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Sample records for nonmesonic weak decay

  1. Relationships between nonmesonic weak decays in different hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Krmpotic, Franjo

    2010-11-15

    Using as a tool the s-wave approximation (sWA), this work demonstrates that the nonmesonic weak decay transition rates {Gamma}{sub n} and {Gamma}{sub p} can be expressed in all hypernuclei up to {sub {Lambda}}{sup 29}Si (and very likely in heavier ones too) in the same way as in the s-shell hypernuclei, i.e., as a linear combination of only three elementary transition rates. This finding leads to the analytic prediction that, independently of the transition mechanism, all hypernuclei that are on the stability line (N=Z), i.e., {sub {Lambda}}{sup 5}He, {sub {Lambda}}{sup 7}Li, {sub {Lambda}}{sup 9}Be, {sub {Lambda}}{sup 11}B, {sub {Lambda}}{sup 13}C, {sub {Lambda}}{sup 17}O, {sub {Lambda}}{sup 29}Si, etc., should roughly have the same ratio {Gamma}{sub n}/{Gamma}{sub p}, the magnitude of which rapidly increases when one approaches the neutron drip line (N>>Z), and the opposite happens when one goes toward the proton drip line (N<

  2. Relativistic model for the nonmesonic weak decay of single-lambda hypernuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontoura, C. E.; Krmpotić, F.; Galeão, A. P.; De Conti, C.; Krein, G.

    2016-06-01

    Having in mind its future extension for theoretical investigations related to charmed nuclei, we develop a relativistic formalism for the nonmesonic weak decay (NMWD) of single-Λ hypernuclei in the framework of the independent-particle shell model and with the dynamics represented by the (π ,K) one-meson-exchange model. Numerical results for the one-nucleon-induced transition rates of {}{{Λ }}12{{C}} are presented and compared with those obtained in the analogous nonrelativistic calculation. There is satisfactory agreement between the two approaches, and the only noteworthy difference is that the ratio {{{Γ }}}n/{{{Γ }}}p is appreciably higher and closer to the experimental value in the relativistic calculation. The ability of describing existing data, including the most recent ones, on NMWD of Λ-hypernuclei, warrants application of the formalism to evaluate similar decay processes in charmed nuclei.

  3. Experimental Investigation of Weak Non-Mesonic Decay of 10Be(Lambda)Hypernuclei at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    S. Majewski; L. Majling; A. Margaryan; L. Tang

    2005-08-05

    Hypernuclei are convenient laboratory to study the baryon-baryon weak interaction and associated effective Hamiltonian. The strangeness changing process, in which a Lambda hyperon converts to a neutron with a release up to 176 MeV, provides a clear signal for a conversion of an s-quark to a d-quark. We propose to perform a non-mesonic weak decay study of 10Be(Lambda)hypernuclei using the (e,eK) reaction. These investigations will fully utilize the unique parameters of the CEBAF CW electron beam and RF system and are enabled by (1) the use of new detector for alpha particles based on the recently developed RF timing technique with picosecond resolution and (2) the small angle and large acceptance kaon spectrometer-HKS in Hall C.

  4. Nonmesonic weak decay dynamics from proton spectra of Λ-hypernuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krmpotić, Franjo; de Conti, Cláudio

    2014-12-01

    A novel comparison between the data and the theory is proposed for the nonmesonic (NM) weak decay of hypernuclei. Instead of confronting the primary decay rates, as is usually done, we focus our attention on the effective decay rates that are straightforwardly related with the number of emitted particles. Proton kinetic energy spectra of {}5Λ He, {}7Λ Li, {}9Λ Be, {}11Λ B, {}12Λ C, {}13Λ C, {}15Λ N and {}16Λ O, measured by FINUDA, are evaluated theoretically. The independent particle shell model (IPSM) is used as the nuclear structure framework, while the dynamics is described by the one-meson-exchange (OME) potential. Only for the {}5Λ He, {}7Λ Li and {}12Λ C hypernuclei it is possible to make a comparison with the data, since for the rest there is no published experimental information on number of produced hypernuclei. Considering solely the one-nucleon-induced (1N-NM) decay channel, the theory reproduces correctly the shapes of all three spectra at medium and high energies (Ep ≳ 40 MeV). Yet, it greatly overestimates their magnitudes, as well as the corresponding transition rates when the full OME (π + K + η + ρ + ω + K*) model is used. The agreement is much improved when only the π + K mesons with soft dipole cutoff parameters participate in the decay process. We find that the IPSM is a fair first-order approximation to disentangle the dynamics of the 1N-NM decay, the knowledge of which is indispensable to inquire about the baryon-baryon strangeness-flipping interaction. It is shown that the IPSM provides very useful insights regarding the determination the 2N-NM decay rate. In a new analysis of the FINUDA data, we derive two results for this quantity with one of them close to that obtained previously.

  5. Proton energy spectra in the nonmesonic weak decay of 12lambdaC and 28lambdaSi hypernuclei.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, O; Ajimura, S; Aoki, K; Bhang, H; Hasegawa, T; Hotchi, H; Kim, Y D; Kishimoto, T; Maeda, K; Noumi, H; Ohta, Y; Omata, K; Outa, H; Park, H; Sato, Y; Sekimoto, M; Shibata, T; Takahashi, T; Youn, M

    2002-01-28

    Numbers of protons per Gamma hypernuclear weak decay were measured as a function of proton energy above 40 MeV, explicitly identifying production of Gamma hypernuclei by the (pi+,K+) reaction. The ratios between the neutron-stimulated to proton-stimulated nonmesonic decay widths, Gamma((Lambda)n-->nn)/Gamma((Lambda)p-->np) ( = Gamma(n)/Gamma(p)) were extracted by fitting the proton energy spectra. The present result claims that the proton yields are suppressed and the Gamma(n)/Gamma(p) ratios are close to 1 both for 12LambdaC and 28LambdaSi in contradiction to theoretical expectations based on meson exchange models. PMID:11801115

  6. One-nucleon-induced nonmesonic hypernuclear decay in laboratory coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Galeao, A. P.; Barbero, C.; De Conti, C.; Krmpotic, F.

    2013-05-06

    We present a formalism for the computation of one-nucleon-induced nonmesonic weak hypernuclear decay rates in laboratory coordinates, within an independent-particle shell model framework, with a view to its generalization to the case of two-nucleon-induced transitions.

  7. {lambda}(1405)-induced nonmesonic decay in kaonic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Sekihara, T.; Jido, D.; Kanada-En'yo, Y.

    2009-06-15

    Nonmesonic decay of kaonic nuclei is investigated under a {lambda}(1405) doorway picture in which the K absorptions in nuclei take place through the {lambda}(1405) resonance. Calculating {lambda}(1405)N{yields}YN transitions with one-meson exchange, we find that the nonmesonic decay ratio {gamma}{sub {lambda}}{sub N}/{gamma}{sub {sigma}{sup 0}}{sub N} depends strongly on the ratio of the couplings {lambda}(1405)-KN and {lambda}(1405)-{pi}{sigma}. Especially, a larger {lambda}(1405)-KN coupling leads to enhancement of the decay to {lambda}N. Using the chiral unitary approach for description of the KN amplitudes, we obtain {gamma}{sub {lambda}}{sub N}/{gamma}{sub {sigma}{sup 0}}{sub N}{approx_equal}1.2 almost independently of the nucleon density and find the total nonmesonic decay width calculated in uniform nuclear matter to be 22 MeV at the normal density.

  8. Hypernuclear Weak Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itonaga, K.; Motoba, T.

    The recent theoretical studies of Lambda-hypernuclear weak decaysof the nonmesonic and pi-mesonic ones are developed with the aim to disclose the link between the experimental decay observables and the underlying basic weak decay interactions and the weak decay mechanisms. The expressions of the nonmesonic decay rates Gamma_{nm} and the decay asymmetry parameter alpha_1 of protons from the polarized hypernuclei are presented in the shell model framework. We then introduce the meson theoretical Lambda N -> NN interactions which include the one-meson exchanges, the correlated-2pi exchanges, and the chiral-pair-meson exchanges. The features of meson exchange potentials and their roles on the nonmesonic decays are discussed. With the adoption of the pi + 2pi/rho + 2pi/sigma + omega + K + rhopi/a_1 + sigmapi/a_1 exchange potentials, we have carried out the systematic calculations of the nonmesonic decay observables for light-to-heavy hypernuclei. The present model can account for the available experimental data of the decay rates, Gamma_n/Gamma_p ratios, and the intrinsic asymmetry parameters alpha_Lambda (alpha_Lambda is related to alpha_1) of emitted protons well and consistently within the error bars. The hypernuclear lifetimes are evaluated by converting the total weak decay rates Gamma_{tot} = Gamma_pi + Gamma_{nm} to tau, which exhibit saturation property for the hypernuclear mass A ≥ 30 and agree grossly well with experimental data for the mass range from light to heavy hypernuclei except for the very light ones. Future extensions of the model and the remaining problems are also mentioned. The pi-mesonic weak processes are briefly surveyed, and the calculations and predictions are compared and confirmed by the recent high precision FINUDA pi-mesonic decay data. This shows that the theoretical basis seems to be firmly grounded.

  9. [sub Lambda][sup 10]Be and [sub Lambda][sup 10]B hypernuclei: A clue to some puzzles in nonmesonic weak decay

    SciTech Connect

    L. Majling; A. Parreno; Amur Margaryan; Liguang Tang

    2001-12-15

    We demonstrate how the nuclear structure aspects of the problem, an often unwelcome detail of the calculations attempting to understand basic two-body interactions, can be used to pick out components of the effective weak Hamiltonian.

  10. Comparison of nonmesonic hypernuclear decay rates computed in laboratory and center-of-mass coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    De Conti, C.; Barbero, C.; Galeão, A. P.; Krmpotić, F.

    2014-11-11

    In this work we compute the one-nucleon-induced nonmesonic hypernuclear decay rates of {sub Λ}{sup 5}He, {sub Λ}{sup 12}C and {sub Λ}{sup 13}C using a formalism based on the independent particle shell model in terms of laboratory coordinates. To ascertain the correctness and precision of the method, these results are compared with those obtained using a formalism in terms of center-of-mass coordinates, which has been previously reported in the literature. The formalism in terms of laboratory coordinates will be useful in the shell-model approach to two-nucleon-induced transitions.

  11. The weak decay of helium hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Athanas, M.J.

    1992-08-01

    A {Lambda} hyperon replaces a neutron in a nucleus to form a hypernucleus via the {sup A}X(K{sup {minus}}, {pi}{sup {minus}}) {sub {Lambda}}{sup A}X reaction at 750 MeV/c (Brookhaven Experiment 788). The free {Lambda} decay rates {Gamma}({Lambda} {yields} p{pi}{sup {minus}}) and {Gamma}({Lambda} {yields} n{pi}{sup 0}) are diminished due to Pauli blocking; but a non-mesonic decay mode, nucleon stimulated decay N{Lambda} {yields} Nn, is present and is detected via the energetic decay nucleon(s) ({approx} 400MeV/c). Measurements of the various hypernuclear decay rates {Gamma}({Lambda} {yields} p{pi}{sup {minus}}), {Gamma}({Lambda} {yields} n{pi}{sup 0}) and {Gamma}({Lambda}n {yields} nn) provides insight into the strong modification of the weak interaction such as the baryon-baryon {Delta}I ={1/2} rule. The hypernuclear state is isolated by momentum analysis of (K{sup {minus}}, {pi}{sup {minus}}) target reaction. Out-of-beam large volume scintillation detectors and tracking chambers axe used to make particle identification of the hypernuclear decay products by time-of-flight, dE/dx, and range. The kinetic energy of the decay neutrons are measured by time of flight using the large volume 100 element neutron detector system. The hypernuclear lifetime is directly measured using precision scintillator counters and tracking chambers. Measurements of the various decay rates as well as the total lifetime are discussed for {sub {Lambda}}{sup 4}He.

