Science.gov

Sample records for nonlinear frequency generation

  1. Magnetoplasmonic RF mixing and nonlinear frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firby, C. J.; Elezzabi, A. Y.

    2016-07-01

    We present the design of a magnetoplasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator facilitating radio-frequency (RF) mixing and nonlinear frequency generation. This is achieved by forming the MZI arms from long-range dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides containing bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Bi:YIG). The magnetization of the Bi:YIG can be driven in the nonlinear regime by RF magnetic fields produced around adjacent transmission lines. Correspondingly, the nonlinear temporal dynamics of the transverse magnetization component are mapped onto the nonreciprocal phase shift in the MZI arms, and onto the output optical intensity signal. We show that this tunable mechanism can generate harmonics, frequency splitting, and frequency down-conversion with a single RF excitation, as well as RF mixing when driven by two RF signals. This magnetoplasmonic component can reduce the number of electrical sources required to generate distinct optical modulation frequencies and is anticipated to satisfy important applications in integrated optics.

  2. Nonlinear negative refraction by difference frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianjun; Shen, Dongyi; Feng, Yaming; Wan, Wenjie

    2016-05-01

    Negative refraction has attracted much interest for its promising capability in imaging applications. Such an effect can be implemented by negative index meta-materials, however, which are usually accompanied by high loss and demanding fabrication processes. Recently, alternative nonlinear approaches like phase conjugation and four wave mixing have shown advantages of low-loss and easy-to-implement, but associated problems like narrow accepting angles can still halt their practical applications. Here, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally a scheme to realize negative refraction by nonlinear difference frequency generation with wide tunability, where a thin Beta barium borate slice serves as a negative refraction layer bending the input signal beam to the idler beam at a negative angle. Furthermore, we realize optical focusing effect using such nonlinear negative refraction, which may enable many potential applications in imaging science.

  3. Guided wave methods and apparatus for nonlinear frequency generation

    DOEpatents

    Durfee, III, Charles G.; Rundquist, Andrew; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2000-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for the nonlinear generation of sum and difference frequencies of electromagnetic radiation propagating in a nonlinear material. A waveguide having a waveguide cavity contains the nonlinear material. Phase matching of the nonlinear generation is obtained by adjusting a waveguide propagation constant, the refractive index of the nonlinear material, or the waveguide mode in which the radiation propagates. Phase matching can be achieved even in isotropic nonlinear materials. A short-wavelength radiation source uses phase-matched nonlinear generation in a waveguide to produce high harmonics of a pulsed laser.

  4. Modulation of Radio Frequency Signals by Nonlinearly Generated Acoustic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Spencer Joseph

    Acousto-electromagnetic scattering is a process in which an acoustic excitation is utilized to induce modulation on an electromagnetic (EM) wave. This phenomenon can be exploited in remote sensing and detection schemes whereby target objects are mechanically excited by high powered acoustic waves resulting in unique object characterizations when interrogated with EM signals. Implementation of acousto-EM sensing schemes, however, are limited by a lack of fundamental understanding of the nonlinear interaction between acoustic and EM waves and inefficient simulation methods in the determination of the radiation patterns of higher order scattered acoustic fields. To address the insufficient simulation issue, a computationally efficient mathematical model describing higher order scattered sound fields, particularly of third-order in which a 40x increase in computation speed is achieved, is derived using a multi-Gaussian beam (MGB) expansion that expresses the sound field of any arbitrary axially symmetric beam as a series of Gaussian base functions. The third-order intermodulation (IM3) frequency components are produced by considering the cascaded nonlinear second-order effects when analyzing the interaction between the first- and second-order frequency components during the nonlinear scattering of sound by sound from two noncollinear ultrasonic baffled piston sources. The theory is extended to the modeling of the sound beams generated by parametric transducer arrays, showing that the MGB model can be efficiently used to calculate both the second- and third-order sound fields of the array. Additionally, a near-to-far-field (NTFF) transformation method is developed to model the far-field characteristics of scattered sound fields, extending Kirchhoff's theorem, typically applied to EM waves, determining the far-field patterns of an acoustic source from amplitude and phase measurements made in the near-field by including the higher order sound fields generated by the

  5. Aluminum nitride as nonlinear optical material for on-chip frequency comb generation and frequency conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hojoong; Tang, Hong X.

    2016-06-01

    A number of dielectric materials have been employed for on-chip frequency comb generation. Silicon based dielectrics such as silicon dioxide (SiO2) and silicon nitride (SiN) are particularly attractive comb materials due to their low optical loss and maturity in nanofabrication. They offer third-order Kerr nonlinearity (χ(3)), but little second-order Pockels (χ(2)) effect. Materials possessing both strong χ(2) and χ(3) are desired to enable selfreferenced frequency combs and active control of comb generation. In this review, we introduce another CMOS-compatible comb material, aluminum nitride (AlN),which offers both second and third order nonlinearities. A review of the advantages of AlN as linear and nonlinear optical material will be provided, and fabrication techniques of low loss AlN waveguides from the visible to infrared (IR) region will be discussed.We will then show the frequency comb generation including IR, red, and green combs in high-Q AlN micro-rings from single CW IR laser input via combination of Kerr and Pockels nonlinearity. Finally, the fast speed on-off switching of frequency comb using the Pockels effect of AlN will be shown,which further enriches the applications of the frequency comb.

  6. Direct generation of optical frequency combs in χ(2) nonlinear cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosca, Simona; Ricciardi, Iolanda; Parisi, Maria; Maddaloni, Pasquale; Santamaria, Luigi; De Natale, Paolo; De Rosa, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    Quadratic nonlinear processes are currently exploited for frequency comb transfer and extension from the visible and near infrared regions to other spectral ranges where direct comb generation cannot be accomplished. However, frequency comb generation has been directly observed in continuously pumped quadratic nonlinear crystals placed inside an optical cavity. At the same time, an introductory theoretical description of the phenomenon has been provided, showing a remarkable analogy with the dynamics of third-order Kerr microresonators. Here, we give an overview of our recent work on χ(2) frequency comb generation. Furthermore, we generalize the preliminary three-wave spectral model to a many-mode comb and present a stability analysis of different cavity field regimes. Although our work is a very early stage, it lays the groundwork for a novel class of highly efficient and versatile frequency comb synthesizers based on second-order nonlinear materials.

  7. Generation of nonlinear currents and low-frequency radiation upon interaction of a laser pulse with a metal

    SciTech Connect

    Bezhanov, S G; Uryupin, S A

    2013-11-30

    Nonlinear currents slowly varying in time are found in the skin layer of a metal irradiated by short laser pulses. The low-frequency field generated by the nonlinear currents in metal and vacuum is studied. The spectral composition, energy and shape of the low-frequency radiation pulse are described. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  8. Astronomical optical frequency comb generation in nonlinear fibres and ring resonators: optimization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez Boggio, J. M.; Fremberg, T.; Bodenmüller, D.; Wysmolek, M.; Sanyic, H.; Fernando, H.; Neumann, J.; Kracht, D.; Haynes, R.; Roth, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    We here discuss recent progress on astronomical optical frequency comb generation at innoFSPEC-Potsdam. Two different platforms (and approaches) are numerically and experimentally investigated targeting medium and low resolution spectrographs at astronomical facilities in which innoFSPEC is currently involved. In the first approach, a frequency comb is generated by propagating two lasers through three nonlinear stages - the first two stages serve for the generation of low-noise ultra-short pulses, while the final stage is a low-dispersion highly-nonlinear fibre where the pulses undergo strong spectral broadening. In our approach, the wavelength of one of the lasers can be tuned allowing the comb line spacing being continuously varied during the calibration procedure - this tuning capability is expected to improve the calibration accuracy since the CCD detector response can be fully scanned. The input power, the dispersion, the nonlinear coefficient, and fibre lengths in the nonlinear stages are defined and optimized by solving the Generalized Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation. Experimentally, we generate the 250GHz line-spacing frequency comb using two narrow linewidth lasers that are adiabatically compressed in a standard fibre first and then in a double-clad Er/Yb doped fibre. The spectral broadening finally takes place in a highly nonlinear fibre resulting in an astro-comb with 250 calibration lines (covering a bandwidth of 500 nm) with good spectral equalization. In the second approach, we aim to generate optical frequency combs in dispersion-optimized silicon nitride ring resonators. A technique for lowering and flattening the chromatic dispersion in silicon nitride waveguides with silica cladding is proposed and demonstrated. By minimizing the waveguide dispersion in the resonator two goals are targeted: enhancing the phase matching for non-linear interactions and producing equally spaced resonances. For this purpose, instead of one cladding layer our design

  9. Generation of an astronomical optical frequency comb in three fibre-based nonlinear stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez Boggio, J. M.; Rieznik, A. A.; Zajnulina, M.; Böhm, M.; Bodenmüller, D.; Wysmolek, M.; Sayinc, H.; Neumann, Jörg; Kracht, Dietmar; Haynes, R.; Roth, M. M.

    2012-06-01

    The generation of a broadband optical frequency comb with 80 GHz spacing by propagation of a sinusoidal wave through three dispersion-optimized nonlinear stages is numerically investigated. The input power, the dispersion, the nonlinear coefficient, and lengths are optimized for the first two stages for the generation of low-noise ultra-short pulses. The final stage is a low-dispersion highly-nonlinear fibre where the ultra-short pulses undergo self-phase modulation for strong spectral broadening. The modeling is performed using a Generalized Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation incorporating Kerr and Raman nonlinearities, self-steepening, high-order dispersion and gain. In the proposed approach the sinusoidal input field is pre-compressed in the first fibre section. This is shown to be necessary to keep the soliton order below ten to minimize the noise build-up during adiabatic pulse compression, when the pulses are subsequently amplified in the next fibre section (rare-earth-doped-fibre with anomalous dispersion). We demonstrate that there is an optimum balance between dispersion, input power and nonlinearities, in order to have adiabatic pulse compression. It is shown that the intensity noise grows exponentially as the pulses start to be compressed in the amplifying fibre. Eventually, the noise decreases and reaches a minimum when the pulses are maximally compressed. A train of 70 fs pulses with up to 3.45 kW peak power and negligible noise is generated in our simulations, which can be spectrally broadened in a highly-nonlinear fibre. The main drawback of this compression technique is the small fibre length tolerance where noise is negligible (smaller than 10 cm for erbium-doped fibre length of 15 m). We finally investigate how the frequency comb characteristics are modified by incorporating an optical feedback. We show that frequency combs appropriate for calibration of astronomical spectrographs can be improved by using this technique.

  10. A generator with nonlinear spring oscillator to provide vibrations of multi-frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Liu, Jingquan; Tang, Gang; Luo, Jiangbo; Yang, Chunsheng; Li, Yigui

    2011-11-01

    A piezoelectric generator with nonlinear spring oscillator is proposed to provide multiple resonant modes for operation and improve conversion efficiency. In order to scavenge the vibration energy of multiple frequencies from a certain vibration source, two types of nonlinear springs have been employed and tested. The maximum output power of 5, 17.83, and 23.39 μW for the nonlinear spring of 8.3 N/m with 1 g acceleration has been obtained under the resonant frequency of 89, 104, and 130 Hz, respectively. Its total output power of 46.22 μW is obviously larger than the one of 28.35 μW for traditional second-order spring-mass linear system.

  11. Wide operation frequency band magnetostrictive vibration power generator using nonlinear spring constant by permanent magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furumachi, S.; Ueno, T.

    2016-04-01

    We study magnetostrictive vibration based power generator using iron-gallium alloy (Galfenol). The generator is advantages over conventional, such as piezoelectric material in the point of high efficiency highly robust and low electrical impedance. Generally, the generator exhibits maximum power when its resonant frequency matches the frequency of ambient vibration. In other words, the mismatch of these frequencies results in significant decrease of the output. One solution is making the spring characteristics nonlinear using magnetic force, which distorts the resonant peak toward higher or lower frequency side. In this paper, vibrational generator consisting of Galfenol plate of 6 by 0.5 by 13 mm wound with coil and U shape-frame accompanied with plates and pair of permanent magnets was investigated. The experimental results show that lean of resonant peak appears attributed on the non-linear spring characteristics, and half bandwidth with magnets is 1.2 times larger than that without. It was also demonstrated that the addition of proof mass is effective to increase the sensitivity but also the bandwidth. The generator with generating power of sub mW order is useful for power source of wireless heath monitoring for bridge and factory machine.

  12. Temperature dependence of acoustic harmonics generated by nonlinear ultrasound wave propagation in water at various frequencies.

    PubMed

    Maraghechi, Borna; Hasani, Mojtaba H; Kolios, Michael C; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasound-based thermometry requires a temperature-sensitive acoustic parameter that can be used to estimate the temperature by tracking changes in that parameter during heating. The objective of this study is to investigate the temperature dependence of acoustic harmonics generated by nonlinear ultrasound wave propagation in water at various pulse transmit frequencies from 1 to 20 MHz. Simulations were conducted using an expanded form of the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov nonlinear acoustic wave propagation model in which temperature dependence of the medium parameters was included. Measurements were performed using single-element transducers at two different transmit frequencies of 3.3 and 13 MHz which are within the range of frequencies simulated. The acoustic pressure signals were measured by a calibrated needle hydrophone along the axes of the transducers. The water temperature was uniformly increased from 26 °C to 46 °C in increments of 5 °C. The results show that the temperature dependence of the harmonic generation is different at various frequencies which is due to the interplay between the mechanisms of absorption, nonlinearity, and focusing gain. At the transmit frequencies of 1 and 3.3 MHz, the harmonic amplitudes decrease with increasing the temperature, while the opposite temperature dependence is observed at 13 and 20 MHz. PMID:27250143

  13. Group velocity mismatch-absent nonlinear frequency conversions for mid-infrared femtosecond pulses generation

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Haizhe; Zhang, Lifu; Li, Ying; Fan, Dianyuan

    2015-01-01

    A novel group velocity mismatch (GVM) absent scheme for nonlinear optical parametric procedure in mid-infrared was developed with type-I quasi phase matching by use of an off-digital nonlinear optical coefficient d31. This was achieved by matching of the group velocities of the pump and the signal waves, while the phase velocities were quasi phase matched. The system employs MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 as the nonlinear medium. Desired group-velocity dispersion would be obtained via appropriately temperature regulation. To demonstrate its potential applications in ultrafast mid-infrared pulses generation, aiming at a typical mid-infrared wavelength of ~3.2 μm, design examples of two basic nonlinear frequency conversion procedures are studied for both the narrow-band seeding mid-IR optical parametric amplification (OPA) and the synchronously pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillation (SPOPO). Compared with the conventional scheme of type-0 QPM, the quantum-efficiency can be more than doubled with nearly unlimited bandwidth. The proposed GVM- absent phase matching design may provide a promising route to efficient and broadband sub-100 fs mid-infrared ultrafast pulses generation without group-velocity walk-off. PMID:26099837

  14. Generation of green frequency comb from chirped χ{sup (2)} nonlinear photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, C.-M.; Chang, K.-H.; Yang, Z.-Y.; Fu, S.-H.; Tsai, S.-T.; Hsu, C.-W.; Peng, L.-H.; Yu, N. E.; Boudrioua, A.; Kung, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Spectrally broad frequency comb generation over 510–555 nm range was reported on chirped quasi-phase-matching (QPM) χ{sup (2)} nonlinear photonic crystals of 12 mm length with periodicity stepwise increased from 5.9 μm to 7.1 μm. When pumped with nanosecond infrared (IR) frequency comb derived from a QPM optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and spanned over 1040 nm to 1090 nm wavelength range, the 520 nm to 545 nm up-converted green spectra were shown to consist of contributions from (a) second-harmonic generation among the signal or the idler modes, and (b) sum-frequency generation (SFG) from the neighboring pairs of the signal or the idler modes. These mechanisms led the up-converted green frequency comb to have the same mode spacing of 450 GHz as that in the IR-OPO pump comb. As the pump was further detuned from the aforementioned near-degeneracy point and moved toward the signal (1020–1040 nm) and the idler (1090–1110 nm) spectral range, the above QPM parametric processes were preserved in the chirped QPM devices to support up-converted green generation in the 510–520 nm and the 545–555 nm spectral regime. Additional 530–535 nm green spectral generation was also observed due to concurrence of multi-wavelength SFG processes between the (signal, idler) mode pairs. These mechanisms facilitate the chirped QPM device to support a single-pass up-conversion efficiency ∼10% when subject to an IR-OPO pump comb with 200 mW average power operated near- or off- the degeneracy point.

  15. Generation of green frequency comb from chirped χ(2) nonlinear photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, C.-M.; Chang, K.-H.; Yang, Z.-Y.; Fu, S.-H.; Tsai, S.-T.; Hsu, C.-W.; Yu, N. E.; Boudrioua, A.; Kung, A. H.; Peng, L.-H.

    2014-12-01

    Spectrally broad frequency comb generation over 510-555 nm range was reported on chirped quasi-phase-matching (QPM) χ(2) nonlinear photonic crystals of 12 mm length with periodicity stepwise increased from 5.9 μm to 7.1 μm. When pumped with nanosecond infrared (IR) frequency comb derived from a QPM optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and spanned over 1040 nm to 1090 nm wavelength range, the 520 nm to 545 nm up-converted green spectra were shown to consist of contributions from (a) second-harmonic generation among the signal or the idler modes, and (b) sum-frequency generation (SFG) from the neighboring pairs of the signal or the idler modes. These mechanisms led the up-converted green frequency comb to have the same mode spacing of 450 GHz as that in the IR-OPO pump comb. As the pump was further detuned from the aforementioned near-degeneracy point and moved toward the signal (1020-1040 nm) and the idler (1090-1110 nm) spectral range, the above QPM parametric processes were preserved in the chirped QPM devices to support up-converted green generation in the 510-520 nm and the 545-555 nm spectral regime. Additional 530-535 nm green spectral generation was also observed due to concurrence of multi-wavelength SFG processes between the (signal, idler) mode pairs. These mechanisms facilitate the chirped QPM device to support a single-pass up-conversion efficiency ˜10% when subject to an IR-OPO pump comb with 200 mW average power operated near- or off- the degeneracy point.

  16. On-chip frequency comb generation at visible wavelengths via simultaneous second- and third-order optical nonlinearities.

    PubMed

    Miller, Steven; Luke, Kevin; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Cardenas, Jaime; Gaeta, Alexander L; Lipson, Michal

    2014-11-01

    Microresonator-based frequency comb generation at or near visible wavelengths would enable applications in precise optical clocks, frequency metrology, and biomedical imaging. Comb generation in the visible has been limited by strong material dispersion and loss at short wavelengths, and only very narrowband comb generation has reached below 800 nm. We use the second-order optical nonlinearity in an integrated high-Q silicon nitride ring resonator cavity to convert a near-infrared frequency comb into the visible range. We simultaneously demonstrate parametric frequency comb generation in the near-infrared, second-harmonic generation, and sum-frequency generation. We measure 17 comb lines converted to visible wavelengths extending to 765 nm. PMID:25401803

  17. Generation of low-frequency nonlinear currents in plasma by an ultrashort pulse of high-frequency radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Grishkov, V. E.; Uryupin, S. A.

    2015-07-15

    A kinetic theory of low-frequency currents induced in plasma by an ultrashort high-frequency radiation pulse is developed. General expressions for the currents flowing along the propagation direction of the pulse and along the gradient of the field energy density are analyzed both analytically and numerically for pulse durations longer or shorter than or comparable with the electron collision time in plasma. It is demonstrated that the nonlinear current flowing along the gradient of the field energy density can be described correctly only when the modification of the isotropic part of the electron distribution function is taken into account.

  18. Transparency in nonlinear frequency conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Suppression of wave scattering and the realization of transparency effects in engineered optical media and surfaces have attracted great attention in the past recent years. In this work the problem of transparency is considered for optical wave propagation in a nonlinear dielectric medium with second-order χ(2 ) susceptibility. Because of nonlinear interaction, a reference signal wave at carrier frequency ω1 can exchange power, thus being amplified or attenuated, when phase-matching conditions are satisfied and frequency conversion takes place. Therefore, rather generally the medium is not transparent to the signal wave because of "scattering" in the frequency domain. Here we show that broadband transparency, corresponding to the full absence of frequency conversion in spite of phase matching, can be observed for the signal wave in the process of sum frequency generation whenever the effective susceptibility χ(2 ) along the nonlinear medium is tailored following a suitable spatial apodization profile and the power level of the pump wave is properly tuned. While broadband transparency is observed under such conditions, the nonlinear medium is not invisible owing to an additional effective dispersion for the signal wave introduced by the nonlinear interaction.

  19. Nonlinear Frequency Compression

    PubMed Central

    Scollie, Susan; Glista, Danielle; Seelisch, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Frequency lowering technologies offer an alternative amplification solution for severe to profound high frequency hearing losses. While frequency lowering technologies may improve audibility of high frequency sounds, the very nature of this processing can affect the perceived sound quality. This article reports the results from two studies that investigated the impact of a nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) algorithm on perceived sound quality. In the first study, the cutoff frequency and compression ratio parameters of the NFC algorithm were varied, and their effect on the speech quality was measured subjectively with 12 normal hearing adults, 12 normal hearing children, 13 hearing impaired adults, and 9 hearing impaired children. In the second study, 12 normal hearing and 8 hearing impaired adult listeners rated the quality of speech in quiet, speech in noise, and music after processing with a different set of NFC parameters. Results showed that the cutoff frequency parameter had more impact on sound quality ratings than the compression ratio, and that the hearing impaired adults were more tolerant to increased frequency compression than normal hearing adults. No statistically significant differences were found in the sound quality ratings of speech-in-noise and music stimuli processed through various NFC settings by hearing impaired listeners. These findings suggest that there may be an acceptable range of NFC settings for hearing impaired individuals where sound quality is not adversely affected. These results may assist an Audiologist in clinical NFC hearing aid fittings for achieving a balance between high frequency audibility and sound quality. PMID:23539261

  20. Frequency domain nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legare, Francois

    2016-05-01

    The universal dilemma of gain narrowing occurring in fs amplifiers prevents ultra-high power lasers from delivering few-cycle pulses. This problem is overcome by a new amplification concept: Frequency domain Optical Parametric Amplification - FOPA. It enables simultaneous up-scaling of peak power and amplified spectral bandwidth and can be performed at any wavelength range of conventional amplification schemes, however, with the capability to amplify single cycles of light. The key idea for amplification of octave-spanning spectra without loss of spectral bandwidth is to amplify the broad spectrum ``slice by slice'' in the frequency domain, i.e. in the Fourier plane of a 4f-setup. The striking advantages of this scheme, are its capability to amplify (more than) one octave of bandwidth without shorting the corresponding pulse duration. This is because ultrabroadband phase matching is not defined by the properties of the nonlinear crystal employed but the number of crystals employed. In the same manner, to increase the output energy one simply has to increase the spectral extension in the Fourier plane and to add one more crystal. Thus, increasing pulse energy and shortening its duration accompany each other. A proof of principle experiment was carried out at ALLS on the sub-two cycle IR beam line and yielded record breaking performance in the field of few-cycle IR lasers. 100 μJ two-cycle pulses from a hollow core fibre compression setup were amplified to 1.43mJ without distorting spatial or temporal properties. Pulse duration at the input of FOPA and after FOPA remains the same. Recently, we have started upgrading this system to be pumped by 250 mJ to reach 40 mJ two-cycle IR few-cycle pulses and latest results will be presented at the conference. Furthermore, the extension of the concept of FOPA to other nonlinear optical processes will be discussed. Frequency domain nonlinear optics.

  1. Influence of nanoscale temperature rises on photoacoustic generation: Discrimination between optical absorbers based on thermal nonlinearity at high frequency

    PubMed Central

    Simandoux, Olivier; Prost, Amaury; Gateau, Jérôme; Bossy, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we experimentally investigate thermal-based nonlinear photoacoustic generation as a mean to discriminate between different types of absorbing particles. The photoacoustic generation from solutions of dye molecules and gold nanospheres (same optical densities) was detected using a high frequency ultrasound transducer (20 MHz). Photoacoustic emission was observed with gold nanospheres at low fluence for an equilibrium temperature around 4 °C, where the linear photoacoustic effect in water vanishes, highlighting the nonlinear emission from the solution of nanospheres. The photoacoustic amplitude was also studied as a function of the equilibrium temperature from 2 °C to 20 °C. While the photoacoustic amplitude from the dye molecules vanished around 4 °C, the photoacoustic amplitude from the gold nanospheres remained significant over the whole temperature range. Our preliminary results suggest that in the context of high frequency photoacoustic imaging, nanoparticles may be discriminated from molecular absorbers based on nanoscale temperature rises. PMID:25893167

  2. Point-Wise Phase Matching for Nonlinear Frequency Generation in Dielectric Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Nan (Inventor); Strekalov, Dmitry V. (Inventor); Lin, Guoping (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An optical resonator fabricated from a uniaxial birefringent crystal, such as beta barium borate. The crystal is cut with the optical axis not perpendicular to a face of the cut crystal. In some cases the optical axis lies in the plane of the cut crystal face. An incident (input) electromagnetic signal (which can range from the infrared through the visible to the ultraviolet) is applied to the resonator. An output signal is recovered which has a frequency that is an integer multiple of the frequency of the input signal. In some cases a prism is used to evanescently couple the input and the output signals to the resonator.

  3. Second Harmonic Generation, Sum Frequency Generation, and χ(3): Dissecting Environmental Interfaces with a Nonlinear Optical Swiss Army Knife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, Franz M.

    2009-05-01

    This review discusses recent advances in the nonlinear optics of environmental interfaces. We discuss the quantitative aspects of the label-free approaches presented here and demonstrate that nonlinear optics has now assumed the role of a Swiss Army knife that can be used to dissect, with molecular detail, the fundamental and practical aspects of environmental interfaces and heterogeneous geochemical environments. In this work, nonlinear optical methods are applied to complex organic molecules, such as veterinary antibiotics, and to small inorganic anions and cations, such as nitrate and chromate, or cadmium, zinc, and manganese. The environmental implications of the thermodynamic, kinetic, spectroscopic, structural, and electrochemical data are discussed.

  4. Generation of microwaves by mixing two optical frequencies in a nonlinear crystal: a novel approach to high-bandwidth optical mixers.

    PubMed

    Tran, N H; Kachru, R; Gallagher, T F; Watjen, J P; Bjorklund, G C

    1984-04-01

    Optical mixing of waves separated in frequency by many gigahertz can be accomplished by allowing the waves to mix in a nonlinear medium to generate microwave difference frequencies. This basis for high-bandwidth optical mixers is demonstrated by mixing optical frequencies approximately 4 GHz apart of a pulsed dye-laser beam at approximately 660 nm in a LiTaO(3) crystal to produce readily detectable microwave power at approximately 4 GHz. PMID:19721519

  5. Laser-induced breakdown and damage generation by nonlinear frequency conversion in ferroelectric crystals: Experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Saito, Norihito; Wada, Satoshi; Hatano, Hideki; Kitamura, Kenji

    2013-11-28

    Using our experimental data for ns pulsed second harmonic generation (SHG) by periodically poled stoichiometric LiTaO{sub 3} (PPSLT) crystals, we consider in detail the mechanism underlying laser-induced damage in ferroelectric crystals. This mechanism involves generation and heating of free electrons, providing an effective kinetic pathway for electric breakdown and crystal damage in ns pulsed operation via combined two-photon absorption (TPA) and induced pyroelectric field. In particular, a temperature increase in the lattice of ≈1 K induced initially by ns SHG and TPA at the rear of operating PPSLT crystal is found to induce a gradient of spontaneous polarization generating a pyroelectric field of ≈10 kV/cm, accelerating free electrons generated by TPA to an energy of ≈10 eV, followed by impact ionization and crystal damage. Under the damage threshold for ns operation, the impact ionization does not lead to the avalanche-like increase of free electron density, in contrast to the case of shorter ps and fs pulses. However, the total number of collisions by free electrons, ≈10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} (generated during the pulse and accelerated to the energy of ≈10 eV), can produce widespread structural defects, which by entrapping electrons dramatically increase linear absorption for both harmonics in subsequent pulses, creating a positive feedback for crystal lattice heating, pyroelectric field and crystal damage. Under pulse repetition, defect generation starting from the rear of the crystal can propagate towards its center and front side producing damage tracks along the laser beam and stopping SHG. Theoretical analysis leads to numerical estimates and analytical approximation for the threshold laser fluence for onset of this damage mechanism, which agree well with our (i) experiments for the input 1064 nm radiation in 6.8 kHz pulsed SHG by PPSLT crystal, (ii) pulsed low frequency 532 nm radiation transmission experiments, and also (iii) with the data

  6. Generation of low-frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic waves as nonlinear consequences of beam-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Umeda, Takayuki

    2008-06-15

    Nonlinear evolution of the electron two-stream instability in a current-carrying plasma is examined by using a two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation. Formation of electron phase-space holes is observed as an early nonlinear consequence of electron-beam-plasma interactions. Lower-hybrid waves, electrostatic, and electromagnetic whistler mode waves are also excited by different mechanisms during the ensuing nonlinear wave-particle interactions. It is shown by the present computer simulation with a large simulation domain and a long simulation time that these low-frequency waves can disturb the electrostatic equilibrium of electron phase-space holes, suggesting that the lifetime of electron phase-space holes sometimes becomes shorter in a current-carrying plasma.

  7. Nonlinear waveform generation.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, L J; Rypins, E B

    1990-01-01

    We developed three analog logic SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis, developed at the University of California, Berkeley, CA) subcircuits, a voltage comparator and a nonlinear waveform generator to compliment the previously derived functions (Goldstein and Rypins, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 29 (1989) 161-172) that simplify modeling of physiologic systems. The logic elements are the 'AND', 'OR' and 'NOT' Boolean functions. In addition, we derived a voltage comparator for use in our composite waveform generator. All the circuits are analog so they can be incorporated into existing analog circuits while performing digital functions. PMID:2364683

  8. Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation

    SciTech Connect

    Pellin, M.J.; Biwer, B.M.; Schauer, M.W.; Frye, J.M.; Gruen, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are increasingly being used as in situ surface probes. These techniques are coherent and inherently surface sensitive by the nature of the mediums response to intense laser light. Here we will review these two techniques using aqueous corrosion as an example problem. Aqueous corrosion of technologically important materials such as Fe, Ni and Cr proceeds from a reduced metal surface with layer by layer growth of oxide films mitigated by compositional changes in the chemical makeup of the growing film. Passivation of the metal surface is achieved after growth of only a few tens of atomic layers of metal oxide. Surface Second Harmonic Generation and a related nonlinear laser technique, Sum Frequency Generation have demonstrated an ability to probe the surface composition of growing films even in the presence of aqueous solutions. 96 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Efficient generation of high-frequency terahertz waves from highly lossy second-order nonlinear medium at polariton resonance under transverse-pumping geometry.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yujie J

    2010-01-15

    Owing to strong coupling between transverse-optical phonons and high-frequency terahertz waves in zinc-blende semiconductors, second-order nonlinear coefficients can be dramatically enhanced within the forbidden band of the polariton resonance. However, linear absorption in this regime is also dramatically increased. We show that transverse-pumping geometry can be exploited for achieving an efficient terahertz generation at the polariton resonance. Our estimates illustrate that pump powers as low as 100 mW are sufficient for causing the significant depletion of the pump beams. PMID:20081988

  10. Simple sweep frequency generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yegorov, I.

    1985-01-01

    A sweep frequency generator is described whose center frequency can be varied from 10 kHz to 50 MHz, with seven 1 to 3 and 3 to 10 scales covering the 10 kHz to 30 MHz range and one 3 to 5 scale for the 30 to 50 MHz range. It consists of a tunable pulse generator with output voltage attenuator, a diode mixer for calibration, and a sawtooth voltage generator as a source of frequency deviation. The pulse generator is a multivibrator with two emitter coupled transistors and two diodes in the collector circuit of one. The first diode extends the tuning range and increases the frequency deviation, the second diode provides the necessary base bias to the other transistor. The pulse repetition rate is modulated either directly by the sweep voltage of the calibrating oscilloscope, this voltage being applied to the base of the transistor with the two diodes in its collector circuit through an additional attenuator or a special emitter follower, or by the separate sawtooth voltage generator. The latter is a conventional two transistor multivibrator and produces signals at any constant frequency within the 40 to 60 Hz range. The mixer receives unmodulated signals from a reference frequency source and produces different frequency signals which are sent through an RCR-filter to a calibrating oscilloscope.

  11. Nonlinear cloaking at microwave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurvitz, E. A.; Sedykh, E. A.; Khodzitskiy, M. K.

    The ideas of employing the unique properties of metamaterials for cloaking and invisibility applications has been recently suggested and investigated by several groups, because they may find numerous applications in physics and technology. While many of the recent designs of the cloaking structures are based on the transformation optics and exact formulas, the original concept suggested by Tretyakov employed the periodical set of parallel-plate waveguides with the height smoothly varying from H to h in order to reduce drastically the total scattering cross-section of a given object and to obtain broadband cloaking effect. Our paper is devoted to improvement of this design to make tunability and nonlinear effect. The Tretyakov's design was scaled for Ku-band frequencies and the cloak was placed into rectangular waveguide. The broad transmission band ("invisibility region") was obtained. The tunability of transmission band was realized by addition the capacitors into the cloak, between metallic plates. The cloaking system was simulated numerically by CST Microwave Studio. The possibility of invisibility switching on/off was shown by changing of capacity of varactor diodes from 0.4 to 3.4 pF by incident power. The nonlinear cloak behavior was shown at microwaves.

  12. Demonstration of tunable optical generation of higher-order modulation formats using nonlinearities and coherent frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Chitgarha, Mohammad Reza; Khaleghi, Salman; Ziyadi, Morteza; Almaiman, Ahmed; Mohajerin-Ariaei, Amirhossein; Gerstel, Ori; Paraschis, Loukas; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M; Touch, Joseph; Willner, Alan E

    2014-08-15

    We demonstrate a tunable, optical generation scheme of higher-order modulation formats including pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). Using this method, 100.4 Gbit/s 16-QAM and 120 Gbit/s 64-QAM were generated from 50.2 and 40 Gbit/s QPSK signals at EVMs of 7.8% and 6.4%, and 60 Gbit/s 8-PAM were generated at an EVM of 8.1% using three 20-Gbit/s BPSK signals. We also demonstrated a successful transmission of 80 Gbit/s 16-QAM through 80 km SMF-28 after compensating with 20 km DCF. All signals were generated, transmitted, and detected with BER below the forward error correction threshold. PMID:25121907

  13. Frequency Comb Generation in Superconducting Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, David; Erickson, Robert; Vissers, Michael; Ku, Hsiang-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    We have generated frequency combs spanning 0.5 to 20 GHz in superconducting λ = 2 resonators at T =3 K. Thin films of niobium-titanium nitride enabled this development due to their low loss, high nonlinearity, low frequency dispersion, and high critical temperature. The combs nucleate as sidebands around multiples of the pump frequency. Selection rules for the allowed frequency emission are calculated using perturbation theory, and the measured spectrum is shown to agree with the theory. Sideband spacing is measured to be accurate to 1 part in 108 The sidebands coalesce into a continuous comb structure observed to cover at least several frequency octaves. Generation of combs in this frequency range allows for unprecedented analysis of this non-linear phenomena in the time domain. We acknowledge DARPA and the NIST Quantum Information program.

  14. Nonlinear optical protection against frequency agile lasers

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, V.P.

    1988-08-04

    An eye-protection or equipment-filter device for protection from laser energy is disclosed. The device may be in the form of a telescope, binoculars, goggles, constructed as part of equipment such as image intensifiers or range designators. Optical elements focus the waist of the beam within a nonlinear frequency-doubling crystal or nonlinear optical element or fiber. The nonlinear elements produce a harmonic outside the visible spectrum in the case of crystals, or absorb the laser energy in the case of nonlinear fibers. Embodiments include protectors for the human eye as well as filters for sensitive machinery such as TV cameras, FLIR systems or other imaging equipment.

  15. Generation of Nonlinear Vortex Precursors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue-Yue; Feng, Xun-Li; Liu, Chengpu

    2016-07-01

    We numerically study the propagation of a few-cycle pulse carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) through a dense atomic system. Nonlinear precursors consisting of high-order vortex harmonics are generated in the transmitted field due to carrier effects associated with ultrafast Bloch oscillation. The nonlinear precursors survive to propagation effects and are well separated with the main pulse, which provides a straightforward way to measure precursors. By virtue of carrying high-order OAM, the obtained vortex precursors as information carriers have potential applications in optical information and communication fields where controllable loss, large information-carrying capacity, and high speed communication are required. PMID:27447507

  16. Generation of Nonlinear Vortex Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yue-Yue; Feng, Xun-Li; Liu, Chengpu

    2016-07-01

    We numerically study the propagation of a few-cycle pulse carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) through a dense atomic system. Nonlinear precursors consisting of high-order vortex harmonics are generated in the transmitted field due to carrier effects associated with ultrafast Bloch oscillation. The nonlinear precursors survive to propagation effects and are well separated with the main pulse, which provides a straightforward way to measure precursors. By virtue of carrying high-order OAM, the obtained vortex precursors as information carriers have potential applications in optical information and communication fields where controllable loss, large information-carrying capacity, and high speed communication are required.

  17. He's Frequency Formulation for Nonlinear Oscillators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Lei; Cai, Xu-Chu

    2007-01-01

    Based on an ancient Chinese algorithm, J H He suggested a simple but effective method to find the frequency of a nonlinear oscillator. In this paper, a modified version is suggested to improve the accuracy of the frequency; two examples are given, revealing that the obtained solutions are of remarkable accuracy and are valid for the whole solution…

  18. Efficient frequency conversion of laser sources in nonlinear crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The use of nonlinear crystals to extend the frequency range of solid-state laser sources is proposed. The harmonic generation of high-average-power laser sources and CW-laser-sources nonlinear crystals is considered. The development of Nd:YAG pumped parametric oscillators and optical parametric amplifiers using LiNbO3 or AgGaS2 is studied. The LiNbO3 oscillator has tunable output over the 1.4-4.0 micron range and is applicable for remote sensing measurements of molecules and of humidity and temperature; AgGaS2 oscillators provide the potential for 3-15 micron infrared generation. Advances in material synthesis techniques related to the design and synthesis of nonlinear media are discussed. Various procedures for the synthesis of nonlinear crystals are described.

  19. Generating Second Harmonics In Nonlinear Resonant Cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlovsky, William J.; Nabors, C. David; Byer, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    Single-axial-mode lasers pump very-low-loss doubling crystals. Important advance in making resonant generation of second harmonics possible for diode-laser-pumped solid-state lasers is recent development of monolithic nonplanar ring geometries in neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers that produce frequency-stable single-mode outputs. Other advance is development of high-quality MgO:LiNbO3 as electro-optically nonlinear material. Series of experiments devised to improve doubling efficiency of low-power lasers, and particularly of diode-laser-pumped continuous-wave Nd:YAG lasers.

  20. Image enhancement by non-linear extrapolation in frequency space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Charles H. (Inventor); Greenspan, Hayit K. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An input image is enhanced to include spatial frequency components having frequencies higher than those in an input image. To this end, an edge map is generated from the input image using a high band pass filtering technique. An enhancing map is subsequently generated from the edge map, with the enhanced map having spatial frequencies exceeding an initial maximum spatial frequency of the input image. The enhanced map is generated by applying a non-linear operator to the edge map in a manner which preserves the phase transitions of the edges of the input image. The enhanced map is added to the input image to achieve a resulting image having spatial frequencies greater than those in the input image. Simplicity of computations and ease of implementation allow for image sharpening after enlargement and for real-time applications such as videophones, advanced definition television, zooming, and restoration of old motion pictures.

  1. Nonlinear transmission spectroscopy with dual frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Rachel; Mukamel, Shaul

    2014-08-01

    We show how two frequency combs E1, E2 can be used to measure single-photon, two-photon absorption (TPA), and Raman resonances in a molecule with three electronic bands, by detecting the radio frequency modulation of the nonlinear transmission signal. Some peaks are independent of the carrier frequency of the comb and others shift with that frequency and have a width close to the comb width. TPA and Raman resonances independent of the carrier frequency are selected by measuring the transmission signal ˜E12E22 and the single-photon resonances are selected by measuring the transmission signal ˜E13E2. Sinusoidal spectral phase shaping strongly affects the TPA, but not the Raman resonances.

  2. Evaluation of nonlinear frequency compression: Clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Glista, Danielle; Scollie, Susan; Bagatto, Marlene; Seewald, Richard; Parsa, Vijay; Johnson, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated prototype multichannel nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) signal processing on listeners with high-frequency hearing loss. This signal processor applies NFC above a cut-off frequency. The participants were hearing-impaired adults (13) and children (11) with sloping, high-frequency hearing loss. Multiple outcome measures were repeated using a modified withdrawal design. These included speech sound detection, speech recognition, and self-reported preference measures. Group level results provide evidence of significant improvement of consonant and plural recognition when NFC was enabled. Vowel recognition did not change significantly. Analysis of individual results allowed for exploration of individual factors contributing to benefit received from NFC processing. Findings suggest that NFC processing can improve high frequency speech detection and speech recognition ability for adult and child listeners. Variability in individual outcomes related to factors such as degree and configuration of hearing loss, age of participant, and type of outcome measure. PMID:19504379

  3. NONLINEAR OPTICAL PHENOMENA: Generation of UV radiation in a lithium tetraborate crystal by walk-off compensated Type I sum-frequency mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhar, G. C.; Kumbhakar, P.; Chaudhary, A. K.

    2002-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is generated in two lithium tetraborate (Li2B4O7 or LB4) crystals by Type I walk-off compensated sum-frequency mixing (SFM) of the commonly available Nd:YAG laser radiation and radiation from a dye laser pumped by the second harmonic of the same YAG laser. In the walk-off compensated configuration, an enhancement in the conversion efficiency by a factor of 3.8 relative to the single pass generation is realised.

  4. Light beam frequency comb generator

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, Gordon J.; Kaskey, Jeffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    A light beam frequency comb generator uses an acousto-optic modulator to generate a plurality of light beams with frequencies which are uniformly separated and possess common noise and drift characteristics. A well collimated monochromatic input light beam is passed through this modulator to produce a set of both frequency shifted and unshifted optical beams. An optical system directs one or more frequency shifted beams along a path which is parallel to the path of the input light beam such that the frequency shifted beams are made incident on the modulator proximate to but separated from the point of incidence of the input light beam. After the beam is thus returned to and passed through the modulator repeatedly, a plurality of mutually parallel beams are generated which are frequency-shifted different numbers of times and possess common noise and drift characteristics.

  5. Light beam frequency comb generator

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, G.J.; Kaskey, J.A.

    1992-11-24

    A light beam frequency comb generator uses an acousto-optic modulator to generate a plurality of light beams with frequencies which are uniformly separated and possess common noise and drift characteristics. A well collimated monochromatic input light beam is passed through this modulator to produce a set of both frequency shifted and unshifted optical beams. An optical system directs one or more frequency shifted beams along a path which is parallel to the path of the input light beam such that the frequency shifted beams are made incident on the modulator proximate to but separated from the point of incidence of the input light beam. After the beam is thus returned to and passed through the modulator repeatedly, a plurality of mutually parallel beams are generated which are frequency-shifted different numbers of times and possess common noise and drift characteristics. 2 figs.

  6. Digital varying-frequency generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Generator employs up/down counters, digital-to-analog converters, and integrator to determine frequency and time duration of output. Circuit can be used where varying signal must be controlled accurately over long period of time.

  7. Frequency regulator for synchronous generators

    DOEpatents

    Karlicek, Robert F.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a novel frequency regulator which controls a generator output frequency for variations in both the input power to the generator and the power supplied to an uncontrolled external load. The present invention further includes over current and current balance protection devices which are relatively inexpensive to manufacture, which may be encapsulated to provide protection from the operating environment and which respond more quickly than previously known electromechanical devices.

  8. Frequency regulator for synchronous generators

    DOEpatents

    Karlicek, R.F.

    1982-08-10

    The present invention is directed to a novel frequency regulator which controls a generator output frequency for variations in both the input power to the generator and the power supplied to an uncontrolled external load. The present invention further includes over current and current balance protection devices which are relatively inexpensive to manufacture, which may be encapsulated to provide protection from the operating environment and which respond more quickly than previously known electromechanical devices. 11 figs.

  9. Measuring Complex Sum Frequency Spectra with a Nonlinear Interferometer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Bisson, Patrick J; Marmolejos, Joam M; Shultz, Mary Jane

    2016-06-01

    Currently, the only techniques capable of delivering molecular-level data on buried or soft interfaces are the nonlinear spectroscopic methods: sum frequency generation (SFG) and second harmonic generation (SHG). Deducing molecular information from spectra requires measuring the complex components-the amplitude and the phase-of the surface response. A new interferometer has been developed to determine these components with orders-of-magnitude improvement in uncertainty compared with current methods. Both the sample and reference spectra are generated within the interferometer, hence the label nonlinear interferometer. The interferometer configuration provides experimenters with wide latitude for both the sample enclosure and reference material choice and is thus widely applicable. The instrument is described and applied to the well-studied octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) film. The OTS spectra support the interpretation that variation in fabrication solvent water content and substrate preparation account for differences in OTS spectra reported in the literature. PMID:27159338

  10. Frequency Response and Gap Tuning for Nonlinear Electrical Oscillator Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Harish S.; Vaz, Garnet J.

    2013-01-01

    We study nonlinear electrical oscillator networks, the smallest example of which consists of a voltage-dependent capacitor, an inductor, and a resistor driven by a pure tone source. By allowing the network topology to be that of any connected graph, such circuits generalize spatially discrete nonlinear transmission lines/lattices that have proven useful in high-frequency analog devices. For such networks, we develop two algorithms to compute the steady-state response when a subset of nodes are driven at the same fixed frequency. The algorithms we devise are orders of magnitude more accurate and efficient than stepping towards the steady-state using a standard numerical integrator. We seek to enhance a given network's nonlinear behavior by altering the eigenvalues of the graph Laplacian, i.e., the resonances of the linearized system. We develop a Newton-type method that solves for the network inductances such that the graph Laplacian achieves a desired set of eigenvalues; this method enables one to move the eigenvalues while keeping the network topology fixed. Running numerical experiments using three different random graph models, we show that shrinking the gap between the graph Laplacian's first two eigenvalues dramatically improves a network's ability to (i) transfer energy to higher harmonics, and (ii) generate large-amplitude signals. Our results shed light on the relationship between a network's structure, encoded by the graph Laplacian, and its function, defined in this case by the presence of strongly nonlinear effects in the frequency response. PMID:24223751

  11. Frequency dependence of the nonlinear response in YBa2Cu3O7-x transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateu, Jordi; Booth, James C.; Moeckly, Brian H.

    2007-01-01

    The authors evaluate the frequency dependence of the nonlinear response in high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films by simultaneously measuring the nonlinear intermodulation products and harmonic generation in broadband superconducting transmission lines at 76K. The frequencies of the two-tone incident signal are set to produce spurious signals from 1to21GHz. They extract a nonlinear term ∣ΔR2+jωΔL2∣ by applying a model of spurious signal generation in superconducting transmission lines to their measurement results. They found that this nonlinear term follows a linear dependence on frequency, indicating a dominant contribution of the nonlinear inductance ΔL2 over the nonlinear resistance ΔR2, (ωΔL2≫ΔR2), for the superconducting nonlinear response.

  12. Numerical and experimental investigation of nonlinear ultrasonic Lamb waves at low frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Peng; Zhou, Yu; Fan, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Nonlinear ultrasonic Lamb waves are popular to characterize the nonlinearity of materials. However, the widely used nonlinear Lamb mode suffers from two associated complications: inherent dispersive and multimode natures. To overcome these, the symmetric Lamb mode (S0) at low frequency region is explored. At the low frequency region, the S0 mode is little dispersive and easy to generate. However, the secondary mode still exists, and increases linearly for significant distance. Numerical simulations and experiments are used to validate the nonlinear features and therefore demonstrate an easy alternative for nonlinear Lamb wave applications.

  13. Nonlinear harmonic generation in the STARS FEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo-Bakr, M.; Goldammer, K.; Kamps, T.; Knobloch, J.; Kuske, B.; Leitner, T.; Meseck, A.

    2008-08-01

    BESSY proposes to build STARS, an FEL to demonstrate cascaded High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG). In two HGHG stages, a laser source of 700-900 nm is converted down to a wavelength of 40-70 nm. The STARS facility consists of a normal-conducting RF photoinjector, three superconducting TESLA-type acceleration modules, a magnetic bunch compressor and two stages of HGHG, each consisting of a modulator, dispersive chicane and a radiator. At the entrance of the undulator section, the beam energy is 325 MeV and the peak current is about 500 A. With these parameters, the STARS FEL reaches saturation with a peak power of 100-350 MW. A superradiant mode is also foreseen which boosts the radiation power to the GW-level. Due to nonlinear harmonic generation (NHG), free electron lasers also radiate coherently at higher harmonics of the FEL resonant frequency. STARS can hence extend its output range to even shorter wavelengths. This paper presents studies of the STARS harmonic content in the wavelength range of 6-20 nm. Seeding with high harmonic generation pulses at 32 nm is also discussed.

  14. DPOAE generation dependence on primary frequencies ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botti, Teresa; Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo; D'Amato, Luisa; Sanjust, Filippo

    2015-12-01

    Two different mechanisms are responsible for the DPOAE generation. The nonlinear distortion wave-fixed mechanism generates the DPOAE Zero-Latency (ZL) component, as a backward traveling wave from the "overlap" region. Linear reflection of the forward DP wave (IDP) generates the DPOAE Long-Latency (LL) component through a place-fixed mechanism. ZL and LL components add up vectorially to generate the DPOAE recorded in the ear canal. The 2f1 - f2 and 2f2 - f1 DPOAE intensity depends on the stimulus level and on the primary frequency ratio r = f2/f1, where f1 and f2 are the primary stimuli frequencies. Here we study the behavior of the ZL and LL DPOAE components as a function of r by both numerical and laboratory experiments, measuring DPAOEs with an equal primary levels (L1 = L2) paradigm in the range [35, 75] dB SPL, with r ranging in [1.1, 1.45]. Numerical simulations of a nonlocal nonlinear model have been performed without cochlear roughness, to suppress the linear reflection mechanism. In this way the model solution at the base represents the DPOAE ZL component, and the solution at the corresponding DPOAE tonotopic place corresponds to the IDP. This technique has been not effectual to study the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE, as a consequence of its generation mechanism. While the 2f1 - f2 generation place is known to be the tonotopic place x(f2), the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE one has to be assumed basal to its corresponding reflection place. That is because ZL components generated in x(f2) cannot significantly pass through their resonant place. Moreover increasing the ratio r, 2f2 - f1 ZL and LL generation place approach each other, because the overlap region of primary tones decreases. Consequently, the distinction between the two places becomes complicated. DPOAEs have been measured in six young normal-hearing subjects. DPOAE ZL and LL components have been separated by a time-frequency filtering method based on the wavelet transform 1. due to their different phase gradient delay

  15. Image enhancement by nonlinear extrapolation in frequency space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenspan, Hayit; Anderson, Charles H.

    1994-03-01

    A procedure for creating images with higher resolution than the sampling rate would allow is described. The enhancement algorithm augments the frequency content of the image using shape-invariant properties of edges across scale by using a non-linearity that generates phase- coherent higher harmonics. The procedure utilizes the Laplacian pyramid image representation. Results are presented depicting the power-spectra augmentation and the visual enhancement of several images. Simplicity of computations and ease of implementation allow for real-time applications such as high-definition television.

  16. Nonlinear behavior of electrodynamic loudspeaker suspension at low frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, ZiXin; Shen, Yong; Heng, Wei; Liu, YunFeng

    2013-07-01

    The suspension of electrodynamic loudspeakers includes a surround of the cone and a spider, and it is characterized by the mechanic stiffness in the lumped-parameter model. By solving the nonlinear differential equation of motion which considers the nonlinearity of suspension at low frequencies numerically and measuring different kinds of surrounds and spiders, the nonlinear behavior of suspension is theoretically and experimentally studied. Since the nonlinear stiffness of spiders and surrounds can be measured and fitted respectively before assembled into loudspeakers, which spider works best with which surround is studied. The performance of loudspeakers such as harmonic distortion based on the nonlinear parameters can be predicted.

  17. Nonlinear multiferroic phase shifters for microwave frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Ustinov, Alexey B.; Kalinikos, Boris A.; Srinivasan, G.

    2014-02-03

    A nonlinear microwave phase shifter based on a planar multiferroic composite has been studied. The multiferroic structure is fabricated in the form of a bilayer consisting of yttrium iron garnet and barium strontium titanate. The principle of operation of the device is based on the linear and nonlinear control of the phase shift of the hybrid spin-electromagnetic waves propagating in the bilayer. The linear control is realized with magnetic and electric fields. The nonlinear control is provided by the input power of microwave signal. The device showed a nonlinear phase shift up to 250°, electric field induced phase shift up to 330°, and magnetic field induced phase shift of more than 180°.

  18. Time-frequency characterization of nonlinear normal modes and challenges in nonlinearity identification of dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, P. Frank

    2011-10-01

    Presented here is a new time-frequency signal processing methodology based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and a new conjugate-pair decomposition (CPD) method for characterization of nonlinear normal modes and parametric identification of nonlinear multiple-degree-of-freedom dynamical systems. Different from short-time Fourier transform and wavelet transform, HHT uses the apparent time scales revealed by the signal's local maxima and minima to sequentially sift components of different time scales. Because HHT does not use pre-determined basis functions and function orthogonality for component extraction, it provides more accurate time-varying amplitudes and frequencies of extracted components for accurate estimation of system characteristics and nonlinearities. CPD uses adaptive local harmonics and function orthogonality to extract and track time-localized nonlinearity-distorted harmonics without the end effect that destroys the accuracy of HHT at the two data ends. For parametric identification, the method only needs to process one steady-state response (a free undamped modal vibration or a steady-state response to a harmonic excitation) and uses amplitude-dependent dynamic characteristics derived from perturbation analysis to determine the type and order of nonlinearity and system parameters. A nonlinear two-degree-of-freedom system is used to illustrate the concepts and characterization of nonlinear normal modes, vibration localization, and nonlinear modal coupling. Numerical simulations show that the proposed method can provide accurate time-frequency characterization of nonlinear normal modes and parametric identification of nonlinear dynamical systems. Moreover, results show that nonlinear modal coupling makes it impossible to decompose a general nonlinear response of a highly nonlinear system into nonlinear normal modes even if nonlinear normal modes exist in the system.

  19. Apparatus for generating nonlinear pulse patterns

    DOEpatents

    Nakamura, Michiyuki

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus for generating a plurality of nonlinear pulse patterns from a single linear pulse pattern. A first counter counts the pulses of the linear pulse pattern and a second counter counts the pulses of the nonlinear pulse pattern. A comparator compares the counts of both counters, and in response to an equal count, a gate is enabled to gate a pulse of the linear pattern as a pulse of the nonlinear pattern, the latter also resetting the first counter. Presettable dividers divide the pulses of each pattern before they are counted by the respective counters. Also, apparatus for generating a logarithmic pulse pattern from a linear pulse pattern to any log base. In one embodiment, a shift register is used in place of the second counter to be clocked by each pulse of the logarithmic pattern to generate the pattern. In another embodiment, a memory stores the logarithmic pattern and is addressed by the second counter which is clocked by the pulses of the logarithmic pulse pattern.

  20. Apparatus for generating nonlinear pulse patterns

    DOEpatents

    Nakamura, N.M.I.

    Apparatus for generating a plurality of nonlinear pulse patterns from a single linear pulse pattern. A first counter counts the pulses of the linear pulse pattern and a second counter counts the pulses of the nonlinear pulse pattern. A comparator compares the counts of both counters, and in response to an equal count, a gate is enabled to gate a pulse of the linear pattern as a pulse of the nonlinear pattern, the latter also resetting the first counter. Presettable dividers divide the pulses of each pattern before they are counted by the respective counters. Apparatus for generating a logarithmic pulse pattern from a linear pulse pattern to any log base is described. In one embodiment, a shift register is used in place of the second counter to be clocked by each pulse of the logarithmic pattern to generate the pattern. In another embodiment, a memory stores the logarithmic pattern and is addressed by the second counter which is clocked by the pulses of the logarithmic pulse pattern.

  1. Nonlinear terahertz frequency conversion via graphene microribbon array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasari, H.; Abrishamian, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    By exploiting the interesting trait of graphene to have electrically tunable first- and third-order conductivities besides its capability to support plasmonic resonances at terahertz frequencies, here, through the nonlinear finite-difference time-domain numerical technique we developed, we demonstrate a noticeable improvement in the conversion efficiency of third-harmonic generation (THG) from a graphene microribbon array by more than five orders of magnitude compared to an infinite graphene sheet, under normal illumination of terahertz waves. As the Fermi level and period length of the ribbon array increase, the transmission obviously manifests a blue shift but denotes a red shift with an increase in ribbon width. The quality factor of resonance (and so the THG efficiency) also shows improvement with an increase in graphene Fermi level, carrier mobility and period length and is degraded by an increase in ribbon width. Generating new frequencies, terahertz signal processing, spectroscopy and so on are among the plethora of valuable potential applications envisioned to be developed based on the findings reported here.

  2. Nonlinear terahertz frequency conversion via graphene microribbon array.

    PubMed

    Nasari, H; Abrishamian, M S

    2016-07-29

    By exploiting the interesting trait of graphene to have electrically tunable first- and third-order conductivities besides its capability to support plasmonic resonances at terahertz frequencies, here, through the nonlinear finite-difference time-domain numerical technique we developed, we demonstrate a noticeable improvement in the conversion efficiency of third-harmonic generation (THG) from a graphene microribbon array by more than five orders of magnitude compared to an infinite graphene sheet, under normal illumination of terahertz waves. As the Fermi level and period length of the ribbon array increase, the transmission obviously manifests a blue shift but denotes a red shift with an increase in ribbon width. The quality factor of resonance (and so the THG efficiency) also shows improvement with an increase in graphene Fermi level, carrier mobility and period length and is degraded by an increase in ribbon width. Generating new frequencies, terahertz signal processing, spectroscopy and so on are among the plethora of valuable potential applications envisioned to be developed based on the findings reported here. PMID:27306039

  3. Electronic power generators for ultrasonic frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciovica, D.

    1974-01-01

    The design and construction of an ultrasonic frequency electronic power generator are discussed. The principle design elements of the generator are illustrated. The generator provides an inductive load with an output power of two kilowatts and a variable output frequency in the fifteen to thirty KiloHertz range. The method of conducting the tests and the results obtained with selected materials are analyzed.

