Science.gov

Sample records for nonlinear stacking interactions

  1. Nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, William B. (Inventor); Kontos, Karen B. (Inventor); Weir, Donald S. (Inventor); Nolcheff, Nick A. (Inventor); Gunaraj, John A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane having a characteristic curve that is characterized by a nonlinear sweep and a nonlinear lean is provided. The stator is in an axial fan or compressor turbomachinery stage that is comprised of a collection of vanes whose highly three-dimensional shape is selected to reduce rotor-stator and rotor-strut interaction noise while maintaining the aerodynamic and mechanical performance of the vane. The nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane reduces noise associated with the fan stage of turbomachinery to improve environmental compatibility.

  2. Nonlinear acoustic impedance of thermoacoustic stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Huan; Fan, Li; Xiao, Shu-yu; Tao, Sha; Qiu, Mei-chen; Zhang, Shu-yi; Zhang, Hui

    2012-09-01

    In order to optimize the performances of the thermoacoustic refrigerator working with the high sound pressure level, the nonlinear acoustic characteristics of the thermoacoustic stack in the resonant pipe are studied. The acoustic fluid impedance of the stack made of copper mesh and set up in a resonant pipe is measured in the acoustic fields with different intensities. It is found that when the sound pressure level in the pipe increases to a critical value, the resistance of the stack increases nonlinearly with the sound pressure, while the reactance of the stack keeps constant. Based on the experimental results, a theory model is set up to describe the acoustic characteristics of the stack, according to the rigid frame theory and Forchheimmer equation. Furthermore, the influences of the sound pressure level, operating frequency, volume porosity, and length of the stack on the nonlinear impedance of the stack are evaluated.

  3. Stacking interactions and DNA intercalation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dr. Shen; Cooper, Valentino R; Thonhauser, Prof. Timo; Lundqvist, Prof. Bengt I.; Langreth, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between stacking interactions and the intercalation of proflavine and ellipticine within DNA is investigated using a nonempirical van der Waals density functional for the correlation energy. Our results, employing a binary stack model, highlight fundamental, qualitative differences between base-pair base-pair interactions and that of the stacked intercalator base pair system. Most notable result is the paucity of torque which so distinctively defines the Twist of DNA. Surprisingly, this model, when combined with a constraint on the twist of the surrounding base-pair steps to match the observed unwinding of the sugar-phosphate backbone, was sufficient for explaining the experimentally observed proflavine intercalator configuration. Our extensive mapping of the potential energy surface of base-pair intercalator interactions can provide valuable information for future nonempirical studies of DNA intercalation dynamics.

  4. Nonlinear dynamics of a stack/cable system

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.

    1995-07-01

    In this study, we developed a coupled model of wind-induced vibration of a stack, based on an unsteady-flow theory and nonlinear dynamics of the stack`s heavy elastic suspended cables. Numerical analysis was performed to identify excitation mechanisms. The stack was found to be excited by vortex shedding. Once lock-in resonance occurred, the cables were excited by the transverse motion of the stack. Large-amplitude oscillations of the cables were due to parametric resonance. Appropriate techniques have been proposed to alleviate the vibration problem.

  5. Stacking interactions in PUF-RNA complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Yiling Koh, Yvonne; Wang, Yeming; Qiu, Chen; Opperman, Laura; Gross, Leah; Tanaka Hall, Traci M; Wickens, Marvin

    2012-07-02

    Stacking interactions between amino acids and bases are common in RNA-protein interactions. Many proteins that regulate mRNAs interact with single-stranded RNA elements in the 3' UTR (3'-untranslated region) of their targets. PUF proteins are exemplary. Here we focus on complexes formed between a Caenorhabditis elegans PUF protein, FBF, and its cognate RNAs. Stacking interactions are particularly prominent and involve every RNA base in the recognition element. To assess the contribution of stacking interactions to formation of the RNA-protein complex, we combine in vivo selection experiments with site-directed mutagenesis, biochemistry, and structural analysis. Our results reveal that the identities of stacking amino acids in FBF affect both the affinity and specificity of the RNA-protein interaction. Substitutions in amino acid side chains can restrict or broaden RNA specificity. We conclude that the identities of stacking residues are important in achieving the natural specificities of PUF proteins. Similarly, in PUF proteins engineered to bind new RNA sequences, the identity of stacking residues may contribute to 'target' versus 'off-target' interactions, and thus be an important consideration in the design of proteins with new specificities.

  6. Nonlinear dynamics of a stack/cable system subjected to vortex-induced vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    A model of a stack/wire system, wind-induced vibration of the stack based on an unsteady-flow theory, and nonlinear dynamics of the stack`s heavy elastic suspended cables was developed in this study. The response characteristics of the stack and cables are presented for different conditions. The dominant excitation mechanisms are lock-in resonance of the stack by vortex shedding and parametric resonance of suspended cables by stack motion at their support ends.

  7. Nonlinear dynamics of a stack/cable system subjected to vortex-induced vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.

    1997-08-01

    A model of a stack/wire system, wind-induced vibration of the stack based on an unsteady-flow theory, and nonlinear dynamics of the stack`s heavy elastic suspended cables was developed in this study. The response characteristics of the stack and cables are presented for different conditions. The dominant excitation mechanisms are lock-in resonance of the stack by vortex shedding and parametric resonance of suspended cables by stack motion at their support ends.

  8. Nonlinear modelling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack using nonlinear cancellation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barus, R. P. P.; Tjokronegoro, H. A.; Leksono, E.; Ismunandar

    2014-09-01

    Fuel cells are promising new energy conversion devices that are friendly to the environment. A set of control systems are required in order to operate a fuel cell based power plant system optimally. For the purpose of control system design, an accurate fuel cell stack model in describing the dynamics of the real system is needed. Currently, linear model are widely used for fuel cell stack control purposes, but it has limitations in narrow operation range. While nonlinear models lead to nonlinear control implemnetation whos more complex and hard computing. In this research, nonlinear cancellation technique will be used to transform a nonlinear model into a linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics. The transformation is done by replacing the input of the original model by a certain virtual input that has nonlinear relationship with the original input. Then the equality of the two models is tested by running a series of simulation. Input variation of H2, O2 and H2O as well as disturbance input I (current load) are studied by simulation. The error of comparison between the proposed model and the original nonlinear model are less than 1 %. Thus we can conclude that nonlinear cancellation technique can be used to represent fuel cell nonlinear model in a simple linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics and therefore retain the wide operation range.

  9. Nonlinear modelling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack using nonlinear cancellation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Barus, R. P. P.; Tjokronegoro, H. A.; Leksono, E.; Ismunandar

    2014-09-25

    Fuel cells are promising new energy conversion devices that are friendly to the environment. A set of control systems are required in order to operate a fuel cell based power plant system optimally. For the purpose of control system design, an accurate fuel cell stack model in describing the dynamics of the real system is needed. Currently, linear model are widely used for fuel cell stack control purposes, but it has limitations in narrow operation range. While nonlinear models lead to nonlinear control implemnetation whos more complex and hard computing. In this research, nonlinear cancellation technique will be used to transform a nonlinear model into a linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics. The transformation is done by replacing the input of the original model by a certain virtual input that has nonlinear relationship with the original input. Then the equality of the two models is tested by running a series of simulation. Input variation of H2, O2 and H2O as well as disturbance input I (current load) are studied by simulation. The error of comparison between the proposed model and the original nonlinear model are less than 1 %. Thus we can conclude that nonlinear cancellation technique can be used to represent fuel cell nonlinear model in a simple linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics and therefore retain the wide operation range.

  10. Twist versus nonlinear stacking in short DNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Zoli, Marco

    2014-08-01

    The denaturation of the double helix is a template for fundamental biological functions such as replication and transcription involving the formation of local fluctuational openings. The denaturation transition is studied for heterogeneous short sequences of DNA, i.e. ~100 base pairs, in the framework of a mesoscopic Hamiltonian model which accounts for the helicoidal geometry of the molecule. The theoretical background for the application of the path integral formalism to predictive analysis of the molecule thermodynamical properties is discussed. The base pair displacements with respect to the ground state are treated as paths whose temperature dependent amplitudes are governed by the thermal wavelength. The ensemble of base pairs paths is selected, at any temperature, consistently with both the model potential and the second law of thermodynamics. The partition function incorporates the effects of the base pair thermal fluctuations which become stronger close to the denaturation. The transition appears as a gradual phenomenon starting from the molecule segments rich in adenine-thymine base pairs. Computing the equilibrium thermodynamics, we focus on the interplay between twisting of the complementary strands around the molecule axis and nonlinear stacking potential: it is shown that the latter affects the melting profiles only if the rotational degrees of freedom are included in the Hamiltonian. The use of ladder Hamiltonian models for the DNA complementary strands in the pre-melting regime is questioned. PMID:24685891

  11. Nonlinear interaction between single photons.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, T; Martin, A; Sanguinetti, B; Pelc, J S; Langrock, C; Fejer, M M; Gisin, N; Zbinden, H; Sangouard, N; Thew, R T

    2014-10-24

    Harnessing nonlinearities strong enough to allow single photons to interact with one another is not only a fascinating challenge but also central to numerous advanced applications in quantum information science. Here we report the nonlinear interaction between two single photons. Each photon is generated in independent parametric down-conversion sources. They are subsequently combined in a nonlinear waveguide where they are converted into a single photon of higher energy by the process of sum-frequency generation. Our approach results in the direct generation of photon triplets. More generally, it highlights the potential for quantum nonlinear optics with integrated devices and, as the photons are at telecom wavelengths, it opens the way towards novel applications in quantum communication such as device-independent quantum key distribution. PMID:25379916

  12. Nonlinear pulse propagation in one-dimensional metal-dielectric multilayer stacks: ultrawide bandwidth optical limiting.

    PubMed

    Scalora, Michael; Mattiucci, Nadia; D'Aguanno, Giuseppe; Larciprete, MariaCristina; Bloemer, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    We numerically study the nonlinear optical properties of metal-dielectric photonic band gap structures in the pulsed regime. We exploit the high chi3 of copper metal to induce nonlinear effects such as broadband optical limiting, self-phase modulation, and unusual spectral narrowing of high intensity pulses. We show that in a single pass through a typical, chirped multilayer stack nonlinear transmittance and peak powers can be reduced by nearly two orders of magnitude compared to low light intensity levels across the entire visible range. Chirping dielectric layer thickness dramatically improves the linear transmittance through the stack and achieves large fields inside the copper to access the large nonlinearity. At the same time, the linear properties of the stack block most of the remaining electromagnetic spectrum. PMID:16486291

  13. Interaction: Additivity plus Nonlinearity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, T. P.

    2004-01-01

    Whether or not there is an interaction between two factors in their effects on a dependent variable is often a central question. This paper proposes a general mechanism by which an interaction may arise: (a) the two factors are the same thing--or, at least, have a dimension in common--in the sense that it is meaningful to add (or subtract) them;…

  14. Edge-edge interactions in stacked graphene nanoplatelets

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz Silva, Eduardo; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio; Jia, Xiaoting; Sumpter, Bobby G; Dresselhaus, M; Meunier, V.

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies show the dynamics of small graphene platelets on larger graphene layers. The platelets move nearly freely to eventually lock in at well-defined positions close to the edges of the larger underlying graphene sheet. While such movement is driven by a shallow potential energy surface described by an interplane interaction, the lock-in position occurs by via edge-edge interactions of the platelet and the graphene surface located underneath. Here we quantitatively study this behavior using van der Waals density functional calculations. Local interactions at the open edges are found to dictate stacking configurations that are different from Bernal (AB) stacking. These stacking configurations are known to be otherwise absent in edge-free two-dimensional (2D) graphene. The results explain the experimentally observed platelet dynamics and provide a detailed account of the new electronic properties of these combined systems.

  15. Interaction driven quantum Hall effect in artificially stacked graphene bilayers.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Siddique, Salma; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Ramay, Shahid Mahmood; Nam, Jungtae; Kim, Keun Soo; Eom, Jonghwa

    2016-01-01

    The honeycomb lattice structure of graphene gives rise to its exceptional electronic properties of linear dispersion relation and its chiral nature of charge carriers. The exceptional electronic properties of graphene stem from linear dispersion relation and chiral nature of charge carries, originating from its honeycomb lattice structure. Here, we address the quantum Hall effect in artificially stacked graphene bilayers and single layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. The quantum Hall plateaus started to appear more than 3 T and became clearer at higher magnetic fields up to 9 T. Shubnikov-de Hass oscillations were manifestly observed in graphene bilayers texture. These unusual plateaus may have been due to the layers interaction in artificially stacked graphene bilayers. Our study initiates the understanding of interactions between artificially stacked graphene layers. PMID:27098387

  16. Interaction driven quantum Hall effect in artificially stacked graphene bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Siddique, Salma; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Ramay, Shahid Mahmood; Nam, Jungtae; Kim, Keun Soo; Eom, Jonghwa

    2016-01-01

    The honeycomb lattice structure of graphene gives rise to its exceptional electronic properties of linear dispersion relation and its chiral nature of charge carriers. The exceptional electronic properties of graphene stem from linear dispersion relation and chiral nature of charge carries, originating from its honeycomb lattice structure. Here, we address the quantum Hall effect in artificially stacked graphene bilayers and single layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. The quantum Hall plateaus started to appear more than 3 T and became clearer at higher magnetic fields up to 9 T. Shubnikov-de Hass oscillations were manifestly observed in graphene bilayers texture. These unusual plateaus may have been due to the layers interaction in artificially stacked graphene bilayers. Our study initiates the understanding of interactions between artificially stacked graphene layers. PMID:27098387

  17. Interaction driven quantum Hall effect in artificially stacked graphene bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Siddique, Salma; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Ramay, Shahid Mahmood; Nam, Jungtae; Kim, Keun Soo; Eom, Jonghwa

    2016-04-01

    The honeycomb lattice structure of graphene gives rise to its exceptional electronic properties of linear dispersion relation and its chiral nature of charge carriers. The exceptional electronic properties of graphene stem from linear dispersion relation and chiral nature of charge carries, originating from its honeycomb lattice structure. Here, we address the quantum Hall effect in artificially stacked graphene bilayers and single layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. The quantum Hall plateaus started to appear more than 3 T and became clearer at higher magnetic fields up to 9 T. Shubnikov-de Hass oscillations were manifestly observed in graphene bilayers texture. These unusual plateaus may have been due to the layers interaction in artificially stacked graphene bilayers. Our study initiates the understanding of interactions between artificially stacked graphene layers.

  18. Aromatic stacking interactions govern catalysis in aryl-alcohol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Patricia; Hernández-Ortega, Aitor; Lucas, Fátima; Carro, Juan; Herguedas, Beatriz; Borrelli, Kenneth W; Guallar, Victor; Martínez, Angel T; Medina, Milagros

    2015-08-01

    Aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO, EC 1.1.3.7) generates H2 O2 for lignin degradation at the expense of benzylic and other π system-containing primary alcohols, which are oxidized to the corresponding aldehydes. Ligand diffusion studies on Pleurotus eryngii AAO showed a T-shaped stacking interaction between the Tyr92 side chain and the alcohol substrate at the catalytically competent position for concerted hydride and proton transfers. Bi-substrate kinetics analysis revealed that reactions with 3-chloro- or 3-fluorobenzyl alcohols (halogen substituents) proceed via a ping-pong mechanism. However, mono- and dimethoxylated substituents (in 4-methoxybenzyl and 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohols) altered the mechanism and a ternary complex was formed. Electron-withdrawing substituents resulted in lower quantum mechanics stacking energies between aldehyde and the tyrosine side chain, contributing to product release, in agreement with the ping-pong mechanism observed in 3-chloro- and 3-fluorobenzyl alcohol kinetics analysis. In contrast, the higher stacking energies when electron donor substituents are present result in reaction of O2 with the flavin through a ternary complex, in agreement with the kinetics of methoxylated alcohols. The contribution of Tyr92 to the AAO reaction mechanism was investigated by calculation of stacking interaction energies and site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of Tyr92 by phenylalanine does not alter the AAO kinetic constants (on 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol), most probably because the stacking interaction is still possible. However, introduction of a tryptophan residue at this position strongly reduced the affinity for the substrate (i.e. the pre-steady state Kd and steady-state Km increase by 150-fold and 75-fold, respectively), and therefore the steady-state catalytic efficiency, suggesting that proper stacking is impossible with this bulky residue. The above results confirm the role of Tyr92 in substrate binding, thus governing the kinetic mechanism

  19. New Insights into Hydrogen Bonding and Stacking Interactions in Cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Langan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this quantum chemical study, we explore hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) and stacking interactions in different crystalline cellulose allomorphs, namely cellulose I and cellulose IIII. We consider a model system representing a cellulose crystalline core, made from six cellobiose units arranged in three layers with two chains per layer. We calculate the contributions of intrasheet and intersheet interactions to the structure and stability in both cellulose I and cellulose IIII crystalline cores. Reference structures for this study were generated from molecular dynamics simulations of water-solvated cellulose I and IIII fibrils. A systematic analysis of various conformations describing different mutual orientations of cellobiose units is performed using the hybrid density functional theory (DFT) with the M06-2X with 6-31+G (d, p) basis sets. We dissect the nature of the forces that stabilize the cellulose I and cellulose IIII crystalline cores and quantify the relative strength of H-bonding and stacking interactions. Our calculations demonstrate that individual H-bonding interactions are stronger in cellulose I than in cellulose IIII. We also observe a significant contribution from cooperative stacking interactions to the stabilization of cellulose I . In addition, the theory of atoms-in-molecules (AIM) has been employed to characterize and quantify these intermolecular interactions. AIM analyses highlight the role of nonconventional CH O H-bonding in the cellulose assemblies. Finally, we calculate molecular electrostatic potential maps for the cellulose allomorphs that capture the differences in chemical reactivity of the systems considered in our study.

  20. Stacked stem cell sheets enhance cell-matrix interactions

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nikul G; Zhang, Ge

    2014-01-01

    Cell sheet engineering has enabled the production of confluent cell sheets stacked together for use as a cardiac patch to increase cell survival rate and engraftment after transplantation, thereby providing a promising strategy for high density stem cell delivery for cardiac repair. One key challenge in using cell sheet technology is the difficulty of cell sheet handling due to its weak mechanical properties. A single-layer cell sheet is generally very fragile and tends to break or clump during harvest. Effective transfer and stacking methods are needed to move cell sheet technology into widespread clinical applications. In this study, we developed a simple and effective micropipette based method to aid cell sheet transfer and stacking. The cell viability after transfer was tested and multi-layer stem cell sheets were fabricated using the developed method. Furthermore, we examined the interactions between stacked stem cell sheets and fibrin matrix. Our results have shown that the preserved ECM associated with the detached cell sheet greatly facilitates its adherence to fibrin matrix and enhances the cell sheet-matrix interactions. Accelerated fibrin degradation caused by attached cell sheets was also observed. PMID:24769850

  1. Interaction nonlinearity in asphalt binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motamed, Arash; Bhasin, Amit; Liechti, Kenneth M.

    2012-05-01

    Asphalt mixtures are complex composites that comprise aggregate, asphalt binder, and air. Several research studies have shown that the mechanical behavior of the asphalt mixture is strongly influenced by the matrix, i.e. the asphalt binder. Characterization and a thorough understanding of the binder behavior is the first and crucial step towards developing an accurate constitutive model for the composite. Accurate constitutive models for the constituent materials are critical to ensure accurate performance predictions at a material and structural level using micromechanics. This paper presents the findings from a systematic investigation into the nature of the linear and nonlinear response of asphalt binders subjected to different types of loading using the Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR). Laboratory test data show that a compressive normal force is generated in an axially constrained specimen subjected to torsional shear. This paper investigates the source of this normal force and demonstrates that the asphalt binder can dilate when subjected to shear loads. This paper also presents the findings from a study conducted to investigate the source of the nonlinearity in the asphalt binder. Test results demonstrate that the application of cyclic shear loads results in the development of a normal force and a concomitant reduction in the dynamic shear modulus. This form of nonlinear response is referred to as an "interaction nonlinearity". A combination of experimental and analytical tools is used to demonstrate and verify the presence of this interaction nonlinearity in asphalt binders. The findings from this study highlight the importance of modeling the mechanical behavior of asphalt binders based on the overall stress state of the material.

  2. Interactive histology of large-scale biomedical image stacks.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Won-Ki; Schneider, Jens; Turney, Stephen G; Faulkner-Jones, Beverly E; Meyer, Dominik; Westermann, Rüdiger; Reid, R Clay; Lichtman, Jeff; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2010-01-01

    Histology is the study of the structure of biological tissue using microscopy techniques. As digital imaging technology advances, high resolution microscopy of large tissue volumes is becoming feasible; however, new interactive tools are needed to explore and analyze the enormous datasets. In this paper we present a visualization framework that specifically targets interactive examination of arbitrarily large image stacks. Our framework is built upon two core techniques: display-aware processing and GPU-accelerated texture compression. With display-aware processing, only the currently visible image tiles are fetched and aligned on-the-fly, reducing memory bandwidth and minimizing the need for time-consuming global pre-processing. Our novel texture compression scheme for GPUs is tailored for quick browsing of image stacks. We evaluate the usability of our viewer for two histology applications: digital pathology and visualization of neural structure at nanoscale-resolution in serial electron micrographs. PMID:20975179

  3. Atomic-scale details of dislocation - stacking fault tetrahedra interaction.

    SciTech Connect

    Osetskiy, Yury N; Stoller, Roger E; Rodney, David; Bacon, David J

    2005-01-01

    Stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs) are formed during irradiation of fcc. metals and alloys with low stacking fault energy. The high number density of SFTs observed suggests that they should contribute to radiation-induced hardening and, therefore, be taken into account when estimating mechanical property changes of irradiated materials. The key issue is to describe the interaction between a moving dislocation and an individual SFT, which is characterized by a small physical scale of about 100 nm. In this paper we present results of an atomistic simulation of edge and screw dislocations interacting with small SFTs at different temperatures and strain rates and present mechanisms which can explain the formation of defect-free channels observed experimentally.

  4. The influence of piezoceramic stack location on nonlinear behavior of Langevin transducers.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Andrew; Cardoni, Andrea; Cerisola, Niccolò; Lucas, Margaret

    2013-06-01

    Power ultrasonic applications such as cutting, welding, and sonochemistry often use Langevin transducers to generate power ultrasound. Traditionally, it has been proposed that the piezoceramic stack of a Langevin transducer should be located in the nodal plane of the longitudinal mode of vibration, ensuring that the piezoceramic elements are positioned under a uniform stress during transducer operation, maximizing element efficiency and minimizing piezoceramic aging. However, this general design rule is often partially broken during the design phase if features such as a support flange or multiple piezoceramic stacks are incorporated into the transducer architecture. Meanwhile, it has also been well documented in the literature that power ultrasonic devices driven at high excitation levels exhibit nonlinear behaviors similar to those observed in Duffing-type systems, such as resonant frequency shifts, the jump phenomenon, and hysteretic regions. This study investigates three Langevin transducers with different piezoceramic stack locations by characterizing their linear and nonlinear vibrational responses to understand how the stack location influences nonlinear behavior. PMID:25004475

  5. RKKY interaction in AB-stacked multilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Liwei; Lü, Xiaoling; Gao, Wenzhu; Yu, Guodong; Liu, Zhe; Zheng, Yisong

    2012-05-01

    The RKKY interaction between two magnetic impurities absorbed on the surface layer of half-filled AB-stacked multilayer graphene (ABSMLG) is theoretically studied based on the lattice Green’s function technique. In comparison with the case of monolayer graphene, the RKKY interaction in such multilayer graphene presents distinct properties in some aspects. Firstly, from the numerical results, we find that the thickness of the ABSMLG influences the RKKY interaction in a complicated manner, depending on the odd/even parity of the number of layers and the sublattice attribution of the positions of the two magnetic impurities. Then, we derive the asymptotic expressions of the RKKY interactions in ABSMLG in the long-distance limit. For even-layered ABSMLG, we find that the RKKY interactions of the 1A-1A, 1B-1A and 1B-1B couplings fall off as 1/R2, 1/R4 and 1/R6 (1A and 1B stand for, respectively, the sublattice points in the surface layer, which are positioned directly on the plaquette and on a lattice point of the layer underneath). On the other hand, in odd-layered ABSMLG, the decays of these interactions follow the 1/R2, 1/R3 and 1/R3 power laws respectively. In addition, we also find that these analytical expressions are quantitatively valid to describe the RKKY interaction in ABSMLG when the distance between the two magnetic impurities is larger than the lattice constant of graphene by one order of magnitude.

  6. A nonlinear dynamic model of DNA with a sequence-dependent stacking term

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrov, Boian S.; Gelev, Vladimir; Monisova, Yevgeniya; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Bishop, Alan R.; Rasmussen, Kim Ø.; Usheva, Anny

    2009-01-01

    No simple model exists that accurately describes the melting behavior and breathing dynamics of double-stranded DNA as a function of nucleotide sequence. This is especially true for homogenous and periodic DNA sequences, which exhibit large deviations in melting temperature from predictions made by additive thermodynamic contributions. Currently, no method exists for analysis of the DNA breathing dynamics of repeats and of highly G/C- or A/T-rich regions, even though such sequences are widespread in vertebrate genomes. Here, we extend the nonlinear Peyrard–Bishop–Dauxois (PBD) model of DNA to include a sequence-dependent stacking term, resulting in a model that can accurately describe the melting behavior of homogenous and periodic sequences. We collect melting data for several DNA oligos, and apply Monte Carlo simulations to establish force constants for the 10 dinucleotide steps (CG, CA, GC, AT, AG, AA, AC, TA, GG, TC). The experiments and numerical simulations confirm that the GG/CC dinucleotide stacking is remarkably unstable, compared with the stacking in GC/CG and CG/GC dinucleotide steps. The extended PBD model will facilitate thermodynamic and dynamic simulations of important genomic regions such as CpG islands and disease-related repeats. PMID:19264801

  7. Nonlinear heat transport between the stack and the heat-exchangers of standing-wave thermoacoustic refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Benon, Ph.; Berson, A.

    2008-06-01

    The development of high performance thermoacoustic refrigerators requires an efficient heat transport between the stack and the heat exchangers. A 1D nonlinear model for the thermal coupling of these two components is proposed in the case of a standing-wave thermaocoustic refrigerator. It shows the generation of temperature harmonics close to the edges of the plates that affects heat transport. In order to validate the model, the nonlinear temperature field close to the stack edges is measured using cold-wire anemometry.

  8. A breathing wormlike chain model on DNA denaturation and bubble: effects of stacking interactions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Yeol; Jeon, Jae-Hyung; Sung, Wokyung

    2008-02-01

    DNA stably exists as a double-stranded structure due to hydrogen-bonding and stacking interactions between bases. The stacking interactions are strengthened when DNA is paired, which results in great enhancement of bending rigidity. We study the effects of this stacking-induced stiffness difference on DNA denaturation and bubble formations. To this end, we model double-stranded DNA as a duplex of two semiflexible chains whose persistence length varies depending on the base-pair distance. Using this model, we perform the Langevin dynamics simulation to examine the characteristics of the denaturation transition and the statistics of the bubbles. We find that the inclusion of the stacking interactions causes the denaturation transition to be much sharper than otherwise. At physiological temperature, the stacking interactions prohibit the initiation of bubble formation but promote bubbles, once grown, to retain the large size. PMID:18266461

  9. Nonlinear optical interactions in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salour, M. M.

    1985-12-01

    The optical pumping technique in GaAs has led to the development of a novel and highly sensitive optical temperature sensor. Completed is the experiment on two photon optical pumping in ZnO. An external cavity semiconductor laser involving ZnO as a gain medium was demonstrated under two-photon excitation. This laser should have a major impact on the development of tunable blue-green radiation for submarine communication. Completed is a paper on heat buildup in semiconductor platelets. New lasers are used to explore elementary excitation in optical thin film layers of semiconductors. This has led to the first demonstration of the feasibility of room temperature operation of a tunable coherent source involving multiple quantum well material. Completed is the construction of a simple remote (non-contact) temperature sensor to directly measure heat buildup in semiconductor materials as a result of high power optical laser excitation. Finally, an experiment involving optical frequency mixing to probe electrodynamics in the GaAlAs multiple quantumwell and superlattice structures, utilizing two recently constructed tunabel laser systems,has been successful. Attempts were focused on observing a number of new optical effects including nonlinear absorption and transmission phenomena, enhanced spontaneous and stimulated light scattering processes, etc. The construction of an external cavity semiconductor HgCdTe has been successful.

  10. Supramolecular step in design of nonlinear optical materials: Effect of π…π stacking aggregation on hyperpolarizability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suponitsky, Kyrill Yu; Masunov, Artëm E.

    2013-09-01

    Theoretical estimation of nonlinear optical (NLO) properties is an important step in systematic search for optoelectronic materials. Density functional theory methods are often used to predict first molecular hyperpolarizability for compounds in advance of their synthesis. However, design of molecular NLO materials require an estimation of the bulk properties, which are often approximated as additive superposition of molecular tensors. It is therefore important to evaluate the accuracy of this additive approximation and estimate the extent by which intermolecular interactions influence the first molecular hyperpolarizability β. Here we focused on the stacking aggregates, including up to 12 model molecules (pNA and ANS) and observed enhancement and suppression of molecular hyperpolarizability relative to the additive sum. We found that degree of nonadditivity depends on relative orientation of the molecular dipole moments and does not correlate with intermolecular interaction energy. Frenkel exciton model, based on dipole-dipole approximation can be used for qualitative prediction of intermolecular effects. We report on inaccuracy of this model for the molecules with long π-systems that are significantly shifted relative to each other, when dipole-dipole approximation becomes inaccurate. To obtain more detailed information on the effect of intermolecular interactions on β we proposed electrostatic approach which accounts for the mutual polarization of the molecules by each other. We measure the induced polarization of each molecule in the aggregate by the charge of its donor (or acceptor) group. The proposed approach demonstrates linear correlation βFF vs βelm (estimated by finite field theory and electrostatic model, respectively) and allows decomposition of the hyperpolarizability for a molecular aggregate into separate molecular contributions. We used this decomposition to analyze the reasons of deviation of aggregate β from additivity, as well as the

  11. Nonlinear, inelastic fast reactor subassembly interaction analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, W.H.; Bard, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) core structural design is complicated by the trade-offs associated with keeping the subassemblies closely packed for the neutronic considerations and accommodating the volumetric changes associated with irradiation swelling. The environmental variation across the reactor core results in temperature and neutron flux gradients across the subassemblies which in turn cause the subassemblies to bow as well as dilate and grow volumetrically. These deformations in a tightly packed reactor core cause the subassemblies to interact and can potentially result in excessive withdrawal loads during the refueling operations. ABADAN, a general purpose, nonlinear, inelastic, multi-dimensional finite element structural analysis computer code, was developed for the express purpose of solving large nonlinear problems as typified by the above interaction problems. For the subassembly interaction problem ABADAN has been applied to the solution of an interacting radial row of Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel assemblies.