  12. Weak decay of hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, R.

    1983-01-01

    The Moby Dick spectrometer (at BNL) in coincidence with a range spectrometer and a TOF neutron detector will be used to study the weak decay modes of /sup 12/C. The Moby Dick spectrometer will be used to reconstruct and tag events in which specific hypernuclear states are formed in the reaction K/sup -/ + /sup 12/C ..-->.. ..pi../sup -/ + /sup 12/C. Subsequent emission of decay products (pions, protons and neutrons) in coincidence with the fast forward pion will be detected in a time and range spectrometer, and a neutron detector.

  13. Weak radiative baryonic decays of B mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Kohara, Yoji

    2004-11-01

    Weak radiative baryonic B decays B{yields}B{sub 1}B{sub 2}-bar{gamma} are studied under the assumption of the short-distance b{yields}s{gamma} electromagnetic penguin transition dominance. The relations among the decay rates of various decay modes are derived.

  14. Mesonic and nonmesonic absorption of kaon in nuclear matter and {Lambda}(1405) doorway process

    SciTech Connect

    Sekihara, T.; Yamagata-Sekihara, J.; Jido, D.; Kanada-En'yo, Y.

    2010-12-28

    The mesonic and nonmesonic absorptions of kaon into nuclear systems are investigated from a viewpoint of {Lambda}(1405) doorway process. Using a one-meson exchange model in the calculation of the nonmesonic {Lambda}(1405)N{yields}YN transition and using the chiral unitary approach for the description of the {Lambda}(1405), we obtain the nonmesonic transition ratio {Gamma}{sub {Lambda}N}/{Gamma}{sub {Sigma}}{sup 0}{sub N{approx_equal}}1.2 which is almost independent of the nucleon density, and find the total nonmesonic decay width of the {Lambda}(1405) in uniform nuclear matter to be 22 MeV at the normal density. We also calculate the absorption for stopped K{sup -} in nuclear matter, and find that the ''formation rate'' of {Lambda}(1405) is important for the density dependence and the absolute value of the absorption potential of kaon in nuclear matter.

  15. Short range correlations in the weak decay of {Lambda} hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Parreno, A.; Ramos, A.; Oset, E.

    1995-05-01

    The differences found in the relativistic and nonrelativistic methods used in the literature to account for short range nuclear correlations in the decay of {Lambda} hypernuclei are analyzed. By means of a schematic microscopic model for the origin of correlations, the appropriate method to include them in nuclear processes is derived and is found to be the same one used in the nonrelativistic approach. The differences do not stem from relativistic effects but from the improper implementation of the correlations in the relativistic approach, which leads to several pathologies as shown in the paper. General formulas are given to evaluate the nonmesonic decay width of finite hypernuclei and results are obtained for {sub {Lambda}}{sup 5}He and {sub {Lambda}}{sup 12}C.

  16. Constraining weak annihilation using semileptonic D decays

    SciTech Connect

    Ligeti, Zoltan; Luke, Michael; Manohar, Aneesh V.

    2010-08-01

    The recently measured semileptonic D{sub s} decay rate can be used to constrain weak annihilation (WA) effects in semileptonic D and B decays. We revisit the theoretical predictions for inclusive semileptonic D{sub (s)} decays using a variety of quark mass schemes. The most reliable results are obtained if the fits to B decay distributions are used to eliminate the charm quark mass dependence, without using any specific charm mass scheme. Our fit to the available data shows that WA is smaller than commonly assumed. There is no indication that the WA octet contribution (which is better constrained than the singlet contribution) dominates. The results constrain an important source of uncertainty in the extraction of |V{sub ub}| from inclusive semileptonic B decays.

  17. Weak Decays of Excited B Mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinstein, B.; Martin Camalich, J.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the decays of the excited (b q ¯) mesons as probes of the short-distance structure of the weak Δ B =1 transitions. These states are unstable under the electromagnetic or strong interactions, although their widths are typically suppressed by phase space. Compared to the pseudoscalar B meson, the purely leptonic decays of the vector B* are not chirally suppressed and are sensitive to different combinations of the underlying weak effective operators. An interesting example is Bs*→ℓ+ℓ-, which has a rate that can be accurately predicted in the standard model. The branching fraction is B ˜10-11, irrespective of the lepton flavor and where the main uncertainty stems from the unmeasured and theoretically not well known Bs* width. We discuss the prospects for producing this decay mode at the LHC and explore the possibility of measuring the Bs*→ℓℓ amplitude, instead, through scattering experiments at the Bs* resonance peak.

  18. Weak Decays of Excited B Mesons.

    PubMed

    Grinstein, B; Martin Camalich, J

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the decays of the excited (bq[over ¯]) mesons as probes of the short-distance structure of the weak ΔB=1 transitions. These states are unstable under the electromagnetic or strong interactions, although their widths are typically suppressed by phase space. Compared to the pseudoscalar B meson, the purely leptonic decays of the vector B^{*} are not chirally suppressed and are sensitive to different combinations of the underlying weak effective operators. An interesting example is B_{s}^{*}→ℓ^{+}ℓ^{-}, which has a rate that can be accurately predicted in the standard model. The branching fraction is B∼10^{-11}, irrespective of the lepton flavor and where the main uncertainty stems from the unmeasured and theoretically not well known B_{s}^{*} width. We discuss the prospects for producing this decay mode at the LHC and explore the possibility of measuring the B_{s}^{*}→ℓℓ amplitude, instead, through scattering experiments at the B_{s}^{*} resonance peak. PMID:27104698

  19. Penguin diagram dominance in radiative weak decays of bottom baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Kohara, Yoji

    2005-05-01

    Radiative weak decays of antitriplet bottom baryons are studied under the assumption of penguin diagram dominance and flavor-SU(3) (or SU(2)) symmetry. Relations among decay rates of various decay modes are derived.

  20. Weak decay studies from an effective theory standpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yechan Gunja, Aditya

    In this doctoral dissertation I discuss the phenomenology of some weak interaction decays using a model independent approach by employing effective field theories. I discuss the soft photon contribution and background effect to the rare dimuonic decay of the neutral B meson. I also study some radiative exclusive W boson decays in the standard model in the context of pQCD and SCET. Additionally I invoke leptonic decays of charged mesons to constrain two general models of light dark matter.

  1. Nonleptonic weak decays of charmed mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccella, F.; Lusignoli, M.; Miele, G.; Pugliese, A.; Santorelli, P.

    1995-04-01

    A previous analysis of two-body Cabibbo-allowed nonleptonic decays of D0 mesons and of Cabibbo-allowed and first-forbidden decays of D+ and D+s has been adjourned using more recent experimental data and extended to the Cabibbo-forbidden decays of D0. Annihilation and W-exchange contributions as well as final state interaction effects (assumed to be dominated by nearby resonances) have been included and are in fact crucial to obtain a reasonable agreement with the experimental data, which show large flavor SU(3) violations. New fitting parameters are necessary to describe rescattering effects for Cabibbo-forbidden D0 decays, given the lack of experimental information on isoscalar resonances. We keep their number to a minimum, three, using phenomenologically based considerations. We also discuss CP-violating asymmetries.

  2. On weak decays of heavy flavors, mixing and CP violation

    SciTech Connect

    Bigi, I.I.

    1987-10-01

    Detailed studies of weak decays serve not only to confirm the Standard Model, but possess also a high sensitivity to New Physics: tau and top decays are discussed in this vein, with some short remarks on beauty and charm. The sensitivity to New Physics is even higher in delicate phenomena like mixing and CP violation: a fairly detailed discussion on K/sup 0/ - anti K/sup 0/, D/sup 0/ - anti D/sup 0/, and B/sup 0/ - anti B/sup 0/ mixing and on CP violation in K/sup 0/ and B decays is presented. 48 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Weak annihilation and new physics in charmless decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobeth, Christoph; Gorbahn, Martin; Vickers, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    We use currently available data of nonleptonic charmless 2-body decays () that are mediated by QCD- and QED-penguin operators to study weak annihilation and new-physics effects in the framework of QCD factorization. In particular we introduce one weak-annihilation parameter for decays related by quark interchange and test this universality assumption. Within the standard model, the data supports this assumption with the only exceptions in the system, which exhibits the well-known " puzzle", and some tensions in . Beyond the standard model, we simultaneously determine weak-annihilation and new-physics parameters from data, employing model-independent scenarios that address the " puzzle", such as QED-penguins and current-current operators. We discuss also possibilities that allow further tests of our assumption once improved measurements from LHCb and Belle II become available.

  4. Probing the Goldstone equivalence theorem in heavy weak doublet decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Bhaskar; Gao, Yu; Sanford, David; Walker, Joel W.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the decays from heavy Higgsino-like weak doublets into Z , h bosons and missing particles. When pair-produced at the LHC, the subsequent Z , h →ℓℓ , b b ¯ decays in the doublet decay cascade can yield 4 ℓ , 2 ℓ2 b and 4 b + E T+j (s ) final states. Mutual observation of any two of these channels would provide information on the associated doublets' decay branching fractions into a Z or h , thereby probing the Goldstone equivalence relation, shedding additional light on the Higgs sector of beyond the Standard Model theories and facilitating the discrimination of various contending models, in turn. We compare the Z /h decay ratio expected in the minimal supersymmetric model, the next-to-minimal supersymmetric model (NMSSM)and a minimal singlet-doublet dark matter model. Additionally, we conduct a full Monte Carlo analysis of the prospects for detecting the targeted final states during 14 TeV running of the LHC in the context of a representative NMSSM benchmark model.

  5. Heavy-flavor-conserving hadronic weak decays of heavy baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hai-Yang; Cheung, Chi-Yee; Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Yeu-Chung; Yan, Tung-Mow; Yu, Hoi-Lai

    2016-03-01

    More than two decades ago, we studied heavy-flavor-conserving weak decays of heavy baryons within the framework that incorporates both heavy-quark and chiral symmetries. In view of the first observation of Ξ b - → Λ b 0 π - by LHCb recently, we have reexamined these decays and presented updated predictions. The predicted rates for Ξ b - → Λ b 0 π - in the MIT bag and diquark models are consistent with experiment. The major theoretical uncertainty stems from the evaluation of baryon matrix elements. The branching fraction of Ξ c → Λ c π is predicted to be of order 10-4. It is suppressed relative to {B}({Ξ}_bto {Λ}_bπ ) owing to the shorter lifetime of Ξ c relative to Ξ b and the destructive nonspectator W-exchange contribution. The kinematically accessible weak decays of the sextet heavy baryon Ω Q are Ω Q → Ξ Q π. Due to the absence of the {{B}}_6-{{B}}{_3-} transition in the heavy quark limit and the {{B}}_6-{{B}}_6 transition in the model calculations, Ω Q → Ξ Q π vanish in the heavy quark limit.

  6. Model independent predictions for rare top decays with weak coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Alakabha; Duraisamy, Murugeswaran

    2010-04-01

    Measurements at B factories have provided important constraints on new physics in several rare processes involving the B meson. New physics, if present in the b quark sector may also affect the top sector. In an effective Lagrangian approach, we write down operators, where effects in the bottom and the top sector are related. Assuming the couplings of the operators to be of the same size as the weak coupling g of the standard model and taking into account constraints on new physics from the bottom sector as well as top branching ratios, we make predictions for the rare top decays t{yields}cV, where V={gamma}, Z. We find branching fractions for these decays within possible reach of the LHC. Predictions are also made for t{yields}sW.

  7. Growth and decay of weak shock waves in magnetogasdynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, L. P.; Singh, D. B.; Ram, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the problem of the propagation of weak shock waves in an inviscid, electrically conducting fluid under the influence of a magnetic field. The analysis assumes the following two cases: (1) a planar flow with a uniform transverse magnetic field and (2) cylindrically symmetric flow with a uniform axial or varying azimuthal magnetic field. A system of two coupled nonlinear transport equations, governing the strength of a shock wave and the first-order discontinuity induced behind it, are derived that admit a solution that agrees with the classical decay laws for a weak shock. An analytic expression for the determination of the shock formation distance is obtained. How the magnetic field strength, whether axial or azimuthal, influences the shock formation is also assessed.