  4. Continuous control of the nonlinearity phase for harmonic generations.

    PubMed

    Li, Guixin; Chen, Shumei; Pholchai, Nitipat; Reineke, Bernhard; Wong, Polis Wing Han; Pun, Edwin Yue Bun; Cheah, Kok Wai; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang

    2015-06-01

    The capability of locally engineering the nonlinear optical properties of media is crucial in nonlinear optics. Although poling is the most widely employed technique for achieving locally controlled nonlinearity, it leads only to a binary nonlinear state, which is equivalent to a discrete phase change of π in the nonlinear polarizability. Here, inspired by the concept of spin-rotation coupling, we experimentally demonstrate nonlinear metasurfaces with homogeneous linear optical properties but spatially varying effective nonlinear polarizability with continuously controllable phase. The continuous phase control over the local nonlinearity is demonstrated for second and third harmonic generation by using nonlinear metasurfaces consisting of nanoantennas of C3 and C4 rotational symmetries, respectively. The continuous phase engineering of the effective nonlinear polarizability enables complete control over the propagation of harmonic generation signals. Therefore, this method seamlessly combines the generation and manipulation of harmonic waves, paving the way for highly compact nonlinear nanophotonic devices. PMID:25849530

  5. Microwave harmonic generation and nonlinearity in microplasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregório, José; Parsons, Stephen; Hopwood, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    Nonlinearities in microplasmas excited by microwaves are described both experimentally and through a 2D fluid model. A split-ring resonator generates a microplasma in a 150 μm discharge gap at 1 GHz. Nonlinearity generates both radiated and conducted harmonics which are measured from 0.2–760 Torr (Ar) for power levels between 0.5 and 3 W. Asymmetric electrode configurations produce the highest 3rd harmonic power (>10 mW) at an optimal pressure of the order of 0.3 Torr. The microplasma is also demonstrated as a mixer. The experimental results are explained with the aid of a fluid model of the microplasma. The model shows that the smaller electrode in an asymmetric device is forced to attain a large microwave potential that strongly modulates the sheath thickness and the local electron energy. The voltage-dependent sheath width gives rises to a nonlinear sheath capacitance as well as short pulses of hot electron flux to the electrode. The modeled 3rd harmonic current is converted to an extractable harmonic power by a microwave circuit model. Using this technique the modeled and measured harmonic production of the microplasma are found to compare favorably.

  6. Frequency domain stability analysis of nonlinear active disturbance rejection control system.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Qi, Xiaohui; Xia, Yuanqing; Pu, Fan; Chang, Kai

    2015-05-01

    This paper applies three methods (i.e., root locus analysis, describing function method and extended circle criterion) to approach the frequency domain stability analysis of the fast tool servo system using nonlinear active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) algorithm. Root locus qualitative analysis shows that limit cycle is generated because the gain of the nonlinear function used in ADRC varies with its input. The parameters in the nonlinear function are adjustable to suppress limit cycle. In the process of root locus analysis, the nonlinear function is transformed based on the concept of equivalent gain. Then, frequency domain description of the nonlinear function via describing function is presented and limit cycle quantitative analysis including estimating prediction error is presented, which virtually and theoretically demonstrates that the describing function method cannot guarantee enough precision in this case. Furthermore, absolute stability analysis based on extended circle criterion is investigated as a complement. PMID:25532936

  7. Detector nonlinearity in frequency-domain fluorometry.

    PubMed

    Wirth, M J; Burbage, J D; Zulli, S L

    1993-02-20

    Frequency-domain fluorometry relies on the measurement of the phase and amplitudes of the Fourier components of the time-dependent fluorescence signal. Experimental results that show that a conventional photomultiplier is subject to intensity-dependent phase shifts are presented. The measurements indicate that this is a problem well below the maximum linear current of the photomultiplier response. These results have important implications in frequency-domain fluorescence anisotropy experiments, in which the parallel and the perpendicular components of the emission intensity are inherently different from one another: a phase shift can be introduced by the photomultiplier. PMID:20802776

  8. Nonlinear frequency-mixing photoacoustic imaging of a crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigarev, N.; Zakrzewski, J.; Tournat, V.; Gusev, V.

    2009-08-01

    We present a technique for nonlinear photoacoustic imaging of cracks by laser excitation with intensity modulation at two fundamental frequencies combined with detection at mixed frequencies. By exploiting the strong dependence of the photoacoustic emission efficiency on the state—open or closed—of the contacts between the crack faces, remarkably enhanced image contrast is observed, ˜20 times higher than in linear photoacoustic images at the highest of the fundamental frequencies.

  9. Joint time-frequency domain identification of nonlinearly controlled structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Gang; Sain, Michael K.; Spencer, Billie F., Jr.; Pham, Khanh D.

    2006-05-01

    This paper introduces a 3-step approach for the identification of a linear structure that is controlled by nonlinear damping devices. First, the structure with the integrated nonlinear damper is subjected to random vibration test and the frequency response function (FRF) of the structure is calculated from the input-output data of the physical system. Based on the frequency domain data, a state space model is then estimated using a recently developed FRF curve-fitting technique that is designed especially for lightly damped structures with control inputs. Finally an iterative process is used to optimize the model performance in the time domain and an integrated model of the nonlinearly controlled structure is derived by interconnecting the structure model with that of the nonlinear damper. The complete approach is illustrated by the modeling of a base-isolated structure controlled by a magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper.

  10. Nonlinear harmonic generation in distributed optical klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    H.P. Freund; George R. Neil

    2001-12-01

    A distributed optical klystron has the potential for dramatically shortening the total interaction length in high-gain free-electron lasers (INP 77-59, Novosibirsk, 1977; Nucl. Instr. and Meth A 304 (1991) 463) in comparison to a single-wiggler-segment configuration. This shortening can be even more dramatic if a nonlinear harmonic generation mechanism is used to reach the desired wavelength. An example operating at a 4.5{angstrom} fundamental and a 1.5{angstrom} harmonic is discussed.

  11. Frequency multiplying optoelectronic oscillator based on nonlinearly-coupled double loops.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Jin, Tao; Chi, Hao

    2013-12-30

    We propose and demonstrate a frequency multiplying optoelectronic oscillator with nonlinearly-coupled double loops based on two cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulators, to generate high frequency microwave signals using only low-frequency devices. We find the final oscillation modes are only determined by the length of the master oscillation loop. Frequency multiplying signals are generated via nonlinearly-coupled double loops, the output of one loop being used to modulate the other. In the experiments, microwave signals at 10 GHz with -121 dBc/Hz phase noise at 10 kHz offset and 20 GHz with -112.8 dBc/Hz phase noise at 10 kHz offset are generated. Meanwhile, their side-mode suppression ratios are also evaluated and the maximum ratio of 70 dB is obtained. PMID:24514845

  12. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surfacemore » equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.« less

  13. Low frequency AC waveform generator

    DOEpatents

    Bilharz, Oscar W.

    1986-01-01

    Low frequency sine, cosine, triangle and square waves are synthesized in circuitry which allows variation in the waveform amplitude and frequency while exhibiting good stability and without requiring significant stabilization time. A triangle waveform is formed by a ramped integration process controlled by a saturation amplifier circuit which produces the necessary hysteresis for the triangle waveform. The output of the saturation circuit is tapped to produce the square waveform. The sine waveform is synthesized by taking the absolute value of the triangular waveform, raising this absolute value to a predetermined power, multiplying the raised absolute value of the triangle wave with the triangle wave itself and properly scaling the resultant waveform and subtracting it from the triangular waveform itself. The cosine is synthesized by squaring the triangular waveform, raising the triangular waveform to a predetermined power and adding the squared waveform raised to the predetermined power with a DC reference and subtracting the squared waveform therefrom, with all waveforms properly scaled. The resultant waveform is then multiplied with a square wave in order to correct the polarity and produce the resultant cosine waveform.

  14. Low frequency ac waveform generator

    DOEpatents

    Bilharz, O.W.

    1983-11-22

    Low frequency sine, cosine, triangle and square waves are synthesized in circuitry which allows variation in the waveform amplitude and frequency while exhibiting good stability and without requiring significant stablization time. A triangle waveform is formed by a ramped integration process controlled by a saturation amplifier circuit which produces the necessary hysteresis for the triangle waveform. The output of the saturation circuit is tapped to produce the square waveform. The sine waveform is synthesized by taking the absolute value of the triangular waveform, raising this absolute value to a predetermined power, multiplying the raised absolute value of the triangle wave with the triangle wave itself and properly scaling the resultant waveform and subtracting it from the triangular waveform to a predetermined power and adding the squared waveform raised to the predetermined power with a DC reference and subtracting the squared waveform therefrom, with all waveforms properly scaled. The resultant waveform is then multiplied with a square wave in order to correct the polarity and produce the resultant cosine waveform.

  15. Frequency-tunable superconducting resonators via nonlinear kinetic inductance

    SciTech Connect

    Vissers, M. R.; Hubmayr, J.; Sandberg, M.; Gao, J.; Chaudhuri, S.; Bockstiegel, C.

    2015-08-10

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a frequency-tunable high-Q superconducting resonator made from a niobium titanium nitride film. The frequency tunability is achieved by injecting a DC through a current-directing circuit into the nonlinear inductor whose kinetic inductance is current-dependent. We have demonstrated continuous tuning of the resonance frequency in a 180 MHz frequency range around 4.5 GHz while maintaining the high internal quality factor Q{sub i} > 180 000. This device may serve as a tunable filter and find applications in superconducting quantum computing and measurement. It also provides a useful tool to study the nonlinear response of a superconductor. In addition, it may be developed into techniques for measurement of the complex impedance of a superconductor at its transition temperature and for readout of transition-edge sensors.

  16. Cascade frequency generation regime in an optical parametric oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Kolker, D B; Dmitriev, Aleksandr K; Gorelik, P; Vong, Franko; Zondy, J J

    2009-05-31

    In a parametric oscillator of a special two-sectional design based on a lithium niobate periodic structure, a cascade frequency generation regime was observed in which a signal wave pumped a secondary parametric oscillator, producing secondary signal and idler waves. The secondary parametric oscillator can be tuned in a broad range of {approx}200 nm with respect to a fixed wavelength of the primary idler wave. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  17. Generation of a frequency comb and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hagmann, Mark J; Yarotski, Dmitry A

    2013-12-03

    Apparatus for generating a microwave frequency comb (MFC) in the DC tunneling current of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) by fast optical rectification, cause by nonlinearity of the DC current vs. voltage curve for the tunneling junction, of regularly-spaced, short pulses of optical radiation from a focused mode-locked, ultrafast laser, directed onto the tunneling junction, is described. Application of the MFC to high resolution dopant profiling in semiconductors is simulated. Application of the MFC to other measurements is described.

  18. Finite-dimensional states and entanglement generation for a nonlinear coupler

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalewska-Kudlaszyk, A.; Leonski, W.

    2006-04-15

    We discuss a system comprising two nonlinear (Kerr-like) oscillators coupled mutually by a nonlinear interaction. The system is excited by an external coherent field that is resonant to the frequency of one of the oscillators. We show that the coupler evolution can be closed within a finite set of n-photon states, analogously as in the nonlinear quantum scissors model. Moreover, for this type of evolution our system can be treated as a Bell-like state generator. Thanks to the nonlinear nature of both oscillators and their internal coupling, these states can be generated even if the system exhibits its energy dissipating nature, contrary to systems with linear couplings.

  19. Organic nonlinear crystals and high power frequency conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S.P.; Davis, L.; Wang, F.; Monaco, S.; Eimerl, D.

    1987-12-01

    We are searching for a new second- and third-harmonic generators among the salts of chiral organic acids and bases. We discuss the relevant properties of crystals from this group of compounds, including their nonlinear and phasematching characteristics, linear absorption, damage threshold and crystal growth. In addition, we summarize what is known concerning other nonlinear optical properties of these crystals, such as two-photon absorption, nonlinear refractive index, and stimulated Raman thresholds. A preliminary assessment is made of the potential of these materials for use in future high power, large aperture lasers such as those used for inertial confinement fusion experiments. 14 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. Extension of a nonlinear systems theory to general-frequency unsteady transonic aerodynamic responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1993-01-01

    A methodology for modeling nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses, for subsequent use in aeroservoelastic analysis and design, using the Volterra-Wiener theory of nonlinear systems is presented. The methodology is extended to predict nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses of arbitrary frequency. The Volterra-Wiener theory uses multidimensional convolution integrals to predict the response of nonlinear systems to arbitrary inputs. The CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code is used to generate linear and nonlinear unit impulse responses that correspond to each of the integrals for a rectangular wing with a NACA 0012 section with pitch and plunge degrees of freedom. The computed kernels then are used to predict linear and nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses via convolution and compared to responses obtained using the CAP-TSD code directly. The results indicate that the approach can be used to predict linear unsteady aerodynamic responses exactly for any input amplitude or frequency at a significant cost savings. Convolution of the nonlinear terms results in nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses that compare reasonably well with those computed using the CAP-TSD code directly but at significant computational cost savings.

  1. Highly nonlinear fibers for very wideband supercontinuum generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Pálsdóttir, Bera

    2008-02-01

    Supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear fibers (HNLF) pumped with femtosecond pulses is an area of large interest for applications such as broad band light sources, tunable femtosecond sources, frequency metrology, and fluorescence microscopy. In the last few years, a lot of focus has been put on optimizing photonics crystal fibers for supercontinuum application. In this paper, we will focus on conventional silica based HNLF, which e.g. have the advantage of precise dispersion control, and easy splicing to standard single mode fibers. We have performed a systematic experimental study of the effect of dispersion, of the HNLF as well as the input power to the HNLF. To pump the fiber we have build an femtosecond fiber laser consisting of a passive mode locked figure eight oscillator followed by an amplifier. The dispersion before coupling into the HNLF was optimized for broadest supercontinuum generation. Supercontinuum generation in both standard and polarization maintaining HNLF are studied.

  2. CFD Data Generation Process for Nonlinear Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arslan, Alan; Magee, Todd; Unger, Eric; Hartwich, Peter; Agrawal, Shreekant; Giesing, Joseph; Bharadvaj, Bala; Chaderjian, Neal; Murman, Scott

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a process to generate a CFD database for the non-linear loads process capability for critical loads evaluation at Boeing Long Beach. The CFD simulations were performed for wing/body configurations at high angles of attack and Reynolds numbers with transonic and elastic deflection effects. Convergence criteria had to be tailored for loads applications rather than the usual drag performance. The time-accurate approach was subsequently adopted in order to improve convergence and model possible unsteadiness in the flowfield. In addition, uncertainty issues relating to the turbulence model and grid resolution in areas of high vortical flows were addressed and investigated for one of the cases.

  3. Nonlinear frequency conversion using high-quality modes in GaAs nanobeam cavities.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Sonia; Radulaski, Marina; Zhang, Jingyuan Linda; Petykiewicz, Jan; Biermann, Klaus; Vučković, Jelena

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate the design, fabrication, and characterization of nanobeam photonic crystal cavities in (111)-GaAs with multiple high-Q modes, with large frequency separations (up to 740 nm in experiment, i.e., a factor of 1.5 and up to an octave in theory). Such structures are crucial for efficient implementation of nonlinear frequency conversion. Here, we employ them to demonstrate sum-frequency generation from 1300 and 1950 nm to 780 nm. These wavelengths are particularly interesting for quantum frequency conversion between Si vacancy centers in diamond and the fiber-optic network. PMID:25360956

  4. Dual-frequency transducer for nonlinear contrast agent imaging.

    PubMed

    Guiroy, Axel; Novell, Anthony; Ringgaard, Erling; Lou-Moeller, Rasmus; Grégoire, Jean-Marc; Abellard, André-Pierre; Zawada, Tomasz; Bouakaz, Ayache; Levassort, Franck

    2013-12-01

    Detection of high-order nonlinear components issued from microbubbles has emerged as a sensitive method for contrast agent imaging. Nevertheless, the detection of these high-frequency components, including the third, fourth, and fifth harmonics, remains challenging because of the lack of transducer sensitivity and bandwidth. In this context, we propose a new design of imaging transducer based on a simple fabrication process for high-frequency nonlinear imaging. The transducer is composed of two elements: the outer low-frequency (LF) element was centered at 4 MHz and used in transmit mode, whereas the inner high-frequency (HF) element centered at 14 MHz was used in receive mode. The center element was pad-printed using a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) paste. The outer element was molded using a commercial PZT, and curved porous unpoled PZT was used as backing. Each piezoelectric element was characterized to determine the electromechanical performance with thickness coupling factor around 45%. After the assembly of the two transducer elements, hydrophone measurements (electroacoustic responses and radiation patterns) were carried out and demonstrated a large bandwidth (70% at -3 dB) of the HF transducer. Finally, the transducer was evaluated for contrast agent imaging using contrast agent microbubbles. The results showed that harmonic components (up to the sixth harmonic) of the microbubbles were successfully detected. Moreover, images from a flow phantom were acquired and demonstrated the potential of the transducer for high-frequency nonlinear contrast imaging. PMID:24297028

  5. Persistent subplasma-frequency kinetic electrostatic electron nonlinear waves

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, T. W.; Tyshetskiy, Y.; Ghizzo, A.; Bertrand, P.

    2009-04-15

    Driving a one-dimensional collisionless Maxwellian (Vlasov) plasma with a sufficiently strong longitudinal ponderomotive driver for a sufficiently long time results in a self-sustaining nonsinusoidal wave train with well-trapped electrons even for frequencies well below the plasma frequency, i.e., in the plasma wave spectral gap. Typical phase velocities of these waves are somewhat above the electron thermal velocity. This new nonlinear wave is being termed a kinetic electrostatic electron nonlinear (KEEN) wave. The drive duration must exceed the bounce period {tau}{sub B} of the trapped electrons subject to the drive, as calculated from the drive force and the linear plasma response to the drive. For a given wavenumber a wide range of KEEN wave frequencies can be readily excited. The basic KEEN structure is essentially kinetic, with the trapped electron density variation being almost completely shielded by the free electrons, leaving just enough net charge to support the wave.

  6. Nonlinear frequency coupling in dual radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Waskoenig, J.; Gans, T.

    2010-05-03

    Plasma ionization, and associated mode transitions, in dual radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasmas are governed through nonlinear frequency coupling in the dynamics of the plasma boundary sheath. Ionization in low-power mode is determined by the nonlinear coupling of electron heating and the momentary local plasma density. Ionization in high-power mode is driven by electron avalanches during phases of transient high electric fields within the boundary sheath. The transition between these distinctly different modes is controlled by the total voltage of both frequency components.

  7. Geometrical representation of sum frequency generation and adiabatic frequency conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchowski, Haim; Oron, Dan; Arie, Ady; Silberberg, Yaron

    2008-12-01

    We present a geometrical representation of the process of sum frequency generation in the undepleted pump approximation, in analogy with the known optical Bloch equations. We use this analogy to propose a technique for achieving both high efficiency and large bandwidth in sum frequency conversion using the adiabatic inversion scheme. The process is analogous with rapid adiabatic passage in NMR, and adiabatic constraints are derived in this context. This adiabatic frequency conversion scheme is realized experimentally using an aperiodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) device, where we achieved high efficiency signal-to-idler conversion over a bandwidth of 140nm .

  8. Nonlinear amplification of side-modes in frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Probst, R A; Steinmetz, T; Wilken, T; Hundertmark, H; Stark, S P; Wong, G K L; Russell, P St J; Hänsch, T W; Holzwarth, R; Udem, Th

    2013-05-20

    We investigate how suppressed modes in frequency combs are modified upon frequency doubling and self-phase modulation. We find, both experimentally and by using a simplified model, that these side-modes are amplified relative to the principal comb modes. Whereas frequency doubling increases their relative strength by 6 dB, the growth due to self-phase modulation can be much stronger and generally increases with nonlinear propagation length. Upper limits for this effect are derived in this work. This behavior has implications for high-precision calibration of spectrographs with frequency combs used for example in astronomy. For this application, Fabry-Pérot filter cavities are used to increase the mode spacing to exceed the resolution of the spectrograph. Frequency conversion and/or spectral broadening after non-perfect filtering reamplify the suppressed modes, which can lead to calibration errors. PMID:23736390

  9. Nonlinear Flow Generation By Electrostatic Turbulence In Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. X.; Diamond, P. H.; Hahm, T. S.; Ethier, S.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W. M.

    2010-07-07

    Global gyrokinetic simulations have revealed an important nonlinear flow generation process due to the residual stress produced by electrostatic turbulence of ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes and trapped electron modes (TEM). In collisionless TEM (CTEM) turbulence, nonlinear residual stress generation by both the fluctuation intensity and the intensity gradient in the presence of broken symmetry in the parallel wave number spectrum is identified for the first time. Concerning the origin of the symmetry breaking, turbulence self-generated low frequency zonal flow shear has been identified to be a key, universal mechanism in various turbulence regimes. Simulations reported here also indicate the existence of other mechanisms beyond E × B shear. The ITG turbulence driven “intrinsic” torque associated with residual stress is shown to increase close to linearly with the ion temperature gradient, in qualitative agreement with experimental observations in various devices. In CTEM dominated regimes, a net toroidal rotation is driven in the cocurrent direction by “intrinsic” torque, consistent with the experimental trend of observed intrinsic rotation. The finding of a “flow pinch” in CTEM turbulence may offer an interesting new insight into the underlying dynamics governing the radial penetration of modulated flows in perturbation experiments. Finally, simulations also reveal highly distinct phase space structures between CTEM and ITG turbulence driven momentum, energy and particle fluxes, elucidating the roles of resonant and non-resonant particles.

  10. Nonlinear Trivelpiece-Gould Waves: Frequency, Functional Form, and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubin, Daniel H. E.

    2015-11-01

    This poster considers the frequency, spatial form, and stability, of nonlinear Trivelpiece- Gould (TG) waves on a cylindrical plasma column of length L and radius rp, treating both traveling and standing waves, and focussing on the regime of experimental interest in which L/rp >> 1. In this regime TG waves are weakly dispersive, allowing strong mode-coupling between Fourier harmonics. The mode coupling implies that linear theory for such waves is a poor approximation even at fairly small amplitudes, and nonlinear theories that include only a small number of harmonics (such as 3-wave parametric resonance theory) fail to fully capture the stability properties of the system. We find that nonlinear standing waves suffer jumps in their functional form as their amplitude is varied continuously. The jumps are caused by nonlinear resonances between the standing wave and nearly linear waves whose frequencies and wave numbers are harmonics of the standing wave. Also, the standing waves are found to be unstable to a multi-wave version of 3-wave parametric resonance, with an amplitude required for instability onset that is much larger than expected from three wave theory. For traveling wave, linearly stability is found for all amplitudes that could be studied, in contradiction to 3-wave theory. Supported by National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1414570, Department of Energy Grants DE-SC0002451and DE-SC0008693.

  11. Electromagnetic scattering from nonlinear anisotropic cylinders. I - Fundamental frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Moh'd. A.; Uslenghi, P. L. E.

    1990-04-01

    The solution of the problem of electromagnetic scattering of obliquely incident plane waves by homogeneous, nonlinear anisotropic cylindrical structures is obtained. The medium of the scatterer is characterized by Volterra-type integrals for the electric and magnetic flux density vectors D and B, respectively. The nonlinear problem is solved using the perturbation method. The effects of nonlinearities on the field properties both inside and outside the scatterer, together with the effect on the radar cross section, are investigated for the fundamental frequency components. To demonstrate the validity of the approach, the results obtained by the perturbation method are compared with those obtained using the plane wave representation method of Censor (1983), where the iteration method is used to solve the resulting dispersion equation. The results are in very good agreement in both amplitude and phase of the fields for the case of very weak nonlinearity. When the relative magnitude of the nonlinear component of the permittivity is increased, the iteration method shows a faster divergence of the phase from the linear phase.

  12. Generating nonlinear FM chirp waveforms for radar.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-09-01

    Nonlinear FM waveforms offer a radar matched filter output with inherently low range sidelobes. This yields a 1-2 dB advantage in Signal-to-Noise Ratio over the output of a Linear FM waveform with equivalent sidelobe filtering. This report presents design and implementation techniques for Nonlinear FM waveforms.

  13. Nanoscale nonlinear radio frequency properties of bulk Nb: Origins of extrinsic nonlinear effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Tamin; Ghamsari, B. G.; Bieler, T.; Anlage, Steven M.

    2015-10-01

    The performance of niobium-based superconducting radio frequency (SRF) particle-accelerator cavities can be sensitive to localized defects that give rise to quenches at high accelerating gradients. In order to identify these material defects on bulk Nb surfaces at their operating frequency and temperature, a wide-bandwidth microwave microscope with localized and strong RF magnetic fields is developed by integrating a magnetic write head into the near-field microwave microscope to enable mapping of the local electrodynamic response in the multi-GHz frequency regime at cryogenic temperatures. This magnetic writer demonstrates a localized and strong RF magnetic field on bulk Nb surface with Bsurface>102 mT and submicron resolution. By measuring the nonlinear response of the superconductor, nonlinearity coming from the nanoscale weak-link Josephson junctions due to the contaminated surface in the cavity-fabrication process is demonstrated.

  14. Frequency generation and synthesis in the DRSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanloock, P.; Devlieghere, J.

    1992-06-01

    The feasibility of a Tunable Frequency Converter (TFC) concept envisaged on board of the Data Relay System Satellites (DRSS), which requires a synthesizer with state of the art phase noise performance that is locked to a common, ultrastable oscillator, is addressed. The DRSS Ka band communication links are discussed with reference to the DRS system and the TCF. The aim is to provide an autonomous TCF unit demonstrating that the advanced channel selection scheme, with all frequency translations locked to one common reference, is feasible. Concept tradeoff and key elements of the frequency synthesizer are outlined. White noise filtering and reference frequency selection of the reference generator are discussed. The TFC unit allows payload reconfigurability via the frequency setting. The concept is extendable to all TFC types on board of the DRSS.

  15. Controllable Raman soliton self-frequency shift in nonlinear metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang Yuanjiang; Wen Shuangchun; Guo Jun; Fan Dianyuan

    2011-09-15

    Controllable and dispersive magnetic permeability in the metamaterials (MMs) provides us more freedom to harness the propagation of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses at will. Here we discuss the controllability of the Raman soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) in the MMs with a nonlinear electric polarization. First, we derive a generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation suitable for few-cycle pulse propagation in the MMs with delayed Raman response, and demonstrate the Raman effect, high-order Raman-related nonlinearity, and high-order nonlinear dispersion terms occurring in this equation. Second, we present a theoretical investigation on the controllability of the Raman SSFS in the MMs. In particular, we identify the combined effects of the anomalous self-steepening (SS), third-order dispersion (TOD), and Raman effect on SSFS. It is shown that the positive SS effect suppresses SSFS; however, the negative SS effect enhances SSFS, and the positive TOD leads to the deceleration of SSFS. Finally, the effects of SS on the SSFS of the second-order soliton are also discussed.

  16. New χ (3)-nonlinear-laser manifestations in tetragonal LuVO4 crystal: more than sesqui-octave Raman-induced Stokes and anti-Stokes comb generation and cascaded self-frequency ``tripling''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminskii, A. A.; Rhee, H.; Eichler, H. J.; Ueda, K.; Oka, K.; Shibata, H.

    2008-12-01

    We report the experimental investigations of nonlinear-laser effects in LuVO4 vanadate under one-micron picosecond Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 pumping. In this tetragonal host-crystal for Ln3+ lasants for the first time we excited ultra-broad, more than one and half octave (13500 cm-1) Raman induced Stokes and anti-Stokes generation combs and observed multi-step cascaded parametric χ (3)-lasing in UV spectral region. All generation lines were identified and attributed to SRS-promoting modes of the crystal ( ω SRS1≈900 cm-1 and ω SRS2≈113 cm-1). We classified this vanadate as a promising material for self-Raman laser converters.

  17. High frequency plasma generator for ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goede, H.; Divergilio, W. F.; Fosnight, V. V.; Komatsu, G.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a program to experimentally develop two new types of plasma generators for 30 cm electrostatic argon ion thrusters are presented. The two plasma generating methods selected for this study were by radio frequency induction (RFI), operating at an input power frequency of 1 MHz, and by electron cyclotron heating (ECH) at an operating frequency of 5.0 GHz. Both of these generators utilize multiline cusp permanent magnet configurations for plasma confinement and beam profile optimization. The program goals were to develop a plasma generator possessing the characteristics of high electrical efficiency (low eV/ion) and simplicity of operation while maintaining the reliability and durability of the conventional hollow cathode plasma sources. The RFI plasma generator has achieved minimum discharge losses of 120 eV/ion while the ECH generator has obtained 145 eV/ion, assuming a 90% ion optical transparency of the electrostatic acceleration system. Details of experimental tests with a variety of magnet configurations are presented.

  18. Hybrid time-frequency domain equalization for LED nonlinearity mitigation in OFDM-based VLC systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Huang, Zhitong; Liu, Xiaoshuang; Ji, Yuefeng

    2015-01-12

    A novel hybrid time-frequency domain equalization scheme is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to mitigate the white light emitting diode (LED) nonlinearity in visible light communication (VLC) systems based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). We handle the linear and nonlinear distortion separately in a nonlinear OFDM system. The linear part is equalized in frequency domain and the nonlinear part is compensated by an adaptive nonlinear time domain equalizer (N-TDE). The experimental results show that with only a small number of parameters the nonlinear equalizer can efficiently mitigate the LED nonlinearity. With the N-TDE the modulation index (MI) and BER performance can be significantly enhanced. PMID:25835706

  19. Observations of ionospheric ELF and VLF wave generation by excitation of the thermal cubic nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Moore, R C; Fujimaru, S; Kotovsky, D A; Gołkowski, M

    2013-12-01

    Extremely-low-frequency (ELF, 3-3000 Hz) and very-low-frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) waves generated by the excitation of the thermal cubic nonlinearity are observed for the first time at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program high-frequency transmitter in Gakona, Alaska. The observed ELF and VLF field amplitudes are the strongest generated by any high frequency (HF, 3-30 MHz) heating facility using this mechanism to date. This manner of ELF and VLF generation is independent of naturally forming currents, such as the auroral electrojet current system. Time-of-arrival analysis applied to experimental observations shows that the thermal cubic ELF and VLF source region is located within the collisional D-region ionosphere. Observations are compared with the predictions of a theoretical HF heating model using perturbation theory. For the experiments performed, two X-mode HF waves were transmitted at frequencies ω1 and ω2, with |ω2-2ω1| being in the ELF and VLF frequency range. In contrast with previous work, we determine that the ELF and VLF source is dominantly produced by the interaction between collision frequency oscillations at frequency ω2-ω1 and the polarization current density associated with the lower frequency HF wave at frequency ω1. This specific interaction has been neglected in past cubic thermal nonlinearity work, and it plays a major role in the generation of ELF and VLF waves. PMID:24476285

  20. Nonlinear performance of multi-granularity orthogonal transmission systems with frequency division multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Yang, Chuanchuan; Fang, Xi; Zhang, Tingting; Chen, Zhangyuan

    2013-03-11

    Orthogonal transmission with frequency division multiplexing technique is investigated for next generation optical communication systems. Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and single-carrier frequency division multiplexing (SCFDM) schemes are compared in combination with polarization-division multiplexing quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) or 16-QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) formats. Multi-granularity transmission with flexible bandwidth can be realized through ultra-dense wavelength division multiplexing (UDWDM) based on the orthogonal technique. The system performance is numerically studied with special emphasis on transmission degradations due to fiber Kerr nonlinearity. The maximum reach and fiber capacity for different spectral efficiencies are investigated for systems with nonlinear propagation over uncompensated standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) links with lumped amplification. PMID:23482180

  1. DC Magnetic Field Generation by Nonlinear Whis-tlers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.; Griskey, M. C.

    1998-11-01

    A magnetic loop antenna is immersed into a large laboratory plasma (1 m diam, 2.5 m length, 10^12 cm-3, 3 eV, 5 G). It excites whistlers whose wave magnetic field exceeds the ambient dc field.(R. L. Stenzel and J. M. Urrutia, Phys. Rev. Lett. (1998).) The periodic reversal of both the electric and magnetic field produces a time-average electron Hall currents which results in the generation of a dc magnetic field. Copious harmonics of the fundamental frequency are produced. The propagation of nonlinear whistlers depends on amplitude and field direction. These phenomena are important for the excitation of large amplitude whistler with antennas in space.

  2. Efficient and coherent frequency conversions and nonlinear interference in optical parametric and atomic Raman processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yu

    By implementing a parametric down-conversion process with a strong signal field injection, we demonstrate that frequency down-conversion from pump photons to idler photons can be a coherent process. Contrary to a common misconception, we show that the process can be free of quantum noise. With an interference experiment, we demonstrate that coherence is preserved in the conversion process. This technique could lead to a high-fidelity quantum state transfer from a high-frequency photon to a low-frequency photon and connect a missing link in quantum networks. Coherent and efficient nonlinear interaction and frequency conversion are of great interest in many areas of quantum optics. Traditionally, the low efficiency of Raman scattering is improved by a high-finesse optical resonator or stimulated Raman conversion. It was recently found that the atomic spin wave initially built through electromagnetically induced transparency or a weak Raman process can actively enhance the Raman frequency conversion. An experimental demonstration of an efficient Raman conversion scheme with coherent feedback of both pump and Stokes fields is presented. The temporal profile of the generated Raman pulse shows that the coherence time of the atomic spin wave is ˜1.8 ms. A laser-like power threshold is observed and its low threshold is attributed to the long coherence time of the atomic spin wave. The mechanism of the conversion enhancement process is discussed and the conversion efficiency of a single pass of the beams is compared with that of double passes. Finally, a beat signal is observed between the two Stokes fields and its Fourier transform shows that the frequency difference is caused by the AC Stark effect. Precision phase measurement is traditionally restricted by the standard quantum limit. However, this limit is not as fundamental as the Heisenberg limit and can be circumvented by use of nonclassical quantum states and structure modification of the interferometers. Several

  3. Nonlinear frequency shift of electrostatic waves in general collisionless plasma: Unifying theory of fluid and kinetic nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chang; Dodin, Ilya Y.

    2015-08-15

    The nonlinear frequency shift is derived in a transparent asymptotic form for intense Langmuir waves in general collisionless plasma. The formula describes both fluid and kinetic effects simultaneously. The fluid nonlinearity is expressed, for the first time, through the plasma dielectric function, and the kinetic nonlinearity accounts for both smooth distributions and trapped-particle beams. Various known limiting scalings are reproduced as special cases. The calculation avoids differential equations and can be extended straightforwardly to other nonlinear plasma waves.

  4. Single-frequency blue light generation by single-pass sum-frequency generation in a coupled ring cavity tapered laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjarlin Jensen, Ole; Michael Petersen, Paul

    2013-09-01

    A generic approach for generation of tunable single frequency light is presented. 340 mW of near diffraction limited, single-frequency, and tunable blue light around 459 nm is generated by sum-frequency generation (SFG) between two tunable tapered diode lasers. One diode laser is operated in a ring cavity and another tapered diode laser is single-passed through a nonlinear crystal which is contained in the coupled ring cavity. Using this method, the single-pass conversion efficiency is more than 25%. In contrast to SFG in an external cavity, the system is entirely self-stabilized with no electronic locking.

  5. Equivalent damping and frequency change for linear and nonlinear hybrid vibrational energy harvesting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, M. Amin; Inman, Daniel J.

    2011-11-01

    A unified approximation method is derived to illustrate the effect of electro-mechanical coupling on vibration-based energy harvesting systems caused by variations in damping ratio and excitation frequency of the mechanical subsystem. Vibrational energy harvesters are electro-mechanical systems that generate power from the ambient oscillations. Typically vibration-based energy harvesters employ a mechanical subsystem tuned to resonate with ambient oscillations. The piezoelectric or electromagnetic coupling mechanisms utilized in energy harvesters, transfers some energy from the mechanical subsystem and converts it to an electric energy. Recently the focus of energy harvesting community has shifted toward nonlinear energy harvesters that are less sensitive to the frequency of ambient vibrations. We consider the general class of hybrid energy harvesters that use both piezoelectric and electromagnetic energy harvesting mechanisms. Through using perturbation methods for low amplitude oscillations and numerical integration for large amplitude vibrations we establish a unified approximation method for linear, softly nonlinear, and bi-stable nonlinear energy harvesters. The method quantifies equivalent changes in damping and excitation frequency of the mechanical subsystem that resembles the backward coupling from energy harvesting. We investigate a novel nonlinear hybrid energy harvester as a case study of the proposed method. The approximation method is accurate, provides an intuitive explanation for backward coupling effects and in some cases reduces the computational efforts by an order of magnitude.

  6. Optical generation of radio-frequency power

    SciTech Connect

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Meyer, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    An optical technique for high-power radio-frequency (RF) signal generation is described. The technique uses a unique photodetector based on a traveling-wave design driven by an appropriately modulated light source. The traveling-wave photodetector (TWPD) exhibits simultaneously a theoretical quantum efficiency approaching 100 % and a very large electrical bandwidth. Additionally, it is capable of dissipating the high-power levels required for the RF generation technique. The modulated light source is formed by either the beating together of two lasers or by the direct modulation of a light source. A system example is given which predicts RF power levels of 100`s of mW`s at millimeter wave frequencies with a theoretical ``wall-plug`` efficiency approaching 34%.

  7. High Frequency Plasma Generators for Ion Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divergilio, W. F.; Goede, H.; Fosnight, V. V.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a one year program to experimentally adapt two new types of high frequency plasma generators to Argon ion thrusters and to analytically study a third high frequency source concept are presented. Conventional 30 cm two grid ion extraction was utilized or proposed for all three sources. The two plasma generating methods selected for experimental study were a radio frequency induction (RFI) source, operating at about 1 MHz, and an electron cyclotron heated (ECH) plasma source operating at about 5 GHz. Both sources utilize multi-linecusp permanent magnet configurations for plasma confinement. The plasma characteristics, plasma loading of the rf antenna, and the rf frequency dependence of source efficiency and antenna circuit efficiency are described for the RFI Multi-cusp source. In a series of tests of this source at Lewis Research Center, minimum discharge losses of 220+/-10 eV/ion were obtained with propellant utilization of .45 at a beam current of 3 amperes. Possible improvement modifications are discussed.

  8. Frequency and time generation and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloch, M.

    1981-01-01

    High precision quartz crystal oscillators, cesium beam atomic resonators, and cesium beam atomic standards for time and frequency generation equipment for ground, airborne, and space use are described. Because of the high risk factors involved, and the commercial applications of these products being too far off in the future, private capital for research and development is difficult if not impossible to obtain. More specific analysis and recommendations to overcome these difficulties are objectively presented.

  9. Necklace beam generation in nonlinear colloidal engineered media.

    PubMed

    Silahli, Salih Z; Walasik, Wiktor; Litchinitser, Natalia M

    2015-12-15

    Modulational instability is a phenomenon that reveals itself as the exponential growth of weak perturbations in the presence of an intense pump beam propagating in a nonlinear medium. It plays a key role in such nonlinear optical processes as supercontinuum generation, light filamentation, rogue waves, and ring (or necklace) beam formation. To date, a majority of studies of these phenomena have focused on light-matter interactions in self-focusing Kerr media existing in nature. However, a large and tunable nonlinear response of a colloidal suspension can be tailored at will by judiciously engineering the optical polarizability. Here, we analytically and numerically show the possibility of necklace beam generation originating from spatial modulational instability of vortex beams in engineered soft-matter nonlinear media with different types of exponential nonlinearity. PMID:26670494

  10. Cross-polarized wave generation by effective cubic nonlinear optical interaction.

    PubMed

    Petrov, G I; Albert, O; Etchepare, J; Saltiel, S M

    2001-03-15

    A new cubic nonlinear optical effect in which a linearly polarized wave propagating in a single quadratic medium is converted into a wave that is cross polarized to the input wave is observed in BBO crystal. The effect is explained by cascading of two different second-order processes: second-harmonic generation and difference frequency mixing. PMID:18040322

  11. Terahertz radiation generation by nonlinear mixing of two laser beams over a thin foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Santosh; Parashar, J.

    2015-07-01

    Terahertz radiation generation via nonlinear mixing of two laser beams incident over a thin metal foil is explored. The lasers exert a ponderomotive force on the electrons of metal foil at beat frequency which lies in the terahertz range. The metal foil acts as antenna, producing terahertz radiations, highly directional in nature.

  12. Terahertz radiation generation by nonlinear mixing of two laser beams over a thin foil

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, Santosh; Parashar, J.

    2015-07-31

    Terahertz radiation generation via nonlinear mixing of two laser beams incident over a thin metal foil is explored. The lasers exert a ponderomotive force on the electrons of metal foil at beat frequency which lies in the terahertz range. The metal foil acts as antenna, producing terahertz radiations, highly directional in nature.

  13. Time-frequency manifold for nonlinear feature extraction in machinery fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingbo

    2013-02-01

    Time-frequency feature is beneficial to representation of non-stationary signals for effective machinery fault diagnosis. The time-frequency distribution (TFD) is a major tool to reveal the synthetic time-frequency pattern. However, the TFD will also face noise corruption and dimensionality reduction issues in engineering applications. This paper proposes a novel nonlinear time-frequency feature based on a time-frequency manifold (TFM) technique. The new TFM feature is generated by mainly addressing manifold learning on the TFDs in a reconstructed phase space. It combines the non-stationary information and the nonlinear information of analyzed signals, and hence exhibits valuable properties. Specifically, the new feature is a quantitative low-dimensional representation, and reveals the intrinsic time-frequency pattern related to machinery health, which can effectively overcome the effects of noise and condition variance issues in sampling signals. The effectiveness and the merits of the proposed TFM feature are confirmed by case study on gear wear diagnosis, bearing defect identification and defect severity evaluation. Results show the value and potential of the new feature in machinery fault pattern representation and classification.

  14. Solving Large Scale Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problem in Next-Generation Accelerator Design

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Ben-Shan; Bai, Zhaojun; Lee, Lie-Quan; Ko, Kwok; /SLAC

    2006-09-28

    A number of numerical methods, including inverse iteration, method of successive linear problem and nonlinear Arnoldi algorithm, are studied in this paper to solve a large scale nonlinear eigenvalue problem arising from finite element analysis of resonant frequencies and external Q{sub e} values of a waveguide loaded cavity in the next-generation accelerator design. They present a nonlinear Rayleigh-Ritz iterative projection algorithm, NRRIT in short and demonstrate that it is the most promising approach for a model scale cavity design. The NRRIT algorithm is an extension of the nonlinear Arnoldi algorithm due to Voss. Computational challenges of solving such a nonlinear eigenvalue problem for a full scale cavity design are outlined.

  15. Nonlinear Generation of Vorticity by Surface Waves.

    PubMed

    Filatov, S V; Parfenyev, V M; Vergeles, S S; Brazhnikov, M Yu; Levchenko, A A; Lebedev, V V

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate that waves excited on a fluid surface produce local surface rotation owing to hydrodynamic nonlinearity. We examine theoretically the effect and obtain an explicit formula for the vertical vorticity in terms of the surface elevation. Our theoretical predictions are confirmed by measurements of surface motion in a cell with water where surface waves are excited by vertical and harmonic shaking the cell. The experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. We discuss physical consequences of the effect. PMID:26894714

  16. Generation of unusually low frequency plasmaspheric hiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lunjin; Thorne, Richard M.; Bortnik, Jacob; Li, Wen; Horne, Richard B.; Reeves, G. D.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Spence, H. E.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.

    2014-08-01

    It has been reported from Van Allen Probe observations that plasmaspheric hiss intensification in the outer plasmasphere, associated with a substorm injection on 30 September 2012, occurred with a peak frequency near 100 Hz, well below the typical plasmaspheric hiss frequency range, extending down to ˜20 Hz. We examine this event of unusually low frequency plasmaspheric hiss to understand its generation mechanism. Quantitative analysis is performed by simulating wave raypaths via the HOTRAY ray tracing code with measured plasma density and calculating raypath-integrated wave gain evaluated using the measured energetic electron distribution. We demonstrate that the growth rate due to substorm-injected electrons is positive but rather weak, leading to small wave gain (˜10 dB) during a single equatorial crossing. Propagation characteristics aided by the sharp density gradient associated with the plasmapause, however, can enable these low-frequency waves to undergo cyclic raypaths, which return to the unstable region leading to repeated amplification to yield sufficient net wave gain (>40 dB) to allow waves to grow from the thermal noise.

  17. Octave-spanning supercontinuum generation via microwave frequency multiplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, D. C.; Beha, K. M.; Diddams, S. A.; Papp, S. B.

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a system based on telecom components for the generation of a coherent octave-spanning supercontinuum from a continuous-wave laser. The system utilizes direct multiplication of a 10 GHz signal derived from a commercial synthesizer to carve pulses from the laser, which are then iteratively chirped and compressed in two stages. After reducing the repetition rate of the resulting pulse train to 2.5 GHz using selective transmission through an electro-optic gate, propagation through highly-nonlinear fiber generates an octave-spanning supercontinuum spectrum. We discuss the impact of the noise of the modulation frequency on the coherence of the supercontinuum and discuss its mitigation. Close agreement between experiment and theory is shown throughout, and we use our ability to precisely model the experiment to propose an extension of the system to 20 GHz repetition rate.

  18. Frequency-domain methods for modeling a nonlinear acoustic orifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egolf, David P.; Murphy, William J.; Franks, John R.; Kirlin, R. Lynn

    2002-11-01

    This presentation describes frequency-domain methods for simulating transmission loss across a single orifice mounted in an acoustic waveguide. The work was a preamble to research involving earplugs containing one or more orifices. Simulation methods included direct Fourier transformation, linearization about an operating point, and Volterra series. They were applied to an electric-circuit analog of the acoustic system containing the orifice. The orifice itself was characterized by an empirical expression for nonlinear impedance obtained by fitting curves to experimental resistance and reactance data reported by other authors. Their data-collection procedures required the impedance expression presented herein to be properly labeled as a describing function, a quantity well known in the nonlinear control systems literature. Results of the computer simulations were compared to experimental transmission-loss data. For a single-tone input sound pressure, the computer code accurately predicted the output fundamental (i.e., without harmonics). For a broadband input, the simulated output was less accurate, but acceptable. Levels of the sound-pressure input ranged from 60 to 160 dB. [Work supported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH, through a research associateship granted the first author by the National Research Council.] a)Currently on leave at National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH.

  19. Modulation instability and short-pulse generation in media with relaxing Kerr nonlinearity and high self-steepening

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotovskii, I O; Korobko, D A; Lapin, V A

    2014-01-31

    The modulation instability in waveguides with high Kerr nonlinearity, characterised by a delayed nonlinear response, has been investigated with allowance for the self-steepening parameter and third-order dispersion. General expressions for the modulation gain are obtained. The influence of the waveguide parameters on the gain is analysed. It is shown that the joint effect of the delayed nonlinear response and negative nonlinearity dispersion leads to an increase in the modulation gain. The relations obtained are confirmed by numerical simulation. The results of this study can be used to design compact generators of high-frequency pulse trains. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  20. Generating nonlinear FM chirp radar signals by multiple integrations

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2011-02-01

    A phase component of a nonlinear frequency modulated (NLFM) chirp radar pulse can be produced by performing digital integration operations over a time interval defined by the pulse width. Each digital integration operation includes applying to a respectively corresponding input parameter value a respectively corresponding number of instances of digital integration.

  1. Second harmonic generation using nonlinear Rayleigh surface waves in stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Margaret; Kim, Gun; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Kurtis, Kimberly; Jacobs, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    This research tests the potential application of the Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) method using nonlinear Rayleigh surface waves to nondestructively quantify surface microstructural changes in thin stone. The acoustic nonlinearity parameter (β) has been assessed as a meaningful indicator for characterizing the nonlinearity of civil engineering materials; additionally, Rayleigh waves offer the opportunity to isolate a material's near surface microstructural status. Sandstone was selected for testing due to its relative uniformity and small grain size compared to other stone types; the sample thickness was 2 inches to reflect the minimum panel thickness recommended by the Indiana Limestone Institute. For this research, initially fully non-contact generation and detection techniques are evaluated before a 100kHz wedge transmitter and a 200kHz air-coupled receiver are employed for generation and detection of nonlinear Rayleigh waves. Non-contact transmitters and receivers have advantages such as removing the irregularities associated with coupling as well as not leaving residues, which in stone applications can be considered aesthetically damaging. The experimental results show that the nonlinear parameter, β, can be effectively isolated using the wedge transmitter and non-contact set up and that too much of the signal strength is lost in the fully non-contact method to extract meaningful results for this stone and stones with slow wave speeds. This indicates that the proposed SHG technique is effective for evaluating the nonlinearity parameter, β, and can next be applied to characterize near surface microstructural changes in thin applications of dimensioned stone.

  2. Quadrupole second harmonic generation and sum-frequency generation in ZnO quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Maikhuri, Deepti; Purohit, S. P. Mathur, K. C.

    2015-04-15

    The second harmonic generation (SHG) and the sum frequency generation (SFG) processes are investigated in the conduction band states of the singly charged ZnO quantum dot (QD) embedded in the HfO{sub 2}, and the AlN matrices. With two optical fields of frequency ω{sub p} and ω{sub q} incident on the dot, we study the variation with frequency of the second order nonlinear polarization resulting in SHG and SFG, through the electric dipole and the electric quadrupole interactions of the pump fields with the electron in the dot. We obtain enhanced value of the second order nonlinear susceptibility in the dot compared to the bulk. The effective mass approximation with the finite confining barrier is used for obtaining the energy and wavefunctions of the quantized confined states of the electron in the conduction band of the dot. Our results show that both the SHG and SFG processes depend on the dot size, the surrounding matrix and the polarization states of the pump beams.

  3. High-frequency solitons in media with induced scattering from damped low-frequency waves with nonuniform dispersion and nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Aseeva, N. V. Gromov, E. M.; Tyutin, V. V.

    2015-12-15

    The dynamics of high-frequency field solitons is considered using the extended nonhomogeneous nonlinear Schrödinger equation with induced scattering from damped low-frequency waves (pseudoinduced scattering). This scattering is a 3D analog of the stimulated Raman scattering from temporal spatially homogeneous damped low-frequency modes, which is well known in optics. Spatial inhomogeneities of secondorder linear dispersion and cubic nonlinearity are also taken into account. It is shown that the shift in the 3D spectrum of soliton wavenumbers toward the short-wavelength region is due to nonlinearity increasing in coordinate and to decreasing dispersion. Analytic results are confirmed by numerical calculations.

  4. Coherent terahertz-wave generation and detection over a wide frequency range using DAST crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamide, Hiroaki; Ito, Hiromasa

    2009-02-01

    Terahertz-frequency (THz) waves have shown potential for a wide range of applications. We have developed tunable THz-wave sources using nonlinear optical crystals, which have several advantages, including frequency agility, wide tunability, high output, and high coherency. We found that the organic nonlinear crystal of 4-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium-tosylate (DAST) had particular potential for ultra-wide THz-wave generation from sub-THz to mid-infrared frequencies. Using DAST, we manufactured a coherent, tunable source (1-40 THz) with frequency agility. Moreover, we demonstrated THz-wave detection through up-conversion using DAST or MgO:LiNbO3 nonlinear optical crystals, which provided a fast response, high sensitivity, and room-temperature operation.

  5. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) during anterior-posterior stretching. Method: Three materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were…

  6. Multipolar interference for non-reciprocal nonlinear generation.

    PubMed

    Poutrina, Ekaterina; Urbas, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    We show that nonlinear multipolar interference allows achieving not only unidirectional, but also non-reciprocal nonlinear generation from a nanoelement, with the direction of the produced light decoupled from the direction of at least one of the excitation beams. Alternatively, it may allow inhibiting the specified nonlinear response in a nanoelement or in its periodic arrangement by reversing the direction of one of the pumps. These general phenomena exploit the fact that, contrary to the linear response case, nonlinear magneto-electric interference stems from a combination of additive and multiplicative processes and includes an interference between various terms within the electric and magnetic partial waves themselves. We demonstrate the introduced concept numerically using an example of a plasmonic dimer geometry with realistic material parameters. PMID:27126209

  7. Multipolar interference for non-reciprocal nonlinear generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poutrina, Ekaterina; Urbas, Augustine

    2016-04-01

    We show that nonlinear multipolar interference allows achieving not only unidirectional, but also non-reciprocal nonlinear generation from a nanoelement, with the direction of the produced light decoupled from the direction of at least one of the excitation beams. Alternatively, it may allow inhibiting the specified nonlinear response in a nanoelement or in its periodic arrangement by reversing the direction of one of the pumps. These general phenomena exploit the fact that, contrary to the linear response case, nonlinear magneto-electric interference stems from a combination of additive and multiplicative processes and includes an interference between various terms within the electric and magnetic partial waves themselves. We demonstrate the introduced concept numerically using an example of a plasmonic dimer geometry with realistic material parameters.

  8. Multipolar interference for non-reciprocal nonlinear generation

    PubMed Central

    Poutrina, Ekaterina; Urbas, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    We show that nonlinear multipolar interference allows achieving not only unidirectional, but also non-reciprocal nonlinear generation from a nanoelement, with the direction of the produced light decoupled from the direction of at least one of the excitation beams. Alternatively, it may allow inhibiting the specified nonlinear response in a nanoelement or in its periodic arrangement by reversing the direction of one of the pumps. These general phenomena exploit the fact that, contrary to the linear response case, nonlinear magneto-electric interference stems from a combination of additive and multiplicative processes and includes an interference between various terms within the electric and magnetic partial waves themselves. We demonstrate the introduced concept numerically using an example of a plasmonic dimer geometry with realistic material parameters. PMID:27126209

  9. Modulational-instability-induced supercontinuum generation with saturable nonlinear response

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, R. Vasantha Jayakantha; Porsezian, K.; Nithyanandan, K.

    2010-07-15

    We theoretically investigate the supercontinuum generation (SCG) on the basis of modulational instability (MI) in liquid-core photonic crystal fibers (LCPCF) with CS{sub 2}-filled central core. The effect of saturable nonlinearity of LCPCF on SCG in the femtosecond regime is studied using an appropriately modified nonlinear Schroedinger equation. We also compare the MI induced spectral broadening with SCG obtained by soliton fission. To analyze the quality of the pulse broadening, we study the coherence of the SC pulse numerically. It is evident from the numerical simulation that the response of the saturable nonlinearity suppresses the broadening of the pulse. We also observe that the MI induced SCG in the presence of saturable nonlinearity degrades the coherence of the SCG pulse when compared to unsaturated medium.

  10. Multi-direction high-efficiency second harmonic generation in ellipse structure nonlinear photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bao-Qin; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Rong-Juan; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2014-10-13

    We have designed and fabricated a lithium niobate (LN) nonlinear photonic crystal (NPC) with a two-dimensional (2D) ellipse structure of inverse poling domains. The structure can offer continuously varying reciprocal lattice vectors in different directions to compensate the phase-mismatching during the second harmonic generation (SHG) for diverse pump wavelengths. We consider three propagation directions with large effective nonlinear susceptibility and measure the nonlinear conversion efficiency of SHG. The experimental data are in good agreement with the quantitative calculation results using the effective susceptibility model with pump depletion. With high-efficiency SHG in multiple propagation direction, the 2D ellipse structure of LN NPC has the potential to realize various broadband nonlinear frequency conversion processes in different propagation direction with a single crystal.

  11. Preliminary investigation of the frequency response and distortion properties of nonlinear image processing algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Jered R.; Dobbins, James T.

    2013-03-01

    Assessment of the resolution properties of nonlinear imaging systems is a useful but challenging task. While the modulation transfer function (MTF) fully describes contrast resolution as a function of spatial frequency for linear systems, an equivalent metric does not exist for systems with significant nonlinearity. Therefore, this preliminary investigation attempts to classify and quantify the amount of scaling and distortion imposed on a given image signal as the result of a nonlinear process (nonlinear image processing algorithm). As a proof-of-concept, a median filter is assessed in terms of its principle frequency response (PFR) and distortion response (DR) functions. These metrics are derived in frequency space using a sinusoidal basis function, and it is shown that, for a narrow-band sinusoidal input signal, the scaling and distortion properties of the nonlinear filter are described exactly by PFR and DR, respectively. The use of matched sinusoidal basis and input functions accurately reveals the frequency response to long linear structures of different scale. However, when more complex (multi-band) input signals are considered, PFR and DR fail to adequately characterize the frequency response due to nonlinear interaction effects between different frequency components during processing. Overall, the results reveal the context-dependent nature of nonlinear image processing algorithm performance, and they emphasize the importance of the basis function choice in algorithm assessment. In the future, more complex forms of nonlinear systems analysis may be necessary to fully characterize the frequency response properties of nonlinear algorithms in a context-dependent manner.

  12. Theoretical Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy of Peptides.

    PubMed

    Carr, Joshua K; Wang, Lu; Roy, Santanu; Skinner, James L

    2015-07-23

    Vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) has become a very promising technique for the study of proteins at interfaces, and it has been applied to important systems such as anti-microbial peptides, ion channel proteins, and human islet amyloid polypeptide. Moreover, so-called "chiral" SFG techniques, which rely on polarization combinations that generate strong signals primarily for chiral molecules, have proven to be particularly discriminatory of protein secondary structure. In this work, we present a theoretical strategy for calculating protein amide I SFG spectra by combining line-shape theory with molecular dynamics simulations. We then apply this method to three model peptides, demonstrating the existence of a significant chiral SFG signal for peptides with chiral centers, and providing a framework for interpreting the results on the basis of the dependence of the SFG signal on the peptide orientation. We also examine the importance of dynamical and coupling effects. Finally, we suggest a simple method for determining a chromophore's orientation relative to the surface using ratios of experimental heterodyne-detected signals with different polarizations, and test this method using theoretical spectra. PMID:25203677

  13. Theoretical Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy of Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) has become a very promising technique for the study of proteins at interfaces, and it has been applied to important systems such as anti-microbial peptides, ion channel proteins, and human islet amyloid polypeptide. Moreover, so-called “chiral” SFG techniques, which rely on polarization combinations that generate strong signals primarily for chiral molecules, have proven to be particularly discriminatory of protein secondary structure. In this work, we present a theoretical strategy for calculating protein amide I SFG spectra by combining line-shape theory with molecular dynamics simulations. We then apply this method to three model peptides, demonstrating the existence of a significant chiral SFG signal for peptides with chiral centers, and providing a framework for interpreting the results on the basis of the dependence of the SFG signal on the peptide orientation. We also examine the importance of dynamical and coupling effects. Finally, we suggest a simple method for determining a chromophore’s orientation relative to the surface using ratios of experimental heterodyne-detected signals with different polarizations, and test this method using theoretical spectra. PMID:25203677

  14. Nonlinear frequency response of parametrically excited functionally graded Timoshenko beams with a crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Yan, T.