  12. Stacking Interactions between 9-Methyladenine and Heterocycles Commonly Found in Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    An, Yi; Doney, Analise C; Andrade, Rodrigo B; Wheeler, Steven E

    2016-05-23

    Complexes of 9-methyladenine with 46 heterocycles commonly found in drugs were located using dispersion-corrected density functional theory, providing a representative set of 408 unique stacked dimers. The predicted binding enthalpies for each heterocycle span a broad range, highlighting the strong dependence of heterocycle stacking interactions on the relative orientation of the interacting rings. Overall, the presence of NH and carbonyl groups lead to the strongest stacking interactions with 9-methyadenine, and the strength of π-stacking interactions is sensitive to the distribution of heteroatoms within the ring as well as the specific tautomer considered. Although molecular dipole moments provide a sound predictor of the strengths and orientations of the 28 monocyclic heterocycles considered, dipole moments for the larger fused heterocycles show very little correlation with the predicted binding enthalpies. PMID:27074615

  13. Relative substituent position on the strength of π-π stacking interactions

    PubMed Central

    Emenike, Bright U.; Alverez, Celeste N.; Rakovan, John; Kirschbaum, Kristin; Jain, Nirbhay

    2010-01-01

    It was observed that the relative position of the arene substituents have a profound influence on the strength of π-π stacking in the 9-benzyl substituted triptycene system. A new series of model compounds (3a-i) capable of revealing quantitatively π-π stacking interactions was studied. This series of compounds (3a-i) has an ortho substituted methyl group in one of the two interacting arenes and the syn/anti ratios were determined and compared to a series previously studied compounds (4a-i) that have a para methyl group on the corresponding arene. A greater than 50% increase in the strength of π-π stacking interactions was observed with the methyl group in the ortho position comparing to that in the para position. No difference in π-π stacking interactions was observed when the other aromatic ring was a pentafluorobenzoate group. PMID:20209117

  14. Experimental and theoretical insights in the alkene-arene intramolecular π-stacking interaction.

    PubMed

    Corne, Valeria; Sarotti, Ariel M; Ramirez de Arellano, Carmen; Spanevello, Rolando A; Suárez, Alejandra G

    2016-01-01

    Chiral acrylic esters derived from biomass were developed as models to have a better insight in the aryl-vinyl π-stacking interactions. Quantum chemical calculations, NMR studies and experimental evidences demonstrated the presence of equilibriums of at least four different conformations: π-stacked and face-to-edge, each of them in an s-cis/s-trans conformation. The results show that the stabilization produced by the π-π interaction makes the π-stacked conformation predominant in solution and this stabilization is slightly affected by the electron density of the aromatic counterpart. PMID:27559414

  15. Experimental and theoretical insights in the alkene–arene intramolecular π-stacking interaction

    PubMed Central

    Corne, Valeria; Sarotti, Ariel M; Ramirez de Arellano, Carmen; Spanevello, Rolando A

    2016-01-01

    Summary Chiral acrylic esters derived from biomass were developed as models to have a better insight in the aryl–vinyl π-stacking interactions. Quantum chemical calculations, NMR studies and experimental evidences demonstrated the presence of equilibriums of at least four different conformations: π-stacked and face-to-edge, each of them in an s-cis/s-trans conformation. The results show that the stabilization produced by the π–π interaction makes the π-stacked conformation predominant in solution and this stabilization is slightly affected by the electron density of the aromatic counterpart. PMID:27559414

  16. A theoretical study of π-stacking interactions in C-substituted tetrazoles.

    PubMed

    Farrokhzadeh, Abdolkarim; Modarresi-Alam, Ali Reza; Akher, Farideh Badichi; Ebrahimi, Ali

    2016-06-01

    The π-stacking effects of benzene ring (Ben) with 1H- and 2H-tetrazole derivatives (1H-TZ-X and 2H-TZ-X) substituted at C5 (where X is Cl, COH, NO, NO2, CN, NH2, OH, OCH3, SH and H) has been investigated by the quantum mechanical calculations at the M06-2X/6-311++G** level. The results indicate the 1H-TZ-X||Ben complexes (|| donates π-stacking interaction) are more stable than 2H-TZ-X||Ben while in unstacked forms, 1H-TZ-X is less stable than 2H-TZ-X. All substituents enhance the π-stacking interaction relative to the unsubstituted ones and enhancement is higher for the electron-withdrawing substituents (EWSs). Also, investigation of the local and direct effect of substituents in stacking interaction showed that all substituents regardless of whether are electron donating or electron withdrawing have an additive effect in π-stacking interaction. Excellent correlations were found between the binding energies of the complexes and combination of substituent constant terms. The results showed that the electrostatic interaction alone is not responsible for stacking stabilization but charge penetration is important. Furthermore, analysis of aromaticity, AIM, ESP and NPA were investigated to obtain aromaticity index, non-bonding interactions, chemical reactivity and polarity (dipole moment), respectively. PMID:27258189

  17. Pi-stacked interactions in explosive crystals: buffers against external mechanical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaoyang; Wang, Xiaochuan; Huang, Hui

    2008-07-01

    The pi-stacked interactions in some explosive crystal packing are discussed. Taking a typical pi-stacked explosive 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene-1,3,5-triamine (TATB) as a sample and using molecular simulations, we investigated the nature of the pi-stacked interactions versus the external mechanical stimuli causing possible slide and compression of explosives. As a result, between the neighbor layers in the TATB unit cell, the electrostatic attraction decreases with a little decrease of vdW attraction when its top layer slides, whereas the vdW attraction increases with a decrease of electrostatic attraction when TATB crystal is compressed along its c axis. Meanwhile, we studied the correlation between the pi-stacked structures and the impact sensitivities of explosives by means of three representatives including TATB with typical planar pi-stacked structures, 2,2-dinitroethylene-1,1-diamine (Fox-7) with wavelike pi-stacked structures, and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) without pi-stacked structure. The results showed that pi-stacked structures, particularly planar layers, can effectively buffer against external mechanical stimuli. That is, pi-stacked structures can partly convert the mechanical energy acting on them into their intermolecular interaction energy, to avoid the increase of the molecular vibration resulting in the explosive decomposition, the formation of hot spots, and the final detonation. This is another reason for the low mechanical sensitivity of pi-stacked explosives besides their stable conjugated molecular structures. PMID:18529058

  18. Nonlinear electromagnetic interactions in energetic materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wood, Mitchell Anthony; Dalvit, Diego Alejandro; Moore, David Steven

    2016-01-12

    We study the scattering of electromagnetic waves in anisotropic energetic materials. Nonlinear light-matter interactions in molecular crystals result in frequency-conversion and polarization changes. Applied electromagnetic fields of moderate intensity can induce these nonlinear effects without triggering chemical decomposition, offering a mechanism for the nonionizing identification of explosives. We use molecular-dynamics simulations to compute such two-dimensional THz spectra for planar slabs made of pentaerythritol tetranitrate and ammonium nitrate. Finally, we discuss third-harmonic generation and polarization-conversion processes in such materials. These observed far-field spectral features of the reflected or transmitted light may serve as an alternative tool for standoff explosive detection.

  19. A Numerical Study of Nonlinear Wave Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bakker, A.; Tissier, M.; Ruessink, G.

    2014-12-01

    Nonlinear triad interactions redistribute energy among a wave field, which transforms the shape of the incident short waves (f = 0.05 - 2 Hz) and generates energy at infragravity frequencies (f = 0.005-0.05 Hz). Recently, it has been suggested that infragravity energy may dissipate by energy transfers from infragravity frequencies to either the (former) short-wave spectral peak, or through infragravity-infragravity self-interactions that cause the infragravity waves to steepen and to eventually break. To investigate these infragravity dissipation mechanisms, we use the non-hydrostatic SWASH model. In this study, we first validate the model with the high-resolution GLOBEX laboratory data set and then explore the dependence of the energy transfers, with a focus on infragravity frequencies, on beach slope. Consistent with previous studies we find that SWASH is able to reproduce the transformation and corresponding nonlinear energy transfers of shoreward propagating waves to great detail. Bispectral analysis is used to study the coupling between wave frequencies; nonlinear energy transfers are then quantified using the Boussinesq coupling coefficient. To obtain more detailed insight we divide the nonlinear interactions in four categories based on triads including 1) infragravity frequencies only, 2) two infragravity frequencies and one short-wave frequency, 3) one infragravity frequency and two short-wave frequencies and 4) short-wave frequencies only. Preliminary results suggest that interactions are rather weak on gently beach slopes (1:80) and, in the innermost part of the surf zone, are dominated by infragravity-infragravity interactions. On steeper slopes (1:20), interactions are stronger, but entirely dominated by those involving short-wave frequencies only. The dependence of the transfers on offshore wave conditions and beach shape will be explored too. Funded by NWO.

  20. Stacking interaction and its role in kynurenic acid binding to glutamate ionotropic receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, Alexander V; Zakharov, Gennady A; Shchegolev, Boris F; Savvateeva-Popova, Elena V

    2012-05-01

    Stacking interaction is known to play an important role in protein folding, enzyme-substrate and ligand-receptor complex formation. It has been shown to make a contribution into the aromatic antagonists binding with glutamate ionotropic receptors (iGluRs), in particular, the complex of NMDA receptor NR1 subunit with the kynurenic acid (KYNA) derivatives. The specificity of KYNA binding to the glutamate receptors subtypes might partially result from the differences in stacking interaction. We have calculated the optimal geometry and binding energy of KYNA dimers with the four types of aromatic amino acid residues in Rattus and Drosophila ionotropic iGluR subunits. All ab initio quantum chemical calculations were performed taking into account electron correlations at MP2 and MP4 perturbation theory levels. We have also investigated the potential energy surfaces (PES) of stacking and hydrogen bonds (HBs) within the receptor binding site and calculated the free energy of the ligand-receptor complex formation. The energy of stacking interaction depends both on the size of aromatic moieties and the electrostatic effects. The distribution of charges was shown to determine the geometry of polar aromatic ring dimers. Presumably, stacking interaction is important at the first stage of ligand binding when HBs are weak. The freedom of ligand movements and rotation within receptor site provides the precise tuning of the HBs pattern, while the incorrect stacking binding prohibits the ligand-receptor complex formation. PMID:21833825

  1. Quantifying the π-Stacking Interactions in Nitroarene Binding Sites of Proteins.

    PubMed

    An, Yi; Bloom, Jacob W G; Wheeler, Steven E

    2015-11-12

    Stacking interactions in nitroarene binding sites of proteins were studied through analyses of structures in the protein data bank (PDB), as well as DFT and ab initio computations applied to model systems. Stacked dimers of mono-, di-, and trinitrobenzene with the amino acid side chains histidine (His), phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine (Tyr), and tryptophan (Trp) were optimized at the B97-D/TZV(2d,2p) level of theory. Binding energies for the global minimum dimer geometries were further refined at the estimated CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. The results show that the interactions between aromatic amino acids and nitroarenes are very strong (up to -14.6 kcal mol(-1)), and the regiochemistry of the nitro substituents plays a significant role in the relative monomer orientations and strength of the interaction. In contrast to model stacked benzene dimers, effects of nitro substituents in stacking complexes with aromatic amino acid side chains are not perfectly additive. This is attributed to direct interactions of the nitro substituents with functional groups in the amino acid side chain. Overall, the strength of stacking interactions with these nitrobenzenes follows the order Trp > Tyr > Phe ≈ His. We also analyzed nitroarene binding sites in the PDB. Out of 216 selected crystal structures containing nitroarene ligands, 191 have nearby aromatic residues, providing 65 examples of π-stacking interactions involving a nitroarene. Of these, the representations of the different aromatic amino acids (Trp > Tyr > Phe > His) are correlated with the strength of model complexes of nitroarenes, with the exception of His. B97-D computations applied to complexes extracted from these crystal structures reveal that π-stacking interactions between the nitroarene and aromatic amino acid side chains exhibit a broad range of strengths, with many contributing significantly to binding. PMID:26491883

  2. Beam-Plasma Interaction and Nonlinear Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Peter H.

    2009-11-10

    This paper presents a survey of perturbative nonlinear plasma theory known as the weak turbulence theory. After the basic concepts and methodology of the weak turbulence theory are outlined in sufficient detail, numerical solutions of the weak turbulence theory obtained in the context of the beam-plasma interaction are compared against particle-in-cell (PIC) numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that theory and PIC simulation are in excellent agreement.

  3. Nonlinear quantum optics mediated by Rydberg interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstenberg, O.; Adams, C. S.; Hofferberth, S.

    2016-08-01

    By mapping the strong interaction between Rydberg excitations in ultra-cold atomic ensembles onto single photons via electromagnetically induced transparency, it is now possible to realize a medium which exhibits a strong optical nonlinearity at the level of individual photons. We review the theoretical concepts and the experimental state-of-the-art of this exciting new field, and discuss first applications in the field of all-optical quantum information processing.

  4. Understanding Stacking Interactions between an Aromatic Ring and Nucleobases in Aqueous Solution: Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Kataev, Evgeny A; Shumilova, Tatiana A; Fiedler, Benjamin; Anacker, Tony; Friedrich, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Stacking interactions between aromatic compounds and nucleobases are crucial in recognition of nucleotides and nucleic acids, but a comprehensive understanding of the strength and selectivity of these interactions in aqueous solution has been elusive. To this end, model complexes have been designed and analyzed by experiment and theory. For the first time, stacking free energies between five nucleobases and anthracene were determined experimentally from thermodynamic double mutant cycles. Three different experimental methods were proposed and evaluated. The dye prefers to bind nucleobases in the order (kcal/mol): G (1.3) > T (0.9) > U (0.8) > C (0.5) > A (0.3). The respective trend of interaction free energies extracted from DFT calculations correlates to that obtained experimentally. Analysis of the data suggests that stacking interactions dominate over hydrophobic effects in an aqueous solution and can be predicted with DFT calculations. PMID:27314892

  5. Dynamic investigation of PEFC stacks in interaction with the air supply system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipps, F.; Simons, G.; Schiefer, K.

    This paper explores the behaviour of a dynamically operated fuel cell system regarding to an automotive application, examining the air supply and their interaction with the fuel cell stacks. The dynamic limits of stack operation are also discussed. Finally, the paper provides a description of the test facility used in these investigations. The research of dynamically operated fuel cell stacks shows that in order to achieve high energy efficiency, a power-dependent modulation of the pressure and flow rate of the air supply is necessary. A test facility designed for energy management and power train research (up to 42 kW) was used for the experiment. A number of 11.5 kW fuel cell stacks was examined experimentally with respect to performance in interaction with the air supply in stationary and dynamic operation. The stacks were tested individually and in parallel. All of them were operated "dead-end" on the hydrogen side. Experimental results varying the parameters and load curves applied to the air supply system are given in the paper. The results show different dynamic behaviours between the stacks and a substantial difference in efficiency and dynamic response of the fuel cell system operated with different strategies. The results of different operating strategies for fuel cell systems, with respect to the interaction between the fuel cell stack and the air supply and in their dependency on air mass flow and pressure level are presented. The examinations were done with the test facility using real current demand profile of the experimental car HyLite ® from zero to full load and the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC).

  6. The stacking interactions of bipyridine complexes: the influence of the metal ion type on the strength of interactions.

    PubMed

    Sredojević, Dušan N; Petrović, Predrag V; Janjić, Goran V; Brothers, Edward N; Hall, Michael B; Zarić, Snežana D

    2016-01-01

    The strength of the stacking interactions in the bipy complexes of nickel, palladium, and platinum, [M(CN)2 bipy]2 (M = Ni, Pd, Pt), was calculated using the ωB97xD/def2-TZVP method. The results show that for all considered geometries, interactions are the strongest for platinum, and weakest for nickel complexes, as a result of higher dispersion contributions of platinum over the palladium and nickel complexes. It was also shown that strength of interactions considerably rises with an increase of the stacking overlap area. As a consequence of the favorable electrostatic term, the strength of interactions also rises when metal atom and cyano ligands are involved in the overlap with bipy ligand. The strongest interaction was calculated in the platinum complex, for the geometry that has overlap of metal and cyano ligands with bipy ligand with an energy of -39.80 kcal mol(-1). The energies for similar geometries of palladium and nickel complexes are -34.60 and -32.45 kcal mol(-1). These energies, remarkably, exceed the strength of the stacking interactions between organic aromatic molecules. These results can be of importance in all systems with stacking interactions, from materials to biomolecules. PMID:26757913

  7. Double pancake bonds: pushing the limits of strong π-π stacking interactions.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhong-hua; Lischka, Hans; Beneberu, Habtamu Z; Kertesz, Miklos

    2014-09-17

    The concept of a double-bonded pancake bonding mechanism is introduced to explain the extremely short π-π stacking contacts in dimers of dithiatriazines. While ordinary single pancake bonds occur between radicals and already display significantly shorter interatomic distances in comparison to van der Waals (vdW) contacts, the double-bonded pancake dimer is based on diradicaloid or antiaromatic molecules and exhibits even shorter and stronger intermolecular bonds that breach into the range of extremely stretched single bonds in terms of bond distances and binding energies. These properties give rise to promising possibilities in the design of new materials with high electrical conductivity and for the field of spintronics. The analysis of the double pancake bond is based on cutting edge electron correlation theory combining multireference (nondynamical) effects and dispersion (dynamical) contributions in a balanced way providing accurate interaction energies and distributions of unpaired spins. It is also shown that the present examples do not stand isolated but that similar mechanisms operate in several analogous nonradical molecular systems to form double-bonded π-stacking pancake dimers. We report on the amazing properties of a new type of stacking interaction mechanism between π conjugated molecules in the form of a "double pancake bond" which breaks the record for short intermolecular distances and provides formidable strength for some π-π stacking interactions. PMID:25203200

  8. Stacking of purines in water: the role of dipolar interactions in caffeine.

    PubMed

    Tavagnacco, L; Di Fonzo, S; D'Amico, F; Masciovecchio, C; Brady, J W; Cesàro, A

    2016-05-11

    During the last few decades it has been ascertained that base stacking is one of the major contributions stabilizing nucleic acid conformations. However, the understanding of the nature of the interactions involved in the stacking process remains under debate and it is a subject of theoretical and experimental studies. Structural similarity between purine bases (guanine and adenine) in DNA and the caffeine molecule makes caffeine an excellent model for the purine bases. The present study clearly shows that dipolar interactions play a fundamental role in determining stacking of purine molecules in solution. In order to reach this achievement, polarized ultraviolet Raman resonant scattering experiments have been carried out on caffeine aqueous solutions as a function of concentration and temperature. The investigation pointed out at the aggregation and solvation properties, particularly at elevated temperatures. Kubo-Anderson theory was used as a framework to investigate the non-coincidence effect (NCE) occurring in the totally symmetric breathing modes of the purine rings, and in the bending modes of the methyl groups of caffeine. The NCE concentration dependence shows that caffeine aggregation at 80 °C occurs by planar stacking of the hydrophobic faces. The data clearly indicate that dipolar interactions determine the reorientational motion of the molecules in solution and are the driving force for the stacking of caffeine. In parallel, the observed dephasing times imply a change in caffeine interactions as a function of temperature and concentration. A decrease, at low water content, of the dephasing time for the ring breathing vibration mode indicates that self-association alters the solvation structure that is detectable at low concentration. These results are in agreement with simulation predictions and serve as an important validation of the models used in those calculations. PMID:27127808

  9. Dynamics of dislocation interactions with stacking-fault tetrahedra at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, M.; Kacher, J.; Robertson, I. M.

    2013-02-01

    The interaction process between dislocations and large stacking-fault tetrahedra was observed in real time at high temperature during deformation experiments in situ in the transmission electron microscope. Dislocation interactions with tetrahedra resulted in them being annihilated and converted to another defect type. Dislocation bypass of the tetrahedra occurred by cross-slip. The latter interaction occurred slowly and halted the progress of the dislocation. Annihilation versus bypass by dislocation cross-slip was dictated by the location at which the slip plane intersected the tetrahedron - on the face or along the edges with the stair-rod dislocations. In general, the interactions, at best, were weakly temperature dependent.

  10. The influence of arene-ring size on stacking interaction with canonical base pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formánek, Martin; Burda, Jaroslav V.

    2014-04-01

    Stacking interactions between aromatic molecules (benzene, p-cymene, biphenyl, and di- and tetra-hydrogen anthracene) and G.C and A.T canonical Watson-Crick (WC) base pairs are explored. Two functionals with dispersion corrections: ω-B97XD and B3LYP-D3 are used. For a comparison also the MP2 and B3LYP-D3/PCM methods were used for the most stable p-cymene…WC geometries. It was found that the stacking interaction increases with the size of π-conjugation system. Its extent is in agreement with experimental finding on anticancer activity of Ru(II) piano-stool complexes where intercalation of these aromatic molecules should play an important role. The explored structures are considered as ternary system so that decomposition of the interaction energy to pairwise and non-additivity contributions is also examined.

  11. An application of the van der Waals density functional: Hydrogen bonding and stacking interactions between nucleobases.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Valentino R; Thonhauser, T; Langreth, David C

    2008-05-28

    We apply the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) to study hydrogen bonding and stacking interactions between nucleobases. The excellent agreement of our results with high level quantum chemical calculations highlights the value of the vdW-DF for first-principles investigations of biologically important molecules. Our results suggest that, in the case of hydrogen-bonded nucleobase pairs, dispersion interactions reduce the cost of propeller twists while having a negligible effect on buckling. Furthermore, the efficient scaling of DFT methods allowed for the easy optimization of separation distance between nucleobase stacks, indicating enhancements in the interaction energy of up to 3 kcalmol over previous fixed distance calculations. We anticipate that these results are significant for extending the vdW-DF method to model larger vdW complexes and biological molecules. PMID:18513005

  12. Stack filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, P. D.; Coyle, E. J.; Gallagher, N. C., Jr.

    1986-08-01

    A large class of easily implemented nonlinear filters called stack filters are discussed which includes the rank order operators in addition to the compositions of morphological operators. Techniques similar to those used to determine the root signal behavior of median filters are employed to study the convergence properties of the filters, and necessary conditions for a stack filter to preserve monotone regions or edges in signals, and the output distribution of the filters, are obtained. Among the stack filters of window width three are found asymmetric median filters in which one removes only positive going edges, the other removes only negative going edges, while the median filter removes impulses of both signs.

  13. Nonlinear inversion of pre-stack seismic data using variable metric method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fanchang; Dai, Ronghuo

    2016-06-01

    At present, the routine method to perform AVA (Amplitude Variation with incident Angle) inversion is based on the assumption that the ratio of S-wave velocity to P-wave velocity γ is a constant. However, this simplified assumption does not always hold, and it is necessary to use nonlinear inversion method to solve it. Based on Bayesian theory, the objective function for nonlinear AVA inversion is established and γ is considered as an unknown model parameter. Then, variable metric method with a strategy of periodically variational starting point is used to solve the nonlinear AVA inverse problem. The proposed method can keep the inverted reservoir parameters approach to the actual solution and has been performed on both synthetic and real data. The inversion results suggest that the proposed method can solve the nonlinear inverse problem and get accurate solutions even without the knowledge of γ.

  14. Stack zooming for multifocus interaction in skewed-aspect visual spaces.

    PubMed

    Javed, Waqas; Elmqvist, Niklas

    2013-08-01

    Many 2D visual spaces have a virtually one-dimensional nature with very high aspect ratio between the dimensions: examples include time-series data, multimedia data such as sound or video, text documents, and bipartite graphs. Common among these is that the space can become very large, e.g., temperature measurements could span a long time period, surveillance video could cover entire days or weeks, and documents can have thousands of pages. Many analysis tasks for such spaces require several foci while retaining context and distance awareness. In this extended version of our IEEE PacificVis 2010 paper, we introduce a method for supporting this kind of multifocus interaction that we call stack zooming. The approach is based on building hierarchies of 1D strips stacked on top of each other, where each subsequent stack represents a higher zoom level, and sibling strips represent branches in the exploration. Correlation graphics show the relation between stacks and strips of different levels, providing context and distance awareness for the foci. The zoom hierarchies can also be used as graphical histories and for communicating insights to stakeholders and can be further extended with annotation and integrated statistics. PMID:23744266

  15. Third order nonlinear optical properties of stacked bacteriochlorophylls in bacterial photosynthetic light-harvesting proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.X.; Laible, P.D.; Spano, F.C.; Manas, E.S.

    1997-09-01

    Enhancement of the nonresonant second order molecular hyperpolarizabilities {gamma} were observed in stacked macrocyclic molecular systems, previously in a {micro}-oxo silicon phthalocyanine (SiPcO) monomer, dimer and trimer series, and now in bacteriochlorophyll a (BChla) arrays of light harvesting (LH) proteins. Compared to monomeric BChla in a tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution, the <{gamma}> for each macrocycle was enhanced in naturally occurring stacked macrocyclic molecular systems in the bacterial photosynthetic LH proteins where BChla`s are arranged in tilted face-to-face arrays. In addition, the {gamma} enhancement is more significant in B875 of LH1 than in B850 in LH2. Theoretical modeling of the nonresonant {gamma} enhancement using simplified molecular orbitals for model SiPcO indicated that the energy level of the two photon state is crucial to the {gamma} enhancement when a two photon process is involved, whereas the charge transfer between the monomers is largely responsible when one photon near resonant process is involved. The calculated results can be extended to {gamma} enhancement in B875 and B850 arrays, suggesting that BChla in B875 are more strongly coupled than in B850. In addition, a 50--160 fold increase in <{gamma}> for the S{sub 1} excited state of relative to S{sub 0} of bacteriochlorophyll in vivo was observed which provides an alternative method for probing excited state dynamics and a potential application for molecular switching.

  16. Folic acid-polydopamine nanofibers show enhanced ordered-stacking via π-π interactions.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hailong; Yu, Xiang; Liu, Yang; Shi, Zujin; Liu, Huihui; Nie, Zongxiu; Wu, Decheng; Jin, Zhaoxia

    2015-06-21

    Recent research has indicated that polydopamine and synthetic eumelanins are optoelectronic biomaterials in which one-dimensional aggregates composed of ordered-stacking oligomers have been proposed as unique organic semiconductors. However, improving the ordered-stacking of oligomers in polydopamine nanostructures is a big challenge. Herein, we first demonstrate how folic acid molecules influence the morphology and nanostructure of polydopamine via tuning the π-π interactions of oligomers. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry reveals that porphyrin-like tetramers are characteristic of folic acid-polydopamine (FA-PDA) nanofibers. X-ray diffraction combined with simulation studies indicate that these oligomers favour aggregation into graphite-like ordered nanostructures via strong π-π interactions. High-resolution TEM characterization of carbonized FA-PDA hybrids show that in FA-PDA nanofibers the size of the graphite-like domains is over 100 nm. The addition of folic acid in polydopamine enhances the ordered stacking of oligomers in its nanostructure. Our study steps forward to discover the mystery of the structure-property relationship of FA-PDA hybrids. It paves a way to optimize the properties of PDA through the design and selection of oligomer structures. PMID:25959650

  17. Cy3-DNA Stacking Interactions Strongly Depend on the Identity of the Terminal Basepair

    PubMed Central

    Spiriti, Justin; Binder, Jennifer K.; Levitus, Marcia; van der Vaart, Arjan

    2011-01-01

    We characterized the effect of the first basepair on the conformational dynamics of the fluorescent dye Cy3 attached to the 5′ end of double-stranded DNA using Gaussian-mixture adaptive umbrella sampling simulations. In the simulations, the sampling of all five dihedral angles along the linker was enhanced, so that both stacked and unstacked states were sampled. The affinity of Cy3 for a T·A basepair (with the dye attached to T) was found to be significantly less than for the other basepairs. This was verified experimentally by measuring the activation energies for cis-trans isomerization of the dye. The simulation and experimental results indicate the existence of partially unstacked conformations amenable to photoisomerization. The simulations also showed that stacking of Cy3 straightens the DNA while stabilizing the first basepair. Our findings indicate that fluorescence is modulated by Cy3-DNA interactions in a sequence-dependent manner. PMID:21320450

  18. Nonlinear empirical model of gas humidity-related voltage dynamics of a polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiler, M.; Andre, D.; Schmid, O.; Hofer, E. P.

    Intelligent energy management is a cost-effective key path to realize efficient automotive drive trains [R. O'Hayre, S.W. Cha, W. Colella, F.B. Prinz. Fuel Cell Fundamentals, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 2006]. To develop operating strategy in fuel cell drive trains, precise and computational efficient models of all system components, especially the fuel cell stack, are needed. Should these models further be used in diagnostic or control applications, then some major requirements must be fulfilled. First, the model must predict the mean fuel cell voltage very precisely in all possible operating conditions, even during transients. The model output should be as smooth as possible to support best efficient optimization strategies of the complete system. At least, the model must be computational efficient. For most applications, a difference between real fuel cell voltage and model output of less than 10 mV and 1000 calculations per second will be sufficient. In general, empirical models based on system identification offer a better accuracy and consume less calculation resources than detailed models derived from theoretical considerations [J. Larminie, A. Dicks. Fuel Cell Systems Explained, John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, 2003]. In this contribution, the dynamic behaviour of the mean cell voltage of a polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack due to variations in humidity of cell's reactant gases is investigated. The validity of the overall model structure, a so-called general Hammerstein model (or Uryson model), was introduced recently in [M. Meiler, O. Schmid, M. Schudy, E.P. Hofer. Dynamic fuel cell stack model for real-time simulation based on system identification, J. Power Sources 176 (2007) 523-528]. Fuel cell mean voltage is calculated as the sum of a stationary and a dynamic voltage component. The stationary component of cell voltage is represented by a lookup-table and the dynamic voltage by a parallel placed, nonlinear transfer function. A

  19. Interlayer-interaction dependence of latent heat in the Heisenberg model on a stacked triangular lattice with competing interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Ryo; Tanaka, Shu

    2013-11-01

    We study the phase transition behavior of a frustrated Heisenberg model on a stacked triangular lattice by Monte Carlo simulations. The model has three types of interactions: the ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor interaction J1 and antiferromagnetic third nearest-neighbor interaction J3 in each triangular layer and the ferromagnetic interlayer interaction J⊥. Frustration comes from the intralayer interactions J1 and J3. We focus on the case that the order parameter space is SO(3)×C3. We find that the model exhibits a first-order phase transition with breaking of the SO(3) and C3 symmetries at finite temperature. We also discover that the transition temperature increases but the latent heat decreases as J⊥/J1 increases, which is opposite to the behavior observed in typical unfrustrated three-dimensional systems.

  20. Conditional nonlinear operations by sequential Jaynes-Cummings interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kimin; Marek, Petr; Filip, Radim

    2016-07-01

    Nonlinear operations are essential for quantum information processing. We propose a way of implementing a class of nonlinear operations by sequential application of conditional gates based on Jaynes-Cummings (JC) interaction and projective measurements. The scheme has many advantages over the previously proposed all-optical methods and can be applied in several available experimental platforms, such as cavity quantum electrodynamics, trapped ions, and others. We demonstrate performance of the approach on the example of the cubic nonlinearity. We show several different ways in which the full nonlinear operation can be decomposed into sequences of the individual gates, and we compare their performance.

  1. Non-linear interaction of elastic waves in rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvshinov, B. N.; Smit, T. J. H.; Campman, X. H.

    2013-09-01

    We study theoretically the interaction of elastic waves caused by non-linearities of rock elastic moduli, and assess the possibility to use this phenomenon in hydrocarbon exploration and in the analysis of rock samples. In our calculations we use the five-constant model by Gol'dberg. It is shown that the interaction of plane waves in isotropic solids is completely described by five coupling coefficients, which have the same order of magnitude. By considering scattering of compressional waves generated by controlled sources at the Earth surface from a non-linear layer at the subsurface, we conclude that non-linear signals from deep formations are unlikely to be measured with the current level of technology. Our analysis of field tests where non-linear signals were measured, suggests that these signals are generated either in the shallow subsurface or in the vicinity of sources. Non-linear wave interaction might be observable in lab tests with focused ultrasonic beams. In this case, the non-linear response is generated in the secondary parametric array formed by linear beams scattered from inclusions. Although the strength of this response is controlled by non-linearity of the surrounding medium rather than by non-linearity of inclusions, its measurement can help to obtain better images of rock samples.

  2. Extracting Drug-Drug Interaction from the Biomedical Literature Using a Stacked Generalization-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    He, Linna; Yang, Zhihao; Zhao, Zhehuan; Lin, Hongfei; Li, Yanpeng

    2013-01-01

    Drug-drug interaction (DDI) detection is particularly important for patient safety. However, the amount of biomedical literature regarding drug interactions is increasing rapidly. Therefore, there is a need to develop an effective approach for the automatic extraction of DDI information from the biomedical literature. In this paper, we present a Stacked Generalization-based approach for automatic DDI extraction. The approach combines the feature-based, graph and tree kernels and, therefore, reduces the risk of missing important features. In addition, it introduces some domain knowledge based features (the keyword, semantic type, and DrugBank features) into the feature-based kernel, which contribute to the performance improvement. More specifically, the approach applies Stacked generalization to automatically learn the weights from the training data and assign them to three individual kernels to achieve a much better performance than each individual kernel. The experimental results show that our approach can achieve a better performance of 69.24% in F-score compared with other systems in the DDI Extraction 2011 challenge task. PMID:23785452

  3. Dislocation-stacking fault tetrahedron interaction: what can we learn from atomic scale modelling.

    SciTech Connect

    Osetskiy, Yury N; Stoller, Roger E; Matsukawa, Yoshitaka

    2004-01-01

    The high number density of stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs) observed in irradiated fcc metals suggests that they should contribute to radiation-induced hardening and, therefore, taken into account when estimating mechanical properties changes of irradiated materials. The central issue is describing the individual interaction between a moving dislocation and an SFT, which is characterized by a very fine size scale, {approx}100 nm. This scale is amenable to both in situ TEM experiments and large-scale atomic modelling. In this paper we present results of an atomistic simulation of dislocation-SFT interactions using molecular dynamics (MD). The results are compared with observations from in situ deformation experiments. It is demonstrated that in some cases the simulations and experimental observations are quite similar, suggesting a reasonable interpretation of experimental observations.

