a modulator, dispersive chicane and a radiator. At the entrance of the undulator section, the beam energy is 325 MeV and the peak current is about 500 A. With these parameters, the STARS FEL reaches saturation with a peak power of 100-350 MW. A superradiant mode is also foreseen which boosts the radiation power to the GW-level. Due to nonlinear harmonic generation (NHG), free electron lasers also radiate coherently at higher harmonics of the FEL resonant frequency. STARS can hence extend its output range to even shorter wavelengths. This paper presents studies of the STARS harmonic content in the wavelength range of 6-20 nm. Seeding with high harmonic generation pulses at 32 nm is also discussed.

  14. DPOAE generation dependence on primary frequencies ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botti, Teresa; Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo; D'Amato, Luisa; Sanjust, Filippo

    2015-12-01

    Two different mechanisms are responsible for the DPOAE generation. The nonlinear distortion wave-fixed mechanism generates the DPOAE Zero-Latency (ZL) component, as a backward traveling wave from the "overlap" region. Linear reflection of the forward DP wave (IDP) generates the DPOAE Long-Latency (LL) component through a place-fixed mechanism. ZL and LL components add up vectorially to generate the DPOAE recorded in the ear canal. The 2f1 - f2 and 2f2 - f1 DPOAE intensity depends on the stimulus level and on the primary frequency ratio r = f2/f1, where f1 and f2 are the primary stimuli frequencies. Here we study the behavior of the ZL and LL DPOAE components as a function of r by both numerical and laboratory experiments, measuring DPAOEs with an equal primary levels (L1 = L2) paradigm in the range [35, 75] dB SPL, with r ranging in [1.1, 1.45]. Numerical simulations of a nonlocal nonlinear model have been performed without cochlear roughness, to suppress the linear reflection mechanism. In this way the model solution at the base represents the DPOAE ZL component, and the solution at the corresponding DPOAE tonotopic place corresponds to the IDP. This technique has been not effectual to study the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE, as a consequence of its generation mechanism. While the 2f1 - f2 generation place is known to be the tonotopic place x(f2), the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE one has to be assumed basal to its corresponding reflection place. That is because ZL components generated in x(f2) cannot significantly pass through their resonant place. Moreover increasing the ratio r, 2f2 - f1 ZL and LL generation place approach each other, because the overlap region of primary tones decreases. Consequently, the distinction between the two places becomes complicated. DPOAEs have been measured in six young normal-hearing subjects. DPOAE ZL and LL components have been separated by a time-frequency filtering method based on the wavelet transform 1. due to their different phase gradient delay

  15. Image enhancement by nonlinear extrapolation in frequency space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenspan, Hayit; Anderson, Charles H.

    1994-03-01

    A procedure for creating images with higher resolution than the sampling rate would allow is described. The enhancement algorithm augments the frequency content of the image using shape-invariant properties of edges across scale by using a non-linearity that generates phase- coherent higher harmonics. The procedure utilizes the Laplacian pyramid image representation. Results are presented depicting the power-spectra augmentation and the visual enhancement of several images. Simplicity of computations and ease of implementation allow for real-time applications such as high-definition television.

  16. Nonlinear behavior of electrodynamic loudspeaker suspension at low frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, ZiXin; Shen, Yong; Heng, Wei; Liu, YunFeng

    2013-07-01

    The suspension of electrodynamic loudspeakers includes a surround of the cone and a spider, and it is characterized by the mechanic stiffness in the lumped-parameter model. By solving the nonlinear differential equation of motion which considers the nonlinearity of suspension at low frequencies numerically and measuring different kinds of surrounds and spiders, the nonlinear behavior of suspension is theoretically and experimentally studied. Since the nonlinear stiffness of spiders and surrounds can be measured and fitted respectively before assembled into loudspeakers, which spider works best with which surround is studied. The performance of loudspeakers such as harmonic distortion based on the nonlinear parameters can be predicted.

  17. Nonlinear multiferroic phase shifters for microwave frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Ustinov, Alexey B.; Kalinikos, Boris A.; Srinivasan, G.

    2014-02-03

    A nonlinear microwave phase shifter based on a planar multiferroic composite has been studied. The multiferroic structure is fabricated in the form of a bilayer consisting of yttrium iron garnet and barium strontium titanate. The principle of operation of the device is based on the linear and nonlinear control of the phase shift of the hybrid spin-electromagnetic waves propagating in the bilayer. The linear control is realized with magnetic and electric fields. The nonlinear control is provided by the input power of microwave signal. The device showed a nonlinear phase shift up to 250°, electric field induced phase shift up to 330°, and magnetic field induced phase shift of more than 180°.

  18. Time-frequency characterization of nonlinear normal modes and challenges in nonlinearity identification of dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, P. Frank

    2011-10-01

    Presented here is a new time-frequency signal processing methodology based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and a new conjugate-pair decomposition (CPD) method for characterization of nonlinear normal modes and parametric identification of nonlinear multiple-degree-of-freedom dynamical systems. Different from short-time Fourier transform and wavelet transform, HHT uses the apparent time scales revealed by the signal's local maxima and minima to sequentially sift components of different time scales. Because HHT does not use pre-determined basis functions and function orthogonality for component extraction, it provides more accurate time-varying amplitudes and frequencies of extracted components for accurate estimation of system characteristics and nonlinearities. CPD uses adaptive local harmonics and function orthogonality to extract and track time-localized nonlinearity-distorted harmonics without the end effect that destroys the accuracy of HHT at the two data ends. For parametric identification, the method only needs to process one steady-state response (a free undamped modal vibration or a steady-state response to a harmonic excitation) and uses amplitude-dependent dynamic characteristics derived from perturbation analysis to determine the type and order of nonlinearity and system parameters. A nonlinear two-degree-of-freedom system is used to illustrate the concepts and characterization of nonlinear normal modes, vibration localization, and nonlinear modal coupling. Numerical simulations show that the proposed method can provide accurate time-frequency characterization of nonlinear normal modes and parametric identification of nonlinear dynamical systems. Moreover, results show that nonlinear modal coupling makes it impossible to decompose a general nonlinear response of a highly nonlinear system into nonlinear normal modes even if nonlinear normal modes exist in the system.

  19. Apparatus for generating nonlinear pulse patterns

    DOEpatents

    Nakamura, Michiyuki

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus for generating a plurality of nonlinear pulse patterns from a single linear pulse pattern. A first counter counts the pulses of the linear pulse pattern and a second counter counts the pulses of the nonlinear pulse pattern. A comparator compares the counts of both counters, and in response to an equal count, a gate is enabled to gate a pulse of the linear pattern as a pulse of the nonlinear pattern, the latter also resetting the first counter. Presettable dividers divide the pulses of each pattern before they are counted by the respective counters. Also, apparatus for generating a logarithmic pulse pattern from a linear pulse pattern to any log base. In one embodiment, a shift register is used in place of the second counter to be clocked by each pulse of the logarithmic pattern to generate the pattern. In another embodiment, a memory stores the logarithmic pattern and is addressed by the second counter which is clocked by the pulses of the logarithmic pulse pattern.

  20. Apparatus for generating nonlinear pulse patterns

    DOEpatents

    Nakamura, N.M.I.

    Apparatus for generating a plurality of nonlinear pulse patterns from a single linear pulse pattern. A first counter counts the pulses of the linear pulse pattern and a second counter counts the pulses of the nonlinear pulse pattern. A comparator compares the counts of both counters, and in response to an equal count, a gate is enabled to gate a pulse of the linear pattern as a pulse of the nonlinear pattern, the latter also resetting the first counter. Presettable dividers divide the pulses of each pattern before they are counted by the respective counters. Apparatus for generating a logarithmic pulse pattern from a linear pulse pattern to any log base is described. In one embodiment, a shift register is used in place of the second counter to be clocked by each pulse of the logarithmic pattern to generate the pattern. In another embodiment, a memory stores the logarithmic pattern and is addressed by the second counter which is clocked by the pulses of the logarithmic pulse pattern.

  1. Nonlinear terahertz frequency conversion via graphene microribbon array.

    PubMed

    Nasari, H; Abrishamian, M S

    2016-07-29

    By exploiting the interesting trait of graphene to have electrically tunable first- and third-order conductivities besides its capability to support plasmonic resonances at terahertz frequencies, here, through the nonlinear finite-difference time-domain numerical technique we developed, we demonstrate a noticeable improvement in the conversion efficiency of third-harmonic generation (THG) from a graphene microribbon array by more than five orders of magnitude compared to an infinite graphene sheet, under normal illumination of terahertz waves. As the Fermi level and period length of the ribbon array increase, the transmission obviously manifests a blue shift but denotes a red shift with an increase in ribbon width. The quality factor of resonance (and so the THG efficiency) also shows improvement with an increase in graphene Fermi level, carrier mobility and period length and is degraded by an increase in ribbon width. Generating new frequencies, terahertz signal processing, spectroscopy and so on are among the plethora of valuable potential applications envisioned to be developed based on the findings reported here. PMID:27306039

  2. Nonlinear terahertz frequency conversion via graphene microribbon array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasari, H.; Abrishamian, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    By exploiting the interesting trait of graphene to have electrically tunable first- and third-order conductivities besides its capability to support plasmonic resonances at terahertz frequencies, here, through the nonlinear finite-difference time-domain numerical technique we developed, we demonstrate a noticeable improvement in the conversion efficiency of third-harmonic generation (THG) from a graphene microribbon array by more than five orders of magnitude compared to an infinite graphene sheet, under normal illumination of terahertz waves. As the Fermi level and period length of the ribbon array increase, the transmission obviously manifests a blue shift but denotes a red shift with an increase in ribbon width. The quality factor of resonance (and so the THG efficiency) also shows improvement with an increase in graphene Fermi level, carrier mobility and period length and is degraded by an increase in ribbon width. Generating new frequencies, terahertz signal processing, spectroscopy and so on are among the plethora of valuable potential applications envisioned to be developed based on the findings reported here.

  3. Electronic power generators for ultrasonic frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciovica, D.

    1974-01-01

    The design and construction of an ultrasonic frequency electronic power generator are discussed. The principle design elements of the generator are illustrated. The generator provides an inductive load with an output power of two kilowatts and a variable output frequency in the fifteen to thirty KiloHertz range. The method of conducting the tests and the results obtained with selected materials are analyzed.

  4. Continuous control of the nonlinearity phase for harmonic generations.

    PubMed

    Li, Guixin; Chen, Shumei; Pholchai, Nitipat; Reineke, Bernhard; Wong, Polis Wing Han; Pun, Edwin Yue Bun; Cheah, Kok Wai; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang

    2015-06-01

    The capability of locally engineering the nonlinear optical properties of media is crucial in nonlinear optics. Although poling is the most widely employed technique for achieving locally controlled nonlinearity, it leads only to a binary nonlinear state, which is equivalent to a discrete phase change of π in the nonlinear polarizability. Here, inspired by the concept of spin-rotation coupling, we experimentally demonstrate nonlinear metasurfaces with homogeneous linear optical properties but spatially varying effective nonlinear polarizability with continuously controllable phase. The continuous phase control over the local nonlinearity is demonstrated for second and third harmonic generation by using nonlinear metasurfaces consisting of nanoantennas of C3 and C4 rotational symmetries, respectively. The continuous phase engineering of the effective nonlinear polarizability enables complete control over the propagation of harmonic generation signals. Therefore, this method seamlessly combines the generation and manipulation of harmonic waves, paving the way for highly compact nonlinear nanophotonic devices. PMID:25849530

  5. Microwave harmonic generation and nonlinearity in microplasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregório, José; Parsons, Stephen; Hopwood, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    Nonlinearities in microplasmas excited by microwaves are described both experimentally and through a 2D fluid model. A split-ring resonator generates a microplasma in a 150 μm discharge gap at 1 GHz. Nonlinearity generates both radiated and conducted harmonics which are measured from 0.2–760 Torr (Ar) for power levels between 0.5 and 3 W. Asymmetric electrode configurations produce the highest 3rd harmonic power (>10 mW) at an optimal pressure of the order of 0.3 Torr. The microplasma is also demonstrated as a mixer. The experimental results are explained with the aid of a fluid model of the microplasma. The model shows that the smaller electrode in an asymmetric device is forced to attain a large microwave potential that strongly modulates the sheath thickness and the local electron energy. The voltage-dependent sheath width gives rises to a nonlinear sheath capacitance as well as short pulses of hot electron flux to the electrode. The modeled 3rd harmonic current is converted to an extractable harmonic power by a microwave circuit model. Using this technique the modeled and measured harmonic production of the microplasma are found to compare favorably.

  6. Frequency domain stability analysis of nonlinear active disturbance rejection control system.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Qi, Xiaohui; Xia, Yuanqing; Pu, Fan; Chang, Kai

    2015-05-01

    This paper applies three methods (i.e., root locus analysis, describing function method and extended circle criterion) to approach the frequency domain stability analysis of the fast tool servo system using nonlinear active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) algorithm. Root locus qualitative analysis shows that limit cycle is generated because the gain of the nonlinear function used in ADRC varies with its input. The parameters in the nonlinear function are adjustable to suppress limit cycle. In the process of root locus analysis, the nonlinear function is transformed based on the concept of equivalent gain. Then, frequency domain description of the nonlinear function via describing function is presented and limit cycle quantitative analysis including estimating prediction error is presented, which virtually and theoretically demonstrates that the describing function method cannot guarantee enough precision in this case. Furthermore, absolute stability analysis based on extended circle criterion is investigated as a complement. PMID:25532936

  7. Detector nonlinearity in frequency-domain fluorometry.

    PubMed

    Wirth, M J; Burbage, J D; Zulli, S L

    1993-02-20

    Frequency-domain fluorometry relies on the measurement of the phase and amplitudes of the Fourier components of the time-dependent fluorescence signal. Experimental results that show that a conventional photomultiplier is subject to intensity-dependent phase shifts are presented. The measurements indicate that this is a problem well below the maximum linear current of the photomultiplier response. These results have important implications in frequency-domain fluorescence anisotropy experiments, in which the parallel and the perpendicular components of the emission intensity are inherently different from one another: a phase shift can be introduced by the photomultiplier. PMID:20802776

  8. Nonlinear frequency-mixing photoacoustic imaging of a crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigarev, N.; Zakrzewski, J.; Tournat, V.; Gusev, V.

    2009-08-01

    We present a technique for nonlinear photoacoustic imaging of cracks by laser excitation with intensity modulation at two fundamental frequencies combined with detection at mixed frequencies. By exploiting the strong dependence of the photoacoustic emission efficiency on the state—open or closed—of the contacts between the crack faces, remarkably enhanced image contrast is observed, ˜20 times higher than in linear photoacoustic images at the highest of the fundamental frequencies.

  9. Joint time-frequency domain identification of nonlinearly controlled structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Gang; Sain, Michael K.; Spencer, Billie F., Jr.; Pham, Khanh D.

    2006-05-01

    This paper introduces a 3-step approach for the identification of a linear structure that is controlled by nonlinear damping devices. First, the structure with the integrated nonlinear damper is subjected to random vibration test and the frequency response function (FRF) of the structure is calculated from the input-output data of the physical system. Based on the frequency domain data, a state space model is then estimated using a recently developed FRF curve-fitting technique that is designed especially for lightly damped structures with control inputs. Finally an iterative process is used to optimize the model performance in the time domain and an integrated model of the nonlinearly controlled structure is derived by interconnecting the structure model with that of the nonlinear damper. The complete approach is illustrated by the modeling of a base-isolated structure controlled by a magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper.

  10. Nonlinear harmonic generation in distributed optical klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    H.P. Freund; George R. Neil

    2001-12-01

    A distributed optical klystron has the potential for dramatically shortening the total interaction length in high-gain free-electron lasers (INP 77-59, Novosibirsk, 1977; Nucl. Instr. and Meth A 304 (1991) 463) in comparison to a single-wiggler-segment configuration. This shortening can be even more dramatic if a nonlinear harmonic generation mechanism is used to reach the desired wavelength. An example operating at a 4.5{angstrom} fundamental and a 1.5{angstrom} harmonic is discussed.

  11. Frequency multiplying optoelectronic oscillator based on nonlinearly-coupled double loops.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Jin, Tao; Chi, Hao

    2013-12-30

    We propose and demonstrate a frequency multiplying optoelectronic oscillator with nonlinearly-coupled double loops based on two cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulators, to generate high frequency microwave signals using only low-frequency devices. We find the final oscillation modes are only determined by the length of the master oscillation loop. Frequency multiplying signals are generated via nonlinearly-coupled double loops, the output of one loop being used to modulate the other. In the experiments, microwave signals at 10 GHz with -121 dBc/Hz phase noise at 10 kHz offset and 20 GHz with -112.8 dBc/Hz phase noise at 10 kHz offset are generated. Meanwhile, their side-mode suppression ratios are also evaluated and the maximum ratio of 70 dB is obtained. PMID:24514845

  12. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surfacemore » equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.« less

  13. Frequency-tunable superconducting resonators via nonlinear kinetic inductance

    SciTech Connect

    Vissers, M. R.; Hubmayr, J.; Sandberg, M.; Gao, J.; Chaudhuri, S.; Bockstiegel, C.

    2015-08-10

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a frequency-tunable high-Q superconducting resonator made from a niobium titanium nitride film. The frequency tunability is achieved by injecting a DC through a current-directing circuit into the nonlinear inductor whose kinetic inductance is current-dependent. We have demonstrated continuous tuning of the resonance frequency in a 180 MHz frequency range around 4.5 GHz while maintaining the high internal quality factor Q{sub i} > 180 000. This device may serve as a tunable filter and find applications in superconducting quantum computing and measurement. It also provides a useful tool to study the nonlinear response of a superconductor. In addition, it may be developed into techniques for measurement of the complex impedance of a superconductor at its transition temperature and for readout of transition-edge sensors.

  14. Low frequency AC waveform generator

    DOEpatents

    Bilharz, Oscar W.

    1986-01-01

    Low frequency sine, cosine, triangle and square waves are synthesized in circuitry which allows variation in the waveform amplitude and frequency while exhibiting good stability and without requiring significant stabilization time. A triangle waveform is formed by a ramped integration process controlled by a saturation amplifier circuit which produces the necessary hysteresis for the triangle waveform. The output of the saturation circuit is tapped to produce the square waveform. The sine waveform is synthesized by taking the absolute value of the triangular waveform, raising this absolute value to a predetermined power, multiplying the raised absolute value of the triangle wave with the triangle wave itself and properly scaling the resultant waveform and subtracting it from the triangular waveform itself. The cosine is synthesized by squaring the triangular waveform, raising the triangular waveform to a predetermined power and adding the squared waveform raised to the predetermined power with a DC reference and subtracting the squared waveform therefrom, with all waveforms properly scaled. The resultant waveform is then multiplied with a square wave in order to correct the polarity and produce the resultant cosine waveform.

  15. Low frequency ac waveform generator

    DOEpatents

    Bilharz, O.W.

    1983-11-22

    Low frequency sine, cosine, triangle and square waves are synthesized in circuitry which allows variation in the waveform amplitude and frequency while exhibiting good stability and without requiring significant stablization time. A triangle waveform is formed by a ramped integration process controlled by a saturation amplifier circuit which produces the necessary hysteresis for the triangle waveform. The output of the saturation circuit is tapped to produce the square waveform. The sine waveform is synthesized by taking the absolute value of the triangular waveform, raising this absolute value to a predetermined power, multiplying the raised absolute value of the triangle wave with the triangle wave itself and properly scaling the resultant waveform and subtracting it from the triangular waveform to a predetermined power and adding the squared waveform raised to the predetermined power with a DC reference and subtracting the squared waveform therefrom, with all waveforms properly scaled. The resultant waveform is then multiplied with a square wave in order to correct the polarity and produce the resultant cosine waveform.

  16. Organic nonlinear crystals and high power frequency conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S.P.; Davis, L.; Wang, F.; Monaco, S.; Eimerl, D.

    1987-12-01

    We are searching for a new second- and third-harmonic generators among the salts of chiral organic acids and bases. We discuss the relevant properties of crystals from this group of compounds, including their nonlinear and phasematching characteristics, linear absorption, damage threshold and crystal growth. In addition, we summarize what is known concerning other nonlinear optical properties of these crystals, such as two-photon absorption, nonlinear refractive index, and stimulated Raman thresholds. A preliminary assessment is made of the potential of these materials for use in future high power, large aperture lasers such as those used for inertial confinement fusion experiments. 14 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Cascade frequency generation regime in an optical parametric oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Kolker, D B; Dmitriev, Aleksandr K; Gorelik, P; Vong, Franko; Zondy, J J

    2009-05-31

    In a parametric oscillator of a special two-sectional design based on a lithium niobate periodic structure, a cascade frequency generation regime was observed in which a signal wave pumped a secondary parametric oscillator, producing secondary signal and idler waves. The secondary parametric oscillator can be tuned in a broad range of {approx}200 nm with respect to a fixed wavelength of the primary idler wave. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  18. Generation of a frequency comb and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hagmann, Mark J; Yarotski, Dmitry A

    2013-12-03

    Apparatus for generating a microwave frequency comb (MFC) in the DC tunneling current of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) by fast optical rectification, cause by nonlinearity of the DC current vs. voltage curve for the tunneling junction, of regularly-spaced, short pulses of optical radiation from a focused mode-locked, ultrafast laser, directed onto the tunneling junction, is described. Application of the MFC to high resolution dopant profiling in semiconductors is simulated. Application of the MFC to other measurements is described.

  19. Finite-dimensional states and entanglement generation for a nonlinear coupler

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalewska-Kudlaszyk, A.; Leonski, W.