    2010-06-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear dynamic frequency response of a Timoshenko beam made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) with an open edge crack. The beam is clamped and subjected to an axial parametric excitation consisting of a static compressive force and a harmonic excitation force. Theoretical formulations are based on Timoshenko shear deformable beam theory, von Karman type geometric nonlinearity and rotational spring model. Hamilton's principle is used to derive the nonlinear partial differential equations which are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equation by using the Least Squares method and Galerkin technique. The nonlinear natural frequencies and excitation frequency-amplitude response curves are obtained by employing Runge-Kutta method and multiple scale method, respectively. A parametric study is conducted to study the effects of material property distribution, crack depth, crack location, excitation frequency, and slenderness ratio on the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of parametrically excited, cracked FGM Timoshenko beams.

  15. Generation and propagation of nonlinear internal waves in Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scotti, A.; Beardsley, R.C.; Butman, B.

    2007-01-01

    During the summer, nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) are commonly observed propagating in Massachusetts Bay. The topography of the area is unique in the sense that the generation area (over Stellwagen Bank) is only 25 km away from the shoaling area, and thus it represents an excellent natural laboratory to study the life cycle of NLIWs. To assist in the interpretation of the data collected during the 1998 Massachusetts Bay Internal Wave Experiment (MBIWE98), a fully nonlinear and nonhydrostatic model covering the generation/shoaling region was developed, to investigate the response of the system to the range of background and driving conditions observed. Simplified models were also used to elucidate the role of nonlinearity and dispersion in shaping the NLIW field. This paper concentrates on the generation process and the subsequent evolution in the basin. The model was found to reproduce well the range of propagation characteristics observed (arrival time, propagation speed, amplitude), and provided a coherent framework to interpret the observations. Comparison with a fully nonlinear hydrostatic model shows that during the generation and initial evolution of the waves as they move away from Stellwagen Bank, dispersive effects play a negligible role. Thus the problem can be well understood considering the geometry of the characteristics along which the Riemann invariants of the hydrostatic problem propagate. Dispersion plays a role only during the evolution of the undular bore in the middle of Stellwagen Basin. The consequences for modeling NLIWs within hydrostatic models are briefly discussed at the end.

  16. Effect of nonlinear electromechanical interaction upon wind power generator behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selyutskiy, Yury D.; Klimina, Liubov A.

    2014-12-01

    A mathematical model is developed for describing a small horizontal axis wind turbine with electric generator, such that the electromechanical interaction is non-linear in current. Dependence of steady regimes of the system upon parameters of the model is studied. In particular, it is shown that increase of wind speed causes qualitative restructuring of the set of steady regimes, which leads to considerable change in behavior of the wind power generator. The proposed model is verified against data obtained in experiments.

  17. Discussion about generation mechanisms of third-order nonlinear signals in surface acoustic wave resonators based on simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Ryo; Suzuki, Takanao; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Kyoya, Haruki; Nako, Katsuhiro; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss the generation mechanisms of third-order nonlinearity in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices on the basis of simulation results, which are obtained by a proposed method for this discussion. First, eight nonlinear terms are introduced to the piezoelectric constitutive equations, and nonlinear stress and electric flux fields are estimated using linear strain and electric fields calculated by a linear analysis, i.e., the coupling of mode simulation. Then, their contributions are embedded as voltage and current sources, respectively, in an equivalent circuit model, and nonlinear signals appearing at external ports are estimated. It is shown that eight coefficients of the nonlinear terms can be determined from a series of experiments carried out at various driving and resulting frequencies. This is because the effect of each nonlinear term on the nonlinear signal outputs changes markedly with the conditions. When the coefficients are determined properly, the simulations agree well with some measurement results under various conditions.

  18. The influence of nonlinear magnetic pull on hydropower generator rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Rolf. K.; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov

    2006-11-01

    In large electrical machines the electromagnetic forces can in some situations have a strong influence on the rotor dynamics. One such case is when the rotor is eccentrically displaced in the generator bore. A strong unbalanced magnetic pull will then appear in the direction of the smallest air-gap. In this paper, the influence of nonlinear magnetic pull is studied for a hydropower generator where the generator spider hub does not coincide with the centre of the generator rim. The generator model consists of a four-degree-of-freedom rigid body, which is connected to an elastic shaft supported by isotropic bearings. The influence of magnetic pull is calculated for the case when the generator spider hub deviates from the centre of the generator rim. A nonlinear model of the magnetic pull is introduced to the model by radial forces and transverse moments. In the numerical analysis input parameters typical for a 70 MW hydropower generator are used. Results are presented in stability and response diagrams. The results show that this type of rotor configuration can in some cases become unstable. Therefore, it is important to consider the distance between the centreline of generator spider hub and the centreline of generator rim.

  19. Enhanced terahertz source based on external cavity difference-frequency generation using monolithic single-frequency pulsed fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Eliot B; Shi, Wei; Nguyen, Dan T; Yao, Zhidong; Zong, Jie; Chavez-Pirson, Arturo; Peyghambarian, N

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate a resonant external cavity approach to enhance narrowband terahertz radiation through difference-frequency generation for the first time (to our knowledge). Two nanosecond laser pulses resonant in an optical cavity interact with a nonlinear crystal to produce a factor of 7 enhancement of terahertz power compared to a single-pass orientation. This external enhancement approach shows promise to significantly increase both terahertz power and conversion efficiency through optical pump pulse enhancement and effective recycling. PMID:20596183

  20. SCALAR AND VECTOR NONLINEAR DECAYS OF LOW-FREQUENCY ALFVÉN WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J. S.; Wu, D. J.; Voitenko, Y.; De Keyser, J.

    2015-02-01

    We found several efficient nonlinear decays for Alfvén waves in the solar wind conditions. Depending on the wavelength, the dominant decay is controlled by the nonlinearities proportional to either scalar or vector products of wavevectors. The two-mode decays of the pump MHD Alfvén wave into co- and counter-propagating product Alfvén and slow waves are controlled by the scalar nonlinearities at long wavelengths ρ{sub i}{sup 2}k{sub 0⊥}{sup 2}<ω{sub 0}/ω{sub ci} (k {sub 0} is wavenumber perpendicular to the background magnetic field, ω{sub 0} is frequency of the pump Alfvén wave, ρ {sub i} is ion gyroradius, and ω {sub ci} is ion-cyclotron frequency). The scalar decays exhibit both local and nonlocal properties and can generate not only MHD-scale but also kinetic-scale Alfvén and slow waves, which can strongly accelerate spectral transport. All waves in the scalar decays propagate in the same plane, hence these decays are two-dimensional. At shorter wavelengths, ρ{sub i}{sup 2}k{sub 0⊥}{sup 2}>ω{sub 0}/ω{sub ci}, three-dimensional vector decays dominate generating out-of-plane product waves. The two-mode decays dominate from MHD up to ion scales ρ {sub i} k {sub 0} ≅ 0.3; at shorter scales the one-mode vector decays become stronger and generate only Alfvén product waves. In the solar wind the two-mode decays have high growth rates >0.1ω{sub 0} and can explain the origin of slow waves observed at kinetic scales.

  1. Scalar and Vector Nonlinear Decays of Low-frequency Alfvén Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. S.; Voitenko, Y.; De Keyser, J.; Wu, D. J.

    2015-02-01

    We found several efficient nonlinear decays for Alfvén waves in the solar wind conditions. Depending on the wavelength, the dominant decay is controlled by the nonlinearities proportional to either scalar or vector products of wavevectors. The two-mode decays of the pump MHD Alfvén wave into co- and counter-propagating product Alfvén and slow waves are controlled by the scalar nonlinearities at long wavelengths ρ i2k0\\perp 2<ω 0/ω ci (k 0 is wavenumber perpendicular to the background magnetic field, ω0 is frequency of the pump Alfvén wave, ρ i is ion gyroradius, and ω ci is ion-cyclotron frequency). The scalar decays exhibit both local and nonlocal properties and can generate not only MHD-scale but also kinetic-scale Alfvén and slow waves, which can strongly accelerate spectral transport. All waves in the scalar decays propagate in the same plane, hence these decays are two-dimensional. At shorter wavelengths, ρ i2k0\\perp 2\\gtω 0/ω ci, three-dimensional vector decays dominate generating out-of-plane product waves. The two-mode decays dominate from MHD up to ion scales ρ i k 0 ~= 0.3; at shorter scales the one-mode vector decays become stronger and generate only Alfvén product waves. In the solar wind the two-mode decays have high growth rates >0.1ω0 and can explain the origin of slow waves observed at kinetic scales.

  2. Frequency-Domain Models for Nonlinear Microwave Devices Based on Large-Signal Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Jargon, Jeffrey A.; DeGroot, Donald C.; Gupta, K. C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce nonlinear large-signal scattering ( S) parameters, a new type of frequency-domain mapping that relates incident and reflected signals. We present a general form of nonlinear large-signal S-parameters and show that they reduce to classic S-parameters in the absence of nonlinearities. Nonlinear large-signal impedance ( Z) and admittance ( D) parameters are also introduced, and equations relating the different representations are derived. We illustrate how nonlinear large-signal S-parameters can be used as a tool in the design process of a nonlinear circuit, specifically a single-diode 1 GHz frequency-doubler. For the case where a nonlinear model is not readily available, we developed a method of extracting nonlinear large-signal S-parameters obtained with artificial neural network models trained with multiple measurements made by a nonlinear vector network analyzer equipped with two sources. Finally, nonlinear large-signal S-parameters are compared to another form of nonlinear mapping, known as nonlinear scattering functions. The nonlinear large-signal S-parameters are shown to be more general. PMID:27366621

  3. Local comb generation in nonlinear TiN superconducting resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, David; Vissers, Michael R.; Erickson, Robert; Sandberg, Martin; Gao, Jiansong

    2014-03-01

    Low loss superconducting nonlinear resonators are extensively used for qubit readout as well as photon detectors. These devices are typically capacitively coupled to a launch line. When driven at high power, a shift in resonant frequency is observed due to the kinetic inductance of the TiN superconductor. At higher power, the resonant frequency mixes with the drive tone to produce a series of peaks that are observed to be equally spaced at the detuning frequency, i.e. a ``local comb.'' The full circuit analysis of this system is derived. The renormalized resonant frequency is obtained and the local comb is derived from a first order successive approximation. Work suppported by DARPA, ARO, and NIST.

  4. Multireflection sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Jasensky, Joshua; Chen, Zhan

    2015-08-18

    We developed a multireflection data collection method in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity of sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy, which we refer to as multireflection SFG, or MRSFG for short. To achieve MRSFG, a collinear laser beam propagation geometry was adopted and trapezoidal Dove prisms were used as sample substrates. An in-depth discussion on the signal and SNR in MRSFG was performed. We showed experimentally, with "m" total internal reflections in a Dove prism, MRSFG signal is ∼m times that of conventional SFG; SNR of the SFG signal-to-background is improved by a factor of >m(1/2) and

  5. Nonlinear power flow control applications to conventional generator swing equations subject to variable generation.

    SciTech Connect

    Robinett, Rush D., III; Wilson, David Gerald

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, the swing equations for renewable generators are formulated as a natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. A two-step process referred to as Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) is used to analyze and design feedback controllers for the renewable generator system. This formulation extends previous results on the analytical verification of the Potential Energy Boundary Surface (PEBS) method to nonlinear control analysis and design and justifies the decomposition of the system into conservative and non-conservative systems to enable a two-step, serial analysis and design procedure. In particular, this approach extends the work done by developing a formulation which applies to a larger set of Hamiltonian Systems that has Nearly Hamiltonian Systems as a subset. The results of this research include the determination of the required performance of a proposed Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS)/storage device to enable the maximum power output of a wind turbine while meeting the power system constraints on frequency and phase. The FACTS/storage device is required to operate as both a generator and load (energy storage) on the power system in this design. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is applied to the power flow equations to determine the stability boundaries (limit cycles) of the renewable generator system and enable design of feedback controllers that meet stability requirements while maximizing the power generation and flow to the load. Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of renewable generators systems are determined based on the concepts of Hamiltonian systems, power flow, exergy (the maximum work that can be extracted from an energy flow) rate, and entropy rate.

  6. Nonlinear effects generation in non-adiabatically tapered fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palací, Jesús; Mas, Sara; Monzón-Hernández, David; Martí, Javier

    2015-12-01

    Nonlinear effects are observed in a non-adiabatically tapered optical fibre. The designed structure allows for the introduction of self-phase modulation, which is observed through pulse breaking and spectral broadening, in approximately a centimetre of propagation using a commercial telecom laser. These devices are simple to fabricate and suitable to generate and control a variety of nonlinear effects in practical applications because they do not experience short-term degradation as previously reported approaches. Experimental and theoretical results are obtained, showing a good agreement.

  7. Laser-induced microwave generation with nonlinear optical crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghesani, Francesco; Braggio, Caterina; Carugno, Giovanni; Della Valle, Federico; Ruoso, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    We report about a novel technique to generate microwave radiation by the irradiation of a nonlinear optical crystal with uniformly spaced, ultrashort optical pulses delivered by a mode-locked laser. We study systematically the laser polarization and intensity dependence of the microwave signal to conclusively show that it is a nonlinear phenomenon and that it originates from optical rectification. The measurements have been conducted using KTP, LBO and ZnSe crystals. The observed pulsed microwave signals are harmonically related to the laser pulses repetition rate, a feature that can be exploited to develop an innovative ultrafast laser detector.

  8. Electrical short pulses generation using a resonant tunneling diode nonlinear transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essimbi, B. Z.; Jäger, D.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, the generation of short electrical pulses based on nonlinear active wave propagation effects along the resonant tunneling diode transmission line is studied. The principle of operation is discussed and it is shown by computer experiments that an input rectangular pulse as well as a sinusoidal input signal can be converted into a set of output spikes, suitable for A/D conversion at millimeter wave frequencies.

  9. Digital slip frequency generator and method for determining the desired slip frequency

    DOEpatents

    Klein, Frederick F.

    1989-01-01

    The output frequency of an electric power generator is kept constant with variable rotor speed by automatic adjustment of the excitation slip frequency. The invention features a digital slip frequency generator which provides sine and cosine waveforms from a look-up table, which are combined with real and reactive power output of the power generator.

  10. Ultra short pulse generation and reshaping using highly nonlinear fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, S.; Namiki, S.; Inoue, T.; Oguri, A.; Akutsu, T.; Shinozaki, J.; Ozeki, Y.; Takasaka, S.; Igarashi, K.; Sakano, M.; Yagi, T.

    2005-11-01

    We experimentally investigate the generation of a low-noise ultra short pulse train from 40GHz to160GHz by using Comb-like profiled fiber (CPF) for adiabatic soliton conversion and compression. Highly nonlinear fibers allow us to reduce total length of CPF as well as to utilize Kerr effect in the fiber effectively. We demonstrate generations of 160GHz soliton train of 750fs, the compression to 500fs of 40GHz externally-modulated pulse with wideband tunability over 30nm. Then we apply the CPF pulse compression technique to achieve the programmable repetition tunability from 5 to 500 MHz in low pedestral 300fs pulse train generation.

  11. Sum-Frequency Generation from Chiral Media and Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Na

    2006-02-13

    Sum frequency generation (SFG), a second-order nonlinear optical process, is electric-dipole forbidden in systems with inversion symmetry. As a result, it has been used to study chiral media and interfaces, systems intrinsically lacking inversion symmetry. This thesis describes recent progresses in the applications of and new insights into SFG from chiral media and interfaces. SFG from solutions of chiral amino acids is investigated, and a theoretical model explaining the origin and the strength of the chiral signal in electronic-resonance SFG spectroscopy is discussed. An interference scheme that allows us to distinguish enantiomers by measuring both the magnitude and the phase of the chiral SFG response is described, as well as a chiral SFG microscope producing chirality-sensitive images with sub-micron resolution. Exploiting atomic and molecular parity nonconservation, the SFG process is also used to solve the Ozma problems. Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy is used to obtain the adsorption behavior of leucine molecules at air-water interfaces. With poly(tetrafluoroethylene) as a model system, we extend the application of this surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy to fluorine-containing polymers.

  12. Nonlinear low frequency water waves in a cylindrical shell subjected to high frequency excitations - Part I: Experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dajun, Wang; Chunyan, Zhou; Li, Junbao; Shen, Song; Li, Min; Liu, Xijun

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on nonlinear low frequency gravity water waves in a partially filled cylindrical shell subjected to high frequency horizontal excitations. The characteristics of natural frequencies and mode shapes of the water-shell coupled system are discussed. The boundaries for onset of gravity waves are measured and plotted by curves of critical excitation force magnitude with respect to excitation frequency. For nonlinear water waves, the time history signals and their spectrums of motion on both water surface and shell are recorded. The shapes of water surface are also measured using scanning laser vibrometer. In particular, the phenomenon of transitions between different gravity wave patterns is observed and expressed by the waterfall graphs. These results exhibit pronounced nonlinear properties of shell-fluid coupled system.

  13. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopic studies on buried heterogeneous biointerfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Jasensky, Joshua; Leng, Chuan; Del Grosso, Chelsey; Smith, Gary D; Wilker, Jonathan J; Chen, Zhan

    2014-05-01

    A sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational micro-spectroscopy system was developed to examine buried heterogeneous biointerfaces. A compact optical microscope was constructed with total-internal reflection (TIR) SFG geometry to monitor the tightly focused SFG laser spots on interfaces, providing the capability of selectively probing different regions on heterogeneous biointerfaces. The TIR configuration ensures and enhances the SFG signal generated only from the sample/substrate interfacial area. As an example for possible applications in biointerfaces studies, the system was used to probe and compare buried interfacial structures of different biological samples attached to underwater surfaces. We studied the interface of a single mouse oocyte on a silica prism to demonstrate the feasibility of tracing and studying a single live cell and substrate interface using SFG. We also examined the interface between a marine mussel adhesive plaque and a CaF2 substrate, showing the removal of interface-bonded water molecules. This work also paves the way for future integration of other microscopic techniques such as TIR-fluorescence microscopy or nonlinear optical imaging with SFG spectroscopy for multimodal surface or interface studies. PMID:24784085

  14. Surface Sum Frequency Generation of III-V Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Kim, Jisun; Khoury, Rami; Plummer, E. W.; Haber, Louis

    2015-03-01

    Optical sum frequency generation (SFG) is a well-established technique for surface and interface studies but its use has been limited mainly to centrosymmetric materials so far. Here, we demonstrate that femtosecond broadband SFG spectroscopy has the ability to identify surface molecular vibrations on the archetypical non-centrosymmetric semiconductor GaAs (001), in which the bulk SFG signal typically dominates over surface SFG contributions. Azimuthal angle dependence of the second order SFG nonlinear response from GaAs (001) surface in the reflection geometry in vacuum for all eight polarization combinations are detected and analyzed. The results agree with and extend upon previous second harmonic generation (SHG) studies and phenomenological analysis. In addition, carbon monoxide and methanol are employed as molecular-markers on the GaAs (001) surfaces. The C-O stretching mode of carbon monoxide and the methyl group stretching modes of methanol are clearly observed even though the bulk contribution dominates the SFG signal. Coherent heterodyne interference is proposed as the mechanism for the surface signal enhancement. Two other zinc blende type III-V semiconductors, GaP and GaSb, are also studied and compared. Funded by EFRC.

  15. Near infrared frequency dependence of high-order sideband generation

    SciTech Connect

    Zaks, Benjamin; Banks, Hunter; Sherwin, Mark; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2013-12-04

    The near infrared frequency dependence of high order sideband generation in InGaAs quantum wells is discussed. The NIR frequency dependence of the sidebands indicates that the HSG phenomenon is excitonic in nature.

  16. Fully nonlinear modeling of radiated waves generated by floating flared structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin-Zhen; Ning, De-Zhi; Teng, Bin; Zhao, Ming

    2014-10-01

    The nonlinear radiated waves generated by a structure in forced motion, are simulated numerically based on the potential theory. A fully nonlinear numerical model is developed by using a higher-order boundary element method (HOBEM). In this model, the instantaneous body position and the transient free surface are updated at each time step. A Lagrangian technique is employed as the time marching scheme on the free surface. The mesh regridding and interpolation methods are adopted to deal with the possible numerical instability. Several auxiliary functions are proposed to calculate the wave loads indirectly, instead of directly predicting the temporal derivative of the velocity potential. Numerical experiments are carried out to simulate the heave motions of a submerged sphere in infinite water depth, the heave and pitch motions of a truncated flared cylinder in finite depth. The results are verified against the published numerical results to ensure the effectiveness of the proposed model. Moreover, a series of higher harmonic waves and force components are obtained by the Fourier transformation to investigate the nonlinear effect of oscillation frequency. The difference among fully nonlinear, body-nonlinear and linear results is analyzed. It is found that the nonlinearity due to free surface and body surface has significant influences on the numerical results of the radiated waves and forces.

  17. Enhancement of second-harmonic generation in nonlinear nanolaminate metamaterials by nanophotonic resonances.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hui-Hsin; Abass, Aimi; Fischer, Johannes; Alaee, Rasoul; Wickberg, Andreas; Wegener, Martin; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    Nanolaminate metamaterials recently attracted a lot of attention as a novel second-order nonlinear material that can be used in integrated photonic circuits. Here, we explore theoretically and numerically the opportunity to enhance the nonlinear response from such nanolaminates by exploiting Fano resonances supported in grating-coupled waveguides. The enhancement factor of the radiated second harmonic signal compared to a flat nanolaminate can reach values as large as 35 for gold gratings and even 7000 for MgF2 gratings. For the MgF2 grating, extremely high-Q Fano resonances are excited in such all-dielectric system that result in strong local fields in the nonlinear waveguide layer to boost the nonlinear conversion. A significant portion of the nonlinear signal is also strongly coupled to a dark waveguide mode, which remains guided in the nanolaminate. The strong excitation of a dark mode at the second harmonic frequency provides a viable method for utilizing second-order nonlinearities for light generation and manipulation in integrated photonic circuits. PMID:27137578

  18. Optical Frequency Comb Generation based on Erbium Fiber Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droste, Stefan; Ycas, Gabriel; Washburn, Brian R.; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R.

    2016-06-01

    Optical frequency combs have revolutionized optical frequency metrology and are being actively investigated in a number of applications outside of pure optical frequency metrology. For reasons of cost, robustness, performance, and flexibility, the erbium fiber laser frequency comb has emerged as the most commonly used frequency comb system and many different designs of erbium fiber frequency combs have been demonstrated. We review the different approaches taken in the design of erbium fiber frequency combs, including the major building blocks of the underlying mode-locked laser, amplifier, supercontinuum generation and actuators for stabilization of the frequency comb.

  19. Frequency-domain nonlinear optics in two-dimensionally patterned quasi-phase-matching media.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C R; Mayer, B W; Gallmann, L; Keller, U

    2016-07-11

    Advances in the amplification and manipulation of ultrashort laser pulses have led to revolutions in several areas. Examples include chirped pulse amplification for generating high peak-power lasers, power-scalable amplification techniques, pulse shaping via modulation of spatially-dispersed laser pulses, and efficient frequency-mixing in quasi-phase-matched nonlinear crystals to access new spectral regions. In this work, we introduce and demonstrate a new platform for nonlinear optics which has the potential to combine these separate functionalities (pulse amplification, frequency transfer, and pulse shaping) into a single monolithic device that is bandwidth- and power-scalable. The approach is based on two-dimensional (2D) patterning of quasi-phase-matching (QPM) gratings combined with optical parametric interactions involving spatially dispersed laser pulses. Our proof of principle experiment demonstrates this technique via mid-infrared optical parametric chirped pulse amplification of few-cycle pulses. Additionally, we present a detailed theoretical and numerical analysis of such 2D-QPM devices and how they can be designed. PMID:27410862

  20. Efficient optical frequency-comb generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, A. S.; McFarlane, G. M.; Riis, E.; Ferguson, A. I.

    1995-06-01

    We have demonstrated a method that efficiently transfers the power from a single-frequency laser into a wideband frequency comb. The comb was produced by a 2.7-GHz electro-optic modulator in a resonant optical cavity. A coupled cavity technique was used to transfer 8.5% of the laser power into a comb with a span of 400 modes, or more than 1 THz.

  1. Tailoring supercontinuum generation using highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. A.; Namihira, Y.; Islam, M. A.; Razzak, S. M. A.; Hirako, Y.; Miyagi, K.; Kaijage, S. F.; Higa, H.

    2012-09-01

    This paper discusses about the tailoring supercontinuum (SC) generation based on a highly nonlinear germanium (Ge) doped photonic crystal fiber (HNL-GePCF) with all normal group velocity dispersion (GVD). Using finite element method (FEM) with a circular perfectly matched boundary layer (PML), it is shown through simulations that how simply the center wavelength can be shifted from one center point to another after optimizing at a particular wavelength using the proposed HNL-GePCF. Moreover, SC spectra at 1.06, 1.31 and 1.55 μm have been generated using picosecond optical pulses produced from relatively less expensive laser sources.

  2. Fluid nonlinear frequency shift of nonlinear ion acoustic waves in multi-ion species plasmas in the small wave number region.

    PubMed

    Feng, Q S; Xiao, C Z; Wang, Q; Zheng, C Y; Liu, Z J; Cao, L H; He, X T

    2016-08-01

    The properties of the nonlinear frequency shift (NFS), especially the fluid NFS from the harmonic generation of the ion-acoustic wave (IAW) in multi-ion species plasmas, have been researched by Vlasov simulation. Pictures of the nonlinear frequency shift from harmonic generation and particle trapping are shown to explain the mechanism of NFS qualitatively. The theoretical model of the fluid NFS from harmonic generation in multi-ion species plasmas is given, and the results of Vlasov simulation are consistent with the theoretical result of multi-ion species plasmas. When the wave number kλ_{De} is small, such as kλ_{De}=0.1, the fluid NFS dominates in the total NFS and will reach as large as nearly 15% when the wave amplitude |eϕ/T_{e}|∼0.1, which indicates that in the condition of small kλ_{De}, the fluid NFS dominates in the saturation of stimulated Brillouin scattering, especially when the nonlinear IAW amplitude is large. PMID:27627405

  3. A nonlinear screen as an element for sound absorption and frequency conversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses a model for a screen with dissipative and nonlinear elastic properties that can be used in acoustic sound absorption and frequency conversion systems. Calculation and estimation schemes are explained that are necessary for understanding the functional capabilities of the device. Examples of the nonlinear elements in the screen and promising applications are described.

  4. Frequency domain analysis and synthesis of lumped parameter systems using nonlinear least squares techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, J. R.

    1969-01-01

    Lumped parametric system models are simplified and computationally advantageous in the frequency domain of linear systems. Nonlinear least squares computer program finds the least square best estimate for any number of parameters in an arbitrarily complicated model.

  5. Nonlinear low frequency (LF) waves - Comets and foreshock phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1991-01-01

    A review is conducted of LF wave nonlinear properties at comets and in the earth's foreshock, engaging such compelling questions as why there are no cometary cyclotron waves, the physical mechanism responsible for 'dispersive whiskers', and the character of a general description of linear waves. Attention is given to the nonlinear properties of LF waves, whose development is illustrated by examples of waves and their features at different distances from the comet, as well as by computer simulation results. Also discussed is a curious wave mode detected from Comet Giacobini-Zinner, both at and upstream of the bow shock/wave.

  6. Nonlinear properties of medial entorhinal cortex neurons reveal frequency selectivity during multi-sinusoidal stimulation.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Christophe; Economo, Michael N; White, John A; Moore, Lee E

    2014-01-01

    The neurons in layer II of the medial entorhinal cortex are part of the grid cell network involved in the representation of space. Many of these neurons are likely to be stellate cells with specific oscillatory and firing properties important for their function. A fundamental understanding of the nonlinear basis of these oscillatory properties is critical for the development of theories of grid cell firing. In order to evaluate the behavior of stellate neurons, measurements of their quadratic responses were used to estimate a second order Volterra kernel. This paper uses an operator theory, termed quadratic sinusoidal analysis (QSA), which quantitatively determines that the quadratic response accounts for a major part of the nonlinearity observed at membrane potential levels characteristic of normal synaptic events. Practically, neurons were probed with multi-sinusoidal stimulations to determine a Hermitian operator that captures the quadratic function in the frequency domain. We have shown that the frequency content of the stimulation plays an important role in the characteristics of the nonlinear response, which can distort the linear response as well. Stimulations with enhanced low frequency amplitudes evoked a different nonlinear response than broadband profiles. The nonlinear analysis was also applied to spike frequencies and it was shown that the nonlinear response of subthreshold membrane potential at resonance frequencies near the threshold is similar to the nonlinear response of spike trains. PMID:25191226

  7. Self-excited nonlinear plasma series resonance oscillations in geometrically symmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Donko, Z.; Schulze, J.; Czarnetzki, U.; Luggenhoelscher, D.

    2009-03-30

    At low pressures, nonlinear self-excited plasma series resonance (PSR) oscillations are known to drastically enhance electron heating in geometrically asymmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges by nonlinear electron resonance heating (NERH). Here we demonstrate via particle-in-cell simulations that high-frequency PSR oscillations can also be excited in geometrically symmetric discharges if the driving voltage waveform makes the discharge electrically asymmetric. This can be achieved by a dual-frequency (f+2f) excitation, when PSR oscillations and NERH are turned on and off depending on the electrical discharge asymmetry, controlled by the phase difference of the driving frequencies.

  8. Nonlinear low-frequency electrostatic wave dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2016-08-01

    The problem of two-dimensional arbitrary amplitude low-frequency electrostatic oscillation in a quasi-neutral quantum plasma is solved exactly by elementary means. In such quantum plasmas we have treated electrons quantum mechanically and ions classically. The exact analytical solution of the nonlinear system exhibits the formation of dark and black solitons. Numerical simulation also predicts the possible periodic solution of the nonlinear system. Nonlinear analysis reveals that the system does have a bifurcation at a critical Mach number that depends on the angle of propagation of the wave. The small-amplitude limit leads to the formation of weakly nonlinear Kadomstev-Petviashvili solitons.

  9. Nonlinear output properties of cantilever driving low frequency piezoelectric energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chundong; Ren, Bo; Liang, Zhu; Chen, Jianwei; Zhang, Haiwu; Yue, Qingwen; Xu, Qing; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu

    2012-11-01

    Cantilever driving low frequency piezoelectric energy harvester (CANDLE) has been found as a promising structure for vibration energy harvesting. This paper presents the nonlinear output properties of the CANDLE to optimize the performance of the device. Simulation results of the finite element method illustrate that nonlinear contacts between the cymbal transducers and the cantilever beam are main reasons of the nonlinear output. However, high excitation acceleration of the nonlinear leap point limits the application of the device. Based on the simulation results and theory analysis, the excitation acceleration is reduced to 30 m/s2 by increasing the proof mass.

  10. Sum frequency generation studies of membrane transport phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.B.; Shreve, A.P.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this work is to study the transport of protons and ions across biological membranes, one of the most fundamental processes in living organisms, critical for energy transduction in respiration and photosynthesis and for a wide variety of cellular signal transduction events. Membrane protein structure and function, in particular proton and ion pumping are poorly understood. The authors have developed sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy for the study of membrane phenomena, a nonlinear spectroscopic technique that is uniquely sensitive to interfaces and with demonstrated structural specificity. They have used SFG and conventional vibrational spectroscopic approaches to study proton transport processes in cytochrome c oxidase. A key finding has been the identification of vibrational modes associated with proton labile groups, including a glutamic acid near the redox active binuclear center and structural waters. These groups are sensitive to the ligation and redox states of the metal centers and hence are ideal candidates for coupling redox energy to proton transport processes.

  11. Sum frequency generation image reconstruction: aliphatic membrane under spherical cap geometry.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Victor

    2014-10-01

    The article explores an opportunity to approach structural properties of phospholipid membranes using Sum Frequency Generation microscopy. To establish the principles of sum frequency generation image reconstruction in such systems, at first approach, we may adopt an idealistic spherical cap uniform assembly of hydrocarbon molecules. Quantum mechanical studies for decanoic acid (used here as a representative molecular system) provide necessary information on transition dipole moments and Raman tensors of the normal modes specific to methyl terminal - a typical moiety in aliphatic (and phospholipid) membranes. Relative degree of localization and frequencies of the normal modes of methyl terminals make nonlinearities of this moiety to be promising in structural analysis using Sum Frequency Generation imaging. Accordingly, the article describes derivations of relevant macroscopic nonlinearities and suggests a mapping procedure to translate amplitudes of the nonlinearities onto microscopy image plane according to geometry of spherical assembly, local molecular orientation, and optical geometry. Reconstructed images indicate a possibility to extract local curvature of bilayer envelopes of spherical character. This may have practical implications for structural extractions in membrane systems of practical relevance. PMID:25296798

  12. Sum frequency generation image reconstruction: Aliphatic membrane under spherical cap geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, Victor

    2014-10-07

    The article explores an opportunity to approach structural properties of phospholipid membranes using Sum Frequency Generation microscopy. To establish the principles of sum frequency generation image reconstruction in such systems, at first approach, we may adopt an idealistic spherical cap uniform assembly of hydrocarbon molecules. Quantum mechanical studies for decanoic acid (used here as a representative molecular system) provide necessary information on transition dipole moments and Raman tensors of the normal modes specific to methyl terminal – a typical moiety in aliphatic (and phospholipid) membranes. Relative degree of localization and frequencies of the normal modes of methyl terminals make nonlinearities of this moiety to be promising in structural analysis using Sum Frequency Generation imaging. Accordingly, the article describes derivations of relevant macroscopic nonlinearities and suggests a mapping procedure to translate amplitudes of the nonlinearities onto microscopy image plane according to geometry of spherical assembly, local molecular orientation, and optical geometry. Reconstructed images indicate a possibility to extract local curvature of bilayer envelopes of spherical character. This may have practical implications for structural extractions in membrane systems of practical relevance.

  13. Nonlinear low-to-high-frequency energy cascades in diatomic granular crystals.

    PubMed

    Kim, E; Chaunsali, R; Xu, H; Jaworski, J; Yang, J; Kevrekidis, P G; Vakakis, A F

    2015-12-01

    We study wave propagation in strongly nonlinear one-dimensional diatomic granular crystals under an impact load. Depending on the mass ratio of the "light" to "heavy" beads, this system exhibits rich wave dynamics from highly localized traveling waves to highly dispersive waves featuring strong attenuation. We demonstrate experimentally the nonlinear resonant and antiresonant interactions of particles, and we verify that the nonlinear resonance results in strong wave attenuation, leading to highly efficient nonlinear energy cascading without relying on material damping. In this process, mechanical energy is transferred from low to high frequencies, while propagating waves emerge in both ordered and chaotic waveforms via a distinctive spatial cascading. This energy transfer mechanism from lower to higher frequencies and wave numbers is of particular significance toward the design of novel nonlinear acoustic metamaterials with inherently passive energy redistribution properties. PMID:26764676

  14. Photon wave function formalism for analysis of Mach-Zehnder interferometer and sum-frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritboon, Atirach; Daengngam, Chalongrat; Pengpan, Teparksorn

    2016-08-01

    Biakynicki-Birula introduced a photon wave function similar to the matter wave function that satisfies the Schrödinger equation. Its second quantization form can be applied to investigate nonlinear optics at nearly full quantum level. In this paper, we applied the photon wave function formalism to analyze both linear optical processes in the well-known Mach-Zehnder interferometer and nonlinear optical processes for sum-frequency generation in dispersive and lossless medium. Results by photon wave function formalism agree with the well-established Maxwell treatments and existing experimental verifications.

  15. Solid-State Radio Frequency Plasma Heating Using a Nonlinear Transmission Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kenneth; Ziemba, Timothy; Prager, James; Slobodov, Ilia

    2015-11-01

    Radio Frequency heating systems are rarely used by the small-scale validation platform experiments due to the high cost and complexity of these systems, which typically require high power gyrotrons or klystrons, associated power supplies, waveguides and vacuum systems. The cost and complexity of these systems can potentially be reduced with a nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) based system. In the past, NLTLs have lacked a high voltage driver that could produce long duration high voltage pulses with fast rise times at high pulse repetition frequency. Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc. (EHT) has created new high voltage nanosecond pulser, which combined with NLTL technology will produce a low-cost, fully solid-state architecture for the generation of the RF frequencies (0.5 to 10 GHz) and peak power levels (~ 10 MW) necessary for plasma heating and diagnostic systems for the validation platform experiments within the fusion science community. The proposed system does not require the use of vacuum tube technology, is inherently lower cost, and is more robust than traditional high power RF heating schemes. Design details and initial bench testing results for the new RF system will be presented. This work is supported under DOE Grant # DE-SC0013747.

  16. Frequency conversion of radiation of IR molecular gas lasers in nonlinear crystals (A review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionin, A. A.; Kinyaevskiy, I. O.; Klimachev, Yu. M.; Kotkov, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    The solution of problems related, e.g., to transport of laser radiation in the atmosphere requires availability of a broadband IR laser source operating in the transparency windows of the atmosphere. In this review, we present the results of an investigation of the properties of a hybrid laser system consisting of molecular gas pump lasers and a solid-state laser frequency converter based on nonlinear crystals. We demonstrate broadening and enrichment of spectrum of radiation of the pump laser by means of sum- and difference-frequency generation. In particular, by using a relatively simple laser system consisting of gas-discharge CO and CO2 lasers, radiation tunable over a large number of spectral lines in a broad range of wavelength from 2.5 to 16.6 µm (more than two and a half octaves), which includes two transparency windows of the atmosphere, is obtained. Thus, the possibility of exploring the IR spectral range by means of hybrid laser systems based on frequency conversion of radiation of molecular gas lasers is demonstrated.

  17. Generation of multiple optical frequencies referenced to a frequency comb for precision free-space frequency transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Byung Jae; Kang, Hyun Jay; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2016-03-01

    Generating multiple optical frequencies referenced to the frequency standard is an important task in optical clock dissemination and optical communication. An apparatus for frequency-comb-referenced generation of multiple optical frequencies is demonstrated for high-precision free-space transfer of multiple optical frequencies. The relative linewidth and frequency instability at each channel corresponds to sub-1 Hz and 1.06×10-15 at 10 s averaging time, respectively. During the free-space transfer, the refractive index change of transmission media caused by atmospheric turbulences induces phase and frequency noise on optical frequencies. These phase and frequency noise causes induced linewidth broadening and frequency shift in optical frequencies which can disturb the accurate frequency transfer. The proposed feedback loop with acousto-optic modulator can monitor and compensate phase/frequency noise on optical frequencies. As a result, a frequency-comb-referenced single optical mode is compensated with a high signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 80 dB. By sharing the same optical paths, this feedback loop is confirmed to be successfully transferred to the neighboring wavelength channels (a 100 GHz spaced channel). This result confirms our proposed system can transfer optical frequencies to the remote site in free-space without performance degradation.

  18. Boundedness of solutions for non-linear quasi-periodic differential equations with Liouvillean frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; You, Jiangong

    2016-07-01

    We study the boundedness of solutions for non-linear quasi-periodic differential equations with Liouvillean frequencies. We proved that if the forcing is quasi-periodic in time with two frequencies which is not super-Liouvillean, then all solutions of the equation are bounded. The proof is based on action-angle variables and modified KAM theory.

  19. Broadband frequency conversion and shaping of single photons emitted from a nonlinear cavity.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Murray W; Chang, Darrick E; Zhang, Yinan; Lukin, Mikhail D; Loncar, Marko

    2009-12-01

    Much recent effort has focused on coupling individual quantum emitters to optical microcavities in order to produce single photons on demand, enable single-photon optical switching, and implement functional nodes of a quantum network. Techniques to control the bandwidth and frequency of the outgoing single photons are of practical importance, allowing direct emission into telecommunications wavelengths and "hybrid" quantum networks incorporating different emitters. Here, we describe an integrated approach involving a quantum emitter coupled to a nonlinear optical resonator, in which the emission wavelength and pulse shape are controlled using the intra-cavity nonlinearity. Our scheme is general in nature, and demonstrates how the photonic environment of a quantum emitter can be tailored to determine the emission properties. As specific examples, we discuss a high Q-factor, TE-TM double-mode photonic crystal cavity design that allows for direct generation of single photons at telecom wavelengths (1425 nm) starting from an InAs/GaAs quantum dot with a 950 nm transition wavelength, and a scheme for direct optical coupling between such a quantum dot and a diamond nitrogen-vacancy center at 637 nm. PMID:20052195

  20. Frequency, pressure, and strain dependence of nonlinear elasticity in Berea Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, Jacques; Pimienta, Lucas; Scuderi, Marco; Candela, Thibault; Shokouhi, Parisa; Fortin, Jérôme; Schubnel, Alexandre; Marone, Chris; Johnson, Paul A.

    2016-04-01

    Acoustoelasticity measurements in a sample of room dry Berea sandstone are conducted at various loading frequencies to explore the transition between the quasi-static (f→0) and dynamic (few kilohertz) nonlinear elastic response. We carry out these measurements at multiple confining pressures and perform a multivariate regression analysis to quantify the dependence of the harmonic content on strain amplitude, frequency, and pressure. The modulus softening (equivalent to the harmonic at 0f) increases by a factor 2-3 over 3 orders of magnitude increase in frequency. Harmonics at 2f, 4f, and 6f exhibit similar behaviors. In contrast, the harmonic at 1f appears frequency independent. This result corroborates previous studies showing that the nonlinear elasticity of rocks can be described with a minimum of two physical mechanisms. This study provides quantitative data that describes the rate dependency of nonlinear elasticity. These findings can be used to improve theories relating the macroscopic elastic response to microstructural features.

  1. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency during anterior-posterior stretching. Method Three materially linear and three materially nonlinear models were created and stretched up to 10 mm in 1 mm increments. Phonation onset pressure (Pon) and fundamental frequency (F0) at Pon were recorded for each length. Measurements were repeated as the models were relaxed in 1 mm increments back to their resting lengths, and tensile tests were conducted to determine the stress-strain responses of linear versus nonlinear models. Results Nonlinear models demonstrated a more substantial frequency response than did linear models and a more predictable pattern of F0 increase with respect to increasing length (although range was inconsistent across models). Pon generally increased with increasing vocal fold length for nonlinear models, whereas for linear models, Pon decreased with increasing length. Conclusions Nonlinear synthetic models appear to more accurately represent the human vocal folds than linear models, especially with respect to F0 response. PMID:22271874

  2. Frequency-resolved optical-gating measurements of ultrashort pulses using surface third-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, T.; Krumbuegel, M.A.; DeLong, K.W.; Fittinghoff, D.N.; Trebino, R.

    1996-09-01

    We demonstrate what is to our knowledge the first frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) technique to measure ultrashort pulses from an unamplified Ti:sapphire laser oscillator without direction-of-time ambiguity. This technique utilizes surface third-harmonic generation as the nonlinear-optical effect and, surprisingly, is the most sensitive third-order FROG geometry yet. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  3. Nonlinear dynamic model of a solar stream generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A.

    1981-01-01

    A thermal-hydraulic model of a once-through subcritical steam generator has been developed for predicting dynamic characteristics of solar thermal power plants as well as for control system design. The purpose of the model is to evaluate the overall system performance and component interaction with sufficient accuracy for controller design, rather than to describe the microscopic details occurring within the steam generator. The three-section (compressed water, two-phase mixture, and superheated steam) model with time-varying phase boundaries is described by a set of nonlinear differential equations derived from conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Local stability of the model has been examined at different levels of insolation. Transient response of six plant variables due to independent step disturbances in three input variables are presented as typical results.

  4. Control-focused, nonlinear and time-varying modelling of dielectric elastomer actuators with frequency response analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, William R.; Wilson, Emma D.; Assaf, Tareq; Rossiter, Jonathan; Dodd, Tony J.; Porrill, John; Anderson, Sean R.

    2015-05-01

    Current models of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are mostly constrained to first principal descriptions that are not well suited to the application of control design due to their computational complexity. In this work we describe an integrated framework for the identification of control focused, data driven and time-varying DEA models that allow advanced analysis of nonlinear system dynamics in the frequency-domain. Experimentally generated input-output data (voltage-displacement) was used to identify control-focused, nonlinear and time-varying dynamic models of a set of film-type DEAs. The model description used was the nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input structure. Frequency response analysis of the DEA dynamics was performed using generalized frequency response functions, providing insight and a comparison into the time-varying dynamics across a set of DEA actuators. The results demonstrated that models identified within the presented framework provide a compact and accurate description of the system dynamics. The frequency response analysis revealed variation in the time-varying dynamic behaviour of DEAs fabricated to the same specifications. These results suggest that the modelling and analysis framework presented here is a potentially useful tool for future work in guiding DEA actuator design and fabrication for application domains such as soft robotics.

  5. Tip-induced deformation of a phospholipid bilayer: Theoretical perspective of sum frequency generation imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, Victor

    2014-10-21

    The paper addresses theory of Sum Frequency Generation imaging of an atomic force microscopy tip-induced deformation of a bilayer phospholipid membrane deposited over a pore: known as a nano-drum system. Image modeling employed nonlinearities of the normal modes specific to hydrocarbon terminal methyls, which are distributed about the deformed surfaces of inner and outer leaflets. The deformed profiles are according to the solutions of shape equation for Canham-Helfrich Hamiltonian accounting properties of four membranes, which differ in elasticity and adhesion. The results indicate that in continuous deformed surfaces, the difference in the curvature of the outer and inner leaflets dominates in the imaged nonlinearity. This is different comparing to the results for a perfect bilayer spherical cap system (the subject of previous study), where nonlinear image response is dominated by the mismatch of the inner and outer leaflets’ surface areas (as projected to the image plane) at the edge of perfectly spherical structure. The results of theoretical studies, here, demonstrate that Sum Frequency Generation imaging in continuous and deformed bilayer surfaces are helpful to address curvature locally and anticipate mechanical properties of membrane. The articles discuss applicability and practical limitations of the approach. Combination of Atomic Force Microscopy and Sum Frequency Generation imaging under controlled tip-induced deformation provides a good opportunity to probe and test membranes physical properties with rigor of adopted theory.

  6. Tip-induced deformation of a phospholipid bilayer: theoretical perspective of sum frequency generation imaging.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Victor

    2014-10-21

    The paper addresses theory of Sum Frequency Generation imaging of an atomic force microscopy tip-induced deformation of a bilayer phospholipid membrane deposited over a pore: known as a nano-drum system. Image modeling employed nonlinearities of the normal modes specific to hydrocarbon terminal methyls, which are distributed about the deformed surfaces of inner and outer leaflets. The deformed profiles are according to the solutions of shape equation for Canham-Helfrich Hamiltonian accounting properties of four membranes, which differ in elasticity and adhesion. The results indicate that in continuous deformed surfaces, the difference in the curvature of the outer and inner leaflets dominates in the imaged nonlinearity. This is different comparing to the results for a perfect bilayer spherical cap system (the subject of previous study), where nonlinear image response is dominated by the mismatch of the inner and outer leaflets' surface areas (as projected to the image plane) at the edge of perfectly spherical structure. The results of theoretical studies, here, demonstrate that Sum Frequency Generation imaging in continuous and deformed bilayer surfaces are helpful to address curvature locally and anticipate mechanical properties of membrane. The articles discuss applicability and practical limitations of the approach. Combination of Atomic Force Microscopy and Sum Frequency Generation imaging under controlled tip-induced deformation provides a good opportunity to probe and test membranes physical properties with rigor of adopted theory. PMID:25338888

  7. Efficiency of non-linear frequency conversion of double-scale pico-femtosecond pulses of passively mode-locked fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Sergey V; Kobtsev, Sergey M; Kukarin, Sergey V

    2014-01-13

    For the first time we report the results of both numerical simulation and experimental observation of second-harmonic generation as an example of non-linear frequency conversion of pulses generated by passively mode-locked fiber master oscillator in different regimes including conventional (stable) and double-scale (partially coherent and noise-like) ones. We show that non-linear frequency conversion efficiency of double-scale pulses is slightly higher than that of conventional picosecond laser pulses with the same energy and duration despite strong phase fluctuations of double-scale pulses. PMID:24515065

  8. Nonlinear Pressure Shifts of ^133Cs Hyperfine Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Fei; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Happer, William

    2008-05-01

    The hyperfine (microwave) magnetic-resonance frequencies of optically pumped alkali-metal atoms in buffer-gas have long been used in compact, portable frequency standards. Van der Waals molecules, consisting of an alkali-metal atom loosely bound to a buffer gas atom, can form in such vapor cells. The molecules strongly affect the spin relaxation of alkali metal atoms in Ar, Kr and Xe gases at pressures of a few Torr, where the collisionally limited lifetime of the molecules is comparable to the characteristic period of the spin-rotation interaction between the rotational angular momentum N of the molecule and the electron spin S of the alkali-metal atom. The hyperfine-shift interaction, the modification a nearby buffer-gas atom makes to the Fermi contact interaction between S and the nuclear spin I of the alkali atom, can contribute to the width of the microwave resonance line, and it is responsible for the pressure shifts of the hyperfine resonance frequencies that are so important for clocks. Major improvements have been done to the apparatus and the process of data taking since last time. The experimental results show that Van der Waals molecules also modify the effects of the hyperfine-shift interaction. For Ar or Kr pressures of a few tens of Torr or less, the shift of the microwave resonance frequency of Cs is not linear in the buffer gas pressure.

  9. Nonlinear Pressure Shifts of ^133Cs Hyperfine Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Fei; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Happer, William

    2007-06-01

    The hyperfine (microwave) magnetic-resonance frequencies of optically pumped alkali-metal atoms in buffer-gas have long been used in compact, portable frequency standards. The buffer gas is needed to slow down the diffusion of optically pumped atoms to the cell walls, and to eliminate Doppler broadening of the microwave resonances. Van der Waals molecules, consisting of an alkali-metal atom loosely bound to a buffer gas atom, can form in such vapor cells. The molecules strongly affect the spin relaxation of alkali metal atoms in Ar, Kr and Xe gases at pressures of a few Torr. The hyperfine-shift interaction, δAI.S, the modification a nearby buffer-gas atom makes to the Fermi contact interaction between S and the nuclear spin I of the alkali atom, can contribute to the width of the microwave resonance line, and it is responsible for the pressure shifts of the hyperfine resonance frequencies that are so important for clocks. Our experiments show that Van der Waals molecules also modify the effects of the hyperfine-shift interaction δAI.S. For Ar pressures of a few tens of Torr or less, the shift of the microwave resonance frequency of ^133Cs in Ar buffer gas is not linear in the buffer gas pressure. This occurs because the contribution to the pressure shift from molecules is suppressed when τδA I > h.

  10. Hybrid highly nonlinear fiber for spectral supercontinuum generation in mobile femtosecond clockwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korel, I. I.; Nyushkov, B. N.; Denisov, V. I.; Pivtsov, V. S.; Koliada, N. A.; Sysoliatin, A. A.; Ignatovich, S. M.; Kvashnin, N. L.; Skvortsov, M. N.; Bagayev, S. N.

    2014-07-01

    We have proposed and tested a novel design of a short-length dispersion-managed hybrid highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), which is intended for low-noise spectral supercontinuum generation with controlled intensity distribution over the range 1-2 µm. It is shown experimentally that such a HNLF facilitates development of a mobile femtosecond optical clockwork, which is based on a fiber-optic femtosecond laser system and an original fiber-coupled Nd : YAG/I2 optical frequency standard with a long-term instability lowered to 3 × 10-15.

  11. Inverse spin-Hall effect voltage generation by nonlinear spin-wave excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiler, Laura; Sentker, Kathrin; Brinker, Manuel; Kuhlmann, Nils; Stein, Falk-Ulrich; Meier, Guido

    2016-02-01

    We investigate spin currents in microstructured permalloy/platinum bilayers that are excited via magnetic high-frequency fields. Due to this excitation spin pumping occurs at the permalloy/platinum interface and a spin current is injected into the platinum layer. The spin current is detected as a voltage via the inverse spin-Hall effect. We find two regimes reflected by a nonlinear, abrupt voltage surge, which is reproducibly observed at distinct excitation field strengths. Micromagnetic simulations suggest that the surge is caused by excitation of a spin-wave-like mode. The comparatively large voltages reveal a highly efficient spin-current generation method in a mesoscopic spintronic device.

  12. Non-linear generation of acoustic noise in the IAR spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westley, R.; Nguyen, K.; Westley, M. S.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement to produce high level acoustic noise fields with increasing accuracy in environmental test facilities dictates that a more precise understanding is required of the factors controlling nonlinear noise generation. Details are given of various nonlinear effects found in acoustic performance data taken from the IAR Spacecraft Acoustic Chamber. This type of data has enabled the IAR to test large spacecraft to relatively tight acoustic tolerances over a wide frequency range using manually set controls. An analog random noise automatic control system was available and modified to provide automatic selection of the chamber's spectral sound pressure levels. The automatic control system when used to complete a typical qualification test appeared to equal the accuracy of the manual system and had the added advantage that parallel spectra could be easily achieved during preset tests.

  13. Uniqueness: skews bit occurrence frequencies in randomly generated fingerprint libraries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nelson G

    2016-08-01

    Requiring that randomly generated chemical fingerprint libraries have unique fingerprints such that no two fingerprints are identical causes a systematic skew in bit occurrence frequencies, the proportion at which specified bits are set. Observed frequencies (O) at which each bit is set within the resulting libraries systematically differ from frequencies at which bits are set at fingerprint generation (E). Observed frequencies systematically skew toward 0.5, with the effect being more pronounced as library size approaches the compound space, which is the total number of unique possible fingerprints given the number of bit positions each fingerprint contains. The effect is quantified for varying library sizes as a fraction of the overall compound space, and for changes in the specified frequency E. The cause and implications for this systematic skew are subsequently discussed. When generating random libraries of chemical fingerprints, the imposition of a uniqueness requirement should either be avoided or taken into account. PMID:27230477

  14. Quasi-phase-matched concurrent nonlinearities in periodically poled KTiOPO(4) for quantum computing over the optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Pysher, Matthew; Bahabad, Alon; Peng, Peng; Arie, Ady; Pfister, Olivier

    2010-02-15

    We report the successful design and experimental implementation of three coincident nonlinear interactions, namely ZZZ (type 0), ZYY (type I), and YYZ/YZY (type II) second-harmonic generation of 780 nm light from a 1560 nm pump beam in a single, multigrating, periodically poled KTiOPO(4) crystal. The resulting nonlinear medium is the key component for making a scalable quantum computer over the optical frequency comb of a single optical parametric oscillator. PMID:20160819

  15. Thrust generation by a heaving flexible foil: Resonance, nonlinearities, and optimality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraz, Florine; Schouveiler, Lionel; Eloy, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility of marine animal fins has been thought to enhance swimming performance. However, despite numerous experimental and numerical studies on flapping flexible foils, there is still no clear understanding of the effect of flexibility and flapping amplitude on thrust generation and swimming efficiency. Here, to address this question, we combine experiments on a model system and a weakly nonlinear analysis. Experiments consist in immersing a flexible rectangular plate in a uniform flow and forcing this plate into a heaving motion at its leading edge. A complementary theoretical model is developed assuming a two-dimensional inviscid problem. In this model, nonlinear effects are taken into account by considering a transverse resistive drag. Under these hypotheses, a modal decomposition of the system motion allows us to predict the plate response amplitude and the generated thrust, as a function of the forcing amplitude and frequency. We show that this model can correctly predict the experimental data on plate kinematic response and thrust generation, as well as other data found in the literature. We also discuss the question of efficiency in the context of bio-inspired propulsion. Using the proposed model, we show that the optimal propeller for a given thrust and a given swimming speed is achieved when the actuating frequency is tuned to a resonance of the system, and when the optimal forcing amplitude scales as the square root of the required thrust.

  16. Spatial Frequency Clustering in Nonlinear Dust-Density Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, K. O.; Arp, O.; Piel, A.

    2010-06-11

    Self-excited density waves were studied in a strongly coupled dusty plasma of a radio-frequency discharge under microgravity conditions. The spatiotemporal evolution of the complicated three-dimensional wave field was investigated and analyzed for two different situations. The reconstructed instantaneous phase information of the wave field revealed a partial synchronization within multiple distinct domains. The boundaries of these regions coincide with the locations of topological defects.

  17. Theoretical investigation of nonlinear damping and nonlinear phase shift of spin-electromagnetic waves propagating in infinite multiferroics at sub-terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinova, I. A.; Cherkasskii, M. A.; Ustinov, A. B.; Kalinikos, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    The nonlinear phase shift and nonlinear damping of spin-electromagnetic waves were theoretically studied for the first time in sub-terahertz frequency range in infinite homogeneous longitudinal magnetized multiferroics. The research was based on the solution of the Ginzburg-Landau equation. It is shown that the saturation of the phase shift occurs due to the nonlinear damping if the nonlinear damping coefficients exceed v1=108 s-1 and v2=109 s-1.

  18. 14. Control Area, Interconnecting Corridor and Frequency Changer and Generator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Control Area, Interconnecting Corridor and Frequency Changer and Generator Building, general view VIEW SOUTHWEST, NORTH ELEVATION - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  19. 17. Control Area, Frequency Changer and Generator Building VIEW NORTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Control Area, Frequency Changer and Generator Building VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATION - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  20. 18. Control Area, Frequency Changer and Generator Building, interior view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Control Area, Frequency Changer and Generator Building, interior view of remaining control panels VIEW WEST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  1. Frequency-resolved optical grating using third-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, T.; Krumbuegel, M.A.; Delong, K.W.

    1995-12-01

    We demonstrate the first frequency-resolved optical gating measurement of an laser oscillator without the time ambiguity using third-harmonic generation. The experiment agrees well with the phase-retrieved spectrograms.

  2. A low frequency nonlinear energy harvester with large bandwidth utilizing magnet levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ye; Cai, C. S.; Kong, Bo

    2015-04-01

    The application of vibration based energy harvesting in civil infrastructures usually has to resolve two major problems, namely, the low excitation frequency and large frequency range. To this end, a nonlinear energy harvester utilizing magnet levitation is proposed in this study. The proposed harvester can convert low frequency excitations into high frequency ones in its four doubly clamped piezoelectric beams through multi-impact. A large bandwidth is expected due to the stiffness nonlinearity introduced by using magnet levitation. A theoretical model is first developed for the harvester. Then, sinusoidal vibrations and simulated bridge vibrations are used as the external excitations to verify the performance of the harvester. The simulation results show an improved robustness of the harvester under low frequency vibrations, which indicates the proposed harvester is an ideal device for energy harvesting in civil infrastructures.