  4. Ghost Dark Energy with Non-Linear Interaction Term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, E.

    2016-06-01

    Here we investigate ghost dark energy (GDE) in the presence of a non-linear interaction term between dark matter and dark energy. To this end we take into account a general form for the interaction term. Then we discuss about different features of three choices of the non-linear interacting GDE. In all cases we obtain equation of state parameter, w D = p/ ρ, the deceleration parameter and evolution equation of the dark energy density parameter (Ω D ). We find that in one case, w D cross the phantom line ( w D < -1). However in two other classes w D can not cross the phantom divide. The coincidence problem can be solved in these models completely and there exist good agreement between the models and observational values of w D , q. We study squared sound speed {vs2}, and find that for one case of non-linear interaction term {vs2} can achieves positive values at late time of evolution.

  5. Nonlinear interaction of meta-atoms through optical coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Slobozhanyuk, A. P.; Kapitanova, P. V.; Filonov, D. S.; Belov, P. A.; Powell, D. A.; Shadrivov, I. V.; Kivshar, Yu. S.; Lapine, M.; McPhedran, R. C.

    2014-01-06

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a multi-frequency nonlinear coupling mechanism between split-ring resonators. We engineer the coupling between two microwave resonators through optical interaction, whilst suppressing the direct electromagnetic coupling. This allows for a power-dependent interaction between the otherwise independent resonators, opening interesting opportunities to address applications in signal processing, filtering, directional coupling, and electromagnetic compatibility.

  6. Enhanced energy transport owing to nonlinear interface interaction.

    PubMed

    Su, Ruixia; Yuan, Zongqiang; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    It is generally expected that the interface coupling leads to the suppression of thermal transport through coupled nanostructures due to the additional interface phonon-phonon scattering. However, recent experiments demonstrated that the interface van der Waals interactions can significantly enhance the thermal transfer of bonding boron nanoribbons compared to a single freestanding nanoribbon. To obtain a more in-depth understanding on the important role of the nonlinear interface coupling in the heat transports, in the present paper, we explore the effect of nonlinearity in the interface interaction on the phonon transport by studying the coupled one-dimensional (1D) Frenkel-Kontorova lattices. It is found that the thermal conductivity increases with increasing interface nonlinear intensity for weak inter-chain nonlinearity. By developing the effective phonon theory of coupled systems, we calculate the dependence of heat conductivity on interfacial nonlinearity in weak inter-chain couplings regime which is qualitatively in good agreement with the result obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. Moreover, we demonstrate that, with increasing interface nonlinear intensity, the system dimensionless nonlinearity strength is reduced, which in turn gives rise to the enhancement of thermal conductivity. Our results pave the way for manipulating the energy transport through coupled nanostructures for future emerging applications. PMID:26787363

  7. Enhanced energy transport owing to nonlinear interface interaction

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ruixia; Yuan, Zongqiang; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    It is generally expected that the interface coupling leads to the suppression of thermal transport through coupled nanostructures due to the additional interface phonon-phonon scattering. However, recent experiments demonstrated that the interface van der Waals interactions can significantly enhance the thermal transfer of bonding boron nanoribbons compared to a single freestanding nanoribbon. To obtain a more in-depth understanding on the important role of the nonlinear interface coupling in the heat transports, in the present paper, we explore the effect of nonlinearity in the interface interaction on the phonon transport by studying the coupled one-dimensional (1D) Frenkel-Kontorova lattices. It is found that the thermal conductivity increases with increasing interface nonlinear intensity for weak inter-chain nonlinearity. By developing the effective phonon theory of coupled systems, we calculate the dependence of heat conductivity on interfacial nonlinearity in weak inter-chain couplings regime which is qualitatively in good agreement with the result obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. Moreover, we demonstrate that, with increasing interface nonlinear intensity, the system dimensionless nonlinearity strength is reduced, which in turn gives rise to the enhancement of thermal conductivity. Our results pave the way for manipulating the energy transport through coupled nanostructures for future emerging applications. PMID:26787363

  8. Collective Political Opinion Formation in Nonlinear Social Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo Yong; Park, Chung Hyun; Kim, Kyungsik

    We have presented a numerical model of a collective opinion formation procedure to explain political phenomena such as two-party and multi-party systems in politics, political unrest, military coup d'etats and netizen revolutions. Nonlinear interaction with binary and independent decision making processes can yield various collective behaviors or collective political opinions. Statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics may provide useful tools to study various socio-political dynamics.

  9. Determination of Base Binding Strength and Base Stacking Interaction of DNA Duplex Using Atomic Force Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tian-biao; Zhang, Chang-lin; Dong, Zai-li; Guan, Yi-fu

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most crucial properties of DNA, the structural stability and the mechanical strength are attracting a great attention. Here, we take advantage of high force resolution and high special resolution of Atom Force Microscope and investigate the mechanical force of DNA duplexes. To evaluate the base pair hydrogen bond strength and base stacking force in DNA strands, we designed two modes (unzipping and stretching) for the measurement rupture forces. Employing k-means clustering algorithm, the ruptured force are clustered and the mean values are estimated. We assessed the influence of experimental parameters and performed the force evaluation for DNA duplexes of pure dG/dC and dA/dT base pairs. The base binding strength of single dG/dC and single dA/dT were estimated to be 20.0 ± 0.2 pN and 14.0 ± 0.3 pN, respectively, and the base stacking interaction was estimated to be 2.0 ± 0.1 pN. Our results provide valuable information about the quantitative evaluation of the mechanical properties of the DNA duplexes. PMID:25772017

  10. Self-induced uniaxial strain in MoS2 monolayers with local van der Waals-stacked interlayer interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kenan; Hu, Shuhong; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Tianning; Zhou, Xiaohao; Sun, Yan; Li, Tian-Xin; Fan, Hong Jin; Shen, Guozhen; Chen, Xin; Dai, Ning

    2015-03-24

    Strain engineering is an effective method to tune the properties of electrons and phonons in semiconductor materials, including two-dimensional (2D) layered materials (e.g., MoS2 or graphene). External artificial stress (ExAS) or heterostructure stacking is generally required to induce strains for modulating semiconductor bandgaps and optoelectronic functions. For layered materials, the van der Waals-stacked interlayer interaction (vdW-SI) has been considered to dominate the interlayer stacking and intralayer bonding. Here, we demonstrate self-induced uniaxial strain in the MoS2 monolayer without the assistance of ExAS or heterostructure stacking processes. The uniaxial strain occurring in local monolayer regions is manifested by the Raman split of the in-plane vibration modes E2g(1) and is essentially caused by local vdW-SI within the single layer MoS2 due to a unique symmetric bilayer stacking. The local stacked configuration and the self-induced uniaxial strain may provide improved understanding of the fundamental interlayer interactions and alternative routes for strain engineering of layered structures. PMID:25716291

  11. Influence of the π–π interaction on the hydrogen bonding capacity of stacked DNA/RNA bases

    PubMed Central

    Mignon, Pierre; Loverix, Stefan; Steyaert, Jan; Geerlings, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The interplay between aromatic stacking and hydrogen bonding in nucleobases has been investigated via high-level quantum chemical calculations. The experimentally observed stacking arrangement between consecutive bases in DNA and RNA/DNA double helices is shown to enhance their hydrogen bonding ability as opposed to gas phase optimized complexes. This phenomenon results from more repulsive electrostatic interactions as is demonstrated in a model system of cytosine stacked offset-parallel with substituted benzenes. Therefore, the H-bonding capacity of the N3 and O2 atoms of cytosine increases linearly with the electrostatic repulsion between the stacked rings. The local hardness, a density functional theory-based reactivity descriptor, appears to be a key index associated with the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) minima around H-bond accepting atoms, and is inversely proportional to the electrostatic interaction between stacked molecules. Finally, the MEP minima on surfaces around the bases in experimental structures of DNA and RNA–DNA double helices show that their hydrogen bonding capacity increases when taking more neighboring (intra-strand) stacking partners into account. PMID:15788750

  12. Nonlinear Optical Interactions in Plasmas at JILA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollar, F.; Hickstein, D. D.; Popmintchev, D.; Becker, A.; Ellis, J.; Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Jaron-Becker, A.; Popmintchev, T.; Xiong, W.; Murnane, M. M.; Kapteyn, H. C.; Dukovic, G.; Jimenez, J.; Palm, B.; Schnitzenbaumer, K.; Perez-Hernandez, J.; Gaeta, A.; Gao, X.; Shim, B.; Plaja, L.; Levis, R.; Tarazkar, M.; Foord, M. E.; Gaffney, J. A.; Libby, S. B.

    2014-10-01

    We present data from two recent experiments. First, we demonstrate direct observations of localized light absorption in a single nanoparticle irradiated by a strong femtosecond laser field. By imaging the photoion momentum distribution resulting from plasma formation in a laser-irradiated nanostructure, we map the spatial location of the highly localized plasma and thereby image the nanoscale light absorption. Secondly, we show the high linear and nonlinear UV refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions compensate for plasma dispersion, even in multiply-ionized gases. The experimental work was primarily funded by DOE Grant Number: DE-SC0008803, the DARPA PULSE program, and ARO W911NF-12-1-0436.

  13. Enhanced nonlinear interactions in quantum optomechanics via mechanical amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemonde, Marc-Antoine; Didier, Nicolas; Clerk, Aashish A.

    2016-04-01

    The quantum nonlinear regime of optomechanics is reached when nonlinear effects of the radiation pressure interaction are observed at the single-photon level. This requires couplings larger than the mechanical frequency and cavity-damping rate, and is difficult to achieve experimentally. Here we show how to exponentially enhance the single-photon optomechanical coupling strength using only additional linear resources. Our method is based on using a large-amplitude, strongly detuned mechanical parametric drive to amplify mechanical zero-point fluctuations and hence enhance the radiation pressure interaction. It has the further benefit of allowing time-dependent control, enabling pulsed schemes. For a two-cavity optomechanical set-up, we show that our scheme generates photon blockade for experimentally accessible parameters, and even makes the production of photonic states with negative Wigner functions possible. We discuss how our method is an example of a more general strategy for enhancing boson-mediated two-particle interactions and nonlinearities.

  14. Atomic-Scale Study of Dislocation-Stacking Fault Tetrahedron Interactions. Part I: Mechanisms.

    SciTech Connect

    Osetskiy, Yury N; Rodney, David; Bacon, David J

    2006-01-01

    Stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs) are formed under irradiation in fcc metals and alloys. The high number density of SFTs observed suggests that they should contribute to radiation-induced hardening and, therefore, be taken into account when estimating mechanical property changes of irradiated materials. The key issue in this is to describe the interaction between a moving dislocation and an individual SFT, which is distinguished by a small physical size of the order of {approx}1-10 nm. We have performed atomistic simulations of edge and screw dislocations interacting with SFTs of different sizes at different temperatures and strain rates. Five possible interaction outcomes have been identified, involving either partial absorption, or shearing or restoration of SFTs. The mechanisms that give rise to these processes are described and their dependence on interaction parameters, such as SFT size, dislocation-SFT geometry, temperature and stress/strain rate are determined. Mechanisms that help to explain the formation of defect-free channels cleared by gliding dislocations, as observed experimentally, are also discussed. Hardening due to the various mechanisms and their dependence on loading conditions will be presented in a following paper (Part II).

  15. Nonlinear a Tollmien-Schlichting/vortex interaction in boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P.; Smith, F. T.

    1989-01-01

    The nonlinear reaction between two oblique three-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves and their induced streamwise-vortex flow is considered theoretically for an incompressible boundary layer. The same theory applies to the destabilization of an incident vortex motion by subharmonic TS waves, followed by interaction. The scales and flow structure involved are addressed for high Reynolds numbers. The nonlinear interaction is powerful, starting at quite low amplitudes with a triple-deck structure for the TS waves but a large-scale structure for the induced vortex, after which strong nonlinear amplification occurs. This includes nonparallel-flow effects. The nonlinear interaction is governed by a partial differential system for the vortex flow coupled with an ordinary-differential one for the TS pressure. The solution properties found sometimes produce a breakup within a finite distance and sometimes further downstream, depending on the input amplitudes upstream and on the wave angles, and that then leads to the second stages of interaction associated with higher amplitudes, the main second stages giving either long-scale phenomena significantly affected by nonparallelism or shorter quasi-parallel ones governed by the full nonlinear triple-deck response.

  16. New nucleotide pairs for stable DNA triplexes stabilized by stacking interaction.

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Masahiro; Banba, Jun-ichi; Kanamori, Takashi; Tawarada, Ryuya; Ohkubo, Akihiro; Sekine, Mitsuo; Seio, Kohji

    2008-07-30

    New nucleotide pairs applicable to formation of DNA triplexes were developed. We designed oligonucleotides incorporating 5-aryl deoxycytidine derivatives (dC5Ars) and cyclic deoxycytidine derivatives, dCPPP and dCPPI, having an expanded aromatic area, as the second strand. As pairing partners, two types of abasic residues (C3: propylene linker, phi: abasic base) were chosen. It was concluded that, when the 5-aryl-modified cytosine bases paired with the abasic sites in TFOs in a space-fitting manner, the stability of the resulting triplexes significantly increased. The recognition of C3 toward dC5Ars was selective because of the stacking interactions between their aromatic part and the nucleobases flanking the abasic site. These results indicate the potential utility of new nucleotide triplets for DNA triplex formation, which might expand the variety of structures and sequences and might be useful for biorelated fields such as DNA nanotechnologies. PMID:18611007

  17. Nonlinearly interacting trapped particle solitons in collisionless plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Debraj; Sharma, Devendra

    2016-02-01

    The formulation of collective waves in collisionless plasmas is complicated by the kinetic effects produced by the resonant particles, capable of responding to the smallest of the amplitude disturbance. The dispersive plasma manifests this response by generating coherent nonlinear structures associated with phase-space vortices, or holes, at very small amplitudes. The nonlinear interaction between solitary electron phase-space holes is studied in the electron acoustic regime of a collisionless plasma using Vlasov simulations. Evolution of the analytic trapped particle solitary solutions is examined, observing them propagate stably, preserve their identity across strong mutual interactions in adiabatic processes, and display close correspondence with observable processes in nature.

  18. Nonlinear Bubble Interactions in Acoustic Pressure Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbat, Tiberiu; Ashgriz, Nasser; Liu, Ching-Shi

    1996-01-01

    The systems consisting of a two-phase mixture, as clouds of bubbles or drops, have shown many common features in their responses to different external force fields. One of particular interest is the effect of an unsteady pressure field applied to these systems, case in which the coupling of the vibrations induced in two neighboring components (two drops or two bubbles) may result in an interaction force between them. This behavior was explained by Bjerknes by postulating that every body that is moving in an accelerating fluid is subjected to a 'kinetic buoyancy' equal with the product of the acceleration of the fluid multiplied by the mass of the fluid displaced by the body. The external sound wave applied to a system of drops/bubbles triggers secondary sound waves from each component of the system. These secondary pressure fields integrated over the surface of the neighboring drop/bubble may result in a force additional to the effect of the primary sound wave on each component of the system. In certain conditions, the magnitude of these secondary forces may result in significant changes in the dynamics of each component, thus in the behavior of the entire system. In a system containing bubbles, the sound wave radiated by one bubble at the location of a neighboring one is dominated by the volume oscillation mode and its effects can be important for a large range of frequencies. The interaction forces in a system consisting of drops are much smaller than those consisting of bubbles. Therefore, as a first step towards the understanding of the drop-drop interaction subject to external pressure fluctuations, it is more convenient to study the bubble interactions. This paper presents experimental results and theoretical predictions concerning the interaction and the motion of two levitated air bubbles in water in the presence of an acoustic field at high frequencies (22-23 KHz).

  19. Hybrid simulation approach incorporating microscopic interaction along with rigid body degrees of freedom for stacking between base pairs.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Manas; Halder, Sukanya; Chakrabarti, Jaydeb; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay

    2016-04-01

    Stacking interaction between the aromatic heterocyclic bases plays an important role in the double helical structures of nucleic acids. Considering the base as rigid body, there are total of 18 degrees of freedom of a dinucleotide step. Some of these parameters show sequence preferences, indicating that the detailed atomic interactions are important in the stacking. Large variants of non-canonical base pairs have been seen in the crystallographic structures of RNA. However, their stacking preferences are not thoroughly deciphered yet from experimental results. The current theoretical approaches use either the rigid body degrees of freedom where the atomic information are lost or computationally expensive all atom simulations. We have used a hybrid simulation approach incorporating Monte-Carlo Metropolis sampling in the hyperspace of 18 stacking parameters where the interaction energies using AMBER-parm99bsc0 and CHARMM-36 force-fields were calculated from atomic positions. We have also performed stacking energy calculations for structures from Monte-Carlo ensemble by Dispersion corrected density functional theory. The available experimental data with Watson-Crick base pairs are compared to establish the validity of the method. Stacking interaction involving A:U and G:C base pairs with non-canonical G:U base pairs also were calculated and showed that these structures were also sequence dependent. This approach could be useful to generate multiscale modeling of nucleic acids in terms of coarse-grained parameters where the atomic interactions are preserved. This method would also be useful to predict structure and dynamics of different base pair steps containing non Watson-Crick base pairs, as found often in the non-coding RNA structures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 212-226, 2016. PMID:26600167

  20. Nonlinear Tollmien-Schlichting/vortex interaction in boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P.; Smith, F. T.

    1988-01-01

    The nonlinear reaction between two oblique 3-D Tollmein-Schlichting (TS) waves and their induced streamwise-vortex flow is considered theoretically for an imcompressible boundary layer. The same theory applies to the destabilization of an incident vortex motion by subharmonic TS waves, followed by interaction. The scales and flow structure involved are addressed for high Reynolds numbers. The nonlionear interaction is powerful, starting at quite low amplitudes with a triple-deck structure for the TS waves but a large-scale structure for the induced vortex, after which strong nonlinear amplification occurs. This includes nonparallel-flow effects. The nonlinear interaction is governed by a partial differential system for the vortex flow coupled with an ordinary-differential one for the TS pressure. The solution properties found sometimes produce a breakup within a finite distance and sometimes further downstream, depending on the input amplitudes upstream and on the wave angles, and that then leads to the second stages of interaction associated with higher amplitudes, the main second stages giving either long-scale phenomena significantly affected by nonparallelism or shorter quasi-parallel ones governed by the full nonlinear triple-deck response.

  1. Nonlinear light-matter interactions in engineered optical media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litchinitser, Natalia

    In this talk, we consider fundamental optical phenomena at the interface of nonlinear and singular optics in artificial media, including theoretical and experimental studies of linear and nonlinear light-matter interactions of vector and singular optical beams in metamaterials. We show that unique optical properties of metamaterials open unlimited prospects to ``engineer'' light itself. Thanks to their ability to manipulate both electric and magnetic field components, metamaterials open new degrees of freedom for tailoring complex polarization states and orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light. We will discuss several approaches to structured light manipulation on the nanoscale using metal-dielectric, all-dielectric and hyperbolic metamaterials. These new functionalities, including polarization and OAM conversion, beam magnification and de-magnification, and sub-wavelength imaging using novel non-resonant hyperlens are likely to enable a new generation of on-chip or all-fiber structured light applications. The emergence of metamaterials also has a strong potential to enable a plethora of novel nonlinear light-matter interactions and even new nonlinear materials. In particular, nonlinear focusing and defocusing effects are of paramount importance for manipulation of the minimum focusing spot size of structured light beams necessary for nanoscale trapping, manipulation, and fundamental spectroscopic studies. Colloidal suspensions offer as a promising platform for engineering polarizibilities and realization of large and tunable nonlinearities. We will present our recent studies of the phenomenon of spatial modulational instability leading to laser beam filamentation in an engineered soft-matter nonlinear medium. Finally, we introduce so-called virtual hyperbolic metamaterials formed by an array of plasma channels in air as a result of self-focusing of an intense laser pulse, and show that such structure can be used to manipulate microwave beams in a free space. This

  2. NONWATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF CLOSED-CYCLE COOLING SYSTEMS AND THE INTERACTION OF STACK GAS AND COOLING TOWER PLUMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature survey of the nonwater quality impacts of closed-cycle cooling systems. Following discussions of cooling tower and stack gas plumes, interactions of these plumes are considered. For cooling tower plumes, plume types, behavior, salt drift g...

  3. Study of solar wind spectra by nonlinear waves interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Navin; Sharma, Rampal; Narita, Yasuhito

    2014-05-01

    The nature of small-scale turbulent fluctuations in the solar wind (SW) turbulence is a topic that is being investigated extensively nowadays, both theoretically and observationally. Although recent observations predict the evidence of the dominance of kinetic Alfvén waves (KAW) at sub-ion scales with frequency below than ion cyclotron frequency, while other studies suggest that the KAW mode cannot carry the turbulence cascade down to electron scales and that the whistler mode is more relevant. In the present work, nonlinear interaction of kinetic Alfvén wave with whistler wave is considered as one of the possible cause responsible for the solar wind turbulence. A set of coupled dimensionless equations are derived for the intermediate beta plasmas and the nonlinear interaction between these two wave modes has been studied. As a consequence of ponderomotive nonlinearity, the pump KAW becomes filamented when its power exceeds the threshold for the filamentation instability. Whistler is considered to be weak and thus doesn't have enough intensity to initiate its own localization. It gets localized while propagating through the density channel created by KAW localization. In addition, spectral scales of power spectra of KAW and whistler are also calculated. The steeper spectra are found with scaling greater than -5/3. This type of nonlinear interaction between different wave modes and steeper spectra is one of the reasons for the solar wind turbulence and particles acceleration. This work is partially supported by DST (India) and FP7/STORM (313038)

  4. Nonlinear interactions isolated through scale synthesis in experimental wall turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvvuri, Subrahmanyam; McKeon, Beverley

    2016-07-01

    An experimental investigation of nonlinear scale interactions in a forced turbulent boundary layer is presented here. A dynamic wall perturbation mechanism was used to externally force two distinct large-scale synthetic modes with well-defined spatial and temporal wave numbers in a fully turbulent flow. The focus is on characterizing the nonlinear flow response at triadically consistent wave numbers that arises from the direct interactions of the two synthetic modes. These experimental results isolate triadic scale interactions in wall turbulence in a unique fashion, and provide the ability to explore the dynamics of scale coupling in a systematic and detailed manner. The ideas advanced here are intended to contribute towards modeling efforts of high-Reynolds-number wall turbulence.

  5. LINEAR AND NONLINEAR CORRECTIONS IN THE RHIC INTERACTION REGIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    PILAT,F.; CAMERON,P.; PTITSYN,V.; KOUTCHOUK,J.P.

    2002-06-02

    A method has been developed to measure operationally the linear and non-linear effects of the interaction region triplets, that gives access to the multipole content through the action kick, by applying closed orbit bumps and analysing tune and orbit shifts. This technique has been extensively tested and used during the RHIC operations in 2001. Measurements were taken at 3 different interaction regions and for different focusing at the interaction point. Non-linear effects up to the dodecapole have been measured as well as the effects of linear, sextupolar and octupolar corrections. An analysis package for the data processing has been developed that through a precise fit of the experimental tune shift data (measured by a phase lock loop technique to better than 10{sup -5} resolution) determines the multipole content of an IR triplet.

  6. Cross-scale interactions, nonlinearities, and forecasting catastrophic events

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Debra P. C.; Pielke, Roger A.; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Allen, Craig D.; Munson-McGee, Stuart; Havstad, Kris M.

    2004-01-01

    Catastrophic events share characteristic nonlinear behaviors that are often generated by cross-scale interactions and feedbacks among system elements. These events result in surprises that cannot easily be predicted based on information obtained at a single scale. Progress on catastrophic events has focused on one of the following two areas: nonlinear dynamics through time without an explicit consideration of spatial connectivity [Holling, C. S. (1992) Ecol. Monogr. 62, 447–502] or spatial connectivity and the spread of contagious processes without a consideration of cross-scale interactions and feedbacks [Zeng, N., Neeling, J. D., Lau, L. M. & Tucker, C. J. (1999) Science 286, 1537–1540]. These approaches rarely have ventured beyond traditional disciplinary boundaries. We provide an interdisciplinary, conceptual, and general mathematical framework for understanding and forecasting nonlinear dynamics through time and across space. We illustrate the generality and usefulness of our approach by using new data and recasting published data from ecology (wildfires and desertification), epidemiology (infectious diseases), and engineering (structural failures). We show that decisions that minimize the likelihood of catastrophic events must be based on cross-scale interactions, and such decisions will often be counterintuitive. Given the continuing challenges associated with global change, approaches that cross disciplinary boundaries to include interactions and feedbacks at multiple scales are needed to increase our ability to predict catastrophic events and develop strategies for minimizing their occurrence and impacts. Our framework is an important step in developing predictive tools and designing experiments to examine cross-scale interactions. PMID:15469919

  7. Non-linear wave interaction in a plasma column

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, J.-M.; Crawford, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    Non-linear three-wave interaction is analysed for propagation along a cylindrical plasma column surrounded by an infinite dielectric, in the absence of a static magnetic field. An averaged-Lagrangian method is used, and the results are specialized to parametric interaction and mode conversion, assuming an undepleted pump wave. The theory for these two types of interactions is extended to include imperfect synchronism, and the effects of loss. Computations are presented indicating that parametric growth rates of the order of a fraction of a decibel per centimeter should be obtainable for plausible laboratory plasma column parameters.

  8. Nonlinear modal interactions in parity-time (PT) symmetric lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Li; El-Ganainy, Ramy

    2016-05-01

    Parity-time symmetric lasers have attracted considerable attention lately due to their promising applications and intriguing properties, such as free spectral range doubling and single-mode lasing. In this work we discuss nonlinear modal interactions in these laser systems under steady state conditions, and we demonstrate that several gain clamping scenarios can occur for lasing operation in the -symmetric and -broken phases. In particular, we show that, depending on the system’s design and the external pump profile, its operation in the nonlinear regime falls into two different categories: in one the system is frozen in the phase space as the applied gain increases, while in the other the system is pulled towards its exceptional point. These features are first illustrated by a coupled mode formalism and later verified by employing the Steady-state Ab-initio Laser Theory (SALT). Our findings shine light on the robustness of single-mode operation against saturation nonlinearity in -symmetric lasers.

  9. Nonlinear modal interactions in parity-time (PT) symmetric lasers.

    PubMed

    Ge, Li; El-Ganainy, Ramy

    2016-01-01

    Parity-time symmetric lasers have attracted considerable attention lately due to their promising applications and intriguing properties, such as free spectral range doubling and single-mode lasing. In this work we discuss nonlinear modal interactions in these laser systems under steady state conditions, and we demonstrate that several gain clamping scenarios can occur for lasing operation in the -symmetric and -broken phases. In particular, we show that, depending on the system's design and the external pump profile, its operation in the nonlinear regime falls into two different categories: in one the system is frozen in the phase space as the applied gain increases, while in the other the system is pulled towards its exceptional point. These features are first illustrated by a coupled mode formalism and later verified by employing the Steady-state Ab-initio Laser Theory (SALT). Our findings shine light on the robustness of single-mode operation against saturation nonlinearity in -symmetric lasers. PMID:27143324

  10. Note: Resonance magnetoelectric interactions in laminate of FeCuNbSiB and multilayer piezoelectric stack for magnetic sensor.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianqiang; Lu, Caijiang; Xu, Changbao; Zhong, Ming

    2015-09-01

    This paper develops a simple miniature magnetoelectric (ME) laminate FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack made up of magnetostrictive Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 (FeCuNbSiB) foils and piezoelectric Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) multilayer stack vibrator. Resonant ME interactions of FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack with different layers of FeCuNbSiB foil (L) are investigated in detail. The experimental results show that the ME voltage coefficient reaches maximum value of 141.5 (V/cm Oe) for FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack with L = 6. The AC-magnetic sensitivities can reach 524.29 mV/Oe and 1.8 mV/Oe under resonance 91.6 kHz and off-resonance 1 kHz, respectively. The FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack can distinguish small dc-magnetic field of ∼9 nT. The results indicate that the proposed ME composites are very promising for the cheap room-temperature magnetic field sensing technology. PMID:26429496

  11. Note: Resonance magnetoelectric interactions in laminate of FeCuNbSiB and multilayer piezoelectric stack for magnetic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianqiang; Lu, Caijiang; Xu, Changbao; Zhong, Ming

    2015-09-01

    This paper develops a simple miniature magnetoelectric (ME) laminate FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack made up of magnetostrictive Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 (FeCuNbSiB) foils and piezoelectric Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) multilayer stack vibrator. Resonant ME interactions of FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack with different layers of FeCuNbSiB foil (L) are investigated in detail. The experimental results show that the ME voltage coefficient reaches maximum value of 141.5 (V/cm Oe) for FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack with L = 6. The AC-magnetic sensitivities can reach 524.29 mV/Oe and 1.8 mV/Oe under resonance 91.6 kHz and off-resonance 1 kHz, respectively. The FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack can distinguish small dc-magnetic field of ˜9 nT. The results indicate that the proposed ME composites are very promising for the cheap room-temperature magnetic field sensing technology.

  12. Control of intramolecular π-π stacking interaction in cationic iridium complexes via fluorination of pendant phenyl rings.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Ma, Dongxin; Duan, Lian; Wei, Yongge; Qiao, Juan; Zhang, Deqiang; Dong, Guifang; Wang, Liduo; Qiu, Yong

    2012-04-16

    Intramolecular π-π stacking interaction in one kind of phosphorescent cationic iridium complexes has been controlled through fluorination of the pendant phenyl rings on the ancillary ligands. Two blue-green-emitting cationic iridium complexes, [Ir(ppy)(2)(F2phpzpy)]PF(6) (2) and [Ir(ppy)(2)(F5phpzpy)]PF(6) (3), with the pendant phenyl rings on the ancillary ligands substituted with two and five fluorine atoms, respectively, have been synthesized and compared to the parent complex, [Ir(ppy)(2)(phpzpy)]PF(6) (1). Here Hppy is 2-phenylpyridine, F2phpzpy is 2-(1-(3,5-difluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine, F5phpzpy is 2-(1-pentafluorophenyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-pyridine, and phpzpy is 2-(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine. Single crystal structures reveal that the pendant phenyl rings on the ancillary ligands stack to the phenyl rings of the ppy ligands, with dihedral angles of 21°, 18°, and 5.0° between least-squares planes for complexes 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and centroid-centroid distances of 3.75, 3.65, and 3.52 Å for complexes 1, 2, and 3, respectively, indicating progressively reinforced intramolecular π-π stacking interactions from complexes 1 to 2 and 3. Compared to complex 1, complex 3 with a significantly reinforced intramolecular face-to-face π-π stacking interaction exhibits a significantly enhanced (by 1 order of magnitude) photoluminescent efficiency in solution. Theoretical calculations reveal that in complex 3 it is unfavorable in energy for the pentafluorophenyl ring to swing by a large degree and the intramolecular π-π stacking interaction remains on the lowest triplet state. PMID:22462475

  13. Trinuclear organooxotin assemblies from solvothermal synthesis reaction: Crystal structure, hydrogen bonding and π π stacking interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chunlin; Sun, Junshan; Zhang, Rufen

    2007-05-01

    Two new trinuclear mono-organooxotin(IV) complexes with 2,3,4,5-tetrafluorobenzoic acid and sodium perchlorate of the types: [(SnR) 3(OH)(2,3,4,5-F 4C 6HCO 2) 4 · ClO 4] · [O 2CC 6HF 4](R = PhCH 2, 1; o- F-PhCH 2 for 2), have been solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental, IR, 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR and X-ray crystallography diffraction analyses. Complex 2 is also characterized by X-ray crystallography diffraction analyses. In complex 2, four carboxyl groups and a perchlorate bridged three tin atoms in a cyclohexane chair arrangement and form the basic framework. A hydroxyl group comprises the oxygen components of the stannoxane ring system. In these complexes, weak but significant intramolecular hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interaction are also shown. These contacts lead to aggregation and supramolecular assembly of complexes 1 and 2 into 1D or 2D framework.