  8. Weak decays of heavy hadrons into dynamically generated resonances

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Oset, Eulogio; Liang, Wei -Hong; Bayar, Melahat; Xie, Ju -Jun; Dai, Lian Rong; Albaladejo, Miguel; Nielsen, Marina; Sekihara, Takayasu; Navarra, Fernando; Roca, Luis; et al

    2016-01-28

    In this study, we present a review of recent works on weak decay of heavy mesons and baryons with two mesons, or a meson and a baryon, interacting strongly in the final state. The aim is to learn about the interaction of hadrons and how some particular resonances are produced in the reactions. It is shown that these reactions have peculiar features and act as filters for some quantum numbers which allow to identify easily some resonances and learn about their nature. The combination of basic elements of the weak interaction with the framework of the chiral unitary approach allowmore » for an interpretation of results of many reactions and add a novel information to different aspects of the hadron interaction and the properties of dynamically generated resonances.« less

  9. Indirect evidences for existence of exotic mesons in hadronic weak decays of K and charm mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Terasaki, K.

    1998-05-29

    It is demonstrated that hadronic weak decays of K and charm mesons are intimately related to hadron spectroscopy. Long standing puzzles in hadronic weak decays of charm mesons can be solved by taking account of dynamical contributions of various hadrons including non-qq-bar mesons.

  10. Electro-Weak Penguin and Leptonic Decays in BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Di Lodovico, F.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2005-09-08

    Electro-weak penguin and leptonic decays provide an indirect probe for physics beyond the Standard Model and contribute to the determination of Standard Model parameters. Copious quantities of B mesons produced at the B-Factories permit precision measurements of the electro-weak penguin decays and searches for leptonic decays. We review the current experimental status of b {yields} s(d){gamma}, B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0}{gamma}, b {yields} s{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} and finally B{sup +} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{nu}{sub {tau}} decays at BABAR.

  11. Freely Decaying Weak Turbulence for Sea Surface Gravity Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onorato, M.; Osborne, A. R.; Serio, M.; Resio, D.; Pushkarev, A.; Zakharov, V. E.; Brandini, C.

    2002-09-01

    We study the long-time evolution of deep-water ocean surface waves in order to better understand the behavior of the nonlinear interaction processes that need to be accurately predicted in numerical models of wind-generated ocean surface waves. Of particular interest are those nonlinear interactions which are predicted by weak turbulence theory to result in a wave energy spectrum of the form of |k|-2.5. We numerically implement the primitive Euler equations for surface waves and demonstrate agreement between weak turbulence theory and the numerical results.

  12. Freely decaying weak turbulence for sea surface gravity waves.

    PubMed

    Onorato, M; Osborne, A R; Serio, M; Resio, D; Pushkarev, A; Zakharov, V E; Brandini, C

    2002-09-30

    We study the long-time evolution of deep-water ocean surface waves in order to better understand the behavior of the nonlinear interaction processes that need to be accurately predicted in numerical models of wind-generated ocean surface waves. Of particular interest are those nonlinear interactions which are predicted by weak turbulence theory to result in a wave energy spectrum of the form of [k](-2.5). We numerically implement the primitive Euler equations for surface waves and demonstrate agreement between weak turbulence theory and the numerical results. PMID:12366050

  13. Freely Decaying Weak Turbulence For Sea Surface Gravity Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onorato, M.; Osborne, A.; Resio, D.; Pushkarev, A.; Zakharov, V.; Serio, M.; Brandini, C.

    We study numerically the generation of power laws in the framework of weak turbu- lence theory for surface gravity waves in deep water. Starting from a random wave field, we let the system evolve numerically according to the nonlinear Euler equations for gravity waves in infinitely deep water. In agreement with the theory of Zakharov and Filonenko, we find the formation of a power spectrum characterized by a power law of the form of |k|-2 . .5

  14. Longitudinal vector form factors in weak decays of nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Šimkovic, F.; Kovalenko, S.; Krivoruchenko, M. I.

    2015-10-28

    The longitudinal form factors of the weak vector current of particles with spin J = 1/2 and isospin I = 1/2 are determined by the mass difference and the charge radii of members of the isotopic doublets. The most promising reactions to measure these form factors are the reactions with large momentum transfers involving the spin-1/2 isotopic doublets with a maximum mass splitting. Numerical estimates of longitudinal form factors are given for nucleons and eight nuclear spin-1/2 isotopic doublets.

  15. Atomic alchemy: Weak decays of muonic and pionic atoms into other atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Greub, C.; Wyler, D.; Brodsky, S.J.; Munger, C.T.

    1995-10-01

    The rates of weak transitions between electromagnetic bound states, for example, ({pi}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}}){r_arrow}({mu}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}}){nu}{sub {mu}}, and the exclusive weak decay of a muonic atom into an electronic atom, ({ital Z}{mu}{sup {minus}}){r_arrow}({ital Ze}{sup {minus}}){nu}{sub {mu}}{bar {nu}}{sub {ital e}}, are calculated. For {ital Z}=80, relativistic effects are shown to increase the latter rate by a factor of 50 compared to the results of a nonrelativistic calculation. It is argued that the conditions for producing the muonic decay in neon gas ({ital Z}=10), where the branching ratio for the decay per captured muon is 1.7{times}10{sup {minus}9}, can be realized using cyclotron traps, though the prospect for a practical experiment seems remote. In lead the same ratio would be approximately {similar_to}1{times}10{sup {minus}6}. In addition to providing detailed information on the high momentum tail of the wave functions in atomic physics, these decays of QED bound states provide a simple toy model for investigating kinematically analogous situations in exclusive heavy hadronic decays in quantum chromodynamics, such as {ital B}{r_arrow}{ital K}{sup *}{gamma} or {ital B}{r_arrow}{pi}{ital e}{nu}.

  16. Experimental Limits on Weak Annihilation Contributions to b{yields}ul{nu} Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Rosner, J.L.; Adam, N.E.; Alexander, J.P.; Berkelman, K.; Cassel, D.G.; Duboscq, J.E.; Ecklund, K.M.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Hertz, D.; Jones, C.D.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D.L.; Kuznetsov, V.E.; Mahlke-Krueger, H.

    2006-03-31

    We present the first experimental limits on high-q{sup 2} contributions to charmless semileptonic B decays of the form expected from the weak annihilation (WA) decay mechanism. Such contributions could bias determinations of vertical bar V{sub ub} vertical bar from inclusive measurements of B{yields}X{sub u}l{nu}. Using a wide range of models based on available theoretical input we set a limit of {gamma}{sub WA}/{gamma}{sub b{yields}}{sub u}<7.4% (90% confidence level) on the WA fraction, and assess the impact on previous inclusive determinations of vertical bar V{sub ub} vertical bar.

  17. Weakness

    MedlinePlus

    Lack of strength; Muscle weakness ... feel weak but have no real loss of strength. This is called subjective weakness. It may be ... flu. Or, you may have a loss of strength that can be noted on a physical exam. ...

  18. Lorentz structure of weak current in ν interactions and inverse muon decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sanjib R.

    1991-04-01

    Neutrino interactions uniquely convey the Lorentz structure of weak current. Two studies that probe this structure are reviewed: structure functions from νμ -and ν μ - induced charged current events; and the inverse muon decay process, νμ+e -→ μ-+ νe. In the first study, the relative absence of νμ-induced charged current events with respect to νμ-induced events at large z (> 0.45) and large y (> 0.70) (investigated by CDHS and CCFR) restricts |η| 2 = |g R/g L| 2 < 0.0015 with 90 % CL (CCFR). Within the framework of left-right symmetric models, this measurement imposes a limit upon the mixing angle of the left and right handed bosons. Unlike the limits imposed by the μ-decay and the nuclear β-decay experiments, the present limit is valid irrespective of the mass of the right handed neutrino. In the second study, recent high statistics measurements of inverse muon decay by CCFR and CHARM II yield a total cross section, σ( νμ+e -→ μ-+ νe) = (17.3±0.72(stat)±0.39(syst)]E ν10 -42 cm 2/GeV. This restricts the scalar coupling of the muon | gLLS| < 0.25 with 90% CL.

  19. Evidence for the Strangeness-Changing Weak Decay Ξ_{b}^{-}→Λ_{b}^{0}π^{-}.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Abellán Beteta, C; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Demmer, M; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Di Ruscio, F; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fohl, K; Fol, P; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, X; Loh, D; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G

    2015-12-11

    Using a pp collision data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0  fb^{-1}, collected by the LHCb detector, we present the first search for the strangeness-changing weak decay Ξ_{b}^{-}→Λ_{b}^{0}π^{-}. No b hadron decay of this type has been seen before. A signal for this decay, corresponding to a significance of 3.2 standard deviations, is reported. The relative rate is measured to be f_{Ξ_{b}^{-}}/f_{Λ_{b}^{0}}B(Ξ_{b}^{-}→Λ_{b}^{0}π^{-})=(5.7±1.8_{-0.9}^{+0.8})×10^{-4},where f_{Ξ_{b}^{-}} and f_{Λ_{b}^{0}} are the b→Ξ_{b}^{-} and b→Λ_{b}^{0} fragmentation fractions, and B(Ξ_{b}^{-}→Λ_{b}^{0}π^{-}) is the branching fraction. Assuming f_{Ξ_{b}^{-}}/f_{Λ_{b}^{0}} is bounded between 0.1 and 0.3, the branching fraction B(Ξ_{b}^{-}→Λ_{b}^{0}π^{-}) would lie in the range from (0.57±0.21)% to (0.19±0.07)%. PMID:26705625

  20. Evidence for the Strangeness-Changing Weak Decay Ξb-→Λb0π-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellán Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianı, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zucchelli, S.; LHCb Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    Using a p p collision data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb-1 , collected by the LHCb detector, we present the first search for the strangeness-changing weak decay Ξb-→Λb0π-. No b hadron decay of this type has been seen before. A signal for this decay, corresponding to a significance of 3.2 standard deviations, is reported. The relative rate is measured to be f/Ξb- fΛb0 B (Ξb-→Λb0π-)=(5.7 ±1. 8-0.9+0.8)×10-4, where fΞb- and fΛb0 are the b →Ξb- and b →Λb0 fragmentation fractions, and B (Ξb-→Λb0π-) is the branching fraction. Assuming fΞb-/fΛb0 is bounded between 0.1 and 0.3, the branching fraction B (Ξb-→Λb0π-) would lie in the range from (0.57 ±0.21 )% to (0.19 ±0.07 )%.

  1. The Decay of a Weak Large-scale Magnetic Field in Two-dimensional Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondić, Todor; Hughes, David W.; Tobias, Steven M.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the decay of a large-scale magnetic field in the context of incompressible, two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. It is well established that a very weak mean field, of strength significantly below equipartition value, induces a small-scale field strong enough to inhibit the process of turbulent magnetic diffusion. In light of ever-increasing computer power, we revisit this problem to investigate fluids and magnetic Reynolds numbers that were previously inaccessible. Furthermore, by exploiting the relation between the turbulent diffusion of the magnetic potential and that of the magnetic field, we are able to calculate the turbulent magnetic diffusivity extremely accurately through the imposition of a uniform mean magnetic field. We confirm the strong dependence of the turbulent diffusivity on the product of the magnetic Reynolds number and the energy of the large-scale magnetic field. We compare our findings with various theoretical descriptions of this process.

  2. Weak {gamma}-transition intensities in the electron capture decay of {sup 144}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.J.; Altgilbers, A.S.; Hindi, M.M.; Norman, E.B.; Larimer, R.