  3. Frequency dependence of optical third-harmonic generation from doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulis, Vl. A.; Muryumin, E. E.; Gaiduk, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    In connection with the controversial question about the frequency dependence of the optical third-harmonic generation (THG) from doped graphene, which has recently been discussed in the literature, we develop an analytical theory for the THG susceptibility of doped graphene by using the original Genkin-Mednis nonlinear-conductivity-theory formalism including mixed intra- and interband terms. The theory is free of any nonphysical divergences at zero frequency, and it predicts the main resonant peak in the THG spectrum to be located at the photon energy ħω equal to two thirds of the Fermi energy EF of charge carriers in doped graphene.

  4. Theory of sum frequency generation from metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebsch, A.

    The time-dependent density functional approach is used to evaluate the optical sum frequency generation from metal surfaces. Attention is focussed on the magnitude and frequency variation of the element χzzz(ω1,ω2). Four types of metal surfaces are considered: simple metals, alkali metal overlayers, noble metals, and charged metal surfaces. Differences and similarities with respect to second harmonic generation from these surfaces are pointed out.

  5. Frequency stabilization in nonlinear MEMS and NEMS oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Omar Daniel; Antonio, Dario

    2014-09-16

    An illustrative system includes an amplifier operably connected to a phase shifter. The amplifier is configured to amplify a voltage from an oscillator. The phase shifter is operably connected to a driving amplitude control, wherein the phase shifter is configured to phase shift the amplified voltage and is configured to set an amplitude of the phase shifted voltage. The oscillator is operably connected to the driving amplitude control. The phase shifted voltage drives the oscillator. The oscillator is at an internal resonance condition, based at least on the amplitude of the phase shifted voltage, that stabilizes frequency oscillations in the oscillator.

  6. Experimental observation of the generation of cutoff solitons in a discrete LC nonlinear electrical line.

    PubMed

    Koon, K Tse Ve; Marquié, P; Dinda, P Tchofo

    2014-11-01

    We address the problem of supratransmission of waves in a discrete nonlinear system, driven at one end by a periodic excitation at a frequency lying above the phonon band edge. In an experimental electrical transmission line made of 200 inductance-capacitance LC cells, we establish the existence of a voltage threshold for a supratransmission enabling the generation and propagation of cut-off solitons within the line. The decisive role of modulational instability in the onset and development of the process of generation of cut-off solitons is clearly highlighted. The phenomenon of dissipation is identified as being particularly harmful for the soliton generation, but we show that its impact can be managed by a proper choice of the amplitude of the voltage excitation of the system. PMID:25493852

  7. Experimental observation of the generation of cutoff solitons in a discrete L C nonlinear electrical line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, K. Tse Ve; Marquié, P.; Dinda, P. Tchofo

    2014-11-01

    We address the problem of supratransmission of waves in a discrete nonlinear system, driven at one end by a periodic excitation at a frequency lying above the phonon band edge. In an experimental electrical transmission line made of 200 inductance-capacitance LC cells, we establish the existence of a voltage threshold for a supratransmission enabling the generation and propagation of cut-off solitons within the line. The decisive role of modulational instability in the onset and development of the process of generation of cut-off solitons is clearly highlighted. The phenomenon of dissipation is identified as being particularly harmful for the soliton generation, but we show that its impact can be managed by a proper choice of the amplitude of the voltage excitation of the system.

  8. Generation of optical frequency combs via four-wave mixing processes for low- and medium-resolution astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajnulina, M.; Boggio, J. M. Chavez; Böhm, M.; Rieznik, A. A.; Fremberg, T.; Haynes, R.; Roth, M. M.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the generation of optical frequency combs through a cascade of four-wave mixing processes in nonlinear fibres with optimised parameters. The initial optical field consists of two continuous-wave lasers with frequency separation larger than 40 GHz (312.7 pm at 1531 nm). It propagates through three nonlinear fibres. The first fibre serves to pulse shape the initial sinusoidal-square pulse, while a strong pulse compression down to sub-100 fs takes place in the second fibre which is an amplifying erbium-doped fibre. The last stage is a low-dispersion highly nonlinear fibre where the frequency comb bandwidth is increased and the line intensity is equalised. We model this system using the generalised nonlinear Schrödinger equation and investigate it in terms of fibre lengths, fibre dispersion, laser frequency separation and input powers with the aim to minimise the frequency comb noise. With the support of the numerical results, a frequency comb is experimentally generated, first in the near infra-red and then it is frequency-doubled into the visible spectral range. Using a MUSE-type spectrograph, we evaluate the comb performance for astronomical wavelength calibration in terms of equidistancy of the comb lines and their stability.

  9. Prediction of municipal solid waste generation using nonlinear autoregressive network.

    PubMed

    Younes, Mohammad K; Nopiah, Z M; Basri, N E Ahmad; Basri, H; Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Maulud, K N A

    2015-12-01

    Most of the developing countries have solid waste management problems. Solid waste strategic planning requires accurate prediction of the quality and quantity of the generated waste. In developing countries, such as Malaysia, the solid waste generation rate is increasing rapidly, due to population growth and new consumption trends that characterize society. This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN) approach using feedforward nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX) to predict annual solid waste generation in relation to demographic and economic variables like population number, gross domestic product, electricity demand per capita and employment and unemployment numbers. In addition, variable selection procedures are also developed to select a significant explanatory variable. The model evaluation was performed using coefficient of determination (R(2)) and mean square error (MSE). The optimum model that produced the lowest testing MSE (2.46) and the highest R(2) (0.97) had three inputs (gross domestic product, population and employment), eight neurons and one lag in the hidden layer, and used Fletcher-Powell's conjugate gradient as the training algorithm. PMID:26573690

  10. Sustained high-frequency energy harvesting through a strongly nonlinear electromechanical system under single and repeated impulsive excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remick, Kevin; Joo, Han Kyul; McFarland, D. Michael; Sapsis, Themistoklis P.; Bergman, Lawrence; Quinn, D. Dane; Vakakis, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    This work investigates a vibration-based energy harvesting system composed of two oscillators coupled with essential (nonlinearizable) stiffness nonlinearity and subject to impulsive loading of the mechanical component. The oscillators in the system consist of one grounded, weakly damped linear oscillator mass (primary system), which is coupled to a second light-weight, weakly damped oscillating mass attachment (the harvesting element) through a piezoelastic cable. Due to geometric/kinematic mechanical effects the piezoelastic cable generates a nonlinearizable cubic stiffness nonlinearity, whereas electromechanical coupling simply sees a resistive load. Under single and repeated impulsive inputs the transient damped dynamics of this system exhibit transient resonance captures (TRCs) causing high-frequency 'bursts' or instabilities in the response of the harvesting element. In turn, these high-frequency dynamic instabilities result in strong and sustained energy transfers from the directly excited primary system to the lightweight harvester, which, through the piezoelastic element, are harvested by the electrical component of the system or, in the present case, dissipated across a resistive element in the circuit. The primary goal of this work is to demonstrate the efficacy of employing this type of high-frequency dynamic instability to achieve enhanced nonlinear vibration energy harvesting under impulsive excitations.

  11. An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuyken, Bart; Ideguchi, Takuro; Holzner, Simon; Yan, Ming; Hänsch, Theodor W.; van Campenhout, Joris; Verheyen, Peter; Coen, Stéphane; Leo, Francois; Baets, Roel; Roelkens, Gunther; Picqué, Nathalie

    2015-02-01

    Laser frequency combs, sources with a spectrum consisting of hundred thousands evenly spaced narrow lines, have an exhilarating potential for new approaches to molecular spectroscopy and sensing in the mid-infrared region. The generation of such broadband coherent sources is presently under active exploration. Technical challenges have slowed down such developments. Identifying a versatile highly nonlinear medium for significantly broadening a mid-infrared comb spectrum remains challenging. Here we take a different approach to spectral broadening of mid-infrared frequency combs and investigate CMOS-compatible highly nonlinear dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic waveguides on a silicon-on-insulator chip. We record octave-spanning (1,500-3,300 nm) spectra with a coupled input pulse energy as low as 16 pJ. We demonstrate phase-coherent comb spectra broadened on a room-temperature-operating CMOS-compatible chip.

  12. An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Kuyken, Bart; Ideguchi, Takuro; Holzner, Simon; Yan, Ming; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Van Campenhout, Joris; Verheyen, Peter; Coen, Stéphane; Leo, Francois; Baets, Roel; Roelkens, Gunther; Picqué, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Laser frequency combs, sources with a spectrum consisting of hundred thousands evenly spaced narrow lines, have an exhilarating potential for new approaches to molecular spectroscopy and sensing in the mid-infrared region. The generation of such broadband coherent sources is presently under active exploration. Technical challenges have slowed down such developments. Identifying a versatile highly nonlinear medium for significantly broadening a mid-infrared comb spectrum remains challenging. Here we take a different approach to spectral broadening of mid-infrared frequency combs and investigate CMOS-compatible highly nonlinear dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic waveguides on a silicon-on-insulator chip. We record octave-spanning (1,500–3,300 nm) spectra with a coupled input pulse energy as low as 16 pJ. We demonstrate phase-coherent comb spectra broadened on a room-temperature-operating CMOS-compatible chip. PMID:25697764

  13. PLL swept frequency generator with programmable sweep rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E. B.; Fogleboch, J. R., Sr.

    1985-10-01

    This document discusses a phase-locked voltage controlled oscillator for generating frequency modulated waveforms having a programmable digital RF phase shifter to determine the phase difference between the output signal and a phase corrected reference signal to thereby generate the desired output waveform.

  14. Sum-frequency generation from photon number squeezed light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Ling-An; Du, Cong-Shi; Wu, Mei-Juan; Li, Shi-Qun

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the quantum fluctuations of the fields produced in sum-frequency (SF) generation from light initially in the photon number squeezed state. It is found that, to the fourth power term, the output SF light is sub-Poissonian whereas the quantum fluctuations of the input beams increase. Quantum anticorrelation also exists in SF generation.

  15. Efficient phase-matching for difference frequency generation with pump of Bessel laser beams.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengxiang; Shi, Wei; Xu, Degang; Zhang, Xinzheng; Zhang, Guizhong; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-01-25

    A type of phase matching for difference frequency generation with Bessel-type pump beams is proposed. In this geometry, the phase matching is achieved in a cone around the laser path by properly controlling the beam profile. An experimental case that 1.5THz generation with ~2μm lasers pumped bulk GaAs crystal is considered. Calculations of the energy conversion characteristics are performed based on a semi-analytical model. The results indicate that this configuration could relax the phase matching condition in a wide range of nonlinear crystals and pump wavelengths. PMID:26832473

  16. Hydrodynamic model for sum and difference frequency generation at metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytorena, Jesús A.; Mochán, W. Luis; Mendoza, Bernardo S.

    1998-01-01

    We develop a hydrodynamic model for the calculation of sum and difference frequency generation (SFG/DFG) at the surface of nonlocal conductors with arbitrary equilibrium electronic density profiles n0. We apply our model to simple profiles and calculate the nonlinear surface susceptibility tensor χszzz(ω1,ω2) and the radiated efficiency R(ω3=ω1+/-ω2) as a function of the pump frequencies ω1 and ω2. R is strongly enhanced due to the excitation of the dipolar surface plasmon characterized by a resonant frequency ωd it displays ridges whenever ω1, ω2, or ω3~ωd, an additional ridge at the bulk plasma frequency ω3~ωb, and very large double resonance peaks whenever two ridges cross each other. These results suggest that SFG/DFG spectroscopy might be a useful probe of surface collective modes.

  17. Spurious cross-frequency amplitude-amplitude coupling in nonstationary, nonlinear signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Lo, Men-Tzung; Hu, Kun

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies of brain activities show that cross-frequency coupling (CFC) plays an important role in memory and learning. Many measures have been proposed to investigate the CFC phenomenon, including the correlation between the amplitude envelopes of two brain waves at different frequencies - cross-frequency amplitude-amplitude coupling (AAC). In this short communication, we describe how nonstationary, nonlinear oscillatory signals may produce spurious cross-frequency AAC. Utilizing the empirical mode decomposition, we also propose a new method for assessment of AAC that can potentially reduce the effects of nonlinearity and nonstationarity and, thus, help to avoid the detection of artificial AACs. We compare the performances of this new method and the traditional Fourier-based AAC method. We also discuss the strategies to identify potential spurious AACs.

  18. Enhanced optical nonlinearity and fiber-optical frequency comb controlled by a single atom in a whispering-gallery-mode microtoroid resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiahua; Zhang, Suzhen; Yu, Rong; Zhang, Duo; Wu, Ying

    2014-11-01

    Based on a single atom coupled to a fiber-coupled, chip-based microresonator [B. Dayan et al., Science 319, 1062 (2008), 10.1126/science.1152261], we put forward a scheme to generate optical frequency combs at driving laser powers as low as a few nanowatts. Using state-of-the-art experimental parameters, we investigate in detail the influences of different atomic positions and taper-resonator coupling regimes on optical-frequency-comb generation. In addition to numerical simulations demonstrating this effect, a physical explanation of the underlying mechanism is presented. We find that the combination of the atom and the resonator can induce a large third-order nonlinearity which is significantly stronger than Kerr nonlinearity in Kerr frequency combs. Such enhanced nonlinearity can be used to generate optical frequency combs if driven with two continuous-wave control and probe lasers and significantly reduce the threshold of nonlinear optical processes. The comb spacing can be well tuned by changing the frequency beating between the driving control and probe lasers. The proposed method is versatile and can be adopted to different types of resonators, such as microdisks, microspheres, microtoroids or microrings.

  19. Quasi-periodic solutions of nonlinear beam equation with prescribed frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jing; Gao, Yixian; Li, Yong

    2015-05-01

    Consider the one dimensional nonlinear beam equation utt + uxxxx + mu + u3 = 0 under Dirichlet boundary conditions. We show that for any m > 0 but a set of small Lebesgue measure, the above equation admits a family of small-amplitude quasi-periodic solutions with n-dimensional Diophantine frequencies. These Diophantine frequencies are the small dilation of a prescribed Diophantine vector. The proofs are based on an infinite dimensional Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser iteration procedure and a partial Birkhoff normal form.

  20. Electron–phonon metamaterial featuring nonlinear tri-interleaved piezoelectric topologies and its application in low-frequency vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Bin; Guyomar, Daniel; Lallart, Mickaël

    2016-09-01

    This article proposes a nonlinear tri-interleaved piezoelectric topology based on the synchronized switch damping on inductor (SSDI) technique, which can be applied to phononic metamaterials for elastic wave control and effective low-frequency vibration reduction. A comparison of the attenuation performance is made between piezoelectric phononic metamaterial with distributed SSDI topology (each SSDI shunt being independently connected to a single piezoelectric element) and piezoelectric phononic metamaterial with the proposed electronic topology. Theoretical results show excellent band gap hybridization (near-coupling between Bragg scattering mechanism and wideband resonance mechanism induced by synchronized switch damping networks in piezoelectric phononic metamaterials) with the proposed electronic topology over the investigated frequency domain. Furthermore, piezoelectric phononic metamaterials with proposed electronic topology generated a better low-frequency broadband gap, which is experimentally validated by measuring the harmonic response of a piezoelectric phononic metamaterial beam under clamped–clamped boundary conditions.

  1. Nonlinear-optical frequency-doubling metareflector: pulsed regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A. K.; Myslivets, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    The properties of backward-wave second-harmonic metareflector operating in pulse regime are investigated. It is made of metamaterial which enables phase matching of contra-propagating fundamental and second-harmonic waves. References are given to the works that prove such a possibility. Physical principles underlying differences in the proposed and standard settings as well as between continuous-wave and pulsed regimes are discussed. Pulsed regime is more practicable and has a broader scope of applications. A set of partial differential equations which describe such a reflector with the account for losses are solved numerically. It is shown that unlike second-harmonic generation in standard settings, contra-propagating pulse of second harmonic may become much longer than the incident fundamental one and the difference grows with decrease in the input pulse length as compared to thickness of the metaslab. The revealed properties are important for applications and may manifest themselves beyond the optical wavelength range.

  2. Recent development of nonlinear optical borate crystals for UV generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Y.; Yap, Y. K.; Kamimura, T.; Yoshimura, M.; Sasaki, T.

    2002-02-01

    Recent development of high-power solid-state UV radiation by nonlinear optical (NLO) borate crystals is reviewed. The performance of such UV light sources has rapidly improved in the past five years because of the superior NLO properties of CsLiB 6O 10 (CLBO) crystals. The performance of such UV light sources also depends on the reliability of the NLO crystals. The relation between the bulk laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT), dislocation density and UV absorption of CsLiB 6O 10 (CLBO) was investigated. A newly developed synthesis process allows the growth of CLBO crystals with LIDT 2.5-fold higher than those grown by the conventional top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) technique. High-quality CLBO possesses lower dislocation density and smaller absorption of UV light ( λ=266 nm) than conventional CLBO. Reduction of the dislocation density can suppress absorption of UV light that helps to enhance the resistance of CLBO to laser-induced damages, to alleviate thermal dephasing during high-power generation of UV light and thus strengthen the reliability of CLBO for UV light generation.

  3. Instantaneous stepped-frequency, non-linear radar part 2: experimental confirmation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranney, Kenneth; Mazzaro, Gregory; Gallagher, Kyle; Martone, Anthony; Sherbondy, Kelly; Narayanan, Ram

    2016-05-01

    Last year, we presented the theory behind "instantaneous stepped-frequency, non-linear radar". We demonstrated through simulation that certain devices (when interrogated by a multi-tone transmit signal) could be expected to produce a multi-tone output signal near harmonics of the transmitted tones. This hypothesized non-linear (multitone) response was then shown to be suitable for pulse compression via standard stepped-frequency processing techniques. At that time, however, we did not have measured data to support the theoretical and simulated results. We now present laboratory measurements confirming our initial hypotheses. We begin with a brief description of the experimental system, and then describe the data collection exercise. Finally, we present measured data demonstrating the accurate ranging of a non-linear target.

  4. High frequency analysis of a plate carrying a concentrated nonlinear spring-mass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culver, Dean; Dowell, Earl

    2016-09-01

    Examining the behavior of dynamical systems with many degrees of freedom undergoing random excitation at high frequency often requires substantial computation. These requirements are even more stringent for nonlinear systems. One approach for describing linear systems, Asymptotic Modal Analysis (AMA), has been extended to nonlinear systems in this paper. A prototypical system, namely a thin plate carrying a concentrated hardening cubic spring-mass, is explored. The study focuses on the response of three principal variables to random, frequency-bounded excitation: the displacement of the mounting location of the discrete spring-mass, the relative displacement of the discrete mass to this mounting location, and the absolute displacement of the discrete mass. The results indicate that extending AMA to nonlinear systems for input frequency bands containing a large number of modes is feasible. Several advantageous properties of nonlinear AMA are found, and an additional reduced frequency-domain modal method, Dominance-Reduced Classical Modal Analysis (DRCMA), is proposed that is intermediate in accuracy and the cost of computation between AMA and Classical Modal Analysis (CMA).

  5. Generation of sheet currents by high frequency fast MHD waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of fast magnetosonic waves of high frequency propagating into an axisymmetric equilibrium plasma is studied. By using the methods of weakly nonlinear geometrical optics, it is shown that the perturbation travels in the equatorial plane while satisfying a transport equation which enables us to predict the time and location of formation of shock waves. For plasmas of large magnetic Prandtl number, this would result into the creation of sheet currents which may give rise to magnetic reconnection and destruction of the original equilibrium.

  6. High power and high SFDR frequency conversion using sum frequency generation in KTP waveguides.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Russell J; Brewer, Tyler; Barber, Zeb W

    2016-08-01

    We characterize the intermodulation distortion of high power and efficient frequency conversion of modulated optical signals based on sum frequency generation (SFG) in a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) waveguide. Unwanted frequency two-tone spurs are generated near the converted signal via a three-step cascaded three-wave mixing process. Computer simulations describing the process are presented along with the experimental measurements. High-conversion efficiencies and large spur-free dynamic range of the converted optical signal are demonstrated. PMID:27472638

  7. High-Efficiency Broadband High-Harmonic Generation from a Single Quasi-Phase-Matching Nonlinear Crystal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bao-Qin; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Chen-Yang; Liu, Rong-Juan; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2015-08-21

    Nonlinear frequency conversion offers an effective way to expand the laser wavelength range based on birefringence phase matching (BPM) or quasi-phase-matching (QPM) techniques in nonlinear crystals. So far, efficient high-harmonic generation is enabled only via multiple cascaded crystals because of the extreme difficulty to simultaneously satisfy BPM or QPM for multiple nonlinear up-conversion processes within a single crystal. Here we report the design and fabrication of a chirped periodic poled lithium niobate (CPPLN) nonlinear crystal that offers controllable multiple QPM bands to support 2nd-8th harmonic generation (HG) simultaneously. Upon illumination of a mid-IR femtosecond pulse laser, we observe the generation of an ultrabroadband visible white light beam corresponding to 5th-8th HG with a record high conversion efficiency of 18%, which is high compared to conventional supercontinuum generation, especially in the HG parts. Our CPPLN scheme opens up a new avenue to explore and engineer novel nonlinear optical interactions in solid state materials for application in ultrafast lasers and broadband laser sources. PMID:26340190

  8. High-Efficiency Broadband High-Harmonic Generation from a Single Quasi-Phase-Matching Nonlinear Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bao-Qin; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Chen-Yang; Liu, Rong-Juan; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Nonlinear frequency conversion offers an effective way to expand the laser wavelength range based on birefringence phase matching (BPM) or quasi-phase-matching (QPM) techniques in nonlinear crystals. So far, efficient high-harmonic generation is enabled only via multiple cascaded crystals because of the extreme difficulty to simultaneously satisfy BPM or QPM for multiple nonlinear up-conversion processes within a single crystal. Here we report the design and fabrication of a chirped periodic poled lithium niobate (CPPLN) nonlinear crystal that offers controllable multiple QPM bands to support 2nd-8th harmonic generation (HG) simultaneously. Upon illumination of a mid-IR femtosecond pulse laser, we observe the generation of an ultrabroadband visible white light beam corresponding to 5th-8th HG with a record high conversion efficiency of 18%, which is high compared to conventional supercontinuum generation, especially in the HG parts. Our CPPLN scheme opens up a new avenue to explore and engineer novel nonlinear optical interactions in solid state materials for application in ultrafast lasers and broadband laser sources.

  9. Evaluation of crack parameters by a nonlinear frequency-mixing laser ultrasonics method.

    PubMed

    Mezil, Sylvain; Chigarev, Nikolay; Tournat, Vincent; Gusev, Vitalyi

    2016-07-01

    The local evaluation of several parameters of a crack is realized with a nonlinear laser ultrasonic method. The method is based on the sample excitation by two laser beams, independently intensity modulated at two cyclic frequencies ωH and ωL (ωH≫ωL) and on the detection of nonlinear frequency-mixing ultrasonic components at frequencies ωH±nωL (n an integer). Frequency-mixing is a nonlinear process originating from the modulation of the crack state at low frequency ωL by laser-induced thermo-elastic stresses, which causes in turn the modulation of the acoustic waves at frequency ωH reflected/transmitted by the crack. We carry experiments with increasing laser power and observe a non-monotonous variation in the amplitude of up to 6 nonlinear sidelobes. We also improve a previously introduced theoretical model which leads to interpreting the experimental observations by the combined action on the crack of the thermo-elastic waves at low frequency ωL and of the stationary thermo-elastic stresses at ω=0. The latter are induced by the average laser power absorbed by the sample. While thermo-elastic wave can periodically modulate the parameters of the crack up to its periodic opening/closing, the stationary heating could cause complete local closure of the crack. By fitting the experimental amplitude evolutions for all monitored sidelobes with the theoretically predicted ones, various local parameters of the crack are extracted, including its local width and effective rigidity. PMID:27090110

  10. Low-frequency broadband noise generated by a model rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aravamudan, K. S.; Harris, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Low-frequency broadband noise generated by model rotors is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The influence of free-stream turbulence in the low-frequency broadband noise radiation from model rotors has been experimentally investigated. The turbulence was generated in the M.I.T. anechoic wind tunnel facility with the aid of bipolar grids of various sizes. The spectra and the intensity of the low-frequency broadband noise have been studied as a function of parameters which characterize the turbulence and of helicopter performance parameters. The location of the peak intensity was observed to be strongly dependent on the rotor-tip velocity and on the longitudinal integral scale of turbulence. The size scale of turbulence had negligible effect on the intensity of low-frequency broadband noise. The experimental data show good agreement with an ad hoc model based on unsteady aerodynamics.

  11. Astronomical optical frequency comb generation and test in a fiber-fed MUSE spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez Boggio, J. M.; Fremberg, T.; Moralejo, B.; Rutowska, M.; Hernandez, E.; Zajnulina, M.; Kelz, A.; Bodenmüller, D.; Sandin, C.; Wysmolek, M.; Sayinc, H.; Neumann, J.; Haynes, R.; Roth, M. M.

    2014-07-01

    We here report on recent progress on astronomical optical frequency comb generation at innoFSPEC-Potsdam and present preliminary test results using the fiber-fed Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) spectrograph. The frequency comb is generated by propagating two free-running lasers at 1554.3 and 1558.9 nm through two dispersionoptimized nonlinear fibers. The generated comb is centered at 1590 nm and comprises more than one hundred lines with an optical-signal-to-noise ratio larger than 30 dB. A nonlinear crystal is used to frequency double the whole comb spectrum, which is efficiently converted into the 800 nm spectral band. We evaluate first the wavelength stability using an optical spectrum analyzer with 0.02 nm resolution and wavelength grid of 0.01 nm. After confirming the stability within 0.01 nm, we compare the spectra of the astro-comb and the Ne and Hg calibration lamps: the astro-comb exhibits a much larger number of lines than lamp calibration sources. A series of preliminary tests using a fiber-fed MUSE spectrograph are subsequently carried out with the main goal of assessing the equidistancy of the comb lines. Using a P3d data reduction software we determine the centroid and the width of each comb line (for each of the 400 fibers feeding the spectrograph): equidistancy is confirmed with an absolute accuracy of 0.4 pm.

  12. Experimental demonstration of multiple pulse nonlinear optoacoustic signal generation and control.

    PubMed

    Blackmon, Fletcher; Antonelli, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Generating underwater acoustic signals from a remote, aerial location by use of a high-energy pulsed infrared laser has been demonstrated. The laser beam is directed from the air and focused onto the water surface, where the optical energy was converted into a propagating acoustic wave. Sound pressure levels of 185 dB re microPa (decibel re microPa) were consistently recorded under freshwater laboratory conditions at laser-pulse repetition rates of up to 1000 pulses/s. The nonlinear optoacoustic transmission concept is outlined, and the experimental results from investigation of the time-domain and frequency-domain characteristics of the generated underwater sound are provided. A high repetition rate, high-energy per pulse laser was used in this test under freshwater laboratory conditions. A means of deterministically controlling the spectrum of the underwater acoustic signal was investigated and demonstrated by varying the laser-pulse repetition rate. PMID:15662891

  13. Remoted all optical instantaneous frequency measurement system using nonlinear mixing in highly nonlinear optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Bui, Lam Anh; Mitchell, Arnan

    2013-04-01

    A novel remoted instantaneous frequency measurement system using all optical mixing is demonstrated. This system copies an input intensity modulated optical carrier using four wave mixing, delays this copy and then mixes it with the original signal, to produce an output idler tone. The intensity of this output can be used to determine the RF frequency of the input signal. This system is inherently broadband and can be easily scaled beyond 40 GHz while maintaining a DC output which greatly simplifies receiving electronics. The remoted configuration isolates the sensitive and expensive receiver hardware from the signal sources and importantly allows the system to be added to existing microwave photonic implementations without modification of the transmission module. PMID:23571944

  14. Widely frequency-tunable terahertz wave generation for biosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, J.; Suto, K.

    2005-05-01

    The frequency sweep terahertz wave generator based on the resonance to the phonon polaritons in GaP has wide frequency range from 0.6THz to 6THz , high power, and high spectral purity, which enables even the fine structure measurements like those of structural defects in organic molecules. The system can be made a small size by using Cr:forsterite lasers as pump and signal sources.

  15. Multifunctional radio-frequency generator for cold atom experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chun-hua; Yan, Shu-hua

    2016-05-01

    We present a low cost radio-frequency (RF) generator suitable for experiments with cold atoms. The RF source achieves a sub-hertz frequency with tunable resolution from 0 MHz to 400 MHz and a maximum output power of 33 dBm. Based on a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) chip, we implement a ramping capability for frequency, amplitude and phase. The system can also operate as an arbitrary waveform generator. By measuring the stability in a duration of 600 s, we find the presented device performs comparably as Agilent33522A in terms of short-term stability. Due to its excellent performance, the RF generator has been already applied to cold atom trapping experiments.

  16. Efficient Generation of Frequency-Multiplexed Entangled Single Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian-Hui; Xie, Min

    2016-08-01

    We present two schemes to generate frequency-multiplexed entangled (FME) single photons by coherently mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory based on Raman interactions. By splitting a single photon and performing subsequent state transfer, we separate the generation of entanglement and its frequency conversion, and find that the both progresses have the characteristic of inherent determinacy. Our theory can reproduce the prominent features of observed results including pulse shapes and the condition for deterministically generating the FME single photons. The schemes are suitable for the entangled photon pairs with a wider frequency range, and could be immune to the photon loss originating from cavity-mode damping, spontaneous emission, and the dephasing due to atomic thermal motion. The sources might have significant applications in wavelength-division-multiplexing quantum key distribution.

  17. High-frequency waves generated by auroral electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, J. P.; Carlson, C. W.; Boehm, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of marginally unstable electron distribution functions and high-frequency plasma waves were made on a sounding rocket flight through a quiet auroral arc. The waves appeared near the electron plasma frequency and had a large parallel electric field component such that k-parallel is greater than k-perpendicular. The appearance of these waves was correlated with the presence of marginally unstable parallel electron distributions. Analysis has shown that the waves were produced by parallel electron distribution function greater than 0 rather than the small perpendicular electron distribution function greater than 0 features. Wave levels and growth rates inside the arc were small, and nonlinear wave-wave and wave-particle interactions appear to have been minimal.

  18. Predicting haemodynamic networks using electrophysiology: The role of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tewarie, P.; Bright, M.G.; Hillebrand, A.; Robson, S.E.; Gascoyne, L.E.; Morris, P.G.; Meier, J.; Van Mieghem, P.; Brookes, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the electrophysiological basis of resting state networks (RSNs) in the human brain is a critical step towards elucidating how inter-areal connectivity supports healthy brain function. In recent years, the relationship between RSNs (typically measured using haemodynamic signals) and electrophysiology has been explored using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Significant progress has been made, with similar spatial structure observable in both modalities. However, there is a pressing need to understand this relationship beyond simple visual similarity of RSN patterns. Here, we introduce a mathematical model to predict fMRI-based RSNs using MEG. Our unique model, based upon a multivariate Taylor series, incorporates both phase and amplitude based MEG connectivity metrics, as well as linear and non-linear interactions within and between neural oscillations measured in multiple frequency bands. We show that including non-linear interactions, multiple frequency bands and cross-frequency terms significantly improves fMRI network prediction. This shows that fMRI connectivity is not only the result of direct electrophysiological connections, but is also driven by the overlap of connectivity profiles between separate regions. Our results indicate that a complete understanding of the electrophysiological basis of RSNs goes beyond simple frequency-specific analysis, and further exploration of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions will shed new light on distributed network connectivity, and its perturbation in pathology. PMID:26827811

  19. Predicting haemodynamic networks using electrophysiology: The role of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions.

    PubMed

    Tewarie, P; Bright, M G; Hillebrand, A; Robson, S E; Gascoyne, L E; Morris, P G; Meier, J; Van Mieghem, P; Brookes, M J

    2016-04-15

    Understanding the electrophysiological basis of resting state networks (RSNs) in the human brain is a critical step towards elucidating how inter-areal connectivity supports healthy brain function. In recent years, the relationship between RSNs (typically measured using haemodynamic signals) and electrophysiology has been explored using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Significant progress has been made, with similar spatial structure observable in both modalities. However, there is a pressing need to understand this relationship beyond simple visual similarity of RSN patterns. Here, we introduce a mathematical model to predict fMRI-based RSNs using MEG. Our unique model, based upon a multivariate Taylor series, incorporates both phase and amplitude based MEG connectivity metrics, as well as linear and non-linear interactions within and between neural oscillations measured in multiple frequency bands. We show that including non-linear interactions, multiple frequency bands and cross-frequency terms significantly improves fMRI network prediction. This shows that fMRI connectivity is not only the result of direct electrophysiological connections, but is also driven by the overlap of connectivity profiles between separate regions. Our results indicate that a complete understanding of the electrophysiological basis of RSNs goes beyond simple frequency-specific analysis, and further exploration of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions will shed new light on distributed network connectivity, and its perturbation in pathology. PMID:26827811

  20. Broadband short pulse measurement by autocorrelation with a sum-frequency generation set-up

    SciTech Connect

    Glotin, F.; Jaroszynski, D.; Marcouille, O.

    1995-12-31

    Previous spectral and laser pulse length measurements carried out on the CLIO FEL at wavelength {lambda}=8.5 {mu}m suggested that very short light pulses could be generated, about 500 fs wide (FWHM). For these measurements a Michelson interferometer with a Te crystal, as a non-linear detector, was used as a second order autocorrelation device. More recent measurements in similar conditions have confirmed that the laser pulses observed are indeed single: they are not followed by other pulses distant by the slippage length N{lambda}. As the single micropulse length is likely to depend on the slippage, more measurements at different wavelengths would be useful. This is not directly possible with our actual interferometer set-up, based on a phase-matched non-linear crystal. However, we can use the broadband non-linear medium provided by one of our users` experiments: Sum-Frequency Generation over surfaces. With such autocorrelation set-up, interference fringes are no more visible, but this is largely compensated by the frequency range provided. First tests at 8 {mu}m have already been performed to validate the technic, leading to results similar to those obtained with our previous Michelson set-up.

  1. On the generation of octave-spanning optical frequency combs using monolithic whispering-gallery-mode microresonators.

    PubMed

    Chembo, Yanne K; Yu, Nan

    2010-08-15

    Octave-spanning optical frequency combs are especially interesting in optical metrology owing to the ability of self-referencing. We report a theoretical study on the generation of octave-spanning combs in the whispering gallery modes of a microresonator. Through a modal expansion model simulation in a calcium fluoride microcavity, we show that a combination of suitable pump power, Kerr nonlinearity, and dispersion profile can lead to stable and robust octave-spanning optical frequency combs. PMID:20717427

  2. Frequency stabilization of spin-torque-driven oscillations by coupling with a magnetic nonlinear resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Kudo, Kiwamu Suto, Hirofumi; Nagasawa, Tazumi; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie

    2014-10-28

    The fundamental function of any oscillator is to produce a waveform with a stable frequency. Here, we show a method of frequency stabilization for spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) that relies on coupling with an adjacent nanomagnet through the magnetic dipole–dipole interaction. It is numerically demonstrated that highly stable oscillations occur as a result of mutual feedback between an STNO and a nanomagnet. The nanomagnet acts as a nonlinear resonator for the STNO. This method is based on the nonlinear behavior of the resonator and can be considered as a magnetic analogue of an optimization scheme in nanoelectromechanical systems. The oscillation frequency is most stabilized when the nanomagnet is driven at a special feedback point at which the feedback noise between the STNO and resonator is completely eliminated.

  3. High-frequency vibration energy harvesting from impulsive excitation utilizing intentional dynamic instability caused by strong nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remick, Kevin; Dane Quinn, D.; Michael McFarland, D.; Bergman, Lawrence; Vakakis, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    The authors investigate a vibration-based energy harvesting system utilizing essential (nonlinearizable) nonlinearities and electromagnetic coupling elements. The system consists of a grounded, weakly damped linear oscillator (primary system) subjected to a single impulsive load. This primary system is coupled to a lightweight, damped oscillating attachment (denoted as nonlinear energy sink, NES) via a neodymium magnet and an inductance coil, and a piano wire, which generates an essential geometric cubic stiffness nonlinearity. Under impulsive input, the transient damped dynamics of this system exhibit transient resonance captures (TRCs) causing intentional large-amplitude and high-frequency instabilities in the response of the NES. These TRCs result in strong energy transfer from the directly excited primary system to the light-weight attachment. The energy is harvested by the electromagnetic elements in the coupling and, in the present case, dissipated in a resistive element in the electrical circuit. The primary goal of this work is to numerically, analytically, and experimentally demonstrate the efficacy of employing this type of intentional high-frequency dynamic instability to achieve enhanced vibration energy harvesting under impulsive excitation.

  4. Blue light generation using periodically poled nonlinear crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademian, Ali; Shiner, David

    2013-05-01

    We have studied blue light generation using SHG of IR light. We have used single pass waveguides and bulk crystals with buildup cavities. The nonlinear crystals used were periodically poled Lithium Niobate (LN) and Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (KTP). Each of these approaches had limitations with regards to the maximum power handling and the stability of operation. Currently we are working on a different crystal in a new buildup cavity to circumvent some of the previous difficulties resulting from photorefractive damage and excessive heating due to blue absorption. Our initial measurements show that Lithium Tantalite (LT) has higher photorefractive threshold and much lower blue absorption (2% vs 15% for 20 mm crystal length). The new buildup cavity incorporates a more convenient commercial piezo mirror translator for feedback control. The buildup cavity can be operated with a minimum of 6 V as opposed to the 1000 V previously. We are exploring the use of a single DSP (digital signal processor) to perform all the locking and electronic control functions of the cavity. We are studying the coupling and propagation properties of the IR beams more carefully to minimize cavity and coupling losses, particularly due to front wave distortion caused by mirrors and lenses used in the setup. To optimize our cavity and to make the best and simplest choice of optical elements possible, different commercial (off the shelf) lenses and mirrors have been evaluated experimentally in our setup. This work is supported by NSF grant PHY-1068868.

  5. Verification of nonlinear particle simulation of radio frequency waves in tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Kuley, A. Lin, Z.; Bao, J.; Wei, X. S.; Xiao, Y.; Zhang, W.; Sun, G. Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2015-10-15

    Nonlinear simulation model for radio frequency waves in fusion plasmas has been developed and verified using fully kinetic ion and drift kinetic electron. Ion cyclotron motion in the toroidal geometry is implemented using Boris push in the Boozer coordinates. Linear dispersion relation and nonlinear particle trapping are verified for the lower hybrid wave and ion Bernstein wave (IBW). Parametric decay instability is observed where a large amplitude pump wave decays into an IBW sideband and an ion cyclotron quasimode (ICQM). The ICQM induces an ion perpendicular heating, with a heating rate proportional to the pump wave intensity.

  6. Sum-frequency generation of continuous-wave tunable ultraviolet coherent light in BBO-installed external cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukoyama, Kenta; Tokuyama, Kazuhiro; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Inoue, Norihiro; Fukuda, Naoaki; Takiya, Toshio

    2012-02-01

    Recently, we have tried to develop a continuous wave (CW), tunable, and ultraviolet (UV) coherent light source through sum-frequency generation (SFG) using a BBO nonlinear crystal with a two-stage frequency-conversion system using two different external cavities for the enhancement of CW lights. In the first stage, we obtained the 532-nm light with the second harmonic generation (SHG) of the 1064-nm light. A bow-tie external cavity incorporating four mirrors, whose cavity length was controlled by the frequency stabilization method proposed by Hänsch and Couillaud, was employed there. In the second stage, to generate the 312-nm light, we demonstrated doubly resonant sum frequency generation of the 532-nm light from the first-stage and the 754-nm light from a single-frequency CW Ti:Sapphire laser. Considering a nonlinear coefficient, it should be preferable to use a BiBO crystal for high-efficient SFG, but the 312-nm light might be absorbed by the BiBO crystal. Therefore, we chose a BBO as a nonlinear crystal to avoid the absorption of the 312-nm light.

  7. Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness Mapping technique for identifying nonlinear structural elements from frequency response functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Zheng, G. T.

    2016-02-01

    A simple and general Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness Mapping technique is proposed for identifying the parameters or the mathematical model of a nonlinear structural element with steady-state primary harmonic frequency response functions (FRFs). The Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness is defined as the complex ratio between the internal force and the displacement response of unknown element. Obtained with the test data of responses' frequencies and amplitudes, the real and imaginary part of Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness are plotted as discrete points in a three dimensional space over the displacement amplitude and the frequency, which are called the real and the imaginary Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness map, respectively. These points will form a repeatable surface as the Equivalent Dynamic stiffness is only a function of the corresponding data as derived in the paper. The mathematical model of the unknown element can then be obtained by surface-fitting these points with special functions selected by priori knowledge of the nonlinear type or with ordinary polynomials if the type of nonlinearity is not pre-known. An important merit of this technique is its capability of dealing with strong nonlinearities owning complicated frequency response behaviors such as jumps and breaks in resonance curves. In addition, this technique could also greatly simplify the test procedure. Besides there is no need to pre-identify the underlying linear parameters, the method uses the measured data of excitation forces and responses without requiring a strict control of the excitation force during the test. The proposed technique is demonstrated and validated with four classical single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) numerical examples and one experimental example. An application of this technique for identification of nonlinearity from multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems is also illustrated.

  8. Efficient second-harmonic generation of a broadband radiation by control of the temperature distribution along a nonlinear crystal.

    PubMed

    Regelskis, K; Želudevičius, J; Gavrilin, N; Račiukaitis, G

    2012-12-17

    We demonstrate an efficient technique for the second harmonic generation (SHG) of the broadband radiation based on the temperature gradient along a nonlinear crystal. The characteristics of Type I non-critical phase-matched SHG of broadband radiation in the LiB(3)O(5) (LBO) crystal with the temperature gradient imposed along the crystal were investigated both numerically and experimentally. The frequency doubling efficiency of the broadband pulsed fiber laser radiation as high as 68% has been demonstrated. PMID:23263092

  9. Frequency dispersion of nonlinear response of thin superconducting films in the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless state

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, Scott; Mayer, William; Byrnes, Sean; Vitkalov, Sergey; Sergeev, A.; Bollinger, Anthony T.; Božović, Ivan

    2015-02-20

    The effects of microwave radiation on transport properties of atomically thin La2-xSrxCuO₄ films were studied in the 0.1-20 GHz frequency range. Resistance changes induced by microwaves were investigated at different temperatures (8–15 K) near the superconducting transition. A strong decrease of the nonlinear response is observed within a few GHz of a cutoff frequency νcut ≈ 2GHz. The expected frequency dependence vastly underestimates the sharpness of this drop. Numerical simulations that assume ac response to follow dc V-I characteristics of the films reproduce well the low frequency behavior, but fail above νcut. Thus, high-frequency radiation is much less effective in inducing vortex-antivortex dissociation in the oscillating superconducting condensate.

  10. Frequency dispersion of nonlinear response of thin superconducting films in the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless state

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dietrich, Scott; Mayer, William; Byrnes, Sean; Vitkalov, Sergey; Sergeev, A.; Bollinger, Anthony T.; Božović, Ivan

    2015-02-20

    The effects of microwave radiation on transport properties of atomically thin La2-xSrxCuO₄ films were studied in the 0.1-20 GHz frequency range. Resistance changes induced by microwaves were investigated at different temperatures (8–15 K) near the superconducting transition. A strong decrease of the nonlinear response is observed within a few GHz of a cutoff frequency νcut ≈ 2GHz. The expected frequency dependence vastly underestimates the sharpness of this drop. Numerical simulations that assume ac response to follow dc V-I characteristics of the films reproduce well the low frequency behavior, but fail above νcut. Thus, high-frequency radiation is much less effective inmore » inducing vortex-antivortex dissociation in the oscillating superconducting condensate.« less

  11. ARAMS/FRAMES JOINT FREQUENCY DATA (JFD) GENERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, James G.; Pelton, Mitch A.

    2006-10-04

    An ARAMS/FRAMES utility entitled ''Joint Frequency Data (JFD) Generator'' provides the capability of creating joint frequency tables. The resultant JFD tables contain summaries of the frequency of occurrence of meteorological dispersion, wind speed, and wind direction that are required as input in climatological air dispersion models. The JFD Generator computations are made by an updated version of the EPA STAR (STAbility ARray) program. Surface observations are combined with computed seasonally and diurnally varying solar flux rates to estimate the ambient atmospheric dispersion rates, represented as a stability category. The wind speeds and directions are obtained directly from the hourly surface observation data. The product is a file in a format that can be directly read by an air dispersion model. The JFD Generator can input hourly meteorological surface observation data in CD-144, Samson, and SCRAM data formats. An enhanced joint frequency table file that can be read directly by the ARAMS/FRAMES interface is produced. The output file has a format can be used by the MEPAS air dispersion program or can be modified for input to other models requiring joint frequency input.

  12. Nonlinear seismic response of stratified soil deposits using higher order frequency response functions in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo Caraballo, Jose Ramon

    1999-11-01

    This dissertation presents a new methodology for calculating the nonlinear seismic response of a single or multiple soil layer deposit in the frequency domain. The nonlinear behavior of the soil is taken into account using a model based on the Higher Order Frequency Response functions obtained from the Volterra series. The nonlinear analysis in the frequency domain permits to consider in a precise way the seismic response of soils in which the damping is described by the hysteretic model. This study considers up to the third order kernel, which was found to provide an accurate description for medium to medium-high nonlinearities. The first, second and third order Frequency Response Functions were developed. The procedure developed involves the use of the direct and inverse Fourier transforms of higher order. A one-degree of freedom model of a single horizontal soil layer is first presented to introduce the method. A comparison between the results obtained with the Newmark integration scheme and the proposed method for a soil with viscous damping is presented. Soil deposits with multiple horizontal layers soil deposits are studied next using discrete multiple degree of freedom models. The hysteretic damping model is used to compare the results produced by the Volterra series approach and the Linear Equivalent Method. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to show how the consideration of more terms in the series leads to a more accurate solution. A comparison of ground response spectra obtained from field measurements and from the proposed method is carried out using the data gathered at Treasure Island. The shear beam element with one degree of freedom per layer is used for the spatial discretization of the stratified soil. This model and the proposed method were implemented in computer programs using MATLAB(c). A soil-structure interaction problem, in which a simple model of a building is included in the formulation, is presented as an example of the application of

  13. The Sensitive Infrared Signal Detection by Sum Frequency Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Teh-Hwa; Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingxin

    2013-01-01

    An up-conversion device that converts 2.05-micron light to 700 nm signal by sum frequency generation using a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal is demonstrated. The achieved 92% up-conversion efficiency paves the path to detect extremely weak 2.05-micron signal with well established silicon avalanche photodiode detector for sensitive lidar applications.

  14. Frequency, pressure and strain dependence of nonlinear elasticity in Berea Sandstone

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Riviere, Jacques; Johnson, Paul Allan; Marone, Chris; Pimienta, Lucas; Scuderi, Marco; Candela, Thibault; Shokouhi, Parisa; Schubnel, Alexandre; Fortin, Jerome

    2016-04-14

    Acoustoelasticity measurements in a sample of room dry Berea sandstone are conducted at various loading frequencies to explore the transition between the quasi-static ( f → 0) and dynamic (few kilohertz) nonlinear elastic response. We carry out these measurements at multiple confining pressures and perform a multivariate regression analysis to quantify the dependence of the harmonic content on strain amplitude, frequency, and pressure. The modulus softening (equivalent to the harmonic at 0f) increases by a factor 2–3 over 3 orders of magnitude increase in frequency. Harmonics at 2f, 4f, and 6f exhibit similar behaviors. In contrast, the harmonic at 1fmore » appears frequency independent. This result corroborates previous studies showing that the nonlinear elasticity of rocks can be described with a minimum of two physical mechanisms. This study provides quantitative data that describes the rate dependency of nonlinear elasticity. Furthermore, these findings can be used to improve theories relating the macroscopic elastic response to microstructural features.« less

  15. Frequency-comb formation in doubly resonant second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, F.; Hansson, T.; Ricciardi, I.; De Rosa, M.; Coen, S.; Wabnitz, S.; Erkintalo, M.

    2016-04-01

    We theoretically study the generation of optical frequency combs and corresponding pulse trains in doubly resonant intracavity second-harmonic generation (SHG). We find that, despite the large temporal walk-off characteristic of realistic cavity systems, the nonlinear dynamics can be accurately and efficiently modeled using a pair of coupled mean-field equations. Through rigorous stability analysis of the system's steady-state continuous-wave solutions, we demonstrate that walk-off can give rise to an unexplored regime of temporal modulation instability. Numerical simulations performed in this regime reveal rich dynamical behaviors, including the emergence of temporal patterns that correspond to coherent optical frequency combs. We also demonstrate that the two coupled equations that govern the doubly resonant cavity behavior can, under typical conditions, be reduced to a single mean-field equation akin to that describing the dynamics of singly-resonant-cavity SHG [F. Leo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 033901 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.033901]. This reduced approach allows us to derive a simple expression for the modulation instability gain, thus permitting us to acquire significant insight into the underlying physics. We anticipate that our work will have a wide impact on the study of frequency combs in emerging doubly resonant cavity SHG platforms, including quadratically nonlinear microresonators.

  16. Virtual Resonance and Frequency Difference Generation by van der Waals Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetard, L.; Passian, A.; Eslami, S.; Jalili, N.; Farahi, R. H.; Thundat, T.

    2011-05-01

    The ability to explore the interior of materials for the presence of inhomogeneities was recently demonstrated by mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy [L. Tetard, A. Passian, and T. Thundat, Nature Nanotech. 5, 105 (2009).NNAABX1748-338710.1038/nnano.2009.454]. Proposing a semiempirical nonlinear force, we show that difference frequency ω- generation, regarded as the simplest synthesized mode, occurs optimally when the force is tuned to van der Waals form. From a parametric study of the probe-sample excitation, we show that the predicted ω- oscillation agrees well with experiments. We then introduce the concept of virtual resonance to show that probe oscillations at ω- can efficiently be enhanced.

  17. Wave train generation of solitons in systems with higher-order nonlinearities.

    PubMed

    Mohamadou, Alidou; LatchioTiofack, C G; Kofané, Timoléon C

    2010-07-01

    Considering the higher-order nonlinearities in a material can significantly change its behavior. We suggest the extended nonlinear Schrödinger equation to describe the propagation of ultrashort optical pulses through a dispersive medium with higher-order nonlinearities. Soliton trains are generated through the modulational instability and we point out the influence of the septic nonlinearity in the modulational instability gain. Experimental values are used for the numerical simulations and the input plane wave leads to the development of pulse trains, depending upon the sign of the septic nonlinearity. PMID:20866749

  18. Walk-Off-Induced Modulation Instability, Temporal Pattern Formation, and Frequency Comb Generation in Cavity-Enhanced Second-Harmonic Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, F.; Hansson, T.; Ricciardi, I.; De Rosa, M.; Coen, S.; Wabnitz, S.; Erkintalo, M.

    2016-01-01

    We derive a time-domain mean-field equation to model the full temporal and spectral dynamics of light in singly resonant cavity-enhanced second-harmonic generation systems. We show that the temporal walk-off between the fundamental and the second-harmonic fields plays a decisive role under realistic conditions, giving rise to rich, previously unidentified nonlinear behavior. Through linear stability analysis and numerical simulations, we discover a new kind of quadratic modulation instability which leads to the formation of optical frequency combs and associated time-domain dissipative structures. Our numerical simulations show excellent agreement with recent experimental observations of frequency combs in quadratic nonlinear media [Phys. Rev. A 91, 063839 (2015)]. Thus, in addition to unveiling a new, experimentally accessible regime of nonlinear dynamics, our work enables predictive modeling of frequency comb generation in cavity-enhanced second-harmonic generation systems. We expect our findings to have wide impact on the study of temporal and spectral dynamics in a diverse range of dispersive, quadratically nonlinear resonators.

  19. Optical sum-frequency generation in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Kowligy, Abijith S.; Huang, Yu-Ping; Kumar, Prem

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrate sum-frequency generation between a telecom wavelength and the Rb D2 line, achieved through natural phase matching in a nonlinear whispering gallery mode resonator. Due to the strong optical field confinement and ultra high Q of the cavity, the process saturates already at sub-mW pump peak power, at least two orders of magnitude lower than in existing waveguide-based devices. The experimental data are in agreement with the nonlinear dynamics and phase matching theory based on spherical geometry. Our experimental and theoretical results point toward a new platform for manipulating the color and quantum states of light waves for applications such as atomic memory based quantum networking and logic operations with optical signals.

  20. High frequency optical pulse generation by frequency doubling using polarization rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we propose and experimentally characterize a stable 40 GHz optical pulse generation by frequency doubling using polarization rotation in a phase modulator (PM). Only half the electrical driving frequency is required (i.e. 20 GHz); hence the deployment cost can be reduced. Besides, precise control of the bias of the PM is not required. The generated optical pulses have a high center-mode-suppression-ratio (CMSR) of  >  28 dB. The single sideband (SSB) noise spectrum is also measured, and the time-domain waveforms under different CMSRs are also analyzed and discussed.

  1. Nonlinearly-constrained optimization using asynchronous parallel generating set search.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Joshua D.; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2007-05-01

    Many optimization problems in computational science and engineering (CS&E) are characterized by expensive objective and/or constraint function evaluations paired with a lack of derivative information. Direct search methods such as generating set search (GSS) are well understood and efficient for derivative-free optimization of unconstrained and linearly-constrained problems. This paper addresses the more difficult problem of general nonlinear programming where derivatives for objective or constraint functions are unavailable, which is the case for many CS&E applications. We focus on penalty methods that use GSS to solve the linearly-constrained problems, comparing different penalty functions. A classical choice for penalizing constraint violations is {ell}{sub 2}{sup 2}, the squared {ell}{sub 2} norm, which has advantages for derivative-based optimization methods. In our numerical tests, however, we show that exact penalty functions based on the {ell}{sub 1}, {ell}{sub 2}, and {ell}{sub {infinity}} norms converge to good approximate solutions more quickly and thus are attractive alternatives. Unfortunately, exact penalty functions are discontinuous and consequently introduce theoretical problems that degrade the final solution accuracy, so we also consider smoothed variants. Smoothed-exact penalty functions are theoretically attractive because they retain the differentiability of the original problem. Numerically, they are a compromise between exact and {ell}{sub 2}{sup 2}, i.e., they converge to a good solution somewhat quickly without sacrificing much solution accuracy. Moreover, the smoothing is parameterized and can potentially be adjusted to balance the two considerations. Since many CS&E optimization problems are characterized by expensive function evaluations, reducing the number of function evaluations is paramount, and the results of this paper show that exact and smoothed-exact penalty functions are well-suited to this task.

  2. Nonlinear frequency compression: effects on sound quality ratings of speech and music.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Vijay; Scollie, Susan; Glista, Danielle; Seelisch, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Frequency lowering technologies offer an alternative amplification solution for severe to profound high frequency hearing losses. While frequency lowering technologies may improve audibility of high frequency sounds, the very nature of this processing can affect the perceived sound quality. This article reports the results from two studies that investigated the impact of a nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) algorithm on perceived sound quality. In the first study, the cutoff frequency and compression ratio parameters of the NFC algorithm were varied, and their effect on the speech quality was measured subjectively with 12 normal hearing adults, 12 normal hearing children, 13 hearing impaired adults, and 9 hearing impaired children. In the second study, 12 normal hearing and 8 hearing impaired adult listeners rated the quality of speech in quiet, speech in noise, and music after processing with a different set of NFC parameters. Results showed that the cutoff frequency parameter had more impact on sound quality ratings than the compression ratio, and that the hearing impaired adults were more tolerant to increased frequency compression than normal hearing adults. No statistically significant differences were found in the sound quality ratings of speech-in-noise and music stimuli processed through various NFC settings by hearing impaired listeners. These findings suggest that there may be an acceptable range of NFC settings for hearing impaired individuals where sound quality is not adversely affected. These results may assist an Audiologist in clinical NFC hearing aid fittings for achieving a balance between high frequency audibility and sound quality. PMID:23539261

  3. Nonlinear frequency up-conversion of femtosecond pulses from an erbium fibre laser to the range of 0.8 - 1 {mu}m in silica fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Anashkina, E A; Andrianov, A V; Kim, A V

    2013-03-31

    We consider different mechanisms of nonlinear frequency up-conversion of femtosecond pulses emitted by an erbium fibre system ({lambda} = 1.5 {mu}m) to the range of 0.8 - 1.2 {mu}m in nonlinear silica fibres. The generation efficiency and the centre frequencies of dispersive waves are found as functions of the parameters of the fibre and the input pulse. Simple analytical estimates are obtained for the spectral distribution of the intensity and the frequency shift of a wave packet in the region of normal dispersion during the emission of a high-order soliton under phase matching conditions. In the geometrical optics approximation the frequency shifts are estimated in the interaction of dispersive waves with solitons in various regimes. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  4. Frequency analysis of finite beams on nonlinear Kelvin-Voight foundation under moving loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, M.; Esmailzadeh, E.; Younesian, D.

    2011-03-01

    The vibration of an Euler-Bernoulli beam, resting on a nonlinear Kelvin-Voight viscoelastic foundation, traversed by a moving load is studied in the frequency domain. The objective is to obtain the frequency responses of the beam and the effects of different parameters on the system response. The parameters include the magnitude and speed of the moving load and the foundation nonlinearity and its damping coefficient. The solution is obtained by using the Galerkin method in conjunction with the multiple scales method (MSM). The governing nonlinear partial differential equations of motion are discretized into sets of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Subsequently, the solution is calculated for different harmonics by using the MSM as one of the powerful perturbation techniques. The steady-state responses of the main harmonic as well as its two super-harmonics are then obtained. As a case study, a conventional railway track is dynamically simulated and the jump phenomenon in the response is observed for three harmonics. Moreover, a thorough stability analysis of the system is carried out.