  14. Structure of Musashi1 in a complex with target RNA: the role of aromatic stacking interactions.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Takako; Nagata, Takashi; Tsuda, Kengo; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Imai, Takao; Okano, Hideyuki; Yamazaki, Toshio; Katahira, Masato

    2012-04-01

    Mammalian Musashi1 (Msi1) is an RNA-binding protein that regulates the translation of target mRNAs, and participates in the maintenance of cell 'stemness' and tumorigenesis. Msi1 reportedly binds to the 3'-untranslated region of mRNA of Numb, which encodes Notch inhibitor, and impedes initiation of its translation by competing with eIF4G for PABP binding, resulting in triggering of Notch signaling. Here, the mechanism by which Msi1 recognizes the target RNA sequence using its Ribonucleoprotein (RNP)-type RNA-binding domains (RBDs), RBD1 and RBD2 has been revealed on identification of the minimal binding RNA for each RBD and determination of the three-dimensional structure of the RBD1:RNA complex. Unique interactions were found for the recognition of the target sequence by Msi1 RBD1: adenine is sandwiched by two phenylalanines and guanine is stacked on the tryptophan in the loop between β1 and α1. The minimal recognition sequences that we have defined for Msi1 RBD1 and RBD2 have actually been found in many Msi1 target mRNAs reported to date. The present study provides molecular clues for understanding the biology involving Musashi family proteins. PMID:22140116

  15. Effect of nonlinear electromechanical interaction upon wind power generator behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selyutskiy, Yury D.; Klimina, Liubov A.

    2014-12-01

    A mathematical model is developed for describing a small horizontal axis wind turbine with electric generator, such that the electromechanical interaction is non-linear in current. Dependence of steady regimes of the system upon parameters of the model is studied. In particular, it is shown that increase of wind speed causes qualitative restructuring of the set of steady regimes, which leads to considerable change in behavior of the wind power generator. The proposed model is verified against data obtained in experiments.

  16. Enhanced nonlinear interactions in quantum optomechanics via mechanical amplification

    PubMed Central

    Lemonde, Marc-Antoine; Didier, Nicolas; Clerk, Aashish A.

    2016-01-01

    The quantum nonlinear regime of optomechanics is reached when nonlinear effects of the radiation pressure interaction are observed at the single-photon level. This requires couplings larger than the mechanical frequency and cavity-damping rate, and is difficult to achieve experimentally. Here we show how to exponentially enhance the single-photon optomechanical coupling strength using only additional linear resources. Our method is based on using a large-amplitude, strongly detuned mechanical parametric drive to amplify mechanical zero-point fluctuations and hence enhance the radiation pressure interaction. It has the further benefit of allowing time-dependent control, enabling pulsed schemes. For a two-cavity optomechanical set-up, we show that our scheme generates photon blockade for experimentally accessible parameters, and even makes the production of photonic states with negative Wigner functions possible. We discuss how our method is an example of a more general strategy for enhancing boson-mediated two-particle interactions and nonlinearities. PMID:27108814

  17. Nonlinear interaction of atmospheric, surface-gravity, and hydroacoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadri, Usama

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the generation of hydroacoustic waves by the mutual interaction of atmospheric and surface-gravity waves, through nonlinear resonant triad interaction. To this end, we consider a two fluid problem, with a half-space air layer over a compressible water layer of finite depth, and a rigid bottom. The governing equations comprise a quadratic compressible wave equation, and the standard associated boundary conditions. Using a multiple scale approach we derive at the amplitude evolution equations for all three triad members. It is shown that the energy input by the atmospheric wave is transferred to the acoustic mode, with no noticeable effect on the surface gravity mode.

  18. A nonlinear Bloch model for Coulomb interaction in quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Bidegaray-Fesquet, Brigitte Keita, Kole

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, we first derive a Coulomb Hamiltonian for electron–electron interaction in quantum dots in the Heisenberg picture. Then we use this Hamiltonian to enhance a Bloch model, which happens to be nonlinear in the density matrix. The coupling with Maxwell equations in case of interaction with an electromagnetic field is also considered from the Cauchy problem point of view. The study is completed by numerical results and a discussion about the advisability of neglecting intra-band coherences, as is done in part of the literature.

  19. Dynamical Nonlinear Interactions of Solids with Strong Terahertz Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirori, Hideki; Tanaka, Koichiro

    2016-08-01

    Table-top high-power terahertz (THz) pulse sources based on the femtosecond lasers are able to reveal fascinating nonlinear transport phenomena in materials and coherently drive low-energy transitions into the nonperturbative nonlinear regime. This article summarizes recent studies on THz nonlinear interactions with solid materials as follows. The tilted-pump-intensity-front scheme uses a LiNbO3 crystal to generate high-field single-cycle THz pulses with a 1 MV/cm amplitude. Such a high amplitude pulse can cause impact ionization in GaAs that excites electrons from the valence band to the conduction band, leading to exciton luminescence. A narrow-bandwidth THz pulse can be generated by using a chirped-pulse-beating method; this scheme has been used to show that resonant intraexcitonic excitation in GaAs induces a large Autler-Townes splitting. Moreover, nonlinear dynamics of magnetism can be studied by using a metallic split ring resonator to enhance the THz magnetic field.

  20. Nonlinear dynamics of specific DNA-protein interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwiputra, D.; Hidayat, W.; Khairani, R.; Zen, F. P.

    2016-03-01

    Interactions between DNA binding protein and specific base pairs of nucleic acid is critical for biological process. We propose a new model of DNA-protein interactions to depict the dynamics of specific DNA-protein interactions. Hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) are, among the other intermolecular interactions in DNA, the most distinctive in term of specificity of molecular bonds. As H-bonds account for specificity, we only consider the dynamics affected by H-bonds between DNA base pairs and H-bonds connecting protein side chains and DNA. The H-bonds are modelled by Morse potentials and coupling terms in the Hamiltonian of coupled oscillators resembling a coupling between planar DNA chain and a protein molecule. In this paper we give a perturbative approach as an attempt for a soliton solution. The solution is in the form of nonlinear travelling wave having the amplitudes satisfying coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations and is interpreted as the mediator for nonlocal transmittance of biological information in DNA.

  1. Nonlinear transient and chaotic interactions in disc brake squeal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2015-04-01

    In automotive disc-brake squeal, most numerical studies have been focussed on the prediction of unstable vibration modes in the frequency domain using the complex eigenvalue analysis. However, the magnitude of the positive real part of a complex eigenvalue is an unreliable indicator of squeal occurrence. Although nonlinearities have been shown to play a significant role in brake squeal, transient nonlinear time domain analyses have rarely been applied owing to high computational costs. Here the complex eigenvalue analysis, the direct steady-state analysis and the transient nonlinear time domain analysis are applied to an isotropic pad-on-disc finite element model representing a simple model of a brake system. While in this investigation, in-plane pad-mode instabilities are not detected by the complex eigenvalue analysis, the dissipated energy obtained by the direct steady-state analysis of the model subjected to harmonic contact pressure excitation is negative at frequencies of pad modes, indicating a potential for instabilities. Transient nonlinear time domain analysis of the pad and disc dynamics reveal that in-plane pad vibrations excite a dominant out-of-plane disc mode. For intermittently chaotic pad motion, the disc dynamics is quasi-periodic; and for chaotic motion of the pad, a toroidal attractor is found for the disc's out-of-plane motion. Nonlinear interactions between the pad and the disc highlight that different parts in a brake system display different dynamic behaviour and need to be analysed separately. The type II intermittency route to chaos could be the cause for the experimentally observed instantaneous mode squeal.

  2. Effects of nonlinearity on cell-ECM interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Qi; Janmey, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous biopolymers such as F-actin, vimentin, fibrin and collagen that form networks within the cytoskeleton or the extracellular matrix have unusual rheological properties not present in most synthetic soft materials that are used as cell substrates or scaffolds for tissue engineering. Gels formed by purified filamentous biopolymers are often strain stiffening, with an elastic modulus that can increase an order of magnitude at moderate strains that are relevant to cell and tissue deformation in vivo. This review summarizes some experimental studies of nonlinear rheology in biopolymer gels, discusses possible molecular mechanisms that account for strain stiffening, and explores the possible relevance of non-linear rheology to the interactions between cell and extracellular matrices. PMID:23748051

  3. The collapse of stacking fault tetrahedra by interactions with gliding dislocations.

    SciTech Connect

    Matsukawa, Yoshitaka; Osetskiy, Yury N; Stocks, George Malcolm; Zinkle, Steven J

    2005-01-01

    The collapse of stacking-fault tetrahedra (SFT) by gliding dislocations was observed in in situ straining experiments in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). A stacking-fault tetrahedron was collapsed by intersection with a gliding perfect dislocation: only the base portion divided by the gliding plane of the dislocation annihilated, while the apex portion remained intact. As a result of analysis on evolution of atom configuration induced by intersection with perfect dislocation in SFT, it was found that an unusual atom configuration inevitably appeared in one of the ledges formed on stacking-fault planes, which is traditionally called I-ledge: the atoms on adjacent (111) planes were overlapping each other. The overlapping configuration provides a strong repulsive force, being a conceivable driving force to induce a chain reaction of atom displacements that collapses the SFT base portion.

  4. Nonlinear Interaction of Detuned Instability Waves in Boundary-Layer Transition: Resonant-Triad Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sang Soo

    1998-01-01

    The non-equilibrium critical-layer analysis of a system of frequency-detuned resonant-triads is presented using the generalized scaling of Lee. It is shown that resonant-triads can interact nonlinearly within the common critical layer when their (fundamental) Strouhal numbers are different by a factor whose magnitude is of the order of the growth rate multiplied by the wavenumber of the instability wave. Since the growth rates of the instability modes become larger and the critical layers become thicker as the instability waves propagate downstream, the frequency-detuned resonant-triads that grow independently of each other in the upstream region can interact nonlinearly in the later downstream stage. In the final stage of the non-equilibrium critical-layer evolution, a wide range of instability waves with the scaled frequencies differing by almost an Order of (l) can nonlinearly interact. Low-frequency modes are also generated by the nonlinear interaction between oblique waves in the critical layer. The system of partial differential critical-layer equations along with the jump equations are presented here. The amplitude equations with their numerical solutions are given in Part 2. The nonlinearly generated low-frequency components are also investigated in Part 2.

  5. Homeotropic alignment of the lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal Sunset Yellow FCF using pi-pi stacking chemical interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Joonwoo; Han, Ganghee; Johnson, A. T. Charlie; Lubensky, Tom C.; Collings, Peter J.; Yodh, A. G.

    2013-03-01

    We report on the homeotropic alignment of the lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal, Sunset Yellow FCF (SSY), using pi-pi stacking interactions between the SSY molecules and (1) thin parylene films or (2) a graphene monolayer. The nematic and columnar phases of SSY molecules arise via self-assembly in water into stacks through non-covalent attractions between the SSY molecules. Interestingly, we find that the same non-covalent interactions between SSY molecules and a parylene or graphene alignment layer lead to homeotropic anchoring of these stacks. The nematic phase of SSY is introduced between two glass substrates coated with parylene films or graphene monolayers, and homeotropic alignment of SSY is confirmed by polarized optical microscopy and conoscopy. Additionally, we observe and can explain the stripe domains that occur during cooling of the sample in this cell, and we consider possible novel applications for homeotropically aligned chromonic liquid crystals. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the National Science Foundation through NSF DMR-1205463 and UPENN MRSEC DMR-1120901

  6. The Soil Stack: An Interactive Computer Program Describing Basic Soil Science and Soil Degradation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cattle, S. R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A computer program dealing with numerous aspects of soil degradation has a target audience of high school and university students (16-20 year olds), and is presented in a series of cards grouped together as stacks. Describes use of the software in Australia. (LZ)

  7. Nonlinear modal interactions in parity-time (PT) symmetric lasers

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Li; El-Ganainy, Ramy

    2016-01-01

    Parity-time symmetric lasers have attracted considerable attention lately due to their promising applications and intriguing properties, such as free spectral range doubling and single-mode lasing. In this work we discuss nonlinear modal interactions in these laser systems under steady state conditions, and we demonstrate that several gain clamping scenarios can occur for lasing operation in the -symmetric and -broken phases. In particular, we show that, depending on the system’s design and the external pump profile, its operation in the nonlinear regime falls into two different categories: in one the system is frozen in the phase space as the applied gain increases, while in the other the system is pulled towards its exceptional point. These features are first illustrated by a coupled mode formalism and later verified by employing the Steady-state Ab-initio Laser Theory (SALT). Our findings shine light on the robustness of single-mode operation against saturation nonlinearity in -symmetric lasers. PMID:27143324

  8. Center motions of nonoverlapping condensates coupled by long-range dipolar interaction in bilayer and multilayer stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao-Chun; Wu, Wen-Chin

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the effect of anisotropic and long-range dipole-dipole interaction (DDI) on the center motions of nonoverlapping Bose-Einstein condensates in bilayer and multilayer stacks. In the bilayer, it is shown analytically that while DDI plays no role in the in-phase modes of center motions of condensates, out-of-phase mode frequency (ωo) depends crucially on the strength of DDI (ad). At the small-ad limit, ωo2(ad)-ωo2(0)∝ad. In the multilayer stack, transverse modes associated with center motions of coupled condensates are found to be optical-phonon-like. At the long-wavelength limit, phonon velocity is proportional to ad.

  9. Energy hyperspace for stacking interaction in AU/AU dinucleotide step: Dispersion-corrected density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sanchita; Kailasam, Senthilkumar; Bansal, Manju; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay

    2014-01-01

    Double helical structures of DNA and RNA are mostly determined by base pair stacking interactions, which give them the base sequence-directed features, such as small roll values for the purine-pyrimidine steps. Earlier attempts to characterize stacking interactions were mostly restricted to calculations on fiber diffraction geometries or optimized structure using ab initio calculations lacking variation in geometry to comment on rather unusual large roll values observed in AU/AU base pair step in crystal structures of RNA double helices. We have generated stacking energy hyperspace by modeling geometries with variations along the important degrees of freedom, roll, and slide, which were chosen via statistical analysis as maximally sequence dependent. Corresponding energy contours were constructed by several quantum chemical methods including dispersion corrections. This analysis established the most suitable methods for stacked base pair systems despite the limitation imparted by number of atom in a base pair step to employ very high level of theory. All the methods predict negative roll value and near-zero slide to be most favorable for the purine-pyrimidine steps, in agreement with Calladine's steric clash based rule. Successive base pairs in RNA are always linked by sugar-phosphate backbone with C3'-endo sugars and this demands C1'-C1' distance of about 5.4 Å along the chains. Consideration of an energy penalty term for deviation of C1'-C1' distance from the mean value, to the recent DFT-D functionals, specifically ωB97X-D appears to predict reliable energy contour for AU/AU step. Such distance-based penalty improves energy contours for the other purine-pyrimidine sequences also. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 101: 107-120, 2014. PMID:23722519

  10. Molecular dynamics simulation of complex plasmas: interaction of nonlinear waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durniak, Celine; Samsonov, Dmitry

    2008-11-01

    Complex plasmas consist of micron sized microspheres immersed into ordinary ion-electron plasmas. They exist in solid, liquid, gaseous states and exhibit a range of dynamic phenomena such as waves, solitons, phase transitions, heat transfer. These phenomena can be modelled in complex plasmas at the microscopic or ``molecular'' scale, which is almost impossible in ordinary solids and liquids. We simulate a monolayer complex plasma consisting of 3000 negatively-charged particles (or grains) with the help of molecular dynamics computer simulations. The equations of grain motion are solved using a 5^th order Runge Kutta method taking into account interaction of every grain with each other via a Yukawa potential. The grains are confined more strongly in the vertical direction than in the horizontal. After seeding the grains randomly the code is run until the equilibrium is reached as the grain kinetics energy reduces due to damping force equal to the neutral friction in the experiments and a monolayer crystal lattice is formed. Then we investigate interactions between nonlinear waves in a monolayer strongly coupled complex plasma moving in three dimensions. Different excitations are applied during a short time symmetrically on both sides of the lattice. Structural properties and nonlinear waves characteristics are examined as the pulses propagate across the complex plasma in opposite directions.

  11. Spin-orbit interaction with nonlinear wave functions.

    SciTech Connect

    Brozell, S. R.; Shepard, R.; Zhang, Z.; Stanford Univ.

    2007-12-01

    The computation of the spin-orbit interaction is discussed for electronic wave functions expressed in the new nonlinear expansion form. This form is based on spin eigenfunctions using the graphical unitary group approach (GUGA). The nodes of a Shavitt graph in GUGA are connected by arcs, and a Configuration State Function (CSF) is represented as a walk along arcs from the vacuum node to a head node. The wave function is a linear combination of product functions each of which is a linear combination of all CSFs, wherein each CSF coefficient is a product of nonlinear arc factors. When the spin-orbit interaction is included the Shavitt graph is a union of single-headed Shavitt graphs each with the same total number of electrons and orbitals. Thus spin-orbit Shavitt graphs are multiheaded. For full-CI multiheaded Shavitt graphs, analytic expressions are presented for the number of walks, the number of nodes, the number of arcs, and the number of node pairs in the associated auxiliary pair graph.

  12. Nonlinear wave interactions in shallow water magnetohydrodynamics of astrophysical plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimachkov, D. A.; Petrosyan, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    The rotating magnetohydrodynamic flows of a thin layer of astrophysical and space plasmas with a free surface in a vertical external magnetic field are considered in the shallow water approximation. The presence of a vertical external magnetic field changes significantly the dynamics of wave processes in an astrophysical plasma, in contrast to a neutral fluid and a plasma layer in an external toroidal magnetic field. There are three-wave nonlinear interactions in the case under consideration. Using the asymptotic method of multiscale expansions, we have derived nonlinear equations for the interaction of wave packets: three magneto- Poincare waves, three magnetostrophic waves, two magneto-Poincare and one magnetostrophic waves, and two magnetostrophic and one magneto-Poincare waves. The existence of decay instabilities and parametric amplification is predicted. We show that a magneto-Poincare wave decays into two magneto-Poincare waves, a magnetostrophic wave decays into two magnetostrophic waves, a magneto-Poincare wave decays into one magneto-Poincare and one magnetostrophic waves, and a magnetostrophic wave decays into one magnetostrophic and one magneto-Poincare waves. There are the following parametric amplification mechanisms: the parametric amplification of magneto-Poincare waves, the parametric amplification of magnetostrophic waves, the amplification of a magneto-Poincare wave in the field of a magnetostrophic wave, and the amplification of a magnetostrophic wave in the field of a magneto-Poincare wave. The instability growth rates and parametric amplification factors have been found for the corresponding processes.

  13. The effect of stacking fault energy on interactions between an edge dislocation and a spherical void by molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asari, K.; Hetland, O. S.; Fujita, S.; Itakura, M.; Okita, T.

    2013-11-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted using a set of six interatomic potentials for FCC metals that differed only in stacking fault energy (SFE), to clarify the effect of SFE on interactions between a dissociated edge dislocation and a void. There are two different types of interaction mechanism: separate depinning of the individual partial dislocations and almost simultaneous depinning of the combined partial dislocations. The interaction mechanism depends on both the SFE and void size, and changes the absolute value of the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) and its dependence on the SFE. In the separate depinning case, the CRSS is relatively low and is almost independent of the SFE, while in the simultaneous case, the CRSS is increases with SFE. The void size for which the change in interaction mechanism occurs increases with decreasing SFE.

  14. Growing Ultra-flat Organic Films on Graphene with a Face-on Stacking via Moderate Molecule-Substrate Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ti; Kafle, Tika R.; Kattel, Bhupal; Liu, Qingfeng; Wu, Judy; Chan, Wai-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The electronic properties of small molecule organic crystals depend heavily on the molecular orientation. For multi-layer organic photovoltaics, it is desirable for the molecules to have a face-on orientation in order to enhance the out-of-plane transport properties. However, it is challenging to grow well-ordered and smooth films with a face-on stacking on conventional substrates such as metals and oxides. In this work, metal-phthalocyanine molecules is used as a model system to demonstrate that two-dimensional crystals such as graphene can serve as a template for growing high quality, ultra-flat organic films with a face-on orientation. Furthermore, the molecule-substrate interaction is varied systematically from strong to weak interaction regime with the interaction strength characterized by ultrafast electron transfer measurements. We find that in order to achieve the optimum orientation and morphology, the molecule-substrate interaction needs to be strong enough to ensure a face-on stacking while it needs to be weak enough to avoid film roughening. PMID:27356623

  15. Growing Ultra-flat Organic Films on Graphene with a Face-on Stacking via Moderate Molecule-Substrate Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ti; Kafle, Tika R.; Kattel, Bhupal; Liu, Qingfeng; Wu, Judy; Chan, Wai-Lun

    2016-06-01

    The electronic properties of small molecule organic crystals depend heavily on the molecular orientation. For multi-layer organic photovoltaics, it is desirable for the molecules to have a face-on orientation in order to enhance the out-of-plane transport properties. However, it is challenging to grow well-ordered and smooth films with a face-on stacking on conventional substrates such as metals and oxides. In this work, metal-phthalocyanine molecules is used as a model system to demonstrate that two-dimensional crystals such as graphene can serve as a template for growing high quality, ultra-flat organic films with a face-on orientation. Furthermore, the molecule-substrate interaction is varied systematically from strong to weak interaction regime with the interaction strength characterized by ultrafast electron transfer measurements. We find that in order to achieve the optimum orientation and morphology, the molecule-substrate interaction needs to be strong enough to ensure a face-on stacking while it needs to be weak enough to avoid film roughening.

  16. Growing Ultra-flat Organic Films on Graphene with a Face-on Stacking via Moderate Molecule-Substrate Interaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ti; Kafle, Tika R; Kattel, Bhupal; Liu, Qingfeng; Wu, Judy; Chan, Wai-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The electronic properties of small molecule organic crystals depend heavily on the molecular orientation. For multi-layer organic photovoltaics, it is desirable for the molecules to have a face-on orientation in order to enhance the out-of-plane transport properties. However, it is challenging to grow well-ordered and smooth films with a face-on stacking on conventional substrates such as metals and oxides. In this work, metal-phthalocyanine molecules is used as a model system to demonstrate that two-dimensional crystals such as graphene can serve as a template for growing high quality, ultra-flat organic films with a face-on orientation. Furthermore, the molecule-substrate interaction is varied systematically from strong to weak interaction regime with the interaction strength characterized by ultrafast electron transfer measurements. We find that in order to achieve the optimum orientation and morphology, the molecule-substrate interaction needs to be strong enough to ensure a face-on stacking while it needs to be weak enough to avoid film roughening. PMID:27356623

  17. A look to nonlinear interacting Ghost dark energy cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshudyan, Martiros

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we organize a look to nonlinear interacting Ghost dark energy cosmology involving a discussion on the thermodynamics of the Ghost dark energy, when the universe is bounded via the Hubble horizon. One of the ways to study a dark energy model, is to reconstruct thermodynamics of it. Ghost dark energy is one of the models of the dark energy which has an explicitly given energy density as a function of the Hubble parameter. There is an active discussion towards various cosmological scenarios, where the Ghost dark energy interacts with the pressureless cold dark matter (CDM). Recently, various models of the varying Ghost dark energy has been suggested, too. To have a comprehensive understanding of suggested models, we will discuss behavior of the cosmological parameters on parameter-redshift z plane. Some discussion on Om and statefinder hierarchy analysis of these models is presented. Moreover, up to our knowledge, suggested forms of interaction between the Ghost dark energy and cold dark matter (CDM) are new, therefore, within obtained results, we provide new contribution to previously discussed models available in the literature. Our study demonstrates that the forms of the interactions considered in the Ghost dark energy cosmology are not exotic and the justification of this is due to the recent observational data.

  18. Characterizing entanglement entropy produced by nonlinear scalar interactions during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, Dan; Heyl, Jeremy S.

    2009-07-15

    The density fluctuations that we observe in the universe today are thought to originate from quantum fluctuations produced during a phase of the early universe called inflation. By evolving a wave function describing two coupled Fourier modes of a scalar field forward through an inflationary epoch, we demonstrate that nonlinear effects can result in a generation of entanglement entropy between modes with different momenta in a scalar field during the inflationary period when just one of the modes is observed. Through this mechanism, the field would experience decoherence and appear more like a classical distribution today; however the mechanism is not sufficiently efficient to explain classicality. We find that the amount of entanglement entropy generated scales roughly as a power law S{proportional_to}{lambda}{sup 1.75}, where {lambda} is the coupling coefficient of the nonlinear potential term. We also investigate how the entanglement entropy scales with the duration of inflation and compare various entanglement measures from the literature with the von Neumann entropy. This demonstration explicitly follows particle creation and interactions between modes; consequently, the mechanism contributing to the generation of the von Neumann entropy can be easily seen.

  19. On a class of nonlinear dispersive-dissipative interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenau, P.

    1997-07-29

    The authors study the prototypical, genuinely nonlinear, equation; u{sub t} + a(u{sup m}){sub x} + (u{sup n}){sub xxx} = {mu}(u{sup k}){sub xx}, a, {mu} = consts., which encompasses a wide variety of dissipative-dispersive interactions. The parametric surface k = (m + n)/2 separates diffusion dominated from dissipation dominated phenomena. On this surface dissipative and dispersive effects are in detailed balance for all amplitudes. In particular, the m = n + 2 = k + 1 subclass can be transformed into a form free of convection and dissipation making it accessible to theoretical studies. Both bounded and unbounded oscillations are found and certain exact solutions are presented. When a = (2{mu}3/){sup 2} the map yields a linear equation; rational, periodic and aperiodic solutions are constructed.

  20. Interaction of highly nonlinear solitary waves with linear elastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinkyu; Silvestro, Claudio; Khatri, Devvrath; de Nardo, Luigi; Daraio, Chiara

    2011-04-01

    We study the interaction of highly nonlinear solitary waves propagating in granular crystals with an adjacent linear elastic medium. We investigate the effects of interface dynamics on the reflection of incident waves and on the formation of primary and secondary reflected waves. Experimental tests are performed to correlate the linear medium geometry, materials, and mass with the formation and propagation of reflected waves. We compare the experimental results with theoretical analysis based on the long-wavelength approximation and with numerical predictions obtained from discrete particle models. Experimental results are found to be in agreement with theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. This preliminary study establishes the foundation for utilizing reflected solitary waves as novel information carriers in nondestructive evaluation of elastic material systems.

  1. Interaction of highly nonlinear solitary waves with linear elastic media.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinkyu; Silvestro, Claudio; Khatri, Devvrath; De Nardo, Luigi; Daraio, Chiara

    2011-04-01

    We study the interaction of highly nonlinear solitary waves propagating in granular crystals with an adjacent linear elastic medium. We investigate the effects of interface dynamics on the reflection of incident waves and on the formation of primary and secondary reflected waves. Experimental tests are performed to correlate the linear medium geometry, materials, and mass with the formation and propagation of reflected waves. We compare the experimental results with theoretical analysis based on the long-wavelength approximation and with numerical predictions obtained from discrete particle models. Experimental results are found to be in agreement with theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. This preliminary study establishes the foundation for utilizing reflected solitary waves as novel information carriers in nondestructive evaluation of elastic material systems. PMID:21599325

  2. Nonlinear Laser-Plasma Interaction in Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Geissel, Matthias; Awe, Thomas James; Bliss, David E.; Campbell, Edward Michael; Gomez, Matthew R.; Harding, Eric; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Jennings, Christopher Ashley; Kimmel, Mark W.; et al

    2016-03-04

    Sandia National Laboratories is pursuing a variation of Magneto-Inertial Fusion called Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion, or MagLIF. The MagLIF approach requires magnetization of the deuterium fuel, which is accomplished by an initial external B-Field and laser-driven pre-heat. Although magnetization is crucial to the concept, it is challenging to couple sufficient energy to the fuel, since laser-plasma instabilities exist, and a compromise between laser spot size, laser entrance window thickness, and fuel density must be found. Ultimately, nonlinear processes in laser plasma interaction, or laser-plasma instabilities (LPI), complicate the deposition of laser energy by enhanced absorption, backscatter, filamentation and beam-spray. Wemore » determine and discuss key LPI processes and mitigation methods. Results with and without improvement measures are presented.« less

  3. Nonlinear laser-plasma interaction in magnetized liner inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissel, Matthias; Awe, T. J.; Bliss, D. E.; Campbell, M. E.; Gomez, M. R.; Harding, E.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Hansen, S. B.; Jennings, C.; Kimmel, M. W.; Knapp, P.; Lewis, S. M.; McBride, R. D.; Peterson, K.; Schollmeier, M.; Scoglietti, D. J.; Sefkow, A. B.; Shores, J. E.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Smith, I. C.; Speas, C. S.; Vesey, R. A.; Porter, J. L.

    2016-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is pursuing a variation of Magneto-Inertial Fusion called Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion, or MagLIF. The MagLIF approach requires magnetization of the deuterium fuel, which is accomplished by an initial external B-Field and laser-driven pre-heat. While magnetization is crucial to the concept, it is challenging to couple sufficient energy to the fuel, since laser-plasma instabilities exist, and a compromise between laser spot size, laser entrance window thickness, and fuel density must be found. Nonlinear processes in laser plasma interaction, or laser-plasma instabilities (LPI), complicate the deposition of laser energy by enhanced absorption, backscatter, filamentation and beam-spray. Key LPI processes are determined, and mitigation methods are discussed. Results with and without improvement measures are presented.

  4. Topological charge algebra of optical vortices in nonlinear interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutova, Mariia; Zhdanova, Alexandra; Bahari, Aysan; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei

    2016-05-01

    Optical vortices find their use in multiple areas of research and technology; in particular, they provide an opportunity to generate short-pulse spatially-structured optical beams, which can be used to study ultrafast processes. In our work, we explore interactions of femtosecond optical vortices in nonlinear crystals. We investigate the transfer of orbital angular momentum among multiple (applied and generated) beams involved in a coherent Raman interaction. We use a liquid crystal light modulator to shape the applied pump and Stokes beams into optical vortices with various integer values of topological charge, and cross them in a Raman-active crystal to produce multiple Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands. We then examine the transfer of optical angular momentum into each sideband and find that it follows a certain law that can be derived from angular momentum conservation for created and annihilated photons, or equivalently, from phase-matching considerations for the interacting beams. Presenter is supported by the Herman F. Heep and Minnie Belle Heep Texas A&M University Endowed Fund administered by the Texas A&M Foundation

  5. Interaction of small mobile stacking fault tetrahedra with free surfaces, dislocations, and interfaces in Cu and Cu-Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Enrique; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Beyerlein, Irene J.

    2016-02-01

    The presence of stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs) in face-centered-cubic metals substantially modifies the material response to external loading. These defects are extremely stable with increasing energetic stability as they grow in size. At the sizes visible within a transmission electron microscope, they appear nearly immobile. We have recently shown that these defects might indeed migrate, with defective SFTs exhibiting particularly high mobilities. In this paper, using molecular dynamics, we show how mobile SFTs interact with various types of extended defects, including free surfaces, dislocations, and interfaces in Cu and Cu-Nb systems. We observe a direct relation between the energetics of a single vacancy interacting with each external defect and the propensity for the SFT to be absorbed. Finally, using mesoscale modeling, we show how the fact that SFTs can migrate influences the system evolution and potentially important observables of interest such as the void denuded zones around defect sinks.

  6. Nonlinear neutrino-photon interactions inside strong laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meuren, Sebastian; Keitel, Christoph H.; Di Piazza, Antonino

    2015-06-01

    Even though neutrinos are neutral particles and interact only via the exchange of weak gauge bosons, charged leptons and quarks can mediate a coupling to the photon field beyond tree level. Inside a relativistically strong laser field nonlinear effects in the laser amplitude can play an important role, as electrons and positrons interact nonperturbatively with the coherent part of the photon field. Here, we calculate for the first time the leading-order contribution to the axial-vector-vector current-coupling tensor inside an arbitrary plane-wave laser field (which is taken into account exactly by employing the Furry picture). The current-coupling tensor appears in the calculation of various electroweak processes inside strong laser fields like photon emission or trident electron-positron pair production by a neutrino. Moreover, as we will see below, the axial-vector-vector current-coupling tensor contains the Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly. This occurrence renders the current-coupling tensor also interesting from a fundamental point of view, as it is the simplest Feynman diagram in an external field featuring this kind of anomaly.