    1996-09-01

    We have determined the absolute intensity of weak {gamma} transitions in the level scheme of {sup 144}Nd, observed following the electron capture decay of {sup 144}Pm. The absolute intensity of the 1397-keV {ital E}3 branch from the 2093-keV (5{sub 1}{sup {minus}}) level was determined to be (4.9 {plus_minus} 0.7) {times} 10{sup {minus}4}{percent}. This leads to a revised absolute transition rate of {ital B}({ital E}3;5{sub 1}{sup {minus}}{r_arrow}2{sup +}{sub 1})=26{sub {minus}12}{sup +15} Weisskopf units, which is still consistent with an interpretation of the 5{sub 1}{sup {minus}} level based on quadrupole-octupole coupling. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  3. Forbidden nonunique β decays and effective values of weak coupling constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaranen, M.; Srivastava, P. C.; Suhonen, J.

    2016-03-01

    Forbidden nonunique β decays feature shape functions that are complicated combinations of different nuclear matrix elements and phase-space factors. Furthermore, they depend in a very nontrivial way on the values of the weak coupling constants, gV for the vector part and gA for the axial-vector part. In this work we include also the usually omitted second-order terms in the shape functions to see their effect on the computed decay half-lives and electron spectra (β spectra). As examples we study the fourth-forbidden nonunique ground-state-to-ground-state β- decay branches of 113Cd and 115In using the microscopic quasiparticle-phonon model and the nuclear shell model. A striking new feature that is reported in this paper is that the calculated shape of the β spectrum is quite sensitive to the values of gV and gA and hence comparison of the calculated with the measured spectrum shape opens a way to determine the values of these coupling constants. This article is designed to show the power of this comparison, coined spectrum-shape method (SSM), by studying the two exemplary β transitions within two different nuclear-structure frameworks. While the SSM seems to confine the gV values close to the canonical value gV=1.0 , the values of gA extracted from the half-life data and by the SSM emerge contradictory in the present calculations. This calls for improved nuclear-structure calculations and more measured data to systematically employ SSM for determination of the effective value of gA in the future.

  4. On the spatial asymptotic decay of a suitable weak solution to the Navier-Stokes Cauchy problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crispo, F.; Maremonti, P.

    2016-04-01

    We prove space-time decay estimates of suitable weak solutions to the Navier-Stokes Cauchy problem, corresponding to a given asymptotic behavior of the initial data of the same order of decay. We use two main tools. The first is a result obtained in [7] for the behavior of the solution in a neighborhood of t  =  0 in the L\\text{loc}∞ -norm, which enables us to furnish a representation formula for a suitable weak solution. The second is the asymptotic behavior of \\parallel u(t){{\\parallel}{{L2}≤ft({{{R}}3}\\backslash {{B}R}\\right)}} for R\\to ∞ . Following Leray’s point of view, roughly speaking our result proves that a possible space-time turbulence does not perturb the asymptotic spatial behavior of the initial data of a suitable weak solution.

  5. Strong, weak and electromagnetic forces at work in atomic nuclei, decay properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzoni, G.

    2016-04-01

    A survey of basic properties of the decay of unstable nuclei is here presented, with a focus on α and β decay. An overview of basic properties and the description of few examples of recently measured decays in exotic nuclei are given in the lecture.

  6. Interplay of particle, nuclear and atomic physics in rare weak decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhonen, Jouni

    2010-11-01

    The neutrinoless double beta decays of atomic nuclei are considered at the present the most viable way to access the fundamenntal nature and absolute mass scale of the neutrino. Recently one sub-class of these decays, the neutrinoless double electron capture (0νECEC), has attracted a lot of attention due to its potential of detection. In particular, the resonant 0νECEC is of interest owing to the possible huge enhancement of the corresponding decay rate by a resonance condition. At present the mass differences of the involved atom pairs are being measured by the Penning trap technique for several potential resonant 0νECEC decays. By evaluating the associated nuclear matrix elements using nuclear-structure models one can access the half-lives of these decays and thus predict their detection potential in underground experiments in the future. The absolute mass scale of the neutrino can also be accessed through beta decays of small decay energy. In these cases the effects of atomic origin may introduce non-negligible, even dramatic effects for Q values in the regime of few hundreds of eV and below.

  7. Long-distance weak annihilation contribution to the B±→(π±,K±)ℓ+ℓ- decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, A.; López Castro, G.; Roig, P.; Tostado, S. L.

    2015-09-01

    We propose an alternative evaluation of the long-distance weak annihilation (WA, also called one-photon exchange in this paper) contribution to the rare semileptonic B±→(π±,K±)ℓ+ℓ-(ℓ=e,μ) decays. This hadronic description at low energies is matched at intermediate energies to its short-distance counterpart in terms of quark and gluon degrees of freedom. Although the WA contribution does not contribute to solve the possible breaking of lepton universality observed by LHCb in the B±→K± (μ+μ-/e+e-) ratio, nor does it provide an important hadronic contamination to their decay rates, its contribution to the branching ratios (and direct C P asymmetry) of the B±→π±ℓ+ ℓ- transitions turns out to be significant. This hadronic pollution should be taken into account when looking for new physics effects in decays into pions, which suggests to restrict these searches to squared lepton-pair invariant mass in the (1 ,8 ) GeV 2 range. The interference of the one-photon exchange contribution with the dominant short-distance one-loop amplitude induces a sizable C P asymmetry in these rare decays, which calls for dedicated measurements.

  8. Search for the a0(980)-f0(980) mixing in weak decays of Ds/Bs mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Scalar mesons a00 (980) and f0 (980) can mix with each other through isospin violating effects, and the mixing intensity has been predicted at the percent level in various theoretical models. However the mixing has not been firmed established on the experimental side to date. In this work we explore the possibility to extract the a0-f0 mixing intensity using weak decays of heavy mesons: Ds → [π0 η ,π+π- ]e+ ν, Bs → [π0 η ,π+π- ]ℓ+ℓ- and the Bs → J / ψ [π0 η ,π+π- ] decays. Based on the large amount of data accumulated by various experimental facilities including BEPC-II, LHC, Super KEKB and the future colliders, we find that the a0-f0 mixing intensity might be determined to a high precision, which will lead to a better understanding of the nature of scalar mesons.

  9. Weak decay processes in pre-supernova core evolution within the gross theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, R. C.; Dimarco, A. J.; Samana, A. R.; Barbero, C. A.

    2014-03-20

    The beta decay and electron capture rates are of fundamental importance in the evolution of massive stars in a pre-supernova core. The beta decay process gives its contribution by emitting electrons in the plasma of the stellar core, thereby increasing pressure, which in turn increases the temperature. From the other side, the electron capture removes free electrons from the plasma of the star core contributing to the reduction of pressure and temperature. In this work we calculate the beta decay and electron capture rates in stellar conditions for 63 nuclei of relevance in the pre-supernova stage, employing Gross Theory as the nuclear model. We use the abundances calculated with the Saha equations in the hypothesis of nuclear statistical equilibrium to evaluate the time derivative of the fraction of electrons. Our results are compared with other evaluations available in the literature. They have shown to be one order less or equal than the calculated within other models. Our results indicate that these differences may influence the evolution of the star in the later stages of pre-supernova.

  10. Scalar mesons in weak semileptonic decays of B{sub (s)}

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuming; Lue Caidian; Aslam, M. Jamil

    2008-07-01

    The transition form factors of B{sub (s)}{yields}S, with S denoting a scalar meson, are investigated in the light-cone sum rules approach. The numerical values are approximately twice the number estimated in the light-front quark model and QCD sum rules approach. Using these form factors, we present the analysis of the decay rates for B{yields}a{sub 0}(1450)l{nu}{sub l}, B{yields}K{sub 0}*(1430)ll, B{sub s}{yields}K{sub 0}*(1430)l{nu}{sub l}, and B{sub s}{yields}f{sub 0}(1500)ll with l=e, {mu}, {tau}. The results indicate that magnitudes of BR(B{sub 0}{yields}a{sub 0}(1450)l{nu}{sub l}) and BR(B{sub s}{yields}K{sub 0}*(1430)l{nu}{sub l}) arrive at the order of 10{sup -4}, which can be measured in future experiments to clarify the inner structure of scalar mesons. It is also observed that BR(B{yields}K{sub 0}*(1430){tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -}) and BR(B{sub s}{yields}f{sub 0}(1500){tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -}) are an order of magnitude smaller than the corresponding channels of e{sup +}e{sup -} and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} final states due to the heavily suppressed phase space. Moreover, the longitudinal lepton polarization asymmetry for B{yields}K{sub 0}*(1430)ll and B{sub s}{yields}f{sub 0}(1500)ll are also investigated, whose values are close to -1 for the e{sup +}e{sup -} and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} pair except for the region close to the endpoints.

  11. The Crucial Role of Neutron β-DECAY Experiments in Establishing the Fundamental Symmetries of the V-A Description of Weak Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, J.

    2011-03-01

    Experimental data from unpolarized and polarized neutron beta -decay yield accurate values for the basic parameters of the P-violating T-conserving charged current weak interaction, thereby posing a potentially stringent unitarity test of the CKM quark mixing matrix. Experimental studies of the radiative (BR ~3.10-3) and two-body (BR ~ 4.10-6) decay branches are currently in progress.

  12. Identification of ultra-fine magnetic particles in weakly magnetic carbonates using time-decay of viscous remanence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadima, M.; Chadimova, L.

    2015-12-01

    In some geological and environmental processes, such as diagenesis, very low grade metamorphism, pedogenesis, anthropogenic pollution, new ultra-fine magnetic minerals may be formed. The variation in content of these minerals has been routinely investigated by frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility. Although being quite reliable for most rocks, frequency-dependent susceptibility reaches its limit when applied to very weakly magnetic rock types, e.g. carbonates. Assuming a broad size distribution of the ultra-fine magnetic particles spanning across the SP/SSD boundary we suggest assessing their content by quantification of time-decay of viscous remanent magnetization. Using artificially-imparted magnetization we usually obtain much stronger signal compared to that of magnetic susceptibility. For that purpose we employed a LDA5/PAM1 Pulse Magnetizer coupled with a JR6 Spinner Magnetometer (both manufactured by Agico, Inc.). Both instruments are simultaneously controlled thus they work in the same time frame. Magnetic remanence is measured repeatedly as a function of time and exponential decay curves are fitted on the acquired data and the relative ratio of viscous and non-viscous particles is estimated. The proposed method is tested on two sets of samples representing biostratigraphically well-established sections across Silurian shallow-water limestone facies in the Prague Synform (Czech Republic). Sampling interval comprises so-called Lau Event which belongs to one of the major environmental and biological perturbances in the Phanerozoic Ocean. This level is also associated with very strong geochemical changes, so-called global Middle Ludfordian Carbon Isotope Excursion, recognized in numerous areas worldwide. Other geophysical methods applied include high-resolution magnetic susceptibility measurements and gamma-ray spectrometry, supplemented by rock magnetic measurements (ARM/IRM) and frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility.

  13. Updated Next-to-Next-to-Leading-Order QCD Predictions for the Weak Radiative B-Meson Decays.

    PubMed

    Misiak, M; Asatrian, H M; Boughezal, R; Czakon, M; Ewerth, T; Ferroglia, A; Fiedler, P; Gambino, P; Greub, C; Haisch, U; Huber, T; Kamiński, M; Ossola, G; Poradziński, M; Rehman, A; Schutzmeier, T; Steinhauser, M; Virto, J

    2015-06-01

    Weak radiative decays of the B mesons belong to the most important flavor changing processes that provide constraints on physics at the TeV scale. In the derivation of such constraints, accurate standard model predictions for the inclusive branching ratios play a crucial role. In the current Letter we present an update of these predictions, incorporating all our results for the O(α_{s}^{2}) and lower-order perturbative corrections that have been calculated after 2006. New estimates of nonperturbative effects are taken into account, too. For the CP- and isospin-averaged branching ratios, we find B_{sγ}=(3.36±0.23)×10^{-4} and B_{dγ}=(1.73_{-0.22}^{+0.12})×10^{-5}, for E_{γ}>1.6 GeV. Both results remain in agreement with the current experimental averages. Normalizing their sum to the inclusive semileptonic branching ratio, we obtain R_{γ}≡(B_{sγ}+B_{dγ})/B_{cℓν}=(3.31±0.22)×10^{-3}. A new bound from B_{sγ} on the charged Higgs boson mass in the two-Higgs-doublet-model II reads M_{H^{±}}>480 GeV at 95% C.L. PMID:26196614

  14. Updated Next-to-Next-to-Leading-Order QCD Predictions for the Weak Radiative B -Meson Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiak, M.; Asatrian, H. M.; Boughezal, R.; Czakon, M.; Ewerth, T.; Ferroglia, A.; Fiedler, P.; Gambino, P.; Greub, C.; Haisch, U.; Huber, T.; Kamiński, M.; Ossola, G.; Poradziński, M.; Rehman, A.; Schutzmeier, T.; Steinhauser, M.; Virto, J.