  5. Visible continuum generation using a femtosecond erbium-doped fiber laser and a silica nonlinear fiber.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, J W; Bise, R; Alonzo, J; Stockert, T; Trevor, D J; Dimarcello, F; Monberg, E; Fini, J M; Westbrook, P S; Feder, K; Grüner-Nielsen, L

    2008-01-01

    Supercontinuum extending to visible wavelengths is generated in a hybrid silica nonlinear fiber pumped at 1560 nm by a femtosecond, erbium-doped fiber laser. The hybrid nonlinear fiber consists of a short length of highly nonlinear, germano-silicate fiber (HNLF) spliced to a length of photonic crystal fiber (PCF). A 2 cm length of HNLF provides an initial stage of continuum generation due to higher-order soliton compression and dispersive wave generation before launching into the PCF. The visible radiation is generated in the fundamental mode of the PCF. PMID:18157247

  6. Highly nonlinear organic crystal OHQ-T for efficient ultra-broadband terahertz wave generation beyond 10 THz.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bong Joo; Baek, In Hyung; Lee, Seung-Heon; Kim, Won Tae; Lee, Seung-Jun; Jeong, Young Uk; Kwon, O-Pil; Rotermund, Fabian

    2016-05-16

    We report on efficient generation of ultra-broadband terahertz (THz) waves via optical rectification in a novel nonlinear organic crystal with acentric core structure, i.e. 2-(4-hydroxystyryl)-1-methylquinolinium 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (OHQ-T), which possesses an ideal molecular structure leading to a maximized nonlinear optical response for near-infrared-pumped THz wave generation. By systematic studies on wavelength-dependent phase-matching conditions in OHQ-T crystals of different thicknesses we are able to generate coherent THz waves with a high peak-to-peak electric field amplitude of up to 650 kV/cm and an upper cut-off frequency beyond 10 THz. High optical-to-THz conversion efficiency of 0.31% is achieved by efficient index matching with a selective pumping at 1300 nm. PMID:27409928

  7. Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Austin G; Lau, Ryan K W; Cardenas, Jaime; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Mohanty, Aseema; Fain, Romy; Lee, Yoon Ho Daniel; Yu, Mengjie; Phare, Christopher T; Poitras, Carl B; Gaeta, Alexander L; Lipson, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Optical frequency combs are a revolutionary light source for high-precision spectroscopy because of their narrow linewidths and precise frequency spacing. Generation of such combs in the mid-infrared spectral region (2-20 μm) is important for molecular gas detection owing to the presence of a large number of absorption lines in this wavelength regime. Microresonator-based frequency comb sources can provide a compact and robust platform for comb generation that can operate with relatively low optical powers. However, material and dispersion engineering limitations have prevented the realization of an on-chip integrated mid-infrared microresonator comb source. Here we demonstrate a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible platform for on-chip comb generation using silicon microresonators, and realize a broadband frequency comb spanning from 2.1 to 3.5 μm. This platform is compact and robust and offers the potential to be versatile for use outside the laboratory environment for applications such as real-time monitoring of atmospheric gas conditions. PMID:25708922

  8. Nonlinear spacing and frequency effects of an oscillating cylinder in the wake of a stationary cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofan; Zheng, Zhongquan Charlie

    2010-04-01

    Nonlinear responses to a transversely oscillating cylinder in the wake of a stationary upstream cylinder are studied theoretically by using an immersed-boundary method at Re=100. Response states are investigated in the three flow regimes for a tandem-cylinder system: the "vortex suppression" regime, the critical spacing regime, and the "vortex formation" regime. When the downstream cylinder is forced to oscillate at a fixed frequency and amplitude, the response state of flow around the two cylinders varies with different spacing between the two cylinders, while in the same flow regime, the response state can change with the oscillating frequency and amplitude of the downstream cylinder. Based on velocity phase portraits, each of the nonlinear response states can be categorized into one of the three states in the order of increasing chaotic levels: lock-in, transitional, or quasiperiodic. These states can also be correlated with velocity spectral behaviors. The discussions are conducted using near-wake velocity phase portraits, spectral analyses, and related vorticity fields. A general trend in the bifurcation diagrams of frequency spacing shows the smaller the spacing, frequency, or amplitude, the less chaotic the response state of the system and more likely the downstream and upstream wakes are in the same response state. The system is not locked-in in any case when the spacing between the cylinders is larger than the critical spacing. The near-wake velocity spectral behaviors correspond to the nonlinear response states, with narrow-banded peaks shown at the oscillation frequency and its harmonics in the lock-in cases. High frequency harmonic peaks, caused by interactions between the upstream wake and the downstream oscillating cylinder, are reduced in the near-wake velocity spectra of the upstream cylinder when the spacing increases.

  9. Phase-locking and pulse generation in multi-frequency brillouin oscillator via four wave mixing.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Thomas F S; Kabakova, Irina V; Hudson, Darren D; Pant, Ravi; Poulton, Christopher G; Judge, Alexander C; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for pulsed all-fibre lasers with gigahertz repetition rates for applications in telecommunications and metrology. The repetition rate of conventional passively mode-locked fibre lasers is fundamentally linked to the laser cavity length and is therefore typically ~10-100 MHz, which is orders of magnitude lower than required. Cascading stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in nonlinear resonators, however, enables the formation of Brillouin frequency combs (BFCs) with GHz line spacing, which is determined by the acoustic properties of the medium and is independent of the resonator length. Phase-locking of such combs therefore holds a promise to achieve gigahertz repetition rate lasers. The interplay of SBS and Kerr-nonlinear four-wave mixing (FWM) in nonlinear resonators has been previously investigated, yet the phase relationship of the waves has not been considered. Here, we present for the first time experimental and numerical results that demonstrate phase-locking of BFCs generated in a nonlinear waveguide cavity. Using real-time measurements we demonstrate stable 40 ps pulse trains with 8 GHz repetition rate based on a chalcogenide fibre cavity, without the aid of any additional phase-locking element. Detailed numerical modelling, which is in agreement with the experimental results, highlight the essential role of FWM in phase-locking of the BFC. PMID:24849053

  10. Phase-locking and Pulse Generation in Multi-Frequency Brillouin Oscillator via Four Wave Mixing

    PubMed Central

    Büttner, Thomas F. S.; Kabakova, Irina V.; Hudson, Darren D.; Pant, Ravi; Poulton, Christopher G.; Judge, Alexander C.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for pulsed all-fibre lasers with gigahertz repetition rates for applications in telecommunications and metrology. The repetition rate of conventional passively mode-locked fibre lasers is fundamentally linked to the laser cavity length and is therefore typically ~10–100 MHz, which is orders of magnitude lower than required. Cascading stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in nonlinear resonators, however, enables the formation of Brillouin frequency combs (BFCs) with GHz line spacing, which is determined by the acoustic properties of the medium and is independent of the resonator length. Phase-locking of such combs therefore holds a promise to achieve gigahertz repetition rate lasers. The interplay of SBS and Kerr-nonlinear four-wave mixing (FWM) in nonlinear resonators has been previously investigated, yet the phase relationship of the waves has not been considered. Here, we present for the first time experimental and numerical results that demonstrate phase-locking of BFCs generated in a nonlinear waveguide cavity. Using real-time measurements we demonstrate stable 40 ps pulse trains with 8 GHz repetition rate based on a chalcogenide fibre cavity, without the aid of any additional phase-locking element. Detailed numerical modelling, which is in agreement with the experimental results, highlight the essential role of FWM in phase-locking of the BFC. PMID:24849053

  11. Lower dimensional invariant tori with prescribed frequency for nonlinear wave equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jiansheng; Ren, Xiufang

    In this paper, one-dimensional (1D) nonlinear wave equation u-u+mu+u=0, subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions is considered. We show that for each given m>0, and each prescribed integer b>1, the above equation admits a Whitney smooth family of small-amplitude quasi-periodic solutions with b-dimensional Diophantine frequencies, which correspond to b-dimensional invariant tori of an associated infinite-dimensional dynamical system. In particular, these Diophantine frequencies are the small dilation of a prescribed Diophantine vector. The proof is based on a partial Birkhoff normal form reduction and an improved KAM method.

  12. Quasi-periodic solutions of nonlinear beam equation with prescribed frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jing; Gao, Yixian Li, Yong

    2015-05-15

    Consider the one dimensional nonlinear beam equation u{sub tt} + u{sub xxxx} + mu + u{sup 3} = 0 under Dirichlet boundary conditions. We show that for any m > 0 but a set of small Lebesgue measure, the above equation admits a family of small-amplitude quasi-periodic solutions with n-dimensional Diophantine frequencies. These Diophantine frequencies are the small dilation of a prescribed Diophantine vector. The proofs are based on an infinite dimensional Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser iteration procedure and a partial Birkhoff normal form. .

  13. Optimizations of ozone generator at low resonance frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garamoon, A. A.; Elakshar, F. F.; Elsawah, M.

    2009-11-01

    The effect of the frequency on the different parameters of ozone generation in the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been investigated. It is found that at low frequency, (f0 = 325 Hz), an electric resonance can be obtained in the electric circuit. The onset voltage, at which the ozone starts to build up, was reduced from 3.25 kV at 50 Hz to 1.57 kV at 325 Hz. The efficiency has been increased from nearly zero at 50 Hz to 232.94 g/kW h at 200 Hz under applied voltage of 2.025 kV. in here

  14. Frequency scaling law for nonlinear Compton and Thomson scattering: Relevance of spin and polarization effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewska, K.; Kamiński, J. Z.

    2014-11-01

    The distributions of Compton and Thomson radiation for a shaped laser pulse colliding with a free electron are calculated in the framework of quantum and classical electrodynamics, respectively. We introduce a scaling law for the Compton and the Thomson frequency distributions which universally applies to long and short incident pulses. Thus, we extend the validity of frequency scaling postulated in previous studies comparing nonlinear Compton and Thomson processes. The scaling law introduced in this paper relates the Compton no-spin flipping process to the Thomson process over nearly the entire spectrum of emitted radiation, including its high-energy portion. By applying the frequency scaling, we identify that both spin and polarization effects are responsible for differences between classical and quantum results. The same frequency scaling applies to angular distributions and to temporal power distributions of emitted radiation, which we illustrate numerically.

  15. Generation of ultra-short THz pulses in new optical nonlinear materials based on organic polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikerin, S. L.; Plekhanov, A. I.; Simanchuk, A. V.; Yakimanskii, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    Using the method of optical rectification of femtosecond laser pulses, we report the generation of short (a few field cycles) terahertz pulses in the samples of films based on polyimides with covalently bound chromophore molecules of DR type. The spectral width of the produced pulses is limited by the pump pulse duration. The quadratic nonlinear optical properties are imparted to the films in the process of their fabrication by orienting the chromophore molecules in the external electric field of the applied electrodes having an original configuration. The samples are compared with the ZnTe crystal. Using the methods of coherent spectroscopy, their transmission and refractive index dispersion spectra are investigated in the frequency range 0.5 – 2.6 THz. The studied polymer composition is promising for the application in coherent spectrometers both for increasing the working spectral range without dips and for improving the spatial resolution in the near-field terahertz spectroscopy.

  16. All-fiber smooth supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianming; Gu, Chun; Xu, Lixin; Wang, Anting; Chen, Guoliang; Zheng, Huan; Zheng, Rui; Fu, Huaiduo; Ming, Hai

    2009-11-01

    Supercontinuum(SC) source has found numerous applications, such as DWDM, frequency metrology, optical coherence tomography, and optical measurement. We demonstrate an all-fiber supercontimuun source generated in highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF). The HNLF is pumped by our mode-locked fiber laser with pulse width and peak power, 21.1ps and kW, respectively. An ultra-broadband supercontinuum extends from 1000 nm to 1750 nm is obtained, and the spectrum is flat with the amplitude variation less than 4dB except around the fiber zero dispersion wavelength. The spectrum of our supercontinuum source can extend beyond 1750 nm, but due to the limitation of the measured range of optical spectrum analyzer (AQ6317B), the spectrum of the supercontinuum source beyond 1750 nm is not yet obtained in our lab now. The spectral broadening mechanism of smoothed supercontinnum is considered by the higher-order soliton fission and their blue-shifted dispersive wave.

  17. Single attosecond pulse generation by nonlinear Thomson scattering in a tightly focused intense laser beam

    SciTech Connect

    Lan Pengfei; Lu Peixiang; Cao Wei

    2006-01-15

    The relativistic nonlinear Thomson scattering of a tightly focused intense laser pulse by an electron is investigated, and the temporal and spectral characters of the radiation are discussed. In a tightly focused laser pulse with an intensity of approximately 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2} and a pulse duration of 20 fs, the electron is scattered away from the focus quickly by the ponderomotive force and therefore the radiation emitted at the focus is much higher than that at other regions. As a result, a single ultrashort pulse of 3.8 as is generated and its corresponding spectrum is broadened to 200 orders of the frequency of the driving laser. With increasing the laser intensity, the signal-to-noise of the radiated pulse increases, and the pulse duration decreases. Moreover, the phase behavior of the spectral components and the dependence of the radiated power on the laser intensity are discussed.

  18. Frequency domain holography of laser wakefield accelerators in the nonlinear bubble regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, S. A.; Kalmykov, S.; Dong, P.; Reed, S. A.; Downer, M.; Shvets, G.

    2009-11-01

    We present the theoretical basis of frequency domain holography (FDH), a technique for single-shot visualization of laser driven plasma wakes. In FDH, the nonlinear index modulations of the plasma wake are recorded as phase shifts in a co-propagating probe pulse, and interference with a reference allows for the reconstruction of the wake structure. Earlier experimental work [N. H. Matlis et al., Nature Phys. 2, 749 (2006)] has shown that reconstruction of the probe phase is sufficient for imaging weakly nonlinear periodic wakes. In the highly nonlinear regime, the laser ponderomotive force blows out plasma electrons and forms a density ``bubble'' that strongly focuses the probe light. We show that imaging the bubble requires full (amplitude and phase) reconstruction of the probe pulse, and find reconstructions of simulated frequency domain holograms in full agreement with direct PIC modeling of the probe pulse. We also assess the sensitivity of the technique to the spectral bandwidth of the probe and reference pulses. In combination with ray-tracing techniques which help evaluate the localized frequency up- and down-shifts of the probe light (``photon acceleration''), FDH appears to be a unique tool for visualization of plasma wakes. This work is supported by the US DOE grants DE-FG02-04ER41321 and DE-FG02-07ER54945.

  19. Second harmonic generation of q-Gaussian laser beam in preformed collisional plasma channel with nonlinear absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Naveen Singh, Arvinder; Singh, Navpreet

    2015-11-15

    This paper presents a scheme for second harmonic generation of an intense q-Gaussian laser beam in a preformed parabolic plasma channel, where collisional nonlinearity is operative with nonlinear absorption. Due to nonuniform irradiance of intensity along the wavefront of the laser beam, nonuniform Ohmic heating of plasma electrons takes place. Due to this nonuniform heating of plasma, the laser beam gets self-focused and produces strong density gradients in the transverse direction. The generated density gradients excite an electron plasma wave at pump frequency that interacts with the pump beam to produce its second harmonics. The formulation is based on a numerical solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger wave equation in WKB approximation followed by moment theory approach. A second order nonlinear differential equation governing the propagation dynamics of the laser beam with distance of propagation has been obtained and is solved numerically by Runge Kutta fourth order technique. The effect of nonlinear absorption on self-focusing of the laser beam and conversion efficiency of its second harmonics has been investigated.

  20. Improved stabilization of a 1.3 microm femtosecond optical frequency comb by use of a spectrally tailored continuum from a nonlinear fiber grating.

    PubMed

    Kim, K; Diddams, S A; Westbrook, P S; Nicholson, J W; Feder, K S

    2006-01-15

    We report significant enhancement (+24 dB) of the optical beat note between a 657 nm cw laser and the second-harmonic generation of the tailored continuum at 1314 nm generated with a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser and a nonlinear fiber Bragg grating. The same continuum is used to stabilize the carrier-envelope offset frequency of the Cr:forsterite femtosecond laser and permits improved optical stabilization of the frequency comb from 1.0 to 2.2 microm. Using a common optical reference at 657 nm, a relative fractional frequency instability of 2.0 x 10(-15) is achieved between the repetition rates of Cr:forsterite and Ti:sapphire laser systems in 10 s averaging time. The fractional frequency offset between the optically stabilized frequency combs of the Cr:forsterite and Ti:sapphire lasers is +/-(0.024 +/- 6.1) x 10(-17). PMID:16441055

  1. Nanoscale Kerr Nonlinearity Enhancement Using Spontaneously Generated Coherence in Plasmonic Nanocavity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongyi; Ren, Juanjuan; Gu, Ying; Zhao, Dongxing; Zhang, Junxiang; Gong, Qihuang

    2015-01-01

    The enhancement of the optical nonlinear effects at nanoscale is important in the on-chip optical information processing. We theoretically propose the mechanism of the great Kerr nonlinearity enhancement by using anisotropic Purcell factors in a double-Λ type four-level system, i.e., if the bisector of the two vertical dipole moments lies in the small/large Purcell factor axis in the space, the Kerr nonlinearity will be enhanced/decreased due to the spontaneously generated coherence accordingly. Besides, when the two dipole moments are parallel, the extremely large Kerr nonlinearity increase appears, which comes from the double population trapping. Using the custom-designed resonant plasmonic nanostructure which gives an anisotropic Purcell factor environment, we demonstrate the effective nanoscale control of the Kerr nonlinearity. Such controllable Kerr nonlinearity may be realized by the state-of-the-art nanotechnics and it may have potential applications in on-chip photonic nonlinear devices. PMID:26670939

  2. Nanoscale Kerr Nonlinearity Enhancement Using Spontaneously Generated Coherence in Plasmonic Nanocavity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongyi; Ren, Juanjuan; Gu, Ying; Zhao, Dongxing; Zhang, Junxiang; Gong, Qihuang

    2015-01-01

    The enhancement of the optical nonlinear effects at nanoscale is important in the on-chip optical information processing. We theoretically propose the mechanism of the great Kerr nonlinearity enhancement by using anisotropic Purcell factors in a double-Λ type four-level system, i.e., if the bisector of the two vertical dipole moments lies in the small/large Purcell factor axis in the space, the Kerr nonlinearity will be enhanced/decreased due to the spontaneously generated coherence accordingly. Besides, when the two dipole moments are parallel, the extremely large Kerr nonlinearity increase appears, which comes from the double population trapping. Using the custom-designed resonant plasmonic nanostructure which gives an anisotropic Purcell factor environment, we demonstrate the effective nanoscale control of the Kerr nonlinearity. Such controllable Kerr nonlinearity may be realized by the state-of-the-art nanotechnics and it may have potential applications in on-chip photonic nonlinear devices. PMID:26670939

  3. Optical-frequency-comb generation and entanglement with low-power optical input in a photonic molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiahua; Yu, Rong; Ding, Chunling; Wang, Wei; Wu, Ying

    2014-09-01

    Optical-frequency combs consisting of equally spaced sharp lines in frequency space have triggered substantial advances in optical-frequency metrology and precision measurements and in applications such as laser-based gas sensing and molecular fingerprinting. Here, we propose a scheme to generate a type of optical-frequency combs and convert them from one cavity to the other in a hybrid optical system composed of a pair of coupled photonic crystal cavities called a photonic molecule (PM) and a single semiconductor quantum dot (QD) embedded in one cavity of the molecule. Optical-frequency combs are formed by the interaction between a cavity mode and a continuous-wave (CW) two-tone driving laser consisting of a pump field and a seed field via QD-induced strong nonlinearity. In this situation, the initial input pump and seed CW lasers can interact among each other and produce optical higher-order sidebands with equal spacing via parametric frequency conversion provided by QD-induced nonlinear optical effects. Using numerical simulations, it is clearly shown that the beat frequency of the two-tone components plays an important role in determining the comb spacing and matched frequency combs can be formed in the PM. We also demonstrate that the present interacting QD-PM system can serve as a platform to generate large-scale quantum entanglement between two comb modes. The results obtained here may be useful for real experiments in a photonic crystal platform.

  4. Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortier, T. M.; Kirchner, M. S.; Quinlan, F.; Taylor, J.; Bergquist, J. C.; Rosenband, T.; Lemke, N.; Ludlow, A.; Jiang, Y.; Oates, C. W.; Diddams, S. A.

    2011-07-01

    There has been increased interest in the use and manipulation of optical fields to address the challenging problems that have traditionally been approached with microwave electronics. Some examples that benefit from the low transmission loss, agile modulation and large bandwidths accessible with coherent optical systems include signal distribution, arbitrary waveform generation and novel imaging. We extend these advantages to demonstrate a microwave generator based on a high-quality-factor (Q) optical resonator and a frequency comb functioning as an optical-to-microwave divider. This provides a 10 GHz electrical signal with fractional frequency instability of <=8 × 10-16 at 1 s, a value comparable to that produced by the best microwave oscillators, but without the need for cryogenic temperatures. Such a low-noise source can benefit radar systems and improve the bandwidth and resolution of communications and digital sampling systems, and can also be valuable for large baseline interferometry, precision spectroscopy and the realization of atomic time.

  5. Dynamics of microresonator frequency comb generation: models and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, Tobias; Wabnitz, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Microresonator frequency combs hold promise for enabling a new class of light sources that are simultaneously both broadband and coherent, and that could allow for a profusion of potential applications. In this article, we review various theoretical models for describing the temporal dynamics and formation of optical frequency combs. These models form the basis for performing numerical simulations that can be used in order to better understand the comb generation process, for example helping to identify the universal combcharacteristics and their different associated physical phenomena. Moreover, models allow for the study, design and optimization of comb properties prior to the fabrication of actual devices. We consider and derive theoretical formalisms based on the Ikeda map, the modal expansion approach, and the Lugiato-Lefever equation. We further discuss the generation of frequency combs in silicon resonators featuring multiphoton absorption and free-carrier effects. Additionally, we review comb stability properties and consider the role of modulational instability as well as of parametric instabilities due to the boundary conditions of the cavity. These instability mechanisms are the basis for comprehending the process of frequency comb formation, for identifying the different dynamical regimes and the associated dependence on the comb parameters. Finally, we also discuss the phenomena of continuous wave bi- and multistability and its relation to the observation of mode-locked cavity solitons.

  6. Generation of linear dynamic models from a digital nonlinear simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniele, C. J.; Krosel, S. M.

    1979-01-01

    The results and methodology used to derive linear models from a nonlinear simulation are presented. It is shown that averaged positive and negative perturbations in the state variables can reduce numerical errors in finite difference, partial derivative approximations and, in the control inputs, can better approximate the system response in both directions about the operating point. Both explicit and implicit formulations are addressed. Linear models are derived for the F 100 engine, and comparisons of transients are made with the nonlinear simulation. The problem of startup transients in the nonlinear simulation in making these comparisons is addressed. Also, reduction of the linear models is investigated using the modal and normal techniques. Reduced-order models of the F 100 are derived and compared with the full-state models.

  7. Nonlinearly coupled localized plasmon resonances: Resonant second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, Pavel; Krasavin, Alexey; Sonnefraud, Yannick; Murphy, Antony; Pollard, Robert J.; Maier, Stefan A.; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2012-08-01

    The efficient resonant nonlinear coupling between localized surface plasmon modes is demonstrated in a simple and intuitive way using boundary integral formulation and utilizing second-order optical nonlinearity. The nonlinearity is derived from the hydrodynamic description of electron plasma and originates from the presence of material interfaces in the case of small metal particles. The coupling between fundamental and second-harmonic modes is shown to be symmetry selective and proportional to the spatial overlap between polarization dipole density of the second-harmonic mode and the square of the polarization charge density of the fundamental mode. Particles with high geometrical symmetry will convert a far-field illumination into dark nonradiating second-harmonic modes, such as quadrupoles. Effective second-harmonic susceptibilities are proportional to the surface-to-volume ratio of a particle, emphasizing the nanoscale enhancement of the effect.

  8. Frequency down-conversion of solid-state laser sources to the mid-infrared spectral range using non-oxide nonlinear crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Valentin

    2015-07-01

    The development of parametric devices down-converting the laser frequency to the mid-infrared (3-30 μm) based on non-oxide nonlinear optical crystals is reviewed. Such devices, pumped by solid-state laser systems operating in the near-infrared, fill in this spectral gap where no such lasers exist, on practically all time scales, from continuous-wave to femtosecond regime. All important results obtained so far with difference-frequency generation, optical parametric oscillation, generation and amplification are presented in a comparative manner, illustrating examples of recent achievements are given in more detail, and some special issues such as continuum and frequency comb generation or pulse shaping are also discussed. The vital element in any frequency-conversion process is the nonlinear optical crystal and this represents one of the major limitations for achieving high energies and average powers in the mid-infrared although the broad spectral tunability seems not to be a problem. Hence, an overview of the available non-oxide nonlinear optical materials, emphasizing new developments such as wide band-gap, engineered (mixed), and quasi-phase-matched crystals, is also included.

  9. Nonlinear evolution of high frequency R-mode waves excited by water group ions near comets - Computer experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, H.; Matsumoto, H.; Omura, Y.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1989-01-01

    An ion beam resonates with R-mode waves at a high-frequency RH mode and a low-frequency RL mode. The nonlinear evolution of ion beam-generated RH waves is studied here by one-dimensional hybrid computer experiments. Both wave-particle and subsequent wave-wave interactions are examined. The competing process among coexisting RH and RL mode beam instabilities and repeated decay instabilities triggered by the beam-excited RH mode waves is clarified. It is found that the quenching of the RH instability is not caused by a thermal spreading of the ion beam, but by the nonlinear wave-wave coupling process. The growing RH waves become unstable against the decay instability. This instability involves a backward-traveling RH electromagnetic wave and a forward-traveling longitudinal sound wave. The inverse cascading process is found to occur faster than the growth of the RL mode. Wave spectra decaying from the RH waves weaken as time elapses and the RL mode waves become dominant at the end of the computer experiment.

  10. Ultra-broadband room-temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on difference frequency generation.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kazuue; Hitaka, Masahiro; Ito, Akio; Yamanishi, Masamichi; Dougakiuchi, Tatsuo; Edamura, Tadataka

    2016-07-25

    We present ultra-broadband room temperature monolithic terahertz quantum cascade laser (QCL) sources based on intra-cavity difference frequency generation, emitting continuously more than one octave in frequency between 1.6 and 3.8 THz, with a peak output power of ~200 μW. Broadband terahertz emission is realized by nonlinear mixing between single-mode and multi-mode spectra due to distributed feedback grating and Fabry-Perot cavity, respectively, in a mid-infrared QCL with dual-upper-state active region design. Besides, at low temperature of 150 K, the device produces a peak power of ~1.0 mW with a broadband THz emission centered at 2.5 THz, ranging from 1.5 to 3.7 THz. PMID:27464089

  11. Effect of driving voltages in dual capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma: A study by nonlinear global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, B.

    2015-10-01

    On the basis of nonlinear global model, a dual frequency capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma driven by 13.56 MHz and 27.12 MHz has been studied to investigate the influences of driving voltages on the generation of dc self-bias and plasma heating. Fluid equations for the ions inside the plasma sheath have been considered to determine the voltage-charge relations of the plasma sheath. Geometrically symmetric as well as asymmetric cases with finite geometrical asymmetry of 1.2 (ratio of electrodes area) have been considered to make the study more reasonable to experiment. The electrical asymmetry effect (EAE) and finite geometrical asymmetry is found to work differently in controlling the dc self-bias. The amount of EAE has been primarily controlled by the phase angle between the two consecutive harmonics waveforms. The incorporation of the finite geometrical asymmetry in the calculations shift the dc self-bias towards negative polarity direction while increasing the amount of EAE is found to increase the dc self-bias in either direction. For phase angle between the two waveforms ϕ = 0 and ϕ = π/2, the amount of EAE increases significantly with increasing the low frequency voltage, whereas no such increase in the amount of EAE is found with increasing high frequency voltage. In contrast to the geometrically symmetric case, where the variation of the dc self-bias with driving voltages for phase angle ϕ = 0 and π/2 are just opposite in polarity, the variation for the geometrically asymmetric case is different for ϕ = 0 and π/2. In asymmetric case, for ϕ = 0, the dc self-bias increases towards the negative direction with increasing both the low and high frequency voltages, but for the ϕ = π/2, the dc-self bias is increased towards positive direction with increasing low frequency voltage while dc self-bias increases towards negative direction with increasing high frequency voltage.

  12. High power pumped MID-IR wavelength devices using nonlinear frequency mixing (NFM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Steven (Inventor); Lang, Robert J. (Inventor); Waarts, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Laser diode pumped mid-IR wavelength sources include at least one high power, near-IR wavelength, injection and/or sources wherein one or both of such sources may be tunable providing a pump wave output beam to a quasi-phase matched (QPM) nonlinear frequency mixing (NFM) device. The NFM device may be a difference frequency mixing (DFM) device or an optical parametric oscillation (OPO) device. Wavelength tuning of at least one of the sources advantageously provides the ability for optimizing pump or injection wavelengths to match the QPM properties of the NFM device enabling a broad range of mid-IR wavelength selectivity. Also, pump powers are gain enhanced by the addition of a rare earth amplifier or oscillator, or a Raman/Brillouin amplifier or oscillator between the high power source and the NFM device. Further, polarization conversion using Raman or Brillouin wavelength shifting is provided to optimize frequency conversion efficiency in the NFM device.

  13. High power pumped mid-IR wavelength systems using nonlinear frequency mixing (NFM) devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Steven (Inventor); Lang, Robert J. (Inventor); Waarts, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Laser diode pumped mid-IR wavelength systems include at least one high power, near-IR wavelength, injection and/or sources wherein one or both of such sources may be tunable providing a pump wave output beam to a quasi-phase matched (QPM) nonlinear frequency mixing (NFM) device. The NFM device may be a difference frequency mixing (DFM) device or an optical parametric oscillation (OPO) device. Wavelength tuning of at least one of the sources advantageously provides the ability for optimizing pump or injection wavelengths to match the QPM properties of the NFM device enabling a broad range of mid-IR wavelength selectivity. Also, pump powers are gain enhanced by the addition of a rare earth amplifier or oscillator, or a Raman/Brillouin amplifier or oscillator between the high power source and the NFM device. Further, polarization conversion using Raman or Brillouin wavelength shifting is provided to optimize frequency conversion efficiency in the NFM device.

  14. Ecological prediction with nonlinear multivariate time-frequency functional data models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Wen-Hsi; Wikle, Christopher K.; Holan, Scott H.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Time-frequency analysis has become a fundamental component of many scientific inquiries. Due to improvements in technology, the amount of high-frequency signals that are collected for ecological and other scientific processes is increasing at a dramatic rate. In order to facilitate the use of these data in ecological prediction, we introduce a class of nonlinear multivariate time-frequency functional models that can identify important features of each signal as well as the interaction of signals corresponding to the response variable of interest. Our methodology is of independent interest and utilizes stochastic search variable selection to improve model selection and performs model averaging to enhance prediction. We illustrate the effectiveness of our approach through simulation and by application to predicting spawning success of shovelnose sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River.

  15. Remarks on nonlinear relation among phases and frequencies in modulational instabilities of parallel propagating Alfvén waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nariyuki, Y.; Hada, T.

    2006-08-01

    Nonlinear relations among frequencies and phases in modulational instability of circularly polarized Alfvén waves are discussed, within the context of one dimensional, dissipation-less, unforced fluid system. We show that generation of phase coherence is a natural consequence of the modulational instability of Alfvén waves. Furthermore, we quantitatively evaluate intensity of wave-wave interaction by using bi-coherence, and also by computing energy flow among wave modes, and demonstrate that the energy flow is directly related to the phase coherence generation. We first discuss the modulational instability within the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation, which is a subset of the Hall-MHD system including the right- and left-hand polarized, nearly degenerate quasi-parallel Alfvén waves. The dominant nonlinear process within this model is the four wave interaction, in which a quartet of waves in resonance can exchange energy. By numerically time integrating the DNLS equation with periodic boundary conditions, and by evaluating relative phase among the quartet of waves, we show that the phase coherence is generated when the waves exchange energy among the quartet of waves. As a result, coherent structures (solitons) appear in the real space, while in the phase space of the wave frequency and the wave number, the wave power is seen to be distributed around a straight line. The slope of the line corresponds to the propagation speed of the coherent structures. Numerical time integration of the Hall-MHD system with periodic boundary conditions reveals that, wave power of transverse modes and that of longitudinal modes are aligned with a single straight line in the dispersion relation phase space, suggesting that efficient exchange of energy among transverse and longitudinal wave modes is realized in the Hall-MHD. Generation of the longitudinal wave modes violates the assumptions employed in deriving the DNLS such as the quasi-static approximation, and thus

  16. Diversified pulse generation from frequency shifted feedback Tm-doped fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, He; Chen, Sheng-Ping; Jiang, Zong-Fu; Hou, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Pulsed fibre lasers operating in the eye-safe 2 μm spectral region have numerous potential applications in areas such as remote sensing, medicine, mid-infrared frequency conversion, and free-space communication. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate versatile 2 μm ps-ns pulses generation from Tm-based fibre lasers based on frequency shifted feedback and provide a comprehensive report of their special behaviors. The lasers are featured with elegant construction and the unparalleled capacity of generating versatile pulses. The self-starting mode-locking is initiated by an intra-cavity acousto-optical frequency shifter. Diversified mode-locked pulse dynamics were observed by altering the pump power, intra-cavity polarization state and cavity structure, including as short as 8 ps single pulse sequence, pulse bundle state and up to 12 nJ, 3 ns nanosecond rectangular pulse. A reflective nonlinear optical loop mirror was introduced to successfully shorten the pulses from 24 ps to 8 ps. Beside the mode-locking operation, flexible Q-switching and Q-switched mode-locking operation can also be readily achieved in the same cavity. Up to 78 μJ high energy nanosecond pulse can be generated in this regime. Several intriguing pulse dynamics are characterized and discussed.

  17. Diversified pulse generation from frequency shifted feedback Tm-doped fibre lasers.

    PubMed

    Chen, He; Chen, Sheng-Ping; Jiang, Zong-Fu; Hou, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed fibre lasers operating in the eye-safe 2 μm spectral region have numerous potential applications in areas such as remote sensing, medicine, mid-infrared frequency conversion, and free-space communication. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate versatile 2 μm ps-ns pulses generation from Tm-based fibre lasers based on frequency shifted feedback and provide a comprehensive report of their special behaviors. The lasers are featured with elegant construction and the unparalleled capacity of generating versatile pulses. The self-starting mode-locking is initiated by an intra-cavity acousto-optical frequency shifter. Diversified mode-locked pulse dynamics were observed by altering the pump power, intra-cavity polarization state and cavity structure, including as short as 8 ps single pulse sequence, pulse bundle state and up to 12 nJ, 3 ns nanosecond rectangular pulse. A reflective nonlinear optical loop mirror was introduced to successfully shorten the pulses from 24 ps to 8 ps. Beside the mode-locking operation, flexible Q-switching and Q-switched mode-locking operation can also be readily achieved in the same cavity. Up to 78 μJ high energy nanosecond pulse can be generated in this regime. Several intriguing pulse dynamics are characterized and discussed. PMID:27193213

  18. Diversified pulse generation from frequency shifted feedback Tm-doped fibre lasers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, He; Chen, Sheng-Ping; Jiang, Zong-Fu; Hou, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed fibre lasers operating in the eye-safe 2 μm spectral region have numerous potential applications in areas such as remote sensing, medicine, mid-infrared frequency conversion, and free-space communication. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate versatile 2 μm ps-ns pulses generation from Tm-based fibre lasers based on frequency shifted feedback and provide a comprehensive report of their special behaviors. The lasers are featured with elegant construction and the unparalleled capacity of generating versatile pulses. The self-starting mode-locking is initiated by an intra-cavity acousto-optical frequency shifter. Diversified mode-locked pulse dynamics were observed by altering the pump power, intra-cavity polarization state and cavity structure, including as short as 8 ps single pulse sequence, pulse bundle state and up to 12 nJ, 3 ns nanosecond rectangular pulse. A reflective nonlinear optical loop mirror was introduced to successfully shorten the pulses from 24 ps to 8 ps. Beside the mode-locking operation, flexible Q-switching and Q-switched mode-locking operation can also be readily achieved in the same cavity. Up to 78 μJ high energy nanosecond pulse can be generated in this regime. Several intriguing pulse dynamics are characterized and discussed. PMID:27193213

  19. On the passage of high-level pulsed radio frequency interference through a nonlinear satellite transponder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, A.

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to the uncoded bit error rate (BER) performance of a satellite communications system whose modulation scheme is binary PSK and whose transponder contains an arbitrary amplitude nonlinearity, all in the presence of high level pulsed radio frequency interference (RFI). A general approach is presented for direct BER evaluations, in contrast to other approaches which may employ SNR suppression factors. The computed results are based on arbitrarily specified RFI scenarios, in the presence of hard limiter, clipper, or blanker amplitude nonlinearities. Performance curves demonstrate the superiority of an appropriately chosen blanker when the RFI environment is most severe. The results obtained also pertain to the sensitivity of performance to the information bit rate, signal power variations, and the ratio of CW to noise content. The CW effects are found to be the most severe.

  20. Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aburjania, G.

    2009-04-01

    EGU2009-233 Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale turbulence in the ionosphere by G. Aburjania Contact: George Aburjania, g.aburjania@gmail.com,aburj@mymail.ge

  1. Effect of precipitate-dislocation interactions on generation of nonlinear Lamb waves in creep-damaged metallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yanxun; Deng, Mingxi; Xuan, Fu-Zhen; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2012-05-01

    An analytical model is presented for the effect of the interactions of dislocations with precipitate coherency strains on the generation of second-harmonic of Lamb waves in metallic alloys. The cumulative second-harmonic of Lamb wave propagation is shown to depend dominantly on the dislocation density, pinning dislocation length, internal stress due to the coherency strain, volume fraction of the precipitates, and the phase matching degree between the primary Lamb wave and the double frequency Lamb wave (DFLW). Experiments were carried out to introduce controlled levels of creep-induced damage to determine the nonlinear response of Lamb waves in titanium alloy Ti60 plates. A like mountain-shape change in the normalized acoustic nonlinearity of Lamb wave versus the creep loading time has been observed. Microscopic image analyses were performed to interpret the variation of the measured acoustic nonlinearity and to obtain the microstructure parameters of the Ti60 specimens with different creep damages. The analytical model was applied to these creep damaged Ti60 specimens, which revealed a good accordance with the measured results of the nonlinear Lamb waves. These results indicate that the acoustic nonlinearity of Lamb wave increases due to the rising of the precipitation volume fraction and the dislocation density in the early stage, and it decreases as a combined result of the reduction of the precipitation volume fraction and the dislocation density and the increasing mismatch of the phase velocity between the primary Lamb wave and the DFLW after a further creep loading.

  2. Generation of infrasonic waves by low-frequency dust acoustic perturbations in the Earth's lower ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kopnin, S. I.; Popel, S. I.

    2008-06-15

    It is shown that, during Perseid, Geminid, Orionid, and Leonid meteor showers, the excitation of low-frequency dust acoustic perturbations by modulational instability in the Earth's ionosphere can lead to the generation of infrasonic waves. The processes accompanying the propagation of these waves are considered, and the possibility of observing the waves from the Earth's surface is discussed, as well as the possible onset of acoustic gravitational vortex structures in the region of dust acoustic perturbations. The generation of such structures during Perseid, Geminid, Orionid, and Leonid meteor showers can show up as an increase in the intensity of green nightglow by an amount on the order of 10% and can be attributed to the formation of nonlinear (vortex) structures at altitudes of 110-120 km.

  3. Generation of optical frequency combs in a fiber-ring/microresonator laser system.

    PubMed

    Guo, Changlei; Che, Kaijun; Xu, Huiying; Zhang, Pan; Tang, Deyu; Ren, Changyan; Luo, Zhengqian; Cai, Zhiping

    2016-06-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple scheme for generating optical frequency combs (OFCs) in a fiber-ring/microresonator laser system. The ultrahigh Q whispering gallery mode microresonator is employed both as a mode reflection mirror to generate erbium lasing and as a Kerr-nonlinearity initiator that introduces optical parametric oscillation signals to form OFCs. By controlling the coupling position between the fiber taper and microresonator, optimizing the fiber polarization, as well as the pump power from a 974 nm laser diode (LD), versatile OFCs can be tuned out from single-wavelength states. The OFCs have single, multiple, or combined free spectral ranges. In addition, a Raman-gain-assisted OFC is also observed with a bandwidth of ∼230  nm. This LD-pumped and multifunctional laser system could find applications in precision spectroscopy, biochemical sensing, and optical fiber communication systems. PMID:27244418

  4. Nonlinear spacing and frequency effects of an oscillating cylinder in the wake of a stationary cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Z.; Yang, Xiaofan

    2008-11-01

    Nonlinear responses to a transversely oscillating cylinder in the wake of a stationary upstream cylinder are studied theoretically by using an immersed-boundary method. It is found that flow around the two cylinders varies with different spacing between the two cylinders and the oscillation frequency of the downstream cylinder. As known in a stationary tandem-cylinder system, there exist the ``vortex suppression regime'' (VS) and the ``vortex formation regime'' (VF). These two regimes are divided by a critical spacing. When the downstream cylinder is forced to oscillate at a fixed amplitude but different frequency, different flow patterns appear in each of the regime. On the other hand, at the same oscillating frequency but different spacing, the response state (lock-in, transient or non-lock-in) changes. While each state has periodic or quasi-periodic behaviors, nonlinear responses appear. All of the analyses are based on vorticity contours, time histories of the velocities in the near wake regions, spectral analyses, and related phase portraits.

  5. Fock State Generation From the Nonlinear Kerr Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonski, W.; Tanas, R.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss a system comprising a nonlinear Kerr medium in a cavity driven by an external coherent field directly or through the parametric process. We assume that the system is initially in the vacuum state, and we show that under appropriate conditions, i.e., properly chosen detuning and intensity of the driving field, the one or two-photon Fock states of the electromagnetic field can be achieved.

  6. Non-linear Frequency Shifts, Mode Couplings, and Decay Instability of Plasma Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affolter, Mathew; Anderegg, F.; Driscoll, C. F.; Valentini, F.

    2015-11-01

    We present experiments and theory for non-linear plasma wave decay to longer wavelengths, in both the oscillatory coupling and exponential decay regimes. The experiments are conducted on non-neutral plasmas in cylindrical Penning-Malmberg traps, θ-symmetric standing plasma waves have near acoustic dispersion ω (kz) ~kz - αkz2 , discretized by kz =mz (π /Lp) . Large amplitude waves exhibit non-linear frequency shifts δf / f ~A2 and Fourier harmonic content, both of which are increased as the plasma dispersion is reduced. Non-linear coupling rates are measured between large amplitude mz = 2 waves and small amplitude mz = 1 waves, which have a small detuning Δω = 2ω1 -ω2 . At small excitation amplitudes, this detuning causes the mz = 1 mode amplitude to ``bounce'' at rate Δω , with amplitude excursions ΔA1 ~ δn2 /n0 consistent with cold fluid theory and Vlasov simulations. At larger excitation amplitudes, where the non-linear coupling exceeds the dispersion, phase-locked exponential growth of the mz = 1 mode is observed, in qualitative agreement with simple 3-wave instability theory. However, significant variations are observed experimentally, and N-wave theory gives stunningly divergent predictions that depend sensitively on the dispersion-moderated harmonic content. Measurements on higher temperature Langmuir waves and the unusual ``EAW'' (KEEN) waves are being conducted to investigate the effects of wave-particle kinetics on the non-linear coupling rates. Department of Energy Grants DE-SC0002451and DE-SC0008693.

  7. Experimental laboratory system to generate high frequency test environments

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, D.L.; Paez, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    This is an extension of two previous analytical studies to investigate a technique for generating high frequency, high amplitude vibration environments. These environments are created using a device attached to a common vibration exciter that permits multiple metal on metal impacts driving a test surface. These analytical studies predicted that test environments with an energy content exceeding 10 kHz could be achieved using sinusoidal and random shaker excitations. The analysis predicted that chaotic vibrations yielding random like test environments could be generated from sinusoidal inputs. In this study, a much simplified version of the proposed system was fabricated and tested in the laboratory. Experimental measurements demonstrate that even this simplified system, utilizing a single impacting object, can generate environments on the test surface with significant frequency content in excess of 40 kHz. Results for sinusoidal shaker inputs tuned to create chaotic impact response are shown along with the responses due to random vibration shaker inputs. The experiments and results are discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Nonlinear interactions in the thalamocortical loop in essential tremor: A model-based frequency domain analysis.

    PubMed

    He, F; Sarrigiannis, P G; Billings, S A; Wei, H; Rowe, J; Romanowski, C; Hoggard, N; Hadjivassilliou, M; Rao, D G; Grünewald, R; Khan, A; Yianni, J

    2016-06-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that essential tremor has a central origin. Different structures appear to be part of the central tremorogenic network, including the motor cortex, the thalamus and the cerebellum. Some studies using electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) show linear association in the tremor frequency between the motor cortex and the contralateral tremor electromyography (EMG). Additionally, high thalamomuscular coherence is found with the use of thalamic local field potential (LFP) recordings and tremulous EMG in patients undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation (DBS). Despite a well-established reciprocal anatomical connection between the thalamus and cortex, the functional association between the two structures during "tremor-on" periods remains elusive. Thalamic (Vim) LFPs, ipsilateral scalp EEG from the sensorimotor cortex and contralateral tremor arm EMG recordings were obtained from two patients with essential tremor who had undergone successful surgery for DBS. Coherence analysis shows a strong linear association between thalamic LFPs and contralateral tremor EMG, but the relationship between the EEG and the thalamus is much less clear. These measurements were then analyzed by constructing a novel parametric nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) model. This new approach uncovered two distinct and not overlapping frequency "channels" of communication between Vim thalamus and the ipsilateral motor cortex, defining robustly "tremor-on" versus "tremor-off" states. The associated estimated nonlinear time lags also showed non-overlapping values between the two states, with longer corticothalamic lags (exceeding 50ms) in the tremor active state, suggesting involvement of an indirect multisynaptic loop. The results reveal the importance of the nonlinear interactions between cortical and subcortical areas in the central motor network of essential tremor. This work is important because it demonstrates

  9. Bright bichromatic entanglement and quantum dynamics of sum frequency generation

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, M. K.; Bradley, A. S.

    2008-02-15

    We investigate the quantum properties of the well-known process of sum frequency generation, showing that it is potentially a very useful source of nonclassical states of the electromagnetic field, some of which are not possible with the more common techniques. We show that it can produce quadrature squeezed light, bright bichromatic entangled states, and symmetric and asymmetric demonstrations of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. We also show that the semiclassical equations totally fail to describe the mean-field dynamics when the cavity is strongly pumped.

  10. Recent progress of room temperature THz sources based on nonlinear frequency mixing in quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razeghi, M.; Lu, Q. Y.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Slivken, S.; Bai, Y.

    2014-05-01

    We present the recent development of high performance compact THz sources based on intracavity nonlinear frequency mixing in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers. Significant performance improvements of our THz sources in the spectral purity, frequency coverage as well as THz power are achieved by systematic optimizing the device's active region, waveguide, phase matching scheme, and chip bonding strategy. Room temperature single-mode operation in a wide THz spectral range of 1-4.6 THz is demonstrated from our Čerenkov phase-matched THz sources with dual-period DFB gratings. High THz power up to 215 μW at 3.5 THz is demonstrated via epi-down mounting of our THz device. The THz power is later scaled up to mW level by increased the mid-IR power and conversion efficiency. The rapid development renders this type of THz sources promising local oscillators for many astronomical and medical applications.

  11. On the Nonlinear Effects in Focused Ultrasound Beams with Frequency Power Law Attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, N.; Redondo, J.; Sánchez-Morcillo, V.; Iglesias, P. C.; Camarena, F.

    When finite amplitude ultrasound propagation is considered, changes in spatial features of focused ultrasound beams can be observed. These nonlinear effects typically appear in thermoviscous fluids as focal displacements, beam-width variations or gain changes. However, in soft-tissue media, the frequency dependence of the attenuation doesn't obey a squared law. In this way, these complex media response leads to weak dispersion that prevents the cumulative processes of energy transfer to higher harmonics. In this work we explore the influence of different frequency power law attenuation responses and its influence on the self-defocusing effects in focused ultrasound beams. Thus, we numerically explore the spatial field distributions produced by low-Fresnel number devices and High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) radiating trough different soft-tissue media.

  12. Rogue wave triggered at a critical frequency of a nonlinear resonant medium.

    PubMed

    He, Jingsong; Xu, Shuwei; Porsezian, K; Cheng, Yi; Dinda, P Tchofo

    2016-06-01

    We consider a two-level atomic system interacting with an electromagnetic field controlled in amplitude and frequency by a high intensity laser. We show that the amplitude of the induced electric field admits an envelope profile corresponding to a breather soliton. We demonstrate that this soliton can propagate with any frequency shift with respect to that of the control laser, except a critical frequency, at which the system undergoes a structural discontinuity that transforms the breather in a rogue wave. A mechanism of generation of rogue waves by means of an intense laser field is thus revealed. PMID:27415249

  13. Rogue wave triggered at a critical frequency of a nonlinear resonant medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jingsong; Xu, Shuwei; Porsezian, K.; Cheng, Yi; Dinda, P. Tchofo

    2016-06-01

    We consider a two-level atomic system interacting with an electromagnetic field controlled in amplitude and frequency by a high intensity laser. We show that the amplitude of the induced electric field admits an envelope profile corresponding to a breather soliton. We demonstrate that this soliton can propagate with any frequency shift with respect to that of the control laser, except a critical frequency, at which the system undergoes a structural discontinuity that transforms the breather in a rogue wave. A mechanism of generation of rogue waves by means of an intense laser field is thus revealed.

  14. Visualization of evolving laser-generated structures by frequency domain tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yenyu; Li, Zhengyan; Wang, Xiaoming; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Downer, Michael

    2011-10-01

    We introduce frequency domain tomography (FDT) for single-shot visualization of time-evolving refractive index structures (e.g. laser wakefields, nonlinear index structures) moving at light-speed. Previous researchers demonstrated single-shot frequency domain holography (FDH), in which a probe-reference pulse pair co- propagates with the laser-generated structure, to obtain snapshot-like images. However, in FDH, information about the structure's evolution is averaged. To visualize an evolving structure, we use several frequency domain streak cameras (FDSCs), in each of which a probe-reference pulse pair propagates at an angle to the propagation direction of the laser-generated structure. The combination of several FDSCs constitutes the FDT system. We will present experimental results for a 4-probe FDT system that has imaged the whole-beam self-focusing of a pump pulse propagating through glass in a single laser shot. Combining temporal and angle multiplexing methods, we successfully processed data from four probe pulses in one spectrometer in a single-shot. The output of data processing is a multi-frame movie of the self- focusing pulse. Our results promise the possibility of visualizing evolving laser wakefield structures that underlie laser-plasma accelerators used for multi-GeV electron acceleration.

  15. Gigahertz frequency comb offset stabilization based on supercontinuum generation in silicon nitride waveguides.

    PubMed

    Klenner, Alexander; Mayer, Aline S; Johnson, Adrea R; Luke, Kevin; Lamont, Michael R E; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L; Keller, Ursula

    2016-05-16

    Silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguides represent a novel photonic platform that is ideally suited for energy efficient and ultrabroadband nonlinear interactions from the visible to the mid-infrared. Chip-based supercontinuum generation in Si3N4 offers a path towards a fully-integrated and highly compact comb source for sensing and time-and-frequency metrology applications. We demonstrate the first successful frequency comb offset stabilization that utilizes a Si3N4 waveguide for octave-spanning supercontinuum generation and achieve the lowest integrated residual phase noise of any diode-pumped gigahertz laser comb to date. In addition, we perform a direct comparison to a standard silica photonic crystal fiber (PCF) using the same ultrafast solid-state laser oscillator operating at 1 µm. We identify the minimal role of Raman scattering in Si3N4 as a key benefit that allows to overcome the fundamental limitations of silica fibers set by Raman-induced self-frequency shift. PMID:27409927

  16. Nonlinear propagation of high-frequency energy from blast waves as it pertains to bat hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loubeau, Alexandra

    Close exposure to blast noise from military weapons training can adversely affect the hearing of both humans and wildlife. One concern is the effect of high-frequency noise from Army weapons training on the hearing of endangered bats. Blast wave propagation measurements were conducted to investigate nonlinear effects on the development of blast waveforms as they propagate from the source. Measurements were made at ranges of 25, 50, and 100 m from the blast. Particular emphasis was placed on observation of rise time variation with distance. Resolving the fine shock structure of blast waves requires robust transducers with high-frequency capability beyond 100 kHz, hence the limitations of traditional microphones and the effect of microphone orientation were investigated. Measurements were made with a wide-bandwidth capacitor microphone for comparison with conventional 3.175-mm (⅛-in.) microphones with and without baffles. The 3.175-mm microphone oriented at 90° to the propagation direction did not have sufficient high-frequency response to capture the actual rise times at a range of 50 m. Microphone baffles eliminate diffraction artifacts on the rise portion of the measured waveform and therefore allow for a more accurate measurement of the blast rise time. The wide-band microphone has an extended high-frequency response and can resolve shorter rise times than conventional microphones. For a source of 0.57 kg (1.25 lb) of C-4 plastic explosive, it was observed that nonlinear effects steepened the waveform, thereby decreasing the shock rise time, from 25 to 50 m. At 100m, the rise times had increased slightly. For comparison to the measured blast waveforms, several models of nonlinear propagation are applied to the problem of finite-amplitude blast wave propagation. Shock front models, such as the Johnson and Hammerton model, and full-waveform marching algorithms, such as the Anderson model, are investigated and compared to experimental results. The models

  17. Low-frequency sea waves generated by atmospheric convection cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, M. P. C.; Battjes, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    The atmospheric origin of low-frequency sea waves that cause seiches in the Port of Rotterdam is investigated using hydrological and meteorological observations. These observations, combined with weather charts, show that all significant seiche events coincide with the passage of a low-pressure area and a cold front. Following these front passages, increased wind speed fluctuations occur with periods on the order of 1 hour. The records show that enhanced low-frequency wave energy at sea and the seiche events in the harbor occur more or less simultaneously with these strong wind speed fluctuations. These oscillatory wind speed changes are due to convection cells that arise in an unstable lower atmosphere in the area behind a cold front, where cold air moves over the relatively warm sea surface. It is shown that the moving system of a cold front and trailing convection cells generates forced low-frequency waves at sea that can cause seiche events inside the harbor. The occurrence of such events may be predictable operationally on the basis of a criterion for the difference in temperature between the air in the upper atmosphere and the water at the sea surface.

  18. Influence of Gaussian white noise on the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizability of doped quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent first nonlinear (βxxx and βyyy) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. We have assumed a Gaussian function to represent the dopant impurity potential. This study primarily addresses the role of noise on the polarizability components. We have invoked Gaussian white noise consisting of additive and multiplicative characteristics (in Stratonovich sense). The doped system has been subjected to an oscillating electric field of given intensity, and the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizabilities are computed. The noise characteristics are manifested in an interesting way in the nonlinear polarizability components. In case of additive noise, the noise strength remains practically ineffective in influencing the optical responses. The situation completely changes with the replacement of additive noise by its multiplicative analog. The replacement enhances the nonlinear optical response dramatically and also causes their maximization at some typical value of noise strength that depends on oscillation frequency.

  19. Influence of Gaussian white noise on the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizability of doped quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2014-05-07

    We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent first nonlinear (β{sub xxx} and β{sub yyy}) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. We have assumed a Gaussian function to represent the dopant impurity potential. This study primarily addresses the role of noise on the polarizability components. We have invoked Gaussian white noise consisting of additive and multiplicative characteristics (in Stratonovich sense). The doped system has been subjected to an oscillating electric field of given intensity, and the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizabilities are computed. The noise characteristics are manifested in an interesting way in the nonlinear polarizability components. In case of additive noise, the noise strength remains practically ineffective in influencing the optical responses. The situation completely changes with the replacement of additive noise by its multiplicative analog. The replacement enhances the nonlinear optical response dramatically and also causes their maximization at some typical value of noise strength that depends on oscillation frequency.

  20. Measurement of optical-beat frequency in a photoconductive terahertz-wave generator using microwave higher harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murasawa, Kengo; Sato, Koki; Hidaka, Takehiko

    2011-05-01

    A new method for measuring optical-beat frequencies in the terahertz (THz) region using microwave higher harmonics is presented. A microwave signal was applied to the antenna gap of a photoconductive (PC) device emitting a continuous electromagnetic wave at about 1 THz by the photomixing technique. The microwave higher harmonics with THz frequencies are generated in the PC device owing to the nonlinearity of the biased photoconductance, which is briefly described in this article. Thirteen nearly periodic peaks in the photocurrent were observed when the microwave was swept from 16 to 20 GHz at a power of -48 dBm. The nearly periodic peaks are generated by the homodyne detection of the optical beat with the microwave higher harmonics when the frequency of the harmonics coincides with the optical-beat frequency. Each peak frequency and its peak width were determined by fitting a Gaussian function, and the order of microwave harmonics was determined using a coarse (i.e., lower resolution) measurement of the optical-beat frequency. By applying the Kalman algorithm to the peak frequencies of the higher harmonics and their standard deviations, the optical-beat frequency near 1 THz was estimated to be 1029.81 GHz with the standard deviation of 0.82 GHz. The proposed method is applicable to a conventional THz-wave generator with a photomixer.

  1. Frequency-Selective Excitation and Non-Linear Data Processing in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Simon J.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The work presented here is concerned with the high resolution NMR spectroscopy of isotropic liquids. The experimental work covers two distinct techniques. Chapters 1-3 present an introduction to one- and two-dimensional NMR, including the density matrix and product operator formalisms. In chapters 4 and 5, half-Gaussian shaped selective pulses are used to develop a new selective coherence transfer experiment: an individual transition within the spectrum is irradiated by a selective pulse; coherence transfer is then achieved by irradiation with an intense non-selective pulse. This experiment is extended to two frequency dimensions (the second frequency dimension is defined by the frequency of the selective pulse) to allow examination of selected regions of two-dimensional frequency space at high resolution, avoiding the restrictions imposed on conventional two-dimensional spectra by the sampling theorem. The experiment is then extended further to three frequency dimensions by the use of two simultaneous selective pulses at different frequencies, yielding high-resolution spectra showing three-spin correlations within a selected volume of frequency space. Chapter 6 examines how non-linear data processing techniques may be used to achieve resolution enhancement in one-dimensional NMR spectra. The maximum entropy method (MEM) and the HOGWASH technique (based upon the CLEAN algorithm used in radioastronomy) are compared for the same experimental data. Comparisons are performed using both idealised and experimentally-determined broadening functions. The two techniques are shown to yield similar results: both perform best when experimentally-determined broadening functions, obtained from a reference line in the spectrum known to be a singlet, are used.