  7. Stacking interactions in RNA and DNA: Roll-slide energy hyperspace for ten unique dinucleotide steps.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sanchita; Kailasam, Senthilkumar; Bansal, Manju; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay

    2015-03-01

    Understanding dinucleotide sequence directed structures of nuleic acids and their variability from experimental observation remained ineffective due to unavailability of statistically meaningful data. We have attempted to understand this from energy scan along twist, roll, and slide degrees of freedom which are mostly dependent on dinucleotide sequence using ab initio density functional theory. We have carried out stacking energy analysis in these dinucleotide parameter phase space for all ten unique dinucleotide steps in DNA and RNA using DFT-D by ωB97X-D/6-31G(2d,2p), which appears to satisfactorily explain conformational preferences for AU/AU step in our recent study. We show that values of roll, slide, and twist of most of the dinucleotide sequences in crystal structures fall in the low energy region. The minimum energy regions with large twist values are associated with the roll and slide values of B-DNA, whereas, smaller twist values correspond to higher stability to RNA and A-DNA like conformations. Incorporation of solvent effect by CPCM method could explain the preference shown by some sequences to occur in B-DNA or A-DNA conformations. Conformational preference of BII sub-state in B-DNA is preferentially displayed mainly by pyrimidine-purine steps and partly by purine-purine steps. The purine-pyrimidine steps show largest effect of 5-methyl group of thymine in stacking energy and the introduction of solvent reduces this effect significantly. These predicted structures and variabilities can explain the effect of sequence on DNA and RNA functionality. PMID:25257334

  8. Nonlinear interactions of electromagnetic waves with the auroral ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Alfred Y.

    1999-09-20

    The ionosphere provides us with an opportunity to perform plasma experiments in an environment with long confinement times, very large-scale lengths, and no confining walls. The auroral ionosphere with its nearly vertical magnetic field geometry is uniquely endowed with large amount of free energy from electron and ion precipitation along the magnetic field and mega-ampere current across the magnetic field. To take advantage of this giant outdoor laboratory, two facilities HAARP and HIPAS, with frequencies ranging from the radio to optical bands, are now available for active probing of and interaction with this interesting region. The ponderomotive pressures from the self-consistent wave fields have produced significant local perturbations of density and particle distributions at heights where the incident EM frequency matches a plasma resonance. This paper will review theory and experiments covering the nonlinear phenomena of parametric decay instability to wave collapse processes. At HF frequencies plasma lenses can be created by preconditioning pulses to focus what is a normally divergent beam into a high-intensity spot to further enhance nonlinear phenomena. At optical wavelengths a large rotating liquid metal mirror is used to focus laser pulses up to a given height. Such laser pulses are tuned to the same wavelengths of selected atomic and molecular resonances, with resulting large scattering cross sections. Ongoing experiments on dual-site experiments and excitation of ELF waves will be presented. The connection of such basic studies to environmental applications will be discussed. Such applications include the global communication using ELF waves, the ozone depletion and remediation and the control of atmospheric CO{sub 2} through the use of ion cyclotron resonant heating.

  9. Nonlinear interactions of electromagnetic waves with the auroral ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Alfred Y.

    1999-09-01

    The ionosphere provides us with an opportunity to perform plasma experiments in an environment with long confinement times, very large-scale lengths, and no confining walls. The auroral ionosphere with its nearly vertical magnetic field geometry is uniquely endowed with large amount of free energy from electron and ion precipitation along the magnetic field and mega-ampere current across the magnetic field. To take advantage of this giant outdoor laboratory, two facilities HAARP and HIPAS, with frequencies ranging from the radio to optical bands, are now available for active probing of and interaction with this interesting region. The ponderomotive pressures from the self-consistent wave fields have produced significant local perturbations of density and particle distributions at heights where the incident EM frequency matches a plasma resonance. This paper will review theory and experiments covering the nonlinear phenomena of parametric decay instability to wave collapse processes. At HF frequencies plasma lenses can be created by preconditioning pulses to focus what is a normally divergent beam into a high-intensity spot to further enhance nonlinear phenomena. At optical wavelengths a large rotating liquid metal mirror is used to focus laser pulses up to a given height. Such laser pulses are tuned to the same wavelengths of selected atomic and molecular resonances, with resulting large scattering cross sections. Ongoing experiments on dual-site experiments and excitation of ELF waves will be presented. The connection of such basic studies to environmental applications will be discussed. Such applications include the global communication using ELF waves, the ozone depletion and remediation and the control of atmospheric CO2 through the use of ion cyclotron resonant heating.

  10. Evidence of π-stacking Interactions in the Self-Assembly of hIAPP22–29†

    PubMed Central

    Profit, Adam A.; Felsen, Valentina; Chinwong, Justina; Mojica, Elmer-Rico E.; Desamero, Ruel Z. B.

    2012-01-01

    The role aromatic amino acids play in the formation of amyloid is a subject of controversy. In an effort to clarify the contribution of aromaticity to the self-assembly of hIAPP22–29, peptide analogs containing electron donating groups (EDGs) or electron withdrawing groups (EWGs) as substituents on the aromatic ring of Phe-23 at the para position have been synthesized and characterized using turbidity measurements in conjunction with Raman, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Results indicate the incorporation of EDGs on the aromatic ring of Phe-23 virtually abolish the ability of hIAPP22–29 to form amyloid. Peptides containing EWGs were still capable of forming aggregates. These aggregates were found to be rich in β-sheet secondary structure. TEM images of the aggregates confirm the presence of amyloid fibrils. The observed difference in amyloidogenic propensity between peptides containing EDGs and those with EWGs appears not to be based on differences in peptide hydrophobicity. Fluorescence and Raman spectroscopic investigations reveal that the environment surrounding the aromatic ring becomes more hydrophobic and ordered upon aggregation. Furthermore, Raman measurements of peptide analogs containing EWGs, conclusively demonstrate a distinct downshift in the -C=C- ring mode (ca. 1600 cm−1) upon aggregation that has previously been shown to be indicative of π-stacking. While previous work has demonstrated that π-stacking is not an absolute requirement for fibrillization, our findings indicate that Phe-23 also contributes to fibril formation through π-stacking interactions and that it is not only the hydrophobic nature of this residue that is relevant in the self-assembly of hIAPP22–29. PMID:23229921

  11. Stacking Interactions between Carbohydrate and Protein Quantified by Combination of Theoretical and Experimental Methods

    PubMed Central

    Nečasová, Ivona; Mishra, Sushil Kumar; Komárek, Jan; Koča, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrate – receptor interactions are an integral part of biological events. They play an important role in many cellular processes, such as cell-cell adhesion, cell differentiation and in-cell signaling. Carbohydrates can interact with a receptor by using several types of intermolecular interactions. One of the most important is the interaction of a carbohydrate's apolar part with aromatic amino acid residues, known as dispersion interaction or CH/π interaction. In the study presented here, we attempted for the first time to quantify how the CH/π interaction contributes to a more general carbohydrate - protein interaction. We used a combined experimental approach, creating single and double point mutants with high level computational methods, and applied both to Ralstonia solanacearum (RSL) lectin complexes with α-l-Me-fucoside. Experimentally measured binding affinities were compared with computed carbohydrate-aromatic amino acid residue interaction energies. Experimental binding affinities for the RSL wild type, phenylalanine and alanine mutants were −8.5, −7.1 and −4.1 kcal.mol−1, respectively. These affinities agree with the computed dispersion interaction energy between carbohydrate and aromatic amino acid residues for RSL wild type and phenylalanine, with values −8.8, −7.9 kcal.mol−1, excluding the alanine mutant where the interaction energy was −0.9 kcal.mol−1. Molecular dynamics simulations show that discrepancy can be caused by creation of a new hydrogen bond between the α-l-Me-fucoside and RSL. Observed results suggest that in this and similar cases the carbohydrate-receptor interaction can be driven mainly by a dispersion interaction. PMID:23056230

  12. Van der Waals stacks of few-layer h-AlN with graphene: an ab initio study of structural, interaction and electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Renato B.; de Brito Mota, F.; Rivelino, R.; Kakanakova-Georgieva, A.; Gueorguiev, G. K.

    2016-04-01

    Graphite-like hexagonal AlN (h-AlN) multilayers have been experimentally manifested and theoretically modeled. The development of any functional electronics applications of h-AlN would most certainly require its integration with other layered materials, particularly graphene. Here, by employing vdW-corrected density functional theory calculations, we investigate structure, interaction energy, and electronic properties of van der Waals stacking sequences of few-layer h-AlN with graphene. We find that the presence of a template such as graphene induces enough interlayer charge separation in h-AlN, favoring a graphite-like stacking formation. We also find that the interface dipole, calculated per unit cell of the stacks, tends to increase with the number of stacked layers of h-AlN and graphene.

  13. Nonlinear normal modes modal interactions and isolated resonance curves

    SciTech Connect

    Kuether, Robert J.; Renson, L.; Detroux, T.; Grappasonni, C.; Kerschen, G.; Allen, M. S.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of the present study is to explore the connection between the nonlinear normal modes of an undamped and unforced nonlinear system and the isolated resonance curves that may appear in the damped response of the forced system. To this end, an energy balance technique is used to predict the amplitude of the harmonic forcing that is necessary to excite a specific nonlinear normal mode. A cantilever beam with a nonlinear spring at its tip serves to illustrate the developments. Furthermore, the practical implications of isolated resonance curves are also discussed by computing the beam response to sine sweep excitations of increasing amplitudes.

  14. Nonlinear normal modes modal interactions and isolated resonance curves

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kuether, Robert J.; Renson, L.; Detroux, T.; Grappasonni, C.; Kerschen, G.; Allen, M. S.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of the present study is to explore the connection between the nonlinear normal modes of an undamped and unforced nonlinear system and the isolated resonance curves that may appear in the damped response of the forced system. To this end, an energy balance technique is used to predict the amplitude of the harmonic forcing that is necessary to excite a specific nonlinear normal mode. A cantilever beam with a nonlinear spring at its tip serves to illustrate the developments. Furthermore, the practical implications of isolated resonance curves are also discussed by computing the beam response to sine sweepmore » excitations of increasing amplitudes.« less

  15. Nonlinear theory of slow cyclotron wave interaction in folded waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, A.K.; Choi, J.J.

    1995-12-31

    A three-dimensional non-linear theory is presented for the generation of broadband radiation from slow cyclotron wave interaction in a folded waveguide. The serpentine structure is formed by folding a rectangular waveguide so that the orientation of the magnetic changes (H-plane bend) instead of the conventional E-plane bend configuration where the orientation of the electric field changes. The H-plane bend structure can use larger beam tunnel without distorting the rf field structure and generate higher output power. Numerical results will be shown for the TE{sub 10} mode propagation in an unridged and a double ridged waveguide. For a 61.5 kV, 3 A beam with {alpha}=1.0 and {Delta}v{sub z}/v{sub z}=0, calculations show an efficiency of 25% with 20% bandwidth and an efficiency of 35% at 10% bandwidth. The efficiency and bandwidth is relatively unchanged up to a beam axial velocity spread of 2%. The bandwidth can be further increased by mode coalescing techniques. Multistage operation is necessary to avoid backward wave oscillation.

  16. Comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations of the stacking fault tetrahedron interacting with a mixed dislocation at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Haidong; Wang, Qingyuan; Ouyang, Chaojun

    2015-10-01

    The defect-free channels were frequently observed in irradiated materials, i.e. copper, as a result of the stacking fault tetrahedron (SFT) interactions with dislocations. However, the underlying mechanisms for this process are still unclear to date. To address them, a comprehensive study on the interactions between SFTs and mixed dislocations was performed using molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, eight interaction geometries were considered, in terms of the dislocation Burgers vector directions, dislocation gliding directions and intersection positions on SFT. Various interaction outcomes were revealed after dislocation detachment. (1) SFT is fully absorbed through the transformation into Lomer dislocations, and subsequently moves out of free surfaces along the dislocation. (2) SFT is partially absorbed with the absorbed SFT base moving out of free surfaces along the dislocation. (3) SFT is not absorbed but sheared with ledges left on the SFT faces. (4) SFT is unaffected by the mixed dislocation. The current simulations, especially the full SFT absorption, provide important insights into the forming mechanisms of defect-free channels in irradiated materials.

  17. Higher-order semirational solutions and nonlinear wave interactions for a derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Zhu, Yu-Jie; Wang, Zi-Zhe; Qi, Feng-Hua; Guo, Rui

    2016-04-01

    We present the semirational solution in terms of the determinant form for the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It describes the nonlinear combinations of breathers and rogue waves (RWs). We show here that the solution appears as a mixture of polynomials with exponential functions. The k-order semirational solution includes k - 1 types of nonlinear superpositions, i.e., the l-order RW and (k-l)-order breather for l = 1 , 2 , … , k - 1 . By adjusting the shift and spectral parameters, we display various patterns of the semirational solutions for describing the interactions among the RWs and breathers. We find that k-order RW can be derived from a l-order RW interacting with 1/2(k - l) (k + l + 1) neighboring elements of a (k - l)-order breather for l = 1 , 2 , … , k - 1 .

  18. Non-covalent stacking interactions directing the structural and photophysical features of mono- and dinuclear cyclometalated palladium(ii) complexes.

    PubMed

    Santana, M D; López-Banet, L; Sánchez, G; Pérez, J; Pérez, E; García, L; Serrano, J L; Espinosa, A

    2016-05-17

    The solution/solid state luminescence properties of selected orthometalated palladium complexes have been investigated in parallel with the relevant structural information provided by their X-ray crystal structures and theoretical calculations. Two cyclometalated backbones with different stacking abilities and a selection of bridging O^O, O^N or N^S ligands comprise the series under study, [{Pd(μ-L) (C^N)}2] (C^N = N-phenylpyrazole (Phpz) ; N-benzylideneaniline (Bza) ; L = acetate (Aco) , succinimidate (succ) , phthalimidate (phthal) , 1-methylimidazoline-2 thionate (Smeimid) ), completed with mononuclear [Pd(C^N)(N-pClPhsal)] (N-pClPhsal = chlorophenylsalycilaldiminate) complexes. New compounds , and were synthesized and the X-ray structures of , , , and have been elucidated in order to examine and compare solid-state Pd(C^N)-Pd(C^N) and ligand-ligand interactions with the rest of the series. The molecular structures of the complexes reveal intramolecular PdPd distances between 2.842 and 2.999 Å and π-π and C-Hπ interactions. All complexes studied show emission in the solid state at room temperature and a relationship is observed between emission energy, the nature of the lowest energy excited state, and metal-metal interactions. DFT calculations are undertaken to gain insight into the relationship between the structure and photophysical properties of the complexes. PMID:27137832

  19. Near-planar TS waves and longitudinal vortices in channel flow - Nonlinear interaction and focussing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Philip; Smith, Frank T.

    1990-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction between planar or near-planar Tollmien-Schlichting waves and longitudinal vortices, induced or input, is considered theoretically for channel flows at high Reynolds numbers. Several kinds of nonlinear interaction, dependent on the input amplitudes and wavenumbers or on previously occurring interactions, are found and inter-related. The first, Type 1, is studied the most here and it usually produces spanwise focusing of both the wave and the vortex motion, within a finite scaled time, along with enhancement of both their amplitudes. This then points to the nonlinear interaction Type 2 where new interactive effects come into force to drive the wave and the vortex nonlinearly. Types 3, 4 correspond to still higher amplitudes, with 3 being related to 2, while 4 is connected with a larger-scale interaction 5 studied in an allied paper. Both 3, 4 are subsets of the full three-dimensional triple-deck-lie interaction, 6. The strongest nonlinear interactions are those of 4, 5, 6 since they alter the mean-flow profile substantially, i.e., by an O(1) relative amount. All the types of nonlinear interaction, however, can result in the formation of focused responses in the sense of spanwise concentrations and/or amplifications of vorticity and wave amplitude.

  20. Near-planar TS waves and longitudinal vortices in channel flow: Nonlinear interaction and focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P.; Smith, F. T.

    1989-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction between planar or near-planar Tollmien-Schlichting waves and longitudinal vortices, induced or input, is considered theoretically for channel flows at high Reynolds numbers. Several kinds of nonlinear interaction, dependent on the input amplitudes and wavenumbers or on previously occurring interactions, are found and inter-related. The first, Type 1, is studied the most here and it usually produces spanwise focusing of both the wave and the vortex motion, within a finite scaled time, along with enhancement of both their amplitudes. This then points to the nonlinear interaction Type 2 where new interactive effects come into force to drive the wave and the vortex nonlinearly. Types 3, 4 correspond to still higher amplitudes, with 3 being related to 2, while 4 is connected with a larger-scale interaction 5 studied in an allied paper. Both 3, 4 are subsets of the full three-dimensional triple-deck-lie interaction, 6. The strongest nonlinear interactions are those of 4, 5, 6 since they alter the mean-flow profile substantially, i.e., by an 0(1) relative amount. All the types of nonlinear interaction however can result in the formation of focussed responses in the sense of spanwise concentrations and/or amplifications of vorticity and wave amplitude.

  1. π-Stacking, C-H/π, and halogen bonding interactions in bromobenzene and mixed bromobenzene-benzene clusters.

    PubMed

    Reid, Scott A; Nyambo, Silver; Muzangwa, Lloyd; Uhler, Brandon

    2013-12-19

    Noncovalent interactions play an important role in many chemical and biochemical processes. Building upon our recent study of the homoclusters of chlorobenzene, where π-π stacking and CH/π interactions were identified as the most important binding motifs, in this work we present a study of bromobenzene (PhBr) and mixed bromobenzene-benzene clusters. Electronic spectra in the region of the PhBr monomer S0-S1 (ππ*) transition were obtained using resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) methods combined with time-of-flight mass analysis. As previously found for related systems, the PhBr cluster spectra show a broad feature whose center is red-shifted from the monomer absorption, and electronic structure calculations indicate the presence of multiple isomers and Franck-Condon activity in low-frequency intermolecular modes. Calculations at the M06-2X/aug-cc-pVDZ level find in total eight minimum energy structures for the PhBr dimer: four π-stacked structures differing in the relative orientation of the Br atoms (denoted D1-D4), one T-shaped structure (D5), and three halogen bonded structures (D6-D8). The calculated binding energies of these complexes, corrected for basis set superposition error (BSSE) and zero-point energy (ZPE), are in the range of -6 to -24 kJ/mol. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations predict that these isomers absorb over a range that is roughly consistent with the breadth of the experimental spectrum. To examine the influence of dipole-dipole interaction, R2PI spectra were also obtained for the mixed PhBr···benzene dimer, where the spectral congestion is reduced and clear vibrational structure is observed. This structure is well-simulated by Franck-Condon calculations that incorporate the lowest frequency intermolecular modes. Calculations find four minimum energy structures for the mixed dimer and predict that the binding energy of the global minimum is reduced by ~30% relative to the global minimum PhBr dimer

  2. Nonlinear interaction of near-planar TS waves and longitudinal vortices in boundary-layer transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, F. T.

    1988-01-01

    The nonlinear interactions that evolve between a planar or nearly planar Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave and the associated longitudinal vortices are considered theoretically for a boundary layer at high Reynolds number. The vortex flow is either induced by the TS nonlinear forcing or is input upstream, and similarly for the nonlinear wave development. Three major kinds of nonlinear spatial evolution, Types 1-3, are found. Each can start from secondary instability and then become nonlinear, Type 1 proving to be relatively benign but able to act as a pre-cursor to the Types 2, 3 which turn out to be very powerful nonlinear interactions. Type 2 involves faster stream-wise dependence and leads to a finite-distance blow-up in the amplitudes, which then triggers the full nonlinear 3-D triple-deck response, thus entirely altering the mean-flow profile locally. In contrast, Type 3 involves slower streamwise dependence but a faster spanwise response, with a small TS amplitude thereby causing an enhanced vortex effect which, again, is substantial enough to entirely alter the meanflow profile, on a more global scale. Streak-like formations in which there is localized concentration of streamwise vorticity and/or wave amplitude can appear, and certain of the nonlinear features also suggest by-pass processes for transition and significant changes in the flow structure downstream. The powerful nonlinear 3-D interactions 2, 3 are potentially very relevant to experimental findings in transition.

  3. Equatorial π-stacking interactions in diruthenium (II,III) tetracarboxylate complexes containing extended π-systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, Natasha F.; Ronaldson, Michael; Stanley Cameron, T.; Wang, Ruiyao; Aquino, Manuel A. S.

    2013-11-01

    The synthesis of three new valent-averaged tetracarboxylatodiruthenium (II,III) complexes, [Ru2(1-naphthylacetate)4(H2O)2](PF6)ṡ4THF, 1ṡ4THF, [Ru2(2-naphthoate)4(THF)2](PF6)ṡ3THF, 2ṡ3THF, and [Ru2(coumarin-3-carboxylate)4(MeOH)2](PF6)ṡMeOHṡH2O, 3ṡMeOHṡH2O, was accomplished using a well documented carboxylate exchange reaction. All three complexes were thoroughly characterized using infrared and UV-Vis spectroscopies, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction. Due to the extended π-systems present, two of the complexes, 2ṡ3THF and 3ṡMeOHṡH2O, display extensive π-stacking in two dimensions, with similar interactions notably absent in 1ṡ4THF due to the perpendicular orientation of the naphthyl rings. Modest H-bonding is seen in complexes 1ṡ4THF and 3ṡMeOHṡH2O. As these types of complexes are noted secondary building units (SBU's) in the construction of metal-organic frameworks (MOF's), the significance of these interactions in stabilizing even larger, supramolecular structures, are noted.

  4. Two-body problem of core-region coupled magnetic vortex stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänze, Max; Adolff, Christian F.; Velten, Sven; Weigand, Markus; Meier, Guido

    2016-02-01

    The dynamics of all four combinations of possible polarity and circularity states in a stack of two vortices is investigated by time-resolved scanning transmission x-ray microscopy. The vortex stacks are excited by unidirectional magnetic fields leading to a collective oscillation. Four different modes are observed that depend on the relative polarizations and circularities of the stacks. They are excited to a driven oscillation. We observe a repulsive and attractive interaction of the vortex cores depending on their relative polarizations. The nonlinearity of this core interaction results in different trajectories that describe a two-body problem.

  5. Simultaneous observations of aerosol–cloud–albedo interactions with three stacked unmanned aerial vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, G. C.; Ramana, M. V.; Corrigan, C.; Kim, D.; Ramanathan, V.

    2008-01-01

    Aerosol impacts on climate change are still poorly understood, in part, because the few observations and methods for detecting their effects are not well established. For the first time, the enhancement in cloud albedo is directly measured on a cloud-by-cloud basis and linked to increasing aerosol concentrations by using multiple autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles to simultaneously observe the cloud microphysics, vertical aerosol distribution, and associated solar radiative fluxes. In the presence of long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic pollution, the trade cumuli have higher droplet concentrations and are on average brighter. Our observations suggest a higher sensitivity of radiative forcing by trade cumuli to increases in cloud droplet concentrations than previously reported owing to a constrained droplet radius such that increases in droplet concentrations also increase cloud liquid water content. This aerosol-cloud forcing efficiency is as much as −60 W m−2 per 100% percent cloud fraction for a doubling of droplet concentrations and associated increase of liquid water content. Finally, we develop a strategy for detecting aerosol–cloud interactions based on a nondimensional scaling analysis that relates the contribution of single clouds to albedo measurements and illustrates the significance of characterizing cloud morphology in resolving radiometric measurements. This study demonstrates that aerosol–cloud–albedo interactions can be directly observed by simultaneous observations below, in, and above the clouds. PMID:18499803

  6. Simultaneous observations of aerosol-cloud-albedo interactions with three stacked unmanned aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Roberts, G C; Ramana, M V; Corrigan, C; Kim, D; Ramanathan, V

    2008-05-27

    Aerosol impacts on climate change are still poorly understood, in part, because the few observations and methods for detecting their effects are not well established. For the first time, the enhancement in cloud albedo is directly measured on a cloud-by-cloud basis and linked to increasing aerosol concentrations by using multiple autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles to simultaneously observe the cloud microphysics, vertical aerosol distribution, and associated solar radiative fluxes. In the presence of long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic pollution, the trade cumuli have higher droplet concentrations and are on average brighter. Our observations suggest a higher sensitivity of radiative forcing by trade cumuli to increases in cloud droplet concentrations than previously reported owing to a constrained droplet radius such that increases in droplet concentrations also increase cloud liquid water content. This aerosol-cloud forcing efficiency is as much as -60 W m(-2) per 100% percent cloud fraction for a doubling of droplet concentrations and associated increase of liquid water content. Finally, we develop a strategy for detecting aerosol-cloud interactions based on a nondimensional scaling analysis that relates the contribution of single clouds to albedo measurements and illustrates the significance of characterizing cloud morphology in resolving radiometric measurements. This study demonstrates that aerosol-cloud-albedo interactions can be directly observed by simultaneous observations below, in, and above the clouds. PMID:18499803

  7. Conformational Preferences of π-π Stacking Between Ligand and Protein, Analysis Derived from Crystal Structure Data Geometric Preference of π-π Interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan; Li, Jue; Gu, Hui; Wei, Dongqing; Xu, Yao-Chang; Fu, Wei; Yu, Zhengtian

    2015-09-01

    π-π Interaction is a direct attractive non-covalent interaction between aromatic moieties, playing an important role in DNA stabilization, drug intercalation, etc. Aromatic rings interact through several different conformations including face-to-face, T-shaped, and offset stacked conformation. Previous quantum calculations indicated that T-shaped and offset stacked conformations are preferred for their smaller electron repulsions. However, substitution group on aromatic ring could have a great impact on π-π interaction by changing electron repulsion force between two rings. To investigate π-π interaction between ligand and aromatic side chain of protein, Brookhaven Protein Data Bank was analyzed. We extracted isolated dimer pairs with the aim of excluding multiple π-π stacking effects and found that T-shaped conformation is prevalent among aromatic interaction between phenyl ring of ligand and protein, which corresponds with the phenomenon of Phe-Phe interactions in small peptide. Specifically, for the non-substitution model, both Phe-Phe and Phenyl-Phe exhibit a favored T-shaped conformation whose dihedral angle is around 50°-70° and centroid distance is between 5.0 and 5.6 Å. However, it could be changed by substituent effect. The hydroxyl group could contact in the case of Tyr-Tyr pairs, while they point away from phenyl plane in Phe-Tyr pairs. PMID:26370211

  8. Mesoscopic model parametrization of hydrogen bonds and stacking interactions of RNA from melting temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Information about molecular interactions in DNA can be obtained from experimental melting temperature data by using mesoscopic statistical physics models. Here, we extend the technique to RNA and show that the new parameters correctly reproduce known properties such as the stronger hydrogen bonds of AU base pairs. We also were able to calculate a complete set of elastic constants for all 10 irreducible combinations of nearest neighbours (NNs). We believe that this is particularly useful as experimentally derived information about RNA elasticity is relatively scarce. The melting temperature prediction using the present model improves over those from traditional NN model, providing thus an alternative way to calculate these temperatures for RNA. Additionally, we calculated the site-dependent base pair oscillation to explain why RNA shows larger oscillation amplitudes despite having stronger AU hydrogen bonds. PMID:23087379

  9. On strongly nonlinear vortex/wave interactions in boundary-layer transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Philip; Smith, Frank T.

    1989-01-01

    The interactions between longitudinal vortices and accompanying waves considered are strongly nonlinear, in the sense that the mean-flow profile throughout the boundary layer is completely altered from its original undisturbed state. Nonlinear interactions between vortex flow and Tollmien-Schlichting waves are addressed first, and some analytical and computational properties are described. These include the possibility in the spatial-development case of a finite-distance break-up, inducing a singularity in the displacement thickness. Second, vortex/Rayleigh wave nonlinear interactions are considered for the compressible boundary-layer, along with certain special cases of interest and some possible solution properties. Both types, vortex/Tollmien-Schlichting and vortex/Rayleigh, are short-scale/long-scale interactions and they have potential applications to many flows at high Reynolds numbers. The strongly nonlinear nature is believed to make them very relevant to fully fledged transition to turbulence.

  10. Nonlinear Interactions between Slender Structures and Axial Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Li

    2015-03-01

    For decades, dynamic behaviors of a slender structure with axial flow have been extensively studied. However, the governing equation based on expansions of small quantities is complicatedly-expressed and can be inappropriate as amplitude becomes considerably large. In this research, we are dedicated to finding an approach to study the nonlinear dynamics of a fluid-conveying slender strcture with arbitrary amplitude. By introducing the Intrinsic Coordinate, we find a concise way to describe the configuration of the system. Differential relations of such coordinate are studied and the rigorous nonlinear equation of motion is derived. Then rather than small-deflection approximation, linear dynamics are studied using Argand Diagram under a weaker condition named low-varying approximation. Nonlinear properties including Hopf bifurcation, limit-cycle motion and vibration frequencies are studied theoretically and experimentally.

  11. Nonlinear interactions in mixing layers and compressible heated round jets. Ph.D. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrah, Yousef Mohd

    1989-01-01

    The nonlinear interactions between a fundamental instability mode and both its harmonics and the changing mean flow are studied using the weakly nonlinear stability theory of Stuart and Watson, and numerical solutions of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. The first part focuses on incompressible cold (or isothermal; constant temperature throughout) mixing layers, and for these, the first and second Landau constants are calculated as functions of wavenumber and Reynolds number. It is found that the dominant contribution to the Landau constants arises from the mean flow changes and not from the higher harmonics. In order to establish the range of validity of the weakly nonlinear theory, the weakly nonlinear and numerical solutions are compared and the limitation of each is discussed. At small amplitudes and at low-to-moderate Reynolds numbers, the two results compare well in describing the saturation of the fundamental, the distortion of the mean flow, and the initial stages of vorticity roll-up. At larger amplitudes, the interaction between the fundamental, second harmonic, and the mean flow is strongly nonlinear and the numerical solution predicts flow oscillations, whereas the weakly nonlinear theory yields saturation. In the second part, the weakly nonlinear theory is extended to heated (or nonisothermal; mean temperature distribution) subsonic round jets where quadratic and cubic nonlinear interactions are present, and the Landau constants also depend on jet temperature ratio, Mach number and azimuthal mode number. Under exponential growth and nonlinear saturation, it is found that heating and compressibility suppress the growth of instability waves, that the first azimuthal mode is the dominant instability mode, and that the weakly nonlinear solution describes the early stages of the roll-up of an axisymmetric shear layer. The receptivity of a typical jet flow to pulse type input disturbance is also studied by solving the initial value problem

  12. Bundle structures of stretching-energy and nonlinear interactions among modes in elastic wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, Masanori; Yokoyama, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    The real-space dynamics and the nonlinear interactions among Fourier modes in elastic wave turbulence are investigated by simulating the Foppl-von Karman equation. We find that the bundle structures of ridges appear intermittently in the time evolution of the stretching energy field. The time-evolution of the nonlinearity indicates the existence of active and moderate phases in turbulent state. Conditional sampling analysis reveals that the bundle structure, which is the embodiment of the strong nonlinear interactions among modes, induces the energy supply from an external force to the system.

  13. Beach steepness effects on nonlinear infragravity-wave interactions: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bakker, A. T. M.; Tissier, M. F. S.; Ruessink, B. G.

    2016-01-01

    The numerical model SWASH is used to investigate nonlinear energy transfers between waves for a diverse set of beach profiles and wave conditions, with a specific focus on infragravity waves. We use bispectral analysis to study the nonlinear triad interactions, and estimate energy transfers to determine energy flows within the spectra. The energy transfers are divided into four types of triad interactions, with triads including either one, two or three infragravity-frequency components, and triad interactions solely between sea-swell wave frequencies. The SWASH model is validated with a high-resolution laboratory data set on a gently sloping beach, which shows that SWASH is capable of modeling the detailed nonlinear interactions. From the simulations, we observe that especially the beach slope affects nonlinear infragravity-wave interactions. On a low-sloping beach, infragravity-wave energy dominates the water motion close to shore. Here infragravity-infragravity interactions dominate and generate higher harmonics that lead to the steepening of the infragravity wave and eventually breaking, causing large infragravity energy dissipation. On the contrary, on a steep-sloping beach, sea-swell wave energy dominates the water motion everywhere. Here infragravity frequencies interact with the spectral peak and spread energy to a wide range of higher frequencies, with relatively less infragravity energy dissipation. Although both beach types have different nonlinear interaction patterns during infragravity-wave dissipation, the amount of infragravity-wave reflection can be estimated by a single parameter, the normalized bed slope.