    2015-06-01

    Weak radiative decays of the B mesons belong to the most important flavor changing processes that provide constraints on physics at the TeV scale. In the derivation of such constraints, accurate standard model predictions for the inclusive branching ratios play a crucial role. In the current Letter we present an update of these predictions, incorporating all our results for the O (αs2) and lower-order perturbative corrections that have been calculated after 2006. New estimates of nonperturbative effects are taken into account, too. For the C P - and isospin-averaged branching ratios, we find Bs γ=(3.36 ±0.23 )×10-4 and Bd γ=(1.7 3-0.22+0.12) ×10-5 , for Eγ>1.6 GeV . Both results remain in agreement with the current experimental averages. Normalizing their sum to the inclusive semileptonic branching ratio, we obtain Rγ≡(Bs γ+Bd γ) /Bc ℓν=(3.31 ±0.22 )×10-3 . A new bound from Bs γ on the charged Higgs boson mass in the two-Higgs-doublet-model II reads MH±>480 GeV at 95% C.L.

  15. Alpha particles accompanying the weak decay of {sub {lambda}}{sup 10}Be and {sub {lambda}}{sup 10}B hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Majling, L. Kuzmin, V. A. Tetereva, T. V.

    2006-05-15

    The possibility of a detailed investigation of weak {lambda}N interaction in the {sub {lambda}}{sup 10}Be and {sub {lambda}}{sub /10}B hypernuclei, which stand out owing to their {alpha}{alpha}N{lambda} cluster structure, is discussed. The detection of a few groups of correlated {alpha}{alpha} pairs will furnish information about decays to specific states of product nuclei ({sup 8}Be*, {sup 8}Li, {sup 8}B), thereby paving the way to a phenomenological analysis of the weak decays of p-shell hypernuclei. The ratios of the intensities of individual alpha-particle groups to be measured in experiments at the cyclotron of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna) will provide a useful criterion for choosing an appropriate model of weak {lambda}N interaction. The current state of hypernuclear physics is briefly reviewed.

  16. Weak decays of H-like {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+} and He-like {sup 140}Pr{sup 57+} ions

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A. N.; Faber, M.; Reda, R.; Kienle, P.

    2008-08-15

    The nuclear K-shell electron-capture (EC) and positron ({beta}{sup +}) decay constants, {lambda}{sub EC} and {lambda}{sub {beta}{sup +}} of H-like {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+} and He-like {sup 140}Pr{sup 57+} ions, measured recently in the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI, were calculated using standard weak interaction theory. The calculated ratios R={lambda}{sub EC}/{lambda}{sub {beta}{sup +}} of the decay constants agree with the experimental values within an accuracy better than 3%.

  17. Weak-interaction strength from charge-exchange reactions versus {beta} decay in the A=40 isoquintet

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, M.; Goodman, C. D.; Garcia, A.

    2009-11-15

    We report a measurement of the Gamow-Teller (GT) strength distribution for {sup 40}Ar{yields}{sup 40}K using the 0 deg. (p,n) reaction. The measurement extends observed GT strength distribution in the A=40 system up to an excitation energy of {approx}8 MeV. In comparing our results with those from the {beta} decay of the isospin mirror nucleus {sup 40}Ti, we find that, within the excitation energy region probed by the {beta}-decay experiment, we observe a total GT strength that is in fair agreement with the {beta}-decay measurement. However, we find that the relative strength of the two strongest transitions differs by a factor of {approx}1.8 in comparing our results from (p,n) reactions with the {beta} decay of {sup 40}Ti. Using our results we present the neutrino-capture cross section for {sup 40}Ar.

  18. B meson weak decays to J/ψ - f0(500) (f0(980), ρ, ω, ϕ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayar, M.; Liang, W. H.; Oset, E.

    2016-05-01

    In this talk we review recent results on the B¯ 0 and B¯s 0 decays into J/ψ f0 (980), J/ψ f0 (500), and J/ψ κ(800). In addition, we summarize the decay of these B states into J/ψ and a vector meson, ρ, ω, ϕ, K*0, K¯*0 . We obtained a remarkable agreement with experimental results which range over several orders of magnitude.

  19. Nonleptonic B{sub s} to charmonium decays: Analysis in pursuit of determining the weak phase {beta}{sub s}

    SciTech Connect

    Colangelo, Pietro; De Fazio, Fulvia; Wang Wei

    2011-05-01

    We analyze nonleptonic B{sub s} decays to a charmonium state and a light meson, induced by the b{yields}ccs transition, which are useful to access the B{sub s}-B{sub s} mixing phase {beta}{sub s}. We use generalized factorization and SU(3){sub F} symmetry to relate such modes to correspondent B decay channels. We discuss the feasibility of the measurements in the various channels, stressing the importance of comparing different determinations of {beta}{sub s} in view of the hints of new physics effects recently emerged in the B{sub s} sector. Finally, adopting a general parametrization of new physics contributions to the decay amplitudes, we discuss how to experimentally constrain new physics parameters.

  20. Determining the weak phase γ using the decays Bd, B+-->Kη(η') and Bs-->πη(η')

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashe, K.; Deshpande, N. G.

    1999-05-01

    We suggest two methods (based on flavor SU(3) symmetry) to determine the CKM angle γ using the decays Bd, B+-->Kη(η') and Bs-->πη(η'), respectively. Rescattering effects are partly included - we neglect annihilation amplitudes, but do not assume any other relation between the SU(3) invariant amplitudes. We use the fact that the amplitude (including the Electroweak Penguin contribution) for Bd, B+-->πK with final state I(isospin)=3/2 is known as a function of γ from the decay rate B+-->π0π+.

  1. The Observation of the Weak Radiative Hyperon Decay XI0 ---> Lambda0 pi0 gamma at KTeV/E799, Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Ping, Huican

    2005-01-01

    The large sample of {Xi}{sup 0} hyperons available at KTeV 799 provides an opportunity to search for the Weak Radiative Hyperon Decay {Xi}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}. They present a branching fraction measurement of {Xi}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma} based on the E799-II experiment data-taking in 1999 at KTeV, Fermilab. They used the principal decay of {Xi}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} where {Lambda} decays to a proton and a {pi}{sup -} as the flux normalization mode. This is the first observation of this interesting decay mode. 4 candidate events are found in the data. The branching ratio at 90% confidence level has been measured to be (1.67{sub -0.80}{sup +1.45}(stat.) {+-} 0.50(syst.)) x 10{sup -5} or (1.67{sub -0.69}{sup +1.16}(stat.) {+-} 0.50(syst.)) x 10{sup -5} at 68.27% confidence level.

  2. Search for a Light Higgs Boson Decaying to Long-Lived Weakly Interacting Particles in Proton-Proton Collisions at s=7TeV with the ATLAS Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; da Costa, J. Barreiro Guimarães; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. 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B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinnari, L. A.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B. C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snow, S. W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Soni, N.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Styles, N. A.; Soh, D. A.; Su, D.; Subramania, HS.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suita, K.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Sviridov, Yu. M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szeless, B.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tappern, G. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teinturier, M.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Thadome, J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F. J.; Tisserant, S.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T. N.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuggle, J. M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, W. C.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, M.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zabinski, B.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zinonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2012-06-01

    A search for the decay of a light Higgs boson (120-140 GeV) to a pair of weakly interacting, long-lived particles in 1.94fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at s=7TeV recorded in 2011 by the ATLAS detector is presented. The search strategy requires that both long-lived particles decay inside the muon spectrometer. No excess of events is observed above the expected background and limits on the Higgs boson production times branching ratio to weakly interacting, long-lived particles are derived as a function of the particle proper decay length.

  3. Search for a light Higgs boson decaying to long-lived weakly interacting particles in proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s] = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdelalim, A A; Abdesselam, A; Abdinov, O; Abi, B; Abolins, M; Abouzeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Acerbi, E; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Aderholz, M; Adomeit, S; Adragna, P; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Aharrouche, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahles, F; Ahmad, A; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Akdogan, T; Akesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Akiyama, A; Alam, M S; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Aliyev, M; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral, P; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amorim, A; Amorós, G; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Andrieux, M-L; Anduaga, X S; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoun, S; Aperio Bella, L; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Archambault, J P; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnault, C; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Arutinov, D; Asai, S; Asfandiyarov, R; Ask, S; Asman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astbury, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Aubert, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Avramidou, R; Axen, D; Ay, C; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Baccaglioni, G; Bacci, C; Bach, A M; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Bachy, G; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Badescu, E; Bagnaia, P; Bahinipati, S; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, M D; Baker, S; Banas, E; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, Sw; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barashkou, A; Barbaro Galtieri, A; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; da Costa, J Barreiro Guimarães; Barrillon, P; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartsch, V; Bates, R L; Batkova, L; Batley, J R; Battaglia, A; Battistin, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beale, S; Beare, B; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becks, K H; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bedikian, S; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Begel, M; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P K; Beimforde, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellina, F; Bellomo, M; Belloni, A; Beloborodova, O; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Benchouk, C; Bendel, M; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Benoit, M; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Berglund, E; Beringer, J; Bernat, P; Bernhard, R; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bertella, C; Bertin, A; Bertinelli, F; Bertolucci, F; Besana, M I; Besson, N; Bethke, S; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Bieniek, S P; Bierwagen, K; Biesiada, J; Biglietti, M; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biscarat, C; Bitenc, U; Black, K M; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G; Blazek, T; Blocker, C; Blocki, J; Blondel, A; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V B; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Boddy, C R; Boehler, M; Boek, J; Boelaert, N; Böser, S; Bogaerts, J A; Bogdanchikov, A; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Bolnet, N M; Bona, M; Bondarenko, V G; Bondioli, M; Boonekamp, M; Boorman, G; Booth, C N; Bordoni, S; Borer, C; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borjanovic, I; Borroni, S; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boterenbrood, H; Botterill, D; Bouchami, J; Boudreau, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozhko, N I; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Braem, A; Branchini, P; Brandenburg, G W; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brelier, B; Bremer, J; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Breton, D; Britton, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Brodbeck, T J; Brodet, E; Broggi, F; Bromberg, C; Bronner, J; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brown, H; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Bucci, F; Buchanan, J; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, P; Buckingham, R M; Buckley, A G; Buda, S I; Budagov, I A; Budick, B; Büscher, V; Bugge, L; Bulekov, O; Bunse, M; Buran, T; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgess, T; Burke, S; Busato, E; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butin, F; Butler, B; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Buttinger, W; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cakir, O; Calafiura, P; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Calkins, R; Caloba, L P; Caloi, R

    2012-06-22

    A search for the decay of a light Higgs boson (120-140 GeV) to a pair of weakly interacting, long-lived particles in 1.94 fb(-1) of proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s] = 7 TeV recorded in 2011 by the ATLAS detector is presented. The search strategy requires that both long-lived particles decay inside the muon spectrometer. No excess of events is observed above the expected background and limits on the Higgs boson production times branching ratio to weakly interacting, long-lived particles are derived as a function of the particle proper decay length. PMID:23004585

  4. Model-independent constraints on the weak phase {alpha} (or {phi}{sub 2}) and QCD penguin pollution in B{yields}{pi}{pi} decays

    SciTech Connect

    Xing Zhizhong; Zhang He

    2005-03-01

    We present an algebraic isospin approach towards a more straightforward and model-independent determination of the weak phase {alpha} (or {phi}{sub 2}) and QCD penguin pollution in B{yields}{pi}{pi} decays. The world averages of current experimental data allow us to impose some useful constraints on the isospin parameters of B{yields}{pi}{pi} transitions. We find that the magnitude of {alpha} (or {phi}{sub 2}) extracted from the indirect CP violation in the {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} mode is in agreement with the standard-model expectation from other indirect measurements, but its fourfold discrete ambiguity has to be resolved in the near future.