  2. Nonlinear low frequency electrostatic structures in a magnetized two-component auroral plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufai, O. R.; Bharuthram, R.; Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S.

    2016-03-01

    Finite amplitude nonlinear ion-acoustic solitons, double layers, and supersolitons in a magnetized two-component plasma composed of adiabatic warm ions fluid and energetic nonthermal electrons are studied by employing the Sagdeev pseudopotential technique and assuming the charge neutrality condition at equilibrium. The model generates supersoliton structures at supersonic Mach numbers regime in addition to solitons and double layers, whereas in the unmagnetized two-component plasma case only, soliton and double layer solutions can be obtained. Further investigation revealed that wave obliqueness plays a critical role for the evolution of supersoliton structures in magnetized two-component plasmas. In addition, the effect of ion temperature and nonthermal energetic electron tends to decrease the speed of oscillation of the nonlinear electrostatic structures. The present theoretical results are compared with Viking satellite observations.

  3. Nonlinear strain generation in ultrafast laser excited semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landahl, Eric; Lee, Sooheyong; Williams, G. Jackson; Walko, Donald

    2013-03-01

    We have investigated the laser fluence dependence of the lattice response of Indium Antimonide and Gallium Arsenide crystals to ultrafast laser absorption using time-resolved x-ray diffraction. In both materials, slow thermal cooling follows an initial acoustic strain impulse. For Indium Antimonide, where the laser photon energy is significantly above the band gap, we find that both acoustic and thermal lattice expansions increase linearly with increasing laser fluence. The band gap and photon energy are much closer in Gallium Arsenide, where we find that while the thermal response remains linear with laser fluence, the magnitude of the acoustic impulse is highly nonlinear, exhibiting an initial saturation and recovery far below the laser damage threshold limit. Several hypotheses have been put forward of different nonlinear processes that could lead to this behavior. To place additional constraints on these models, we have recorded high-resolution diffraction lineshapes which can be directly compared to semiconductor strain models incorporating the transport of sound, heat, and charge. To whom correspondence should be addressed.

  4. Across-frequency nonlinear inhibition by GABA in processing of interaural time difference.

    PubMed

    Mori, K

    1997-09-01

    The barn owl uses the interaural time difference (ITD) to determine the azimuth of a sound source. Narrowband ITD-sensitive neurons cannot distinguish a given ITD from those that produce the same interaural phase difference (phase ambiguity). Neurons in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICx) resolve the ambiguity by gathering ITD information across many frequencies, thereby suppressing false responses (side peaks, SP) relative to the true ITD (the main peak, MP) in a response versus ITD curve. This process was quantitatively studied by comparing the ITD curve for a pair of tones presented simultaneously (two-tone curve) to the simple sum (predicted curve) of the individual ITD curves for the same tones presented separately. Sixteen of the 39 neurons tested did not show a significant difference in MP and SP responses between these curves (category I); 14 neurons showed significant SP suppression (category II). During iontophoretic application of bicuculline methiodide, a GABA(A) antagonist, most (n = 7/8) category II neurons lost nonlinear SP suppression and became linear, whereas category I neurons retained linear summation (n = 3/3). Thus, the nonlinear cross-frequency interaction of ITD responses in ICx neurons was mediated mostly by GABAergic inhibition, which enhanced SP suppression, and helped resolve phase ambiguity. PMID:9307308

  5. Generation of High Frequency Electric Field Activity by Turbulence in the Earth's Magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stawarz, J. E.; Ergun, R.

    2013-12-01

    Bursty Bulk Flow (BBF) events, frequently observed in the magnetotail, carry significant energy and mass from the tail region at ~20 RE into the near-earth plasma sheet at ~10 RE, which is often referred to as the BBF 'braking region'. A number of possible channels are available for the transfer or dissipation of energy in BBF events including adiabatic heating of ions and electrons, the propagation of Alfvén waves out of the BBF braking region and into the auroral region, and energy dissipation within the braking region itself. This study investigates the generation of strong high frequency electric field activity observed within the braking region. A theory by which the large and small scales are coupled through a turbulent cascade of Alfvén waves, generated by the BBF braking event, is considered. At small kinetic spatial scales magnetic field aligned currents can be generated. These currents can be unstable to high frequency electrostatic waves, as well as, non-linear electrostatic structures such as double layers and electron phase space holes that are observed in the breaking region. The theoretical work is supported by observations from the THEMIS satellites. This work provides a possible mechanism for the dissipation of energy in turbulent plasma environments.

  6. Generating giant and tunable nonlinearity in a macroscopic mechanical resonator from a single chemical bond

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pu; Zhou, Jingwei; Zhang, Liang; Hou, Dong; Lin, Shaochun; Deng, Wen; Meng, Chao; Duan, Changkui; Ju, Chenyong; Zheng, Xiao; Xue, Fei; Du, Jiangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinearity in macroscopic mechanical systems may lead to abundant phenomena for fundamental studies and potential applications. However, it is difficult to generate nonlinearity due to the fact that macroscopic mechanical systems follow Hooke's law and respond linearly to external force, unless strong drive is used. Here we propose and experimentally realize high cubic nonlinear response in a macroscopic mechanical system by exploring the anharmonicity in chemical bonding interactions. We demonstrate the high tunability of nonlinear response by precisely controlling the chemical bonding interaction, and realize, at the single-bond limit, a cubic elastic constant of 1 × 1020 N m−3. This enables us to observe the resonator's vibrational bi-states transitions driven by the weak Brownian thermal noise at 6 K. This method can be flexibly applied to a variety of mechanical systems to improve nonlinear responses, and can be used, with further improvements, to explore macroscopic quantum mechanics. PMID:27225287

  7. Generating giant and tunable nonlinearity in a macroscopic mechanical resonator from a single chemical bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Pu; Zhou, Jingwei; Zhang, Liang; Hou, Dong; Lin, Shaochun; Deng, Wen; Meng, Chao; Duan, Changkui; Ju, Chenyong; Zheng, Xiao; Xue, Fei; Du, Jiangfeng

    2016-05-01

    Nonlinearity in macroscopic mechanical systems may lead to abundant phenomena for fundamental studies and potential applications. However, it is difficult to generate nonlinearity due to the fact that macroscopic mechanical systems follow Hooke's law and respond linearly to external force, unless strong drive is used. Here we propose and experimentally realize high cubic nonlinear response in a macroscopic mechanical system by exploring the anharmonicity in chemical bonding interactions. We demonstrate the high tunability of nonlinear response by precisely controlling the chemical bonding interaction, and realize, at the single-bond limit, a cubic elastic constant of 1 × 1020 N m-3. This enables us to observe the resonator's vibrational bi-states transitions driven by the weak Brownian thermal noise at 6 K. This method can be flexibly applied to a variety of mechanical systems to improve nonlinear responses, and can be used, with further improvements, to explore macroscopic quantum mechanics.

  8. Generating giant and tunable nonlinearity in a macroscopic mechanical resonator from a single chemical bond.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pu; Zhou, Jingwei; Zhang, Liang; Hou, Dong; Lin, Shaochun; Deng, Wen; Meng, Chao; Duan, Changkui; Ju, Chenyong; Zheng, Xiao; Xue, Fei; Du, Jiangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinearity in macroscopic mechanical systems may lead to abundant phenomena for fundamental studies and potential applications. However, it is difficult to generate nonlinearity due to the fact that macroscopic mechanical systems follow Hooke's law and respond linearly to external force, unless strong drive is used. Here we propose and experimentally realize high cubic nonlinear response in a macroscopic mechanical system by exploring the anharmonicity in chemical bonding interactions. We demonstrate the high tunability of nonlinear response by precisely controlling the chemical bonding interaction, and realize, at the single-bond limit, a cubic elastic constant of 1 × 10(20) N m(-3). This enables us to observe the resonator's vibrational bi-states transitions driven by the weak Brownian thermal noise at 6 K. This method can be flexibly applied to a variety of mechanical systems to improve nonlinear responses, and can be used, with further improvements, to explore macroscopic quantum mechanics. PMID:27225287

  9. Generation of a frequency comb spanning more than 3.6 octaves from ultraviolet to mid infrared.

    PubMed

    Iwakuni, Kana; Okubo, Sho; Tadanaga, Osamu; Inaba, Hajime; Onae, Atsushi; Hong, Feng-Lei; Sasada, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    We have observed an ultra-broadband frequency comb with a wavelength range of at least 0.35 to 4.4 μm in a ridge-waveguide-type periodically poled lithium niobate device. The PPLN waveguide is pumped by a 1.0-2.4 μm wide frequency comb with an average power of 120 mW generated using an erbium-based mode-locked fiber laser and a following highly nonlinear fiber. The coherence of the extended comb is confirmed in both the visible (around 633 nm) and the mid-infrared regions. PMID:27607952

  10. Nonlinear Stress/Strain Behavior of a Synthetic Porous Medium at Seismic Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, P. M.; Ibrahim, R. H.

    2008-12-01

    Laboratory experiments on porous core samples have shown that seismic-band (100 Hz or less) mechanical, axial stress/strain cycling of the porous matrix can influence the transport behavior of fluids and suspended particles during steady-state fluid flow through the cores. In conjunction with these stimulated transport experiments, measurements of the applied dynamic axial stress/strain were made to investigate the nonlinear mechanical response of porous media for a poorly explored range of frequencies from 1 to 40 Hz. A unique core-holder apparatus that applies low-frequency mechanical stress/strain to 2.54-cm-diameter porous samples during constant-rate fluid flow was used for these experiments. Applied stress was measured with a load cell in series with the source and porous sample, and the resulting strain was measured with an LVDT attached to the core face. A synthetic porous system consisting of packed 1-mm-diameter glass beads was used to investigate both stress/strain and stimulated mass-transport behavior under idealized conditions. The bead pack was placed in a rubber sleeve and static confining stresses of 2.4 MPa radial and 1.7 MPa axial were applied to the sample. Sinusoidal stress oscillations were applied to the sample at 1 to 40 Hz over a range of RMS stress amplitude from 37 to 275 kPa. Dynamic stress/strain was measured before and after the core was saturated with deionized water. The slope of the linear portion of each stress/strain hysteresis loop was used to estimate Young's modulus as a function of frequency and amplitude for both the dry and wet sample. The modulus was observed to increase after the dry sample was saturated. For both dry and wet cases, the modulus decreased with increasing dynamic RMS stress amplitude at a constant frequency of 23 Hz. At constant RMS stress amplitude, the modulus increased with increasing frequency for the wet sample but remained constant for the dry sample. The observed nonlinear behavior of Young's modulus

  11. Near-infrared supercontinnum generation in single-mode nonlinear Yb(3+)-doped fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ja-Hon; Lee, Yin-Wen; Lin, Ting-Chun; Lai, Beng-Cheng; Pal, Mrinmay; Das, Shyamal; Dhar, Anirban; Paul, Mukul Chandra

    2014-06-30

    Near-infrared supercontinnum (SC) generation, accompanied with several emission bands at visible and ultraviolet, is experimentally investigated in an all-fiber single-mode Yb(3+)-doped silica fiber MOPA. The seed is an all-normal-dispersion mode-locked Yb(3+)-doped single-mode fiber laser using a nonlinear polarization evolution mechanism. With the pump power of several hundreds of milliwatts, SC spanning of 1010 nm to 1600 nm was generated in a 20-m single-mode germano-zirconia-silica Yb(3+)-doped fiber amplifier. The intensive nonlinear effects, namely stimulated Raman scattering, four wave mixing, and self-phase modulation, enable the SC generation in the small-core fiber amplifier without the use of photonic crystal fibers or tapered fibers. Such a compact and cost-effective SC generation system enables applications in optical coherent tomography, optical metrology, and nonlinear microscopy. PMID:24977865

  12. Measurement of the absorption of nonlinear crystals used for high-average-power frequency doubling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Guido; Seidel, Stefan

    1997-07-01

    The absorption coefficients of nonlinear crystals for fundamental and second harmonic wave are of great importance for high average power second harmonic generation. A practical method to measure low absorption coefficients for high average power second harmonic generation. A practical method to measure low absorption coefficients is to use an interferometric laser calorimeter with high power lasers. Therefore Q-switched Nd:YAG laser systems with intracavity second harmonic generation are used. The measurements are made with optical powers up to 300 W and 45 W, respectively. Because of the high power, the resolution limit for the absorption coefficients is 0.001 percent/cm. The absorption coefficients of KTP and LBO crystals of different manufacturers are determined. The results are used for a numerical model which takes into account the decrease of conversion efficiency due to thermal effects caused by the absorption of laser power in the nonlinear crystal. This model describes saturation effects which appear in the range of 100 W in the green using a KTP crystal. A new idea for compensation of thermal effects will be presented.

  13. A note on the generation of phase plane plots on a digital computer. [for solution of nonlinear differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1980-01-01

    A technique is presented for generating phase plane plots on a digital computer which circumvents the difficulties associated with more traditional methods of numerical solving nonlinear differential equations. In particular, the nonlinear differential equation of operation is formulated.

  14. Effect of nonlinear chirped Gaussian laser pulse on plasma wake field generation

    SciTech Connect

    Afhami, Saeedeh; Eslami, Esmaeil

    2014-08-15

    An ultrashort laser pulse propagating in plasma can excite a nonlinear plasma wake field which can accelerate charged particles up to GeV energies within a compact space compared to the conventional accelerator devices. In this paper, the effect of different kinds of nonlinear chirped Gaussian laser pulse on wake field generation is investigated. The numerical analysis of our results depicts that the excitation of plasma wave with large and highly amplitude can be accomplished by nonlinear chirped pulses. The maximum amplitude of excited wake in nonlinear chirped pulse is approximately three times more than that of linear chirped pulse. In order to achieve high wake field generation, chirp parameters and functions should be set to optimal values.

  15. Photoacoustic generation by a gold nanosphere: From linear to nonlinear thermoelastics in the long-pulse illumination regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prost, Amaury; Poisson, Florian; Bossy, Emmanuel

    2015-09-01

    We investigate theoretically the photoacoustic generation by a gold nanosphere in water in the thermoelastic regime. Specifically, we consider the long-pulse illumination regime, in which the time for electron-phonon thermalization can be neglected and photoacoustic wave generation arises solely from the thermoelastic stress caused by the temperature increase of the nanosphere or its liquid environment. Photoacoustic signals are predicted based on the successive resolution of a thermal diffusion problem and a thermoelastic problem, taking into account the finite size of the gold nanosphere, thermoelastic and elastic properties of both water and gold, and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient of water. For sufficiently high illumination fluences, this temperature dependence yields a nonlinear relationship between the photoacoustic amplitude and the fluence. For nanosecond pulses in the linear regime, we show that more than 90 % of the emitted photoacoustic energy is generated in water, and the thickness of the generating layer around the particle scales close to the square root of the pulse duration. The amplitude of the photoacoustic wave in the linear regime is accurately predicted by the point-absorber model introduced by Calasso et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3550 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.3550], but our results demonstrate that this model significantly overestimates the amplitude of photoacoustic waves in the nonlinear regime. We therefore provide quantitative estimates of a critical energy, defined as the absorbed energy required such that the nonlinear contribution is equal to that of the linear contribution. Our results suggest that the critical energy scales as the volume of water over which heat diffuses during the illumination pulse. Moreover, thermal nonlinearity is shown to be expected only for sufficiently high ultrasound frequency. Finally, we show that the relationship between the photoacoustic amplitude and the

  16. Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic effects on Alfvén eigenmode evolution and zonal flow generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todo, Y.; Berk, H. L.; Breizman, B. N.

    2010-08-01

    Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects on Alfvén eigenmode evolution were investigated via hybrid simulations of an MHD fluid interacting with energetic particles. The investigation focused on the evolution of an n = 4 toroidal Alfvén eigenmode (TAE) which is destabilized by energetic particles in a tokamak. In addition to fully nonlinear code, a linear-MHD code was used for comparison. The only nonlinearity in that linear code is from the energetic-particle dynamics. No significant difference was found in the results of the two codes for low saturation levels, δB/B ~ 10-3. In contrast, when the TAE saturation level predicted by the linear code is δB/B ~ 10-2, the saturation amplitude in the fully nonlinear simulation was reduced by a factor of 2 due to the generation of zonal (n = 0) and higher-n (n >= 8) modes. This reduction is attributed to the increased dissipation arising from the nonlinearly generated modes. The fully nonlinear simulations also show that geodesic acoustic mode is excited by the MHD nonlinearity after the TAE mode saturation.

  17. Frequency-resolved optical gating with the use of second-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, K.W.; Trebino, R. ); Hunter, J.; White, W.E. )

    1994-11-01

    We discuss the use of second-harmonic generation (SHG) as the nonlinearity in the technique of frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) for measuring the full intensity and phase evolution of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse. FROG that uses a third-order nonlinearity in the polarization-gate geometry has proved extremely successful, and the algorithm required for extraction of the intensity and the phase from the experimental data is quite robust. However, for pulse intensities less than [similar to] 1 MW, third-order nonlinearities generate insufficient signal strength, and therefore SHG FROG appears necessary. We discuss the theoretical, algorithmic, and experimental considerations of SHG FROG in detail. SHG FROG has an ambiguity in the direction of time, and its traces are somewhat unintuitive. Also, previously published algorithms are generally ineffective at extracting the intensity and the phase of an arbitrary laser pulse from the SHG FROG trace. We present an improved pulse-retrieval algorithm, based on the method of generalized projections, that is far superior to the previously published algorithms, although it is still not so robust as the polarization-gate algorithm. We discuss experimental sources of error such as pump depletion and group-velocity mismatch. We also present several experimental examples of pulses measured with SHG FROG and show that the derived intensities and phases are in agreement with more conventional diagnostic techniques, and we demonstrate the high-dynamic-range capability of SHG FROG. We conclude that, despite the above drawbacks, SHG FROG should be useful in measuring low-energy pulses.

  18. Perturbation theory for graphene-integrated waveguides: Cubic nonlinearity and third-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbach, Andrey V.; Ivanov, Edouard

    2016-07-01

    We present perturbation theory for analysis of generic third-order nonlinear processes in graphene-integrated photonic structures. The optical response of graphene is treated as the nonlinear boundary condition in Maxwell's equations. The derived models are applied for analysis of third-harmonic generation in a graphene-coated dielectric microfiber. An efficiency of up to a few percent is predicted when using subpicosecond pump pulses with energies of the order of 0.1 nJ in a submillimeter-long fiber when operating near the resonance of the graphene nonlinear conductivity ℏ ω =(2 /3 ) EF .

  19. Quantification of Low Frequency Magnetic Fields Generated by Household Appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kenji; Mizuno, Yukio; Naito, Katsuhiko

    Resultant low frequency magnetic field generated was measured as a function of distance from them over broadband range (40-800Hz) and harmonic range (100-800Hz) on eleven kinds and more than two hundred recent household appliances in total. The relationship between magnetic filed measured and the power consumption of household appliances was also examined. As a result, it is verified that magnetic field from appliances is drastically reduced as the distance goes. And, any clear dependence of what on the power consumption of appliances is not recognized. Furthermore, from harmonic component analysis by using FFT for current flowing in appliances, it is assumed that relatively large amount of harmonic components with odd numbers is contained in the magnetic field.

  20. Agile high resolution arbitrary waveform generator with jitterless frequency stepping

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, Peter T. A.; Koizumi, Hideya

    2010-05-11

    Jitterless transition of the programmable clock waveform is generated employing a set of two coupled direct digital synthesis (DDS) circuits. The first phase accumulator in the first DDS circuit runs at least one cycle of a common reference clock for the DDS circuits ahead of the second phase accumulator in the second DDS circuit. As a phase transition through the beginning of a phase cycle is detected from the first phase accumulator, a first phase offset word and a second phase offset word for the first and second phase accumulators are calculated and loaded into the first and second DDS circuits. The programmable clock waveform is employed as a clock input for the RAM address controller. A well defined jitterless transition in frequency of the arbitrary waveform is provided which coincides with the beginning of the phase cycle of the DDS output signal from the second DDS circuit.

  1. Next generation of variable frequency drives and application guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, P.K.; Gjorvad, S.

    1999-11-01

    With the advent in power electronics, increase in power handling capacity of silicone controlled rectifiers and other power electronic devices and the use of high speed digital signal processor (DSP), new and better control principles are now utilized for the design of numerous variable frequency drives (VFDs) for large induction motors. One of the latest technologies developed is the direct torque control (DTC) devices which utilizes the electromagnetic state of the motor to control the flux in the magnetic core and hence, the torque. The response of the drive to changes in the required torque is dramatically improved. DTC provides a precise torque control without the need for a feedback device, such as an encoder or tachogenerator. This paper will discuss the next generation of VFDs utilizing DTC and its application considerations in electric power industry.

  2. Sum Frequency Generation Studies of Hydrogenation Reactions on Platinum Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Krier, James M.

    2013-08-31

    Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy is used to characterize intermediate species of hydrogenation reactions on the surface of platinum nanoparticle catalysts. In contrast to other spectroscopy techniques which operate in ultra-high vacuum or probe surface species after reaction, SFG collects information under normal conditions as the reaction is taking place. Several systems have been studied previously using SFG on single crystals, notably alkene hydrogenation on Pt(111). In this thesis, many aspects of SFG experiments on colloidal nanoparticles are explored for the first time. To address spectral interference by the capping agent (PVP), three procedures are proposed: UV cleaning, H2 induced disordering and calcination (core-shell nanoparticles). UV cleaning and calcination physically destroy organic capping while disordering reduces SFG signal through a reversible structural change by PVP.

  3. Hydraulic impulse generator and frequency sweep mechanism for borehole applications

    DOEpatents

    Kolle, Jack J.; Marvin, Mark H.; Theimer, Kenneth J.

    2006-11-21

    This invention discloses a valve that generates a hydraulic negative pressure pulse and a frequency modulator for the creation of a powerful, broadband swept impulse seismic signal at the drill bit during drilling operations. The signal can be received at monitoring points on the surface or underground locations using geophones. The time required for the seismic signal to travel from the source to the receiver directly and via reflections is used to calculate seismic velocity and other formation properties near the source and between the source and receiver. This information can be used for vertical seismic profiling of formations drilled, to check the location of the bit, or to detect the presence of abnormal pore pressure ahead of the bit. The hydraulic negative pressure pulse can also be used to enhance drilling and production of wells.

  4. Generation of frequency-chirped optical pulses with felix

    SciTech Connect

    Knippels, G.M.H.; Meer, A.F.G. van der; Mols, R.F.X.A.M.

    1995-12-31

    Frequency-chirped optical pulses have been produced in the picosecond regime by varying the energy of the electron beam on a microsecond time scale. These pulses were then compressed close to their bandwidth limit by an external pulse compressor. The amount of chirp can be controlled by varying the sweep rate on the electron beam energy and by cavity desynchronisation. To examine the generated chirp we used the following diagnostics: a pulse compressor, a crossed beam autocorrelator, a multichannel electron spectrometer and multichannel optical spectrometer. The compressor is build entirely using reflective optics to permit broad band operation. The autocorrelator is currently operating from 6 {mu}m to 30 {mu}m with one single crystal. It has been used to measure pulses as short as 500 fs. All diagnostics are evacuated to prevent pulse shape distortion or pulse lengthening caused by absorption in ambient water vapour. Pulse length measurements and optical spectra will be presented for different electron beam sweep rates, showing the presence of a frequency chirp. Results on the compression of the optical pulses to their bandwidth limit are given for different electron sweep rates. More experimental results showing the dependence of the amount of chirp on cavity desynchronisation will be presented.

  5. Two-Dimensional Frequency Resolved Optomolecular Gating of High-Order Harmonic Generation.

    PubMed

    Ferré, A; Soifer, H; Pedatzur, O; Bourassin-Bouchet, C; Bruner, B D; Canonge, R; Catoire, F; Descamps, D; Fabre, B; Mével, E; Petit, S; Dudovich, N; Mairesse, Y

    2016-02-01

    Probing electronic wave functions of polyatomic molecules is one of the major challenges in high-harmonic spectroscopy. The extremely nonlinear nature of the laser-molecule interaction couples the multiple degrees of freedom of the probed system. We combine two-dimensional control of the electron trajectories and vibrational control of the molecules to disentangle the two main steps in high-harmonic generation-ionization and recombination. We introduce a new measurement scheme, frequency-resolved optomolecular gating, which resolves the temporal amplitude and phase of the harmonic emission from excited molecules. Focusing on the study of vibrational motion in N_{2}O_{4}, we show that such advanced schemes provide a unique insight into the structural and dynamical properties of the underlying mechanism. PMID:26894708

  6. Effects of non-linearities on magnetic field generation

    SciTech Connect

    Nalson, Ellie; Malik, Karim A.; Christopherson, Adam J. E-mail: achristopherson@gmail.com

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic fields are present on all scales in the Universe. While we understand the processes which amplify the fields fairly well, we do not have a ''natural'' mechanism to generate the small initial seed fields. By using fully relativistic cosmological perturbation theory and going beyond the usual confines of linear theory we show analytically how magnetic fields are generated. This is the first analytical calculation of the magnetic field at second order, using gauge-invariant cosmological perturbation theory, and including all the source terms. To this end, we have rederived the full set of governing equations independently. Our results suggest that magnetic fields of the order of 10{sup -30}- 10{sup -27} G can be generated (although this depends on the small scale cut-off of the integral), which is largely in agreement with previous results that relied upon numerical calculations. These fields are likely too small to act as the primordial seed fields for dynamo mechanisms.

  7. Features of the behavior of solutions to a nonlinear dynamical system in the case of two-frequency parametric resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koverga, A. Yu.; Kubyshkin, E. P.

    2013-05-01

    Two-frequency parametric resonance in nonlinear dynamical systems is studied by analyzing a delay differential equation with the delay obeying a two-frequency law, which arises in the mathematical simulation of some physical processes. It is shown that the system can exhibit chaotic oscillations (strange attractors) when the parametric excitation frequencies are both close to the doubled eigenfrequency of the system (degenerate case). The formation mechanisms of chaotic attractors are discussed, and the Lyapunov exponents and the Lyapunov dimension are calculated for them. If only one of the parametric excitation frequencies is close to the double eigenfrequency, a two-frequency regime occurs in the system.

  8. Stable similariton generation in hybrid mode-locked erbium-doped all-fiber ring laser for application in optical frequency standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazonkin, Stanislav G.; Krylov, Alexander A.; Dvoretskiy, Dmitriy A.; Leonov, Stanislav O.; Lazarev, Vladimir A.; Pnev, Alexey B.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Grebenyukov, Vyacheslav V.; Pozharov, Anatoly S.; Obraztsova, Elena D.

    2015-01-01

    Recently similariton (or self-similar pulse) fiber lasers have attracted great attention due to their capabilities of highenergy pulse generation that could find different applications in science and industry. Moreover it is very important to reach stable pulse generation for the application as a frequency divider in optical frequency standard. Hybrid modelocking mechanism was used for obtaining stable similariton generation at 38 MHz pulse repetition frequency. It involves two types of mode-locking mechanisms in the cavity - saturation of carbon nanostructures absorber (recovery time Trt ~ 500 fs) and nonlinear polarization evolution based on the nonlinear Kerr-effect (Trt ~ 10 fs). It was shown that total intracavity dispersion should be slightly positive for generating stable similaritons with duration of less than 90 fs and spectral bandwidth of more than 50 nm at 11.2 mW output average power that could be further applied in an all-fiber MOPA setup.

  9. Generation of Flat Optical Frequency Comb based on Mach-Zehnder Modulator and Recirculating Frequency Shifter Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shibao; Li, Yulong; Fei, Yue; Hu, Faze

    2014-06-01

    We propose a novel scheme to generate optical frequency comb by using Mach-Zehnder modulator and recirculating frequency shifter loop based on IQ modulator driven by radio frequency clock signals. A system of 4 flat and stable comb lines generation based on Mach-Zehnder modulator is set as the seed light source of the recirculating loop. Through theorical analysis and simulation it is shown that the proposed theoretical model is proved in good agreement with simulation results.

  10. Hollow Gaussian beam generation through nonlinear interaction of photons with orbital angular momentum

    PubMed Central

    Chaitanya, N. Apurv; Jabir, M. V.; Banerji, J.; Samanta, G. K.

    2016-01-01

    Hollow Gaussian beams (HGB) are a special class of doughnut shaped beams that do not carry orbital angular momentum (OAM). Such beams have a wide range of applications in many fields including atomic optics, bio-photonics, atmospheric science, and plasma physics. Till date, these beams have been generated using linear optical elements. Here, we show a new way of generating HGBs by three-wave mixing in a nonlinear crystal. Based on nonlinear interaction of photons having OAM and conservation of OAM in nonlinear processes, we experimentally generated ultrafast HGBs of order as high as 6 and power >180 mW at 355 nm. This generic concept can be extended to any wavelength, timescales (continuous-wave and ultrafast) and any orders. We show that the removal of azimuthal phase of vortices does not produce Gaussian beam. We also propose a new and only method to characterize the order of the HGBs. PMID:27581625

  11. Hollow Gaussian beam generation through nonlinear interaction of photons with orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Chaitanya, N Apurv; Jabir, M V; Banerji, J; Samanta, G K

    2016-01-01

    Hollow Gaussian beams (HGB) are a special class of doughnut shaped beams that do not carry orbital angular momentum (OAM). Such beams have a wide range of applications in many fields including atomic optics, bio-photonics, atmospheric science, and plasma physics. Till date, these beams have been generated using linear optical elements. Here, we show a new way of generating HGBs by three-wave mixing in a nonlinear crystal. Based on nonlinear interaction of photons having OAM and conservation of OAM in nonlinear processes, we experimentally generated ultrafast HGBs of order as high as 6 and power >180 mW at 355 nm. This generic concept can be extended to any wavelength, timescales (continuous-wave and ultrafast) and any orders. We show that the removal of azimuthal phase of vortices does not produce Gaussian beam. We also propose a new and only method to characterize the order of the HGBs. PMID:27581625

  12. Analysis of supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear fibers pumped by erbium fiber laser sources: observations and optimizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, Ping; Tang, Ming L.; Qian, Yi; Gong, Yan D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to use numerical simulations and experiments to investigate the SCG in HNLF and optimize the SCG according to the parameters of fiber and pump pulse. Complex temporal and spectral characteristics of supercontinuum generation are investigated in the zero-dispersion wavelength (ZDW) region of highly nonlinear fibers. The simulations are based on an extended nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE), which is valid even in circumstances where the bandwidth of the SCG is of the same order as the central frequency of the input pulse, and includes higher order nonlinearity, dispersion and intrapulse stimulated Raman scattering. We developed a finite difference scheme incorporating modified 4-th order Runge-Kutta algorithm to solve the equation. We discuss the SCG by varying the parameters of input pulse, such as pulse width, peak power, and center wavelength, to explore the dynamics of SCG in normal and anomalous dispersion regions. An optimal approach for supercontinuum generation is proposed and proved by experiments and simulations. The measured and calculated spectra are compared and exhibit good qualitative agreements. Our works provide a useful approach to design a practical SC source by using the conventional HNLF and readily available low power fiber laser sources.

  13. Supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear fibers using amplified noise-like optical pulses.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Shian; Hwang, Sheng-Kwang; Liu, Jia-Ming

    2014-02-24

    Supercontinuum generation in a highly nonlinear fiber pumped by noise-like pulses from an erbium-doped fiber ring laser is investigated. To generate ultrabroad spectra, a fiber amplifier is used to boost the power launched into the highly nonlinear fiber. After amplification, not only the average power of the noise-like pulses is enhanced but the spectrum of the pulses is also broadened due to nonlinear effects in the fiber amplifier. This leads to a reduction of the peak duration in their autocorrelation trace, suggesting a similar extent of pulse compression; by contrast, the pedestal duration increases only slightly, suggesting that the noise-like characteristic is maintained. By controlling the pump power of the fiber amplifier, the compression ratio of the noise-like pulse duration can be adjusted. Due to the pulse compression, supercontinuum generation with a broader spectrum is therefore feasible at a given average power level of the noise-like pulses launched into the highly nonlinear fiber. As a result, supercontinuum generation with an optical spectrum spanning from 1208 to 2111 nm is achieved using a 1-m nonlinear fiber pumped by amplified noise-like pulses of 15.5 MHz repetition rate at an average power of 202 mW. PMID:24663739

  14. A nonlinearity-tolerant frequency domain root M-shaped pulse for coherent optical communication systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xian; Zhuge, Qunbi; Châtelain, Benoît; Morsy-Osman, Mohamed; Chagnon, Mathieu; Qiu, Meng; Plant, David V

    2013-12-30

    A new intersymbol interference (ISI)-free nonlinearity-tolerant frequency domain root M-shaped pulse (RMP) is derived for dispersion unmanaged coherent optical transmission systems. Beginning with the relationship between pulse shaping and intra-channel nonlinearity effects, we derive closed-form expressions for the proposed pulse. Experimental demonstrations reveal that by employing the proposed pulse at a roll-off factor of 1, the maximum transmission reach of a single-channel 56 Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature phase-shift keying (PDM-QPSK) system can be extended by 33% and 17%, when compared to systems using a root raised cosine (RRC) pulse and a root optimized pulse (ROP), respectively. For a single-channel 128 Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (PDM-16QAM) system, the reach can be extended by 44% and 18%, respectively. Reach increases of 30% and 13% are also observed for a dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) 504 Gb/s PDM-QPSK transmission system. The tolerance to narrow filtering effect for the three pulses is experimentally studied as well. PMID:24514792

  15. Nonlinear optical frequency conversion of an amplified Fourier Domain Mode Locked (FDML) laser.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Rainer; Biedermann, Benjamin R; Wieser, Wolfgang; Huber, Robert

    2009-09-14

    We report on the highly efficient non-linear optical frequency conversion of the wavelength swept output from a Fourier Domain Mode Locked (FDML) laser. Different concepts for power scaling of FDML lasers by post-amplification with active fibers are presented. A two-stage post-amplification of an FDML laser with an amplification factor of 300 up to a peak power of 1.5 W is used to supply sufficient power levels for non-linear conversion. Using a single-mode dispersion shifted fiber (DSF), we convert this amplified output that covers the region between 1541 nm and 1545 nm to a wavelength range from 1572 nm to 1663 nm via modulation instability (MI). For this four wave mixing process we observe an efficiency of approximately 40%. The anti-Stokes signal between 1435 nm and 1516 nm was observed with lower conversion efficiency. In addition to shifting the wavelength, the effect of MI also enables a substantial increase in the wavelength sweep rate of the FDML laser by a factor of approximately 50 to 0.55 nm/ns. PMID:19770897

  16. Effect of driving voltages in dual capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma: A study by nonlinear global model

    SciTech Connect

    Bora, B.

    2015-10-15

    On the basis of nonlinear global model, a dual frequency capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma driven by 13.56 MHz and 27.12 MHz has been studied to investigate the influences of driving voltages on the generation of dc self-bias and plasma heating. Fluid equations for the ions inside the plasma sheath have been considered to determine the voltage-charge relations of the plasma sheath. Geometrically symmetric as well as asymmetric cases with finite geometrical asymmetry of 1.2 (ratio of electrodes area) have been considered to make the study more reasonable to experiment. The electrical asymmetry effect (EAE) and finite geometrical asymmetry is found to work differently in controlling the dc self-bias. The amount of EAE has been primarily controlled by the phase angle between the two consecutive harmonics waveforms. The incorporation of the finite geometrical asymmetry in the calculations shift the dc self-bias towards negative polarity direction while increasing the amount of EAE is found to increase the dc self-bias in either direction. For phase angle between the two waveforms ϕ = 0 and ϕ = π/2, the amount of EAE increases significantly with increasing the low frequency voltage, whereas no such increase in the amount of EAE is found with increasing high frequency voltage. In contrast to the geometrically symmetric case, where the variation of the dc self-bias with driving voltages for phase angle ϕ = 0 and π/2 are just opposite in polarity, the variation for the geometrically asymmetric case is different for ϕ = 0 and π/2. In asymmetric case, for ϕ = 0, the dc self-bias increases towards the negative direction with increasing both the low and high frequency voltages, but for the ϕ = π/2, the dc-self bias is increased towards positive direction with increasing low frequency voltage while dc self-bias increases towards negative direction with increasing high frequency voltage.

  17. Experimental evidence of simultaneous multi-resonance noise reduction using an absorber with essential nonlinearity under two excitation frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Côte, Renaud; Pachebat, Marc; Bellizzi, Sergio

    2014-09-01

    The addition of an essentially nonlinear membrane absorber to a linear vibroacoustic system with multiple resonances is studied experimentally, using quasiperiodic excitation. An extended experimental dataset of the system response is analyzed under steady-state excitation at two frequencies. Thresholds between low and high damping states within the system and associated noise reduction are observed and quantified thanks to frequency conversion and RMS efficiency indicators. Following previous numerical results, it is shown that the membrane NES (Nonlinear Energy Sink) acts simultaneously and efficiently on two acoustic resonances. In all cases, the introduction of energy at a second excitation frequency appears favorable to lower the frequency conversion threshold and to lower the noise within the system. In particular, a simultaneous control of two one-to-one resonances by the NES is observed. Exploration of energy conversion in the two excitation amplitudes plane advocates for a linear dependence of the frequency conversion thresholds on the two excitation amplitudes.

  18. Nonlinear optical microscopy in biology: Combining second-harmonic generation and two-photon fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clays, Koen

    2011-03-01

    Optical microscopy has been since long a truly enabling visualization technique in the biological and biomedical sciences. Linear optical microscopy relies on simple linear optical effects. Nonlinear optical microscopy relies on the nonlinear optical properties of endogenous or exogenous chromophores to produce a better image. Two-photon fluorescence (TPF), a third-order nonlinear optical effect and observed at the focal spot only due to the quadratic intensity dependence, results in inherently higher resolution than possible for one-photon fluorescence, observed over the complete Rayleigh range. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) is a second-order nonlinear optical effect only observed for non-centrosymmetric arrangements of non-centrosymmetric chromophores. While this does put a restriction on the chromophores that can be used, it also results in structural information about symmetry when used in combination with TPF. TPF, being a third-order nonlinear process, is not restricted by any symmetry consideration. We will review the molecular design criteria for exogenous probes for combined SHG and TPF nonlinear microscopy, provide examples of optimized chromophores and show microscopy images demonstrating the use of such chromophores in nonlinear microscopy.

  19. Differential evolution algorithm for nonlinear inversion of high-frequency Rayleigh wave dispersion curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xianhai; Li, Lei; Zhang, Xueqiang; Huang, Jianquan; Shi, Xinchun; Jin, Si; Bai, Yiming

    2014-10-01

    to nonlinear inversion of high-frequency surface wave data should be considered good not only in terms of the accuracy but also in terms of the convergence speed.

  20. Influence of damped propagation of dopant on the static and frequency-dependent third nonlinear polarizability of quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Suvajit; Ghosh, Manas

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of static and frequency-dependent third nonlinear (γxxxx and γyyyy) polarizability of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. The dopant impurity potential takes a GAUSSIAN form. We have considered propagation of the dopant within an environment that damps the motion. The study focuses on role of damping strength on the diagonal components of both static and frequency-dependent third nonlinear polarizability of the doped system. The doped system is further exposed to an external electric field of given intensity. Damping subtly modulates the dot-impurity interaction and fabricates the polarizability components in a noticeable manner.

  1. Automatic generation of multipath algorithms in the cellular nonlinear network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preciado, Victor M.; Guinea, Domingo; Montufar-Chaveznava, Rodrigo

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this work is to generate a learning machine capable of find solutions for complex image processing task by Cellular Neural Network (CNN's). First a general machine for automatic analog algorithm design independent of the problem to solve is created, this is accomplished through an evolutionary strategy that is an extension of genetic programming. Second, this work introduces a suite of sub- mechanisms that increase the power of genetic programming and contribute to reduce the enormous space search for producing a plentiful search. Some concepts in this section are related with AI theory, in such a way that in this work we are in the intersection field of AI and Image Processing by CNN.

  2. Note: improving spatial resolution of optical frequency-domain reflectometry against frequency tuning nonlinearity using non-uniform fast Fourier transform.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhenyang; Liu, Tiegen; Meng, Zhuo; Liu, Kun; Chen, Qinnan; Du, Yang; Li, Dingjie; Yao, X Steve

    2012-06-01

    We propose using non-uniform FFT to minimize the degrading effect of frequency tuning nonlinearity of a tunable laser source (TLS) in an optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) system. We use an auxiliary interferometer to obtain the required instantaneous optical frequency of the TLS and successfully demonstrate 100 times enhancement in spatial resolution of OFDR with only a 20% increase in computation time. The corresponding measurement reflectivity sensitivity is better than -80 dB, sufficient to detect bending induced index changes in an optical fiber. PMID:22755676

  3. Note: Improving spatial resolution of optical frequency-domain reflectometry against frequency tuning nonlinearity using non-uniform fast Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhenyang; Liu, Tiegen; Meng, Zhuo; Liu, Kun; Chen, Qinnan; Du, Yang; Li, Dingjie; Yao, X. Steve

    2012-06-01

    We propose using non-uniform FFT to minimize the degrading effect of frequency tuning nonlinearity of a tunable laser source (TLS) in an optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) system. We use an auxiliary interferometer to obtain the required instantaneous optical frequency of the TLS and successfully demonstrate 100 times enhancement in spatial resolution of OFDR with only a 20% increase in computation time. The corresponding measurement reflectivity sensitivity is better than -80 dB, sufficient to detect bending induced index changes in an optical fiber.

  4. Difference-frequency generation in the field of a few-cycle laser pulse propagating in a GaAs crystal with a domain structure

    SciTech Connect

    Oganesyan, David L; Vardanyan, Aleksandr O; Oganesyan, G D

    2013-06-30

    Difference-frequency generation in a GaAs crystal with a periodic domain structure in the field of a few-cycle laser pulse is considered for the case of weakly pronounced material dispersion. The straight-line method is used to solve numerically the system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations describing the evolution of the electric field of this laser pulse in GaAs crystals with periodic and chirped domain structures. It is shown that application of a GaAs crystal with a chirped domain structure makes it possible to control the frequency-modulation law for a broadband differencefrequency pulse. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  5. Frequency dispersion of the first hyperpolarizabilities of reference molecules for nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wergifosse, Marc; Castet, Frédéric; Champagne, Benoît

    2015-05-01

    The frequency dispersion of the hyper-Rayleigh scattering first hyperpolarizabilities (βHRS) of five reference molecules for nonlinear optics, namely, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, dichloromethane, acetonitrile, and trichloroacetonitrile, is described using the coupled-cluster singles and doubles quadratic response function (CCSD-QRF) as well as approximate schemes. Comparisons to approximate schemes in which the frequency dispersion is evaluated as either a multiplicative or an additive correction to the static hyperpolarizability yield the following observations: (i) errors of the order of 10% or less are usually encountered when using the multiplicative scheme for photon energies far from the lowest dipole-allowed excitation energies, (ii) spurious cases cannot be excluded as evidenced by carbon tetrachloride where the multiplicative scheme predicts a decrease of βHRS in contradiction to the increase obtained using the CCSD-QRF method, and (iii) the additive scheme is at best as reliable as the multiplicative approximation. The two-state approximation presents the advantage of correcting the wrong behavior of the additive and multiplicative schemes for carbon tetrachloride, but it is not an improved solution for the other compounds, while the question of selecting the appropriate dominant excited state remains unanswered. Finally, a new βxyz value of 18.9 a.u. is proposed for carbon tetrachloride in gas phase at λ = 1064 nm, to be compared with the measured 16.9 ± 1.4 a.u. value due to Shelton.

  6. Frequency dispersion of the first hyperpolarizabilities of reference molecules for nonlinear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Wergifosse, Marc de; Champagne, Benoît; Castet, Frédéric

    2015-05-21

    The frequency dispersion of the hyper-Rayleigh scattering first hyperpolarizabilities (β{sub HRS}) of five reference molecules for nonlinear optics, namely, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, dichloromethane, acetonitrile, and trichloroacetonitrile, is described using the coupled-cluster singles and doubles quadratic response function (CCSD-QRF) as well as approximate schemes. Comparisons to approximate schemes in which the frequency dispersion is evaluated as either a multiplicative or an additive correction to the static hyperpolarizability yield the following observations: (i) errors of the order of 10% or less are usually encountered when using the multiplicative scheme for photon energies far from the lowest dipole-allowed excitation energies, (ii) spurious cases cannot be excluded as evidenced by carbon tetrachloride where the multiplicative scheme predicts a decrease of β{sub HRS} in contradiction to the increase obtained using the CCSD-QRF method, and (iii) the additive scheme is at best as reliable as the multiplicative approximation. The two-state approximation presents the advantage of correcting the wrong behavior of the additive and multiplicative schemes for carbon tetrachloride, but it is not an improved solution for the other compounds, while the question of selecting the appropriate dominant excited state remains unanswered. Finally, a new β{sub xyz} value of 18.9 a.u. is proposed for carbon tetrachloride in gas phase at λ = 1064 nm, to be compared with the measured 16.9 ± 1.4 a.u. value due to Shelton.

  7. Sum frequency generation of hydrogen-bonding liquid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldelli, Steve

    The surface-specific vibrational spectroscopy sum frequency generation (SFG) is used to examine the physical/chemical environment of molecules at the liquid/air interface. In glycerol/water mixtures, glycerol is found to partition to the surface in excess compared to the bulk concentration. Further, it is discovered that the free OH peak of water (an OH group projecting out of the liquid into the vapor) can be used as an indicator of the surface coverage of water at the surface. Solutions of alkali sulfate salts also affect the surface structure of water. These ions increase the ordered structure of water at the interface by increasing the oriented hydrogen-bond network. This order-increasing effect is found to occur to a greater extent for sulfuric acid solutions. A model based on ion association and a sub-surface electric double-layer is used to describe these results. A correlation between the surface coverage of water and the extent of dissociation of the acid is discovered; i.e., increasing acid association decreases the surface coverage of water. Finally, solutions of HCl/water are investigated. In these systems, the electrolytic nature of HCl is found to increase the hydrogen-bonded order of the interfacial water molecules. Further, despite the polar nature of HCl, no molecular HCl is detected on any surface despite surface tension measurements indicating an excess of HCl at the surface. The neat HCl liquid surface is the only system where molecular HCl is observed.

  8. Sound generation by a centrifugal pump at blade passing frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenroth, M.; Weaver, D.S.

    1996-12-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental study of the pressure pulsations produced by a centrifugal volute pump at its blade passing frequency and their amplification by acoustic resonance in a connected piping system. Detailed measurements were made of the pressure fluctuations in the piping as a function of pump speed and flow rate. A semi-empirical model was used to separate acoustic standing waves from hydraulic pressure fluctuations. The effects of modifying the cut-water geometry were also studied, including the use of flow visualization to observe the flow behavior at the cut-water. The results suggest that the pump may act as an acoustic pressure or velocity source, depending on the flow rate. At conditions of acoustic resonance, the pump acted as an open termination of the piping, i.e., as a node in the acoustic pressure standing waves. Rounding the cut-water had the effect of reducing the amplitude of acoustic resonance, apparently because of the ability of the stagnation point to move and thereby reduce the vorticity generated. A notable example of this acoustic resonance in the Primary Heat Transport (PHT) system at Ontario Hydro`s Darlington nuclear power station.

  9. Investigating buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in the studies of buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. Both buried solid/liquid and solid/solid interfaces involving polymeric materials are discussed. SFG studies of polymer/water interfaces show that different polymers exhibit varied surface restructuring behavior in water, indicating the importance of probing polymer/water interfaces in situ. SFG has also been applied to the investigation of interfaces between polymers and other liquids. It has been found that molecular interactions at such polymer/liquid interfaces dictate interfacial polymer structures. The molecular structures of silane molecules, which are widely used as adhesion promoters, have been investigated using SFG at buried polymer/silane and polymer/polymer interfaces, providing molecular-level understanding of polymer adhesion promotion. The molecular structures of polymer/solid interfaces have been examined using SFG with several different experimental geometries. These results have provided molecular-level information about polymer friction, adhesion, interfacial chemical reactions, interfacial electronic properties, and the structure of layer-by-layer deposited polymers. Such research has demonstrated that SFG is a powerful tool to probe buried interfaces involving polymeric materials, which are difficult to study by conventional surface sensitive analytical techniques. PMID:21113334

  10. Time-Frequency Analysis of Boundary-Layer Instabilites Generated by Freestream Laser Perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Amanda; Schneider, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    A controlled disturbance is generated in the freestream of the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel (BAM6QT) by focusing a high-powered Nd:YAG laser to create a laser-induced breakdown plasma. The plasma then cools, creating a freestream thermal disturbance that can be used to study receptivity. The freestream disturbance convects down-stream in the Mach-6 wind tunnel to interact with a flared cone model. The adverse pressure gradient created by the flare of the model is capable of generating second-mode instability waves that grow large and become nonlinear before experiencing natural transition in quiet flow. The freestream laser perturbation generates a wave packet in the boundary layer at the same frequency as the natural second mode, complicating time-independent analyses of the effect of the laser perturbation. The data show that the laser perturbation creates an instability wave packet that is larger than the natural waves on the sharp flared cone. The wave packet is still difficult to distinguish from the natural instabilities on the blunt flared cone.

  11. Development and implementation of near-infrared ultrafast laser sources generated by nonlinear fiber propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingue, Scott R.

    This dissertation is broken up into three parts: (I) generating high-quality ultrafast pulses around 1060 nm, (II) using the pulses from part (I) to generate pulses around 1300 nm, and (III) analyzing newly developed experimental theories and methods utilizing these pulses for linear and nonlinear microscopy. The majority of the work in this dissertation is choreographing the dance between nonlinear spectral broadening in optical fiber and the associated complexity in accumulated spectral phase. We have developed and employed several systems which manage to accomplish this task quite elegantly due to our technological contributions, producing high-quality pulses with high oscillator-type pulse energies both at 1060 and 1250 nm. In addition to developing some theory and techniques extending current types of nonlinear microscopy, we have as a capstone an experimental microscope cascading several of our primary source and application technologies to conduct an entirely new form of spectroscopic absorption imaging.

  12. Detection of the Third Heart Sound Based on Nonlinear Signal Decomposition and Time-Frequency Localization.

    PubMed

    Barma, Shovan; Chen, Bo-Wei; Ji, Wen; Rho, Seungmin; Chou, Chih-Hung; Wang, Jhing-Fa

    2016-08-01

    This study presents a precise way to detect the third ( S3 ) heart sound, which is recognized as an important indication of heart failure, based on nonlinear single decomposition and time-frequency localization. The detection of the S3 is obscured due to its significantly low energy and frequency. Even more, the detected S3 may be misunderstood as an abnormal second heart sound with a fixed split, which was not addressed in the literature. To detect such S3, the Hilbert vibration decomposition method is applied to decompose the heart sound into a certain number of subcomponents while intactly preserving the phase information. Thus, the time information of all of the decomposed components are unchanged, which further expedites the identification and localization of any module/section of a signal properly. Next, the proposed localization step is applied to the decomposed subcomponents by using smoothed pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution followed by the reassignment method. Finally, based on the positional information, the S3 is distinguished and confirmed by measuring time delays between the S2 and S3. In total, 82 sets of cardiac cycles collected from different databases including Texas Heart Institute database are examined for evaluation of the proposed method. The result analysis shows that the proposed method can detect the S3 correctly, even when the normalized temporal energy of S3 is larger than 0.16, and the frequency of those is larger than 34 Hz. In a performance analysis, the proposed method demonstrates that the accuracy rate of S3 detection is as high as 93.9%, which is significantly higher compared with the other methods. Such findings prove the robustness of the proposed idea for detecting substantially low-energized S3 . PMID:26584485

  13. Resonant cascaded surface-emitting second-harmonic generation: a strong third-order nonlinear process.

    PubMed

    Khurgin, J B; Ding, Y J

    1994-07-15

    A novel practical scheme for implementation of the cascaded nonlinearity with surface-emitting second-harmonic generation in the Fabry-Perot cavity is presented. We show that such a scheme can be efficiently used for optical limiting and optical phase conjugation at a pump power of lessthan 100 mW. PMID:19844518

  14. Magnetic-field generation by the ablative nonlinear Rayleigh–Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Nilson, P. M.; Gao, L.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Fiksel, G.; Yan, R.; Davies, J. R.; Martinez, D.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Haines, M. G.; Blackman, E. G.; Froula, D. H.; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2015-04-01

    Experiments reporting magnetic-field generation by the ablative nonlinear Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) instability are reviewed. The experiments show how large-scale magnetic fields can, under certain circumstances, emerge and persist in strongly driven laboratory and astrophysical flows at drive pressures exceeding one million times atmospheric pressure.

  15. On nonlinear frequency veering and mode localization of a beam with geometric imperfection resting on elastic foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Qaisia, A. A.; Hamdan, M. N.

    2013-09-01

    This work presents an investigation on the effect of an initial geometric imperfection wavelength, amplitude and degree of localization on the in-plane nonlinear natural frequencies veering and mode localization of an elastic Euler-Bernoulli beam resting on a Winkler elastic foundation. The beam is assumed to be pinned-pinned with a linear torsional spring at one end. The effect of the axial force induced by mid-plane stretching is accounted for in the derivation of the mathematical model, due to its known importance and significant effect on the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the beam, as it was proved and presented in earlier investigations. The governing partial differential equation is discretized using the assumed mode method and the resulting nonlinear temporal equation was solved using the harmonic balance method to obtain results for the nonlinear natural frequencies and mode shapes. The results are presented in the form of characteristic curves which show the variations of the nonlinear natural frequencies of the first three modes of vibration, for a selected range of physical parameters like; torsional spring constant, elastic foundation stiffness and amplitude and wavelength of a localized and non-localized initial slack.

  16. All-optical frequency upconversion of a quasi optical single sideband signal utilizing a nonlinear semiconductor optical amplifier for radio-over-fiber applications.

    PubMed

    Park, Minho; Song, Jong-In

    2011-11-21

    An all-optical frequency upconversion technique using a quasi optical single sideband (q-OSSB) signal in a nonlinear semiconductor optical amplifier (NSOA) for radio-over-fiber applications is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. An optical radio frequency signal (f(RF) = 37.5 GHz) in the form of a q-OSSB signal is generated by mixing an optical intermediate frequency (IF) signal (f(IF) = 2.5 GHz) with an optical local oscillator signal (f(LO) = 35 GHz) utilizing coherent population oscillation and cross gain modulation effects in an NSOA. The phase noise, conversion efficiency, spurious free dynamic range (SFDR), and transmission characteristics of the q-OSSB signal are investigated. PMID:22109476

  17. A nonlinear dynamic model of a once-through, helical-coil steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla, M.A.

    1993-07-01

    A dynamic model of a once-through, helical-coil steam generator is presented. The model simulates the advanced liquid metal reactor superheated cycle steam generator with a four-region, moving-boundary, drift-flux model. The model is described by a set of nonlinear differential equations derived from the fundamental equations of conversation of mass, energy, and momentum. Sample results of steady-state and transient calculations are presented.

  18. Homo and heteroepitaxial growth and study of orientation-patterned GaP for nonlinear frequency conversion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassev, V. L.; Vangala, S.; Peterson, R.; Kimani, M.; Snure, M.; Markov, I.

    2016-03-01

    Frequency conversion in orientation-patterned quasi-phase matched materials is a leading approach for generating tunable mid- and long-wave coherent IR radiation for a wide variety of applications. A number of nonlinear optical materials are currently under intensive investigation. Due to their unique properties, chiefly wide IR transparency and high nonlinear susceptibility, GaAs and GaP are among the most promising. Compared to GaAs, GaP has the advantage of having higher thermal conductivity and significantly lower 2PA in the convenient pumping range of 1- 1.7 μm. HVPE growth of OPGaP, however, has encountered certain challenges: low quality and high price of commercially available GaP wafers; and strong parasitic nucleation during HVPE growth that reduces growth rate and aggravates layer quality, often leading to pattern overgrowth. Lessons learned from growing OPGaAs were not entirely helpful, leaving us to alternative solutions for both homoepitaxial growth and template preparation. We report repeatable one-step HVPE growth of up to 400 μm thick OPGaP with excellent domain fidelity deposited for first time on OPGaAs templates. The templates were prepared by wafer fusion bonding or MBE assisted polarity inversion technique. A close to equilibrium growth at such a large lattice mismatch (-3.6%) is itself noteworthy, especially when previously reported attempts (growth of OPZnSe on OPGaAs templates) at much smaller mismatch (+0.3%) have produced limited results. Combining the advantages of the two most promising materials, GaAs and GaP, is a solution that will accelerate the development of high power, tunable laser sources for the mid- and long-wave IR, and THz region.

  19. Nonlinear Phenomena of Plasma Waves in a Kinetic Regime: Frequency Shifts, Packets, and Transverse Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahlen, Jay Edward

    The generation and propagation of nonlinear plasma waves is studied using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. We concentrate on regimes of interest to inertial fusion and space physics in which wave-particle interactions are important. Experiments soon to be performed at the National Ignition Facility require the understanding and control of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) for their success. The SRS instability occurs when an incident laser decays into a backscattered light wave and an electron plasma wave. Recent computer simulations of SRS indicate that the daughter plasma waves have finite longitudinal and transverse extent and that they reach large amplitudes. The nonlinear behavior of such waves determines the growth, saturation, and recurrence of SRS. However, little attention has been paid to the behavior of plasma waves having these properties, and their study in SRS simulations is complicated by the large-amplitude light waves associated with the instability. Most theory and simulation work on SRS and its daughter plasma waves has been limited to infinite plane waves, often in the one-dimension limit. This thesis therefore studies isolated electron plasma waves over a wide range of parameters in one and multiple dimensions using PIC simulations. The simulations are performed with the goal of understanding the wave's behavior for parameters relevant to SRS, but the normalized parameters have general applicability to a range of densities and temperatures. Accordingly, an external ponderomotive driver generates traveling waves, driving them either continuously to study their peak amplitude and saturation mechanisms, or impulsively to study their propagation. Several novel effects are identified and characterized, including nonlinear resonance for driven waves, wave packet etching for finite-length waves, and localization and local damping for finite-width waves. Finite-length wave packets are found to erode away at a constant rate due to particle trapping

  20. Nonlinear dynamics for broadband energy harvesting: Investigation of a bistable piezoelectric inertial generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Samuel C.; McGehee, Clark C.; Mann, Brian P.