  14. Light-emitting self-assembled peptide nucleic acids exhibit both stacking interactions and Watson-Crick base pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Or; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Levy-Sakin, Michal; Grunwald, Assaf; Liebes-Peer, Yael; Bachar, Mor; Buzhansky, Ludmila; Mossou, Estelle; Forsyth, V. Trevor; Schwartz, Tal; Ebenstein, Yuval; Frolow, Felix; Shimon, Linda J. W.; Patolsky, Fernando; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-05-01

    The two main branches of bionanotechnology involve the self-assembly of either peptides or DNA. Peptide scaffolds offer chemical versatility, architectural flexibility and structural complexity, but they lack the precise base pairing and molecular recognition available with nucleic acid assemblies. Here, inspired by the ability of aromatic dipeptides to form ordered nanostructures with unique physical properties, we explore the assembly of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), which are short DNA mimics that have an amide backbone. All 16 combinations of the very short di-PNA building blocks were synthesized and assayed for their ability to self-associate. Only three guanine-containing di-PNAs—CG, GC and GG—could form ordered assemblies, as observed by electron microscopy, and these di-PNAs efficiently assembled into discrete architectures within a few minutes. The X-ray crystal structure of the GC di-PNA showed the occurrence of both stacking interactions and Watson-Crick base pairing. The assemblies were also found to exhibit optical properties including voltage-dependent electroluminescence and wide-range excitation-dependent fluorescence in the visible region.

  15. Effects of Low-k Stack Structure on Performance of Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Devices and Chip Package Interaction Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagami, Masayoshi; Inoue, Naoya; Ueki, Makoto; Narihiro, Mitsuru; Tada, Munehiro; Yamamoto, Hironori; Ito, Fuminori; Furutake, Naoya; Saito, Shinobu; Onodera, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Tsuneo; Hayashi, Yoshihiro

    2012-09-01

    Low capacitance and highly reliable Cu dual-damascene (DD) interconnects have been developed with self-organized “seamless low-k SiOCH stacks” (SEALS) structure. A carbon-rich sub-nano porous SiOCH (k=2.5) was directly stacked on an oxygen-rich porous SiOCH (k=2.7) in the SEALS structure, without a hard-mask (HM) and etch-stop (ES) layer of SiO2. The effective k-value (keff) of the Cu DD interconnect including the SiCN capping layer (k=4.9) was reduced to 2.9 compared to 3.4 on a conventional hybrid structure with SiO2-HM and ES, which had been used in 65-nm-node mass production. The interconnect delay of a 45-nm-node complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) ring oscillator (RO) was reduced by 15% referring to that of the conventional hybrid structure. Interconnect reliabilities, such as the interline time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) and thermal cycles, were unchanged from those of the conventional hybrid interconnects. No failure was detected for chip package interaction (CPI) during reliability tests in a plastic ball grid array (PBGA) package. SEALS is a promising structure for scaled down ultra large scale integrations (ULSIs) for highly reliable and high speed operation, and low power consumption.

  16. On triad nonlinear resonant interactions of deep water waves trapped by jet currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrira, Victor; Slunyaev, Alexey

    2014-05-01

    We derive an asymptotic description of weakly nonlinear wave interactions between waves trapped by opposing jet currents by extending the asymptotic modal approach developed in Shrira & Slunyaev (2014). It is widely believed that to the leading order the nonlinear interactions between water waves in deep water are always quartic and potential. We show that for waves trapped on the jet currents it is not true: triad resonant interactions between trapped modes are always allowed. Moreover, the nonlinear evolution of the wave field is to the leading order determined by these triad interactions if the current is sufficiently strong or wave field nonlinearity is appropriately weak. To the leading order the corresponding interaction coefficients are controlled by the background vorticity due to the jet. More specifically, we consider waves upon a longitudinally uniform jet current; the current is assumed to be stationary and without vertical shear. The approximate separation of variables allows us to find the two-dimensional mode structure by means of one-dimensional boundary value problem (BVP) for wave Fourier harmonics along the current. The asymptotic weakly nonlinear theory taking into account quadratic nonlinearity for broad but not necessary weak currents is developed. The evolution equations for three interacting modes are written explicitly, the nonlinear interaction coefficients are computed. The three-wave interactions weaken when the current is weak. When the ratio of the current magnitude to wave celerity is of order of wave steepness the effects of 3-wave and 4-wave resonances appear at the same asymptotic order. These regimes, as well as the identified regimes where triad resonant interactions between trapped waves are dominant, lead to a qualitatively new wave dynamics which remains to be explored yet. V.I. Shrira, A.V. Slunyaev, Trapped waves on jet currents: asymptotic modal approach. J. Fluid Mech. 738, 65-104 (2014).

  17. Effect of second order signal-noise interactions in nonlinearity compensated optical transmission systems.

    PubMed

    Al-Khateeb, Mohammad A Z; McCarthy, Mary; Sánchez, Christian; Ellis, Andrew

    2016-04-15

    In this Letter, we theoretically and numerically analyze the performance of coherent optical transmission systems that deploy inline or transceiver based nonlinearity compensation techniques. For systems where signal-signal nonlinear interactions are fully compensated, we find that beyond the performance peak the signal-to-noise ratio degradation has a slope of 3  dBSNR/dBPower suggesting a quartic rather than quadratic dependence on signal power. This is directly related to the fact that signals in a given span will interact not only with linear amplified spontaneous emission noise, but also with the nonlinear four-wave mixing products generated from signal-noise interaction in previous (hitherto) uncompensated spans. The performance of optical systems employing different nonlinearity compensation schemes were numerically simulated and compared against analytical predictions, showing a good agreement within a 0.4 dB margin of error. PMID:27082361

  18. Finite element modeling of nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvesters with magnetic interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadrashta, Deepesh; Yang, Yaowen

    2015-04-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting from ambient vibrations is a potential technology for powering wireless sensors and low power electronic devices. The conventional linear harvesters suffer from narrow operational bandwidth. Many attempts have been made especially using the magnetic interaction to broaden the bandwidth of harvesters. The finite element (FE) modeling has been used only for analyzing the linear harvesters in the literature. The main difficulties in extending the FE modeling to analyze the nonlinear harvesters involving magnetic interaction are developing the mesh needed for magnetic interaction in dynamic problems and the high demand on computational resource needed for solving the coupled electrical-mechanical-magnetic problem. In this paper, an innovative method is proposed to model the magnetic interaction without inclusion of the magnetic module. The magnetic force is modeled using the nonlinear spring element available in ANSYS finite element analysis (FEA) package, thus simplifying the simulation of nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvesters as an electromechanically coupled problem. Firstly, an FE model of a monostable nonlinear harvester with cantilever configuration is developed and the results are validated with predictions from the theoretical model. Later, the proposed technique of FE modeling is extended to a complex 2-degree of freedom nonlinear energy harvester for which an accurate analytical model is difficult to derive. The performance predictions from FEA are compared with the experimental results. It is concluded that the proposed modeling technique is able to accurately analyze the behavior of nonlinear harvesters with magnetic interaction.

  19. Nonlinear interaction between pulse and noise signals in nondispersive media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurbatov, S. N.; Demin, I. Iu.; Pronchatov-Rubtsov, N. V.

    1986-10-01

    The evolution of a perturbation which initially represents the sum of a regular pulsed signal and stationary noise is investigated by using the nonlinear Burgers equation. The effect of a decrease in the pulse front velocity and its broadening due to turbulent viscosity is identified. An abrupt increase in noise dispersion in the discontinuity region and a decrease in noise dispersion at the trailing edge of a pulse are also noted. Results of a numerical simulation are presented.

  20. Nonlinear Dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates with Long-Range Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wunner, G.; Cartarius, H.; Fabcic, T.; Koeberle, P.; Main, J.; Schwidder, T.

    2008-11-13

    The motto of this paper is: Let's face Bose-Einstein condensation through nonlinear dynamics. We do this by choosing variational forms of the condensate wave functions (of given symmetry classes), which convert the Bose-Einstein condensates via the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation into Hamiltonian systems that can be studied using the methods of nonlinear dynamics. We consider in particular cold quantum gases where long-range interactions between the neutral atoms are present, in addition to the conventional short-range contact interaction, viz. gravity-like interactions, and dipole-dipole interactions. The results obtained serve as a useful guide in the search for nonlinear dynamics effects in numerically exact quantum calculations for Bose-Einstein condensates. A main result is the prediction of the existence of stable islands as well as chaotic regions for excited states of dipolar condensates, which could be checked experimentally.

  1. The dynamics of interacting nonlinearities governing long wavelength driftwave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, D.E.

    1993-09-01

    Because of the ubiquitous nature of turbulence and the vast array of different systems which have turbulent solutions, the study of turbulence is an area of active research. Much present day understanding of turbulence is rooted in the well established properties of homogeneous Navier-Stokes turbulence, which, due to its relative simplicity, allows for approximate analytic solutions. This work examines a group of turbulent systems with marked differences from Navier-Stokes turbulence, and attempts to quantify some of their properties. This group of systems represents a variety of drift wave fluctuations believed to be of fundamental importance in laboratory fusion devices. From extensive simulation of simple local fluid models of long wavelength drift wave turbulence in tokamaks, a reasonably complete picture of the basic properties of spectral transfer and saturation has emerged. These studies indicate that many conventional notions concerning directions of cascades, locality and isotropy of transfer, frequencies of fluctuations, and stationarity of saturation are not valid for moderate to long wavelengths. In particular, spectral energy transfer at long wavelengths is dominated by the E {times} B nonlinearity, which carries energy to short scale in a manner that is highly nonlocal and anisotropic. In marked contrast to the canonical self-similar cascade dynamics of Kolmogorov, energy is efficiently passed between modes separated by the entire spectrum range in a correlation time. At short wavelengths, transfer is dominated by the polarization drift nonlinearity. While the standard dual cascade applies in this subrange, it is found that finite spectrum size can produce cascades that are reverse directed and are nonconservative in enstrophy and energy similarity ranges. In regions where both nonlinearities are important, cross-coupling between the nolinearities gives rise to large no frequency shifts as well as changes in the spectral dynamics.

  2. Nonlinear interaction of drift waves with driven plasma currents

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Christian; Grulke, Olaf; Klinger, Thomas

    2010-03-15

    In a cylindrical magnetized plasma, coherent drift wave modes are synchronized by a mode selective drive of plasma currents. Nonlinear effects of the synchronization are investigated in detail. Frequency pulling is observed over a certain frequency range. The dependence of the width of this synchronization range on the amplitude of the driven plasma currents forms Arnold tongues. The transition between complete and incomplete synchronization is indicated by the onset of periodic pulling and phase slippage. Synchronization is observed for driven current amplitudes, which are some percent of the typical value of parallel currents generated by drift waves.

  3. Nonlinear interaction between wave and convective disturbances in the solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselovsky, I. S.; Mikhalyaev, B. B.; Bembitov, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    During more than two decades, many non-stationary events have been observed in the solar corona by different ground and space instruments, namely: oscillations and flows. These events play a crucial role in a solving two important problems of the solar physics: coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. Numerous observational data and theoretical works demonstrate the nonlinear interaction between waves and flows in the solar atmosphere. On other hand, nonlinear effects can also be used in coronal seismology, where a significant success leaded to many original works on linear disturbances in the coronal plasma. The nonlinear approach should make it possible to achieve more precise results.

  4. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy utilizing phase mismatched cascaded quadratic optical interactions in nonlinear crystals

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Georgi I.; Zhi, Miaochan; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally investigated the nonlinear optical interaction between the instantaneous four-wave mixing and the cascaded quadratic frequency conversion in commonly used nonlinear optical KTP and LiNbO3 with the aim of a possible background suppression of the non-resonant background in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering. The possibility of background-free heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy is investigated at the interface formed by a liquid (isopropyl alcohol) and a nonlinear crystal (LiNbO3). PMID:24514791

  5. Stacked and H-Bonded Cytosine Dimers. Analysis of the Intermolecular Interaction Energies by Parallel Quantum Chemistry and Polarizable Molecular Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Gresh, Nohad; Sponer, Judit E; Devereux, Mike; Gkionis, Konstantinos; de Courcy, Benoit; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Sponer, Jiri

    2015-07-30

    Until now, atomistic simulations of DNA and RNA and their complexes have been executed using well calibrated but conceptually simple pair-additive empirical potentials (force fields). Although such simulations provided many valuable results, it is well established that simple force fields also introduce errors into the description, underlying the need for development of alternative anisotropic, polarizable molecular mechanics (APMM) potentials. One of the most abundant forces in all kinds of nucleic acids topologies is base stacking. Intra- and interstrand stacking is assumed to be the most essential factor affecting local conformational variations of B-DNA. However, stacking also contributes to formation of all kinds of noncanonical nucleic acids structures, such as quadruplexes or folded RNAs. The present study focuses on 14 stacked cytosine (Cyt) dimers and the doubly H-bonded dimer. We evaluate the extent to which an APMM procedure, SIBFA, could account quantitatively for the results of high-level quantum chemistry (QC) on the total interaction energies, and the individual energy contributions and their nonisotropic behaviors. Good agreements are found at both uncorrelated HF and correlated DFT and CCSD(T) levels. Resorting in SIBFA to distributed QC multipoles and to an explicit representation of the lone pairs is essential to respectively account for the anisotropies of the Coulomb and of the exchange-repulsion QC contributions. PMID:26119247

  6. Interaction dynamics in small networks of nonlinear elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stich, Michael; Velarde, Manuel G.

    2015-03-01

    We study a small circuit of coupled nonlinear elements to investigate general features of signal transmission through networks. The small circuit itself is perceived as building block for larger networks. Individual dynamics and coupling are motivated by neuronal systems: We consider two types of dynamical modes for an individual element, regular spiking and chattering and each individual element can receive excitatory and/or inhibitory inputs and is subjected to different feedback types (excitatory and inhibitory; forward and recurrent). Both, deterministic and stochastic simulations are carried out to study the input-output relationships of these networks. Major results for regular spiking elements include frequency locking, spike rate amplification for strong synaptic coupling, and inhibition-induced spike rate control which can be interpreted as a output frequency rectification. For chattering elements, spike rate amplification for low frequencies and silencing for large frequencies is characteristic.

  7. Nonlinear Optical Interactions in Bacteriorhodopsin Using Z-Scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranda, Francisco J.; Rao, Devulapalli V. G. L. N.; Wong, Chi L.; Zhou, Ping; Chen, Zhong; Akkara, Joseph A.; Kaplan, David L.; Roach, Joseph F.

    1995-06-01

    Nonlinear refractive index coefficient n2 of bacteriorhodopsin suspensions in water is measured by the Z-scan technique with a low power continuous wave laser at 647.1 manometer wavelength. Our results indicate that both the magnitude and the sign of n2 depend strongly on the light intensity. Negative values for n2 are obtained for on axis laser irradiance at the focus above 3 W/cm2. The observed self-defocusing phenomena can be attributed to the index change due to the light induced transition between the photochromic states. The results elucidate the origin of n2 and offer a plausible explanation for the differences in the reported n2 measurements.

  8. Chaotic saddles in nonlinear modulational interactions in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, Rodrigo A.; Rempel, Erico L.; Chian, Abraham C.-L.

    2012-11-15

    A nonlinear model of modulational processes in the subsonic regime involving a linearly unstable wave and two linearly damped waves with different damping rates in a plasma is studied numerically. We compute the maximum Lyapunov exponent as a function of the damping rates in a two-parameter space, and identify shrimp-shaped self-similar structures in the parameter space. By varying the damping rate of the low-frequency wave, we construct bifurcation diagrams and focus on a saddle-node bifurcation and an interior crisis associated with a periodic window. We detect chaotic saddles and their stable and unstable manifolds, and demonstrate how the connection between two chaotic saddles via coupling unstable periodic orbits can result in a crisis-induced intermittency. The relevance of this work for the understanding of modulational processes observed in plasmas and fluids is discussed.

  9. Nonlinear polarization interaction in bacteriorhodopsin films with anisotropically saturating absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korchemskaya, Elena Y.; Soskin, Marat S.; Stepanchikov, Dmitriy A.; Druzhko, Anna B.; Dyukova, Tatyana V.

    1996-06-01

    The effect of protein and matrix modifications on the photoanisotropic properties is studied for developing the concept of impact upon the main optical properties of the dynamic optical material based on bacteriorhodopsin (BR) both interaction of transmembrane protein--chromophore complex BR with matrix and interaction of protein opsin with chromophore retinal. Also possibility of the application of BR-films for the light polarization modulator is proposed.

  10. Directed momentum current of Bose–Einstein condensate in the presence of spatially modulated nonlinear interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wen-Lei; Ding, Cai-Ying; Liu, Jie; Fu, Li-Bin

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the quantum transport dynamics of periodically delta-kicked Bose–Einstein condensate under the effect of spatially modulated nonlinear interactions. The spatial modulation frequency can dramatically affect the transport behaviors of the ultra-cold atoms. For odd frequency, the linear growth of the directed current is close to that of the noninteracting case for not very strong nonlinear interaction. Both the acceleration and the quantum state evolution gradually approach that of the noninteracting case with increasing frequency. For other values of frequency, a very weak nonlinear interaction can dramatically reduce the linear growth of the directed current. The quantum state evolution differs rapidly from that of the noninteracting case. The underlying dynamic mechanism is uncovered and some important implications are addressed.

  11. Suppression of Nonlinear Interactions in Resonant Macroscopic Quantum Devices: The Example of the Solid-State Ring Laser Gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Sylvain; Feugnet, Gilles; Pocholle, Jean-Paul; Gutty, Francois; Bouyer, Philippe

    2008-05-09

    We report fine-tuning of nonlinear interactions in a solid-state ring laser gyroscope by vibrating the gain medium along the cavity axis. We demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that nonlinear interactions vanish for some values of the vibration parameters, leading to quasi-ideal rotation sensing. We eventually point out that our conclusions can be mapped onto other subfields of physics such as ring-shaped superfluid configurations, where nonlinear interactions could be tuned by using Feshbach resonance.

  12. Topological charge algebra of optical vortices in nonlinear interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhdanova, Alexandra A; Shutova, Mariia; Bahari, Aysan; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei V

    2015-12-28

    We investigate the transfer of orbital angular momentum among multiple beams involved in a coherent Raman interaction. We use a liquid crystal light modulator to shape pump and Stokes beams into optical vortices with various integer values of topological charge, and cross them in a Raman-active crystal to produce multiple Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands. We measure the resultant vortex charges using a tilted-lens technique. We verify that in every case the generated beams' topological charges obey a simple relationship, resulting from angular momentum conservation for created and annihilated photons, or equivalently, from phase-matching considerations for multiple interacting beams. PMID:26832066

  13. Simulations of energetic particles interacting with nonlinear anisotropic dynamical turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusen, M.; Shalchi, A.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate test-particle diffusion in dynamical turbulence based on a numerical approach presented before. For the turbulence we employ the nonlinear anisotropic dynamical turbulence model which takes into account wave propagation effects as well as damping effects. We compute numerically diffusion coefficients of energetic particles along and across the mean magnetic field. We focus on turbulence and particle parameters which should be relevant for the solar system and compare our findings with different interplanetary observations. We vary different parameters such as the dissipation range spectral index, the ratio of the turbulence bendover scales, and the magnetic field strength in order to explore the relevance of the different parameters. We show that the bendover scales as well as the magnetic field ratio have a strong influence on diffusion coefficients whereas the influence of the dissipation range spectral index is weak. The best agreement with solar wind observations can be found for equal bendover scales and a magnetic field ratio of δ B / B0 = 0.75.

  14. Nonlinear geosphere-biosphere interactions and the Cambrian explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Bloh, W.; Bounama, C.; Franck, S.

    2003-04-01

    A conceptual model for the global carbon cycle of the Earth containing the reservoirs mantle, ocean floor, continental crust, continental biosphere, the kerogen , as well as the aggregated reservoir ocean and atmosphere is presented. In this study the evolution of the mean global surface temperature, the biomass, and reservoir sizes over the whole history and future of the Earth under a maturing Sun is investigated. Reasonable values for the present distribution of carbon in the surface reservoirs of the Earth are obtained and a pronounced global minimum of mean surface temperature at the present state of the Earth is found. Furthermore, three different biosphere types are introduced: procaryotes, eucaryotes, and higher metazoa. They all differ in their temperature tolerance interval and their biogenic enhancement of silicate rock weathering. Around 500 Myr in the past we find a rise of higher metazoa caused by the nonlinear feedback between biosphere and climate. Biotic amplifying of weathering provides and maintains the environment of higher life forms. Such a mechanism may explain the so-called Cambrian explosion.

  15. Nonlinear Scale Interactions and Energy Pathways in the Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aluie, Hussein; Hecht, Matthew; Vallis, Geoffrey; Bryan, Kirk; Maltrud, Mathew; Ecke, Robert; Wingate, Beth

    2013-03-01

    Large-scale currents and eddies pervade the ocean and play a prime role in the general circulation and climate. The coupling between scales ranging from O (104) km down to O (1) mm presents a major difficulty in understanding, modeling, and predicting oceanic circulation and mixing, where the energy budget is uncertain within a factor possibly as large as ten. Identifying the energy sources and sinks at various scales can reduce such uncertainty and yield insight into new parameterizations. To this end, we refine a novel coarse-graining framework to directly analyze the coupling between scales. The approach is very general, allows for probing the dynamics simultaneously in scale and in space, and is not restricted by usual assumptions of homogeneity or isotropy. We apply these tools to study the energy pathways from high-resolution ocean simulations using LANL's Parallel Ocean Program. We examine the extent to which the traditional paradigm for such pathways is valid at various locations such as in western boundary currents, near the equator, and in the deep ocean. We investigate the contribution of various nonlinear mechanisms to the transfer of energy across scales such as baroclinic and barotropic instabilities, barotropization, and Rossby wave generation.

  16. Nonlinear Scale Interactions and Energy Pathways in the Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aluie, Hussein; Hecht, Matthew; Vallis, Geoffrey

    2013-11-01

    Large-scale currents and eddies pervade the ocean and play a prime role in the general circulation and climate. The coupling between scales ranging from O (104) km down to O (1) mm presents a major difficulty in understanding, modeling, and predicting oceanic circulation and mixing, where the energy budget is uncertain within a factor possibly as large as ten. Identifying the energy sources and sinks at various scales can reduce such uncertainty and yield insight into new parameterizations. To this end, we refine a novel coarse-graining framework to directly analyze the coupling between scales. The approach is very general, allows for probing the dynamics simultaneously in scale and in space, and is not restricted by usual assumptions of homogeneity or isotropy. We apply these tools to study the energy pathways from high-resolution ocean simulations using LANL's Parallel Ocean Program. We examine the extent to which the traditional paradigm for such pathways is valid at various locations such as in western boundary currents, near the equator, and in the deep ocean. We investigate the contribution of various nonlinear mechanisms to the transfer of energy across scales such as baroclinic and barotropic instabilities.

  17. Nonlinear interaction of fast particles with Alfven waves in toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.; Borba, D.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Kerner, W.; Berk, H.L.

    1996-12-17

    A numerical algorithm to study the nonlinear, resonant interaction of fast particles with Alfven waves in tokamak geometry has been developed. The scope of the formalism is wide enough to describe the nonlinear evolution of fishbone modes, toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes and ellipticity-induced Alfven eigenmodes, driven by both passing and trapped fast ions. When the instability is sufficiently weak, it is known that the wave-particle trapping nonlinearity will lead to mode saturation before wave-wave nonlinearities are appreciable. The spectrum of linear modes can thus be calculated using a magnetohydrodynamic normal-mode code, then nonlinearly evolved in time in an efficient way according to a two-time-scale Lagrangian dynamical wave model. The fast particle kinetic equation, including the effect of orbit nonlinearity arising from the mode perturbation, is simultaneously solved of the deviation, {delta}f = f {minus} f{sub 0}, from an initial analytic distribution f{sub 0}. High statistical resolution allows linear growth rates, frequency shifts, resonance broadening effects, and nonlinear saturation to be calculated quickly and precisely. The results have been applied to an ITER instability scenario. Results show that weakly-damped core-localized modes alone cause negligible alpha transport in ITER-like plasmas--even with growth rates one order of magnitude higher than expected values. However, the possibility of significant transport in reactor-type plasmas due to weakly unstable global modes remains an open question.

  18. Manifestation of π-π stacking interactions in luminescence properties and energy transfer in aromatically-derived Tb, Eu and Gd tris(pyrazolyl)borate complexes.

    PubMed

    Mikhalyova, Elena A; Yakovenko, Anastasiya V; Zeller, Matthias; Kiskin, Mikhail A; Kolomzarov, Yuriy V; Eremenko, Igor L; Addison, Anthony W; Pavlishchuk, Vitaly V

    2015-04-01

    The three new complexes Tp(Py)Ln(CH3CO2)2(H2O) (Ln = Eu (1), Gd(2), or Tb (3)) were prepared and characterized crystallographically. In the crystal lattices of these complexes, separate molecules are connected in infinite chains by π-stacking interactions. Complexes 1 and 3 display intense photoluminescence and triboluminescence (red and green respectively), while compound 3 exhibits electroluminescence commencing at 9 V in an ITO/PVK/3/Al device (ITO = indium-tin oxide, PVK = poly(N-vinylcarbazole)). A series of Eu/Tb-doped Gd compounds was prepared by cocrystallization from mixtures of 1 and 2 or 2 and 3, respectively. It was shown that π-stacking interactions are involved in increasing the efficiency of energy transfer from the gadolinium complex to emitting [Tp(Py)Eu](2+) or [Tp(Py)Tb](2+) centers, and this energy transfer occurs through hundreds of molecules, resembling the process of energy harvesting in chloroplast stacks. PMID:25797500

  19. Significance of Wave-Particle Interaction Analyzer for direct measurement of nonlinear wave-particle interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Y.; Kitahara, M.; Kojima, H.; Omura, Y.; Kasahara, S.; Hirahara, M.; Miyoshi, Y.; Seki, K.; Asamura, K.; Takashima, T.

    2012-12-01

    We study the statistical significance of the Wave Particle Interaction Analyzer (WPIA) for measurement of the energy transfer process between energetic electrons and whistler-mode chorus emissions in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. The WPIA measures a relative phase angle between the wave vector and velocity vector of each particle and computes an inner product W(t), while W(t) is equivalent to the variation of the kinetic energy of energetic electrons interacting with plasma waves. The WPIA measurements will be realized by the Software-type WPIA in the SPRINT-B/ERG satellite mission. In the present study, we evaluate the feasibility of WPIA by applying the WPIA analysis to the simulation results on whistler-mode chorus generation. We compute W(t) of a wave electric field observed at a fixed point assumed in the simulation system and a velocity vector of each energetic electron passing through the assumed point. By integrating W(t) in time, we obtain significant values of W_{int} in the kinetic energy and pitch angle ranges as expected from the evolution of chorus emissions in the simulation result. The statistical significance of the obtained W_{int} is evaluated by calculating the standard deviation σ_W of W_{int}. We show that W_{int} greater than σ_W is obtained in the velocity phase space corresponding to the wave generation and acceleration of relativistic electrons. We conduct another analysis of a distribution of energetic electrons in the wave phase space using the same dataset of the simulation results. We clarify that the deviation of the distribution in the wave phase space is found in the velocity phase space corresponding to the large W_{int} values, which is consistent with formation of nonlinear resonant currents assumed in the generation mechanism of chorus emissions. The present study suggests that the statistical significance of the WPIA can be evaluated by calculating σ_W of W_{int}, and reveals the feasibility of the WPIA, which will be on

  20. Stacking Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Chimneys and stacks appear to be strong and indestructible, but chimneys begin to deteriorate from the moment they are built. Early on, no signs are apparent; but deterioration accelerates in subsequent years, and major repairs are soon needed instead of minor maintenance. With proper attention, most structures can be repaired and continue to…

  1. Stacking with No Planarity?

    PubMed

    Gunaydin, Hakan; Bartberger, Michael D

    2016-04-14

    This viewpoint describes the results obtained from matched molecular pair analyses and quantum mechanics calculations that show unsaturated rings found in drug-like molecules may be replaced with their saturated counterparts without losing potency even if they are engaged in stacking interactions with the side chains of aromatic residues. PMID:27096037

  2. On the dispersion relation of nonlinear wave current interaction by means of the HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zeng; Lin, Zhiliang; Liao, Shijun

    2012-09-01

    The influence of exponentially sheared currents on unidirectional bichromatic waves in deep water is investigated by the HAM. The governing equations contain four coupled PDEs, including a nonlinear vorticity transport equation and two nonlinear free-surface conditions on the unknown wave elevation. No constrain is made for the primary wave amplitudes, and the current owns a exponential type profile along the vertical line. Convergent solutions are obtained with the help of convergence-control parameter. It is found that a critical characteristic current profile slope exists for each parts of phase velocity caused by nonlinear interaction, under/above which the mean flow vorticity increases/decreases the corresponding part of phase velocity. This work indicates that the HAM is a powerful tool for complicated coupled nonlinear PDEs, which deserves more attention for further development.

  3. Nonlinear modes of an intense laser beam interacting with a periodic lattice of nanoparticle

    SciTech Connect

    Sepehri Javan, N. Homami, S. H. H.

    2015-08-15

    Self-guided nonlinear propagation of an intense laser beam through a periodic lattice of nanoparticle is studied. Using a perturbative method, a cubic nonlinear wave equation describing the laser-nanoparticle interaction in the weakly relativistic regime is derived. Transverse Eigen modes of the laser, nonlinear dispersion relation and its related group velocity are obtained. It is shown that the best fitted function to the transverse profile is Gaussian. Effect of the laser amplitude and also the ratio of nanoparticles radius to their separation on the nonlinear dispersion and amplitude profiles are investigated. It is found that the increase in the just mentioned parameters leads to the localization of transverse profile around the propagation axis.

  4. Quantum-mechanical computations on the electronic structure of trans-resveratrol and trans-piceatannol: a theoretical study of the stacking interactions in trans-resveratrol dimers.

    PubMed

    Mikulski, Damian; Molski, Marcin

    2012-07-01

    Accurate quantum-chemical calculations based on the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation method (MP2) and density functional theory (DFT) were performed for the first time to investigate the electronic structures of trans-resveratrol and trans-piceatannol, as well as to study the stacking interaction between trans-resveratrol molecules. Ab initio MP2 calculations performed with using standard split-valence Pople basis sets led us to conclude that these compounds have structures that deviate strongly from planarity, whereas the DFT computations for the same basis sets revealed that the equilibrium geometries of these bioactive polyphenols are planar. Furthermore, the results obtained at the MP2(full)/aug-cc-pVTZ and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ levels indicated that the geometries of trans-resveratrol and trans-piceatannol are practically planar at their absolute energy minima. The relative energies of the equilibrium geometries of trans-resveratrol on its potential energy surface were computed at the MP2(full)/aug-cc-pVTZ level. According to the results obtained, a T-shaped (edge-to-phase) conformer of trans-resveratrol dimer is the most stable in vacuum. This T-shaped conformer is mainly stabilized by strong hydrogen bonding and weak C-H...π interactions. Stacked structures with parallel-displaced trans-stilbene skeletons were also found to be energetically stable. The vertical separation and twist angle dependencies of the stacking energy were investigated at the MP2(full)/aug-cc-pVTZ, B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ, and HF/aug-cc-pVTZ levels. The standard B3LYP functional and the Hartree-Fock method neglect long-range attractive dispersion interactions. The MP2 computations revealed that the London dispersion energy cannot be neglected at long or short distances. The stacked model considered here may be useful for predicting the quantum nature of the interactions in π-stacked systems of other naturally occurring stilbenoids, and can help to enhance our understanding of the

  5. Dromion interactions of (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations

    PubMed

    Ruan; Chen

    2000-10-01

    Starting from two line solitons, the solution of integrable (2+1)-dimensional mKdV system and KdV system in bilinear form yields a dromion solution or a "Solitoff" solution. Such a dromion solution is localized in all directions and the Solitoff solution decays exponentially in all directions except a preferred one for the physical field or a suitable potential. The interactions between two dromions and between the dromion and Solitoff are studied by the method of figure analysis for a (2+1)-dimensional modified KdV equation and a (2+1)-dimensional KdV type equation. Our analysis shows that the interactions between two dromions may be elastic or inelastic for different forms of solutions. PMID:11089133

  6. Nonlinear interactions that could explain distortion product interference response areas.

    PubMed

    Fahey, P F; Stagner, B B; Lonsbury-Martin, B L; Martin, G K

    2000-10-01

    Suppression and/or enhancement of third- and fifth-order distortion products by a third tone that can have a frequency more than an octave above and a level more than 40 dB below the primary tones have recently been measured by Martin et al. [Hear. Res. 136, 105-123 (1999)]. Contours of iso-suppression and iso-enhancement that are plotted as a function of third-tone frequency and level are called interference response areas. After ruling out order aliasing, two possible mechanisms for this effect have been developed, a harmonic mechanism and a catalyst mechanism. The harmonic mechanism produces distortion products by mixing a harmonic of one of the primary tones with the other primary tone. The catalyst mechanism produces distortion products by mixing one or more intermediate distortion products that are produced by the third tone with one or more of the input tones. The harmonic mechanism does not need a third tone and the catalyst mechanism does. Because the basilar membrane frequency response is predicted to affect each of these mechanisms differently, it is concluded that the catalyst mechanism will be dominant in the high-frequency regions of the cochlea and the harmonic mechanism will have significant strength in the low-frequency regions of the cochlea. The mechanisms are dependent on the existence of both even- and odd-order distortion, and significant even- and odd-order distortion have been measured in the experimental animals. Furthermore, the nonlinear part of the cochlear mechanical response must be well into saturation when input tones are 50 or more dB SPL. PMID:11051505

  7. Charge ordering and nonlinear electrical transport in quasi-one-dimensional organic chains with strong electrostatic interchain interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Kentaro; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Fujita, Wataru; Awaga, Kunio; Inabe, Tamotsu

    2007-08-01

    We here examine the electrical and magnetic properties of the isostructural NT3•MCl4 ( NT=naphtho [2,1- d :6,5- d' ]bis([1,2,3] dithiazole and M=Ga and Fe). The crystal structure of NT3•MCl4 consists of one-dimensional π -stacking chains of NT with strong interchain interactions caused by electrostatic Sδ+•••Nδ- contacts. This structure includes four NT molecules with significant differences in molecular structure and charge, exhibiting a characteristic charge ordering, namely, three-dimensional alternation of charge-rich (or -intermediate) and -poor molecules. NT3•GaCl4 and NT3•FeCl4 are found to be semiconductors with σRT˜0.5Scm-1 and to exhibit a nonlinear electrical transport at room temperature with a very low threshold field of 80Vcm-1 for the negative differential resistance. This threshold field significantly increases with a decrease in temperature. The X -band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of NT3•GaCl4 consist of a single-line absorption ascribable to that of the NT+ cation. When the sample is exposed to a current at room temperature, this signal exhibits a drastic decrease in intensity with little change in linewidth. This is attributed to the inhomogeneous formation of EPR-silent conducting pathways for the nonlinear transport. The temperature dependence of the EPR spin susceptibility χs of NT3•GaCl4 suggests a transition toward a spin-gap state below 20K ; χs exhibits a Bonner-Fisher-type temperature dependence above 20K , but gradually collapses to zero below this temperature.