    2006-04-15

    We discuss a system comprising two nonlinear (Kerr-like) oscillators coupled mutually by a nonlinear interaction. The system is excited by an external coherent field that is resonant to the frequency of one of the oscillators. We show that the coupler evolution can be closed within a finite set of n-photon states, analogously as in the nonlinear quantum scissors model. Moreover, for this type of evolution our system can be treated as a Bell-like state generator. Thanks to the nonlinear nature of both oscillators and their internal coupling, these states can be generated even if the system exhibits its energy dissipating nature, contrary to systems with linear couplings.

  20. Extension of a nonlinear systems theory to general-frequency unsteady transonic aerodynamic responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1993-01-01

    A methodology for modeling nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses, for subsequent use in aeroservoelastic analysis and design, using the Volterra-Wiener theory of nonlinear systems is presented. The methodology is extended to predict nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses of arbitrary frequency. The Volterra-Wiener theory uses multidimensional convolution integrals to predict the response of nonlinear systems to arbitrary inputs. The CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code is used to generate linear and nonlinear unit impulse responses that correspond to each of the integrals for a rectangular wing with a NACA 0012 section with pitch and plunge degrees of freedom. The computed kernels then are used to predict linear and nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses via convolution and compared to responses obtained using the CAP-TSD code directly. The results indicate that the approach can be used to predict linear unsteady aerodynamic responses exactly for any input amplitude or frequency at a significant cost savings. Convolution of the nonlinear terms results in nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses that compare reasonably well with those computed using the CAP-TSD code directly but at significant computational cost savings.

  1. Highly nonlinear fibers for very wideband supercontinuum generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Pálsdóttir, Bera

    2008-02-01

    Supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear fibers (HNLF) pumped with femtosecond pulses is an area of large interest for applications such as broad band light sources, tunable femtosecond sources, frequency metrology, and fluorescence microscopy. In the last few years, a lot of focus has been put on optimizing photonics crystal fibers for supercontinuum application. In this paper, we will focus on conventional silica based HNLF, which e.g. have the advantage of precise dispersion control, and easy splicing to standard single mode fibers. We have performed a systematic experimental study of the effect of dispersion, of the HNLF as well as the input power to the HNLF. To pump the fiber we have build an femtosecond fiber laser consisting of a passive mode locked figure eight oscillator followed by an amplifier. The dispersion before coupling into the HNLF was optimized for broadest supercontinuum generation. Supercontinuum generation in both standard and polarization maintaining HNLF are studied.

  2. CFD Data Generation Process for Nonlinear Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arslan, Alan; Magee, Todd; Unger, Eric; Hartwich, Peter; Agrawal, Shreekant; Giesing, Joseph; Bharadvaj, Bala; Chaderjian, Neal; Murman, Scott

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a process to generate a CFD database for the non-linear loads process capability for critical loads evaluation at Boeing Long Beach. The CFD simulations were performed for wing/body configurations at high angles of attack and Reynolds numbers with transonic and elastic deflection effects. Convergence criteria had to be tailored for loads applications rather than the usual drag performance. The time-accurate approach was subsequently adopted in order to improve convergence and model possible unsteadiness in the flowfield. In addition, uncertainty issues relating to the turbulence model and grid resolution in areas of high vortical flows were addressed and investigated for one of the cases.

  3. Nonlinear frequency conversion using high-quality modes in GaAs nanobeam cavities.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Sonia; Radulaski, Marina; Zhang, Jingyuan Linda; Petykiewicz, Jan; Biermann, Klaus; Vučković, Jelena

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate the design, fabrication, and characterization of nanobeam photonic crystal cavities in (111)-GaAs with multiple high-Q modes, with large frequency separations (up to 740 nm in experiment, i.e., a factor of 1.5 and up to an octave in theory). Such structures are crucial for efficient implementation of nonlinear frequency conversion. Here, we employ them to demonstrate sum-frequency generation from 1300 and 1950 nm to 780 nm. These wavelengths are particularly interesting for quantum frequency conversion between Si vacancy centers in diamond and the fiber-optic network. PMID:25360956

  4. Dual-frequency transducer for nonlinear contrast agent imaging.

    PubMed

    Guiroy, Axel; Novell, Anthony; Ringgaard, Erling; Lou-Moeller, Rasmus; Grégoire, Jean-Marc; Abellard, André-Pierre; Zawada, Tomasz; Bouakaz, Ayache; Levassort, Franck

    2013-12-01

    Detection of high-order nonlinear components issued from microbubbles has emerged as a sensitive method for contrast agent imaging. Nevertheless, the detection of these high-frequency components, including the third, fourth, and fifth harmonics, remains challenging because of the lack of transducer sensitivity and bandwidth. In this context, we propose a new design of imaging transducer based on a simple fabrication process for high-frequency nonlinear imaging. The transducer is composed of two elements: the outer low-frequency (LF) element was centered at 4 MHz and used in transmit mode, whereas the inner high-frequency (HF) element centered at 14 MHz was used in receive mode. The center element was pad-printed using a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) paste. The outer element was molded using a commercial PZT, and curved porous unpoled PZT was used as backing. Each piezoelectric element was characterized to determine the electromechanical performance with thickness coupling factor around 45%. After the assembly of the two transducer elements, hydrophone measurements (electroacoustic responses and radiation patterns) were carried out and demonstrated a large bandwidth (70% at -3 dB) of the HF transducer. Finally, the transducer was evaluated for contrast agent imaging using contrast agent microbubbles. The results showed that harmonic components (up to the sixth harmonic) of the microbubbles were successfully detected. Moreover, images from a flow phantom were acquired and demonstrated the potential of the transducer for high-frequency nonlinear contrast imaging. PMID:24297028

  5. Persistent subplasma-frequency kinetic electrostatic electron nonlinear waves

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, T. W.; Tyshetskiy, Y.; Ghizzo, A.; Bertrand, P.

    2009-04-15

    Driving a one-dimensional collisionless Maxwellian (Vlasov) plasma with a sufficiently strong longitudinal ponderomotive driver for a sufficiently long time results in a self-sustaining nonsinusoidal wave train with well-trapped electrons even for frequencies well below the plasma frequency, i.e., in the plasma wave spectral gap. Typical phase velocities of these waves are somewhat above the electron thermal velocity. This new nonlinear wave is being termed a kinetic electrostatic electron nonlinear (KEEN) wave. The drive duration must exceed the bounce period {tau}{sub B} of the trapped electrons subject to the drive, as calculated from the drive force and the linear plasma response to the drive. For a given wavenumber a wide range of KEEN wave frequencies can be readily excited. The basic KEEN structure is essentially kinetic, with the trapped electron density variation being almost completely shielded by the free electrons, leaving just enough net charge to support the wave.

  6. Nonlinear frequency coupling in dual radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Waskoenig, J.; Gans, T.

    2010-05-03

    Plasma ionization, and associated mode transitions, in dual radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasmas are governed through nonlinear frequency coupling in the dynamics of the plasma boundary sheath. Ionization in low-power mode is determined by the nonlinear coupling of electron heating and the momentary local plasma density. Ionization in high-power mode is driven by electron avalanches during phases of transient high electric fields within the boundary sheath. The transition between these distinctly different modes is controlled by the total voltage of both frequency components.

  7. Geometrical representation of sum frequency generation and adiabatic frequency conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchowski, Haim; Oron, Dan; Arie, Ady; Silberberg, Yaron

    2008-12-01

    We present a geometrical representation of the process of sum frequency generation in the undepleted pump approximation, in analogy with the known optical Bloch equations. We use this analogy to propose a technique for achieving both high efficiency and large bandwidth in sum frequency conversion using the adiabatic inversion scheme. The process is analogous with rapid adiabatic passage in NMR, and adiabatic constraints are derived in this context. This adiabatic frequency conversion scheme is realized experimentally using an aperiodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) device, where we achieved high efficiency signal-to-idler conversion over a bandwidth of 140nm .

  8. Nonlinear amplification of side-modes in frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Probst, R A; Steinmetz, T; Wilken, T; Hundertmark, H; Stark, S P; Wong, G K L; Russell, P St J; Hänsch, T W; Holzwarth, R; Udem, Th

    2013-05-20

    We investigate how suppressed modes in frequency combs are modified upon frequency doubling and self-phase modulation. We find, both experimentally and by using a simplified model, that these side-modes are amplified relative to the principal comb modes. Whereas frequency doubling increases their relative strength by 6 dB, the growth due to self-phase modulation can be much stronger and generally increases with nonlinear propagation length. Upper limits for this effect are derived in this work. This behavior has implications for high-precision calibration of spectrographs with frequency combs used for example in astronomy. For this application, Fabry-Pérot filter cavities are used to increase the mode spacing to exceed the resolution of the spectrograph. Frequency conversion and/or spectral broadening after non-perfect filtering reamplify the suppressed modes, which can lead to calibration errors. PMID:23736390

  9. Nonlinear Flow Generation By Electrostatic Turbulence In Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. X.; Diamond, P. H.; Hahm, T. S.; Ethier, S.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W. M.

    2010-07-07

    Global gyrokinetic simulations have revealed an important nonlinear flow generation process due to the residual stress produced by electrostatic turbulence of ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes and trapped electron modes (TEM). In collisionless TEM (CTEM) turbulence, nonlinear residual stress generation by both the fluctuation intensity and the intensity gradient in the presence of broken symmetry in the parallel wave number spectrum is identified for the first time. Concerning the origin of the symmetry breaking, turbulence self-generated low frequency zonal flow shear has been identified to be a key, universal mechanism in various turbulence regimes. Simulations reported here also indicate the existence of other mechanisms beyond E × B shear. The ITG turbulence driven “intrinsic” torque associated with residual stress is shown to increase close to linearly with the ion temperature gradient, in qualitative agreement with experimental observations in various devices. In CTEM dominated regimes, a net toroidal rotation is driven in the cocurrent direction by “intrinsic” torque, consistent with the experimental trend of observed intrinsic rotation. The finding of a “flow pinch” in CTEM turbulence may offer an interesting new insight into the underlying dynamics governing the radial penetration of modulated flows in perturbation experiments. Finally, simulations also reveal highly distinct phase space structures between CTEM and ITG turbulence driven momentum, energy and particle fluxes, elucidating the roles of resonant and non-resonant particles.

  10. Nonlinear Trivelpiece-Gould Waves: Frequency, Functional Form, and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubin, Daniel H. E.

    2015-11-01

    This poster considers the frequency, spatial form, and stability, of nonlinear Trivelpiece- Gould (TG) waves on a cylindrical plasma column of length L and radius rp, treating both traveling and standing waves, and focussing on the regime of experimental interest in which L/rp >> 1. In this regime TG waves are weakly dispersive, allowing strong mode-coupling between Fourier harmonics. The mode coupling implies that linear theory for such waves is a poor approximation even at fairly small amplitudes, and nonlinear theories that include only a small number of harmonics (such as 3-wave parametric resonance theory) fail to fully capture the stability properties of the system. We find that nonlinear standing waves suffer jumps in their functional form as their amplitude is varied continuously. The jumps are caused by nonlinear resonances between the standing wave and nearly linear waves whose frequencies and wave numbers are harmonics of the standing wave. Also, the standing waves are found to be unstable to a multi-wave version of 3-wave parametric resonance, with an amplitude required for instability onset that is much larger than expected from three wave theory. For traveling wave, linearly stability is found for all amplitudes that could be studied, in contradiction to 3-wave theory. Supported by National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1414570, Department of Energy Grants DE-SC0002451and DE-SC0008693.

  11. Electromagnetic scattering from nonlinear anisotropic cylinders. I - Fundamental frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Moh'd. A.; Uslenghi, P. L. E.

    1990-04-01

    The solution of the problem of electromagnetic scattering of obliquely incident plane waves by homogeneous, nonlinear anisotropic cylindrical structures is obtained. The medium of the scatterer is characterized by Volterra-type integrals for the electric and magnetic flux density vectors D and B, respectively. The nonlinear problem is solved using the perturbation method. The effects of nonlinearities on the field properties both inside and outside the scatterer, together with the effect on the radar cross section, are investigated for the fundamental frequency components. To demonstrate the validity of the approach, the results obtained by the perturbation method are compared with those obtained using the plane wave representation method of Censor (1983), where the iteration method is used to solve the resulting dispersion equation. The results are in very good agreement in both amplitude and phase of the fields for the case of very weak nonlinearity. When the relative magnitude of the nonlinear component of the permittivity is increased, the iteration method shows a faster divergence of the phase from the linear phase.

  12. Nanoscale nonlinear radio frequency properties of bulk Nb: Origins of extrinsic nonlinear effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Tamin; Ghamsari, B. G.; Bieler, T.; Anlage, Steven M.

    2015-10-01

    The performance of niobium-based superconducting radio frequency (SRF) particle-accelerator cavities can be sensitive to localized defects that give rise to quenches at high accelerating gradients. In order to identify these material defects on bulk Nb surfaces at their operating frequency and temperature, a wide-bandwidth microwave microscope with localized and strong RF magnetic fields is developed by integrating a magnetic write head into the near-field microwave microscope to enable mapping of the local electrodynamic response in the multi-GHz frequency regime at cryogenic temperatures. This magnetic writer demonstrates a localized and strong RF magnetic field on bulk Nb surface with Bsurface>102 mT and submicron resolution. By measuring the nonlinear response of the superconductor, nonlinearity coming from the nanoscale weak-link Josephson junctions due to the contaminated surface in the cavity-fabrication process is demonstrated.

  13. Generating nonlinear FM chirp waveforms for radar.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-09-01

    Nonlinear FM waveforms offer a radar matched filter output with inherently low range sidelobes. This yields a 1-2 dB advantage in Signal-to-Noise Ratio over the output of a Linear FM waveform with equivalent sidelobe filtering. This report presents design and implementation techniques for Nonlinear FM waveforms.

  14. Frequency generation and synthesis in the DRSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanloock, P.; Devlieghere, J.

    1992-06-01

    The feasibility of a Tunable Frequency Converter (TFC) concept envisaged on board of the Data Relay System Satellites (DRSS), which requires a synthesizer with state of the art phase noise performance that is locked to a common, ultrastable oscillator, is addressed. The DRSS Ka band communication links are discussed with reference to the DRS system and the TCF. The aim is to provide an autonomous TCF unit demonstrating that the advanced channel selection scheme, with all frequency translations locked to one common reference, is feasible. Concept tradeoff and key elements of the frequency synthesizer are outlined. White noise filtering and reference frequency selection of the reference generator are discussed. The TFC unit allows payload reconfigurability via the frequency setting. The concept is extendable to all TFC types on board of the DRSS.

  15. Controllable Raman soliton self-frequency shift in nonlinear metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang Yuanjiang; Wen Shuangchun; Guo Jun; Fan Dianyuan

    2011-09-15

    Controllable and dispersive magnetic permeability in the metamaterials (MMs) provides us more freedom to harness the propagation of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses at will. Here we discuss the controllability of the Raman soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) in the MMs with a nonlinear electric polarization. First, we derive a generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation suitable for few-cycle pulse propagation in the MMs with delayed Raman response, and demonstrate the Raman effect, high-order Raman-related nonlinearity, and high-order nonlinear dispersion terms occurring in this equation. Second, we present a theoretical investigation on the controllability of the Raman SSFS in the MMs. In particular, we identify the combined effects of the anomalous self-steepening (SS), third-order dispersion (TOD), and Raman effect on SSFS. It is shown that the positive SS effect suppresses SSFS; however, the negative SS effect enhances SSFS, and the positive TOD leads to the deceleration of SSFS. Finally, the effects of SS on the SSFS of the second-order soliton are also discussed.

  16. New χ (3)-nonlinear-laser manifestations in tetragonal LuVO4 crystal: more than sesqui-octave Raman-induced Stokes and anti-Stokes comb generation and cascaded self-frequency ``tripling''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminskii, A. A.; Rhee, H.; Eichler, H. J.; Ueda, K.; Oka, K.; Shibata, H.

    2008-12-01

    We report the experimental investigations of nonlinear-laser effects in LuVO4 vanadate under one-micron picosecond Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 pumping. In this tetragonal host-crystal for Ln3+ lasants for the first time we excited ultra-broad, more than one and half octave (13500 cm-1) Raman induced Stokes and anti-Stokes generation combs and observed multi-step cascaded parametric χ (3)-lasing in UV spectral region. All generation lines were identified and attributed to SRS-promoting modes of the crystal ( ω SRS1≈900 cm-1 and ω SRS2≈113 cm-1). We classified this vanadate as a promising material for self-Raman laser converters.

  17. Hybrid time-frequency domain equalization for LED nonlinearity mitigation in OFDM-based VLC systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Huang, Zhitong; Liu, Xiaoshuang; Ji, Yuefeng

    2015-01-12

    A novel hybrid time-frequency domain equalization scheme is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to mitigate the white light emitting diode (LED) nonlinearity in visible light communication (VLC) systems based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). We handle the linear and nonlinear distortion separately in a nonlinear OFDM system. The linear part is equalized in frequency domain and the nonlinear part is compensated by an adaptive nonlinear time domain equalizer (N-TDE). The experimental results show that with only a small number of parameters the nonlinear equalizer can efficiently mitigate the LED nonlinearity. With the N-TDE the modulation index (MI) and BER performance can be significantly enhanced. PMID:25835706

  18. High frequency plasma generator for ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goede, H.; Divergilio, W. F.; Fosnight, V. V.; Komatsu, G.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a program to experimentally develop two new types of plasma generators for 30 cm electrostatic argon ion thrusters are presented. The two plasma generating methods selected for this study were by radio frequency induction (RFI), operating at an input power frequency of 1 MHz, and by electron cyclotron heating (ECH) at an operating frequency of 5.0 GHz. Both of these generators utilize multiline cusp permanent magnet configurations for plasma confinement and beam profile optimization. The program goals were to develop a plasma generator possessing the characteristics of high electrical efficiency (low eV/ion) and simplicity of operation while maintaining the reliability and durability of the conventional hollow cathode plasma sources. The RFI plasma generator has achieved minimum discharge losses of 120 eV/ion while the ECH generator has obtained 145 eV/ion, assuming a 90% ion optical transparency of the electrostatic acceleration system. Details of experimental tests with a variety of magnet configurations are presented.

  19. Nonlinear performance of multi-granularity orthogonal transmission systems with frequency division multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Yang, Chuanchuan; Fang, Xi; Zhang, Tingting; Chen, Zhangyuan

    2013-03-11

    Orthogonal transmission with frequency division multiplexing technique is investigated for next generation optical communication systems. Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and single-carrier frequency division multiplexing (SCFDM) schemes are compared in combination with polarization-division multiplexing quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) or 16-QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) formats. Multi-granularity transmission with flexible bandwidth can be realized through ultra-dense wavelength division multiplexing (UDWDM) based on the orthogonal technique. The system performance is numerically studied with special emphasis on transmission degradations due to fiber Kerr nonlinearity. The maximum reach and fiber capacity for different spectral efficiencies are investigated for systems with nonlinear propagation over uncompensated standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) links with lumped amplification. PMID:23482180

  20. Observations of ionospheric ELF and VLF wave generation by excitation of the thermal cubic nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Moore, R C; Fujimaru, S; Kotovsky, D A; Gołkowski, M

    2013-12-01

    Extremely-low-frequency (ELF, 3-3000 Hz) and very-low-frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) waves generated by the excitation of the thermal cubic nonlinearity are observed for the first time at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program high-frequency transmitter in Gakona, Alaska. The observed ELF and VLF field amplitudes are the strongest generated by any high frequency (HF, 3-30 MHz) heating facility using this mechanism to date. This manner of ELF and VLF generation is independent of naturally forming currents, such as the auroral electrojet current system. Time-of-arrival analysis applied to experimental observations shows that the thermal cubic ELF and VLF source region is located within the collisional D-region ionosphere. Observations are compared with the predictions of a theoretical HF heating model using perturbation theory. For the experiments performed, two X-mode HF waves were transmitted at frequencies ω1 and ω2, with |ω2-2ω1| being in the ELF and VLF frequency range. In contrast with previous work, we determine that the ELF and VLF source is dominantly produced by the interaction between collision frequency oscillations at frequency ω2-ω1 and the polarization current density associated with the lower frequency HF wave at frequency ω1. This specific interaction has been neglected in past cubic thermal nonlinearity work, and it plays a major role in the generation of ELF and VLF waves. PMID:24476285

  1. DC Magnetic Field Generation by Nonlinear Whis-tlers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.; Griskey, M. C.

    1998-11-01

    A magnetic loop antenna is immersed into a large laboratory plasma (1 m diam, 2.5 m length, 10^12 cm-3, 3 eV, 5 G). It excites whistlers whose wave magnetic field exceeds the ambient dc field.(R. L. Stenzel and J. M. Urrutia, Phys. Rev. Lett. (1998).) The periodic reversal of both the electric and magnetic field produces a time-average electron Hall currents which results in the generation of a dc magnetic field. Copious harmonics of the fundamental frequency are produced. The propagation of nonlinear whistlers depends on amplitude and field direction. These phenomena are important for the excitation of large amplitude whistler with antennas in space.