  5. Prospects for observing the standard model Higgs boson decaying into bb final states produced in weak boson fusion with an associated photon at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Asner, D. M.; Cunningham, M.; Dejong, S.; Randrianarivony, K.; Santamarina, C.; Schram, M.

    2010-11-01

    One of the primary goals of the Large Hadron Collider is to understand the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism. In the standard model, electroweak symmetry breaking is described by the Higgs mechanism which includes a scalar Higgs boson. Electroweak measurements constrain the standard model Higgs boson mass to be in the 114.4 to 157 GeV/c{sup 2} range. For m{sub h}<135 GeV/c{sup 2}, the Higgs predominantly decays into two b-quarks. As such, we investigate the prospect of observing the standard model Higgs decaying to bb produced in weak-boson-fusion with an associated central photon. An isolated, high p{sub T}, central photon trigger is expected to be available at the ATLAS and CMS experiments. In this study, we investigated the effects originating from showering, hadronization, the underlying event model, and jet performance including b-jet calibration on the sensitivity of this channel. We found that the choice of Monte Carlo simulation and its tune has a large effect on the efficacy of the central jet veto and consequently the signal significance. A signal significance of 1.6{sub -0.3}{sup +0.5} can be achieved for m{sub h}=115 GeV/c{sup 2} with 100 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity which correspond to 1 yr at design luminosity at 14 TeV pp collisions.

  6. Evidence for a particle produced in association with weak bosons and decaying to a bottom-antibottom quark pair in higgs boson searches at the tevatron.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alvarez González, B; Alverson, G; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Askew, A; Atkins, S; Auerbach, B; Augsten, K; Aurisano, A; Avila, C; Azfar, F; Badaud, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartlett, J F; Bartos, P; Bassler, U; Bauce, M; Bazterra, V; Bean, A; Bedeschi, F; Begalli, M; Behari, S; Bellantoni, L; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bhat, P C; Bhatia, S; Bhatnagar, V; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bortoletto, D; Bose, T; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brigliadori, L; Brock, R; Bromberg, C; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Bu, X B; Budd, H S; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Calancha, C; Camacho-Pérez, E; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Caughron, S; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapon, E; Chen, G; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chevalier-Théry, S; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, D K; Cho, K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Chokheli, D; Choudhary, B; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Cihangir, S; Ciocci, M A; Claes, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Clutter, J; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corbo, M; Corcoran, M; Cordelli, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Croc, A; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cutts, D; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Das, A; Datta, M; Davies, G; de Barbaro, P; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Dell'orso, M; Demina, R; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; d'Errico, M; Desai, S; Deterre, C; Devaughan, K; Devoto, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Ding, P F; Dittmann, J R; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Dong, P; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Ebina, K; Edmunds, D; Elagin, A; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Feng, L; Ferbel, T; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Fiedler, F; Field, R; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Fuess, S; Funakoshi, Y; 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    2012-08-17

    We combine searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for the associated production of a Higgs boson with a W or Z boson and subsequent decay of the Higgs boson to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. The data, originating from Fermilab Tevatron pp collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV, correspond to integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb(-1). The searches are conducted for a Higgs boson with mass in the range 100-150 GeV/c(2). We observe an excess of events in the data compared with the background predictions, which is most significant in the mass range between 120 and 135 GeV/c(2). The largest local significance is 3.3 standard deviations, corresponding to a global significance of 3.1 standard deviations. We interpret this as evidence for the presence of a new particle consistent with the standard model Higgs boson, which is produced in association with a weak vector boson and decays to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. PMID:23006359

  7. Search for long-lived, weakly interacting particles that decay to displaced hadronic jets in proton-proton collisions at √{s }=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. 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R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao de Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. 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K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; da Cunha Sargedas de Sousa, M. 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M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    A search for the decay of neutral, weakly interacting, long-lived particles using data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC is presented. This analysis uses the full data set recorded in 2012: 20.3 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data at √{s }=8 TeV . The search employs techniques for reconstructing decay vertices of long-lived particles decaying to jets in the inner tracking detector and muon spectrometer. Signal events require at least two reconstructed vertices. No significant excess of events over the expected background is found, and limits as a function of proper lifetime are reported for the decay of the Higgs boson and other scalar bosons to long-lived particles and for Hidden Valley Z' and Stealth SUSY benchmark models. The first search results for displaced decays in Z' and Stealth SUSY models are presented. The upper bounds of the excluded proper lifetimes are the most stringent to date.

  8. Suppression of unimolecular decay of laser desorbed peptide and protein ions by entrainment in rarefied supersonic gas jets under weak electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hieke, Andreas

    2014-01-21

    Unimolecular decay of sample ions imposes a limit on the usable laser fluence in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) ion sources. Traditionally, some modest degree of collisional sample ion cooling has been achieved by connecting MALDI ion sources directly to gas-filled radio frequency (RF) multipoles. It was also discovered in the early 1990s that gas-filled RF multipoles exhibit increased ion transmission efficiency due to collisional ion focusing effects. This unexpected experimental finding was later supported by elementary Monte Carlo simulations. Both experiments and simulations assumed a resting background gas with typical pressures of the order of 1 Pa. However, considerable additional improvements can be achieved if laser desorbed sample ions are introduced immediately after desorption, still within the ion source, in an axisymmetric rarefied supersonic gas jet with peak pressure of the order of 100 Pa and flow velocities >300 m/s, and under weak electric fields. We describe here the design principle and report performance data of an ion source coined “MALDI-2,” which incorporates elements of both rarefied aerodynamics and particle optics. Such a design allows superb suppression of metastable fragmentation due to rapid collisional cooling in <10 μs and nearly perfect injection efficiency into the attached RF ion guide, as numerous experiments have confirmed.

  9. Suppression of unimolecular decay of laser desorbed peptide and protein ions by entrainment in rarefied supersonic gas jets under weak electric fields.

    PubMed

    Hieke, Andreas

    2014-01-21

    Unimolecular decay of sample ions imposes a limit on the usable laser fluence in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) ion sources. Traditionally, some modest degree of collisional sample ion cooling has been achieved by connecting MALDI ion sources directly to gas-filled radio frequency (RF) multipoles. It was also discovered in the early 1990s that gas-filled RF multipoles exhibit increased ion transmission efficiency due to collisional ion focusing effects. This unexpected experimental finding was later supported by elementary Monte Carlo simulations. Both experiments and simulations assumed a resting background gas with typical pressures of the order of 1 Pa. However, considerable additional improvements can be achieved if laser desorbed sample ions are introduced immediately after desorption, still within the ion source, in an axisymmetric rarefied supersonic gas jet with peak pressure of the order of 100 Pa and flow velocities >300 m/s, and under weak electric fields. We describe here the design principle and report performance data of an ion source coined "MALDI-2," which incorporates elements of both rarefied aerodynamics and particle optics. Such a design allows superb suppression of metastable fragmentation due to rapid collisional cooling in <10 μs and nearly perfect injection efficiency into the attached RF ion guide, as numerous experiments have confirmed. PMID:25669372

  10. Weak Interactions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lee, T. D.

    1957-06-01

    Experimental results on the non-conservation of parity and charge conservation in weak interactions are reviewed. The two-component theory of the neutrino is discussed. Lepton reactions are examined under the assumption of the law of conservation of leptons and that the neutrino is described by a two- component theory. From the results of this examination, the universal Fermi interactions are analyzed. Although reactions involving the neutrino can be described, the same is not true of reactions which do not involve the lepton, as the discussion of the decay of K mesons and hyperons shows. The question of the invariance of time reversal is next examined. (J.S.R.)

  11. Search for long-lived, weakly interacting particles that decay to displaced hadronic jets in proton-proton collisions at s=8  TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; et al

    2015-07-17

    A search for the decay of neutral, weakly interacting, long-lived particles using data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC is presented. This analysis uses the full data set recorded in 2012: 20.3 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data at √s = 8 TeV. The search employs techniques for reconstructing decay vertices of long-lived particles decaying to jets in the inner tracking detector and muon spectrometer. Signal events require at least two reconstructed vertices. No significant excess of events over the expected background is found, and limits as a function of proper lifetime are reported for the decay of themore » Higgs boson and other scalar bosons to long-lived particles and for Hidden Valley Z' and Stealth SUSY benchmark models. The first search results for displaced decays in Z' and Stealth SUSY models are presented. The upper bounds of the excluded proper lifetimes are the most stringent to date.« less

  12. History of Weak Interactions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lee, T. D.

    1970-07-01

    While the phenomenon of beta-decay was discovered near the end of the last century, the notion that the weak interaction forms a separate field of physical forces evolved rather gradually. This became clear only after the experimental discoveries of other weak reactions such as muon-decay, muon-capture, etc., and the theoretical observation that all these reactions can be described by approximately the same coupling constant, thus giving rise to the notion of a universal weak interaction. Only then did one slowly recognize that the weak interaction force forms an independent field, perhaps on the same footing as the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, and the strong nuclear and sub-nuclear forces.

  13. Measurement of the CP-violating weak phase ϕs and the decay width difference ΔΓs using the Bs0 → J / ψ ϕ (1020) decay channel in pp collisions at √{ s} = 8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

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L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. 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N.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; de La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Walczak, M.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão da Cruz E Silva, C.; di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Leonardo, N.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nguyen, F.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Afanasiev, S.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Zarubin, A.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Myagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Ekmedzic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; de La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro de Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Castiñeiras de Saa, J. R.; de Castro Manzano, P.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia-Ferrero, J.; Gomez, G.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benaglia, A.; Bendavid, J.; Benhabib, L.; Benitez, J. F.; Berruti, G. 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I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Gastler, D.; Lawson, P.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; St. John, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Cutts, D.; Dhingra, N.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon de La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Paneva, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; MacNeill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Barge, D.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; McColl, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; To, W.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Pierini, M.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Wittich, P.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Jung, A. W.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes de Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. 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F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Osherson, M.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P., III; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; McGinn, C.; Mironov, C.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira de Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Kress, M.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Verzetti, M.; Demortier, L.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Dalchenko, M.; de Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Christian, A.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Gomber, B.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2016-06-01

    The CP-violating weak phase ϕs of the Bs0 meson and the decay width difference ΔΓs of the Bs0 light and heavy mass eigenstates are measured with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data sample of Bs0 → J / ψ ϕ (1020) →μ+μ-K+K- decays. The analysed data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.7fb-1 collected in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8TeV. A total of 49 200 reconstructed Bs0 decays are used to extract the values of ϕs and ΔΓs by performing a time-dependent and flavour-tagged angular analysis of the μ+μ-K+K- final state. The weak phase is measured to be ϕs = - 0.075 ± 0.097 (stat) ± 0.031 (syst) rad, and the decay width difference is ΔΓs = 0.095 ± 0.013 (stat) ± 0.007 (syst) ps-1.

  14. Measurement of the CP-violating weak phase $\\mathrm{ \\phi_s }$ and the decay width difference $ \\Delta \\Gamma_{ \\mathrm{s} }$ using the $ \\mathrm{B^0_s} \\to \\mathrm{J} / \\psi \\phi(1020) $ decay channel in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-07-28

    The CP-violating weak phase φs of the B0 s meson and the decay width difference ΔΓs of the B0 s light and heavy mass eigenstates are measured with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data sample of B0 s →J/ψ φ(1020) → µ +µ -K+K- decays. Our analysed data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1 collected in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. Additionally, a total of 49 200 reconstructed B0 s decays are used to extract the values of φs and ΔΓs by performing a time-dependent and flavourtagged angular analysis of the µ +µ -K+K- final state. The weak phase is measured to be φs = -0.075 ± 0.097 (stat) ± 0.031 (syst) rad, and the decay width difference is ΔΓs = 0.095 ± 0.013 (stat) ± 0.007 (syst) ps-1 .