  8. Modal interactions in primary and subharmonic resonant dynamics of imperfect microplates with geometric nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farokhi, Hamed; Ghayesh, Mergen H.

    2015-12-01

    This paper analyses the modal interactions in the nonlinear, size-dependent dynamics of geometrically imperfect microplates. Based on the modified couple stress theory, the equations of motion for the in-plane and out-of-plane motions are obtained employing the von Kármán plate theory as well as Kirchhoff's hypotheses by means of the Lagrange equations. The equations of motions are solved using the pseudo-arclength continuation technique and direct time-integration method. The system parameters are tuned to the values associated with modal interactions, and then nonlinear resonant responses and energy transfer are analysed. Nonlinear motion characteristics are shown in the form of frequency-response and force-response curves, time histories, phase-plane portraits, and fast Fourier transforms.

  9. Modal interactions in primary and subharmonic resonant dynamics of imperfect microplates with geometric nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farokhi, Hamed; Ghayesh, Mergen H.

    2016-06-01

    This paper analyses the modal interactions in the nonlinear, size-dependent dynamics of geometrically imperfect microplates. Based on the modified couple stress theory, the equations of motion for the in-plane and out-of-plane motions are obtained employing the von Kármán plate theory as well as Kirchhoff's hypotheses by means of the Lagrange equations. The equations of motions are solved using the pseudo-arclength continuation technique and direct time-integration method. The system parameters are tuned to the values associated with modal interactions, and then nonlinear resonant responses and energy transfer are analysed. Nonlinear motion characteristics are shown in the form of frequency-response and force-response curves, time histories, phase-plane portraits, and fast Fourier transforms.

  10. Nonlinear interactions between electromagnetic waves and electron plasma oscillations in quantum plasmas.

    PubMed

    Shukla, P K; Eliasson, B

    2007-08-31

    We consider nonlinear interactions between intense circularly polarized electromagnetic (CPEM) waves and electron plasma oscillations (EPOs) in a dense quantum plasma, taking into account the electron density response in the presence of the relativistic ponderomotive force and mass increase in the CPEM wave fields. The dynamics of the CPEM waves and EPOs is governed by the two coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations and Poisson's equation. The nonlinear equations admit the modulational instability of an intense CPEM pump wave against EPOs, leading to the formation and trapping of localized CPEM wave pipes in the electron density hole that is associated with a positive potential distribution in our dense plasma. The relevance of our investigation to the next generation intense laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments is discussed. PMID:17931024

  11. Nonlinear Interactions between Electromagnetic Waves and Electron Plasma Oscillations in Quantum Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, P. K.; Eliasson, B.

    2007-08-31

    We consider nonlinear interactions between intense circularly polarized electromagnetic (CPEM) waves and electron plasma oscillations (EPOs) in a dense quantum plasma, taking into account the electron density response in the presence of the relativistic ponderomotive force and mass increase in the CPEM wave fields. The dynamics of the CPEM waves and EPOs is governed by the two coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations and Poisson's equation. The nonlinear equations admit the modulational instability of an intense CPEM pump wave against EPOs, leading to the formation and trapping of localized CPEM wave pipes in the electron density hole that is associated with a positive potential distribution in our dense plasma. The relevance of our investigation to the next generation intense laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments is discussed.

  12. A weakly nonlinear theory for wave-vortex interactions in curved channel flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Bart A.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Zang, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    A weakly nonlinear theory is developed to study the interaction of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves and Dean vortices in curved channel flow. The predictions obtained from the theory agree well with results obtained from direct numerical simulations of curved channel flow, especially for low amplitude disturbances. Some discrepancies in the results of a previous theory with direct numerical simulations are resolved.

  13. Uranium(IV) Interaction with Aqueous/Solid Interfaces Studied by Nonlinear Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, Franz

    2015-03-27

    This is the Final Technical Report for "Uranium(IV) Interaction with Aqueous/Solid Interfaces Studied by Nonlinear Optics", by Franz M. Geiger, PI, from Northwestern University, IL, USA, Grant Number SC0004101 and/or DE-PS02-ER09-07.

  14. Advanced Nonlinear Latent Variable Modeling: Distribution Analytic LMS and QML Estimators of Interaction and Quadratic Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelava, Augustin; Werner, Christina S.; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Zapf, Dieter; Ma, Yue; Cham, Heining; Aiken, Leona S.; West, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    Interaction and quadratic effects in latent variable models have to date only rarely been tested in practice. Traditional product indicator approaches need to create product indicators (e.g., x[superscript 2] [subscript 1], x[subscript 1]x[subscript 4]) to serve as indicators of each nonlinear latent construct. These approaches require the use of…

  15. Nonlinear acoustics: Noncollinear interaction, reflection and refraction, and scattering of sound by sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackstock, David T.

    1987-07-01

    Research on four topics in nonlinear acoustics is described. (1) Dependence of three coefficients of nonlinearity for sea water on pressure, temperature, and density. Computation of the coefficients from a combination of theoretical and empirical relations is in progress. (2) Nonlinear, noncollinear interaction of sound waves. Three journal articles have been written, two on interaction in a rectangular waveguide and one on coefficient of nonlinearity for collinear and noncollinear interaction. (3) Reflection and refraction of finite amplitude sound at a plane interface between two fluids. A new form of Snell's law valid for waves of finite amplitude is derived. An experiment to test the implications of the new law is being carried out. (4) Scattering of sound by sound. The classical problem of the secondary radiation produced by interaction of two crossed sound beams is discussed. An experimental test of recent theoretical treatments is in preparation. A preliminary experiment is the measurement of the range dependence of finger lobes in the second harmonic radiation produced in the field of a monochromatically driven piston.

  16. Nonlinear Interactions within the D-Region Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Robert

    2016-07-01

    This paper highlights the best results obtained during D-region modification experiments performed by the University of Florida at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) observatory between 2007 and 2014. Over this period, we saw a tremendous improvement in ELF/VLF wave generation efficiency. We identified methods to characterize ambient and modified ionospheric properties and to discern and quantify specific types of interactions. We have demonstrated several important implications of HF cross-modulation effects, including "Doppler Spoofing" on HF radio waves. Throughout this talk, observations are compared with the predictions of an ionospheric HF heating model to provide context and guidance for future D-region modification experiments.

  17. Nonlinear interactions and their scaling in the logarithmic region of turbulent channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moarref, Rashad; Sharma, Ati S.; Tropp, Joel A.; McKeon, Beverley J.

    2014-11-01

    The nonlinear interactions in wall turbulence redistribute the turbulent kinetic energy across different scales and different wall-normal locations. To better understand these interactions in the logarithmic region of turbulent channels, we decompose the velocity into a weighted sum of resolvent modes (McKeon & Sharma, J. Fluid Mech., 2010). The resolvent modes represent the linear amplification mechanisms in the Navier-Stokes equations (NSE) and the weights represent the scaling influence of the nonlinearity. An explicit equation for the unknown weights is obtained by projecting the NSE onto the known resolvent modes (McKeon et al., Phys. Fluids, 2013). The weights of triad modes -the modes that directly interact via the quadratic nonlinearity in the NSE- are coupled via interaction coefficients that depend solely on the resolvent modes. We use the hierarchies of self-similar modes in the logarithmic region (Moarref et al., J. Fluid Mech., 2013) to extend the notion of triad modes to triad hierarchies. It is shown that the interaction coefficients for the triad modes that belong to a triad hierarchy follow an exponential function. These scalings can be used to better understand the interaction of flow structures in the logarithmic region and develop analytical results therein. The support of Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Grants FA 9550-09-1-0701 (P.M. Rengasamy Ponnappan) and FA 9550-12-1-0469 (P.M. Doug Smith) is gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Effect of nonlinear soil-structure interaction on seismic response of low-rise SMRF buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raychowdhury, Prishati; Singh, Poonam

    2012-12-01

    The nonlinear behavior of a soil-foundation system may alter the seismic response of a structure by providing additional fl exibility to the system and dissipating hysteretic energy at the soil-foundation interface. However, the current design practice is still reluctant to consider the nonlinearity of the soil-foundation system, primarily due to lack of reliable modeling techniques. This study is motivated towards evaluating the effect of nonlinear soil-structure interaction (SSI) on the seismic responses of low-rise steel moment resisting frame (SMRF) structures. In order to achieve this, a Winklerbased approach is adopted, where the soil beneath the foundation is assumed to be a system of closely-spaced, independent, nonlinear spring elements. Static pushover analysis and nonlinear dynamic analyses are performed on a 3-story SMRF building and the performance of the structure is evaluated through a variety of force and displacement demand parameters. It is observed that incorporation of nonlinear SSI leads to an increase in story displacement demand and a significant reduction in base moment, base shear and inter-story drift demands, indicating the importance of its consideration towards achieving an economic, yet safe seismic design.

  19. Resonant triad in boundary-layer stability. Part 1: Fully nonlinear interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mankbadi, Reda R.

    1991-01-01

    A first principles theory is developed to study the nonlinear spatial evolution of a near-resonance triad of instability waves in boundary layer transition. This triad consists of a plane wave at fundamental frequency and a pair of symmetrical, oblique waves at the subharmonic frequency. A low frequency, high Reynolds number asymptotic scaling leads to a distinct critical layer where nonlinearity first becomes important; the development of the triad's waves is determined by the critical layer's nonlinear, viscous dynamics. The resulting theory is fully nonlinear in that all nonlinearly generated oscillatory and nonoscillatory components are accounted for. The presence of the plane wave initially causes exponential of exponential growth of the oblique waves. However, the plane wave continues to follow the linear theory, even when the oblique waves' amplitude attains the same order of magnitude as that of the plane wave. A fully interactive stage then comes into effect when the oblique waves exceed a certain level compared to that of the plane wave. The oblique waves react back on the fundamental, slowing its growth rate. The oblique waves' saturation results from their self-interaction - a mechanism that does not require the presence of the plane wave. The oblique waves' saturation level is independent of their initial level, but decreases as the obliqueness angle increases.

  20. A computational and theoretical investigation of nonlinear wave-particle interactions in oblique whistlers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, David; Omura, Yoshiharu

    2015-04-01

    Most previous work on nonlinear wave-particle interactions between energetic electrons and VLF waves in the Earth's magnetosphere has assumed parallel propagation, the underlying mechanism being nonlinear trapping of cyclotron resonant electrons in a parabolic magnetic field inhomogeneity. Here nonlinear wave-particle interaction in oblique whistlers in the Earth's magnetosphere is investigated. The study is nonself-consistent and assumes an arbitrarily chosen wave field. We employ a "continuous wave" wave field with constant frequency and amplitude, and a model for an individual VLF chorus element. We derive the equations of motion and trapping conditions in oblique whistlers. The resonant particle distribution function, resonant current, and nonlinear growth rate are computed as functions of position and time. For all resonances of order n, resonant electrons obey the trapping equation, and provided the wave amplitude is big enough for the prevailing obliquity, nonlinearity manifests itself by a "hole" or "hill" in distribution function, depending on the zero-order distribution function and on position. A key finding is that the n = 1 resonance is relatively unaffected by moderate obliquity up to 25°, but growth rates roll off rapidly at high obliquity. The n = 1 resonance saturates due to the adiabatic effect and here reaches a maximum growth at ~20 pT, 2000 km from the equator. Damping due to the n = 0 resonance is not subject to adiabatic effects and maximizes at some 8000 km from the equator at an obliquity ~55°.

  1. Interharmonic modulation products as a means to quantify nonlinear D-region interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Robert

    Experimental observations performed during dual beam ionospheric HF heating experiments at the High frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter in Gakona, Alaska are used to quantify the relative importance of specific nonlinear interactions that occur within the D region ionosphere. During these experiments, HAARP broadcast two amplitude modulated HF beams whose center frequencies were separated by less than 20 kHz. One beam was sinusoidally modulated at 500 Hz while the second beam was sinusoidally modulated using a 1-7 kHz linear frequency-time chirp. ELF/VLF observations performed at two different locations (3 and 98 km from HAARP) provide clear evidence of strong interactions between all field components of the two HF beams in the form of low and high order interharmonic modulation products. From a theoretical standpoint, the observed interharmonic modulation products could be produced by several different nonlinearities. The two primary nonlinearities take the form of wave-medium interactions (i.e., cross modulation), wherein the ionospheric conductivity modulation produced by one signal crosses onto the other signal via collision frequency modification, and wave-wave interactions, wherein the conduction current associated with one wave mixes with the electric field of the other wave to produce electron temperature oscillations. We are able to separate and quantify these two different nonlinearities, and we conclude that the wave-wave interactions dominate the wave-medium interactions by a factor of two. These results are of great importance for the modeling of transioinospheric radio wave propagation, in that both the wave-wave and the wave-medium interactions could be responsible for a significant amount of anomalous absorption.

  2. Nonlinear interaction of two trapped-mode resonances in a bilayer fish-scale metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuz, Vladimir R.; Novitsky, Denis V.; Mladyonov, Pavel L.; Prosvirnin, Sergey L.; Novitsky, Andrey V.

    2014-09-01

    We report on a bistable light transmission through a bilayer "fish-scale" (meander-line) metamaterial. It is demonstrated that an all-optical switching may be achieved nearly the frequency of the high-quality-factor Fano-shaped trapped-mode resonance excitation. The nonlinear interaction of two closely spaced trapped-mode resonances in the bilayer structure composed with a Kerr-type nonlinear dielectric slab is analyzed in both frequency and time domains. It is demonstrated that these two resonances react differently on the applied intense light which leads to destination of a multistable transmission.

  3. Beam instabilities stabilization as a result of strong nonlinear interaction between waves

    SciTech Connect

    Soloshenko, I.A.; Taranov, V.B.; Tsyolko, V.V.; Shamrai, K.P.; Shulzhenko, P.M. )

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the nonlinear interaction between unstable low-frequency ion waves and high-frequency electron waves growing in an ion beam plasma can result in stabilization of one of the modes if the level of the other is sufficiently high. A theoretical model of the phenomenon has been developed, and its predictions are in reasonable agreement with experimental results. The suppression mechanism is considered, and appears to be essentially nonlinear. The effect of this mutual suppression of ion beam instabilities may be important for improved ion beam transport.

  4. Nonlinear Interaction of Elliptical Laser Beam with Collisional Plasma: Effect of Linear Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshav, Walia; Sarabjit, Kaur

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, nonlinear interaction of elliptical laser beam with collisional plasma is studied by using paraxial ray approximation. Nonlinear differential equations for the beam width parameters of semi-major axis and semi-minor axis of elliptical laser beam have been set up and solved numerically to study the variation of beam width parameters with normalized distance of propagation. Effects of variation in absorption coefficient and plasma density on the beam width parameters are also analyzed. It is observed from the analysis that extent of self-focusing of beam increases with increase/decrease in plasma density/absorption coefficient.

  5. Modeling of fatigue crack induced nonlinear ultrasonics using a highly parallelized explicit local interaction simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a parallelized modeling technique for the efficient simulation of nonlinear ultrasonics introduced by the wave interaction with fatigue cracks. The elastodynamic wave equations with contact effects are formulated using an explicit Local Interaction Simulation Approach (LISA). The LISA formulation is extended to capture the contact-impact phenomena during the wave damage interaction based on the penalty method. A Coulomb friction model is integrated into the computation procedure to capture the stick-slip contact shear motion. The LISA procedure is coded using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), which enables the highly parallelized supercomputing on powerful graphic cards. Both the explicit contact formulation and the parallel feature facilitates LISA's superb computational efficiency over the conventional finite element method (FEM). The theoretical formulations based on the penalty method is introduced and a guideline for the proper choice of the contact stiffness is given. The convergence behavior of the solution under various contact stiffness values is examined. A numerical benchmark problem is used to investigate the new LISA formulation and results are compared with a conventional contact finite element solution. Various nonlinear ultrasonic phenomena are successfully captured using this contact LISA formulation, including the generation of nonlinear higher harmonic responses. Nonlinear mode conversion of guided waves at fatigue cracks is also studied.

  6. Effects of randomness, dissipation and interaction on solitons of the cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation and related nonlinear wave models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quan Minh

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the propagation of solitons of the perturbed nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) via asymptotic perturbation techniques and numerical simulations. The dissertation consists of several inter-related projects [22, 98, 103, 108, 109] that are focused on the effects of nonlinear processes and randomness on dynamics of pulses of light in optical waveguides. We particularly consider two of the most important nonlinear processes affecting pulse dynamics in multichannel optical waveguides: weak cubic loss and delayed Raman response. In the presence of weak cubic loss [98], we obtain the analytic expressions for the amplitude and frequency shifts in a single two-soliton collision and show that the impact of a fast three-soliton collision is given by the sum of the two-soliton interactions. Furthermore, we show that amplitude dynamics in an N-channel waveguide system is described by a Lotka-Volterra model for N competing species. We find the conditions on the time slot width and the soliton's equilibrium amplitude value under which the transmission is stable. The predictions of the reduced Lotka-Volterra model are confirmed by numerical solution of a coupled-NLSE model, which takes into account intra-pulse and inter-pulse effects due to cubic nonlinearity and cubic loss. These results uncover an interesting analogy between the dynamics of energy exchange in pulse collisions and population dynamics in Lotka-Volterra models. In the presence of delayed Raman response [103,108,109], we show that the dynamics of pulse amplitudes in an N-channel transmission system in differential phase shift keying (DPSK) scheme is described by an N-dimensional predator-prey model. We find the equilibrium states with non-zero amplitudes and prove their stability by obtaining the Lyapunov function. We then show that stable transmission can be achieved by a proper choice of the frequency profile of linear amplifier gain. We also investigate the impact of Raman self- and collsion

  7. Thermodynamics of ghost dark energy in case of various nonlinear interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshudyan, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we discuss thermodynamics of interacting ghost dark energy models in a flat FRW universe. During the discussion our attention will be concentrated on nonlinear interactions of particular form. In the considered models dark matter is assumed to be a pressureless matter and allows to complete the darkness of the low-redshift universe. Ghost dark energy it is one of the models of dark energy among others with an explicitly given energy density as a function of the Hubble parameter of the universe. Our study aims to have a contribution towards recently suggested interacting ghost dark energy models.

  8. Nonlinear pressure dependence of the interaction potential of dense protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Schroer, Martin A; Markgraf, Jonas; Wieland, D C Florian; Sahle, Christoph J; Möller, Johannes; Paulus, Michael; Tolan, Metin; Winter, Roland

    2011-04-29

    The influence of pressure on the structure and protein-protein interaction potential of dense protein solutions was studied and analyzed using small-angle x-ray scattering in combination with a liquid state theoretical approach. The structural as well as the interaction parameters of dense lysozyme solutions are affected by pressure in a nonlinear way. The structural properties of water lead to a modification of the protein-protein interactions below 4 kbar, which might have significant consequences for the stability of proteins in extreme natural environments. PMID:21635065

  9. Nonlinear theory for a terahertz gyrotron with a special cross-section interaction cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Xuesong; Han Yu; Yan Yang; Lan Ying

    2012-05-15

    The fully numerical nonlinear theory for a gyrotron with a special cross-section interaction cavity has been developed in this paper. In this theory, the analytical solution to different modes in the special cross-section interaction cavity is replaced by the numerical solution based on electromagnetic simulation results. A 0.4 THz third harmonic gyrotron with an azimuthally corrugated interaction cavity has been investigated by using this theory and simulation results show that this approach has a significant advantage of developing high harmonic terahertz gyrotrons.

  10. Experiences with nonlinear dynamics of panels and membranes considering fluid-structure interaction and acoustic fatigue

    SciTech Connect

    Ferman, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    A collection of some highlights of the Author`s experiences with nonlinear dynamics in analyses and tests of Panels and Membranes encountered over the past 40 years is given. The primary focus is placed on a major block of his work since the early 70`s, involving work with fluid-structure interaction with Panels and Membranes, and with efforts in Acoustic Fatigue of Panels. While the Author had encountered nonlinear problems throughout Ins career involving flutter, vibration in general, and dynamic thrust instability; it was the more recent work with panels and membranes that greatly expanded his experience. This was triggered by the advent of highly maneuverable aircraft, powered by large powerful, noisy engines, and new materials in the mid 70`s. The significance of nonlinearity for these applications is most obvious from the results shown here-it simply cannot be ignored for optimal, safe design.

  11. Numerical and experimental study of the nonlinear interaction between a shear wave and a frictional interface.

    PubMed

    Blanloeuil, Philippe; Croxford, Anthony J; Meziane, Anissa

    2014-04-01

    The nonlinear interaction of shear waves with a frictional interface are presented and modeled using simple Coulomb friction. Analytical and finite difference implementations are proposed with both in agreement and showing a unique trend in terms of the generated nonlinearity. A dimensionless parameter ξ is proposed to uniquely quantify the nonlinearity produced. The trends produced in the numerical study are then validated with good agreement experimentally. This is carried out loading an interface between two steel blocks and exciting this interface with different amplitude normal incidence shear waves. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical results, suggesting the simple friction model does a reasonable job of capturing the fundamental physics. The resulting approach offers a potential way to characterize a contacting interface; however, the difficulty in activating that interface may ultimately limit its applicability. PMID:25234971

  12. Hollow Gaussian beam generation through nonlinear interaction of photons with orbital angular momentum

    PubMed Central

    Chaitanya, N. Apurv; Jabir, M. V.; Banerji, J.; Samanta, G. K.

    2016-01-01

    Hollow Gaussian beams (HGB) are a special class of doughnut shaped beams that do not carry orbital angular momentum (OAM). Such beams have a wide range of applications in many fields including atomic optics, bio-photonics, atmospheric science, and plasma physics. Till date, these beams have been generated using linear optical elements. Here, we show a new way of generating HGBs by three-wave mixing in a nonlinear crystal. Based on nonlinear interaction of photons having OAM and conservation of OAM in nonlinear processes, we experimentally generated ultrafast HGBs of order as high as 6 and power >180 mW at 355 nm. This generic concept can be extended to any wavelength, timescales (continuous-wave and ultrafast) and any orders. We show that the removal of azimuthal phase of vortices does not produce Gaussian beam. We also propose a new and only method to characterize the order of the HGBs. PMID:27581625

  13. Hollow Gaussian beam generation through nonlinear interaction of photons with orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Chaitanya, N Apurv; Jabir, M V; Banerji, J; Samanta, G K

    2016-01-01

    Hollow Gaussian beams (HGB) are a special class of doughnut shaped beams that do not carry orbital angular momentum (OAM). Such beams have a wide range of applications in many fields including atomic optics, bio-photonics, atmospheric science, and plasma physics. Till date, these beams have been generated using linear optical elements. Here, we show a new way of generating HGBs by three-wave mixing in a nonlinear crystal. Based on nonlinear interaction of photons having OAM and conservation of OAM in nonlinear processes, we experimentally generated ultrafast HGBs of order as high as 6 and power >180 mW at 355 nm. This generic concept can be extended to any wavelength, timescales (continuous-wave and ultrafast) and any orders. We show that the removal of azimuthal phase of vortices does not produce Gaussian beam. We also propose a new and only method to characterize the order of the HGBs. PMID:27581625

  14. Nonlinear Jaynes–Cummings model for two interacting two-level atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de los Santos-Sánchez, O.; González-Gutiérrez, C.; Récamier, J.

    2016-08-01

    In this work we examine a nonlinear version of the Jaynes–Cummings model for two identical two-level atoms allowing for Ising-like and dipole–dipole interplays between them. The model is said to be nonlinear in the sense that it can incorporate both a general intensity-dependent interaction between the atomic system and the cavity field and/or the presence of a nonlinear medium inside the cavity. As an example, we consider a particular type of atom-field coupling based upon the so-called Buck–Sukumar model and a lossless Kerr-like cavity. We describe the possible effects of such features on the evolution of some quantities of current interest, such as atomic excitation, purity, concurrence, the entropy of the field and the evolution of the latter in phase space.

  15. Wave–vortex interactions in the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yuan Bühler, Oliver

    2014-02-15

    This is a theoretical study of wave–vortex interaction effects in the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which is a useful conceptual model for the limiting dynamics of superfluid quantum condensates at zero temperature. The particular wave–vortex interaction effects are associated with the scattering and refraction of small-scale linear waves by the straining flows induced by quantized point vortices and, crucially, with the concomitant nonlinear back-reaction, the remote recoil, that these scattered waves exert on the vortices. Our detailed model is a narrow, slowly varying wavetrain of small-amplitude waves refracted by one or two vortices. Weak interactions are studied using a suitable perturbation method in which the nonlinear recoil force on the vortex then arises at second order in wave amplitude, and is computed in terms of a Magnus-type force expression for both finite and infinite wavetrains. In the case of an infinite wavetrain, an explicit asymptotic formula for the scattering angle is also derived and cross-checked against numerical ray tracing. Finally, under suitable conditions a wavetrain can be so strongly refracted that it collapses all the way onto a zero-size point vortex. This is a strong wave–vortex interaction by definition. The conditions for such a collapse are derived and the validity of ray tracing theory during the singular collapse is investigated.

  16. On the efficacy of friction damping in the presence of nonlinear modal interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krack, Malte; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2016-05-01

    This work addresses friction-induced modal interactions in jointed structures, and their effects on the passive mitigation of vibrations by means of friction damping. Under the condition of (nearly) commensurable natural frequencies, the nonlinear character of friction can cause so-called nonlinear modal interactions. If harmonic forcing near the natural frequency of a specific mode is applied, for instance, another mode may be excited due to nonlinear energy transfer and thus contribute considerably to the vibration response. We investigate how this phenomenon affects the performance of friction damping. To this end, we study the steady-state, periodic forced vibrations of a system of two beams connected via a local mechanical friction joint. The system can be tuned to continuously adjust the ratio between the first two natural frequencies in the range around the 1:3 internal resonance, in order to trigger or suppress the emergence of modal interactions. Due to the re-distribution of the vibration energy, the vibration level can in fact be reduced in certain situations. However, in other situations, the multi-harmonic character of the vibration has detrimental effects on the effective damping provided by the friction joint. The resulting response level can be significantly larger than in the absence of modal interactions. Moreover, it is shown that the vibration behavior is highly sensitive in the neighborhood of internal resonances. It is thus concluded that the condition of internal resonance should be avoided in the design of friction-damped systems.

  17. Wave-vortex interactions in the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuan; Bühler, Oliver

    2014-02-01

    This is a theoretical study of wave-vortex interaction effects in the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which is a useful conceptual model for the limiting dynamics of superfluid quantum condensates at zero temperature. The particular wave-vortex interaction effects are associated with the scattering and refraction of small-scale linear waves by the straining flows induced by quantized point vortices and, crucially, with the concomitant nonlinear back-reaction, the remote recoil, that these scattered waves exert on the vortices. Our detailed model is a narrow, slowly varying wavetrain of small-amplitude waves refracted by one or two vortices. Weak interactions are studied using a suitable perturbation method in which the nonlinear recoil force on the vortex then arises at second order in wave amplitude, and is computed in terms of a Magnus-type force expression for both finite and infinite wavetrains. In the case of an infinite wavetrain, an explicit asymptotic formula for the scattering angle is also derived and cross-checked against numerical ray tracing. Finally, under suitable conditions a wavetrain can be so strongly refracted that it collapses all the way onto a zero-size point vortex. This is a strong wave-vortex interaction by definition. The conditions for such a collapse are derived and the validity of ray tracing theory during the singular collapse is investigated.

  18. Nonlinear tearing mode interactions and mode locking in reversed field pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Hegna, C.C.

    1996-06-01

    The nonlinear interaction of a set of tearing instabilities and plasma flow is studied in a cylindrical plasma. An analytic theory of mode locking is developed which includes the effects of the localized electromagnetic torques, plasma inertia and cross-field viscosity. The calculation is specialized for the case of mode locking on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch. In MST plasmas, a set of m = 1 tearing instabilities become phase locked and form a toroidally localized, rotating magnetic disturbance. An evolution equation for the phase velocity of this magnetic disturbance is derived which accounts for two types of electromagnetic torques. The external torques describe the interaction of the tearing modes with static magnetic perturbations located outside the plasma region. The interior torques describe the nonlinear interaction of three tearing modes which satisfy a wave number resonance condition. For conditions typical of MST, the internal torques dominate the external torques, which suggest the nonlinear interaction of tearing instabilities play a prominent role in the momentum degradation and mode locking.

  19. Nonlinear interaction of kinetic Alfvén waves and ion acoustic waves in coronal loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prachi; Yadav, Nitin; Sharma, R. P.

    2016-05-01

    Over the years, coronal heating has been the most fascinating question among the scientific community. In the present article, a heating mechanism has been proposed based on the wave-wave interaction. Under this wave-wave interaction, the high frequency kinetic Alfvén wave interacts with the low frequency ion acoustic wave. These waves are three dimensionally propagating and nonlinearly coupled through ponderomotive nonlinearity. A numerical code based on pseudo-spectral technique has been developed for solving these normalized dynamical equations. Localization of kinetic Alfvén wave field has been examined, and magnetic power spectrum has also been analyzed which shows the cascading of energy to higher wavenumbers, and this cascading has been found to have Kolmogorov scaling, i.e., k-5 /3 . A breakpoint appears after Kolmogorov scaling and next to this spectral break; a steeper scaling has been obtained. The presented nonlinear interaction for coronal loops plasmas is suggested to generate turbulent spectrum having Kolmogorov scaling in the inertial range and steepened scaling in the dissipation range. Since Kolmogorov turbulence is considered as the main source for coronal heating; therefore, the suggested mechanism will be a useful tool to understand the mystery of coronal loop heating through Kolmogorov turbulence and dissipation.

  20. Pitch glide effect induced by a nonlinear string-barrier interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartofelev, Dmitri; Stulov, Anatoli; Välimäki, Vesa

    2015-10-01

    Interactions of a vibrating string with its supports and other spatially distributed barriers play a significant role in the physics of many stringed musical instruments. It is well known that the tone of the string vibrations is determined by the string supports, and that the boundary conditions of the string termination may cause a short-lasting initial fundamental frequency shifting. Generally, this phenomenon is associated with the nonlinear modulation of the stiff string tension. The aim of this paper is to study the initial frequency glide phenomenon that is induced only by the string-barrier interaction, apart from other possible physical causes, and without the interfering effects of dissipation and dispersion. From a numerical simulation perspective, this highly nonlinear problem may present various difficulties, not the least of which is the risk of numerical instability. We propose a numerically stable and a purely kinematic model of the string-barrier interaction, which is based on the travelling wave solution of the ideal string vibration. The model is capable of reproducing the motion of the vibrating string exhibiting the initial fundamental frequency glide, which is caused solely by the complex nonlinear interaction of the string with its termination. The results presented in this paper can expand our knowledge and understanding of the timbre evolution and the physical principles of sound generation of numerous stringed instruments, such as lutes called the tambura, sitar and biwa.