  2. Efficient and coherent frequency conversions and nonlinear interference in optical parametric and atomic Raman processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yu

    By implementing a parametric down-conversion process with a strong signal field injection, we demonstrate that frequency down-conversion from pump photons to idler photons can be a coherent process. Contrary to a common misconception, we show that the process can be free of quantum noise. With an interference experiment, we demonstrate that coherence is preserved in the conversion process. This technique could lead to a high-fidelity quantum state transfer from a high-frequency photon to a low-frequency photon and connect a missing link in quantum networks. Coherent and efficient nonlinear interaction and frequency conversion are of great interest in many areas of quantum optics. Traditionally, the low efficiency of Raman scattering is improved by a high-finesse optical resonator or stimulated Raman conversion. It was recently found that the atomic spin wave initially built through electromagnetically induced transparency or a weak Raman process can actively enhance the Raman frequency conversion. An experimental demonstration of an efficient Raman conversion scheme with coherent feedback of both pump and Stokes fields is presented. The temporal profile of the generated Raman pulse shows that the coherence time of the atomic spin wave is ˜1.8 ms. A laser-like power threshold is observed and its low threshold is attributed to the long coherence time of the atomic spin wave. The mechanism of the conversion enhancement process is discussed and the conversion efficiency of a single pass of the beams is compared with that of double passes. Finally, a beat signal is observed between the two Stokes fields and its Fourier transform shows that the frequency difference is caused by the AC Stark effect. Precision phase measurement is traditionally restricted by the standard quantum limit. However, this limit is not as fundamental as the Heisenberg limit and can be circumvented by use of nonclassical quantum states and structure modification of the interferometers. Several

  3. Nonlinear frequency shift of electrostatic waves in general collisionless plasma: Unifying theory of fluid and kinetic nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chang; Dodin, Ilya Y.

    2015-08-15

    The nonlinear frequency shift is derived in a transparent asymptotic form for intense Langmuir waves in general collisionless plasma. The formula describes both fluid and kinetic effects simultaneously. The fluid nonlinearity is expressed, for the first time, through the plasma dielectric function, and the kinetic nonlinearity accounts for both smooth distributions and trapped-particle beams. Various known limiting scalings are reproduced as special cases. The calculation avoids differential equations and can be extended straightforwardly to other nonlinear plasma waves.

  4. Single-frequency blue light generation by single-pass sum-frequency generation in a coupled ring cavity tapered laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjarlin Jensen, Ole; Michael Petersen, Paul

    2013-09-01

    A generic approach for generation of tunable single frequency light is presented. 340 mW of near diffraction limited, single-frequency, and tunable blue light around 459 nm is generated by sum-frequency generation (SFG) between two tunable tapered diode lasers. One diode laser is operated in a ring cavity and another tapered diode laser is single-passed through a nonlinear crystal which is contained in the coupled ring cavity. Using this method, the single-pass conversion efficiency is more than 25%. In contrast to SFG in an external cavity, the system is entirely self-stabilized with no electronic locking.

  5. Equivalent damping and frequency change for linear and nonlinear hybrid vibrational energy harvesting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, M. Amin; Inman, Daniel J.

    2011-11-01

    A unified approximation method is derived to illustrate the effect of electro-mechanical coupling on vibration-based energy harvesting systems caused by variations in damping ratio and excitation frequency of the mechanical subsystem. Vibrational energy harvesters are electro-mechanical systems that generate power from the ambient oscillations. Typically vibration-based energy harvesters employ a mechanical subsystem tuned to resonate with ambient oscillations. The piezoelectric or electromagnetic coupling mechanisms utilized in energy harvesters, transfers some energy from the mechanical subsystem and converts it to an electric energy. Recently the focus of energy harvesting community has shifted toward nonlinear energy harvesters that are less sensitive to the frequency of ambient vibrations. We consider the general class of hybrid energy harvesters that use both piezoelectric and electromagnetic energy harvesting mechanisms. Through using perturbation methods for low amplitude oscillations and numerical integration for large amplitude vibrations we establish a unified approximation method for linear, softly nonlinear, and bi-stable nonlinear energy harvesters. The method quantifies equivalent changes in damping and excitation frequency of the mechanical subsystem that resembles the backward coupling from energy harvesting. We investigate a novel nonlinear hybrid energy harvester as a case study of the proposed method. The approximation method is accurate, provides an intuitive explanation for backward coupling effects and in some cases reduces the computational efforts by an order of magnitude.

  6. Optical generation of radio-frequency power

    SciTech Connect

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Meyer, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    An optical technique for high-power radio-frequency (RF) signal generation is described. The technique uses a unique photodetector based on a traveling-wave design driven by an appropriately modulated light source. The traveling-wave photodetector (TWPD) exhibits simultaneously a theoretical quantum efficiency approaching 100 % and a very large electrical bandwidth. Additionally, it is capable of dissipating the high-power levels required for the RF generation technique. The modulated light source is formed by either the beating together of two lasers or by the direct modulation of a light source. A system example is given which predicts RF power levels of 100`s of mW`s at millimeter wave frequencies with a theoretical ``wall-plug`` efficiency approaching 34%.

  7. High Frequency Plasma Generators for Ion Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divergilio, W. F.; Goede, H.; Fosnight, V. V.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a one year program to experimentally adapt two new types of high frequency plasma generators to Argon ion thrusters and to analytically study a third high frequency source concept are presented. Conventional 30 cm two grid ion extraction was utilized or proposed for all three sources. The two plasma generating methods selected for experimental study were a radio frequency induction (RFI) source, operating at about 1 MHz, and an electron cyclotron heated (ECH) plasma source operating at about 5 GHz. Both sources utilize multi-linecusp permanent magnet configurations for plasma confinement. The plasma characteristics, plasma loading of the rf antenna, and the rf frequency dependence of source efficiency and antenna circuit efficiency are described for the RFI Multi-cusp source. In a series of tests of this source at Lewis Research Center, minimum discharge losses of 220+/-10 eV/ion were obtained with propellant utilization of .45 at a beam current of 3 amperes. Possible improvement modifications are discussed.

  8. Frequency and time generation and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloch, M.

    1981-01-01

    High precision quartz crystal oscillators, cesium beam atomic resonators, and cesium beam atomic standards for time and frequency generation equipment for ground, airborne, and space use are described. Because of the high risk factors involved, and the commercial applications of these products being too far off in the future, private capital for research and development is difficult if not impossible to obtain. More specific analysis and recommendations to overcome these difficulties are objectively presented.

  9. Necklace beam generation in nonlinear colloidal engineered media.

    PubMed

    Silahli, Salih Z; Walasik, Wiktor; Litchinitser, Natalia M

    2015-12-15

    Modulational instability is a phenomenon that reveals itself as the exponential growth of weak perturbations in the presence of an intense pump beam propagating in a nonlinear medium. It plays a key role in such nonlinear optical processes as supercontinuum generation, light filamentation, rogue waves, and ring (or necklace) beam formation. To date, a majority of studies of these phenomena have focused on light-matter interactions in self-focusing Kerr media existing in nature. However, a large and tunable nonlinear response of a colloidal suspension can be tailored at will by judiciously engineering the optical polarizability. Here, we analytically and numerically show the possibility of necklace beam generation originating from spatial modulational instability of vortex beams in engineered soft-matter nonlinear media with different types of exponential nonlinearity. PMID:26670494

  10. Cross-polarized wave generation by effective cubic nonlinear optical interaction.

    PubMed

    Petrov, G I; Albert, O; Etchepare, J; Saltiel, S M

    2001-03-15

    A new cubic nonlinear optical effect in which a linearly polarized wave propagating in a single quadratic medium is converted into a wave that is cross polarized to the input wave is observed in BBO crystal. The effect is explained by cascading of two different second-order processes: second-harmonic generation and difference frequency mixing. PMID:18040322

  11. Terahertz radiation generation by nonlinear mixing of two laser beams over a thin foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Santosh; Parashar, J.

    2015-07-01

    Terahertz radiation generation via nonlinear mixing of two laser beams incident over a thin metal foil is explored. The lasers exert a ponderomotive force on the electrons of metal foil at beat frequency which lies in the terahertz range. The metal foil acts as antenna, producing terahertz radiations, highly directional in nature.

  12. Terahertz radiation generation by nonlinear mixing of two laser beams over a thin foil

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, Santosh; Parashar, J.

    2015-07-31

    Terahertz radiation generation via nonlinear mixing of two laser beams incident over a thin metal foil is explored. The lasers exert a ponderomotive force on the electrons of metal foil at beat frequency which lies in the terahertz range. The metal foil acts as antenna, producing terahertz radiations, highly directional in nature.

  13. Time-frequency manifold for nonlinear feature extraction in machinery fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingbo

    2013-02-01

    Time-frequency feature is beneficial to representation of non-stationary signals for effective machinery fault diagnosis. The time-frequency distribution (TFD) is a major tool to reveal the synthetic time-frequency pattern. However, the TFD will also face noise corruption and dimensionality reduction issues in engineering applications. This paper proposes a novel nonlinear time-frequency feature based on a time-frequency manifold (TFM) technique. The new TFM feature is generated by mainly addressing manifold learning on the TFDs in a reconstructed phase space. It combines the non-stationary information and the nonlinear information of analyzed signals, and hence exhibits valuable properties. Specifically, the new feature is a quantitative low-dimensional representation, and reveals the intrinsic time-frequency pattern related to machinery health, which can effectively overcome the effects of noise and condition variance issues in sampling signals. The effectiveness and the merits of the proposed TFM feature are confirmed by case study on gear wear diagnosis, bearing defect identification and defect severity evaluation. Results show the value and potential of the new feature in machinery fault pattern representation and classification.

  14. Solving Large Scale Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problem in Next-Generation Accelerator Design

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Ben-Shan; Bai, Zhaojun; Lee, Lie-Quan; Ko, Kwok; /SLAC

    2006-09-28

    A number of numerical methods, including inverse iteration, method of successive linear problem and nonlinear Arnoldi algorithm, are studied in this paper to solve a large scale nonlinear eigenvalue problem arising from finite element analysis of resonant frequencies and external Q{sub e} values of a waveguide loaded cavity in the next-generation accelerator design. They present a nonlinear Rayleigh-Ritz iterative projection algorithm, NRRIT in short and demonstrate that it is the most promising approach for a model scale cavity design. The NRRIT algorithm is an extension of the nonlinear Arnoldi algorithm due to Voss. Computational challenges of solving such a nonlinear eigenvalue problem for a full scale cavity design are outlined.

  15. Nonlinear Generation of Vorticity by Surface Waves.

    PubMed

    Filatov, S V; Parfenyev, V M; Vergeles, S S; Brazhnikov, M Yu; Levchenko, A A; Lebedev, V V

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate that waves excited on a fluid surface produce local surface rotation owing to hydrodynamic nonlinearity. We examine theoretically the effect and obtain an explicit formula for the vertical vorticity in terms of the surface elevation. Our theoretical predictions are confirmed by measurements of surface motion in a cell with water where surface waves are excited by vertical and harmonic shaking the cell. The experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. We discuss physical consequences of the effect. PMID:26894714

  16. Generation of unusually low frequency plasmaspheric hiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lunjin; Thorne, Richard M.; Bortnik, Jacob; Li, Wen; Horne, Richard B.; Reeves, G. D.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Spence, H. E.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.

    2014-08-01

    It has been reported from Van Allen Probe observations that plasmaspheric hiss intensification in the outer plasmasphere, associated with a substorm injection on 30 September 2012, occurred with a peak frequency near 100 Hz, well below the typical plasmaspheric hiss frequency range, extending down to ˜20 Hz. We examine this event of unusually low frequency plasmaspheric hiss to understand its generation mechanism. Quantitative analysis is performed by simulating wave raypaths via the HOTRAY ray tracing code with measured plasma density and calculating raypath-integrated wave gain evaluated using the measured energetic electron distribution. We demonstrate that the growth rate due to substorm-injected electrons is positive but rather weak, leading to small wave gain (˜10 dB) during a single equatorial crossing. Propagation characteristics aided by the sharp density gradient associated with the plasmapause, however, can enable these low-frequency waves to undergo cyclic raypaths, which return to the unstable region leading to repeated amplification to yield sufficient net wave gain (>40 dB) to allow waves to grow from the thermal noise.

  17. Octave-spanning supercontinuum generation via microwave frequency multiplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, D. C.; Beha, K. M.; Diddams, S. A.; Papp, S. B.

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a system based on telecom components for the generation of a coherent octave-spanning supercontinuum from a continuous-wave laser. The system utilizes direct multiplication of a 10 GHz signal derived from a commercial synthesizer to carve pulses from the laser, which are then iteratively chirped and compressed in two stages. After reducing the repetition rate of the resulting pulse train to 2.5 GHz using selective transmission through an electro-optic gate, propagation through highly-nonlinear fiber generates an octave-spanning supercontinuum spectrum. We discuss the impact of the noise of the modulation frequency on the coherence of the supercontinuum and discuss its mitigation. Close agreement between experiment and theory is shown throughout, and we use our ability to precisely model the experiment to propose an extension of the system to 20 GHz repetition rate.

  18. Frequency-domain methods for modeling a nonlinear acoustic orifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egolf, David P.; Murphy, William J.; Franks, John R.; Kirlin, R. Lynn

    2002-11-01

    This presentation describes frequency-domain methods for simulating transmission loss across a single orifice mounted in an acoustic waveguide. The work was a preamble to research involving earplugs containing one or more orifices. Simulation methods included direct Fourier transformation, linearization about an operating point, and Volterra series. They were applied to an electric-circuit analog of the acoustic system containing the orifice. The orifice itself was characterized by an empirical expression for nonlinear impedance obtained by fitting curves to experimental resistance and reactance data reported by other authors. Their data-collection procedures required the impedance expression presented herein to be properly labeled as a describing function, a quantity well known in the nonlinear control systems literature. Results of the computer simulations were compared to experimental transmission-loss data. For a single-tone input sound pressure, the computer code accurately predicted the output fundamental (i.e., without harmonics). For a broadband input, the simulated output was less accurate, but acceptable. Levels of the sound-pressure input ranged from 60 to 160 dB. [Work supported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH, through a research associateship granted the first author by the National Research Council.] a)Currently on leave at National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH.

  19. Modulation instability and short-pulse generation in media with relaxing Kerr nonlinearity and high self-steepening

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotovskii, I O; Korobko, D A; Lapin, V A

    2014-01-31

    The modulation instability in waveguides with high Kerr nonlinearity, characterised by a delayed nonlinear response, has been investigated with allowance for the self-steepening parameter and third-order dispersion. General expressions for the modulation gain are obtained. The influence of the waveguide parameters on the gain is analysed. It is shown that the joint effect of the delayed nonlinear response and negative nonlinearity dispersion leads to an increase in the modulation gain. The relations obtained are confirmed by numerical simulation. The results of this study can be used to design compact generators of high-frequency pulse trains. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  20. Generating nonlinear FM chirp radar signals by multiple integrations

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2011-02-01

    A phase component of a nonlinear frequency modulated (NLFM) chirp radar pulse can be produced by performing digital integration operations over a time interval defined by the pulse width. Each digital integration operation includes applying to a respectively corresponding input parameter value a respectively corresponding number of instances of digital integration.

  1. Second harmonic generation using nonlinear Rayleigh surface waves in stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Margaret; Kim, Gun; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Kurtis, Kimberly; Jacobs, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    This research tests the potential application of the Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) method using nonlinear Rayleigh surface waves to nondestructively quantify surface microstructural changes in thin stone. The acoustic nonlinearity parameter (β) has been assessed as a meaningful indicator for characterizing the nonlinearity of civil engineering materials; additionally, Rayleigh waves offer the opportunity to isolate a material's near surface microstructural status. Sandstone was selected for testing due to its relative uniformity and small grain size compared to other stone types; the sample thickness was 2 inches to reflect the minimum panel thickness recommended by the Indiana Limestone Institute. For this research, initially fully non-contact generation and detection techniques are evaluated before a 100kHz wedge transmitter and a 200kHz air-coupled receiver are employed for generation and detection of nonlinear Rayleigh waves. Non-contact transmitters and receivers have advantages such as removing the irregularities associated with coupling as well as not leaving residues, which in stone applications can be considered aesthetically damaging. The experimental results show that the nonlinear parameter, β, can be effectively isolated using the wedge transmitter and non-contact set up and that too much of the signal strength is lost in the fully non-contact method to extract meaningful results for this stone and stones with slow wave speeds. This indicates that the proposed SHG technique is effective for evaluating the nonlinearity parameter, β, and can next be applied to characterize near surface microstructural changes in thin applications of dimensioned stone.

  2. Quadrupole second harmonic generation and sum-frequency generation in ZnO quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Maikhuri, Deepti; Purohit, S. P. Mathur, K. C.

    2015-04-15

    The second harmonic generation (SHG) and the sum frequency generation (SFG) processes are investigated in the conduction band states of the singly charged ZnO quantum dot (QD) embedded in the HfO{sub 2}, and the AlN matrices. With two optical fields of frequency ω{sub p} and ω{sub q} incident on the dot, we study the variation with frequency of the second order nonlinear polarization resulting in SHG and SFG, through the electric dipole and the electric quadrupole interactions of the pump fields with the electron in the dot. We obtain enhanced value of the second order nonlinear susceptibility in the dot compared to the bulk. The effective mass approximation with the finite confining barrier is used for obtaining the energy and wavefunctions of the quantized confined states of the electron in the conduction band of the dot. Our results show that both the SHG and SFG processes depend on the dot size, the surrounding matrix and the polarization states of the pump beams.

  3. High-frequency solitons in media with induced scattering from damped low-frequency waves with nonuniform dispersion and nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Aseeva, N. V. Gromov, E. M.; Tyutin, V. V.

    2015-12-15

    The dynamics of high-frequency field solitons is considered using the extended nonhomogeneous nonlinear Schrödinger equation with induced scattering from damped low-frequency waves (pseudoinduced scattering). This scattering is a 3D analog of the stimulated Raman scattering from temporal spatially homogeneous damped low-frequency modes, which is well known in optics. Spatial inhomogeneities of secondorder linear dispersion and cubic nonlinearity are also taken into account. It is shown that the shift in the 3D spectrum of soliton wavenumbers toward the short-wavelength region is due to nonlinearity increasing in coordinate and to decreasing dispersion. Analytic results are confirmed by numerical calculations.

  4. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) during anterior-posterior stretching. Method: Three materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were…

  5. Coherent terahertz-wave generation and detection over a wide frequency range using DAST crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamide, Hiroaki; Ito, Hiromasa

    2009-02-01

    Terahertz-frequency (THz) waves have shown potential for a wide range of applications. We have developed tunable THz-wave sources using nonlinear optical crystals, which have several advantages, including frequency agility, wide tunability, high output, and high coherency. We found that the organic nonlinear crystal of 4-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium-tosylate (DAST) had particular potential for ultra-wide THz-wave generation from sub-THz to mid-infrared frequencies. Using DAST, we manufactured a coherent, tunable source (1-40 THz) with frequency agility. Moreover, we demonstrated THz-wave detection through up-conversion using DAST or MgO:LiNbO3 nonlinear optical crystals, which provided a fast response, high sensitivity, and room-temperature operation.

  6. Modulational-instability-induced supercontinuum generation with saturable nonlinear response

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, R. Vasantha Jayakantha; Porsezian, K.; Nithyanandan, K.

    2010-07-15

    We theoretically investigate the supercontinuum generation (SCG) on the basis of modulational instability (MI) in liquid-core photonic crystal fibers (LCPCF) with CS{sub 2}-filled central core. The effect of saturable nonlinearity of LCPCF on SCG in the femtosecond regime is studied using an appropriately modified nonlinear Schroedinger equation. We also compare the MI induced spectral broadening with SCG obtained by soliton fission. To analyze the quality of the pulse broadening, we study the coherence of the SC pulse numerically. It is evident from the numerical simulation that the response of the saturable nonlinearity suppresses the broadening of the pulse. We also observe that the MI induced SCG in the presence of saturable nonlinearity degrades the coherence of the SCG pulse when compared to unsaturated medium.

  7. Multipolar interference for non-reciprocal nonlinear generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poutrina, Ekaterina; Urbas, Augustine

    2016-04-01

    We show that nonlinear multipolar interference allows achieving not only unidirectional, but also non-reciprocal nonlinear generation from a nanoelement, with the direction of the produced light decoupled from the direction of at least one of the excitation beams. Alternatively, it may allow inhibiting the specified nonlinear response in a nanoelement or in its periodic arrangement by reversing the direction of one of the pumps. These general phenomena exploit the fact that, contrary to the linear response case, nonlinear magneto-electric interference stems from a combination of additive and multiplicative processes and includes an interference between various terms within the electric and magnetic partial waves themselves. We demonstrate the introduced concept numerically using an example of a plasmonic dimer geometry with realistic material parameters.