    2010-05-01

    Vibration energy harvesting research has largely focused on linear electromechanical devices excited at resonance. Considering that most realistic vibration environments are more accurately described as either stochastic, multi-frequency, time varying, or some combination thereof, narrowband linear systems are fated to be highly inefficient under these conditions. Nonlinear systems, on the other hand, are capable of responding over a broad frequency range; suggesting an intrinsic suitability for efficient performance in realistic vibration environments. Since a number of nonlinear dynamical responses emerge from dissipative systems undergoing a homoclinic saddle-point bifurcation, we validate this concept with a bistable inertial oscillator comprised of permanent magnets and a piezoelectric cantilever beam. The system is analytically modeled, numerically simulated, and experimentally realized to demonstrate enhanced capabilities and new challenges. In addition, a bifurcation parameter within the design is examined as either a fixed or an adaptable tuning mechanism for enhanced sensitivity to ambient excitation.

  1. Frequency-domain modeling of TM wave propagation in optical nanostructures with a third-order nonlinear response.

    PubMed

    Kildishev, Alexander V; Sivan, Yonatan; Litchinitser, Natalia M; Shalaev, Vladimir M

    2009-11-01

    An enhanced method is developed for analysis of third-order nonlinearities in optical nanostructures with a scalar magnetic field frequency-domain formulation; it is shown to produce fast and accurate results for 2D problems without a superfluous vector electric field formalism. While a standard TM representation using cubic nonlinear susceptibility results in an intractable implicit equation, our technique alleviates this problem. In addition to a universal approach, simpler, more efficient solutions are proposed for media having solely either a real (lossless Kerr-type medium) or an imaginary (nonlinear absorbing medium) nonlinearity. Combining these solutions with a finite-element method, we show simulation examples validated with alternative approaches. PMID:19881595

  2. Fiber-laser frequency combs for the generation of tunable single-frequency laser lines, mm- and THz-waves and sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    High-quality frequency comb sources like femtosecond-lasers have revolutionized the metrology of fundamental physical constants. The generated comb consists of frequency lines with an equidistant separation over a bandwidth of several THz. This bandwidth can be broadened further to a super-continuum of more than an octave through propagation in nonlinear media. The frequency separation between the lines is defined by the repetition rate and the width of each comb line can be below 1 Hz, even without external stabilization. By extracting just one of these lines, an ultra-narrow linewidth, tunable laser line for applications in communications and spectroscopy can be generated. If two lines are extracted, the superposition of these lines in an appropriate photo-mixer produces high-quality millimeter- and THz-waves. The extraction of several lines can be used for the creation of almost-ideally sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses, which enable optical communications with the maximum-possible baud rate. Especially combs generated by low-cost, small-footprint fs-fiber lasers are very promising. However due to the resonator length, the comb frequencies have a typical separation of 80 - 100 MHz, far too narrow for the selection of single tones with standard optical filters. Here the extraction of single lines of an fs-fiber laser by polarization pulling assisted stimulated Brillouin scattering is presented. The application of these extracted lines as ultra-narrow, stable and tunable laser lines, for the generation of very high-quality mm and THz-waves with an ultra-narrow linewidth and phase noise and for the generation of sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses with arbitrary bandwidth and repetition rate is discussed.

  3. Precursor Proof-of-Concept Experiments for Various Categories of High-Frequency Gravitational Wave (HFGW) Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Robert M. L.

    2004-02-01

    High-Frequency Gravitational Wave (HFGW) generators are separated into three general categories. Precursor, component-validation, laboratory experiments for each category except, possibly, the third are identified in general terms. The categories are: (1) The electromechanical category includes micro- and nano-element, piezoelectric crystal, and multi-dielectric film HFGW generators. (2) The high-temperature superconductor category includes gasers, impressed magnetic fields, and transformation of electromagnetic radiation into gravitational waves (Gertsenshtein effect) HFGW generators. (3)The laser/plasma category includes laser-energized mirrors, synchrotron light, nuclear fusion, plasma toroid, and nonlinear optical-acoustical, molecular-level HFGW generators. A perusal of HFGW literature reveals that since the 1960s many authors have contributed designs of mechanisms and devices that relate to the terrestrial generation of gravitational waves. Only in the last few years, however, have any researchers demonstrated that their proposed devices were practical HFGW generators, capable of producing kilowatts of power, that were operational in a laboratory setting. These recent devices make use of new technology and generate high-frequency (GHz and above) gravitational waves using non-gravitational forces. Most of the generators considered in this paper have been recently discussed at the May, 2003, Gravitational Wave Conference at The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA, which was the very first International Conference dedicated to HFGW and attracted twenty-five research papers from nine countries. Although no detailed experimental tasks are discussed, experimental test objectives in the form of a roadmap are proposed for each category.

  4. A comparative numerical analysis of linear and nonlinear aerodynamic sound generation by vortex disturbances in homentropic constant shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Hau, Jan-Niklas Oberlack, Martin; Chagelishvili, George; Khujadze, George; Tevzadze, Alexander

    2015-12-15

    Aerodynamic sound generation in shear flows is investigated in the light of the breakthrough in hydrodynamics stability theory in the 1990s, where generic phenomena of non-normal shear flow systems were understood. By applying the thereby emerged short-time/non-modal approach, the sole linear mechanism of wave generation by vortices in shear flows was captured [G. D. Chagelishvili, A. Tevzadze, G. Bodo, and S. S. Moiseev, “Linear mechanism of wave emergence from vortices in smooth shear flows,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3178-3181 (1997); B. F. Farrell and P. J. Ioannou, “Transient and asymptotic growth of two-dimensional perturbations in viscous compressible shear flow,” Phys. Fluids 12, 3021-3028 (2000); N. A. Bakas, “Mechanism underlying transient growth of planar perturbations in unbounded compressible shear flow,” J. Fluid Mech. 639, 479-507 (2009); and G. Favraud and V. Pagneux, “Superadiabatic evolution of acoustic and vorticity perturbations in Couette flow,” Phys. Rev. E 89, 033012 (2014)]. Its source is the non-normality induced linear mode-coupling, which becomes efficient at moderate Mach numbers that is defined for each perturbation harmonic as the ratio of the shear rate to its characteristic frequency. Based on the results by the non-modal approach, we investigate a two-dimensional homentropic constant shear flow and focus on the dynamical characteristics in the wavenumber plane. This allows to separate from each other the participants of the dynamical processes — vortex and wave modes — and to estimate the efficacy of the process of linear wave-generation. This process is analyzed and visualized on the example of a packet of vortex modes, localized in both, spectral and physical, planes. Further, by employing direct numerical simulations, the wave generation by chaotically distributed vortex modes is analyzed and the involved linear and nonlinear processes are identified. The generated acoustic field is anisotropic in the wavenumber

  5. A comparative numerical analysis of linear and nonlinear aerodynamic sound generation by vortex disturbances in homentropic constant shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hau, Jan-Niklas; Chagelishvili, George; Khujadze, George; Oberlack, Martin; Tevzadze, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Aerodynamic sound generation in shear flows is investigated in the light of the breakthrough in hydrodynamics stability theory in the 1990s, where generic phenomena of non-normal shear flow systems were understood. By applying the thereby emerged short-time/non-modal approach, the sole linear mechanism of wave generation by vortices in shear flows was captured [G. D. Chagelishvili, A. Tevzadze, G. Bodo, and S. S. Moiseev, "Linear mechanism of wave emergence from vortices in smooth shear flows," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3178-3181 (1997); B. F. Farrell and P. J. Ioannou, "Transient and asymptotic growth of two-dimensional perturbations in viscous compressible shear flow," Phys. Fluids 12, 3021-3028 (2000); N. A. Bakas, "Mechanism underlying transient growth of planar perturbations in unbounded compressible shear flow," J. Fluid Mech. 639, 479-507 (2009); and G. Favraud and V. Pagneux, "Superadiabatic evolution of acoustic and vorticity perturbations in Couette flow," Phys. Rev. E 89, 033012 (2014)]. Its source is the non-normality induced linear mode-coupling, which becomes efficient at moderate Mach numbers that is defined for each perturbation harmonic as the ratio of the shear rate to its characteristic frequency. Based on the results by the non-modal approach, we investigate a two-dimensional homentropic constant shear flow and focus on the dynamical characteristics in the wavenumber plane. This allows to separate from each other the participants of the dynamical processes — vortex and wave modes — and to estimate the efficacy of the process of linear wave-generation. This process is analyzed and visualized on the example of a packet of vortex modes, localized in both, spectral and physical, planes. Further, by employing direct numerical simulations, the wave generation by chaotically distributed vortex modes is analyzed and the involved linear and nonlinear processes are identified. The generated acoustic field is anisotropic in the wavenumber plane, which

  6. The generation of Continuous-Variable Entanglement Frequency Comb

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Youbin; Cheng, Xiaomin; Wang, Huaijun; Shi, Zhongtao; Zhao, Junwei; Ji, Fengmin; Yin, Zhi; Wang, Yajuan

    2015-01-01

    Continuous-variable (CV) entanglement frequency comb can be produced by enhanced Raman scattering in an above-threshold optical oscillator cavity in which a hexagonally-poled LiTaO3 crystal resides as a Raman gain medium. The Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman signals are enhanced by a coupled quasi-phase-matching optical parametric process and the entanglement natures among these Raman signals and pump are demonstrated by applying a sufficient inseparability criterion for CV entanglement. Such entanglement frequency comb source with different frequencies and continuously tunable frequency interval may be very significant for the applications in quantum communication and networks. PMID:25600617

  7. The generation of continuous-variable entanglement frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Yu, Youbin; Cheng, Xiaomin; Wang, Huaijun; Shi, Zhongtao; Zhao, Junwei; Ji, Fengmin; Yin, Zhi; Wang, Yajuan

    2015-01-01

    Continuous-variable (CV) entanglement frequency comb can be produced by enhanced Raman scattering in an above-threshold optical oscillator cavity in which a hexagonally-poled LiTaO3 crystal resides as a Raman gain medium. The Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman signals are enhanced by a coupled quasi-phase-matching optical parametric process and the entanglement natures among these Raman signals and pump are demonstrated by applying a sufficient inseparability criterion for CV entanglement. Such entanglement frequency comb source with different frequencies and continuously tunable frequency interval may be very significant for the applications in quantum communication and networks. PMID:25600617

  8. The generation of Continuous-Variable Entanglement Frequency Comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Youbin; Cheng, Xiaomin; Wang, Huaijun; Shi, Zhongtao; Zhao, Junwei; Ji, Fengmin; Yin, Zhi; Wang, Yajuan

    2015-01-01

    Continuous-variable (CV) entanglement frequency comb can be produced by enhanced Raman scattering in an above-threshold optical oscillator cavity in which a hexagonally-poled LiTaO3 crystal resides as a Raman gain medium. The Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman signals are enhanced by a coupled quasi-phase-matching optical parametric process and the entanglement natures among these Raman signals and pump are demonstrated by applying a sufficient inseparability criterion for CV entanglement. Such entanglement frequency comb source with different frequencies and continuously tunable frequency interval may be very significant for the applications in quantum communication and networks.

  9. Linear Generation and Nonlinear Decay of Electrostatic Hydrogen Cyclotron Waves on Auroral Field Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Rachelle Ann

    The linear generation of electrostatic hydrogen cyclotron (EHC) waves in the auroral acceleration region near an altitude of 1R(,E) is examined. A field-aligned electron drift and an ion beam are included simultaneously in the plasma model. Each of these has the capability to excite EHC waves. Two assumptions are made, (1) that the plasma can be described by three Maxwellian species and, (2) that the properties of observed EHC waves are the same as the properties of the linearly excited modes. With these assumptions and a plasma model based on S3-3 satellite data, it is concluded that EHC waves driven by an electron drift compare more favorably with observed EHC waves than those driven by an ion beam. Further, the temperature of the drifting electrons should be on the order of the temperature of the stationary ions. Saturation of a linearly excited EHC wave by coherent decay to another EHC wave and an ion acoustic mode is considered. Frequency and wave number matching can be satisfied in this three -wave interaction if the daughter ion acoustic mode is oblique to the geomagnetic field. Many three-wave triads exist for a single parent. A calculation of the coupling coefficient between any three electrostatic waves in a uniformly magnetized plasma comprised of drifting Maxwellian species is derived. This is used to find the threshold electric field of a parent wave necessary for the daughter modes to have a positive non-linear growth rate. It is found that this threshold is below observed EHC wave amplitudes, and is zero when the parent EHC wave couples to a linearly marginally stable EHC daughter wave. Thus, this three-wave interaction may occur in the auroral acceleration region. A preliminary investigation into the temporal development of this interaction is conducted. Though the model is incomplete, the results indicate that this decay can act as a saturation mechanism for the linear growth. In the asymptotic state of the time development, it is the linearly

  10. Numerical studies of independent control of electron density and gas temperature via nonlinear coupling in dual-frequency atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. L.; Nie, Q. Y.; Wang, Z. B.; Gao, X. T.; Kong, F. R.; Sun, Y. F.; Jiang, B. H.

    2016-07-01

    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) provide a promising technology of generating non-equilibrium cold plasmas in atmospheric pressure gases. For both application-focused and fundamental studies, it is important to explore the strategy and the mechanism for enabling effective independent tuning of key plasma parameters in a DBD system. In this paper, we report numerical studies of effects of dual-frequency excitation on atmospheric DBDs, and modulation as well as separate tuning mechanism, with emphasis on dual-frequency coupling to the key plasma parameters and discharge evolution. With an appropriately applied low frequency to the original high frequency, the numerical calculation demonstrates that a strong nonlinear coupling between two frequencies governs the process of ionization and energy deposition into plasma, and thus raises the electron density significantly (e.g., three times in this case) in comparisons with a single frequency driven DBD system. Nevertheless, the gas temperature, which is mainly determined by the high frequency discharge, barely changes. This method then enables a possible approach of controlling both averaged electron density and gas temperature independently.

  11. On the generation of nonlinear travelling waves in confined geometries using electric fields.

    PubMed

    Cimpeanu, R; Papageorgiou, D T

    2014-07-28

    We investigate electrostatically induced interfacial instabilities and subsequent generation of nonlinear coherent structures in immiscible, viscous, dielectric multi-layer stratified flows confined in small-scale channels. Vertical electric fields are imposed across the channel to produce interfacial instabilities that would normally be absent in such flows. In situations when the imposed vertical fields are constant, interfacial instabilities emerge due to the presence of electrostatic forces, and we follow the nonlinear dynamics via direct numerical simulations. We also propose and illustrate a novel pumping mechanism in microfluidic devices that does not use moving parts. This is achieved by first inducing interfacial instabilities using constant background electric fields to obtain fully nonlinear deformations. The second step involves the manipulation of the imposed voltage on the lower electrode (channel wall) to produce a spatio-temporally varying voltage there, in the form of a travelling wave with pre-determined properties. Such travelling wave dielectrophoresis methods are shown to generate intricate fluid-surface-structure interactions that can be of practical value since they produce net mass flux along the channel and thus are candidates for microfluidic pumps without moving parts. We show via extensive direct numerical simulations that this pumping phenomenon is a result of an externally induced nonlinear travelling wave that forms at the fluid-fluid interface and study the characteristics of the generated velocity field inside the channel. PMID:24936019

  12. On the generation of nonlinear travelling waves in confined geometries using electric fields

    PubMed Central

    Cimpeanu, R; Papageorgiou, D. T

    2014-01-01

    We investigate electrostatically induced interfacial instabilities and subsequent generation of nonlinear coherent structures in immiscible, viscous, dielectric multi-layer stratified flows confined in small-scale channels. Vertical electric fields are imposed across the channel to produce interfacial instabilities that would normally be absent in such flows. In situations when the imposed vertical fields are constant, interfacial instabilities emerge due to the presence of electrostatic forces, and we follow the nonlinear dynamics via direct numerical simulations. We also propose and illustrate a novel pumping mechanism in microfluidic devices that does not use moving parts. This is achieved by first inducing interfacial instabilities using constant background electric fields to obtain fully nonlinear deformations. The second step involves the manipulation of the imposed voltage on the lower electrode (channel wall) to produce a spatio-temporally varying voltage there, in the form of a travelling wave with pre-determined properties. Such travelling wave dielectrophoresis methods are shown to generate intricate fluid–surface–structure interactions that can be of practical value since they produce net mass flux along the channel and thus are candidates for microfluidic pumps without moving parts. We show via extensive direct numerical simulations that this pumping phenomenon is a result of an externally induced nonlinear travelling wave that forms at the fluid–fluid interface and study the characteristics of the generated velocity field inside the channel. PMID:24936019

  13. Enhancement and electric charge-assisted tuning of nonlinear light generation in bipolar plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wei; Zhou, Liangcheng; Chou, Stephen Y

    2014-05-14

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new plasmonic nonlinear light generation (NLG) structure, termed plasmonic-enhanced, charge-assisted second-harmonic generator (p-CASH), that not only achieves high second-harmonic generation (SHG) enhancement (76-fold), large SHG tunability by bias (8%/V), wide tuning range (280%), 7.8 × 10(-9) conversion efficiency, and high stability but also exhibits a SHG tuning, that is bipolar rather than unipolar, not due to the third-order nonlinear polarization term, hence fundamentally different from the classic electric field induced SHG-tuning (EFISH). We propose a new SHG tuning mechanism: the second-order nonlinear polarization term enhanced by plasmonic effects, changed by charge injection and negative oxygen vacancies movement, and is nearly 3 orders of magnitude larger than EFISH. p-CASH is a bipolar parallel-plate capacitor with thin layers of plasmonic nanostructures, a TiOx (semiconductor and nonlinear) and a SiO2 (insulator) sandwiched between two electrodes. Fabrication of p-CASH used nanoimprint on 4″ wafer and is scalable to wallpaper-sized areas. The new structure, new properties, and new understanding should open up various new designs and applications of NLG in various fields. PMID:24730390

  14. Excitation threshold of Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions SEEs generated at pump frequency near the third electron gyroharmonic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudian, A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Scales, W.

    2012-12-01

    The High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) in Gakona, Alaska provides effective radiated powers in the megawatt range that have allowed researchers to study many non-linear effects of wave-plasma interactions. Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) is of interest to the ionospheric community for its diagnostic purposes. In recent HAARP heating experiments, it has been shown that during the Magnetized Stimulated Brillouin Scattering MSBS instability, the pumped electromagnetic wave may decay into an electromagnetic wave and a low frequency electrostatic wave (either ion acoustic IA wave or electrostatic ion cyclotron EIC wave). Using Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) spectral features, side bands which extend above and below the pump frequency can yield significant diagnostics for the modified ionosphere. It has been shown that the IA wave frequency offsets can be used to measure electron temperature in the heated ionosphere and EIC wave offsets can be used as a sensitive method to determine the ion species by measuring ion mass using the ion gyro-frequency offset. The threshold of each emission line has been measured by changing the amplitude of pump wave. The experimental results aimed to show the threshold for transmitter power to excite IA wave propagating along the magnetic field lines as well as for EIC wave excited at an oblique angle relative to the background magnetic field. Another parametric decay instability studied is the ion Bernstein decay instability that has been attributed to the simultaneous parametric decay of electron Bernstein waves into multiple electron Bernstein and ion Bernstein waves. The SIB process is thought to involve mode conversion from EM to EB waves followed by parametric decay of the EB wave to multiple EB and IB waves. The parametric decay instability of ion Bernstein modes has been observed simultaneously for the first time at the third electron gyroharmonics during 2011 Summer Student Research

  15. On the generation of large amplitude spiky solitons by ultralow frequency earthquake emission in the Van Allen radiation belt

    SciTech Connect

    Mofiz, U. A.

    2006-08-15

    The parametric coupling between earthquake emitted circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation and ponderomotively driven ion-acoustic perturbations in the Van Allen radiation belt is considered. A cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation for the modulated radiation envelope is derived, and then solved analytically. For ultralow frequency earthquake emissions large amplitude spiky supersonic bright solitons or subsonic dark solitons are found to be generated in the Van Allen radiation belt, detection of which can be a tool for the prediction of a massive earthquake may be followed later.

  16. Mechanism for bandpass frequency characteristic in distortion product otoacoustic emission generation.

    PubMed

    Fahey, P F; Stagner, B B; Martin, G K

    2006-02-01

    It is commonly observed that the levels of the 2f1-f2 and the other mf1-nf2 (m = n + 1 = integer) distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) initially increase in level for fixed f2 as fl -->f2, starting at f1 frequency (fdp) or f2/f1 the curve has an approximate bandpass shape. It has been hypothesized that this effect is due to (1) a second filter, (2) suppression of distortion generation by the primary tones, (3) reemission of distortion products from the distortion product place (on the basilar membrane), (4) the presence of an even order nonlinearity, and (5) cancellation of the DPOAE due to the vector addition of multiple sources of distortion product. In this study distortion products were produced with f1 sweep conditions where there would be minimal vector cancellation of multiple DPOAE sources. It was observed that under this condition, there is no or minimal bandpass shape of the DPOAE generation curve. Therefore, the data support the hypothesis that the bandpass shape obtained with traditional f1 sweeps is due to vector cancellation from multiple sources. PMID:16521760

  17. Sum frequency and second harmonic generation from the surface of a liquid microjet

    SciTech Connect

    Smolentsev, Nikolay; Chen, Yixing; Roke, Sylvie; Jena, Kailash C.; Brown, Matthew A.

    2014-11-14

    The use of a liquid microjet as a possible source of interest for Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) spectroscopy is examined. We measured non-resonant SHG scattering patterns from the air/water interface of a microjet of pure water and observe a strong enhancement of the SHG signal for certain scattering angles. These enhancements can be explained by the optical properties and the shape of the liquid microjet. SFG experiments at the surface of a liquid microjet of ethanol in air show that it is also possible to measure the coherent vibrational SFG spectrum of the ethanol/air interface in this way. Our findings are useful for future far-UV or X-ray based nonlinear optical surface experiments on liquid jets. In addition, combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and SHG/SFG measurements are feasible, which will be very useful in improving our understanding of the molecular foundations of electrostatic and chemical surface properties and phenomena.

  18. Performance comparison of nonlinear crystals for frequency doubling of an 894nm Cs vapor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, B. V.; Shaffer, M. K.; Lu, Y.; Naumann, B.; Genda, T.; Knize, R. J.

    2010-11-01

    An examination of the efficiencies of three commonly used nonlinear crystals (PPKTP, LBO, and BiBO) when generating second harmonic of a Cesium laser is presented. The experiment investigates both the intracavity and single pass second harmonic generation of 895 nm Cs laser light when operating in quasi-CW and in CW modes and pumped by several watts. A degradation of the conversion efficiencies for each crystal was observed when high fundamental powers or a high duty cycle of the pump were used. For a Cs laser operating at 894nm, PPKTP is found to be the optimal crystal for intracavity SHG in both pulsed and CW modes when operating at SHG powers of several watts. At higher powers, however, the increased absorption coefficient of PPKTP at 447nm, compared to that of BiBO or LBO, may become significant to where another crystal will be more appropriate for this application. Maximum blue light power obtained with PPKTP crystal was about 1.5W in CW mode and 2.5W in QCW.

  19. Induction generator produces constant-frequency voltage from variable-speed drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riaz, M.

    1970-01-01

    Two-stage polyphase generator is usable as induction motor operable over range of speeds while powered from constant frequency source. It requires neither slip rings nor special adjustable-frequency power supplies or external reactive sources.

  20. Single-frequency pulsed Brillouin-thulium fiber laser at 2 µm with nonlinear polarization rotation and active phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiong; Lv, Haibin; Zhou, Pu; Wu, Weijun; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Hu; Liu, Zejin

    2014-10-01

    We present a single-frequency (SF) pulsed fiber laser at 2 µm based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in a thulium-doped fiber laser. The effective feedback of the fiber laser is quite weak to induce pulse operation. Nonlinear polarization rotation and active phase modulation are employed to compress the pulse width and stabilize the pulse train. This SF pulsed Brillouin-thulium fiber laser (BTFL) can generate a stable pulse train with a repetition rate of ˜310 kHz and a pulse width of ˜200 ns. The repetition rate of the pulse train can be adjusted by controlling the cavity length, and the pulse width can be tuned between 200 and 500 ns. The central wavelength locates at 1971.58 nm with an optical signal-to-noise ratio of more than 40 dB, and the linewidth is about 6 MHz. This is the first demonstration of the SF pulsed BTFL as far as we know.

  1. Highly nonlinear dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fibers for supercontinuum generation in a telecommunication window.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Kunimasa; Koshiba, Masanori

    2004-05-17

    We propose a new structure of highly nonlinear dispersion-flattened (HNDF) photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with nonlinear coefficient as large as 30 W(-1)km(-1) at 1.55 microm designed by varying the diameters of the air-hole rings along the fiber radius. This innovative HNDF-PCF has a unique effective-index profile that can offer not only a large nonlinear coefficient but also flat dispersion slope and low leakage losses. It is shown through numerical results that the novel microstructured optical fiber with small normal group-velocity dispersion and nearly zero dispersion slope offers the possibility of efficient supercontinuum generation in the telecommunication window using a few ps pulses. PMID:19475038

  2. Highly nonlinear dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fibers for supercontinuum generation in a telecommunication window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Kunimasa; Koshiba, Masanori

    2004-05-01

    We propose a new structure of highly nonlinear dispersion-flattened (HNDF) photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with nonlinear coefficient as large as 30 W-1km-1 at 1.55 µm designed by varying the diameters of the air-hole rings along the fiber radius. This innovative HNDF-PCF has a unique effective-index profile that can offer not only a large nonlinear coefficient but also flat dispersion slope and low leakage losses. It is shown through numerical results that the novel microstructured optical fiber with small normal group-velocity dispersion and nearly zero dispersion slope offers the possibility of efficient supercontinuum generation in the telecommunication window using a few ps pulses.

  3. Nonlinear Tidal Distortion and Low Frequency Residual Effects in a Coastal Creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jachec, S. M.; Hansell, H. C.

    2012-12-01

    A 62 day observational campaign in the spring 2011, recorded free surface and meteorological observations used to determine hydrodynamic conditions of an area in the northern region of Mosquito Lagoon, FL. Mean water level ranges at instrument locations decrease from 0.35 to 0.22 m moving further from the primary inlet. A harmonic analysis revealed mean extracted tidal ranges at the former stations decreasing from 0.34 to 0.21 m. Nonlinear distortion increases with distance into the system, with a maximum tidal range decrease of 0.13 m and high tide time lag of 0.89 hrs between extreme stations. Ebb durations averaged 1 hr longer than flood, indicating a flood-dominant system. Spectral and cross-spectral analyses showed significant coherence between wind and non-tidal fluctuations in the low frequency regime. Using a modified conservation of mass equation, flow calculations reveal a partitioning of the flow between tides and winds.; Study site: Mosquito Lagoon, FL. ; Tidal amplitude attenuation of M2 and M4 tides through creek.

  4. Investigation of third order nonlinearity in propagation of cylindrical waves in homogeneous nonlinear media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar, Monireh; Bahari, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Four-wave mixing in propagation of cylindrical waves in a homogeneous nonlinear optical media has been investigated theoretically. An explicit analytical expression which contains all the main nonlinear optical effects, including third harmonic generation, sum and difference frequency generation has been obtained. A comparison between sum frequency efficiency for exact and approximation expression in a homogeneous nonlinear medium has been done. The effect of increasing the nonlinear optical coefficient (χeff(3)) and increasing the frequency difference between two adjacent waves (Δ ω) , on the efficiency of sum frequency generation in homogeneous media has been investigated.

  5. A stepped-plate bi-frequency source for generating a difference frequency sound with a parametric array.

    PubMed

    Je, Yub; Lee, Haksue; Park, Jongkyu; Moon, Wonkyu

    2010-06-01

    An ultrasonic radiator is developed to generate a difference frequency sound from two frequencies of ultrasound in air with a parametric array. A design method is proposed for an ultrasonic radiator capable of generating highly directive, high-amplitude ultrasonic sound beams at two different frequencies in air based on a modification of the stepped-plate ultrasonic radiator. The stepped-plate ultrasonic radiator was introduced by Gallego-Juarez et al. [Ultrasonics 16, 267-271 (1978)] in their previous study and can effectively generate highly directive, large-amplitude ultrasonic sounds in air, but only at a single frequency. Because parametric array sources must be able to generate sounds at more than one frequency, a design modification is crucial to the application of a stepped-plate ultrasonic radiator as a parametric array source in air. The aforementioned method was employed to design a parametric radiator for use in air. A prototype of this design was constructed and tested to determine whether it could successfully generate a difference frequency sound with a parametric array. The results confirmed that the proposed single small-area transducer was suitable as a parametric radiator in air. PMID:20550249

  6. Quantitative assessment of reactive oxygen species generation by cavitation incepted efficiently using nonlinear propagation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Jun; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2015-10-01

    Sonodynamic treatment is a treatment method that uses chemical bio-effect of cavitation bubbles. Reactive oxygen species that can kill cancerous tissue is induced by such chemical effect of cavitation bubbles and it is important to generate them efficiently for effective sonodynamic treatment. Cavitation cloud can be formed by an effect of nonlinear propagation and focus and in this study, it was experimentally investigated if cavitation cloud was useful for efficient generation of reactive oxygen species. As a result, it was demonstrated that cavitation cloud would be useful for efficient generation of reactive oxygen species.

  7. Orbit-based analysis of nonlinear energetic ion dynamics in tokamaks. I. Effective mode number profile and resonant frequency tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierwage, Andreas; Shinohara, Kouji

    2016-04-01

    The nonlinear interactions between shear Alfvén modes and tangentially injected beam ions in the 150-400 keV range are studied numerically in a JT-60U tokamak scenario with realistic geometry, large magnetic drifts, and strong beam drive. For this purpose, the recently developed orbit-based resonance analysis (ORA) method for circulating particles is extended, so that it can be applied to the nonlinear regime, where the spectrum of orbit-based poloidal mode numbers m orb varies in time as the fast ions undergo wave-particle trapping and radial transport. In particular, the extended ORA method captures the effect of nonlinear overlaps between resonances associated with neighboring harmonics ( m orb , n ) and ( m orb + 1 , n ) that cause long-distance ballistic transport. Two cases with low toroidal mode numbers n ≳ 1 are studied: an n = 1 mode without resonance overlap and a strongly driven n = 3 mode with resonance overlap. For both cases, an effective radial profile of the resonant poloidal mode number m res = M eff ( r ) is computed and used to track the effective resonant frequency ω res ( t ) of individual particles during their radial motion r(t). In Paper II, this frequency tracking technique will be applied to study the nonlinear frequency chirping and convective amplification of the modes.

  8. Mechanisms of high-frequency song generation in brachypterous crickets and the role of ghost frequencies.

    PubMed

    Robillard, Tony; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure; Grandcolas, Philippe; Robert, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Sound production in crickets relies on stridulation, the well-understood rubbing together of a pair of specialised wings. As the file of one wing slides over the scraper of the other, a series of rhythmic impacts causes harmonic oscillations, usually resulting in the radiation of pure tones delivered at low frequencies (2-8 kHz). In the short-winged crickets of the Lebinthini tribe, acoustic communication relies on signals with remarkably high frequencies (>8 kHz) and rich harmonic content. Using several species of the subfamily Eneopterinae, we characterised the morphological and mechanical specialisations supporting the production of high frequencies, and demonstrated that higher harmonics are exploited as dominant frequencies. These specialisations affect the structure of the stridulatory file, the motor control of stridulation and the resonance of the sound radiator. We placed these specialisations in a phylogenetic framework and show that they serve to exploit high-frequency vibrational modes pre-existing in the phylogenetic ancestor. In Eneopterinae, the lower frequency components are harmonically related to the dominant peak, suggesting they are relicts of ancestral carrier frequencies. Yet, such ghost frequencies still occur in the wings' free resonances, highlighting the fundamental mechanical constraints of sound radiation. These results support the hypothesis that such high-frequency songs evolved stepwise, by a form of punctuated evolution that could be related to functional constraints, rather than by only the progressive increase of the ancestral fundamental frequency. PMID:23430987

  9. Analysis of nonlinear frequency mixing in 1D waveguides with a breathing crack using the spectral finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joglekar, D. M.; Mitra, M.

    2015-11-01

    A breathing crack, due to its bilinear stiffness characteristics, modifies the frequency spectrum of a propagating dual-frequency elastic wave, and gives rise to sidebands around the probing frequency. This paper presents an analytical-numerical method to investigate such nonlinear frequency mixing resulting from the modulation effects induced by a breathing crack in 1D waveguides, such as axial rods and the Euler-Bernoulli beams. A transverse edge-crack is assumed to be present in both the waveguides, and the local flexibility caused by the crack is modeled using an equivalent spring approach. A simultaneous treatment of both the waveguides, in the framework of the Fourier transform based spectral finite element method, is presented for analyzing their response to a dual frequency excitation applied in the form of a tone-burst signal. The intermittent contact between the crack surfaces is accounted for by introducing bilinear contact forces acting at the nodes of the damage spectral element. Subsequently, an iterative approach is outlined for solving the resulting system of nonlinear simultaneous equations. Applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated by considering several test cases. The existence of sidebands and the higher order harmonics is confirmed in the frequency domain response of both the waveguides under investigation. A qualitative comparison with the previous experimental observations accentuates the utility of the proposed solution method. Additionally, the influence of the two constituent frequencies in the dual frequency excitation is assessed by varying the relative strengths of their amplitudes. A brief parametric study is performed for bringing out the effects of the relative crack depth and crack location on the degree of modulation, which is quantified in terms of the modulation parameter. Results of the present investigation can find their potential use in providing an analytical-numerical support to the studies geared towards the

  10. Nonlinear polarization rotation and orthogonal polarization generation experienced in a single-beam configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkovski, N.; Petrov, G. I.; Saltiel, S. M.; Albert, O.; Etchepare, J.

    2004-09-01

    Nonlinear polarization rotation and generation of a polarization component orthogonal to the input beam were observed along fourfold axes of YVO4 and BaF2 crystals. We demonstrate experimentally that in both crystals the angle of rotation is proportional, at low intensities, to the square of the product of the input intensity and the crystal length and is the result of simultaneous action of two third-order processes. This type of nonlinear polarization rotation is driven by the real part of the cubic susceptibility. The recorded energy exchange between the two orthogonal components can exceed 10%. It is to our knowledge the highest energy-conversion efficiency achieved in a single beam nonresonant χ(3) interaction. A simple theoretical model is elaborated to describe the dependence of nonlinear polarization rotation and orthogonal polarization generation on the intensity of the input beam at both low- and high-intensity levels. It reveals the potential contributions from the real and the imaginary parts of the susceptibility tensor. Moreover, this kind of measurement is designed to permit the determination of the magnitude and the sign of the anisotropy of the real part of third-order nonlinearity in crystals with cubic or tetragonal symmetry on the basis of polarization-rotation measurements. The χxxxx(3) component of the third-order susceptibility tensor and its anisotropy sign and amplitude value for BaF2 and YVO4 crystals are estimated and discussed.

  11. Pulsed infrared difference frequency generation in CdGeAs/sub 2/

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, M.S.; Rink, J.P.; Tallman, C.R.

    1975-11-26

    A laser apparatus for generating a line-tunable pulsed infrared difference frequency output is described. The apparatus comprises a CO/sub 2/ laser which produces a first frequency, a CO laser which produces a second frequency, and a mixer for combining the output of the CO/sub 2/ and CO lasers so as to produce a final output comprising a difference frequency from the first and second frequency outputs.

  12. Pulsed infrared difference frequency generation in CdGeAs.sub.2

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.; Rink, John P.; Tallman, Charles R.

    1977-03-08

    The disclosure relates to a laser apparatus for generating a line-tunable pulsed infrared difference frequency output. The apparatus comprises a CO.sub.2 laser which produces a first frequency, a CO laser which produces a second frequency and a mixer for combining the output of the CO.sub.2 and CO lasers so as to produce a final output comprising a difference frequency from the first and second frequency outputs.

  13. A frequency-stabilized Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb and its application to low-phase-noise microwave generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Stephanie A.; Fortier, Tara M.; Lecomte, Steve; Diddams, Scott A.

    2013-09-01

    We present an optically stabilized Yb:KYW fs-laser frequency comb. We use an f-2 f nonlinear interferometer to measure the carrier envelope offset frequency ( f 0) and the heterodyne beatnote between the comb and a stable CW laser at 1068 nm to detect fluctuations in the comb repetition rate (). Both of these degrees of freedom of the comb are then controlled using phase-locked loops. As a demonstration of the frequency-stabilized comb, we generate low-phase-noise 10 GHz microwaves through detection of the pulse train on a high bandwidth photodiode. The phase noise of the resulting 10 GHz microwaves was -99 dBc/Hz at 1 Hz and the corresponding Allen deviation was <2.6 × 10-15 at 1 s, measured by comparison to an independently stabilized Ti:sapphire frequency comb. This room-temperature, optically based source of microwaves has close-to-carrier phase noise comparable to the very best cryogenic microwave oscillators.

  14. Low-noise and broadband optical frequency comb generation based on an optoelectronic oscillator.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaopeng; Sun, Tao; Peng, Huanfa; Zhang, Cheng; Guo, Peng; Zhu, Lixin; Hu, Weiwei; Chen, Zhangyuan

    2014-02-15

    A novel scheme to generate broadband high-repetition-rate optical frequency combs and low phase noise microwave signals simultaneously is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. By incorporating an optical frequency comb generator in an optoelectronic oscillator loop, more than 200 lines are generated for a 25 GHz optical frequency comb, and the single-sideband phase noise is as low as -122  dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset for the 25 GHz microwave signal. 10 and 20 GHz optical frequency combs and microwave signals are also generated. Unlike the microwave frequency synthesizer, the phase noise of the microwave signals generated by this new scheme is frequency independent. PMID:24562206

  15. Exact nonlinear command generation and tracking for robot manipulators and spacecraft slewing maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dywer, T. A. W., III; Lee, G. K. F.

    1984-01-01

    In connection with the current interest in agile spacecraft maneuvers, it has become necessary to consider the nonlinear coupling effects of multiaxial rotation in the treatment of command generation and tracking problems. Multiaxial maneuvers will be required in military missions involving a fast acquisition of moving targets in space. In addition, such maneuvers are also needed for the efficient operation of robot manipulators. Attention is given to details regarding the direct nonlinear command generation and tracking, an approach which has been successfully applied to the design of control systems for V/STOL aircraft, linearizing transformations for spacecraft controlled with external thrusters, the case of flexible spacecraft dynamics, examples from robot dynamics, and problems of implementation and testing.

  16. A two-dimensional nonlinear model for the generation of stable cavitation bubbles.

    PubMed

    Vanhille, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Bubbles appear by acoustic cavitation in a liquid when rarefaction pressures attain a specific threshold value in a liquid. Once they are created, the stable cavitation bubbles oscillate nonlinearly and affect the ultrasonic field. Here we present a model developed for the study of bubble generation in a liquid contained in a two-dimensional cavity in which a standing ultrasonic field is established. The model considers dissipation and dispersion due to the bubbles. It also assumes that both the ultrasonic field and the bubble oscillations are nonlinear. The numerical experiments predict where the bubbles are generated from a population of nuclei distributed in the liquid and show how they affect the ultrasonic field. PMID:26964990

  17. Underlying conservation and stability laws in nonlinear propagation of axicon-generated Bessel beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porras, Miguel A.; Ruiz-Jiménez, Carlos; Losada, Juan Carlos

    2015-12-01

    In light filamentation induced by axicon-generated, powerful Bessel beams, the spatial propagation dynamics in the nonlinear medium determines the geometry of the filament channel and hence its potential applications. We show that the observed steady and unsteady Bessel beam propagation regimes can be understood in a unified way from the existence of an attractor and its stability properties. The attractor is identified as the nonlinear unbalanced Bessel beam (NLUBB) whose inward Hänkel beam amplitude equals the amplitude of the linear Bessel beam that the axicon would generate in linear propagation. A simple analytical formula that determines the NLUBB attractor is given. Steady or unsteady propagation depends on whether the attracting NLUBB has a small, exponentially growing, unstable mode. In the case of unsteady propagation, periodic, quasiperiodic, or chaotic dynamics after the axicon reproduces similar dynamics after the development of the small unstable mode into the large perturbation regime.

  18. Mimicking the nonlinear dynamics of optical fibers with waveguide arrays: towards a spatiotemporal supercontinuum generation.

    PubMed

    Tran, Truong X; Biancalana, Fabio

    2013-07-29

    We numerically demonstrate the formation of the spatiotemporal version of the so-called diffractive resonant radiation generated in waveguide arrays with Kerr nonlinearity when a long pulse is launched into the system. The phase matching condition for the diffractive resonant radiation that we have found earlier for CW beams also works well in the spatiotemporal case. By introducing a linear potential, one can introduce a continuous shift of the central wavenumber of a linear pulse, whereas in the nonlinear case one can demonstrate that the soliton self-wavenumber shift can be compensated by the emission of diffractive resonant radiation, in a very similar fashion as it is done in optical fibers. This work paves the way for designing unique optical devices that generate spectrally broad supercontinua with a controllable directionality by taking advantage of the combined physics of optical fibers and waveguide arrays. PMID:23938625

  19. Exploiting the Optical Quadratic Nonlinearity of Zinc-Blende Semiconductors for Guided-Wave Terahertz Generation: A Material Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherchi, Matteo; Taormina, Alberto; Busacca, Alessandro C.; Oliveri, Roberto L.; Bivona, Saverio; Cino, Alfonso C.; Stivala, Salvatore; Sanseverino, Stefano Riva; Leone, Claudio

    2010-03-01

    We present a detailed analysis and comparison of dielectric waveguides made of CdTe, GaP, GaAs and InP for modal phase matched optical difference frequency generation (DFG) in the terahertz domain. From the form of the DFG equations, we derived the definition of a very general figure of merit (FOM). In turn, this FOM enabled us to compare different configurations, by taking into account linear and nonlinear susceptibility dispersion, terahertz absorption, and a rigorous evaluation of the waveguide modes properties. The most efficient waveguides found with this procedure are predicted to approach the quantum efficiency limit with input optical power in the order of kWs.

  20. The Krigifier: A Procedure for Generating Pseudorandom Nonlinear Objective Functions for Computational Experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trosset, Michael W.

    1999-01-01

    Comprehensive computational experiments to assess the performance of algorithms for numerical optimization require (among other things) a practical procedure for generating pseudorandom nonlinear objective functions. We propose a procedure that is based on the convenient fiction that objective functions are realizations of stochastic processes. This report details the calculations necessary to implement our procedure for the case of certain stationary Gaussian processes and presents a specific implementation in the statistical programming language S-PLUS.

  1. Influence of nonlinear effects on the efficiency of a thermoelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogolino, P.; Sellitto, A.; Cimmelli, V. A.

    2015-10-01

    We propose a nonlinear model for thermoelectric coupling which is based on the thermomass theory for heat conduction. We show that in this model, the second Kelvin relation and the classical Onsager relations are no longer satisfied simultaneously, namely, if one holds, then the other one breaks down, and viceversa. As a function of the different breaking, we evaluate the efficiency of a thermoelectric generator. The influence of the electric-charge gradient on the efficiency of thermoelectric coupling is investigated as well.

  2. Applications of wind generation for power system frequency control, inter-area oscillations damping and parameter identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilches-Bernal, Felipe

    Power systems around the world are experiencing a continued increase in wind generation as part of their energy mix. Because of its power electronics interface, wind energy conversion systems interact differently with the grid than conventional generation. These facts are changing the traditional dynamics that regulate power system behavior and call for a re-examination of traditional problems encountered in power systems like frequency response, inter-area oscillations and parameter identification. To address this need, realistic models for wind generation are necessary. The dissertation implements such models in a MATLAB-based flexible environment suited for power system research. The dissertation continues with an analysis of the frequency response of a test power system dependent mainly on a mode referred to as the frequency regulation mode. Using this test system it is shown that its frequency regulation capability is reduced with wind penetration levels of 25% and above. A controller for wind generation to restore the frequency response of the system is then presented. The proposed controller requires the WTG to operate in a deloaded mode, a condition that is obtained through pitching the wind turbine blades. Time simulations at wind penetration levels of 25% and 50% are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller. Next, the dissertation evaluates how the inter-area oscillation of a two-machine power system is affected by wind integration. The assessment is performed based on the positioning of the WTG, the level of wind penetration, and the loading condition of the system. It is determined that integrating wind reduces the damping of the inter-area mode of the system when performed in an area that imports power. For this worst-case scenario, the dissertation proposes two controllers for wind generation to improve the damping of the inter-area mode. The first controller uses frequency as feedback signal for the active power control

  3. Theoretical investigation and computational modeling of the difference frequency generation by interaction of few cycle laser pulses in a GaAs crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovhannisyan, D. L.; Hakhoumian, A. A.; Martirosyan, R. M.; Nikoghosyan, A. S.; Laziev, E. M.; Hovhannisyan, G. D.

    2010-08-01

    We present the results of theoretical studies of the generation process of difference frequency radiation arising via interaction of mutually orthogonal linearly polarized few-cycle laser pulses propagating in an isotropic nonlinear medium. Numerical time-integration by the finite-difference method of nonlinear Maxwell-equation systems has been performed. We consider the interaction of pulses having the central wavelengths of 1.98 and 1.55 µm, duration of 30 fs with the corresponding electric field amplitudes of 295 × 106 and 463 × 106 V m-1, propagating along the normal to the ⟨110⟩ plane in 854 µm thickness of GaAs crystal. The process of difference frequency pulse formation arising via spectral filtration of a supercontinuum formed in the spectra of pump pulses at the output of a nonlinear crystal is studied.

  4. The nonlinear evolution of rogue waves generated by means of wave focusing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, HanHong; Ma, Ning

    2011-01-01

    Generating the rogue waves in offshore engineering is investigated, first of all, to forecast its occurrence to protect the offshore structure from being attacked, to study the mechanism and hydrodynamic properties of rouge wave experimentally as well as the rouge/structure interaction for the structure design. To achieve these purposes demands an accurate wave generation and calculation. In this paper, we establish a spatial domain model of fourth order nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation for describing deep-water wave trains in the moving coordinate system. In order to generate rogue waves in the experimental tank efficiently, we take care that the transient water wave (TWW) determines precisely the concentration of time/place. First we simulate the three-dimensional wave using TWW in the numerical tank and modeling the deepwater basin with a double-side multi-segmented wave-maker in Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) under the linear superposing theory. To discuss its nonlinearity for guiding the experiment, we set the TWW as the initial condition of the NLS equation. The differences between the linear and nonlinear simulations are presented. Meanwhile, the characteristics of the transient water wave, including water particle velocity and wave slope, are investigated, which are important factors in safeguarding the offshore structures.

  5. Frequency response areas in the inferior colliculus: nonlinearity and binaural interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jane J.; Young, Eric D.

    2013-01-01

    The tuning, binaural properties, and encoding characteristics of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) were investigated to shed light on nonlinearities in the responses of these neurons. Results were analyzed for three types of neurons (I, O, and V) in the CNIC of decerebrate cats. Rate responses to binaural stimuli were characterized using a 1st- plus 2nd-order spectral integration model. Parameters of the model were derived using broadband stimuli with random spectral shapes (RSS). This method revealed four characteristics of CNIC neurons: (1) Tuning curves derived from broadband stimuli have fixed (i. e., level tolerant) bandwidths across a 50–60 dB range of sound levels; (2) 1st-order contralateral weights (particularly for type I and O neurons) were usually larger in magnitude than corresponding ipsilateral weights; (3) contralateral weights were more important than ipsilateral weights when using the model to predict responses to untrained noise stimuli; and (4) 2nd-order weight functions demonstrate frequency selectivity different from that of 1st-order weight functions. Furthermore, while the inclusion of 2nd-order terms in the model usually improved response predictions related to untrained RSS stimuli, they had limited impact on predictions related to other forms of filtered broadband noise [e. g., virtual-space stimuli (VS)]. The accuracy of the predictions varied considerably by response type. Predictions were most accurate for I neurons, and less accurate for O and V neurons, except at the lowest stimulus levels. These differences in prediction performance support the idea that type I, O, and V neurons encode different aspects of the stimulus: while type I neurons are most capable of producing linear representations of spectral shape, type O and V neurons may encode spectral features or temporal stimulus properties in a manner not easily explained with the low-order model. Supported by NIH grant DC00115. PMID:23675323

  6. High-Frequency Oscillations and Seizure Generation in Neocortical Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Greg A.; Parish, Landi; Cranstoun, Stephen D.; Jonas, Rachel; Baltuch, Gordon; Litt, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Neocortical seizures are often poorly localized, explosive and widespread at onset, making them poorly amenable to epilepsy surgery in the absence of associated focal brain lesions. We describe, for the first time in an unselected group of patients with neocortical epilepsy, the finding that high-frequency (60--100 Hz) epileptiform oscillations…

  7. Possibility of controlled ejection of ferrofluid grains from a magnetically ordered ferrofluid using high frequency non-linear acoustic pulses - a particle dynamical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manciu, Felicia S.; Manciu, Marian; Sen, Surajit

    2000-10-01

    We consider a model dilute ferrofluid that is subjected to a strong, homogeneous magnetic field directed perpendicular to the surface of the ferrofluid, such that there is a chain formation in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the liquid. We study the propagation of impulses generated at high-frequency across finite times through the ferrofluid chains. Our numerical analysis shows that a very high-frequency sequence of non-linear acoustic pulses of appropriate magnitudes, initiated at the base of the container, can lead to the ejection of desired number of ferrofluid grains through the liquid-air interface. The proposed mechanism, if successfully realized in the laboratory, could help design a nozzle-free, ultrafast, ink-jet printer of unparalleled resolution.

  8. KAM torus frequency generation from two line element sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, G.; Wiesel, W.

    2011-09-01

    The Kolmogorov Arnold and Moser (KAM) theorem states that a lightly perturbed Hamiltonian system will have solutions which lie on a torus. Earlier work by the second author has shown that most Earth satellite orbits perturbed by the geopotential lie on KAM tori. The problem then arises as to how to convert the current satellite tracking orbits to KAM tori. A KAM torus is characterized by three frequencies and three phase angles. The frequencies are essentially the rates of change of the mean anomaly, the longitude of the ascending node, and the argument of perigee. In this paper we explore the determination of these three rates from the fitting of SGP4 two line element sets (TLEs), and then constructing KAM tori with the specified frequencies. The success of this process, and an idea of the residual errors, can then be obtained by comparing the SGP4 predictions with the KAM torus predictions. Second order polynomials are fit to data from TLEs over 18 months using a least squares technique. The first order coefficients are used as the torus basis frequencies while the second order terms are used to account for perturbations to the satellite's orbit such as air drag. Four cases are attempted using the Hubble Space Telescope and three rocket bodies as test subjects. A KAM torus with the desired basis frequencies is constructed and used to predict satellite position. For the final test case, this shows an oscillatory error with an amplitude of less than 80 km over a period of almost two years. The authors speculate that this is caused by periodic lunar and solar perturbations, masked in the SGP4 fits by frequent updates.

  9. Recovery of image distorted by turbulent atmosphere using phase-conjugate image generated by difference frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xingquan; Hong, Pengda; Ding, Yujie J.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate dynamic recovery of blurred images caused by atmospheric turbulence. In particular, using a phase-conjugate wave generated by a second-order nonlinear crystal or composite, we restore the original quality of the image after the optical radiation forming the image propagates through the turbulent atmosphere. One of the key elements for our experiment is a rotating phase plate being placed in the beam path for simulating turbulent atmosphere. Using the nonlinear composite, we demonstrate that the image recovery is insensitive to the polarization of the optical radiation forming the image.

  10. Recovery of image distorted by turbulent atmosphere using phase-conjugate image generated by difference frequency generation

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Xingquan; Hong, Pengda; Ding, Yujie J.

    2014-12-15

    We demonstrate dynamic recovery of blurred images caused by atmospheric turbulence. In particular, using a phase-conjugate wave generated by a second-order nonlinear crystal or composite, we restore the original quality of the image after the optical radiation forming the image propagates through the turbulent atmosphere. One of the key elements for our experiment is a rotating phase plate being placed in the beam path for simulating turbulent atmosphere. Using the nonlinear composite, we demonstrate that the image recovery is insensitive to the polarization of the optical radiation forming the image.

  11. High temperature VSCF (Variable Speed Constant Frequency) generator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maphet, Thomas Allen; McCabria, Jack Lee; Kouba, Carroll Charles; Mitchell, James Thomas; Kwiecinski, James Robert

    1989-04-01

    The high temperature VSCF generator program was designed to develop a generating system capable of withstanding constantly high oil-in temperatures of 200 C in an ambient environment of 200 C. This is a requirement due to anticipated new fighter aircraft designs that will not be capable of cooling the oil to 100 C as in today's designs due to size restrictions of the heat exchanger and/or extended operation of the aircraft at supersonic speeds. The generator uses composite material to withstand the constant use of 200 C inlet oil.

  12. All-optical UWB signal generation and multicasting using a nonlinear optical loop mirror.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tianye; Li, Jia; Sun, Junqiang; Chen, Lawrence R

    2011-08-15

    An all-optical scheme for ultra-wideband (UWB) signal generation (positive and negative monocycle and doublet pulses) and multicasting using a nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) is proposed and demonstrated. Five UWB signals (1 monocycle and 4 doublet pulses) are generated simultaneously from a single Gaussian optical pulse. The fractional bandwidths of the monocycle pulses are approximately 100% while those of the doublet pulses range from 100% to 133%. The UWB signals are then modulated using a 2(15)-1 pseudorandom bit sequence (PRBS) and error-free performance for each multicast channel is obtained. PMID:21934951

  13. All-optical UWB signal generation and multicasting using a nonlinear optical loop mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tianye; Li, Jia; Sun, Junqiang; Chen, Lawrence R.

    2011-08-01

    An all-optical scheme for ultra-wideband (UWB) signal generation (positive and negative monocycle and doublet pulses) and multicasting using a nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) is proposed and demonstrated. Five UWB signals (1 monocycle and 4 doublet pulses) are generated simultaneously from a single Gaussian optical pulse. The fractional bandwidths of the monocycle pulses are approximately 100% while those of the doublet pulses range from 100% to 133%. The UWB signals are then modulated using a 215 - 1 pseudorandom bit sequence (PRBS) and error-free performance for each multicast channel is obtained.

  14. Center Wavelength Adoption Techniques for Supercontinuum Generating Highly Nonlinear Noncircular Core Photonic Crystal Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Anwar; Namihira, Yoshinori

    2013-05-01

    A supercontinuum (SC) light source is designed using a highly nonlinear noncircular core photonic crystal fiber (HNL-NcPCF) with all-normal group velocity dispersion (GVD) to demonstrate how simply an SC can be generated at different center wavelengths in a normal GVD regime. Using the finite element method (FEM) with a perfectly matched layer (PML), the design of two or more PCF-based light sources at different neighboring center wavelengths is demonstrated numerically. Moreover, SC generations are demonstrated numerically at 1.06, 1.31, and 1.55 µm in a normal dispersion regime using picosecond optical pulses.

  15. Generation of highly stable WDM time-bin entanglement by cascaded sum-frequency generation and spontaneous parametric downconversion in a PPLN waveguide device.

    PubMed

    Arahira, Shin; Murai, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Hironori

    2016-08-22

    In this paper we report the generation of wavelength-division-multiplexed, time-bin entangled photon pairs by using cascaded optical second nonlinearities (sum-frequency generation and subsequent spontaneous parametric downconversion) in a periodically poled LiNbO3 device. Visibilities of approximately 94% were clearly observed in two-photon interference experiments for all the wavelength-multiplexed channels under investigation (five pairs), with insensitivity to the polarization states of the photon pairs. We also evaluated the performances in terms of quantum-key-distribution (QKD) applications by using four single-photon detectors, which enables to evaluate the QKD performance properly. The results showed long-term stability over 70 hours, maintaining approximately 3% of the quantum error rate and 110 bit/s of the sifted key rate. PMID:27557236

  16. Generation of wideband frequency combs by continuous-wave seeding of multistage mixers with synthesized dispersion.

    PubMed

    Myslivets, Evgeny; Kuo, Bill P P; Alic, Nikola; Radic, Stojan

    2012-01-30

    We numerically and experimentally demonstrate efficient generation of an equalized optical comb with 150-nm bandwidth. The comb was generated by low-power, continuous-wave seeds, eliminating the need for pulsed laser sources. The new architecture relies on efficient creation of higher-order mixing tones in phase-matched nonlinear fiber stages separated by a linear compressor. Wideband generation was enabled by precise dispersion engineering of multiple-stage parametric mixers. PMID:22330571

  17. A model for the generation of strongly nonlinear, weakly nonhydrostatic interfacial waves in a rotating ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar-González, Borja; Gerkema, Theo

    2015-04-01

    We derive a new two-fluid layer model consisting of a set of forced rotation-modified Boussinesq equations for studying the generation and evolution of strongly nonlinear weakly nonhydrostatic dispersive interfacial waves in a rotating ocean. The forcing for internal tide generation is due to tide-topography interaction (an oscillating non-flat bottom mimicking a barotropic tidal flow over topography). The resulting model forms a generalization of the Miyata-Choi-Camassa (MCC) equations, to which we add topography, tidal forcing and Coriolis dispersion due to Earth's rotation. Solitons are generated by disintegration of the first-mode of the internal tide. Because of strong non-linearity, they can attain a table-shaped form. Our moving (accelerating) topography is not an inertial frame and, hence, the transformation to a frame at rest is not simply a Galilean transformation. The effect of this transformation is discussed and is shown to be slight for the parameters under consideration. The set of equations is solved numerically using finite-difference methods. Numerical experiments using these equations are a useful tool for exploring and interpreting the conditions under which full nonlinearity becomes important for soliton generation. In particular, this is the case for table-top solitons when approaching the theoretical maximum amplitude and the appearance of nonlinearities when the two-layer system consists of two layers of equal thickness. At the early stage of the strongly nonlinear disintegration of an internal tide into table-top solitons, we observe that the low mode internal tide splits up into two different groups of rank-ordered solitons: a train of depressions on the leading edge and a train of elevations, after the former packet, with initially smaller amplitudes. Evolving in time, the largest elevations reach the smaller depressions in the train ahead, and three leading solitons at the front attain almost equal amplitudes. The table-top soliton

  18. Generation and Characterization of Electron Bunches with Ramped Current Profiles in a Dual-Frequency Superconducting Linear Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piot, P.; Behrens, C.; Gerth, C.; Dohlus, M.; Lemery, F.; Mihalcea, D.; Stoltz, P.; Vogt, M.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the successful experimental generation of electron bunches with ramped current profiles. The technique relies on impressing nonlinear correlations in the longitudinal phase space using a superconducing radio frequency linear accelerator operating at two frequencies and a current-enhancing dispersive section. The produced ˜700-MeV bunches have peak currents of the order of a kilo-Ampère. Data taken for various accelerator settings demonstrate the versatility of the method and, in particular, its ability to produce current profiles that have a quasilinear dependency on the longitudinal (temporal) coordinate. The measured bunch parameters are shown, via numerical simulations, to produce gigavolt-per-meter peak accelerating electric fields with transformer ratios larger than 2 in dielectric-lined waveguides.