  15. Measurement of the CP-violating weak phase ϕs and the decay width difference ΔΓs using the Bs0 → J / ψ ϕ (1020) decay channel in pp collisions at √{ s} = 8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; El Sawy, M.; El-Khateeb, E.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mohamed, A.; Radi, A.; Salama, E.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Jarvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.

    2016-06-01

    The CP-violating weak phase ϕs of the Bs0 meson and the decay width difference ΔΓs of the Bs0 light and heavy mass eigenstates are measured with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data sample of Bs0 → J / ψ ϕ (1020) →μ+μ-K+K- decays. The analysed data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.7fb-1 collected in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8TeV. A total of 49 200 reconstructed Bs0 decays are used to extract the values of ϕs and ΔΓs by performing a time-dependent and flavour-tagged angular analysis of the μ+μ-K+K- final state. The weak phase is measured to be ϕs = - 0.075 ± 0.097 (stat) ± 0.031 (syst) rad, and the decay width difference is ΔΓs = 0.095 ± 0.013 (stat) ± 0.007 (syst) ps-1.

  16. Weak interactions and presupernova evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, M.B. State Univ. of New York . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-02-19

    The role of weak interactions, particularly electron capture and {beta}{sup {minus}} decay, in presupernova evolution is discussed. The present uncertainty in these rates is examined and the possibility of improving the situation is addressed. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Search for the weak decay η'→K±π∓ and precise measurement of the branching fraction B (J /ψ →ϕ η')

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, X. Q.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kühn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We present the first search for the rare decay of η' into K±π∓ in J /ψ →ϕ η' , using a sample of 1.3 ×1 09 J /ψ events collected with the BESIII detector. No significant signal is observed, and the upper limit at the 90% confidence level for the ratio B/(η'→K±π∓) B (η'→γ π+π-) is determined to be 1.3 ×1 0-4 . In addition, we report the measurement of the branching fraction of J /ψ →ϕ η' to be [5.10 ±0.03 (stat)±0.32 (syst)]×1 0-4 , which agrees with previous results from BESII.

  18. Spin effects in the weak interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, S.J. Chicago Univ., IL . Dept. of Physics Chicago Univ., IL . Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-01-01

    Modern experiments investigating the beta decay of the neutron and light nuclei are still providing important constraints on the theory of the weak interaction. Beta decay experiments are yielding more precise values for allowed and induced weak coupling constants and putting constraints on possible extensions to the standard electroweak model. Here we emphasize the implications of recent experiments to pin down the strengths of the weak vector and axial vector couplings of the nucleon.

  19. Warping the Weak Gravity Conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooner, Karta; Parameswaran, Susha; Zavala, Ivonne

    2016-08-01

    The Weak Gravity Conjecture, if valid, rules out simple models of Natural Inflation by restricting their axion decay constant to be sub-Planckian. We revisit stringy attempts to realise Natural Inflation, with a single open string axionic inflaton from a probe D-brane in a warped throat. We show that warped geometries can allow the requisite super-Planckian axion decay constant to be achieved, within the supergravity approximation and consistently with the Weak Gravity Conjecture. Preliminary estimates of the brane backreaction suggest that the probe approximation may be under control. However, there is a tension between large axion decay constant and high string scale, where the requisite high string scale is difficult to achieve in all attempts to realise large field inflation using perturbative string theory. We comment on the Generalized Weak Gravity Conjecture in the light of our results.

  20. Resource Letter WI-1: Weak Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holstein, Barry R.

    1977-01-01

    Provides a listing of sources of literature and teaching aids to improve course content in the fields of: weak interactions, beta decay, orbital electron capture, muon capture, semileptonic decay, nonleptonic processes, parity violation in nuclei, neutrino physics, and parity violation in atomic physics. (SL)

  1. CP violation in K decays

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, F.J.

    1989-05-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental progress on the manifestation of CP violation in K decays, and toward understanding whether CP violation originates in a phase, or phases, in the weak mixing matrix of quarks is reviewed. 23 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Unsolved problems in hadronic charm decay

    SciTech Connect

    Browder, T.E.

    1989-08-01

    This paper describes several outstanding problems in the study of hadronic decays of charmed mesons where further experimental work and theoretical understanding is needed. Four topics are stressed: double Cabibbo suppressed decays (DCSD) of D/sup +/ mesons, hadronic D/sub s/ decays, weak hadronic quasi-two-body decays to pairs of vector mesons, and penguin decays of D mesons. 24 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Theoretical understanding of charm decays

    SciTech Connect

    Bigi, I.I.

    1986-08-01

    A detailed description of charm decays has emerged. The various concepts involved are sketched. Although this description is quite successful in reproducing the data the chapter on heavy flavour decays is far from closed. Relevant questions like on th real strength of weak annihilation, Penguin operators, etc. are still unanswered. Important directions in future work, both on the experimental and theoretical side are identified.

  4. Beauty baryon decays: a theoretical overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Ming

    2014-11-01

    I overview the theoretical status and recent progress on the calculations of beauty baryon decays focusing on the QCD aspects of the exclusive semi-leptonic Λb → plμ decay at large recoil and theoretical challenges of radiative and electro-weak penguin decays Λb → Λγ,Λl+l-.

  5. Decay of relativistic hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Majlingova, Olga

    2008-05-12

    The contribution is focused on the analysis of the hypernuclei decay. Hypernuclei, nuclei composed of nucleons and hyperon, enable us to more precise study baryon-baryon interaction, both weak and strong. Several experiments for study new hypernuclear objects are presently taking data or are planned in several laboratories in Italy, Germany, Russia, Japan and USA. The aim of the contribution is the introduction the catalogue of all possible decays of light hypernuclei (A{<=}12). Created catalogue could be exploited for planning next experiments.

  6. The Production Cross Sections of the Weak Vector Bosons in Proton Antiproton Collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV and a Measurement of the W Boson Decay Width

    SciTech Connect

    Varganov, Alexei Valerievich

    2004-04-01

    The theory that describes the fundamental particle interactions is called the Standard Model, which is a gauge field theory that comprises the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model [1, 2, 3] of the weak and electromagnetic interactions and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) [4, 5, 6], the theory of the strong interactions. The discovery of the W [7, 8] and Z [9, 10] bosons in 1983 by the UA1 and UA2 collaborations at the CERN p{bar p} collider provided a direct confirmation of the unification of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. Since then, many experiments have refined our understanding of the characteristics of the W and Z bosons.

  7. Experimental puzzles in heavy flavor decays anomalously high {eta}' appearance in charmless strange B decays - flavor SU(3) breaking in charm decays.

    SciTech Connect

    Lipkin, H. J.; High Energy Physics; Weizmann Inst. of Sciences; Tel Aviv Univ.

    2000-11-30

    Simple experimental tests are proposed which can clarify the origin for the anomalously high {eta}' appearance in charmless strange final states in B decays and can investigate the nature of SU(3) symmetry-breaking in weak heavy flavor decays.

  8. Outdoor measurements of spherical acoustic shock decay.

    PubMed

    Young, Sarah M; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; Leete, Kevin M

    2015-09-01

    Prior anechoic measurements of a small acetylene-oxygen balloon explosion were used to study spherical weak-shock decay over short ranges [Muhlestein et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 2422-2430 (2012)]. Here, longer-range measurements conducted at the Bonneville Salt Flats with a larger balloon are described. Waveform and spectral characteristics and comparisons of the peak pressure decay with an analytical weak-shock model are presented. Weak shocks persist to at least 305 m, with an amplitude decay that is predicted reasonably well using the model. Deviations are discussed in the context of atmospheric effects and nonlinear ground reflections. PMID:26428831

  9. Weak quasielastic production of hyperons

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S. K.; Vacas, M. J. Vicente

    2006-09-01

    The quasielastic weak production of {lambda} and {sigma} hyperons from nucleons and nuclei induced by antineutrinos is studied in the energy region of some ongoing neutrino oscillation experiments in the intermediate energy region. The hyperon-nucleon transition form factors determined from neutrino-nucleon scattering and an analysis of high precision data on semileptonic decays of neutron and hyperons using SU(3) symmetry have been used. The nuclear effects due to Fermi motion and final state interaction effects due to hyperon-nucleon scattering have also been studied. The numerical results for differential and total cross sections have been presented.

  10. Search for weakly decaying Λn ‾ and ΛΛ exotic bound states in central Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Buxton, J. T.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present results of a search for two hypothetical strange dibaryon states, i.e. the H-dibaryon and the possible Λn ‾ bound state. The search is performed with the ALICE detector in central (0-10%) Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV, by invariant mass analysis in the decay modes Λn ‾ → d ‾π+ and H-dibaryon → Λpπ-. No evidence for these bound states is observed. Upper limits are determined at 99% confidence level for a wide range of lifetimes and for the full range of branching ratios. The results are compared to thermal, coalescence and hybrid UrQMD model expectations, which describe correctly the production of other loosely bound states, like the deuteron and the hypertriton.

  11. Tooth Decay

    MedlinePlus

    ... decay starts in the outer layer, called the enamel. Without a filling, the decay can get deep into the tooth and its nerves and cause a toothache or abscess. To help prevent cavities Brush your teeth every day with a fluoride toothpaste Clean between ...

  12. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Snoek, Hella Leonie

    2009-06-02

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B0 → D*- a0+ decays and the non-resonant B0 → D*- ηπ+ decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B0 → D*- a{sub 0}+ decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10-6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B0 → D*- a0+ decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly

  13. Weak Value Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Shikano, Yutaka

    2011-03-28

    I show that the weak value theory is useful from the viewpoints of the experimentally verifiability, consistency, capacity for explanation as to many quantum paradoxes, and practical advantages. As an example, the initial state in the Hardy paradox can be experimentally verified using the weak value via the weak measurement.

  14. Baryogenesis for weakly interacting massive particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yanou; Sundrum, Raman

    2013-06-01

    We propose a robust, unified framework, in which the similar baryon and dark matter cosmic abundances both arise from the physics of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), with the rough quantitative success of the so-called “WIMP miracle.” In particular the baryon asymmetry arises from the decay of a metastable WIMP after its thermal freeze-out at or below the weak scale. A minimal model and its embedding in R-parity violating supersymmetry are studied as examples. The new mechanism saves R-parity violating supersymmetry from the potential crisis of washing out primordial baryon asymmetry. Phenomenological implications for the LHC and precision tests are discussed.

  15. Aperiodic Weak Topological Superconductors.

    PubMed

    Fulga, I C; Pikulin, D I; Loring, T A

    2016-06-24

    Weak topological phases are usually described in terms of protection by the lattice translation symmetry. Their characterization explicitly relies on periodicity since weak invariants are expressed in terms of the momentum-space torus. We prove the compatibility of weak topological superconductors with aperiodic systems, such as quasicrystals. We go beyond usual descriptions of weak topological phases and introduce a novel, real-space formulation of the weak invariant, based on the Clifford pseudospectrum. A nontrivial value of this index implies a nontrivial bulk phase, which is robust against disorder and hosts localized zero-energy modes at the edge. Our recipe for determining the weak invariant is directly applicable to any finite-sized system, including disordered lattice models. This direct method enables a quantitative analysis of the level of disorder the topological protection can withstand. PMID:27391744

  16. Aperiodic Weak Topological Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulga, I. C.; Pikulin, D. I.; Loring, T. A.