  1. Quantum transport of strongly interacting photons in a one-dimensional nonlinear waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafezi, Mohammad; Chang, Darrick E.; Gritsev, Vladimir; Demler, Eugene; Lukin, Mikhail D.

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical technique for solving the quantum transport problem of a few photons through a one-dimensional, strongly nonlinear waveguide. We specifically consider the situation where the evolution of the optical field is governed by the quantum nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Although this kind of nonlinearity is quite general, we focus on a realistic implementation involving cold atoms loaded in a hollow-core optical fiber, where the atomic system provides a tunable nonlinearity that can be large even at a single-photon level. In particular, we show that when the interaction between photons is effectively repulsive, the transmission of multiphoton components of the field is suppressed. This leads to antibunching of the transmitted light and indicates that the system acts as a single-photon switch. On the other hand, in the case of attractive interaction, the system can exhibit either antibunching or bunching, which is in stark contrast to semiclassical calculations. We show that the bunching behavior is related to the resonant excitation of bound states of photons inside the system.

  2. Latitudinal dependence of nonlinear interaction between electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave and terrestrial ring current ions

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Zhenpeng Zhu, Hui; Zheng, Huinan; Xiao, Fuliang; Zhang, Min; Liu, Y. C.-M.; Shen, Chao; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui

    2014-05-15

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can lead to the rapid decay (on a timescale of hours) of the terrestrial ring current. Such decay process is usually investigated in the framework of quasi-linear theory. Here, both theoretical analysis and test-particle simulation are performed to understand the nonlinear interaction between ring current ions and EMIC waves. In particular, the dependence of the nonlinear wave-particle interaction processes on the ion initial latitude is investigated in detail. These nonlinear processes are classified into the phase trapping and phase bunching, and the phase bunching is further divided into the channel and cluster effects. Compared to the prediction of the quasi-linear theory, the ring current decay rate can be reduced by the phase trapping, increased by the channel effect phase bunching, but non-deterministically influenced by the cluster effect phase bunching. The ion initial latitude changes the occurrence of the phase trapping, modulates the transport direction and strength of the cluster effect phase bunching, and only slightly affects the channel effect phase bunching. The current results suggest that the latitudinal dependence of these nonlinear processes should be considered in the evaluation of the ring current decay induced by EMIC waves.

  3. Modeling relativistic soliton interactions in overdense plasmas: a perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger equation framework.

    PubMed

    Siminos, E; Sánchez-Arriaga, G; Saxena, V; Kourakis, I

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the dynamics of localized solutions of the relativistic cold-fluid plasma model in the small but finite amplitude limit, for slightly overcritical plasma density. Adopting a multiple scale analysis, we derive a perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger equation that describes the evolution of the envelope of circularly polarized electromagnetic field. Retaining terms up to fifth order in the small perturbation parameter, we derive a self-consistent framework for the description of the plasma response in the presence of localized electromagnetic field. The formalism is applied to standing electromagnetic soliton interactions and the results are validated by simulations of the full cold-fluid model. To lowest order, a cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a focusing nonlinearity is recovered. Classical quasiparticle theory is used to obtain analytical estimates for the collision time and minimum distance of approach between solitons. For larger soliton amplitudes the inclusion of the fifth-order terms is essential for a qualitatively correct description of soliton interactions. The defocusing quintic nonlinearity leads to inelastic soliton collisions, while bound states of solitons do not persist under perturbations in the initial phase or amplitude. PMID:25615203

  4. Nonlinear soil-structure interaction analysis of SIMQUAKE II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, D.K.; Isenberg, J.

    1982-04-01

    This report describes an analytic method for modeling of soil-structure interaction (SSI) for nuclear power plants in earthquakes and discusses its application to SSI analyses of SIMQUAKE II. The method is general and can be used to simulate a three-dimensional structural geometry, nonlinear site characteristics and arbitrary input ground shaking. The analytic approach uses the soil island concept to reduce SSI models to manageable size and cost. Nonlinear constitutive behavior of the soil is represented by the nonlinear, kinematic cap model. In addition, a debonding-rebonding soil-structure interface model is utilized to represent nonlinear effects which singificantly alter structural response in the SIMQUAKE tests. STEALTH, an explicit finite difference code, is used to perform the dynamic, soil-structure interaction analyses. Several two-dimensional posttest SSI analyses of model containment structures in SIMQUAKE II are performed and results compared with measured data. These analyses qualify the analytic method. They also show the importance of including debonding-rebonding at the soil-structure interface. Sensitivity of structural response to compaction characteristics of backfill material is indicated.

  5. Glucose-β-CD interaction assisted ACN field-amplified sample stacking in CZE for determination of trace amlodipine in beagle dog plasma.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Li, You; Zhang, Wenting; Chen, Zhao; Fan, Guorong

    2013-06-01

    A simple, sensitive and low-cost method using CE coupled with glucose-β-CD interaction assisted ACN stacking technique has been developed for quantification of trace amlodipine in dog plasma. The plasma samples were extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether. The separation was performed at 25°C in a 31.2 cm × 75 μm fused-silica capillary with an applied voltage of 15 kV. The BGE was composed of 6.25 mM borate/25 mM phosphate (pH 2.5) and 5 mg/mL glucose-β-CD. The detection wavelength was 200 nm. Because CD could diminish the interaction between drugs and matrix, and derivation groups of CD play an important role in separation performance, the effects of β-CD, and its derivatives on the separation were studied at several concentrations (0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 mg/mL). In this study, organic solvent field-amplified sample stacking technique in combination with glucose-β-CD enhanced the sensitivity about 60-70 folds and glucose-β-CD could effectively improve the peak shape. All the validation data, such as accuracy, precision extraction recovery, and stability, were within the required limits. The calibration curve was linear for amlodipine from 1 to 200 ng/mL. The method developed was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic studies of amlodipine besylate in beagle dogs. PMID:23495256

  6. Pressure-Induced Phase Transitions in Ammonium Squarate: A Supramolecular Structure Based on Hydrogen-Bonding and [pi]-Stacking Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shourui; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Mi; Li, Qian; Liu, Bingbing; Zou, Guangtian; Zou, Bo

    2012-02-06

    We report the results of high-pressure Raman and X-ray diffraction measurements performed on ammonium squarate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}C{sub 4}O{sub 4}, AS), a representative supramolecular architecture based on hydrogen bonding and {pi}-stacking interactions, at various pressures up to 19 GPa. Two phase transitions at 2.7 GPa and in the pressure range of 11.1-13.6 GPa were observed. Both Raman and XRD results provide convincing evidence for these two phase transitions. The first phase transition is attributed to the rearrangements of hydrogen-bonding networks, resulting in the symmetry transformation from P2{sub 1}/c to P1. The second one, which is identified as an order-disorder phase transition, arises from significant modifications of squarate rings and random orientations of NH{sub 4}{sup +} cations. The cooperative effects between hydrogen-bonding and {pi}-stacking interactions, as well as mechanisms for the phase transitions, are discussed by virtue of the local structure of AS.

  7. A preliminary study into emergent behaviours in a lattice of interacting nonlinear resonators and oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randrianandrasana, Michel F.; Wei, Xueyong; Lowe, David

    2011-07-01

    Future sensor arrays will be composed of interacting nonlinear components with complex behaviours with no known analytic solutions. This paper provides a preliminary insight into the expected behaviour through numerical and analytical analysis. Specifically, the complex behaviour of a periodically driven nonlinear Duffing resonator coupled elastically to a van der Pol oscillator is investigated as a building block in a 2D lattice of such units with local connectivity. An analytic treatment of the 2-device unit is provided through a two-time-scales approach and the stability of the complex dynamic motion is analysed. The pattern formation characteristics of a 2D lattice composed of these units coupled together through nearest neighbour interactions is analysed numerically for parameters appropriate to a physical realisation through MEMS devices. The emergent patterns of global and cluster synchronisation are investigated with respect to system parameters and lattice size.

  8. Nonlinear spectroscopic effects in quantum gases induced by atom-atom interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Safonov, A. I. Safonova, I. I.; Yasnikov, I. S.

    2013-05-15

    We consider nonlinear spectroscopic effects-interaction-enhanced double resonance and spectrum instability-that appear in ultracold quantum gases owing to collisional frequency shift of atomic transitions and, consequently, due to the dependence of the frequencies on the population of various internal states of the particles. Special emphasis is put to two simplest cases, (a) the gas of two-level atoms and (b) double resonance in a gas of three-level bosons, in which the probe transition frequency remains constant.

  9. Interaction between turbulence and a nonlinear tearing mode in the low {beta} regime

    SciTech Connect

    Militello, F.; Waelbroeck, F. L.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Horton, W.

    2008-05-15

    The interaction between turbulence and a nonlinear tearing mode is investigated numerically using a 2D electrostatic model. Turbulence is found to cause transitions between the different roots for the propagation velocity of the mode. The transitions take the mode towards roots with slower propagation that are characterized by a locally flattened density profile. For sufficiently large islands the transition reduces the drive for the tearing mode.

  10. INAKT--an interactive non-linear regression program for enzyme inactivation and affinity labelling studies.

    PubMed

    Christophersen, A; McKinley-McKee, J S

    1984-01-01

    An interactive program for analysing enzyme activity-time data using non-linear regression analysis is described. Protection studies can also be dealt with. The program computes inactivation rates, dissociation constants and promotion or inhibition parameters with their standard errors. It can also be used to distinguish different inactivation models. The program is written in SIMULA and is menu-oriented for refining or correcting data at the different levels of computing. PMID:6546558

  11. Evolution and interaction of twins, dislocations and stacking faults in rolled α-brass during nanostructuring at sub-zero temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Barna; Kumar, Nand Kishor; Nambissan, Padinharu Madathil Gopalakrishnan; Das, Jayanta

    2014-06-01

    The effect of cryorolling (CR) strain at 153 K on the evolution of structural defects and their interaction in α-brass (Cu-30 wt.% Zn) during nanostructuring has been evaluated. Even though the lattice strain increases up to 2.1 × 10-3 at CR strain of 0.6 initially, but it remains constant upon further rolling. Whereas, the twin density (β) increases to a maximum value of 5.9 × 10-3 at a CR strain of 0.7 and reduces to 1.1 × 10-5 at 0.95. Accumulation of stacking faults (SFs) and lattice disorder at the twin boundaries causes dynamic recrystallization, promotes grain refinement and decreases the twin density by forming subgrains. Detailed investigations on the formation and interaction of defects have been done through resistivity, positron lifetime and Doppler broadening measurements in order to understand the micro-mechanism of nanostructuring at sub-zero temperatures.

  12. The Effect of Crack Orientation on the Nonlinear Interaction of a P-wave with an S-wave

    DOE PAGESBeta

    TenCate, J. A.; Malcolm, A. E.; Feng, X.; Fehler, M. C.

    2016-06-06

    Cracks, joints, fluids, and other pore-scale structures have long been hypothesized to be the cause of the large elastic nonlinearity observed in rocks. It is difficult to definitively say which pore-scale features are most important, however, because of the difficulty in isolating the source of the nonlinear interaction. In this work, we focus on the influence of cracks on the recorded nonlinear signal and in particular on how the orientation of microcracks changes the strength of the nonlinear interaction. We do this by studying the effect of orientation on the measurements in a rock with anisotropy correlated with the presencemore » and alignment of microcracks. We measure the nonlinear response via the traveltime delay induced in a low-amplitude P wave probe by a high-amplitude S wave pump. We find evidence that crack orientation has a significant effect on the nonlinear signal.« less

  13. The effect of crack orientation on the nonlinear interaction of a P wave with an S wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TenCate, J. A.; Malcolm, A. E.; Feng, X.; Fehler, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    Cracks, joints, fluids, and other pore-scale structures have long been hypothesized to be the cause of the large elastic nonlinearity observed in rocks. It is difficult to definitively say which pore-scale features are most important, however, because of the difficulty in isolating the source of the nonlinear interaction. In this work, we focus on the influence of cracks on the recorded nonlinear signal and in particular on how the orientation of microcracks changes the strength of the nonlinear interaction. We do this by studying the effect of orientation on the measurements in a rock with anisotropy correlated with the presence and alignment of microcracks. We measure the nonlinear response via the traveltime delay induced in a low-amplitude P wave probe by a high-amplitude S wave pump. We find evidence that crack orientation has a significant effect on the nonlinear signal.

  14. Predicting haemodynamic networks using electrophysiology: The role of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions.

    PubMed

    Tewarie, P; Bright, M G; Hillebrand, A; Robson, S E; Gascoyne, L E; Morris, P G; Meier, J; Van Mieghem, P; Brookes, M J

    2016-04-15

    Understanding the electrophysiological basis of resting state networks (RSNs) in the human brain is a critical step towards elucidating how inter-areal connectivity supports healthy brain function. In recent years, the relationship between RSNs (typically measured using haemodynamic signals) and electrophysiology has been explored using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Significant progress has been made, with similar spatial structure observable in both modalities. However, there is a pressing need to understand this relationship beyond simple visual similarity of RSN patterns. Here, we introduce a mathematical model to predict fMRI-based RSNs using MEG. Our unique model, based upon a multivariate Taylor series, incorporates both phase and amplitude based MEG connectivity metrics, as well as linear and non-linear interactions within and between neural oscillations measured in multiple frequency bands. We show that including non-linear interactions, multiple frequency bands and cross-frequency terms significantly improves fMRI network prediction. This shows that fMRI connectivity is not only the result of direct electrophysiological connections, but is also driven by the overlap of connectivity profiles between separate regions. Our results indicate that a complete understanding of the electrophysiological basis of RSNs goes beyond simple frequency-specific analysis, and further exploration of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions will shed new light on distributed network connectivity, and its perturbation in pathology. PMID:26827811

  15. Influence of cross-flow on nonlinear Tollmien-Schlichting/vortex interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. A. R.; Smith, F. T.

    1994-01-01

    The transition of an incompressible three-dimensional boundary layer with strong cross-flow is considered theoretically and computationally in the context of vortex/wave interactions. Specifically the work centers on two lower-branch Tollmien-Schlichting waves which mutually interact nonlinearly to induce a longitudinal vortex flow. The vortex motion in turn gives rise to significant wave modulation via wall-shear forcing. The characteristic Reynolds number is large and, as a consequence, the waves' and the vortex motion are governed primarily by triple deck theory. The nonlinear interaction is captured by a viscous partial-differential system for the vortex coupled with a pair of amplitude equations for each wave pressure. Following analysis and computation over a wide range of parameters, three distinct responses are found to emerge in the nonlinear behavior of the flow solution downstream: an algebraic finite-distance singularity, far-downstream saturation or far-downstream wave decay leaving pure vortex flow. These depend on the input conditions, the wave angles and the size of the cross flow.

  16. Nonlinear instability and chaos in plasma wave-wave interactions, I., Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kueny, C.S.; Morrison, P.J.

    1994-11-01

    Conventional linear stability analyses may fail for fluid systems with an indefinite free energy functional. When such a system is linearly stable, it is said to possess negative energy modes. Instability may then occur either via dissipation of the negative energy modes, or nonlinearly via resonant wave-wave coupling, leading to explosive growth. In the dissipationless case, it is conjectured that intrinsic chaotic behavior may allow initially nonresonant systems to reach resonance by diffusion in phase space. In this and a companion paper [submitted to Physics of Plasmas], this phenomenon is demonstrated for a simple equilibrium involving cold counterstreaming ions. The system is described in the fluid approximation by a Hamiltonian functional and associated noncanonical Poisson bracket. By Fourier decomposition and appropriate coordinate transformations, the Hamiltonian for the perturbed energy is expressed in action-angle form. The normal modes correspond to Doppler-shifted ion-acoustic waves of positive and negative energy. Nonlinear coupling leads to decay instability via two-wave interactions, and to either decay or explosive instability via three-wave interactions. These instabilities are described for various (integrable) systems of waves interacting via single nonlinear terms. This discussion provides the foundation for the treatment of nonintegrable systems in the companion paper.

  17. Predicting haemodynamic networks using electrophysiology: The role of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tewarie, P.; Bright, M.G.; Hillebrand, A.; Robson, S.E.; Gascoyne, L.E.; Morris, P.G.; Meier, J.; Van Mieghem, P.; Brookes, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the electrophysiological basis of resting state networks (RSNs) in the human brain is a critical step towards elucidating how inter-areal connectivity supports healthy brain function. In recent years, the relationship between RSNs (typically measured using haemodynamic signals) and electrophysiology has been explored using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Significant progress has been made, with similar spatial structure observable in both modalities. However, there is a pressing need to understand this relationship beyond simple visual similarity of RSN patterns. Here, we introduce a mathematical model to predict fMRI-based RSNs using MEG. Our unique model, based upon a multivariate Taylor series, incorporates both phase and amplitude based MEG connectivity metrics, as well as linear and non-linear interactions within and between neural oscillations measured in multiple frequency bands. We show that including non-linear interactions, multiple frequency bands and cross-frequency terms significantly improves fMRI network prediction. This shows that fMRI connectivity is not only the result of direct electrophysiological connections, but is also driven by the overlap of connectivity profiles between separate regions. Our results indicate that a complete understanding of the electrophysiological basis of RSNs goes beyond simple frequency-specific analysis, and further exploration of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions will shed new light on distributed network connectivity, and its perturbation in pathology. PMID:26827811

  18. Resonant interaction of light with a stack of alternating layers of a cholesteric liquid crystal and an isotropic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevorgyan, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Resonance properties of a stack consisting of a cholesteric liquid crystal and isotropic medium layers are investigated. Bragg's conditions for photonic band gaps are presented for the considered system. It is shown that a significant control of the system zone structure is possible in the case of a proper selection of the sublayer parameters. It is also shown that an effect of complete suppression of absorption is not usually observed in the case of anisotropic absorption in cholesteric liquid crystal sublayers. The possibility to achieve this effect in the considered system, imposing certain conditions on the thickness and the refraction index of the isotropic medium sublayers, is shown. Also, it is shown that in such conditions a large increase of the maximum of photonic density of states happens at the appropriate zone borders.

  19. Anharmonic stacking in supercoiled DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoli, Marco

    2012-05-01

    Multistep denaturation in a short circular DNA molecule is analyzed by a mesoscopic Hamiltonian model which accounts for the helicoidal geometry. Computation of melting profiles by the path integral method suggests that stacking anharmonicity stabilizes the double helix against thermal disruption of the hydrogen bonds. Twisting is essential in the model to capture the importance of nonlinear effects on the thermodynamical properties. In a ladder model with zero twist, anharmonic stacking scarcely affects the thermodynamics. Moderately untwisted helices, with respect to the equilibrium conformation, show an energetic advantage against the overtwisted ones. Accordingly moderately untwisted helices better sustain local fluctuational openings and make more unlikely the thermally driven complete strand separation.

  20. Some non-linear interactions in polytropic gas cosmology: phase space analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshudyan, Martiros

    2015-11-01

    There are various cosmological models with polytropic equation of state associated to dark energy. Polytropic EoS has important applications in astrophysics, therefore a study of it on cosmological framework continues to be interesting. From the other hand, there are various forms of interactions phenomenologically involved into the darkness of the universe able to solve important cosmological problems. This is a motivation for us to perform a phase space analysis of various cosmological scenarios where non-linear interacting polytropic gas models are involved. Dark matter is taken to be a pressureless fluid.

  1. Soliton interactions and complexes for coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Tian, Bo; Liu, Wen-Jun; Sun, Kun; Li, Min; Wang, Pan

    2012-03-01

    Under investigation in this paper are the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS) equations, which can be used to govern the optical-soliton propagation and interaction in such optical media as the multimode fibers, fiber arrays, and birefringent fibers. By taking the 3-CNLS equations as an example for the N-CNLS ones (N≥3), we derive the analytic mixed-type two- and three-soliton solutions in more general forms than those obtained in the previous studies with the Hirota method and symbolic computation. With the choice of parameters for those soliton solutions, soliton interactions and complexes are investigated through the asymptotic and graphic analysis. Soliton interactions and complexes with the bound dark solitons in a mode or two modes are observed, including that (i) the two bright solitons display the breatherlike structures while the two dark ones stay parallel, (ii) the two bright and dark solitons all stay parallel, and (iii) the states of the bound solitons change from the breatherlike structures to the parallel one even with the distance between those solitons smaller than that before the interaction with the regular one soliton. Asymptotic analysis is also used to investigate the elastic and inelastic interactions between the bound solitons and the regular one soliton. Furthermore, some discussions are extended to the N-CNLS equations (N>3). Our results might be helpful in such applications as the soliton switch, optical computing, and soliton amplification in the nonlinear optics. PMID:22587200

  2. Orbital forcing and endogenous interactions: Non-linearity, persistence and convergence in late Pleistocene climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Gordon R.

    The succession of ice ages and interglacials during the late Pleistocene has been linked with changes in the eccentricity, obliquity and precession of the earth's orbit. The combined effect of orbital cycles with different periodicities argues that climate should exhibit both persistence — significant dependence between observations at distant intervals — and non-linearity. At the same time, a significant component of climatic variation derives from endogenous interactions which exhibit non-linear properties at both higher and lower frequencies than the orbital variations. In order to analyze the effect of orbital shifts and endogenous interactions, climate is factored into an orbitally forced and a residual component. The component explained by orbital forcing shows some evidence of non-linearity, strong dependence between observations over the first 10 ka, and additional dependence between observations at frequencies corresponding to the orbital cycles. The residual component shows greater dependence between observations over the first 20 ka, some evidence of dependence at the orbital cycles, and significantly greater degrees of non-linearity. Neither shows evidence of actual chaoticity. The climatic residual generally moves in the same direction as the path implied by orbital forcing, meaning that endogenous interactions reinforce and accentuate changes in climate implied by orbital shifts. Despite the high variability of the residual, orbital forcing acts as a long-run attractor both for temperature and for atmospheric CO 2. Actual temperatures converge to the path implied by orbital forcing, on average within a period of 7.14 ka. Because orbital forcing is a long-term attractor for temperature but short-term movements show strong serial dependence, the best forecasts for Pleistocene climate are obtained from a model including distributed lags of both orbital shifts and temperature.

  3. Characterizing the nonlinear interaction of S- and P-waves in a rock sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallot, Thomas; Malcolm, Alison; Szabo, Thomas L.; Brown, Stephen; Burns, Daniel; Fehler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear elastic response of rocks is known to be caused by the rocks' microstructure, particularly cracks and fluids. This paper presents a method for characterizing the nonlinearity of rocks in a laboratory scale experiment with a unique configuration. This configuration has been designed to open up the possibility of using the nonlinear characterization of rocks as an imaging tool in the field. In our experiment, we study the nonlinear interaction of two traveling waves: a low-amplitude 500 kHz P-wave probe and a high-amplitude 50 kHz S-wave pump in a room-dry 15 × 15 × 3 cm slab of Berea sandstone. Changes in the arrival time of the P-wave probe as it passes through the perturbation created by the traveling S-wave pump were recorded. Waveforms were time gated to simulate a semi-infinite medium. The shear wave phase relative to the P-wave probe signal was varied with resultant changes in the P-wave probe arrival time of up to 100 ns, corresponding to a change in elastic properties of 0.2%. In order to estimate the strain in our sample, we also measured the particle velocity at the sample surface to scale a finite difference linear elastic simulation to estimate the complex strain field in the sample, on the order of 10-6, induced by the S-wave pump. We derived a fourth order elastic model to relate the changes in elasticity to the pump strain components. We recover quadratic and cubic nonlinear parameters: β ˜ = - 872 and δ ˜ = - 1.1 × 10 10 , respectively, at room-temperature and when particle motions of the pump and probe waves are aligned. Temperature fluctuations are correlated to changes in the recovered values of β ˜ and δ ˜ , and we find that the nonlinear parameter changes when the particle motions are orthogonal. No evidence of slow dynamics was seen in our measurements. The same experimental configuration, when applied to Lucite and aluminum, produced no measurable nonlinear effects. In summary, a method of selectively determining the

  4. Supramolecular self-assembly of a coumarine-based acylthiourea synthon directed by π-stacking interactions: Crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Aamer; Ashraf, Saba; Flörke, Ulrich; Delgado Espinoza, Zuly Yuliana; Erben, Mauricio F.; Pérez, Hiram

    2016-05-01

    The structure of 1-(2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbonyl)-3-(2-methoxy-phenyl)thiourea (1) has been determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with a = 7.455 (2) Å, b = 12.744 (3) Å, c = 16.892 (4) Å, β = 90.203 (6)° and Z = 4. Both, the coumarin and the phenyl rings are nearly coplanar with the central 1-acylthiourea group, with the Cdbnd O and Cdbnd S bonds adopting an opposite orientation. Intramolecular N-H···O, C-H···O, and C-H···S hydrogen bonds are favored by the planar conformation. The molecules are packed through C-H···O, C-H···S and C-H···C hydrogen bonds, and two π···π interactions with offset arrangement. Inter-centroid distance of 3.490 (2) Å, slip angles of 18.5 and 20.9°, and vertical displacements of 1.10 and 1.24 Å are the stacking parameters corresponding to the stronger π···π interaction. Hirshfeld surface analysis was performed for visualizing, exploring and quantifying intermolecular interactions in the crystal lattice of compound 1, and compared with two closely related species. Shape index and Curvedness surfaces indicated π-stacking with different features in opposed sides of the molecule. Fingerprint plot showed C···C contacts with similar contributions to the crystal packing in comparison with those associated to hydrogen bonds. Enrichment ratios for H···H, O···H, S···H and C···C contacts revealed a high propensity to form in the crystal.

  5. π-Stacking attraction vs. electrostatic repulsion: competing supramolecular interactions in a tpphz-bridged Ru(ii)/Au(iii) complex.

    PubMed

    Sorsche, Dieter; Schaub, Markus; Heinemann, Frank W; Habermehl, Johannes; Kuhri, Susanne; Guldi, Dirk; Guthmuller, Julien; Rau, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a mixed metal ruthenium(ii)/gold(iii) complex bridged by tetrapyridophenazine (tpphz) are described. It is isostructural and isoelectronic to the well-known photocatalysts with palladium(ii) or platinum(ii). Concentration dependent (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and XRD studies show that the electrostatic repulsion between the gold(iii) moieties exceeds the attractive π-stacking interaction. Theoretical calculations based on the new structural data confirm an increased positive charge on the bridging ligand as well as significantly altered orbital symmetry as compared to the previously investigated palladium(ii) complex. This is the first example of a tpphz ruthenium(ii) complex where π-stacking is completely inhibited. The detailed investigation of the solid-state structure showed for the first time in bimetallic tpphz bridged complexes no significant torsion within the bridging ligand itself. Although catalytic performance for proton reduction by gold(iii) is naturally not observed, its photochemical decomposition in colloidal gold particles could be shown by TEM and DLS. PMID:27472004

  6. Ion scale nonlinear interaction triggered by disparate scale electron temperature gradient mode

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Chanho; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Itoh, Kimitaka; Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2015-05-15

    We have observed that the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the high-frequency (∼0.4 MHz) electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode and the ion-scale low-frequency fluctuations (∼kHz) were enhanced when the amplitude of the ETG mode exceeded a certain threshold. The dynamics of nonlinear coupling between the ETG mode and the drift wave (DW) mode has already been reported [C. Moon, T. Kaneko, and R. Hatakeyama, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2013)]. Here, we have newly observed that another low-frequency fluctuation with f ≃ 3.6 kHz, i.e., the flute mode, was enhanced, corresponding to the saturation of the DW mode growth. Specifically, the bicoherence between the flute mode and the DW mode reaches a significant level when the ∇T{sub e}/T{sub e} strength exceeded 0.54 cm{sup −1}. Thus, it is shown that the ETG mode energy was transferred to the DW mode, and then the energy was ultimately transferred to the flute mode, which was triggered by the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the ETG and ion-scale low-frequency modes.

  7. Ion scale nonlinear interaction triggered by disparate scale electron temperature gradient mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Chanho; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Itoh, Kimitaka; Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2015-05-01

    We have observed that the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the high-frequency (˜0.4 MHz) electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode and the ion-scale low-frequency fluctuations (˜kHz) were enhanced when the amplitude of the ETG mode exceeded a certain threshold. The dynamics of nonlinear coupling between the ETG mode and the drift wave (DW) mode has already been reported [C. Moon, T. Kaneko, and R. Hatakeyama, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2013)]. Here, we have newly observed that another low-frequency fluctuation with f ≃ 3.6 kHz, i.e., the flute mode, was enhanced, corresponding to the saturation of the DW mode growth. Specifically, the bicoherence between the flute mode and the DW mode reaches a significant level when the ∇Te/Te strength exceeded 0.54 cm-1. Thus, it is shown that the ETG mode energy was transferred to the DW mode, and then the energy was ultimately transferred to the flute mode, which was triggered by the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the ETG and ion-scale low-frequency modes.

  8. Colloquium: Nonlinear collective interactions in quantum plasmas with degenerate electron fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, P. K.; Eliasson, B.

    2011-07-01

    The current understanding of some important nonlinear collective processes in quantum plasmas with degenerate electrons is presented. After reviewing the basic properties of quantum plasmas, model equations (e.g., the quantum hydrodynamic and effective nonlinear Schroedinger-Poisson equations) are presented that describe collective nonlinear phenomena at nanoscales. The effects of the electron degeneracy arise due to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and Pauli's exclusion principle for overlapping electron wave functions that result in tunneling of electrons and the electron degeneracy pressure. Since electrons are Fermions (spin-1/2 quantum particles), there also appears an electron spin current and a spin force acting on electrons due to the Bohr magnetization. The quantum effects produce new aspects of electrostatic (ES) and electromagnetic (EM) waves in a quantum plasma that are summarized in here. Furthermore, nonlinear features of ES ion waves and electron plasma oscillations are discussed, as well as the trapping of intense EM waves in quantum electron-density cavities. Specifically, simulation studies of the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger and Poisson equations reveal the formation and dynamics of localized ES structures at nanoscales in a quantum plasma. The effect of an external magnetic field on the plasma wave spectra and develop quantum magnetohydrodynamic equations are also discussed. The results are useful for understanding numerous collective phenomena in quantum plasmas, such as those in compact astrophysical objects (e.g., the cores of white dwarf stars and giant planets), as well as in plasma-assisted nanotechnology (e.g., quantum diodes, quantum free-electron lasers, nanophotonics and nanoplasmonics, metallic nanostructures, thin metal films, semiconductor quantum wells, and quantum dots, etc.), and in the next generation of intense laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments relevant for fast ignition in inertial confinement fusion

  9. Nonlinear interaction between surface plasmons and ion oscillations in a semi-bounded collisional quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Khorashadizadeh, S. M. Taheri Boroujeni, S.; Niknam, A. R.

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, we have investigated the nonlinear interaction between high-frequency surface plasmons and low-frequency ion oscillations in a semi-bounded collisional quantum plasma. By coupling the nonlinear Schrodinger equation and quantum hydrodynamic model, and taking into account the ponderomotive force, the dispersion equation is obtained. By solving this equation, it is shown that there is a modulational instability in the system, and collisions and quantum forces play significant roles on this instability. The quantum tunneling increases the phase and group velocities of the modulated waves and collisions increase the growth rate of the modulational instability. It is also shown that the effect of quantum forces and collisions is more significant in high modulated wavenumber regions.

  10. Dual roles of shear flow in nonlinear multi-scale interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Z. Q.; Wang, Z. X.; Wei, L.; Li, J. Q.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Effect of shear flow on the multi-scale nonlinear interaction in plasmas is numerically investigated by using a self-consistent Landau-fluid model. Dual roles of shear flow in the process are discovered, significantly suppressing micro-scale fluctuations and dramatically promoting macro-scale fluctuations. Furthermore, its similar dual roles in turbulent transport are also demonstrated. The novel underlying mechanism for the nonlinear promotion is identified as the formation of a large vortex flow inside magnetic island, which as a common phenomenon have been often observed in space and magnetic fusion plasmas. The theoretical prediction on the threshold of shear flow based on an analytical modeling is verified via numerical simulations.