  8. Multipolar interference for non-reciprocal nonlinear generation.

    PubMed

    Poutrina, Ekaterina; Urbas, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    We show that nonlinear multipolar interference allows achieving not only unidirectional, but also non-reciprocal nonlinear generation from a nanoelement, with the direction of the produced light decoupled from the direction of at least one of the excitation beams. Alternatively, it may allow inhibiting the specified nonlinear response in a nanoelement or in its periodic arrangement by reversing the direction of one of the pumps. These general phenomena exploit the fact that, contrary to the linear response case, nonlinear magneto-electric interference stems from a combination of additive and multiplicative processes and includes an interference between various terms within the electric and magnetic partial waves themselves. We demonstrate the introduced concept numerically using an example of a plasmonic dimer geometry with realistic material parameters. PMID:27126209

  9. Multipolar interference for non-reciprocal nonlinear generation

    PubMed Central

    Poutrina, Ekaterina; Urbas, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    We show that nonlinear multipolar interference allows achieving not only unidirectional, but also non-reciprocal nonlinear generation from a nanoelement, with the direction of the produced light decoupled from the direction of at least one of the excitation beams. Alternatively, it may allow inhibiting the specified nonlinear response in a nanoelement or in its periodic arrangement by reversing the direction of one of the pumps. These general phenomena exploit the fact that, contrary to the linear response case, nonlinear magneto-electric interference stems from a combination of additive and multiplicative processes and includes an interference between various terms within the electric and magnetic partial waves themselves. We demonstrate the introduced concept numerically using an example of a plasmonic dimer geometry with realistic material parameters. PMID:27126209

  10. Multi-direction high-efficiency second harmonic generation in ellipse structure nonlinear photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bao-Qin; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Rong-Juan; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2014-10-13

    We have designed and fabricated a lithium niobate (LN) nonlinear photonic crystal (NPC) with a two-dimensional (2D) ellipse structure of inverse poling domains. The structure can offer continuously varying reciprocal lattice vectors in different directions to compensate the phase-mismatching during the second harmonic generation (SHG) for diverse pump wavelengths. We consider three propagation directions with large effective nonlinear susceptibility and measure the nonlinear conversion efficiency of SHG. The experimental data are in good agreement with the quantitative calculation results using the effective susceptibility model with pump depletion. With high-efficiency SHG in multiple propagation direction, the 2D ellipse structure of LN NPC has the potential to realize various broadband nonlinear frequency conversion processes in different propagation direction with a single crystal.

  11. Preliminary investigation of the frequency response and distortion properties of nonlinear image processing algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Jered R.; Dobbins, James T.

    2013-03-01

    Assessment of the resolution properties of nonlinear imaging systems is a useful but challenging task. While the modulation transfer function (MTF) fully describes contrast resolution as a function of spatial frequency for linear systems, an equivalent metric does not exist for systems with significant nonlinearity. Therefore, this preliminary investigation attempts to classify and quantify the amount of scaling and distortion imposed on a given image signal as the result of a nonlinear process (nonlinear image processing algorithm). As a proof-of-concept, a median filter is assessed in terms of its principle frequency response (PFR) and distortion response (DR) functions. These metrics are derived in frequency space using a sinusoidal basis function, and it is shown that, for a narrow-band sinusoidal input signal, the scaling and distortion properties of the nonlinear filter are described exactly by PFR and DR, respectively. The use of matched sinusoidal basis and input functions accurately reveals the frequency response to long linear structures of different scale. However, when more complex (multi-band) input signals are considered, PFR and DR fail to adequately characterize the frequency response due to nonlinear interaction effects between different frequency components during processing. Overall, the results reveal the context-dependent nature of nonlinear image processing algorithm performance, and they emphasize the importance of the basis function choice in algorithm assessment. In the future, more complex forms of nonlinear systems analysis may be necessary to fully characterize the frequency response properties of nonlinear algorithms in a context-dependent manner.

  12. Theoretical Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy of Peptides.

    PubMed

    Carr, Joshua K; Wang, Lu; Roy, Santanu; Skinner, James L

    2015-07-23

    Vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) has become a very promising technique for the study of proteins at interfaces, and it has been applied to important systems such as anti-microbial peptides, ion channel proteins, and human islet amyloid polypeptide. Moreover, so-called "chiral" SFG techniques, which rely on polarization combinations that generate strong signals primarily for chiral molecules, have proven to be particularly discriminatory of protein secondary structure. In this work, we present a theoretical strategy for calculating protein amide I SFG spectra by combining line-shape theory with molecular dynamics simulations. We then apply this method to three model peptides, demonstrating the existence of a significant chiral SFG signal for peptides with chiral centers, and providing a framework for interpreting the results on the basis of the dependence of the SFG signal on the peptide orientation. We also examine the importance of dynamical and coupling effects. Finally, we suggest a simple method for determining a chromophore's orientation relative to the surface using ratios of experimental heterodyne-detected signals with different polarizations, and test this method using theoretical spectra. PMID:25203677

  13. Theoretical Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy of Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) has become a very promising technique for the study of proteins at interfaces, and it has been applied to important systems such as anti-microbial peptides, ion channel proteins, and human islet amyloid polypeptide. Moreover, so-called “chiral” SFG techniques, which rely on polarization combinations that generate strong signals primarily for chiral molecules, have proven to be particularly discriminatory of protein secondary structure. In this work, we present a theoretical strategy for calculating protein amide I SFG spectra by combining line-shape theory with molecular dynamics simulations. We then apply this method to three model peptides, demonstrating the existence of a significant chiral SFG signal for peptides with chiral centers, and providing a framework for interpreting the results on the basis of the dependence of the SFG signal on the peptide orientation. We also examine the importance of dynamical and coupling effects. Finally, we suggest a simple method for determining a chromophore’s orientation relative to the surface using ratios of experimental heterodyne-detected signals with different polarizations, and test this method using theoretical spectra. PMID:25203677

  14. Nonlinear frequency response of parametrically excited functionally graded Timoshenko beams with a crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Yan, T.

    2010-06-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear dynamic frequency response of a Timoshenko beam made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) with an open edge crack. The beam is clamped and subjected to an axial parametric excitation consisting of a static compressive force and a harmonic excitation force. Theoretical formulations are based on Timoshenko shear deformable beam theory, von Karman type geometric nonlinearity and rotational spring model. Hamilton's principle is used to derive the nonlinear partial differential equations which are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equation by using the Least Squares method and Galerkin technique. The nonlinear natural frequencies and excitation frequency-amplitude response curves are obtained by employing Runge-Kutta method and multiple scale method, respectively. A parametric study is conducted to study the effects of material property distribution, crack depth, crack location, excitation frequency, and slenderness ratio on the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of parametrically excited, cracked FGM Timoshenko beams.

  15. Generation and propagation of nonlinear internal waves in Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scotti, A.; Beardsley, R.C.; Butman, B.

    2007-01-01

    During the summer, nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) are commonly observed propagating in Massachusetts Bay. The topography of the area is unique in the sense that the generation area (over Stellwagen Bank) is only 25 km away from the shoaling area, and thus it represents an excellent natural laboratory to study the life cycle of NLIWs. To assist in the interpretation of the data collected during the 1998 Massachusetts Bay Internal Wave Experiment (MBIWE98), a fully nonlinear and nonhydrostatic model covering the generation/shoaling region was developed, to investigate the response of the system to the range of background and driving conditions observed. Simplified models were also used to elucidate the role of nonlinearity and dispersion in shaping the NLIW field. This paper concentrates on the generation process and the subsequent evolution in the basin. The model was found to reproduce well the range of propagation characteristics observed (arrival time, propagation speed, amplitude), and provided a coherent framework to interpret the observations. Comparison with a fully nonlinear hydrostatic model shows that during the generation and initial evolution of the waves as they move away from Stellwagen Bank, dispersive effects play a negligible role. Thus the problem can be well understood considering the geometry of the characteristics along which the Riemann invariants of the hydrostatic problem propagate. Dispersion plays a role only during the evolution of the undular bore in the middle of Stellwagen Basin. The consequences for modeling NLIWs within hydrostatic models are briefly discussed at the end.

  16. Discussion about generation mechanisms of third-order nonlinear signals in surface acoustic wave resonators based on simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Ryo; Suzuki, Takanao; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Kyoya, Haruki; Nako, Katsuhiro; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss the generation mechanisms of third-order nonlinearity in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices on the basis of simulation results, which are obtained by a proposed method for this discussion. First, eight nonlinear terms are introduced to the piezoelectric constitutive equations, and nonlinear stress and electric flux fields are estimated using linear strain and electric fields calculated by a linear analysis, i.e., the coupling of mode simulation. Then, their contributions are embedded as voltage and current sources, respectively, in an equivalent circuit model, and nonlinear signals appearing at external ports are estimated. It is shown that eight coefficients of the nonlinear terms can be determined from a series of experiments carried out at various driving and resulting frequencies. This is because the effect of each nonlinear term on the nonlinear signal outputs changes markedly with the conditions. When the coefficients are determined properly, the simulations agree well with some measurement results under various conditions.

  17. Effect of nonlinear electromechanical interaction upon wind power generator behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selyutskiy, Yury D.; Klimina, Liubov A.

    2014-12-01

    A mathematical model is developed for describing a small horizontal axis wind turbine with electric generator, such that the electromechanical interaction is non-linear in current. Dependence of steady regimes of the system upon parameters of the model is studied. In particular, it is shown that increase of wind speed causes qualitative restructuring of the set of steady regimes, which leads to considerable change in behavior of the wind power generator. The proposed model is verified against data obtained in experiments.

  18. The influence of nonlinear magnetic pull on hydropower generator rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Rolf. K.; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov

    2006-11-01

    In large electrical machines the electromagnetic forces can in some situations have a strong influence on the rotor dynamics. One such case is when the rotor is eccentrically displaced in the generator bore. A strong unbalanced magnetic pull will then appear in the direction of the smallest air-gap. In this paper, the influence of nonlinear magnetic pull is studied for a hydropower generator where the generator spider hub does not coincide with the centre of the generator rim. The generator model consists of a four-degree-of-freedom rigid body, which is connected to an elastic shaft supported by isotropic bearings. The influence of magnetic pull is calculated for the case when the generator spider hub deviates from the centre of the generator rim. A nonlinear model of the magnetic pull is introduced to the model by radial forces and transverse moments. In the numerical analysis input parameters typical for a 70 MW hydropower generator are used. Results are presented in stability and response diagrams. The results show that this type of rotor configuration can in some cases become unstable. Therefore, it is important to consider the distance between the centreline of generator spider hub and the centreline of generator rim.

  19. SCALAR AND VECTOR NONLINEAR DECAYS OF LOW-FREQUENCY ALFVÉN WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J. S.; Wu, D. J.; Voitenko, Y.; De Keyser, J.

    2015-02-01

    We found several efficient nonlinear decays for Alfvén waves in the solar wind conditions. Depending on the wavelength, the dominant decay is controlled by the nonlinearities proportional to either scalar or vector products of wavevectors. The two-mode decays of the pump MHD Alfvén wave into co- and counter-propagating product Alfvén and slow waves are controlled by the scalar nonlinearities at long wavelengths ρ{sub i}{sup 2}k{sub 0⊥}{sup 2}<ω{sub 0}/ω{sub ci} (k {sub 0} is wavenumber perpendicular to the background magnetic field, ω{sub 0} is frequency of the pump Alfvén wave, ρ {sub i} is ion gyroradius, and ω {sub ci} is ion-cyclotron frequency). The scalar decays exhibit both local and nonlocal properties and can generate not only MHD-scale but also kinetic-scale Alfvén and slow waves, which can strongly accelerate spectral transport. All waves in the scalar decays propagate in the same plane, hence these decays are two-dimensional. At shorter wavelengths, ρ{sub i}{sup 2}k{sub 0⊥}{sup 2}>ω{sub 0}/ω{sub ci}, three-dimensional vector decays dominate generating out-of-plane product waves. The two-mode decays dominate from MHD up to ion scales ρ {sub i} k {sub 0} ≅ 0.3; at shorter scales the one-mode vector decays become stronger and generate only Alfvén product waves. In the solar wind the two-mode decays have high growth rates >0.1ω{sub 0} and can explain the origin of slow waves observed at kinetic scales.

  20. Scalar and Vector Nonlinear Decays of Low-frequency Alfvén Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. S.; Voitenko, Y.; De Keyser, J.; Wu, D. J.

    2015-02-01

    We found several efficient nonlinear decays for Alfvén waves in the solar wind conditions. Depending on the wavelength, the dominant decay is controlled by the nonlinearities proportional to either scalar or vector products of wavevectors. The two-mode decays of the pump MHD Alfvén wave into co- and counter-propagating product Alfvén and slow waves are controlled by the scalar nonlinearities at long wavelengths ρ i2k0\\perp 2<ω 0/ω ci (k 0 is wavenumber perpendicular to the background magnetic field, ω0 is frequency of the pump Alfvén wave, ρ i is ion gyroradius, and ω ci is ion-cyclotron frequency). The scalar decays exhibit both local and nonlocal properties and can generate not only MHD-scale but also kinetic-scale Alfvén and slow waves, which can strongly accelerate spectral transport. All waves in the scalar decays propagate in the same plane, hence these decays are two-dimensional. At shorter wavelengths, ρ i2k0\\perp 2\\gtω 0/ω ci, three-dimensional vector decays dominate generating out-of-plane product waves. The two-mode decays dominate from MHD up to ion scales ρ i k 0 ~= 0.3; at shorter scales the one-mode vector decays become stronger and generate only Alfvén product waves. In the solar wind the two-mode decays have high growth rates >0.1ω0 and can explain the origin of slow waves observed at kinetic scales.

  1. Enhanced terahertz source based on external cavity difference-frequency generation using monolithic single-frequency pulsed fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Eliot B; Shi, Wei; Nguyen, Dan T; Yao, Zhidong; Zong, Jie; Chavez-Pirson, Arturo; Peyghambarian, N

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate a resonant external cavity approach to enhance narrowband terahertz radiation through difference-frequency generation for the first time (to our knowledge). Two nanosecond laser pulses resonant in an optical cavity interact with a nonlinear crystal to produce a factor of 7 enhancement of terahertz power compared to a single-pass orientation. This external enhancement approach shows promise to significantly increase both terahertz power and conversion efficiency through optical pump pulse enhancement and effective recycling. PMID:20596183

  2. Frequency-Domain Models for Nonlinear Microwave Devices Based on Large-Signal Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Jargon, Jeffrey A.; DeGroot, Donald C.; Gupta, K. C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce nonlinear large-signal scattering ( S) parameters, a new type of frequency-domain mapping that relates incident and reflected signals. We present a general form of nonlinear large-signal S-parameters and show that they reduce to classic S-parameters in the absence of nonlinearities. Nonlinear large-signal impedance ( Z) and admittance ( D) parameters are also introduced, and equations relating the different representations are derived. We illustrate how nonlinear large-signal S-parameters can be used as a tool in the design process of a nonlinear circuit, specifically a single-diode 1 GHz frequency-doubler. For the case where a nonlinear model is not readily available, we developed a method of extracting nonlinear large-signal S-parameters obtained with artificial neural network models trained with multiple measurements made by a nonlinear vector network analyzer equipped with two sources. Finally, nonlinear large-signal S-parameters are compared to another form of nonlinear mapping, known as nonlinear scattering functions. The nonlinear large-signal S-parameters are shown to be more general. PMID:27366621

  3. Local comb generation in nonlinear TiN superconducting resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, David; Vissers, Michael R.; Erickson, Robert; Sandberg, Martin; Gao, Jiansong

    2014-03-01

    Low loss superconducting nonlinear resonators are extensively used for qubit readout as well as photon detectors. These devices are typically capacitively coupled to a launch line. When driven at high power, a shift in resonant frequency is observed due to the kinetic inductance of the TiN superconductor. At higher power, the resonant frequency mixes with the drive tone to produce a series of peaks that are observed to be equally spaced at the detuning frequency, i.e. a ``local comb.'' The full circuit analysis of this system is derived. The renormalized resonant frequency is obtained and the local comb is derived from a first order successive approximation. Work suppported by DARPA, ARO, and NIST.

  4. Multireflection sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Jasensky, Joshua; Chen, Zhan

    2015-08-18

    We developed a multireflection data collection method in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity of sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy, which we refer to as multireflection SFG, or MRSFG for short. To achieve MRSFG, a collinear laser beam propagation geometry was adopted and trapezoidal Dove prisms were used as sample substrates. An in-depth discussion on the signal and SNR in MRSFG was performed. We showed experimentally, with "m" total internal reflections in a Dove prism, MRSFG signal is ∼m times that of conventional SFG; SNR of the SFG signal-to-background is improved by a factor of >m(1/2) and

  5. Nonlinear effects generation in non-adiabatically tapered fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palací, Jesús; Mas, Sara; Monzón-Hernández, David; Martí, Javier

    2015-12-01

    Nonlinear effects are observed in a non-adiabatically tapered optical fibre. The designed structure allows for the introduction of self-phase modulation, which is observed through pulse breaking and spectral broadening, in approximately a centimetre of propagation using a commercial telecom laser. These devices are simple to fabricate and suitable to generate and control a variety of nonlinear effects in practical applications because they do not experience short-term degradation as previously reported approaches. Experimental and theoretical results are obtained, showing a good agreement.

  6. Laser-induced microwave generation with nonlinear optical crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghesani, Francesco; Braggio, Caterina; Carugno, Giovanni; Della Valle, Federico; Ruoso, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    We report about a novel technique to generate microwave radiation by the irradiation of a nonlinear optical crystal with uniformly spaced, ultrashort optical pulses delivered by a mode-locked laser. We study systematically the laser polarization and intensity dependence of the microwave signal to conclusively show that it is a nonlinear phenomenon and that it originates from optical rectification. The measurements have been conducted using KTP, LBO and ZnSe crystals. The observed pulsed microwave signals are harmonically related to the laser pulses repetition rate, a feature that can be exploited to develop an innovative ultrafast laser detector.

  7. Nonlinear power flow control applications to conventional generator swing equations subject to variable generation.

    SciTech Connect

    Robinett, Rush D., III; Wilson, David Gerald

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, the swing equations for renewable generators are formulated as a natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. A two-step process referred to as Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) is used to analyze and design feedback controllers for the renewable generator system. This formulation extends previous results on the analytical verification of the Potential Energy Boundary Surface (PEBS) method to nonlinear control analysis and design and justifies the decomposition of the system into conservative and non-conservative systems to enable a two-step, serial analysis and design procedure. In particular, this approach extends the work done by developing a formulation which applies to a larger set of Hamiltonian Systems that has Nearly Hamiltonian Systems as a subset. The results of this research include the determination of the required performance of a proposed Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS)/storage device to enable the maximum power output of a wind turbine while meeting the power system constraints on frequency and phase. The FACTS/storage device is required to operate as both a generator and load (energy storage) on the power system in this design. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is applied to the power flow equations to determine the stability boundaries (limit cycles) of the renewable generator system and enable design of feedback controllers that meet stability requirements while maximizing the power generation and flow to the load. Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of renewable generators systems are determined based on the concepts of Hamiltonian systems, power flow, exergy (the maximum work that can be extracted from an energy flow) rate, and entropy rate.

  8. Electrical short pulses generation using a resonant tunneling diode nonlinear transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essimbi, B. Z.; Jäger, D.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, the generation of short electrical pulses based on nonlinear active wave propagation effects along the resonant tunneling diode transmission line is studied. The principle of operation is discussed and it is shown by computer experiments that an input rectangular pulse as well as a sinusoidal input signal can be converted into a set of output spikes, suitable for A/D conversion at millimeter wave frequencies.

  9. Digital slip frequency generator and method for determining the desired slip frequency

    DOEpatents

    Klein, Frederick F.

    1989-01-01

    The output frequency of an electric power generator is kept constant with variable rotor speed by automatic adjustment of the excitation slip frequency. The invention features a digital slip frequency generator which provides sine and cosine waveforms from a look-up table, which are combined with real and reactive power output of the power generator.

  10. Ultra short pulse generation and reshaping using highly nonlinear fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, S.; Namiki, S.; Inoue, T.; Oguri, A.; Akutsu, T.; Shinozaki, J.; Ozeki, Y.; Takasaka, S.; Igarashi, K.; Sakano, M.; Yagi, T.

    2005-11-01

    We experimentally investigate the generation of a low-noise ultra short pulse train from 40GHz to160GHz by using Comb-like profiled fiber (CPF) for adiabatic soliton conversion and compression. Highly nonlinear fibers allow us to reduce total length of CPF as well as to utilize Kerr effect in the fiber effectively. We demonstrate generations of 160GHz soliton train of 750fs, the compression to 500fs of 40GHz externally-modulated pulse with wideband tunability over 30nm. Then we apply the CPF pulse compression technique to achieve the programmable repetition tunability from 5 to 500 MHz in low pedestral 300fs pulse train generation.

  11. Sum-Frequency Generation from Chiral Media and Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Na

    2006-02-13

    Sum frequency generation (SFG), a second-order nonlinear optical process, is electric-dipole forbidden in systems with inversion symmetry. As a result, it has been used to study chiral media and interfaces, systems intrinsically lacking inversion symmetry. This thesis describes recent progresses in the applications of and new insights into SFG from chiral media and interfaces. SFG from solutions of chiral amino acids is investigated, and a theoretical model explaining the origin and the strength of the chiral signal in electronic-resonance SFG spectroscopy is discussed. An interference scheme that allows us to distinguish enantiomers by measuring both the magnitude and the phase of the chiral SFG response is described, as well as a chiral SFG microscope producing chirality-sensitive images with sub-micron resolution. Exploiting atomic and molecular parity nonconservation, the SFG process is also used to solve the Ozma problems. Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy is used to obtain the adsorption behavior of leucine molecules at air-water interfaces. With poly(tetrafluoroethylene) as a model system, we extend the application of this surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy to fluorine-containing polymers.

  12. Nonlinear low frequency water waves in a cylindrical shell subjected to high frequency excitations - Part I: Experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dajun, Wang; Chunyan, Zhou; Li, Junbao; Shen, Song; Li, Min; Liu, Xijun

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on nonlinear low frequency gravity water waves in a partially filled cylindrical shell subjected to high frequency horizontal excitations. The characteristics of natural frequencies and mode shapes of the water-shell coupled system are discussed. The boundaries for onset of gravity waves are measured and plotted by curves of critical excitation force magnitude with respect to excitation frequency. For nonlinear water waves, the time history signals and their spectrums of motion on both water surface and shell are recorded. The shapes of water surface are also measured using scanning laser vibrometer. In particular, the phenomenon of transitions between different gravity wave patterns is observed and expressed by the waterfall graphs. These results exhibit pronounced nonlinear properties of shell-fluid coupled system.