  19. Bend Vibration of Surface Water Investigated by Heterodyne-Detected Sum Frequency Generation and Theoretical Study: Dominant Role of Quadrupole.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Achintya; Tanaka, Shogo; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Ahmed, Mohammed; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Nihonyanagi, Satoshi; Sawai, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Shoichi; Morita, Akihiro; Tahara, Tahei

    2016-07-01

    Heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy was applied to the water surface for measuring the imaginary part of second-order nonlinear susceptibility (Im χ((2))) spectrum in the bend frequency region for the first time. The observed Im χ((2)) spectrum shows an overall positive band around 1650 cm(-1), contradicting former theoretical predictions. We further found that the Im χ((2)) spectrum of NaI aqueous solution exhibits an even larger positive band, which is apparently contrary to the flip-flop orientation of surface water. These unexpected observations are elucidated by calculating quadrupole contributions beyond the conventional dipole approximation. It is indicated that the Im χ((2)) spectrum in the bend region has a large quadrupole contribution from the bulk water. PMID:27322348

  20. Environmental Chemistry at Vapor/Water Interfaces: Insights from Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jubb, Aaron M.; Hua, Wei; Allen, Heather C.

    2012-05-01

    The chemistry that occurs at surfaces has been an intense area of study for many years owing to its complexity and importance in describing a wide range of physical phenomena. The vapor/water interface is particularly interesting from an environmental chemistry perspective as this surface plays host to a wide range of chemistries that influence atmospheric and geochemical interactions. The application of vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG), an inherently surface-specific, even-order nonlinear optical spectroscopy, enables the direct interrogation of various vapor/aqueous interfaces to elucidate the behavior and reaction of chemical species within the surface regime. In this review we discuss the application of VSFG to the study of a variety of atmospherically important systems at the vapor/aqueous interface. Chemical systems presented include inorganic ionic solutions prevalent in aqueous marine aerosols, small molecular solutes, and long-chain fatty acids relevant to fat-coated aerosols. The ability of VSFG to probe both the organization and reactions that may occur for these systems is highlighted. A future perspective toward the application of VSFG to the study of environmental interfaces is also provided.

  1. Robust Self-Referencing Method for Chiral Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    McDermott, M Luke; Petersen, Poul B

    2015-09-24

    Chiral sum frequency generation spectroscopy (SFG) is of great interest for studying biological systems, among others. Whereas the chiral response in circular dichroism is about 0.1% of the achiral response, the chiral SFG response can be the same order of magnitude as the achiral SFG signal. However, chiral SFG is limited by the attainable signal-to-noise of the weak nonlinear signals and therefore extremely sensitive to proper alignment. We present a robust method for chiral SFG and demonstrate the use on solid-air surfaces with achiral and chiral molecules. We simultaneously measure two orthogonal polarizations-either the interference chiral SFG (±45° polarized) or the pure chiral and achiral SFG-using a waveplate and beam displacer. Both optics are placed in the detection arm and can be easily incorporated into any SFG setup. Furthermore, we employ self-referencing to calibrate alignment for each sample individually using a polarizer in the detection arm. These methods greatly increase the reliability and quality of chiral SFG measurements. PMID:26322867

  2. Tunable ultraviolet and blue light generation from Nd:YAB random laser bolstered by second-order nonlinear processes

    PubMed Central

    Moura, André L.; Carreño, Sandra J. M.; Pincheira, Pablo I. R.; Fabris, Zanine V.; Maia, Lauro J. Q.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; de Araújo, Cid B.

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet and blue light were obtained by nonlinear frequency conversion in a random laser (RL) based on Nd0.10Y0.90Al3(BO3)4 nanocrystalline powder. RL operation at 1062 nm, due to the 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 transition of neodymium ions (Nd3+), was achieved by exciting the Nd3+ with a tunable beam from 680 to 920 nm covering the ground state absorption transitions to the 4F9/2, (4F7/2,4S3/2), (4F5/2,2H9/2), and 4F3/2 states. Light from 340 to 460 nm was obtained via the second-harmonic generation of the excitation beam while tunable blue light, from 417 to 486 nm, was generated by self-sum-frequency mixing between the excitation beam and the RL emission. PMID:27250647

  3. Tunable ultraviolet and blue light generation from Nd:YAB random laser bolstered by second-order nonlinear processes.

    PubMed

    Moura, André L; Carreño, Sandra J M; Pincheira, Pablo I R; Fabris, Zanine V; Maia, Lauro J Q; Gomes, Anderson S L; de Araújo, Cid B

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet and blue light were obtained by nonlinear frequency conversion in a random laser (RL) based on Nd0.10Y0.90Al3(BO3)4 nanocrystalline powder. RL operation at 1062 nm, due to the (4)F3/2 → (4)I11/2 transition of neodymium ions (Nd(3+)), was achieved by exciting the Nd(3+) with a tunable beam from 680 to 920 nm covering the ground state absorption transitions to the (4)F9/2, ((4)F7/2,(4)S3/2), ((4)F5/2,(2)H9/2), and (4)F3/2 states. Light from 340 to 460 nm was obtained via the second-harmonic generation of the excitation beam while tunable blue light, from 417 to 486 nm, was generated by self-sum-frequency mixing between the excitation beam and the RL emission. PMID:27250647

  4. Tunable ultraviolet and blue light generation from Nd:YAB random laser bolstered by second-order nonlinear processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, André L.; Carreño, Sandra J. M.; Pincheira, Pablo I. R.; Fabris, Zanine V.; Maia, Lauro J. Q.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; de Araújo, Cid B.

    2016-06-01

    Ultraviolet and blue light were obtained by nonlinear frequency conversion in a random laser (RL) based on Nd0.10Y0.90Al3(BO3)4 nanocrystalline powder. RL operation at 1062 nm, due to the 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 transition of neodymium ions (Nd3+), was achieved by exciting the Nd3+ with a tunable beam from 680 to 920 nm covering the ground state absorption transitions to the 4F9/2, (4F7/2,4S3/2), (4F5/2,2H9/2), and 4F3/2 states. Light from 340 to 460 nm was obtained via the second-harmonic generation of the excitation beam while tunable blue light, from 417 to 486 nm, was generated by self-sum-frequency mixing between the excitation beam and the RL emission.

  5. Generation of a 20 GHz train of subpicosecond pulses with a stabilized optical-frequency-comb generator.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shijun; Hollberg, Leo; Diddams, Scott A

    2009-01-01

    With a modulator-based 10 GHz optical-frequency-comb generator at 1.55 microm, we report a 20 GHz repetitive train of optical pulses as short as 450 fs. The timing stability of the 20 GHz pulses, in addition to the phase for optical-comb modes, shows a strong dependence on the relative frequency detuning between the comb generator's cavity and the seed cw laser. With a new and simple scheme, the comb generator's cavity resonance was locked to a narrow-linewidth seed laser within an estimated optical-frequency range < or = 6 MHz, enabling high-fidelity 20 GHz subpicosecond pulses and stable optical-frequency-comb generation for indefinite periods. PMID:19109648

  6. Multiple side-band generation for two-frequency components injected into a tapered amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hua; Li, Kai; Zhang, Dongfang; Gao, Tianyou; Jiang, Kaijun

    2013-04-01

    We have experimentally studied the multiple side-band generation for two-frequency components injected into a tapered amplifier and demonstrated its effects on atomic laser cooling. A heterodyne frequency-beat measurement and a Fabry Perot interferometer have been applied to analyze the side-band generation with different experimental parameters, such as frequency difference, injection laser power and tapered amplifier current. In laser cooling potassium40 and potassium41 with hyperfine splitting of 1.3GHz and 254MHz, respectively, the side-band generation with a small frequency difference has a significant effect on the number of trapped atoms.

  7. Multiple side-band generation for two-frequency components injected into a tapered amplifier.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hua; Li, Kai; Zhang, Dongfang; Gao, Tianyou; Jiang, Kaijun

    2013-04-01

    We have experimentally studied multiple side-band generation for two-frequency components injected into a tapered amplifier (TA) and demonstrated its effects on atomic laser cooling. A heterodyne frequency-beat measurement and a Fabry-Perot interferometer have been applied to analyze the side-band generation with different experimental parameters, such as frequency difference, injection laser power, and TA current. In laser-cooling potassium40 and potassium41 with hyperfine splitting of 1.3 GHz and 254 MHz, respectively, the side-band generation with a small frequency difference has a significant effect on the number of trapped atoms. PMID:23546277

  8. Nonlinear optical effects and third-harmonic generation in superconductors: Cooper pairs versus Higgs mode contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cea, T.; Castellani, C.; Benfatto, L.

    2016-05-01

    The recent observation of a transmitted THz pulse oscillating at three times the frequency of the incident light paves the way to a powerful protocol to access resonant excitations in a superconductor. Here we show that this nonlinear optical process is dominated by light-induced excitation of Cooper pairs, while the collective amplitude (Higgs) fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter give in general a negligible contribution. We also predict a nontrivial dependence of the signal on the direction of the light polarization with respect to the lattice symmetry, which can be tested in systems such as, e.g., cuprate superconductors.

  9. Self-oscillating optical frequency comb generator based on an optoelectronic oscillator employing cascaded modulators.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jian; Xu, Xingyuan; Wu, Zhongle; Dai, Yitang; Yin, Feifei; Zhou, Yue; Li, Jianqiang; Xu, Kun

    2015-11-16

    An ultraflat self-oscillating optical frequency comb generator based on an optoelectronic oscillator employing cascaded modulators was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. By incorporating the optoelectronic oscillation loop with cascaded modulators into the optical frequency comb generator, 11 ultraflat comb lines would be generated, and the frequency spacing is equal to the oscillation frequency of the OEO. 10 and 12GHz optical frequency combs are demonstrated with the spectral power variation below 0.82dB and 0.93dB respectively. The corresponding spectral pure microwave source are also generated and evaluated. The corresponding single-sideband phase noise are as low as -122dBc/Hz and -115 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset frequency. PMID:26698482

  10. High-power optical millimeter-wave signal generation with tunable frequency multiplication factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yi-shi; Zheng, Zhenyu; Luo, Zhixiao; Min, Zhixuan; Xu, Ou; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrates a simple and novel scheme for millimeter-wave (MMW) signal generation using optical multi-sidebands (OMSB) modulation. In the proposed methods, several pairs of optical sidebands can be generated by employing parallel phase modulators driven by a low frequency radio frequency (RF) signal. The optical sidebands will beat at a photodetector (PD) to generate high frequency MMW signal with tunable frequency multiplication factor, such as frequency octupling, 12-tupling, 16-tupling and 18-tupling. Since no optical filters or DC bias are used, the MMW signal has the evident character of high-power output. A generalized analytic expression and simulation verification for generating the frequency multi-tupling MMW signal are developed. The influences caused by non-ideal factors are discussed in detail, and undesired power ratios versus non-ideal factors are plotted and analyzed.

  11. System and method for generating micro-seismic events and characterizing properties of a medium with non-linear acoustic interactions

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2015-12-29

    A method and system includes generating a first coded acoustic signal including pulses each having a modulated signal at a central frequency; and a second coded acoustic signal each pulse of which includes a modulated signal a central frequency of which is a fraction d of the central frequency of the modulated signal for the corresponding pulse in the first plurality of pulses. A receiver detects a third signal generated by a non-linear mixing process in the mixing zone and the signal is processed to extract the third signal to obtain an emulated micro-seismic event signal occurring at the mixing zone; and to characterize properties of the medium or creating a 3D image of the properties of the medium, or both, based on the emulated micro-seismic event signal.

  12. A simple and reliable technique to characterize amplitude to phase modulation distortion for high-frequency amplifiers and nonlinear devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauregui, Rigoberto; Portilla, Joaquin; Reynoso-Hernández, J. A.; Hirata-Flores, F. I.

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a simple and reliable measurement system for characterizing the amplitude to phase modulation (AM-PM) characteristics of high frequency amplifiers and nonlinear devices. The AM-PM measurement system is based on a null detector implemented with a double balanced mixer, and requires a voltmeter and a calibrated phase shifter. A 12 W class A radio frequency power amplifier has been designed using a GaN transistor, and the AM-PM has been measured using both the method proposed in this work and the classical method with a calibrated vector network analyzer. A good correlation between both methods is observed, which validates the proposed method.

  13. Collision frequencies in density-matrix kinetic equations describing nonlinear effects in the wings of spectral lines

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomenko, A I; Shalagin, Anatolii M

    2011-11-30

    Using the eikonal approximation, we have calculated effective collision frequencies in density-matrix kinetic equations describing nonlinear effects in the wings of spectral lines. We have established the relation between the probabilities of absorption and stimulated emission and the characteristics of the radiation and elementary scattering event. The example of the power interaction potential shows that quantum mechanical calculation of the collision frequencies in the eikonal approximation and previously known spectral line wing theory give similar results for the probability of radiation absorption.

  14. Nonlinear (time domain) and linearized (time and frequency domain) solutions to the compressible Euler equations in conservation law form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sreenivas, Kidambi; Whitfield, David L.

    1995-01-01

    Two linearized solvers (time and frequency domain) based on a high resolution numerical scheme are presented. The basic approach is to linearize the flux vector by expressing it as a sum of a mean and a perturbation. This allows the governing equations to be maintained in conservation law form. A key difference between the time and frequency domain computations is that the frequency domain computations require only one grid block irrespective of the interblade phase angle for which the flow is being computed. As a result of this and due to the fact that the governing equations for this case are steady, frequency domain computations are substantially faster than the corresponding time domain computations. The linearized equations are used to compute flows in turbomachinery blade rows (cascades) arising due to blade vibrations. Numerical solutions are compared to linear theory (where available) and to numerical solutions of the nonlinear Euler equations.

  15. Stiffness nonlinearity as a means for resonance frequency tuning and enhancing mechanical robustness of vibration power harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loverich, J.; Geiger, R.; Frank, J.

    2008-03-01

    This paper addresses a particular type of power harvesting in which energy in the periodic movement of structures is parasitically converted to stored electric charge. In such applications, tuning of the vibration power harvesters' resonance frequency is often required to match the host structures' forcing frequency. This paper presents a method of adjusting the boundary conditions of nonlinear stiffness elements as a means of tuning the resonance frequency of piezoelectric vibration power harvesters (altering the deformation mode from bending to in-plane stretching). Using this tuning method, the resonance frequency was experimentally varied between 56 and 62 Hz. For a vibration level of 2 mm/s, the harvester has a similar Q to a linear system but its Q is reduced by one third at a vibration level of 10 mm/s. This behavior is important for applications where high sensitivity is required for low vibration levels but mechanical robustness is required for high vibration levels.

  16. Sum-frequency generation from molecular monolayers using 14 {mu}m radiation from the FELIX free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Ham, E.W.M.; Vrehen, Q.H.F.; Eliel, E.R.

    1995-12-31

    Sum-frequency generation (SFG) has developed into a widely applied tool for study of surfaces and interfaces where molecules are present. It combines the surface specificity of a second-order nonlinear optical technique with the power of a spectroscopic method, and it can be used under widely varying experimental conditions ranging from UHV to electrochemical cells. The important characteristic of SFG is that it allows one to study the average spatial orientation of a molecular bond in a monolayer of molecules at an interface. Until recently SFG measurements were confined to the frequency interval Y {mu} > 1700 cm{sup -1} because of a lack of suitable laser sources at wave-lengths {lambda} > 6 {mu}m. So for most molecules only a few vibrational modes and thus intramolecular bonds can be studied. We have developed a universal sum-frequency spectrometer around the FELIX free-electron law that covers the complete molecular fingerprint since we can generate any IR wavelength between 2.75 and 110 f{mu} at the FELIX facility. We have used this setup for a series of exploratory SFG experiments in a frequency range that was hitherto unexplored in the study of molecular monolayers. We have studied thiol monolayers chemisorbed on a variety of noble metals (Au, Ag, Pt) where we focussed on the C-S stretch vibration at {nu} = 702 cm{sup -1} ({lambda} = 14.3 {mu}m). We have found spectroscopic features revealing the presence of both the trane and gauche conformers of the adsorbed molecules. The present measurements open a whole new wavelength range for nonlinear optical studies of interfaces.

  17. Synchronization, non-linear dynamics and low-frequency fluctuations: Analogy between spontaneous brain activity and networked single-transistor chaotic oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Minati, Ludovico E-mail: ludovico.minati@unitn.it

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, the topographical relationship between functional connectivity (intended as inter-regional synchronization), spectral and non-linear dynamical properties across cortical areas of the healthy human brain is considered. Based upon functional MRI acquisitions of spontaneous activity during wakeful idleness, node degree maps are determined by thresholding the temporal correlation coefficient among all voxel pairs. In addition, for individual voxel time-series, the relative amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and the correlation dimension (D{sub 2}), determined with respect to Fourier amplitude and value distribution matched surrogate data, are measured. Across cortical areas, high node degree is associated with a shift towards lower frequency activity and, compared to surrogate data, clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension, suggesting presence of non-linear structure. An attempt to recapitulate this relationship in a network of single-transistor oscillators is made, based on a diffusive ring (n = 90) with added long-distance links defining four extended hub regions. Similarly to the brain data, it is found that oscillators in the hub regions generate signals with larger low-frequency cycle amplitude fluctuations and clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension compared to surrogates. The effect emerges more markedly close to criticality. The homology observed between the two systems despite profound differences in scale, coupling mechanism and dynamics appears noteworthy. These experimental results motivate further investigation into the heterogeneity of cortical non-linear dynamics in relation to connectivity and underline the ability for small networks of single-transistor oscillators to recreate collective phenomena arising in much more complex biological systems, potentially representing a future platform for modelling disease-related changes.

  18. A novel electromechanical approach to constant frequency power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dishner, Bryan; Morris, Angela

    An alternate design approach to the hydrochemical constant speed drive (CSD) used on aircraft to drive synchronous generators at constant speed has been evaluated. The alternative design replaces hydraulic devices with advanced technology permanent magnet (PM) motor/generators which rely on power semiconductors in the speed compensation link to produce a constant speed output to the synchronous generator. The feasibility study for the product, electrically compensated CSD (ECCSD), has been demonstrated. The ECCSD program demonstrates the basic axial gear differential CSD concept of passing the power and speed trimming functions through gearing, while at the same time efficiently accomplishing the closed-loop speed control function electromechanically with small, high-speed motors. The ECCSD configuration chosen for development uses a 50,000 rev/min PM generator and a 50,000 rev/min motor. A thyristor-based AC-to-DC converter conditions the PM generator output. A transistor-based brushless DC-type motor drive is used with the PM motor. The hardware is described, and test results are presented.

  19. Theoretical study of collinear optical frequency comb generation under multi-wave, transient stimulated Raman scattering in crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Smetanin, S N

    2014-11-30

    Using mathematical modelling we have studied the conditions of low-threshold collinear optical frequency comb generation under transient (picosecond) stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and parametric four-wave coupling of SRS components in crystals. It is shown that Raman-parametric generation of an octave-spanning optical frequency comb occurs most effectively under intermediate, transient SRS at a pump pulse duration exceeding the dephasing time by five-to-twenty times. We have found the optimal values of not only the laser pump pulse duration, but also of the Raman crystal lengths corresponding to highly efficient generation of an optical frequency comb from the second anti-Stokes to the fourth Stokes Raman components. For the KGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} (high dispersion) and Ba(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} (low dispersion) crystals pumped at a wavelength of 1.064 μm and a pulse duration five or more times greater than the dephasing time, the optimum length of the crystal was 0.3 and 0.6 cm, respectively, which is consistent with the condition of the most effective Stokes – anti-Stokes coupling ΔkL ≈ 15, where Δk is the wave detuning from phase matching of Stokes – anti-Stokes coupling, determined by the refractive index dispersion of the SRS medium. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  20. Controlled generation of nonlinear resonances through sinusoidal lattice modes in Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Priyam; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2015-12-01

    We study Bose-Einstein condensate in the combined presence of time modulated optical lattice and harmonic trap in the mean-field approach. Through the self-similar method, we show the existence of sinusoidal lattice modes in this inhomogeneous system, commensurate with the lattice potential. A significant advantage of this system is wide tunability of the parameters through chirp management. The combined effect of the interaction, harmonic trap and lattice potential leads to the generation of nonlinear resonances, exactly where the matter wave changes its direction. When the harmonic trap is switched off, the BEC undergoes a nonlinear compression for the static optical lattice potential. For better understanding of chirp management and the nature of the sinusoidal excitation, we investigate the energy spectrum of the condensate, which clearly reveals the generation of nonlinear resonances in the appropriate regime. We have also identified a classical dynamical phase transition occurring in the system, where loss of superfluidity takes the superfluid phase to an insulating state.

  1. Broadband Supercontinuum Spectrum Generated Highly Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fiber Applicable to Medical and Optical Communication Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Feroza; Namihira, Yoshinori; Kaijage, Shubi F.; Kinjo, Tatsuya

    2011-09-01

    Optical-fiber-based supercontinuum (SC) light sources have attracted much research attention in recent years. High-quality nonlinear optical fibers allow us to readily implement stable and practical SC sources. In this work, we present a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (HN-PCF) in optical coherence tomography (OCT) and telecommunication windows that can generate SC spectra. The finite difference method with an anisotropic perfectly matched layer boundary condition is used to calculate different properties of the proposed HN-PCF. From numerical simulation results, it is found that the HN-PCF nonlinear coefficients are more than 108.0, 74.0, and 53.0 (W·km)-1 at 1.06, 1.31, and 1.55 µm, respectively. The flattened chromatic dispersion is 0 to -4.0 ps/(nm·km) in the wavelength range of 1.06 to 1.7 µm (640 nm bandwidth), and the confinement loss is lower than 10-2 dB/km in the entire wavelength range. The generated supercontinuum bandwidths are 295.0, 408.0, and 590.0 nm at 1.06, 1.31, and 1.55 µm, respectively. The calculated longitudinal resolutions for biomedical imaging are 1.2, 1.2, and 1.1 µm at 1.06, 1.31, and 1.55 µm, respectively.

  2. Optimization of highly nonlinear dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber for supercontinuum generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ya-Ni

    2013-01-01

    A simple type of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) for supercontinuum generation is proposed for the first time. The proposed PCF is composed of a solid silica core and a cladding with square lattice uniform elliptical air holes, which offers not only a large nonlinear coefficient but also a high birefringence and low leakage losses. The PCF with nonlinear coefficient as large as 46 W-1 · km-1 at the wavelength of 1.55 μm and a total dispersion as low as ±2.5 ps · nm-1 · km-1 over an ultra-broad waveband range of the S—C—L band (wavelength from 1.46 μm to 1.625 μm) is optimized by adjusting its structure parameter, such as the lattice constant Λ, the air-filling fraction f, and the air-hole ellipticity η. The novel PCF with ultra-flattened dispersion, highly nonlinear coefficient, and nearly zero negative dispersion slope will offer a possibility of efficient super-continuum generation in telecommunication windows using a few ps pulses.

  3. Nonlinear Generator Control Based on Equilibrium Point Analysis for Standard One-Machine Infinite-Bus System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Fujimoto, Koji; Kawamoto, Shunji

    The aim of this letter is to show that the unstable equilibrium point of the Japanese standard one-machine infinite-bus system model is eliminated by adding a simple nonlinear complementary control input to the AVR, and then the critical clearing time of the system can be more enhanced in comparison with the PSS by introducing the proposed nonlinear generator control.

  4. Terahertz generation by nonlinear mixing of laser pulses in a clustered gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Manoj; Tripathi, V. K.

    2011-05-15

    A scheme of terahertz (THz) generation by two collinear laser pulses of finite spot size in a clustered gas is investigated theoretically. The lasers quickly ionize the atoms of the clusters, converting them into plasma balls, and exert a ponderomotive force on the cluster electrons, producing a beat frequency longitudinal current of limited transverse extent. The current acts as an antenna to produce beat frequency terahertz radiation. As the cluster expands under the hydrodynamic pressure, plasma frequency of cluster electrons {omega}{sub pe} decreases and approaches {radical}(3) times the frequency of laser, resonant heating and expansion of clusters occurs. On further expansion of clusters as {omega}{sub pe} approaches {radical}(3) times the terahertz frequency, resonant enhancement in THz radiated power occurs.

  5. Nonlinear Generation of Electromagnetic Waves through Induced Scattering by Thermal Plasma.

    PubMed

    Tejero, E M; Crabtree, C; Blackwell, D D; Amatucci, W E; Mithaiwala, M; Ganguli, G; Rudakov, L

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the conversion of electrostatic pump waves into electromagnetic waves through nonlinear induced scattering by thermal particles in a laboratory plasma. Electrostatic waves in the whistler branch are launched that propagate near the resonance cone. When the amplitude exceeds a threshold ~5 × 10(-6) times the background magnetic field, wave power is scattered below the pump frequency with wave normal angles (~59°), where the scattered wavelength reaches the limits of the plasma column. The scattered wave has a perpendicular wavelength that is an order of magnitude larger than the pump wave and longer than the electron skin depth. The amplitude threshold, scattered frequency spectrum, and scattered wave normal angles are in good agreement with theory. The results may affect the analysis and interpretation of space observations and lead to a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the Earth's plasma environment. PMID:26647962

  6. Nonlinear Generation of Electromagnetic Waves through Induced Scattering by Thermal Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Tejero, E. M.; Crabtree, C.; Blackwell, D. D.; Amatucci, W. E.; Mithaiwala, M.; Ganguli, G.; Rudakov, L.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the conversion of electrostatic pump waves into electromagnetic waves through nonlinear induced scattering by thermal particles in a laboratory plasma. Electrostatic waves in the whistler branch are launched that propagate near the resonance cone. When the amplitude exceeds a threshold ~5 × 10−6 times the background magnetic field, wave power is scattered below the pump frequency with wave normal angles (~59°), where the scattered wavelength reaches the limits of the plasma column. The scattered wave has a perpendicular wavelength that is an order of magnitude larger than the pump wave and longer than the electron skin depth. The amplitude threshold, scattered frequency spectrum, and scattered wave normal angles are in good agreement with theory. The results may affect the analysis and interpretation of space observations and lead to a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the Earth’s plasma environment. PMID:26647962

  7. Nonlinear Generation of Electromagnetic Waves through Induced Scattering by Thermal Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejero, E. M.; Crabtree, C.; Blackwell, D. D.; Amatucci, W. E.; Mithaiwala, M.; Ganguli, G.; Rudakov, L.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate the conversion of electrostatic pump waves into electromagnetic waves through nonlinear induced scattering by thermal particles in a laboratory plasma. Electrostatic waves in the whistler branch are launched that propagate near the resonance cone. When the amplitude exceeds a threshold ~5 × 10-6 times the background magnetic field, wave power is scattered below the pump frequency with wave normal angles (~59°), where the scattered wavelength reaches the limits of the plasma column. The scattered wave has a perpendicular wavelength that is an order of magnitude larger than the pump wave and longer than the electron skin depth. The amplitude threshold, scattered frequency spectrum, and scattered wave normal angles are in good agreement with theory. The results may affect the analysis and interpretation of space observations and lead to a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the Earth’s plasma environment.

  8. A variable-speed, constant-frequency wind power generation scheme using a slip-ring induction generator

    SciTech Connect

    Velayudhan, C.; Bundell, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    This paper investigates a variable-speed, constant-frequency double output induction generator which is capable of absorbing the mechanical energy from a fixed pitch wind turbine and converting it into electrical energy at constant grid voltage and frequency. Rotor power at varying voltage and frequency is either fed to electronically controlled resistances and used as heat energy or is rectified, inverted by a controllable line-commutated inverter and returned to the grid. Optimal power tracking is by means of an adaptive controller which controls the developed torque of the generator by monitoring the shaft speed.

  9. Efficient Second Harmonic Generation in 3D Nonlinear Optical-Lattice-Like Cladding Waveguide Splitters by Femtosecond Laser Inscription

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Weijie; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonic devices with beam splitting function are intriguing for a broad range of photonic applications. Through optical-lattice-like cladding waveguide structures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing, the light propagation can be engineered via the track-confined refractive index profiles, achieving tailored output beam distributions. In this work, we report on the fabrication of 3D laser-written optical-lattice-like structures in a nonlinear KTP crystal to implement 1 × 4 beam splitting. Second harmonic generation (SHG) of green light through these nonlinear waveguide beam splitter structures provides the capability for the compact visible laser emitting devices. With Type II phase matching of the fundamental wavelength (@ 1064 nm) to second harmonic waves (@ 532 nm), the frequency doubling has been achieved through this three-dimensional beam splitter. Under 1064-nm continuous-wave fundamental-wavelength pump beam, guided-wave SHG at 532 nm are measured with the maximum power of 0.65 mW and 0.48 mW for waveguide splitters (0.67 mW and 0.51 mW for corresponding straight channel waveguides), corresponding to a SH conversion efficiency of approximately ~14.3%/W and 13.9%/W (11.2%/W, 11.3%/W for corresponding straight channel waveguides), respectively. This work paves a way to fabricate compact integrated nonlinear photonic devices in a single chip with beam dividing functions. PMID:26924255

  10. Efficient Second Harmonic Generation in 3D Nonlinear Optical-Lattice-Like Cladding Waveguide Splitters by Femtosecond Laser Inscription.

    PubMed

    Nie, Weijie; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonic devices with beam splitting function are intriguing for a broad range of photonic applications. Through optical-lattice-like cladding waveguide structures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing, the light propagation can be engineered via the track-confined refractive index profiles, achieving tailored output beam distributions. In this work, we report on the fabrication of 3D laser-written optical-lattice-like structures in a nonlinear KTP crystal to implement 1 × 4 beam splitting. Second harmonic generation (SHG) of green light through these nonlinear waveguide beam splitter structures provides the capability for the compact visible laser emitting devices. With Type II phase matching of the fundamental wavelength (@ 1064 nm) to second harmonic waves (@ 532 nm), the frequency doubling has been achieved through this three-dimensional beam splitter. Under 1064-nm continuous-wave fundamental-wavelength pump beam, guided-wave SHG at 532 nm are measured with the maximum power of 0.65 mW and 0.48 mW for waveguide splitters (0.67 mW and 0.51 mW for corresponding straight channel waveguides), corresponding to a SH conversion efficiency of approximately ~14.3%/W and 13.9%/W (11.2%/W, 11.3%/W for corresponding straight channel waveguides), respectively. This work paves a way to fabricate compact integrated nonlinear photonic devices in a single chip with beam dividing functions. PMID:26924255

  11. Efficient Second Harmonic Generation in 3D Nonlinear Optical-Lattice-Like Cladding Waveguide Splitters by Femtosecond Laser Inscription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Weijie; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Chen, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Integrated photonic devices with beam splitting function are intriguing for a broad range of photonic applications. Through optical-lattice-like cladding waveguide structures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing, the light propagation can be engineered via the track-confined refractive index profiles, achieving tailored output beam distributions. In this work, we report on the fabrication of 3D laser-written optical-lattice-like structures in a nonlinear KTP crystal to implement 1 × 4 beam splitting. Second harmonic generation (SHG) of green light through these nonlinear waveguide beam splitter structures provides the capability for the compact visible laser emitting devices. With Type II phase matching of the fundamental wavelength (@ 1064 nm) to second harmonic waves (@ 532 nm), the frequency doubling has been achieved through this three-dimensional beam splitter. Under 1064-nm continuous-wave fundamental-wavelength pump beam, guided-wave SHG at 532 nm are measured with the maximum power of 0.65 mW and 0.48 mW for waveguide splitters (0.67 mW and 0.51 mW for corresponding straight channel waveguides), corresponding to a SH conversion efficiency of approximately ~14.3%/W and 13.9%/W (11.2%/W, 11.3%/W for corresponding straight channel waveguides), respectively. This work paves a way to fabricate compact integrated nonlinear photonic devices in a single chip with beam dividing functions.

  12. Nonlinear chirped-pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaohong; Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Wei; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Wei; Li, Cheng; Wang, Hushan

    2010-09-10

    Based on the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and waveguiding properties typical of the photonic crystal fiber structure, nonlinear chirped-pulse propagation and supercontinua generation in the femtosecond and picosecond regimes are investigated numerically. The simulation results indicate that an input chirp parameter mainly affects the initial stage of spectral broadening caused by the self-phase modulation (SPM) effect. In the femtosecond regime where the SPM effect plays an important role in the process of spectral broadening, an input positive chirp can enhance the supercontinuum bandwidth through a modified pulse compression phase and a decreased propagation distance required by soliton fission. In the picosecond regime, where the SPM effect contributes less to the continuum bandwidth and four-wave mixing process or modulational instability dominates the initial stage of spectral and temporal evolution, the output spectral shape and bandwidths are less sensitive to the input chirp parameters. PMID:20830188

  13. A simple and direct method for generating travelling wave solutions for nonlinear equations

    SciTech Connect

    Bazeia, D. Das, Ashok; Silva, A.

    2008-05-15

    We propose a simple and direct method for generating travelling wave solutions for nonlinear integrable equations. We illustrate how nontrivial solutions for the KdV, the mKdV and the Boussinesq equations can be obtained from simple solutions of linear equations. We describe how using this method, a soliton solution of the KdV equation can yield soliton solutions for the mKdV as well as the Boussinesq equations. Similarly, starting with cnoidal solutions of the KdV equation, we can obtain the corresponding solutions for the mKdV as well as the Boussinesq equations. Simple solutions of linear equations can also lead to cnoidal solutions of nonlinear systems. Finally, we propose and solve some new families of KdV equations and show how soliton solutions are also obtained for the higher order equations of the KdV hierarchy using this method.

  14. Generation of optical frequency combs in fibres: an optical pulse analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajnulina, Marina; Böhm, Michael; Blow, Keith; Chavez Boggio, José M.; Rieznik, Andres A.; Haynes, Roger; Roth, Martin M.

    2014-07-01

    The innovation of optical frequency combs (OFCs) generated in passive mode-locked lasers has provided astronomy with unprecedented accuracy for wavelength calibration in high-resolution spectroscopy in research areas such as the discovery of exoplanets or the measurement of fundamental constants. The unique properties of OCFs, namely a highly dense spectrum of uniformly spaced emission lines of nearly equal intensity over the nominal wavelength range, is not only beneficial for high-resolution spectroscopy. Also in the low- to medium-resolution domain, the OFCs hold the promise to revolutionise the calibration techniques. Here, we present a novel method for generation of OFCs. As opposed to the mode-locked laser-based approach that can be complex, costly, and difficult to stabilise, we propose an all optical fibre-based system that is simple, compact, stable, and low-cost. Our system consists of three optical fibres where the first one is a conventional single-mode fibre, the second one is an erbium-doped fibre and the third one is a highly nonlinear low-dispersion fibre. The system is pumped by two equally intense continuous-wave (CW) lasers. To be able to control the quality and the bandwidth of the OFCs, it is crucial to understand how optical solitons arise out of the initial modulated CW field in the first fibre. Here, we numerically investigate the pulse evolution in the first fibre using the technique of the solitons radiation beat analysis. Having applied this technique, we realised that formation of higherorder solitons is supported in the low-energy region, whereas, in the high-energy region, Kuznetsov-Ma solitons appear.

  15. Self-sufficient electronic control for nonlinear, frequency tunable, piezoelectric vibration harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, S.; Neiss, S.; Kroener, M.; Woias, P.

    2015-12-01

    Research in vibration energy harvesting focuses increasingly on nonlinear harvesters. In comparison to linear harvesters they show an inherent larger bandwidth through hardening or softening effects and higher conversion efficiency. A further increase of the bandwidth and thus a higher energy yield can be achieved by controlled tuning of such a nonlinear system. In this paper a self-sufficient tuning control electronic, which is directly powered by the harvester, is presented.

  16. Effect of the nonlinear saturation of the gain on the peak modulation frequency in lasers based on self-assembled quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukov, A. E. Arakcheeva, E. M.; Gordeev, N. Yu.; Zubov, F. I.; Kryzhanovskaya, N. V.; Maximov, M. V.; Savelyev, A. V.

    2011-07-15

    Peak modulation frequency of lasers based on self-organized quantum dots is calculated taking into account the effect of nonlinear gain saturation. Because of a large nonlinear gain coefficient and a reduction in the differential gain with increasing optical losses, the peak modulation frequency is attained for an optimum loss level that is significantly lower than the saturated optical gain in the active region. For lasers based on multiply stacked arrays of quantum dots, the peak modulation frequency first increases with increasing number of quantum-dot layers before leveling off, with the limiting value being inversely proportional to the nonlinear gain coefficient.

  17. Nonlinear Frequency Compression in Hearing Aids: Impact on Speech and Language Development

    PubMed Central

    Bentler, Ruth; Walker, Elizabeth; McCreery, Ryan; Arenas, Richard M.; Roush, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The research questions of this study were: (1) Are children using nonlinear frequency compression (NLFC) in their hearing aids getting better access to the speech signal than children using conventional processing schemes? The authors hypothesized that children whose hearing aids provided wider input bandwidth would have more access to the speech signal, as measured by an adaptation of the Speech Intelligibility Index, and (2) are speech and language skills different for children who have been fit with the two different technologies; if so, in what areas? The authors hypothesized that if the children were getting increased access to the speech signal as a result of their NLFC hearing aids (question 1), it would be possible to see improved performance in areas of speech production, morphosyntax, and speech perception compared with the group with conventional processing. Design Participants included 66 children with hearing loss recruited as part of a larger multisite National Institutes of Health–funded study, Outcomes for Children with Hearing Loss, designed to explore the developmental outcomes of children with mild to severe hearing loss. For the larger study, data on communication, academic and psychosocial skills were gathered in an accelerated longitudinal design, with entry into the study between 6 months and 7 years of age. Subjects in this report consisted of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children recruited at the North Carolina test site. All had at least at least 6 months of current hearing aid usage with their NLFC or conventional amplification. Demographic characteristics were compared at the three age levels as well as audibility and speech/language outcomes; speech-perception scores were compared for the 5-year-old groups. Results Results indicate that the audibility provided did not differ between the technology options. As a result, there was no difference between groups on speech or language outcome measures at 4 or 5 years of age, and no

  18. Nonlinear optical method for the investigation of spectral properties of biomolecular complexes: second harmonic generation in ordered structures of bacteriorhodopsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktsipetrov, Oleg A.; Fedyanin, Andrew A.; Murzina, Tatyana V.; Borisevich, G. P.; Kononenko, A. A.

    1995-02-01

    For the first time the method of the second harmonic generation was used to study the photo- and electrically induced nonlinear optical transformations in thin oriented films of purple membranes (PM). Variations of the film nonlinear susceptibility were investigated as the bacteriorhodopsin (bR) molecule underwent the cycle of photoinduced transformations for both dry electrically oriented films and bR molecules embedded into poly(vinyl alcohol) matrix. The electrically induced changes of the nonlinear optical properties were studied for the electrostatic field strength up to the values 4 (DOT) 104 V/cm. Nonlinear susceptibilities of oriented and nonoriented dried PM films are compared.

  19. Propagation of nonlinear waves over submerged step: wave separation and subharmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsalve, Eduardo; Maurel, Agnes; Pagneux, Vincent; Petitjeans, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Water waves can be described in simplified cases by the Helmholtz equation. However, even in these cases, they present a high complexity, among which their dispersive character and their nonlinearities are the subject of the present study. Using Fourier Transform Profilometry, we study experimentally the propagation of waves passing over a submerged step. Because of the small water depth after the step, the wave enters in a nonlinear regime. In the shallow water region, the second harmonic leads to two types of waves: bound waves which are slaves of the fundamental frequency with wavenumber 2 k (ω) , and free waves which propagate according to the usual dispersion relation with wavenumber k (2 ω) . Because of the presence of these two waves, beats are produced at the second harmonic with characteristic beat length. In this work, for the first time we extended this analysis to the third and higher harmonics. Next, the region after the step is limited to a finite size L with a reflecting wall. For certain frequencies and L- values, the spectral component becomes involved, with the appearance of sub harmonics. This regime is analyzed in more details, suggesting a transition to a chaotic and quasi-periodic wave behavior.

  20. ``Once Nonlinear, Always Nonlinear''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackstock, David T.

    2006-05-01

    The phrase "Once nonlinear, always nonlinear" is attributed to David F. Pernet. In the 1970s he noticed that nonlinearly generated higher harmonic components (both tones and noise) don't decay as small signals, no matter how far the wave propagates. Despite being out of step with the then widespread notion that small-signal behavior is restored in "old age," Pernet's view is supported by the Burgers-equation solutions of the early 1960s. For a plane wave from a sinusoidally vibrating source in a thermoviscous fluid, the old-age decay of the nth harmonic is e-nαx, not e-n2αx (small-signal expectation), where α is the absorption coefficient at the fundamental frequency f and x is propagation distance. Moreover, for spherical waves (r the distance) the harmonic diminishes as e-nαx/rn, not e-n2αx/r. While not new, these results have special application to aircraft noise propagation, since the large propagation distances of interest imply old age. The virtual source model may be used to explain the "anomalous" decay rates. In old age most of the nth harmonic sound comes from virtual sources close to the receiver. Their strength is proportional to the nth power of the local fundamental amplitude, and that sets the decay law for the nth harmonic.

  1. Frequency Selective Surface Bandpass Filters Applied To Thermophotovoltaic Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, W. E.; Morgan, Mark D.; Horne, W. Paul; Sundaram, Vasan S.

    2004-11-01

    EDTEK, Inc. is developing three TPV applications, a portable diesel fueled generator for military and remote users, a hybrid solar-gas fueled power system intended for light industry and commercial 24-hour use, and a radioisotope fueled generator for deep-space spacecraft. The application of FSS bandpass filters for spectral control in these three different TPV applications has been analyzed. It has been determined that the design of the filter cannot be evaluated solely on the parameters of the filter itself. The interactions between the filter and the emitter and the TPV cells must be taken into account. In addition to the technical analysis of the converter, the overall system losses must be included in the analysis and the design requirements such as fuel efficiency, weight, generator size, cost and other factors must be included in the analysis. The analysis shows that the FSS filters are useful for producing the three systems with good efficiencies; however, different designs are required for the filters for each application.

  2. Generation of deep-UV sources (160-250 nm) by frequency mixing in lithium-triborate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jui T.; Kato, Kiyoshi

    1990-05-01

    The newly discovered nonlinear crystal of lithium triborate, LiB3O5 (LBO), has several advantages over another borate family, 8-BaB2O4.13 These include nonhydroscopic, wide transparency (0.16-2.6 sm), high damage threshold and may be temperature-tuned for noncritical phase-matching (NPCM). NCPM using LBO (temperature-tuned) for the second harmonic generation (SHG) and sum frequency mixing (SFM) of N&YAG laser and YAG-laser-pumped Raman cell in H2 gas was reported.4 In this paper we present the phase-matching curves of LBO for the generation of UV-sources (160-250 nm), where 160 nm is the absorption edge of LBO crystal (see Fig. 1). In Section 2, we analyze the phasematching conditions for second harmonic generation (SHG), third harmonic generation (THG) and sum-frequency- mixing (SFM) and provide the general guidance for achieving phase-matchable shortest wavelengths. Section 3 shows the numerical results based on the Seilmeir equations of LBO, where UV and IR sources are mixed for deep-UV sources. Schematics of proposed experimental setups are also shown.

  3. Sum frequency generation imaging microscopy of CO on platinum.

    PubMed

    Cimatu, Katherine; Baldelli, Steven

    2006-12-20

    Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy is utilized as an imaging technique to distinguish and compare the local response of carbon monoxide (CO) covered platinum (Pt) polycrystalline surface versus the average response of the investigated area. The Pt electrode was prepared using the standard method and was exposed to approximately 1 atm of CO(g). SFG images and vibrational spectra were obtained where the contrast is based on the intrinsic nature of each peak in the CO vibrational spectrum. The illustration of the images and the chemical maps of CO on the platinum surface showed the distribution of the CO across the observed area. The results obtained by comparing the local and the average response confirmed the spatial distributions of the CO on the platinum sample which are due to several reasons such as dipole-dipole coupling and surface coverage. This finding has a significant contribution toward recognizing that surfaces usually considered homogeneous may in fact be quite heterogeneous. PMID:17165737

  4. Multi-channel multi-carrier generation using multi-wavelength frequency shifting recirculating loop.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun; Dong, Ze; Zhang, Junwen; Shao, Yufeng; Chi, Nan

    2012-09-24

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel scheme to generate optical frequency-locked multi-channel multi-carriers (MCMC), using a recirculating frequency shifter (RFS) loop based on multi-wavelength frequency shifting single side band (MWFS-SSB) modulation. In this scheme, optical subcarriers with multiple wavelengths can be generated each round. Furthermore, the generated MCMC are frequency- and phase-locked within each channel, and therefore can be effectively used for WDM superchannel. Dual-wavelength frequency shifting SSB modulation is carried out with dual-wavelength optical seed source in our experimental demonstration. Using this scheme, we successfully generate dual-channel multi-carriers, and one channel has 28 subcarriers while the other has 29 ones with 25-GHz subcarrier spacing. We also experimentally demonstrate that this kind of source can be used to carry 50-Gb/s optical polarization-division-multiplexing quadrature phase shift keying (PDM-QPSK) signal. PMID:23037333

  5. Numerical analysis of second harmonic generation for THz-wave in a photonic crystal waveguide using a nonlinear FDTD algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Kyosuke; Tanabe, Tadao; Oyama, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    We have presented a numerical analysis to describe the behavior of a second harmonic generation (SHG) in THz regime by taking into account for both linear and nonlinear optical susceptibility. We employed a nonlinear finite-difference-time-domain (nonlinear FDTD) method to simulate SHG output characteristics in THz photonic crystal waveguide based on semi insulating gallium phosphide crystal. Unique phase matching conditions originated from photonic band dispersions with low group velocity are appeared, resulting in SHG output characteristics. This numerical study provides spectral information of SHG output in THz PC waveguide. THz PC waveguides is one of the active nonlinear optical devices in THz regime, and nonlinear FDTD method is a powerful tool to design photonic nonlinear THz devices.

  6. Evaluation of DAST and zinc telluride nonlinear crystals for efficient terahertz generation

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatesh, M.; Chaudhary, A. K.; Rao, K. S.

    2015-07-31

    Terahertz (THz) signal is generated from 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (i.e. DAST Crystal) and Zinc telluride (ZnTe) nonlinear crystals by employing 140 fs laser pulses at 800 nm with 80 MHz repetition rate. The semi insulating gallium arsenide photoconductive stripline antennas (gap =5 µm, length = 20 µm) is used as a Terahertz detector. The detected temporal profile of Terahertz radiation generated from DAST crystal is high as compared to ZnTe crystal in terms of amplitude. THz effective bandwidths of these crystals are extended up to 1.1 THz range. The potential of THz generation of DAST and ZnTe crystals are evaluated with respect to incident laser power.

  7. Characteristics, generation and mass transport of nonlinear internal waves on the Washington continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuang; Alford, Matthew H.; Mickett, John B.

    2015-02-01

    As a step toward better understanding the generation of nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) on continental shelves and the factors determining their morphology, amplitude and propagation, we analyze more than 1500 NLIWs detected on the Washington (WA) continental shelf using four summer/fall time series of temperature and velocity measurements from a surface mooring deployed in 100 m of water. Propagating onshore toward the northeast, these NLIWs take a variety of forms, including internal solitary waves, solitary wave trains and bores. Nearly all are mode-1 depression waves that arrive semidiurnally along with the internal tide. The NLIW energy flux is correlated with the internal tide energy flux but not the local barotropic forcing, implying that the observed NLIWs arise primarily from shoaling remotely generated internal tides rather than local generation. Estimated onshore transport by the waves can equal or exceed offshore Ekman transport, suggesting the waves may play an important role in the mass balance on the continental shelf.

  8. Highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass micro/nanofiber devices: Design, theory, and octave-spanning spectral generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Darren D.; Mägi, Eric C.; Judge, Alexander C.; Dekker, Stephen A.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2012-10-01

    In this review we consider the basic elements of tapering chalcogenide optical fibers for the generation of extreme spectral broadening through supercontinuum generation. Creating tapered nanofiber devices in chalcogenide fiber, which has an intrinsic nonlinearity that is two orders of magnitude higher than silica, has resulted in the demonstration of octave-spanning spectra using record low power. We first present a brief theoretical understanding of the tapering process that follows from the basic principle of mass conservation, and a geometric construction tool for the visualization of the shape of tapered fibers. This is followed by a theoretical treatment of dispersion engineering and supercontinuum generation in a chalcogenide nanofiber. In the final section, we cover the experimental implementation of the chalcogenide nanofiber and demonstrate an octave-spanning spectrum created with 150 W of peak power.

  9. Enhancement of nitric oxide generation by low frequency electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa; Tanigawa; Tanigawa; Imai; Hongo; Kondo

    2000-07-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the intracellular signal transduction pathways for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) induction. The electromagnetic field (EMF) is believed to increase the free radical lifespan [S. Roy, Y. Noda, V. Eckert, M.G. Traber, A. Mori, R. Liburdy, L. Packer, The phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced oxidative burst in rat peritoneal neutrophils is increased by a 0.1 mT (60 Hz) magnetic field, FEBS Lett. 376 (1995) 164-6; F.S. Prato, M. Kavaliers, J.J. Carson, Behavioural evidence that magnetic field effects in the land snail, Cepaea nemoralis, might not depend on magnetite or induced electric currents, Bioelectromagnetics 17 (1996) 123-30; A.L. Hulbert, J. Metcalfe, R. Hesketh, Biological response to electromagnetic fields, FASEB 12 (1998) 395-420]. We tested the effects of EMF on endotoxin induced nitric oxide (NO) generation in vivo. Male BALB/C mice were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intraperitoneously (i.p.), followed by the exposure to EMF (0.1 mT, 60 Hz). Five hours and 30 min after the LPS administration, mice were administered with a NO spin trap, ferrous N-methyl-D-glucaminedithiocarbamate (MGD-Fe). Thirty minutes later, mice were sacrificed, and their livers were removed. The results were compared to three control groups: group A (LPS (-) EMF(-)); group B (LPS(-) EMF(+)); group C (LPS(+) EMF(-)). The ESR spectra of obtained livers were examined at room temperature. Three-line spectra of NO adducts were observed in the livers of all groups. In groups A and B very weak signals were observed, but in groups C and D strong spectra were observed. The signal intensity of the NO adducts in Group D was also significantly stronger than that in Group C. EMF itself did not induce NO generation, however, it enhanced LPS induced NO generation in vivo. PMID:10927193

  10. System and Method for Generating a Frequency Modulated Linear Laser Waveform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierrottet, Diego F. (Inventor); Petway, Larry B. (Inventor); Amzajerdian, Farzin (Inventor); Barnes, Bruce W. (Inventor); Lockard, George E. (Inventor); Hines, Glenn D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system for generating a frequency modulated linear laser waveform includes a single frequency laser generator to produce a laser output signal. An electro-optical modulator modulates the frequency of the laser output signal to define a linear triangular waveform. An optical circulator passes the linear triangular waveform to a band-pass optical filter to filter out harmonic frequencies created in the waveform during modulation of the laser output signal, to define a pure filtered modulated waveform having a very narrow bandwidth. The optical circulator receives the pure filtered modulated laser waveform and transmits the modulated laser waveform to a target.

  11. Materials and characterization using acoustic nonlinearity parameters and harmonic generation - Effects of crystalline and amorphous structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of material structure on the nonlinearity parameters are reviewed. Problems discussed include definition of nonlinearity parameters, square-law nonlinearity and collinear beam-mixing, structure dependence of the nonlinearity parameters, negative nonlinearity parameters, and implications for materials characterization.

  12. A megavolt Marx generator with pulse recurrence frequency of 200 Hz

    SciTech Connect

    Bushlyakov, A.I.; Rukin, S.N.; Slovikovskii, B.G.

    1995-10-01

    The design problems related to repetitive Marx generators are discussed. The circuitry and structure of a megavolt nanosecond Marx generator with a pulse recurrence frequency of 200 Hz operating at an average power of 80 kW are described. The results of generator tests are given.

  13. Non-linear response of coupled soil-pile-structure system under sinusoidal excitations with various frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussien, Mahmoud N.; Tobita, Tetsuo; Iai, Susumu

    The non-linear response of coupled soil-pile-structure systems to seismic loading is parametrically studied in the frequency domain using two-dimensional (2D) finite elements (FE). The soil-pile interaction in three dimensions (3D) is idealized in the 2D type using soil-pile interaction springs with non-linear hysteretic load displacement relationships. The system under investigation comprises of a single degree of freedom structure supported by an end-bearing single pile founded in a homogenous sand layer over rigid rock. Comparisons with established results from the literature suggest that the adopted FE model reasonably captures the essential features of the seismic response of the coupled soil-pile-structure system. Numerical results demonstrate the strong influence on the effective natural period of the foundation properties. The effect of non-linear soil behavior and soil profile as well as the frequency content of excitation on both kinematic and inertial interactions is illustrated. The relative contributions of kinematic and inertial interaction to the development of dynamic pile bending are clarified.

  14. High frequency direct drive generation using white noise sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, S.; Sebacher, K.; Lawry, D.; Prather, W.; Hoffer, G.

    1994-12-01

    Damped sinusoid direct drive injection on interconnecting cable bundles between subsystems has long been used as a technique for determining susceptibility to electromagnetic transients in military weapon systems. Questions arise, however, about the adequacy of this method of individually injected, single sinusoids in assuring subsystem strength against broad band threats. This issue has recently been raised in the latest revision of MIL-STD-461 that requires subsystems exhibit no malfunctions when subjected to a repetitive square wave pulse with fast rise and fall time (CS115). An extension to this approach would be to test subsystems using arbitrary waveforms. In recent years arbitrary waveform generators (AWG's) have been used to duplicate, with a high degree of fidelity, the waveforms measured on cable bundles in a system illuminated by fields in a system-level EMP simulator. However, the operating speeds of present AWG's do not allow the extension of this approach to meet new threats such as MIL-STD-2169A. A novel alternative approach for generation of the required signals, being developed in a cooperative effort between the Naval Air Warfare Center and Phillips Laboratory, is the use of white noise signals conditioned in such a manner to produce the desired direct drive waveforms.

  15. Wind/PV Generation for Frequency Regulation and Oscillation Damping in the Eastern Interconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yong; Gracia, Jose R; Hadley, Stanton W; Liu, Yilu

    2013-12-01

    This report presents the control of renewable energy sources, including the variable-speed wind generators and solar photovoltaic (PV) generators, for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI). In this report, based on the user-defined wind/PV generator electrical control model and the 16,000-bus Eastern Interconnection dynamic model, the additional controllers for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are developed and incorporated and the potential contributions of renewable energy sources to the EI system frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are evaluated.

  16. Improved efficiency of heat generation in nonlinear dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rácz, J; de Châtel, P F; Szabó, I A; Szunyogh, L; Nándori, I

    2016-01-01

    The deterministic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation has been used to investigate the nonlinear dynamics of magnetization and the specific loss power in magnetic nanoparticles with uniaxial anisotropy driven by a rotating magnetic field. We propose a new type of applied field, which is "simultaneously rotating and alternating," i.e., the direction of the rotating external field changes periodically. We show that a more efficient heat generation by magnetic nanoparticles is possible with this new type of applied field and we suggest its possible experimental realization in cancer therapy which requires the enhancement of loss energies. PMID:26871122

  17. Stable and unstable invariant manifolds in a partially chaotic magnetic configuration generated by nonlinear reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Borgogno, D.; Grasso, D.; Pegoraro, F.; Schep, T. J.

    2008-10-15

    A numerical contour dynamics code has been employed to calculate the stable and unstable manifolds related to two interacting magnetic island chains. The magnetic configuration is generated by a nonlinear reconnection process described in D. Borgogno et al. [Phys. Plasmas. 12, 032309 (2005)]. The appearance of the first homoclinic and heteroclinic intersections of the dominant manifolds are shown and one of the associated uniformly hyperbolic orbits is given. The stickiness of the field lines around the island and the eventual development of global stochasticity are discussed. The basic geometry of the magnetic configuration is periodic so that the structure of the manifolds may be compared with the one obtained with Poincare plots.

  18. Improved efficiency of heat generation in nonlinear dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rácz, J.; de Châtel, P. F.; Szabó, I. A.; Szunyogh, L.; Nándori, I.

    2016-01-01

    The deterministic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation has been used to investigate the nonlinear dynamics of magnetization and the specific loss power in magnetic nanoparticles with uniaxial anisotropy driven by a rotating magnetic field. We propose a new type of applied field, which is "simultaneously rotating and alternating," i.e., the direction of the rotating external field changes periodically. We show that a more efficient heat generation by magnetic nanoparticles is possible with this new type of applied field and we suggest its possible experimental realization in cancer therapy which requires the enhancement of loss energies.

  19. Spectral phase correlation of coded femtosecond pulses by second-harmonic generation in thick nonlinear crystals.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Z; Weiner, A M

    2000-07-01

    We demonstrate a novel all-optical scheme for measuring the correlation of spectrally phase-coded ultrashort optical waveforms that uses second-harmonic generation (SHG) in long, periodically poled lithium niobate crystals. The SHG yield can be controlled over a range of ~30 dB, depending on the correlation of the applied phase codes. Such a spectral phase correlator has applications for ultrashort-pulse optical code-division multiple-access networking and could serve as a nonlinear optical but classical analog for certain schemes for coherent quantum control of multiphoton processes. PMID:18064248

  20. A nonlinear trajectory command generator for a digital flight-control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicolani, L. S.; Weissenberger, S.

    1978-01-01

    Operational application of the command generator (CG) was examined in detail in a simulation of a flight control system with the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft. The basic repertoire of single axis maneuvers and operational constraints are discussed, and the system behavior is tested on a rigorous STOL approach path and as affected by various approximations in the CG synthesis and types of disturbances found in the operational environment. The simulation results indicate that a satisfactory nonlinear system with general maneuvering capabilities throughout the flight envelope was developed which satisfies the basic design objectives while maintaining a practicable degree of simplicity.