  13. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopic studies on buried heterogeneous biointerfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Jasensky, Joshua; Leng, Chuan; Del Grosso, Chelsey; Smith, Gary D; Wilker, Jonathan J; Chen, Zhan

    2014-05-01

    A sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational micro-spectroscopy system was developed to examine buried heterogeneous biointerfaces. A compact optical microscope was constructed with total-internal reflection (TIR) SFG geometry to monitor the tightly focused SFG laser spots on interfaces, providing the capability of selectively probing different regions on heterogeneous biointerfaces. The TIR configuration ensures and enhances the SFG signal generated only from the sample/substrate interfacial area. As an example for possible applications in biointerfaces studies, the system was used to probe and compare buried interfacial structures of different biological samples attached to underwater surfaces. We studied the interface of a single mouse oocyte on a silica prism to demonstrate the feasibility of tracing and studying a single live cell and substrate interface using SFG. We also examined the interface between a marine mussel adhesive plaque and a CaF2 substrate, showing the removal of interface-bonded water molecules. This work also paves the way for future integration of other microscopic techniques such as TIR-fluorescence microscopy or nonlinear optical imaging with SFG spectroscopy for multimodal surface or interface studies. PMID:24784085

  14. Surface Sum Frequency Generation of III-V Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Kim, Jisun; Khoury, Rami; Plummer, E. W.; Haber, Louis

    2015-03-01

    Optical sum frequency generation (SFG) is a well-established technique for surface and interface studies but its use has been limited mainly to centrosymmetric materials so far. Here, we demonstrate that femtosecond broadband SFG spectroscopy has the ability to identify surface molecular vibrations on the archetypical non-centrosymmetric semiconductor GaAs (001), in which the bulk SFG signal typically dominates over surface SFG contributions. Azimuthal angle dependence of the second order SFG nonlinear response from GaAs (001) surface in the reflection geometry in vacuum for all eight polarization combinations are detected and analyzed. The results agree with and extend upon previous second harmonic generation (SHG) studies and phenomenological analysis. In addition, carbon monoxide and methanol are employed as molecular-markers on the GaAs (001) surfaces. The C-O stretching mode of carbon monoxide and the methyl group stretching modes of methanol are clearly observed even though the bulk contribution dominates the SFG signal. Coherent heterodyne interference is proposed as the mechanism for the surface signal enhancement. Two other zinc blende type III-V semiconductors, GaP and GaSb, are also studied and compared. Funded by EFRC.

  15. Near infrared frequency dependence of high-order sideband generation

    SciTech Connect

    Zaks, Benjamin; Banks, Hunter; Sherwin, Mark; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2013-12-04

    The near infrared frequency dependence of high order sideband generation in InGaAs quantum wells is discussed. The NIR frequency dependence of the sidebands indicates that the HSG phenomenon is excitonic in nature.

  16. Fully nonlinear modeling of radiated waves generated by floating flared structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin-Zhen; Ning, De-Zhi; Teng, Bin; Zhao, Ming

    2014-10-01

    The nonlinear radiated waves generated by a structure in forced motion, are simulated numerically based on the potential theory. A fully nonlinear numerical model is developed by using a higher-order boundary element method (HOBEM). In this model, the instantaneous body position and the transient free surface are updated at each time step. A Lagrangian technique is employed as the time marching scheme on the free surface. The mesh regridding and interpolation methods are adopted to deal with the possible numerical instability. Several auxiliary functions are proposed to calculate the wave loads indirectly, instead of directly predicting the temporal derivative of the velocity potential. Numerical experiments are carried out to simulate the heave motions of a submerged sphere in infinite water depth, the heave and pitch motions of a truncated flared cylinder in finite depth. The results are verified against the published numerical results to ensure the effectiveness of the proposed model. Moreover, a series of higher harmonic waves and force components are obtained by the Fourier transformation to investigate the nonlinear effect of oscillation frequency. The difference among fully nonlinear, body-nonlinear and linear results is analyzed. It is found that the nonlinearity due to free surface and body surface has significant influences on the numerical results of the radiated waves and forces.

  17. Enhancement of second-harmonic generation in nonlinear nanolaminate metamaterials by nanophotonic resonances.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hui-Hsin; Abass, Aimi; Fischer, Johannes; Alaee, Rasoul; Wickberg, Andreas; Wegener, Martin; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    Nanolaminate metamaterials recently attracted a lot of attention as a novel second-order nonlinear material that can be used in integrated photonic circuits. Here, we explore theoretically and numerically the opportunity to enhance the nonlinear response from such nanolaminates by exploiting Fano resonances supported in grating-coupled waveguides. The enhancement factor of the radiated second harmonic signal compared to a flat nanolaminate can reach values as large as 35 for gold gratings and even 7000 for MgF2 gratings. For the MgF2 grating, extremely high-Q Fano resonances are excited in such all-dielectric system that result in strong local fields in the nonlinear waveguide layer to boost the nonlinear conversion. A significant portion of the nonlinear signal is also strongly coupled to a dark waveguide mode, which remains guided in the nanolaminate. The strong excitation of a dark mode at the second harmonic frequency provides a viable method for utilizing second-order nonlinearities for light generation and manipulation in integrated photonic circuits. PMID:27137578

  18. Optical Frequency Comb Generation based on Erbium Fiber Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droste, Stefan; Ycas, Gabriel; Washburn, Brian R.; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R.

    2016-06-01

    Optical frequency combs have revolutionized optical frequency metrology and are being actively investigated in a number of applications outside of pure optical frequency metrology. For reasons of cost, robustness, performance, and flexibility, the erbium fiber laser frequency comb has emerged as the most commonly used frequency comb system and many different designs of erbium fiber frequency combs have been demonstrated. We review the different approaches taken in the design of erbium fiber frequency combs, including the major building blocks of the underlying mode-locked laser, amplifier, supercontinuum generation and actuators for stabilization of the frequency comb.

  19. Frequency-domain nonlinear optics in two-dimensionally patterned quasi-phase-matching media.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C R; Mayer, B W; Gallmann, L; Keller, U

    2016-07-11

    Advances in the amplification and manipulation of ultrashort laser pulses have led to revolutions in several areas. Examples include chirped pulse amplification for generating high peak-power lasers, power-scalable amplification techniques, pulse shaping via modulation of spatially-dispersed laser pulses, and efficient frequency-mixing in quasi-phase-matched nonlinear crystals to access new spectral regions. In this work, we introduce and demonstrate a new platform for nonlinear optics which has the potential to combine these separate functionalities (pulse amplification, frequency transfer, and pulse shaping) into a single monolithic device that is bandwidth- and power-scalable. The approach is based on two-dimensional (2D) patterning of quasi-phase-matching (QPM) gratings combined with optical parametric interactions involving spatially dispersed laser pulses. Our proof of principle experiment demonstrates this technique via mid-infrared optical parametric chirped pulse amplification of few-cycle pulses. Additionally, we present a detailed theoretical and numerical analysis of such 2D-QPM devices and how they can be designed. PMID:27410862

  20. Efficient optical frequency-comb generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, A. S.; McFarlane, G. M.; Riis, E.; Ferguson, A. I.

    1995-06-01

    We have demonstrated a method that efficiently transfers the power from a single-frequency laser into a wideband frequency comb. The comb was produced by a 2.7-GHz electro-optic modulator in a resonant optical cavity. A coupled cavity technique was used to transfer 8.5% of the laser power into a comb with a span of 400 modes, or more than 1 THz.

  1. Fluid nonlinear frequency shift of nonlinear ion acoustic waves in multi-ion species plasmas in the small wave number region.

    PubMed

    Feng, Q S; Xiao, C Z; Wang, Q; Zheng, C Y; Liu, Z J; Cao, L H; He, X T

    2016-08-01

    The properties of the nonlinear frequency shift (NFS), especially the fluid NFS from the harmonic generation of the ion-acoustic wave (IAW) in multi-ion species plasmas, have been researched by Vlasov simulation. Pictures of the nonlinear frequency shift from harmonic generation and particle trapping are shown to explain the mechanism of NFS qualitatively. The theoretical model of the fluid NFS from harmonic generation in multi-ion species plasmas is given, and the results of Vlasov simulation are consistent with the theoretical result of multi-ion species plasmas. When the wave number kλ_{De} is small, such as kλ_{De}=0.1, the fluid NFS dominates in the total NFS and will reach as large as nearly 15% when the wave amplitude |eϕ/T_{e}|∼0.1, which indicates that in the condition of small kλ_{De}, the fluid NFS dominates in the saturation of stimulated Brillouin scattering, especially when the nonlinear IAW amplitude is large. PMID:27627405

  2. Tailoring supercontinuum generation using highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. A.; Namihira, Y.; Islam, M. A.; Razzak, S. M. A.; Hirako, Y.; Miyagi, K.; Kaijage, S. F.; Higa, H.

    2012-09-01

    This paper discusses about the tailoring supercontinuum (SC) generation based on a highly nonlinear germanium (Ge) doped photonic crystal fiber (HNL-GePCF) with all normal group velocity dispersion (GVD). Using finite element method (FEM) with a circular perfectly matched boundary layer (PML), it is shown through simulations that how simply the center wavelength can be shifted from one center point to another after optimizing at a particular wavelength using the proposed HNL-GePCF. Moreover, SC spectra at 1.06, 1.31 and 1.55 μm have been generated using picosecond optical pulses produced from relatively less expensive laser sources.

  3. A nonlinear screen as an element for sound absorption and frequency conversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses a model for a screen with dissipative and nonlinear elastic properties that can be used in acoustic sound absorption and frequency conversion systems. Calculation and estimation schemes are explained that are necessary for understanding the functional capabilities of the device. Examples of the nonlinear elements in the screen and promising applications are described.

  4. Frequency domain analysis and synthesis of lumped parameter systems using nonlinear least squares techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, J. R.

    1969-01-01

    Lumped parametric system models are simplified and computationally advantageous in the frequency domain of linear systems. Nonlinear least squares computer program finds the least square best estimate for any number of parameters in an arbitrarily complicated model.

  5. Nonlinear low frequency (LF) waves - Comets and foreshock phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1991-01-01

    A review is conducted of LF wave nonlinear properties at comets and in the earth's foreshock, engaging such compelling questions as why there are no cometary cyclotron waves, the physical mechanism responsible for 'dispersive whiskers', and the character of a general description of linear waves. Attention is given to the nonlinear properties of LF waves, whose development is illustrated by examples of waves and their features at different distances from the comet, as well as by computer simulation results. Also discussed is a curious wave mode detected from Comet Giacobini-Zinner, both at and upstream of the bow shock/wave.

  6. Nonlinear properties of medial entorhinal cortex neurons reveal frequency selectivity during multi-sinusoidal stimulation.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Christophe; Economo, Michael N; White, John A; Moore, Lee E

    2014-01-01

    The neurons in layer II of the medial entorhinal cortex are part of the grid cell network involved in the representation of space. Many of these neurons are likely to be stellate cells with specific oscillatory and firing properties important for their function. A fundamental understanding of the nonlinear basis of these oscillatory properties is critical for the development of theories of grid cell firing. In order to evaluate the behavior of stellate neurons, measurements of their quadratic responses were used to estimate a second order Volterra kernel. This paper uses an operator theory, termed quadratic sinusoidal analysis (QSA), which quantitatively determines that the quadratic response accounts for a major part of the nonlinearity observed at membrane potential levels characteristic of normal synaptic events. Practically, neurons were probed with multi-sinusoidal stimulations to determine a Hermitian operator that captures the quadratic function in the frequency domain. We have shown that the frequency content of the stimulation plays an important role in the characteristics of the nonlinear response, which can distort the linear response as well. Stimulations with enhanced low frequency amplitudes evoked a different nonlinear response than broadband profiles. The nonlinear analysis was also applied to spike frequencies and it was shown that the nonlinear response of subthreshold membrane potential at resonance frequencies near the threshold is similar to the nonlinear response of spike trains. PMID:25191226

  7. Self-excited nonlinear plasma series resonance oscillations in geometrically symmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Donko, Z.; Schulze, J.; Czarnetzki, U.; Luggenhoelscher, D.

    2009-03-30

    At low pressures, nonlinear self-excited plasma series resonance (PSR) oscillations are known to drastically enhance electron heating in geometrically asymmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges by nonlinear electron resonance heating (NERH). Here we demonstrate via particle-in-cell simulations that high-frequency PSR oscillations can also be excited in geometrically symmetric discharges if the driving voltage waveform makes the discharge electrically asymmetric. This can be achieved by a dual-frequency (f+2f) excitation, when PSR oscillations and NERH are turned on and off depending on the electrical discharge asymmetry, controlled by the phase difference of the driving frequencies.

  8. Nonlinear low-frequency electrostatic wave dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2016-08-01

    The problem of two-dimensional arbitrary amplitude low-frequency electrostatic oscillation in a quasi-neutral quantum plasma is solved exactly by elementary means. In such quantum plasmas we have treated electrons quantum mechanically and ions classically. The exact analytical solution of the nonlinear system exhibits the formation of dark and black solitons. Numerical simulation also predicts the possible periodic solution of the nonlinear system. Nonlinear analysis reveals that the system does have a bifurcation at a critical Mach number that depends on the angle of propagation of the wave. The small-amplitude limit leads to the formation of weakly nonlinear Kadomstev-Petviashvili solitons.

  9. Nonlinear output properties of cantilever driving low frequency piezoelectric energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chundong; Ren, Bo; Liang, Zhu; Chen, Jianwei; Zhang, Haiwu; Yue, Qingwen; Xu, Qing; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu

    2012-11-01

    Cantilever driving low frequency piezoelectric energy harvester (CANDLE) has been found as a promising structure for vibration energy harvesting. This paper presents the nonlinear output properties of the CANDLE to optimize the performance of the device. Simulation results of the finite element method illustrate that nonlinear contacts between the cymbal transducers and the cantilever beam are main reasons of the nonlinear output. However, high excitation acceleration of the nonlinear leap point limits the application of the device. Based on the simulation results and theory analysis, the excitation acceleration is reduced to 30 m/s2 by increasing the proof mass.

  10. Sum frequency generation studies of membrane transport phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.B.; Shreve, A.P.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this work is to study the transport of protons and ions across biological membranes, one of the most fundamental processes in living organisms, critical for energy transduction in respiration and photosynthesis and for a wide variety of cellular signal transduction events. Membrane protein structure and function, in particular proton and ion pumping are poorly understood. The authors have developed sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy for the study of membrane phenomena, a nonlinear spectroscopic technique that is uniquely sensitive to interfaces and with demonstrated structural specificity. They have used SFG and conventional vibrational spectroscopic approaches to study proton transport processes in cytochrome c oxidase. A key finding has been the identification of vibrational modes associated with proton labile groups, including a glutamic acid near the redox active binuclear center and structural waters. These groups are sensitive to the ligation and redox states of the metal centers and hence are ideal candidates for coupling redox energy to proton transport processes.

  11. Sum frequency generation image reconstruction: aliphatic membrane under spherical cap geometry.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Victor

    2014-10-01

    The article explores an opportunity to approach structural properties of phospholipid membranes using Sum Frequency Generation microscopy. To establish the principles of sum frequency generation image reconstruction in such systems, at first approach, we may adopt an idealistic spherical cap uniform assembly of hydrocarbon molecules. Quantum mechanical studies for decanoic acid (used here as a representative molecular system) provide necessary information on transition dipole moments and Raman tensors of the normal modes specific to methyl terminal - a typical moiety in aliphatic (and phospholipid) membranes. Relative degree of localization and frequencies of the normal modes of methyl terminals make nonlinearities of this moiety to be promising in structural analysis using Sum Frequency Generation imaging. Accordingly, the article describes derivations of relevant macroscopic nonlinearities and suggests a mapping procedure to translate amplitudes of the nonlinearities onto microscopy image plane according to geometry of spherical assembly, local molecular orientation, and optical geometry. Reconstructed images indicate a possibility to extract local curvature of bilayer envelopes of spherical character. This may have practical implications for structural extractions in membrane systems of practical relevance. PMID:25296798

  12. Sum frequency generation image reconstruction: Aliphatic membrane under spherical cap geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, Victor

    2014-10-07

    The article explores an opportunity to approach structural properties of phospholipid membranes using Sum Frequency Generation microscopy. To establish the principles of sum frequency generation image reconstruction in such systems, at first approach, we may adopt an idealistic spherical cap uniform assembly of hydrocarbon molecules. Quantum mechanical studies for decanoic acid (used here as a representative molecular system) provide necessary information on transition dipole moments and Raman tensors of the normal modes specific to methyl terminal – a typical moiety in aliphatic (and phospholipid) membranes. Relative degree of localization and frequencies of the normal modes of methyl terminals make nonlinearities of this moiety to be promising in structural analysis using Sum Frequency Generation imaging. Accordingly, the article describes derivations of relevant macroscopic nonlinearities and suggests a mapping procedure to translate amplitudes of the nonlinearities onto microscopy image plane according to geometry of spherical assembly, local molecular orientation, and optical geometry. Reconstructed images indicate a possibility to extract local curvature of bilayer envelopes of spherical character. This may have practical implications for structural extractions in membrane systems of practical relevance.

  13. Nonlinear low-to-high-frequency energy cascades in diatomic granular crystals.

    PubMed

    Kim, E; Chaunsali, R; Xu, H; Jaworski, J; Yang, J; Kevrekidis, P G; Vakakis, A F

    2015-12-01

    We study wave propagation in strongly nonlinear one-dimensional diatomic granular crystals under an impact load. Depending on the mass ratio of the "light" to "heavy" beads, this system exhibits rich wave dynamics from highly localized traveling waves to highly dispersive waves featuring strong attenuation. We demonstrate experimentally the nonlinear resonant and antiresonant interactions of particles, and we verify that the nonlinear resonance results in strong wave attenuation, leading to highly efficient nonlinear energy cascading without relying on material damping. In this process, mechanical energy is transferred from low to high frequencies, while propagating waves emerge in both ordered and chaotic waveforms via a distinctive spatial cascading. This energy transfer mechanism from lower to higher frequencies and wave numbers is of particular significance toward the design of novel nonlinear acoustic metamaterials with inherently passive energy redistribution properties. PMID:26764676

  14. Photon wave function formalism for analysis of Mach-Zehnder interferometer and sum-frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritboon, Atirach; Daengngam, Chalongrat; Pengpan, Teparksorn

    2016-08-01

    Biakynicki-Birula introduced a photon wave function similar to the matter wave function that satisfies the Schrödinger equation. Its second quantization form can be applied to investigate nonlinear optics at nearly full quantum level. In this paper, we applied the photon wave function formalism to analyze both linear optical processes in the well-known Mach-Zehnder interferometer and nonlinear optical processes for sum-frequency generation in dispersive and lossless medium. Results by photon wave function formalism agree with the well-established Maxwell treatments and existing experimental verifications.

  15. Solid-State Radio Frequency Plasma Heating Using a Nonlinear Transmission Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kenneth; Ziemba, Timothy; Prager, James; Slobodov, Ilia

    2015-11-01

    Radio Frequency heating systems are rarely used by the small-scale validation platform experiments due to the high cost and complexity of these systems, which typically require high power gyrotrons or klystrons, associated power supplies, waveguides and vacuum systems. The cost and complexity of these systems can potentially be reduced with a nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) based system. In the past, NLTLs have lacked a high voltage driver that could produce long duration high voltage pulses with fast rise times at high pulse repetition frequency. Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc. (EHT) has created new high voltage nanosecond pulser, which combined with NLTL technology will produce a low-cost, fully solid-state architecture for the generation of the RF frequencies (0.5 to 10 GHz) and peak power levels (~ 10 MW) necessary for plasma heating and diagnostic systems for the validation platform experiments within the fusion science community. The proposed system does not require the use of vacuum tube technology, is inherently lower cost, and is more robust than traditional high power RF heating schemes. Design details and initial bench testing results for the new RF system will be presented. This work is supported under DOE Grant # DE-SC0013747.

  16. Frequency conversion of radiation of IR molecular gas lasers in nonlinear crystals (A review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionin, A. A.; Kinyaevskiy, I. O.; Klimachev, Yu. M.; Kotkov, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    The solution of problems related, e.g., to transport of laser radiation in the atmosphere requires availability of a broadband IR laser source operating in the transparency windows of the atmosphere. In this review, we present the results of an investigation of the properties of a hybrid laser system consisting of molecular gas pump lasers and a solid-state laser frequency converter based on nonlinear crystals. We demonstrate broadening and enrichment of spectrum of radiation of the pump laser by means of sum- and difference-frequency generation. In particular, by using a relatively simple laser system consisting of gas-discharge CO and CO2 lasers, radiation tunable over a large number of spectral lines in a broad range of wavelength from 2.5 to 16.6 µm (more than two and a half octaves), which includes two transparency windows of the atmosphere, is obtained. Thus, the possibility of exploring the IR spectral range by means of hybrid laser systems based on frequency conversion of radiation of molecular gas lasers is demonstrated.

  17. Boundedness of solutions for non-linear quasi-periodic differential equations with Liouvillean frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; You, Jiangong

    2016-07-01

    We study the boundedness of solutions for non-linear quasi-periodic differential equations with Liouvillean frequencies. We proved that if the forcing is quasi-periodic in time with two frequencies which is not super-Liouvillean, then all solutions of the equation are bounded. The proof is based on action-angle variables and modified KAM theory.

  18. Generation of multiple optical frequencies referenced to a frequency comb for precision free-space frequency transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Byung Jae; Kang, Hyun Jay; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2016-03-01

    Generating multiple optical frequencies referenced to the frequency standard is an important task in optical clock dissemination and optical communication. An apparatus for frequency-comb-referenced generation of multiple optical frequencies is demonstrated for high-precision free-space transfer of multiple optical frequencies. The relative linewidth and frequency instability at each channel corresponds to sub-1 Hz and 1.06×10-15 at 10 s averaging time, respectively. During the free-space transfer, the refractive index change of transmission media caused by atmospheric turbulences induces phase and frequency noise on optical frequencies. These phase and frequency noise causes induced linewidth broadening and frequency shift in optical frequencies which can disturb the accurate frequency transfer. The proposed feedback loop with acousto-optic modulator can monitor and compensate phase/frequency noise on optical frequencies. As a result, a frequency-comb-referenced single optical mode is compensated with a high signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 80 dB. By sharing the same optical paths, this feedback loop is confirmed to be successfully transferred to the neighboring wavelength channels (a 100 GHz spaced channel). This result confirms our proposed system can transfer optical frequencies to the remote site in free-space without performance degradation.

  19. Broadband frequency conversion and shaping of single photons emitted from a nonlinear cavity.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Murray W; Chang, Darrick E; Zhang, Yinan; Lukin, Mikhail D; Loncar, Marko

    2009-12-01

    Much recent effort has focused on coupling individual quantum emitters to optical microcavities in order to produce single photons on demand, enable single-photon optical switching, and implement functional nodes of a quantum network. Techniques to control the bandwidth and frequency of the outgoing single photons are of practical importance, allowing direct emission into telecommunications wavelengths and "hybrid" quantum networks incorporating different emitters. Here, we describe an integrated approach involving a quantum emitter coupled to a nonlinear optical resonator, in which the emission wavelength and pulse shape are controlled using the intra-cavity nonlinearity. Our scheme is general in nature, and demonstrates how the photonic environment of a quantum emitter can be tailored to determine the emission properties. As specific examples, we discuss a high Q-factor, TE-TM double-mode photonic crystal cavity design that allows for direct generation of single photons at telecom wavelengths (1425 nm) starting from an InAs/GaAs quantum dot with a 950 nm transition wavelength, and a scheme for direct optical coupling between such a quantum dot and a diamond nitrogen-vacancy center at 637 nm. PMID:20052195

  20. Frequency, pressure, and strain dependence of nonlinear elasticity in Berea Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, Jacques; Pimienta, Lucas; Scuderi, Marco; Candela, Thibault; Shokouhi, Parisa; Fortin, Jérôme; Schubnel, Alexandre; Marone, Chris; Johnson, Paul A.

    2016-04-01

    Acoustoelasticity measurements in a sample of room dry Berea sandstone are conducted at various loading frequencies to explore the transition between the quasi-static (f→0) and dynamic (few kilohertz) nonlinear elastic response. We carry out these measurements at multiple confining pressures and perform a multivariate regression analysis to quantify the dependence of the harmonic content on strain amplitude, frequency, and pressure. The modulus softening (equivalent to the harmonic at 0f) increases by a factor 2-3 over 3 orders of magnitude increase in frequency. Harmonics at 2f, 4f, and 6f exhibit similar behaviors. In contrast, the harmonic at 1f appears frequency independent. This result corroborates previous studies showing that the nonlinear elasticity of rocks can be described with a minimum of two physical mechanisms. This study provides quantitative data that describes the rate dependency of nonlinear elasticity. These findings can be used to improve theories relating the macroscopic elastic response to microstructural features.

  1. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency during anterior-posterior stretching. Method Three materially linear and three materially nonlinear models were created and stretched up to 10 mm in 1 mm increments. Phonation onset pressure (Pon) and fundamental frequency (F0) at Pon were recorded for each length. Measurements were repeated as the models were relaxed in 1 mm increments back to their resting lengths, and tensile tests were conducted to determine the stress-strain responses of linear versus nonlinear models. Results Nonlinear models demonstrated a more substantial frequency response than did linear models and a more predictable pattern of F0 increase with respect to increasing length (although range was inconsistent across models). Pon generally increased with increasing vocal fold length for nonlinear models, whereas for linear models, Pon decreased with increasing length. Conclusions Nonlinear synthetic models appear to more accurately represent the human vocal folds than linear models, especially with respect to F0 response. PMID:22271874

  2. Frequency-resolved optical-gating measurements of ultrashort pulses using surface third-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, T.; Krumbuegel, M.A.; DeLong, K.W.; Fittinghoff, D.N.; Trebino, R.

    1996-09-01

    We demonstrate what is to our knowledge the first frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) technique to measure ultrashort pulses from an unamplified Ti:sapphire laser oscillator without direction-of-time ambiguity. This technique utilizes surface third-harmonic generation as the nonlinear-optical effect and, surprisingly, is the most sensitive third-order FROG geometry yet. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  3. Nonlinear dynamic model of a solar stream generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A.

    1981-01-01

    A thermal-hydraulic model of a once-through subcritical steam generator has been developed for predicting dynamic characteristics of solar thermal power plants as well as for control system design. The purpose of the model is to evaluate the overall system performance and component interaction with sufficient accuracy for controller design, rather than to describe the microscopic details occurring within the steam generator. The three-section (compressed water, two-phase mixture, and superheated steam) model with time-varying phase boundaries is described by a set of nonlinear differential equations derived from conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Local stability of the model has been examined at different levels of insolation. Transient response of six plant variables due to independent step disturbances in three input variables are presented as typical results.

  4. Control-focused, nonlinear and time-varying modelling of dielectric elastomer actuators with frequency response analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, William R.; Wilson, Emma D.; Assaf, Tareq; Rossiter, Jonathan; Dodd, Tony J.; Porrill, John; Anderson, Sean R.

    2015-05-01

    Current models of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are mostly constrained to first principal descriptions that are not well suited to the application of control design due to their computational complexity. In this work we describe an integrated framework for the identification of control focused, data driven and time-varying DEA models that allow advanced analysis of nonlinear system dynamics in the frequency-domain. Experimentally generated input-output data (voltage-displacement) was used to identify control-focused, nonlinear and time-varying dynamic models of a set of film-type DEAs. The model description used was the nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input structure. Frequency response analysis of the DEA dynamics was performed using generalized frequency response functions, providing insight and a comparison into the time-varying dynamics across a set of DEA actuators. The results demonstrated that models identified within the presented framework provide a compact and accurate description of the system dynamics. The frequency response analysis revealed variation in the time-varying dynamic behaviour of DEAs fabricated to the same specifications. These results suggest that the modelling and analysis framework presented here is a potentially useful tool for future work in guiding DEA actuator design and fabrication for application domains such as soft robotics.

  5. Efficiency of non-linear frequency conversion of double-scale pico-femtosecond pulses of passively mode-locked fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Sergey V; Kobtsev, Sergey M; Kukarin, Sergey V

    2014-01-13

    For the first time we report the results of both numerical simulation and experimental observation of second-harmonic generation as an example of non-linear frequency conversion of pulses generated by passively mode-locked fiber master oscillator in different regimes including conventional (stable) and double-scale (partially coherent and noise-like) ones. We show that non-linear frequency conversion efficiency of double-scale pulses is slightly higher than that of conventional picosecond laser pulses with the same energy and duration despite strong phase fluctuations of double-scale pulses. PMID:24515065

  6. Tip-induced deformation of a phospholipid bilayer: theoretical perspective of sum frequency generation imaging.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Victor

    2014-10-21

    The paper addresses theory of Sum Frequency Generation imaging of an atomic force microscopy tip-induced deformation of a bilayer phospholipid membrane deposited over a pore: known as a nano-drum system. Image modeling employed nonlinearities of the normal modes specific to hydrocarbon terminal methyls, which are distributed about the deformed surfaces of inner and outer leaflets. The deformed profiles are according to the solutions of shape equation for Canham-Helfrich Hamiltonian accounting properties of four membranes, which differ in elasticity and adhesion. The results indicate that in continuous deformed surfaces, the difference in the curvature of the outer and inner leaflets dominates in the imaged nonlinearity. This is different comparing to the results for a perfect bilayer spherical cap system (the subject of previous study), where nonlinear image response is dominated by the mismatch of the inner and outer leaflets' surface areas (as projected to the image plane) at the edge of perfectly spherical structure. The results of theoretical studies, here, demonstrate that Sum Frequency Generation imaging in continuous and deformed bilayer surfaces are helpful to address curvature locally and anticipate mechanical properties of membrane. The articles discuss applicability and practical limitations of the approach. Combination of Atomic Force Microscopy and Sum Frequency Generation imaging under controlled tip-induced deformation provides a good opportunity to probe and test membranes physical properties with rigor of adopted theory. PMID:25338888

  7. Tip-induced deformation of a phospholipid bilayer: Theoretical perspective of sum frequency generation imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, Victor

    2014-10-21

    The paper addresses theory of Sum Frequency Generation imaging of an atomic force microscopy tip-induced deformation of a bilayer phospholipid membrane deposited over a pore: known as a nano-drum system. Image modeling employed nonlinearities of the normal modes specific to hydrocarbon terminal methyls, which are distributed about the deformed surfaces of inner and outer leaflets. The deformed profiles are according to the solutions of shape equation for Canham-Helfrich Hamiltonian accounting properties of four membranes, which differ in elasticity and adhesion. The results indicate that in continuous deformed surfaces, the difference in the curvature of the outer and inner leaflets dominates in the imaged nonlinearity. This is different comparing to the results for a perfect bilayer spherical cap system (the subject of previous study), where nonlinear image response is dominated by the mismatch of the inner and outer leaflets’ surface areas (as projected to the image plane) at the edge of perfectly spherical structure. The results of theoretical studies, here, demonstrate that Sum Frequency Generation imaging in continuous and deformed bilayer surfaces are helpful to address curvature locally and anticipate mechanical properties of membrane. The articles discuss applicability and practical limitations of the approach. Combination of Atomic Force Microscopy and Sum Frequency Generation imaging under controlled tip-induced deformation provides a good opportunity to probe and test membranes physical properties with rigor of adopted theory.

  8. Nonlinear Pressure Shifts of ^133Cs Hyperfine Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Fei; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Happer, William

    2008-05-01

    The hyperfine (microwave) magnetic-resonance frequencies of optically pumped alkali-metal atoms in buffer-gas have long been used in compact, portable frequency standards. Van der Waals molecules, consisting of an alkali-metal atom loosely bound to a buffer gas atom, can form in such vapor cells. The molecules strongly affect the spin relaxation of alkali metal atoms in Ar, Kr and Xe gases at pressures of a few Torr, where the collisionally limited lifetime of the molecules is comparable to the characteristic period of the spin-rotation interaction between the rotational angular momentum N of the molecule and the electron spin S of the alkali-metal atom. The hyperfine-shift interaction, the modification a nearby buffer-gas atom makes to the Fermi contact interaction between S and the nuclear spin I of the alkali atom, can contribute to the width of the microwave resonance line, and it is responsible for the pressure shifts of the hyperfine resonance frequencies that are so important for clocks. Major improvements have been done to the apparatus and the process of data taking since last time. The experimental results show that Van der Waals molecules also modify the effects of the hyperfine-shift interaction. For Ar or Kr pressures of a few tens of Torr or less, the shift of the microwave resonance frequency of Cs is not linear in the buffer gas pressure.

  9. Nonlinear Pressure Shifts of ^133Cs Hyperfine Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Fei; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Happer, William

    2007-06-01

    The hyperfine (microwave) magnetic-resonance frequencies of optically pumped alkali-metal atoms in buffer-gas have long been used in compact, portable frequency standards. The buffer gas is needed to slow down the diffusion of optically pumped atoms to the cell walls, and to eliminate Doppler broadening of the microwave resonances. Van der Waals molecules, consisting of an alkali-metal atom loosely bound to a buffer gas atom, can form in such vapor cells. The molecules strongly affect the spin relaxation of alkali metal atoms in Ar, Kr and Xe gases at pressures of a few Torr. The hyperfine-shift interaction, δAI.S, the modification a nearby buffer-gas atom makes to the Fermi contact interaction between S and the nuclear spin I of the alkali atom, can contribute to the width of the microwave resonance line, and it is responsible for the pressure shifts of the hyperfine resonance frequencies that are so important for clocks. Our experiments show that Van der Waals molecules also modify the effects of the hyperfine-shift interaction δAI.S. For Ar pressures of a few tens of Torr or less, the shift of the microwave resonance frequency of ^133Cs in Ar buffer gas is not linear in the buffer gas pressure. This occurs because the contribution to the pressure shift from molecules is suppressed when τδA I > h.

  10. Hybrid highly nonlinear fiber for spectral supercontinuum generation in mobile femtosecond clockwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korel, I. I.; Nyushkov, B. N.; Denisov, V. I.; Pivtsov, V. S.; Koliada, N. A.; Sysoliatin, A. A.; Ignatovich, S. M.; Kvashnin, N. L.; Skvortsov, M. N.; Bagayev, S. N.

    2014-07-01

    We have proposed and tested a novel design of a short-length dispersion-managed hybrid highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), which is intended for low-noise spectral supercontinuum generation with controlled intensity distribution over the range 1-2 µm. It is shown experimentally that such a HNLF facilitates development of a mobile femtosecond optical clockwork, which is based on a fiber-optic femtosecond laser system and an original fiber-coupled Nd : YAG/I2 optical frequency standard with a long-term instability lowered to 3 × 10-15.

  11. Inverse spin-Hall effect voltage generation by nonlinear spin-wave excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiler, Laura; Sentker, Kathrin; Brinker, Manuel; Kuhlmann, Nils; Stein, Falk-Ulrich; Meier, Guido

    2016-02-01

    We investigate spin currents in microstructured permalloy/platinum bilayers that are excited via magnetic high-frequency fields. Due to this excitation spin pumping occurs at the permalloy/platinum interface and a spin current is injected into the platinum layer. The spin current is detected as a voltage via the inverse spin-Hall effect. We find two regimes reflected by a nonlinear, abrupt voltage surge, which is reproducibly observed at distinct excitation field strengths. Micromagnetic simulations suggest that the surge is caused by excitation of a spin-wave-like mode. The comparatively large voltages reveal a highly efficient spin-current generation method in a mesoscopic spintronic device.

  12. Non-linear generation of acoustic noise in the IAR spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westley, R.; Nguyen, K.; Westley, M. S.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement to produce high level acoustic noise fields with increasing accuracy in environmental test facilities dictates that a more precise understanding is required of the factors controlling nonlinear noise generation. Details are given of various nonlinear effects found in acoustic performance data taken from the IAR Spacecraft Acoustic Chamber. This type of data has enabled the IAR to test large spacecraft to relatively tight acoustic tolerances over a wide frequency range using manually set controls. An analog random noise automatic control system was available and modified to provide automatic selection of the chamber's spectral sound pressure levels. The automatic control system when used to complete a typical qualification test appeared to equal the accuracy of the manual system and had the added advantage that parallel spectra could be easily achieved during preset tests.

  13. Quasi-phase-matched concurrent nonlinearities in periodically poled KTiOPO(4) for quantum computing over the optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Pysher, Matthew; Bahabad, Alon; Peng, Peng; Arie, Ady; Pfister, Olivier

    2010-02-15

    We report the successful design and experimental implementation of three coincident nonlinear interactions, namely ZZZ (type 0), ZYY (type I), and YYZ/YZY (type II) second-harmonic generation of 780 nm light from a 1560 nm pump beam in a single, multigrating, periodically poled KTiOPO(4) crystal. The resulting nonlinear medium is the key component for making a scalable quantum computer over the optical frequency comb of a single optical parametric oscillator. PMID:20160819

  14. Uniqueness: skews bit occurrence frequencies in randomly generated fingerprint libraries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nelson G

    2016-08-01

    Requiring that randomly generated chemical fingerprint libraries have unique fingerprints such that no two fingerprints are identical causes a systematic skew in bit occurrence frequencies, the proportion at which specified bits are set. Observed frequencies (O) at which each bit is set within the resulting libraries systematically differ from frequencies at which bits are set at fingerprint generation (E). Observed frequencies systematically skew toward 0.5, with the effect being more pronounced as library size approaches the compound space, which is the total number of unique possible fingerprints given the number of bit positions each fingerprint contains. The effect is quantified for varying library sizes as a fraction of the overall compound space, and for changes in the specified frequency E. The cause and implications for this systematic skew are subsequently discussed. When generating random libraries of chemical fingerprints, the imposition of a uniqueness requirement should either be avoided or taken into account. PMID:27230477

  15. Thrust generation by a heaving flexible foil: Resonance, nonlinearities, and optimality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraz, Florine; Schouveiler, Lionel; Eloy, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility of marine animal fins has been thought to enhance swimming performance. However, despite numerous experimental and numerical studies on flapping flexible foils, there is still no clear understanding of the effect of flexibility and flapping amplitude on thrust generation and swimming efficiency. Here, to address this question, we combine experiments on a model system and a weakly nonlinear analysis. Experiments consist in immersing a flexible rectangular plate in a uniform flow and forcing this plate into a heaving motion at its leading edge. A complementary theoretical model is developed assuming a two-dimensional inviscid problem. In this model, nonlinear effects are taken into account by considering a transverse resistive drag. Under these hypotheses, a modal decomposition of the system motion allows us to predict the plate response amplitude and the generated thrust, as a function of the forcing amplitude and frequency. We show that this model can correctly predict the experimental data on plate kinematic response and thrust generation, as well as other data found in the literature. We also discuss the question of efficiency in the context of bio-inspired propulsion. Using the proposed model, we show that the optimal propeller for a given thrust and a given swimming speed is achieved when the actuating frequency is tuned to a resonance of the system, and when the optimal forcing amplitude scales as the square root of the required thrust.

  16. Spatial Frequency Clustering in Nonlinear Dust-Density Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, K. O.; Arp, O.; Piel, A.

    2010-06-11

    Self-excited density waves were studied in a strongly coupled dusty plasma of a radio-frequency discharge under microgravity conditions. The spatiotemporal evolution of the complicated three-dimensional wave field was investigated and analyzed for two different situations. The reconstructed instantaneous phase information of the wave field revealed a partial synchronization within multiple distinct domains. The boundaries of these regions coincide with the locations of topological defects.

  17. Theoretical investigation of nonlinear damping and nonlinear phase shift of spin-electromagnetic waves propagating in infinite multiferroics at sub-terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinova, I. A.; Cherkasskii, M. A.; Ustinov, A. B.; Kalinikos, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    The nonlinear phase shift and nonlinear damping of spin-electromagnetic waves were theoretically studied for the first time in sub-terahertz frequency range in infinite homogeneous longitudinal magnetized multiferroics. The research was based on the solution of the Ginzburg-Landau equation. It is shown that the saturation of the phase shift occurs due to the nonlinear damping if the nonlinear damping coefficients exceed v1=108 s-1 and v2=109 s-1.

  18. Frequency-resolved optical grating using third-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, T.; Krumbuegel, M.A.; Delong, K.W.

    1995-12-01

    We demonstrate the first frequency-resolved optical gating measurement of an laser oscillator without the time ambiguity using third-harmonic generation. The experiment agrees well with the phase-retrieved spectrograms.

  19. 14. Control Area, Interconnecting Corridor and Frequency Changer and Generator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Control Area, Interconnecting Corridor and Frequency Changer and Generator Building, general view VIEW SOUTHWEST, NORTH ELEVATION - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  20. 17. Control Area, Frequency Changer and Generator Building VIEW NORTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Control Area, Frequency Changer and Generator Building VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATION - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  1. 18. Control Area, Frequency Changer and Generator Building, interior view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Control Area, Frequency Changer and Generator Building, interior view of remaining control panels VIEW WEST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  2. A low frequency nonlinear energy harvester with large bandwidth utilizing magnet levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ye; Cai, C. S.; Kong, Bo

    2015-04-01

    The application of vibration based energy harvesting in civil infrastructures usually has to resolve two major problems, namely, the low excitation frequency and large frequency range. To this end, a nonlinear energy harvester utilizing magnet levitation is proposed in this study. The proposed harvester can convert low frequency excitations into high frequency ones in its four doubly clamped piezoelectric beams through multi-impact. A large bandwidth is expected due to the stiffness nonlinearity introduced by using magnet levitation. A theoretical model is first developed for the harvester. Then, sinusoidal vibrations and simulated bridge vibrations are used as the external excitations to verify the performance of the harvester. The simulation results show an improved robustness of the harvester under low frequency vibrations, which indicates the proposed harvester is an ideal device for energy harvesting in civil infrastructures.

  3. Frequency dependence of optical third-harmonic generation from doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulis, Vl. A.; Muryumin, E. E.; Gaiduk, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    In connection with the controversial question about the frequency dependence of the optical third-harmonic generation (THG) from doped graphene, which has recently been discussed in the literature, we develop an analytical theory for the THG susceptibility of doped graphene by using the original Genkin-Mednis nonlinear-conductivity-theory formalism including mixed intra- and interband terms. The theory is free of any nonphysical divergences at zero frequency, and it predicts the main resonant peak in the THG spectrum to be located at the photon energy ħω equal to two thirds of the Fermi energy EF of charge carriers in doped graphene.

  4. Theory of sum frequency generation from metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebsch, A.

    The time-dependent density functional approach is used to evaluate the optical sum frequency generation from metal surfaces. Attention is focussed on the magnitude and frequency variation of the element χzzz(ω1,ω2). Four types of metal surfaces are considered: simple metals, alkali metal overlayers, noble metals, and charged metal surfaces. Differences and similarities with respect to second harmonic generation from these surfaces are pointed out.

  5. Frequency stabilization in nonlinear MEMS and NEMS oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Omar Daniel; Antonio, Dario

    2014-09-16

    An illustrative system includes an amplifier operably connected to a phase shifter. The amplifier is configured to amplify a voltage from an oscillator. The phase shifter is operably connected to a driving amplitude control, wherein the phase shifter is configured to phase shift the amplified voltage and is configured to set an amplitude of the phase shifted voltage. The oscillator is operably connected to the driving amplitude control. The phase shifted voltage drives the oscillator. The oscillator is at an internal resonance condition, based at least on the amplitude of the phase shifted voltage, that stabilizes frequency oscillations in the oscillator.

  6. Experimental observation of the generation of cutoff solitons in a discrete LC nonlinear electrical line.

    PubMed

    Koon, K Tse Ve; Marquié, P; Dinda, P Tchofo

    2014-11-01

    We address the problem of supratransmission of waves in a discrete nonlinear system, driven at one end by a periodic excitation at a frequency lying above the phonon band edge. In an experimental electrical transmission line made of 200 inductance-capacitance LC cells, we establish the existence of a voltage threshold for a supratransmission enabling the generation and propagation of cut-off solitons within the line. The decisive role of modulational instability in the onset and development of the process of generation of cut-off solitons is clearly highlighted. The phenomenon of dissipation is identified as being particularly harmful for the soliton generation, but we show that its impact can be managed by a proper choice of the amplitude of the voltage excitation of the system. PMID:25493852

  7. Experimental observation of the generation of cutoff solitons in a discrete L C nonlinear electrical line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, K. Tse Ve; Marquié, P.; Dinda, P. Tchofo

    2014-11-01

    We address the problem of supratransmission of waves in a discrete nonlinear system, driven at one end by a periodic excitation at a frequency lying above the phonon band edge. In an experimental electrical transmission line made of 200 inductance-capacitance LC cells, we establish the existence of a voltage threshold for a supratransmission enabling the generation and propagation of cut-off solitons within the line. The decisive role of modulational instability in the onset and development of the process of generation of cut-off solitons is clearly highlighted. The phenomenon of dissipation is identified as being particularly harmful for the soliton generation, but we show that its impact can be managed by a proper choice of the amplitude of the voltage excitation of the system.

  8. Generation of optical frequency combs via four-wave mixing processes for low- and medium-resolution astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajnulina, M.; Boggio, J. M. Chavez; Böhm, M.; Rieznik, A. A.; Fremberg, T.; Haynes, R.; Roth, M. M.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the generation of optical frequency combs through a cascade of four-wave mixing processes in nonlinear fibres with optimised parameters. The initial optical field consists of two continuous-wave lasers with frequency separation larger than 40 GHz (312.7 pm at 1531 nm). It propagates through three nonlinear fibres. The first fibre serves to pulse shape the initial sinusoidal-square pulse, while a strong pulse compression down to sub-100 fs takes place in the second fibre which is an amplifying erbium-doped fibre. The last stage is a low-dispersion highly nonlinear fibre where the frequency comb bandwidth is increased and the line intensity is equalised. We model this system using the generalised nonlinear Schrödinger equation and investigate it in terms of fibre lengths, fibre dispersion, laser frequency separation and input powers with the aim to minimise the frequency comb noise. With the support of the numerical results, a frequency comb is experimentally generated, first in the near infra-red and then it is frequency-doubled into the visible spectral range. Using a MUSE-type spectrograph, we evaluate the comb performance for astronomical wavelength calibration in terms of equidistancy of the comb lines and their stability.

  9. Sustained high-frequency energy harvesting through a strongly nonlinear electromechanical system under single and repeated impulsive excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remick, Kevin; Joo, Han Kyul; McFarland, D. Michael; Sapsis, Themistoklis P.; Bergman, Lawrence; Quinn, D. Dane; Vakakis, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    This work investigates a vibration-based energy harvesting system composed of two oscillators coupled with essential (nonlinearizable) stiffness nonlinearity and subject to impulsive loading of the mechanical component. The oscillators in the system consist of one grounded, weakly damped linear oscillator mass (primary system), which is coupled to a second light-weight, weakly damped oscillating mass attachment (the harvesting element) through a piezoelastic cable. Due to geometric/kinematic mechanical effects the piezoelastic cable generates a nonlinearizable cubic stiffness nonlinearity, whereas electromechanical coupling simply sees a resistive load. Under single and repeated impulsive inputs the transient damped dynamics of this system exhibit transient resonance captures (TRCs) causing high-frequency 'bursts' or instabilities in the response of the harvesting element. In turn, these high-frequency dynamic instabilities result in strong and sustained energy transfers from the directly excited primary system to the lightweight harvester, which, through the piezoelastic element, are harvested by the electrical component of the system or, in the present case, dissipated across a resistive element in the circuit. The primary goal of this work is to demonstrate the efficacy of employing this type of high-frequency dynamic instability to achieve enhanced nonlinear vibration energy harvesting under impulsive excitations.

  10. Prediction of municipal solid waste generation using nonlinear autoregressive network.

    PubMed

    Younes, Mohammad K; Nopiah, Z M; Basri, N E Ahmad; Basri, H; Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Maulud, K N A

    2015-12-01

    Most of the developing countries have solid waste management problems. Solid waste strategic planning requires accurate prediction of the quality and quantity of the generated waste. In developing countries, such as Malaysia, the solid waste generation rate is increasing rapidly, due to population growth and new consumption trends that characterize society. This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN) approach using feedforward nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX) to predict annual solid waste generation in relation to demographic and economic variables like population number, gross domestic product, electricity demand per capita and employment and unemployment numbers. In addition, variable selection procedures are also developed to select a significant explanatory variable. The model evaluation was performed using coefficient of determination (R(2)) and mean square error (MSE). The optimum model that produced the lowest testing MSE (2.46) and the highest R(2) (0.97) had three inputs (gross domestic product, population and employment), eight neurons and one lag in the hidden layer, and used Fletcher-Powell's conjugate gradient as the training algorithm. PMID:26573690

  11. An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuyken, Bart; Ideguchi, Takuro; Holzner, Simon; Yan, Ming; Hänsch, Theodor W.; van Campenhout, Joris; Verheyen, Peter; Coen, Stéphane; Leo, Francois; Baets, Roel; Roelkens, Gunther; Picqué, Nathalie

    2015-02-01

    Laser frequency combs, sources with a spectrum consisting of hundred thousands evenly spaced narrow lines, have an exhilarating potential for new approaches to molecular spectroscopy and sensing in the mid-infrared region. The generation of such broadband coherent sources is presently under active exploration. Technical challenges have slowed down such developments. Identifying a versatile highly nonlinear medium for significantly broadening a mid-infrared comb spectrum remains challenging. Here we take a different approach to spectral broadening of mid-infrared frequency combs and investigate CMOS-compatible highly nonlinear dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic waveguides on a silicon-on-insulator chip. We record octave-spanning (1,500-3,300 nm) spectra with a coupled input pulse energy as low as 16 pJ. We demonstrate phase-coherent comb spectra broadened on a room-temperature-operating CMOS-compatible chip.

  12. An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Kuyken, Bart; Ideguchi, Takuro; Holzner, Simon; Yan, Ming; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Van Campenhout, Joris; Verheyen, Peter; Coen, Stéphane; Leo, Francois; Baets, Roel; Roelkens, Gunther; Picqué, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Laser frequency combs, sources with a spectrum consisting of hundred thousands evenly spaced narrow lines, have an exhilarating potential for new approaches to molecular spectroscopy and sensing in the mid-infrared region. The generation of such broadband coherent sources is presently under active exploration. Technical challenges have slowed down such developments. Identifying a versatile highly nonlinear medium for significantly broadening a mid-infrared comb spectrum remains challenging. Here we take a different approach to spectral broadening of mid-infrared frequency combs and investigate CMOS-compatible highly nonlinear dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic waveguides on a silicon-on-insulator chip. We record octave-spanning (1,500–3,300 nm) spectra with a coupled input pulse energy as low as 16 pJ. We demonstrate phase-coherent comb spectra broadened on a room-temperature-operating CMOS-compatible chip. PMID:25697764

  13. PLL swept frequency generator with programmable sweep rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E. B.; Fogleboch, J. R., Sr.

    1985-10-01

    This document discusses a phase-locked voltage controlled oscillator for generating frequency modulated waveforms having a programmable digital RF phase shifter to determine the phase difference between the output signal and a phase corrected reference signal to thereby generate the desired output waveform.

  14. Sum-frequency generation from photon number squeezed light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Ling-An; Du, Cong-Shi; Wu, Mei-Juan; Li, Shi-Qun

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the quantum fluctuations of the fields produced in sum-frequency (SF) generation from light initially in the photon number squeezed state. It is found that, to the fourth power term, the output SF light is sub-Poissonian whereas the quantum fluctuations of the input beams increase. Quantum anticorrelation also exists in SF generation.

  15. Efficient phase-matching for difference frequency generation with pump of Bessel laser beams.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengxiang; Shi, Wei; Xu, Degang; Zhang, Xinzheng; Zhang, Guizhong; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-01-25

    A type of phase matching for difference frequency generation with Bessel-type pump beams is proposed. In this geometry, the phase matching is achieved in a cone around the laser path by properly controlling the beam profile. An experimental case that 1.5THz generation with ~2μm lasers pumped bulk GaAs crystal is considered. Calculations of the energy conversion characteristics are performed based on a semi-analytical model. The results indicate that this configuration could relax the phase matching condition in a wide range of nonlinear crystals and pump wavelengths. PMID:26832473

  16. Spurious cross-frequency amplitude-amplitude coupling in nonstationary, nonlinear signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Lo, Men-Tzung; Hu, Kun

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies of brain activities show that cross-frequency coupling (CFC) plays an important role in memory and learning. Many measures have been proposed to investigate the CFC phenomenon, including the correlation between the amplitude envelopes of two brain waves at different frequencies - cross-frequency amplitude-amplitude coupling (AAC). In this short communication, we describe how nonstationary, nonlinear oscillatory signals may produce spurious cross-frequency AAC. Utilizing the empirical mode decomposition, we also propose a new method for assessment of AAC that can potentially reduce the effects of nonlinearity and nonstationarity and, thus, help to avoid the detection of artificial AACs. We compare the performances of this new method and the traditional Fourier-based AAC method. We also discuss the strategies to identify potential spurious AACs.

  17. Hydrodynamic model for sum and difference frequency generation at metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytorena, Jesús A.; Mochán, W. Luis; Mendoza, Bernardo S.

    1998-01-01

    We develop a hydrodynamic model for the calculation of sum and difference frequency generation (SFG/DFG) at the surface of nonlocal conductors with arbitrary equilibrium electronic density profiles n0. We apply our model to simple profiles and calculate the nonlinear surface susceptibility tensor χszzz(ω1,ω2) and the radiated efficiency R(ω3=ω1+/-ω2) as a function of the pump frequencies ω1 and ω2. R is strongly enhanced due to the excitation of the dipolar surface plasmon characterized by a resonant frequency ωd it displays ridges whenever ω1, ω2, or ω3~ωd, an additional ridge at the bulk plasma frequency ω3~ωb, and very large double resonance peaks whenever two ridges cross each other. These results suggest that SFG/DFG spectroscopy might be a useful probe of surface collective modes.

  18. Enhanced optical nonlinearity and fiber-optical frequency comb controlled by a single atom in a whispering-gallery-mode microtoroid resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiahua; Zhang, Suzhen; Yu, Rong; Zhang, Duo; Wu, Ying

    2014-11-01

    Based on a single atom coupled to a fiber-coupled, chip-based microresonator [B. Dayan et al., Science 319, 1062 (2008), 10.1126/science.1152261], we put forward a scheme to generate optical frequency combs at driving laser powers as low as a few nanowatts. Using state-of-the-art experimental parameters, we investigate in detail the influences of different atomic positions and taper-resonator coupling regimes on optical-frequency-comb generation. In addition to numerical simulations demonstrating this effect, a physical explanation of the underlying mechanism is presented. We find that the combination of the atom and the resonator can induce a large third-order nonlinearity which is significantly stronger than Kerr nonlinearity in Kerr frequency combs. Such enhanced nonlinearity can be used to generate optical frequency combs if driven with two continuous-wave control and probe lasers and significantly reduce the threshold of nonlinear optical processes. The comb spacing can be well tuned by changing the frequency beating between the driving control and probe lasers. The proposed method is versatile and can be adopted to different types of resonators, such as microdisks, microspheres, microtoroids or microrings.

  19. Quasi-periodic solutions of nonlinear beam equation with prescribed frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jing; Gao, Yixian; Li, Yong

    2015-05-01

    Consider the one dimensional nonlinear beam equation utt + uxxxx + mu + u3 = 0 under Dirichlet boundary conditions. We show that for any m > 0 but a set of small Lebesgue measure, the above equation admits a family of small-amplitude quasi-periodic solutions with n-dimensional Diophantine frequencies. These Diophantine frequencies are the small dilation of a prescribed Diophantine vector. The proofs are based on an infinite dimensional Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser iteration procedure and a partial Birkhoff normal form.

  20. Electron–phonon metamaterial featuring nonlinear tri-interleaved piezoelectric topologies and its application in low-frequency vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Bin; Guyomar, Daniel; Lallart, Mickaël

    2016-09-01

    This article proposes a nonlinear tri-interleaved piezoelectric topology based on the synchronized switch damping on inductor (SSDI) technique, which can be applied to phononic metamaterials for elastic wave control and effective low-frequency vibration reduction. A comparison of the attenuation performance is made between piezoelectric phononic metamaterial with distributed SSDI topology (each SSDI shunt being independently connected to a single piezoelectric element) and piezoelectric phononic metamaterial with the proposed electronic topology. Theoretical results show excellent band gap hybridization (near-coupling between Bragg scattering mechanism and wideband resonance mechanism induced by synchronized switch damping networks in piezoelectric phononic metamaterials) with the proposed electronic topology over the investigated frequency domain. Furthermore, piezoelectric phononic metamaterials with proposed electronic topology generated a better low-frequency broadband gap, which is experimentally validated by measuring the harmonic response of a piezoelectric phononic metamaterial beam under clamped–clamped boundary conditions.

  1. Nonlinear-optical frequency-doubling metareflector: pulsed regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A. K.; Myslivets, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    The properties of backward-wave second-harmonic metareflector operating in pulse regime are investigated. It is made of metamaterial which enables phase matching of contra-propagating fundamental and second-harmonic waves. References are given to the works that prove such a possibility. Physical principles underlying differences in the proposed and standard settings as well as between continuous-wave and pulsed regimes are discussed. Pulsed regime is more practicable and has a broader scope of applications. A set of partial differential equations which describe such a reflector with the account for losses are solved numerically. It is shown that unlike second-harmonic generation in standard settings, contra-propagating pulse of second harmonic may become much longer than the incident fundamental one and the difference grows with decrease in the input pulse length as compared to thickness of the metaslab. The revealed properties are important for applications and may manifest themselves beyond the optical wavelength range.

  2. Recent development of nonlinear optical borate crystals for UV generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Y.; Yap, Y. K.; Kamimura, T.; Yoshimura, M.; Sasaki, T.

    2002-02-01

    Recent development of high-power solid-state UV radiation by nonlinear optical (NLO) borate crystals is reviewed. The performance of such UV light sources has rapidly improved in the past five years because of the superior NLO properties of CsLiB 6O 10 (CLBO) crystals. The performance of such UV light sources also depends on the reliability of the NLO crystals. The relation between the bulk laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT), dislocation density and UV absorption of CsLiB 6O 10 (CLBO) was investigated. A newly developed synthesis process allows the growth of CLBO crystals with LIDT 2.5-fold higher than those grown by the conventional top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) technique. High-quality CLBO possesses lower dislocation density and smaller absorption of UV light ( λ=266 nm) than conventional CLBO. Reduction of the dislocation density can suppress absorption of UV light that helps to enhance the resistance of CLBO to laser-induced damages, to alleviate thermal dephasing during high-power generation of UV light and thus strengthen the reliability of CLBO for UV light generation.

  3. Instantaneous stepped-frequency, non-linear radar part 2: experimental confirmation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranney, Kenneth; Mazzaro, Gregory; Gallagher, Kyle; Martone, Anthony; Sherbondy, Kelly; Narayanan, Ram

    2016-05-01

    Last year, we presented the theory behind "instantaneous stepped-frequency, non-linear radar". We demonstrated through simulation that certain devices (when interrogated by a multi-tone transmit signal) could be expected to produce a multi-tone output signal near harmonics of the transmitted tones. This hypothesized non-linear (multitone) response was then shown to be suitable for pulse compression via standard stepped-frequency processing techniques. At that time, however, we did not have measured data to support the theoretical and simulated results. We now present laboratory measurements confirming our initial hypotheses. We begin with a brief description of the experimental system, and then describe the data collection exercise. Finally, we present measured data demonstrating the accurate ranging of a non-linear target.

  4. High frequency analysis of a plate carrying a concentrated nonlinear spring-mass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culver, Dean; Dowell, Earl

    2016-09-01

    Examining the behavior of dynamical systems with many degrees of freedom undergoing random excitation at high frequency often requires substantial computation. These requirements are even more stringent for nonlinear systems. One approach for describing linear systems, Asymptotic Modal Analysis (AMA), has been extended to nonlinear systems in this paper. A prototypical system, namely a thin plate carrying a concentrated hardening cubic spring-mass, is explored. The study focuses on the response of three principal variables to random, frequency-bounded excitation: the displacement of the mounting location of the discrete spring-mass, the relative displacement of the discrete mass to this mounting location, and the absolute displacement of the discrete mass. The results indicate that extending AMA to nonlinear systems for input frequency bands containing a large number of modes is feasible. Several advantageous properties of nonlinear AMA are found, and an additional reduced frequency-domain modal method, Dominance-Reduced Classical Modal Analysis (DRCMA), is proposed that is intermediate in accuracy and the cost of computation between AMA and Classical Modal Analysis (CMA).

  5. Generation of sheet currents by high frequency fast MHD waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of fast magnetosonic waves of high frequency propagating into an axisymmetric equilibrium plasma is studied. By using the methods of weakly nonlinear geometrical optics, it is shown that the perturbation travels in the equatorial plane while satisfying a transport equation which enables us to predict the time and location of formation of shock waves. For plasmas of large magnetic Prandtl number, this would result into the creation of sheet currents which may give rise to magnetic reconnection and destruction of the original equilibrium.

  6. High-Efficiency Broadband High-Harmonic Generation from a Single Quasi-Phase-Matching Nonlinear Crystal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bao-Qin; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Chen-Yang; Liu, Rong-Juan; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2015-08-21

    Nonlinear frequency conversion offers an effective way to expand the laser wavelength range based on birefringence phase matching (BPM) or quasi-phase-matching (QPM) techniques in nonlinear crystals. So far, efficient high-harmonic generation is enabled only via multiple cascaded crystals because of the extreme difficulty to simultaneously satisfy BPM or QPM for multiple nonlinear up-conversion processes within a single crystal. Here we report the design and fabrication of a chirped periodic poled lithium niobate (CPPLN) nonlinear crystal that offers controllable multiple QPM bands to support 2nd-8th harmonic generation (HG) simultaneously. Upon illumination of a mid-IR femtosecond pulse laser, we observe the generation of an ultrabroadband visible white light beam corresponding to 5th-8th HG with a record high conversion efficiency of 18%, which is high compared to conventional supercontinuum generation, especially in the HG parts. Our CPPLN scheme opens up a new avenue to explore and engineer novel nonlinear optical interactions in solid state materials for application in ultrafast lasers and broadband laser sources. PMID:26340190

  7. High-Efficiency Broadband High-Harmonic Generation from a Single Quasi-Phase-Matching Nonlinear Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bao-Qin; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Chen-Yang; Liu, Rong-Juan; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Nonlinear frequency conversion offers an effective way to expand the laser wavelength range based on birefringence phase matching (BPM) or quasi-phase-matching (QPM) techniques in nonlinear crystals. So far, efficient high-harmonic generation is enabled only via multiple cascaded crystals because of the extreme difficulty to simultaneously satisfy BPM or QPM for multiple nonlinear up-conversion processes within a single crystal. Here we report the design and fabrication of a chirped periodic poled lithium niobate (CPPLN) nonlinear crystal that offers controllable multiple QPM bands to support 2nd-8th harmonic generation (HG) simultaneously. Upon illumination of a mid-IR femtosecond pulse laser, we observe the generation of an ultrabroadband visible white light beam corresponding to 5th-8th HG with a record high conversion efficiency of 18%, which is high compared to conventional supercontinuum generation, especially in the HG parts. Our CPPLN scheme opens up a new avenue to explore and engineer novel nonlinear optical interactions in solid state materials for application in ultrafast lasers and broadband laser sources.

  8. High power and high SFDR frequency conversion using sum frequency generation in KTP waveguides.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Russell J; Brewer, Tyler; Barber, Zeb W

    2016-08-01

    We characterize the intermodulation distortion of high power and efficient frequency conversion of modulated optical signals based on sum frequency generation (SFG) in a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) waveguide. Unwanted frequency two-tone spurs are generated near the converted signal via a three-step cascaded three-wave mixing process. Computer simulations describing the process are presented along with the experimental measurements. High-conversion efficiencies and large spur-free dynamic range of the converted optical signal are demonstrated. PMID:27472638

  9. Evaluation of crack parameters by a nonlinear frequency-mixing laser ultrasonics method.

    PubMed

    Mezil, Sylvain; Chigarev, Nikolay; Tournat, Vincent; Gusev, Vitalyi

    2016-07-01

    The local evaluation of several parameters of a crack is realized with a nonlinear laser ultrasonic method. The method is based on the sample excitation by two laser beams, independently intensity modulated at two cyclic frequencies ωH and ωL (ωH≫ωL) and on the detection of nonlinear frequency-mixing ultrasonic components at frequencies ωH±nωL (n an integer). Frequency-mixing is a nonlinear process originating from the modulation of the crack state at low frequency ωL by laser-induced thermo-elastic stresses, which causes in turn the modulation of the acoustic waves at frequency ωH reflected/transmitted by the crack. We carry experiments with increasing laser power and observe a non-monotonous variation in the amplitude of up to 6 nonlinear sidelobes. We also improve a previously introduced theoretical model which leads to interpreting the experimental observations by the combined action on the crack of the thermo-elastic waves at low frequency ωL and of the stationary thermo-elastic stresses at ω=0. The latter are induced by the average laser power absorbed by the sample. While thermo-elastic wave can periodically modulate the parameters of the crack up to its periodic opening/closing, the stationary heating could cause complete local closure of the crack. By fitting the experimental amplitude evolutions for all monitored sidelobes with the theoretically predicted ones, various local parameters of the crack are extracted, including its local width and effective rigidity. PMID:27090110

  10. Low-frequency broadband noise generated by a model rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aravamudan, K. S.; Harris, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Low-frequency broadband noise generated by model rotors is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The influence of free-stream turbulence in the low-frequency broadband noise radiation from model rotors has been experimentally investigated. The turbulence was generated in the M.I.T. anechoic wind tunnel facility with the aid of bipolar grids of various sizes. The spectra and the intensity of the low-frequency broadband noise have been studied as a function of parameters which characterize the turbulence and of helicopter performance parameters. The location of the peak intensity was observed to be strongly dependent on the rotor-tip velocity and on the longitudinal integral scale of turbulence. The size scale of turbulence had negligible effect on the intensity of low-frequency broadband noise. The experimental data show good agreement with an ad hoc model based on unsteady aerodynamics.

  11. Remoted all optical instantaneous frequency measurement system using nonlinear mixing in highly nonlinear optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Bui, Lam Anh; Mitchell, Arnan

    2013-04-01

    A novel remoted instantaneous frequency measurement system using all optical mixing is demonstrated. This system copies an input intensity modulated optical carrier using four wave mixing, delays this copy and then mixes it with the original signal, to produce an output idler tone. The intensity of this output can be used to determine the RF frequency of the input signal. This system is inherently broadband and can be easily scaled beyond 40 GHz while maintaining a DC output which greatly simplifies receiving electronics. The remoted configuration isolates the sensitive and expensive receiver hardware from the signal sources and importantly allows the system to be added to existing microwave photonic implementations without modification of the transmission module. PMID:23571944

  12. Astronomical optical frequency comb generation and test in a fiber-fed MUSE spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez Boggio, J. M.; Fremberg, T.; Moralejo, B.; Rutowska, M.; Hernandez, E.; Zajnulina, M.; Kelz, A.; Bodenmüller, D.; Sandin, C.; Wysmolek, M.; Sayinc, H.; Neumann, J.; Haynes, R.; Roth, M. M.

    2014-07-01

    We here report on recent progress on astronomical optical frequency comb generation at innoFSPEC-Potsdam and present preliminary test results using the fiber-fed Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) spectrograph. The frequency comb is generated by propagating two free-running lasers at 1554.3 and 1558.9 nm through two dispersionoptimized nonlinear fibers. The generated comb is centered at 1590 nm and comprises more than one hundred lines with an optical-signal-to-noise ratio larger than 30 dB. A nonlinear crystal is used to frequency double the whole comb spectrum, which is efficiently converted into the 800 nm spectral band. We evaluate first the wavelength stability using an optical spectrum analyzer with 0.02 nm resolution and wavelength grid of 0.01 nm. After confirming the stability within 0.01 nm, we compare the spectra of the astro-comb and the Ne and Hg calibration lamps: the astro-comb exhibits a much larger number of lines than lamp calibration sources. A series of preliminary tests using a fiber-fed MUSE spectrograph are subsequently carried out with the main goal of assessing the equidistancy of the comb lines. Using a P3d data reduction software we determine the centroid and the width of each comb line (for each of the 400 fibers feeding the spectrograph): equidistancy is confirmed with an absolute accuracy of 0.4 pm.

  13. Experimental demonstration of multiple pulse nonlinear optoacoustic signal generation and control.

    PubMed

    Blackmon, Fletcher; Antonelli, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Generating underwater acoustic signals from a remote, aerial location by use of a high-energy pulsed infrared laser has been demonstrated. The laser beam is directed from the air and focused onto the water surface, where the optical energy was converted into a propagating acoustic wave. Sound pressure levels of 185 dB re microPa (decibel re microPa) were consistently recorded under freshwater laboratory conditions at laser-pulse repetition rates of up to 1000 pulses/s. The nonlinear optoacoustic transmission concept is outlined, and the experimental results from investigation of the time-domain and frequency-domain characteristics of the generated underwater sound are provided. A high repetition rate, high-energy per pulse laser was used in this test under freshwater laboratory conditions. A means of deterministically controlling the spectrum of the underwater acoustic signal was investigated and demonstrated by varying the laser-pulse repetition rate. PMID:15662891

  14. Widely frequency-tunable terahertz wave generation for biosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, J.; Suto, K.

    2005-05-01

    The frequency sweep terahertz wave generator based on the resonance to the phonon polaritons in GaP has wide frequency range from 0.6THz to 6THz , high power, and high spectral purity, which enables even the fine structure measurements like those of structural defects in organic molecules. The system can be made a small size by using Cr:forsterite lasers as pump and signal sources.

  15. Efficient Generation of Frequency-Multiplexed Entangled Single Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian-Hui; Xie, Min

    2016-08-01

    We present two schemes to generate frequency-multiplexed entangled (FME) single photons by coherently mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory based on Raman interactions. By splitting a single photon and performing subsequent state transfer, we separate the generation of entanglement and its frequency conversion, and find that the both progresses have the characteristic of inherent determinacy. Our theory can reproduce the prominent features of observed results including pulse shapes and the condition for deterministically generating the FME single photons. The schemes are suitable for the entangled photon pairs with a wider frequency range, and could be immune to the photon loss originating from cavity-mode damping, spontaneous emission, and the dephasing due to atomic thermal motion. The sources might have significant applications in wavelength-division-multiplexing quantum key distribution.

  16. Multifunctional radio-frequency generator for cold atom experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chun-hua; Yan, Shu-hua

    2016-05-01

    We present a low cost radio-frequency (RF) generator suitable for experiments with cold atoms. The RF source achieves a sub-hertz frequency with tunable resolution from 0 MHz to 400 MHz and a maximum output power of 33 dBm. Based on a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) chip, we implement a ramping capability for frequency, amplitude and phase. The system can also operate as an arbitrary waveform generator. By measuring the stability in a duration of 600 s, we find the presented device performs comparably as Agilent33522A in terms of short-term stability. Due to its excellent performance, the RF generator has been already applied to cold atom trapping experiments.

  17. High-frequency waves generated by auroral electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, J. P.; Carlson, C. W.; Boehm, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of marginally unstable electron distribution functions and high-frequency plasma waves were made on a sounding rocket flight through a quiet auroral arc. The waves appeared near the electron plasma frequency and had a large parallel electric field component such that k-parallel is greater than k-perpendicular. The appearance of these waves was correlated with the presence of marginally unstable parallel electron distributions. Analysis has shown that the waves were produced by parallel electron distribution function greater than 0 rather than the small perpendicular electron distribution function greater than 0 features. Wave levels and growth rates inside the arc were small, and nonlinear wave-wave and wave-particle interactions appear to have been minimal.

  18. Predicting haemodynamic networks using electrophysiology: The role of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions.

    PubMed

    Tewarie, P; Bright, M G; Hillebrand, A; Robson, S E; Gascoyne, L E; Morris, P G; Meier, J; Van Mieghem, P; Brookes, M J

    2016-04-15

    Understanding the electrophysiological basis of resting state networks (RSNs) in the human brain is a critical step towards elucidating how inter-areal connectivity supports healthy brain function. In recent years, the relationship between RSNs (typically measured using haemodynamic signals) and electrophysiology has been explored using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Significant progress has been made, with similar spatial structure observable in both modalities. However, there is a pressing need to understand this relationship beyond simple visual similarity of RSN patterns. Here, we introduce a mathematical model to predict fMRI-based RSNs using MEG. Our unique model, based upon a multivariate Taylor series, incorporates both phase and amplitude based MEG connectivity metrics, as well as linear and non-linear interactions within and between neural oscillations measured in multiple frequency bands. We show that including non-linear interactions, multiple frequency bands and cross-frequency terms significantly improves fMRI network prediction. This shows that fMRI connectivity is not only the result of direct electrophysiological connections, but is also driven by the overlap of connectivity profiles between separate regions. Our results indicate that a complete understanding of the electrophysiological basis of RSNs goes beyond simple frequency-specific analysis, and further exploration of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions will shed new light on distributed network connectivity, and its perturbation in pathology. PMID:26827811

  19. Predicting haemodynamic networks using electrophysiology: The role of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tewarie, P.; Bright, M.G.; Hillebrand, A.; Robson, S.E.; Gascoyne, L.E.; Morris, P.G.; Meier, J.; Van Mieghem, P.; Brookes, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the electrophysiological basis of resting state networks (RSNs) in the human brain is a critical step towards elucidating how inter-areal connectivity supports healthy brain function. In recent years, the relationship between RSNs (typically measured using haemodynamic signals) and electrophysiology has been explored using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Significant progress has been made, with similar spatial structure observable in both modalities. However, there is a pressing need to understand this relationship beyond simple visual similarity of RSN patterns. Here, we introduce a mathematical model to predict fMRI-based RSNs using MEG. Our unique model, based upon a multivariate Taylor series, incorporates both phase and amplitude based MEG connectivity metrics, as well as linear and non-linear interactions within and between neural oscillations measured in multiple frequency bands. We show that including non-linear interactions, multiple frequency bands and cross-frequency terms significantly improves fMRI network prediction. This shows that fMRI connectivity is not only the result of direct electrophysiological connections, but is also driven by the overlap of connectivity profiles between separate regions. Our results indicate that a complete understanding of the electrophysiological basis of RSNs goes beyond simple frequency-specific analysis, and further exploration of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions will shed new light on distributed network connectivity, and its perturbation in pathology. PMID:26827811

  20. Broadband short pulse measurement by autocorrelation with a sum-frequency generation set-up

    SciTech Connect

    Glotin, F.; Jaroszynski, D.; Marcouille, O.

    1995-12-31

    Previous spectral and laser pulse length measurements carried out on the CLIO FEL at wavelength {lambda}=8.5 {mu}m suggested that very short light pulses could be generated, about 500 fs wide (FWHM). For these measurements a Michelson interferometer with a Te crystal, as a non-linear detector, was used as a second order autocorrelation device. More recent measurements in similar conditions have confirmed that the laser pulses observed are indeed single: they are not followed by other pulses distant by the slippage length N{lambda}. As the single micropulse length is likely to depend on the slippage, more measurements at different wavelengths would be useful. This is not directly possible with our actual interferometer set-up, based on a phase-matched non-linear crystal. However, we can use the broadband non-linear medium provided by one of our users` experiments: Sum-Frequency Generation over surfaces. With such autocorrelation set-up, interference fringes are no more visible, but this is largely compensated by the frequency range provided. First tests at 8 {mu}m have already been performed to validate the technic, leading to results similar to those obtained with our previous Michelson set-up.

  1. On the generation of octave-spanning optical frequency combs using monolithic whispering-gallery-mode microresonators.

    PubMed

    Chembo, Yanne K; Yu, Nan

    2010-08-15

    Octave-spanning optical frequency combs are especially interesting in optical metrology owing to the ability of self-referencing. We report a theoretical study on the generation of octave-spanning combs in the whispering gallery modes of a microresonator. Through a modal expansion model simulation in a calcium fluoride microcavity, we show that a combination of suitable pump power, Kerr nonlinearity, and dispersion profile can lead to stable and robust octave-spanning optical frequency combs. PMID:20717427

  2. Frequency stabilization of spin-torque-driven oscillations by coupling with a magnetic nonlinear resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Kudo, Kiwamu Suto, Hirofumi; Nagasawa, Tazumi; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie

    2014-10-28

    The fundamental function of any oscillator is to produce a waveform with a stable frequency. Here, we show a method of frequency stabilization for spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) that relies on coupling with an adjacent nanomagnet through the magnetic dipole–dipole interaction. It is numerically demonstrated that highly stable oscillations occur as a result of mutual feedback between an STNO and a nanomagnet. The nanomagnet acts as a nonlinear resonator for the STNO. This method is based on the nonlinear behavior of the resonator and can be considered as a magnetic analogue of an optimization scheme in nanoelectromechanical systems. The oscillation frequency is most stabilized when the nanomagnet is driven at a special feedback point at which the feedback noise between the STNO and resonator is completely eliminated.

  3. High-frequency vibration energy harvesting from impulsive excitation utilizing intentional dynamic instability caused by strong nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remick, Kevin; Dane Quinn, D.; Michael McFarland, D.; Bergman, Lawrence; Vakakis, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    The authors investigate a vibration-based energy harvesting system utilizing essential (nonlinearizable) nonlinearities and electromagnetic coupling elements. The system consists of a grounded, weakly damped linear oscillator (primary system) subjected to a single impulsive load. This primary system is coupled to a lightweight, damped oscillating attachment (denoted as nonlinear energy sink, NES) via a neodymium magnet and an inductance coil, and a piano wire, which generates an essential geometric cubic stiffness nonlinearity. Under impulsive input, the transient damped dynamics of this system exhibit transient resonance captures (TRCs) causing intentional large-amplitude and high-frequency instabilities in the response of the NES. These TRCs result in strong energy transfer from the directly excited primary system to the light-weight attachment. The energy is harvested by the electromagnetic elements in the coupling and, in the present case, dissipated in a resistive element in the electrical circuit. The primary goal of this work is to numerically, analytically, and experimentally demonstrate the efficacy of employing this type of intentional high-frequency dynamic instability to achieve enhanced vibration energy harvesting under impulsive excitation.

  4. Blue light generation using periodically poled nonlinear crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademian, Ali; Shiner, David

    2013-05-01

    We have studied blue light generation using SHG of IR light. We have used single pass waveguides and bulk crystals with buildup cavities. The nonlinear crystals used were periodically poled Lithium Niobate (LN) and Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (KTP). Each of these approaches had limitations with regards to the maximum power handling and the stability of operation. Currently we are working on a different crystal in a new buildup cavity to circumvent some of the previous difficulties resulting from photorefractive damage and excessive heating due to blue absorption. Our initial measurements show that Lithium Tantalite (LT) has higher photorefractive threshold and much lower blue absorption (2% vs 15% for 20 mm crystal length). The new buildup cavity incorporates a more convenient commercial piezo mirror translator for feedback control. The buildup cavity can be operated with a minimum of 6 V as opposed to the 1000 V previously. We are exploring the use of a single DSP (digital signal processor) to perform all the locking and electronic control functions of the cavity. We are studying the coupling and propagation properties of the IR beams more carefully to minimize cavity and coupling losses, particularly due to front wave distortion caused by mirrors and lenses used in the setup. To optimize our cavity and to make the best and simplest choice of optical elements possible, different commercial (off the shelf) lenses and mirrors have been evaluated experimentally in our setup. This work is supported by NSF grant PHY-1068868.

  5. Verification of nonlinear particle simulation of radio frequency waves in tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Kuley, A. Lin, Z.; Bao, J.; Wei, X. S.; Xiao, Y.; Zhang, W.; Sun, G. Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2015-10-15

    Nonlinear simulation model for radio frequency waves in fusion plasmas has been developed and verified using fully kinetic ion and drift kinetic electron. Ion cyclotron motion in the toroidal geometry is implemented using Boris push in the Boozer coordinates. Linear dispersion relation and nonlinear particle trapping are verified for the lower hybrid wave and ion Bernstein wave (IBW). Parametric decay instability is observed where a large amplitude pump wave decays into an IBW sideband and an ion cyclotron quasimode (ICQM). The ICQM induces an ion perpendicular heating, with a heating rate proportional to the pump wave intensity.

  6. Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness Mapping technique for identifying nonlinear structural elements from frequency response functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Zheng, G. T.

    2016-02-01

    A simple and general Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness Mapping technique is proposed for identifying the parameters or the mathematical model of a nonlinear structural element with steady-state primary harmonic frequency response functions (FRFs). The Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness is defined as the complex ratio between the internal force and the displacement response of unknown element. Obtained with the test data of responses' frequencies and amplitudes, the real and imaginary part of Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness are plotted as discrete points in a three dimensional space over the displacement amplitude and the frequency, which are called the real and the imaginary Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness map, respectively. These points will form a repeatable surface as the Equivalent Dynamic stiffness is only a function of the corresponding data as derived in the paper. The mathematical model of the unknown element can then be obtained by surface-fitting these points with special functions selected by priori knowledge of the nonlinear type or with ordinary polynomials if the type of nonlinearity is not pre-known. An important merit of this technique is its capability of dealing with strong nonlinearities owning complicated frequency response behaviors such as jumps and breaks in resonance curves. In addition, this technique could also greatly simplify the test procedure. Besides there is no need to pre-identify the underlying linear parameters, the method uses the measured data of excitation forces and responses without requiring a strict control of the excitation force during the test. The proposed technique is demonstrated and validated with four classical single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) numerical examples and one experimental example. An application of this technique for identification of nonlinearity from multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems is also illustrated.

  7. Sum-frequency generation of continuous-wave tunable ultraviolet coherent light in BBO-installed external cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukoyama, Kenta; Tokuyama, Kazuhiro; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Inoue, Norihiro; Fukuda, Naoaki; Takiya, Toshio

    2012-02-01

    Recently, we have tried to develop a continuous wave (CW), tunable, and ultraviolet (UV) coherent light source through sum-frequency generation (SFG) using a BBO nonlinear crystal with a two-stage frequency-conversion system using two different external cavities for the enhancement of CW lights. In the first stage, we obtained the 532-nm light with the second harmonic generation (SHG) of the 1064-nm light. A bow-tie external cavity incorporating four mirrors, whose cavity length was controlled by the frequency stabilization method proposed by Hänsch and Couillaud, was employed there. In the second stage, to generate the 312-nm light, we demonstrated doubly resonant sum frequency generation of the 532-nm light from the first-stage and the 754-nm light from a single-frequency CW Ti:Sapphire laser. Considering a nonlinear coefficient, it should be preferable to use a BiBO crystal for high-efficient SFG, but the 312-nm light might be absorbed by the BiBO crystal. Therefore, we chose a BBO as a nonlinear crystal to avoid the absorption of the 312-nm light.

  8. Efficient second-harmonic generation of a broadband radiation by control of the temperature distribution along a nonlinear crystal.

    PubMed

    Regelskis, K; Želudevičius, J; Gavrilin, N; Račiukaitis, G

    2012-12-17

    We demonstrate an efficient technique for the second harmonic generation (SHG) of the broadband radiation based on the temperature gradient along a nonlinear crystal. The characteristics of Type I non-critical phase-matched SHG of broadband radiation in the LiB(3)O(5) (LBO) crystal with the temperature gradient imposed along the crystal were investigated both numerically and experimentally. The frequency doubling efficiency of the broadband pulsed fiber laser radiation as high as 68% has been demonstrated. PMID:23263092

  9. Frequency dispersion of nonlinear response of thin superconducting films in the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless state

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, Scott; Mayer, William; Byrnes, Sean; Vitkalov, Sergey; Sergeev, A.; Bollinger, Anthony T.; Božović, Ivan

    2015-02-20

    The effects of microwave radiation on transport properties of atomically thin La2-xSrxCuO₄ films were studied in the 0.1-20 GHz frequency range. Resistance changes induced by microwaves were investigated at different temperatures (8–15 K) near the superconducting transition. A strong decrease of the nonlinear response is observed within a few GHz of a cutoff frequency νcut ≈ 2GHz. The expected frequency dependence vastly underestimates the sharpness of this drop. Numerical simulations that assume ac response to follow dc V-I characteristics of the films reproduce well the low frequency behavior, but fail above νcut. Thus, high-frequency radiation is much less effective in inducing vortex-antivortex dissociation in the oscillating superconducting condensate.

  10. Frequency dispersion of nonlinear response of thin superconducting films in the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless state

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dietrich, Scott; Mayer, William; Byrnes, Sean; Vitkalov, Sergey; Sergeev, A.; Bollinger, Anthony T.; Božović, Ivan

    2015-02-20

    The effects of microwave radiation on transport properties of atomically thin La2-xSrxCuO₄ films were studied in the 0.1-20 GHz frequency range. Resistance changes induced by microwaves were investigated at different temperatures (8–15 K) near the superconducting transition. A strong decrease of the nonlinear response is observed within a few GHz of a cutoff frequency νcut ≈ 2GHz. The expected frequency dependence vastly underestimates the sharpness of this drop. Numerical simulations that assume ac response to follow dc V-I characteristics of the films reproduce well the low frequency behavior, but fail above νcut. Thus, high-frequency radiation is much less effective inmore » inducing vortex-antivortex dissociation in the oscillating superconducting condensate.« less