    2016-06-01

    Weak topological phases are usually described in terms of protection by the lattice translation symmetry. Their characterization explicitly relies on periodicity since weak invariants are expressed in terms of the momentum-space torus. We prove the compatibility of weak topological superconductors with aperiodic systems, such as quasicrystals. We go beyond usual descriptions of weak topological phases and introduce a novel, real-space formulation of the weak invariant, based on the Clifford pseudospectrum. A nontrivial value of this index implies a nontrivial bulk phase, which is robust against disorder and hosts localized zero-energy modes at the edge. Our recipe for determining the weak invariant is directly applicable to any finite-sized system, including disordered lattice models. This direct method enables a quantitative analysis of the level of disorder the topological protection can withstand.

  17. Weak kaon production off the nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Rafi Alam, M.; Sajjad Athar, M.; Ruiz Simo, I.; Vicente Vacas, M. J.

    2010-08-01

    The weak kaon production off the nucleon induced by neutrinos is studied at the low and intermediate energies of interest for some ongoing and future neutrino oscillation experiments. This process is also potentially important for the analysis of proton decay experiments. We develop a microscopical model based on the SU(3) chiral Lagrangians. The basic parameters of the model are f{sub {pi},} the pion decay constant, Cabibbo's angle, the proton and neutron magnetic moments, and the axial vector coupling constants for the baryons octet, D and F, that are obtained from the analysis of the semileptonic decays of neutron and hyperons. The studied mechanisms are the main source of kaon production for neutrino energies up to 1.2 to 1.5 GeV for the various channels and the cross sections are large enough to be amenable to be measured by experiments such as Minerva and T2K.

  18. Seal Out Tooth Decay

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics > Tooth Decay (Caries) > Seal Out Tooth Decay Seal Out Tooth Decay Main Content What are dental ... back teeth decay so easily? Who should get seal​ants? Should sealants be put on baby teeth? ...

  19. Weak Mixing and Rare Decays in the Littlest Higgs Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, William A.; /Fermilab

    2007-03-01

    Little Higgs models have been introduced to resolve the fine-tuning problems associated with the stability of the electroweak scale and the constraints imposed by the precision electroweak analysis of experiments testing the Standard Model of particle physics. Flavor physics provides a sensitive probe of the new physics contained in these models at next-to-leading order.

  20. Reionization and dark matter decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldengott, Isabel M.; Boriero, Daniel; Schwarz, Dominik J.

    2016-08-01

    Cosmic reionization and dark matter decay can impact observations of the cosmic microwave sky in a similar way. A simultaneous study of both effects is required to constrain unstable dark matter from cosmic microwave background observations. We compare two reionization models with and without dark matter decay. We find that a reionization model that fits also data from quasars and star forming galaxies results in tighter constraints on the reionization optical depth τreio, but weaker constraints on the spectral index ns than the conventional parametrization. We use the Planck 2015 data to constrain the effective decay rate of dark matter to Γeff < 2.9 × 10‑25/s at 95% C.L. This limit is robust and model independent. It holds for any type of decaying dark matter and it depends only weakly on the chosen parametrization of astrophysical reionization. For light dark matter particles that decay exclusively into electromagnetic components this implies a limit of Γ < 5.3 × 10‑26/s at 95% C.L. Specifying the decay channels, we apply our result to the case of keV-mass sterile neutrinos as dark matter candidates and obtain constraints on their mixing angle and mass, which are comparable to the ones from the diffuse X-ray background.

  1. Constraints on axion inflation from the weak gravity conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudelius, Tom

    2015-09-01

    We derive constraints facing models of axion inflation based on decay constant alignment from a string-theoretic and quantum gravitational perspective. In particular, we investigate the prospects for alignment and `anti-alignment' of C4 axion decay constants in type IIB string theory, deriving a strict no-go result in the latter case. We discuss the relationship of axion decay constants to the weak gravity conjecture and demonstrate agreement between our string-theoretic constraints and those coming from the `generalized' weak gravity conjecture. Finally, we consider a particular model of decay constant alignment in which the potential of C4 axions in type IIB compactifications on a Calabi-Yau three-fold is dominated by contributions from D7-branes, pointing out that this model evades some of the challenges derived earlier in our paper but is highly constrained by other geometric considerations.

  2. Constraints on axion inflation from the weak gravity conjecture

    SciTech Connect

    Rudelius, Tom

    2015-09-08

    We derive constraints facing models of axion inflation based on decay constant alignment from a string-theoretic and quantum gravitational perspective. In particular, we investigate the prospects for alignment and ‘anti-alignment’ of C{sub 4} axion decay constants in type IIB string theory, deriving a strict no-go result in the latter case. We discuss the relationship of axion decay constants to the weak gravity conjecture and demonstrate agreement between our string-theoretic constraints and those coming from the ‘generalized’ weak gravity conjecture. Finally, we consider a particular model of decay constant alignment in which the potential of C{sub 4} axions in type IIB compactifications on a Calabi-Yau three-fold is dominated by contributions from D7-branes, pointing out that this model evades some of the challenges derived earlier in our paper but is highly constrained by other geometric considerations.

  3. Weak bond screening system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, S. Y.; Chang, F. H.; Bell, J. R.

    Consideration is given to the development of a weak bond screening system which is based on the utilization of a high power ultrasonic (HPU) technique. The instrumentation of the prototype bond strength screening system is described, and the adhesively bonded specimens used in the system developmental effort are detailed. Test results obtained from these specimens are presented in terms of bond strength and level of high power ultrasound irradiation. The following observations were made: (1) for Al/Al specimens, 2.6 sec of HPU irradiation will screen weak bond conditions due to improper preparation of bonding surfaces; (2) for composite/composite specimens, 2.0 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to under-cured conditions; (3) for Al honeycomb core with composite skin structure, 3.5 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive or oils contamination of bonding surfaces; and (4) for Nomex honeycomb with Al skin structure, 1.3 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive.

  4. Weak bump quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, B. J.; Mcdowell, J.

    1994-01-01

    Research into the optical, ultraviolet and infrared continuum emission from quasars and their host galaxies was carried out. The main results were the discovery of quasars with unusually weak infrared emission and the construction of a quantitative estimate of the dispersion in quasar continuum properties. One of the major uncertainties in the measurement of quasar continuum strength is the contribution to the continuum of the quasar host galaxy as a function of wavelength. Continuum templates were constructed for different types of host galaxy and individual estimates made of the decomposed quasar and host continua based on existing observations of the target quasars. The results are that host galaxy contamination is worse than previously suspected, and some apparent weak bump quasars are really normal quasars with strong host galaxies. However, the existence of true weak bump quasars such as PHL 909 was confirmed. The study of the link between the bump strength and other wavebands was continued by comparing with IRAS data. There is evidence that excess far infrared radiation is correlated with weaker ultraviolet bumps. This argues against an orientation effect and implies a probable link with the host galaxy environment, for instance the presence of a luminous starburst. However, the evidence still favors the idea that reddening is not important in those objects with ultraviolet weak bumps. The same work has led to the discovery of a class of infrared weak quasars. Pushing another part of the envelope of quasar continuum parameter space, the IR-weak quasars have implications for understanding the effects of reddening internal to the quasars, the reality of ultraviolet turnovers, and may allow further tests of the Phinney dust model for the IR continuum. They will also be important objects for studying the claimed IR to x-ray continuum correlation.

  5. Weak bump quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Elvis, Martin; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Willner, Steven P.; Oey, M. S.

    1989-01-01

    The recent emphasis on big bumps dominating the UV continuum of quasars has obscured the facts that bump properties vary widely and that there are objects in which no such component is evident. As part of a survey of quasar continuum spectra, a class of quasars is identified in which the optical-UV continuum big bump feature appears to be weak or absent, relative to both IR and X-ray. These weak bump quasars are otherwise normal objects and constitute a few percent of the quasar population.

  6. Infrared weak quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdowell, J. C.; Elvis, M.; Wilkes, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    Examples of quasars with anomalously weak IR emission are presented, and the effects of starlight subtraction on estimates of the UV and IR component strengths are discussed. Inferred model parameters are very sensitive to the position of the peak of the UV energy distribution. In many low redshift objects the peak is not seen; even in those objects where the turnover is clear, the turnover may not be intrinsic but instead due to reddening within the quasar host galaxy. The small number of unusual quasars with weak IR emission will be of utility as a probe of the quasar phenomenon in the absence of dominant dust reprocessing.

  7. Weak shock reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, John K.; Brio, Moysey

    2000-05-01

    We present numerical solutions of a two-dimensional inviscid Burgers equation which provides an asymptotic description of the Mach reflection of weak shocks. In our numerical solutions, the incident, reflected, and Mach shocks meet at a triple point, and there is a supersonic patch behind the triple point, as proposed by Guderley for steady weak-shock reflection. A theoretical analysis indicates that there is an expansion fan at the triple point, in addition to the three shocks. The supersonic patch is extremely small, and this work is the first time it has been resolved.

  8. Question of Lorentz violation in muon decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordmans, J. P.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Wilschut, H. W.; Timmermans, R. G. E.

    2016-06-01

    Possibilities to test the Lorentz invariance of the weak interaction in muon decay are considered. We derive the direction-dependent muon-decay rate with a general Lorentz-violating addition to the W -boson propagator. We discuss measurements of the directional and boost dependence of the Michel parameters and of the muon lifetime as a function of absolute velocity. The total muon-decay rate in the Lorentz-violating standard model extension is addressed. Suggestions are made for dedicated (re)analyses of the pertinent data and for future experiments.

  9. Lattice calculation of nonleptonic charm decays

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, J.N.

    1991-11-01

    The decays of charmed mesons into two body nonleptonic final states are investigated. Weak interaction amplitudes of interest in these decays are extracted from lattice four-point correlation functions using a effective weak Hamiltonian including effects to order G{sub f} in the weak interactions yet containing effects to all orders in the strong interactions. The lattice calculation allows a quantitative examination of non-spectator processes in charm decays helping to elucidate the role of effects such as color coherence, final state interactions and the importance of the so called weak annihilation process. For D {yields} K{pi}, we find that the non-spectator weak annihilation diagram is not small, and we interpret this as evidence for large final state interactions. Moreover, there is indications of a resonance in the isospin {1/2} channel to which the weak annihilation process contributes exclusively. Findings from the lattice calculation are compared to results from the continuum vacuum saturation approximation and amplitudes are examined within the framework of the 1/N expansion. Factorization and the vacuum saturation approximation are tested for lattice amplitudes by comparing amplitudes extracted from lattice four-point functions with the same amplitude extracted from products of two-point and three-point lattice correlation functions arising out of factorization and vacuum saturation.

  10. Weaknesses in Underperforming Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Grift, Wim; Houtveen, Thoni

    2007-01-01

    In some Dutch elementary schools, the average performance of students over several years is significantly below the level that could be expected of them. This phenomenon is known as "underperformance." The most important identifiable weaknesses that go along with this phenomenon are that (a) learning material offered at school is insufficient to…

  11. Weak Radial Artery Pulse

    PubMed Central

    Venugopalan, Poothirikovil; Sivakumar, Puthuval; Ardley, Robert G.; Oates, Crispian

    2012-01-01

    We present an 11year-old boy with a weak right radial pulse, and describe the successful application of vascular ultrasound to identify the ulnar artery dominance and a thin right radial artery with below normal Doppler flow velocity that could explain the discrepancy. The implications of identifying this anomaly are discussed. PMID:22375269

  12. In praise of weakness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Aephraim; Feizpour, Amir; Rozema; Mahler; Hayat

    2013-03-01

    Quantum physics is being transformed by a radical new conceptual and experimental approach known as weak measurement that can do everything from tackling basic quantum mysteries to mapping the trajectories of photons in a Young's double-slit experiment. Aephraim Steinberg, Amir Feizpour, Lee Rozema, Dylan Mahler and Alex Hayat unveil the power of this new technique.

  13. Weak Lensing with LSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittman, David M.; Jain, B.; Jarvis, M.; Knox, L.; Margoniner, V.; Takada, M.; Tyson, J.; Zhan, H.; LSST Weak Lensing Science Collaboration

    2006-12-01

    Constraining dark energy parameters with weak lensing is one of the primary science goals of the LSST. The LSST Weak Lensing Science Collaboration has been formed with the goal of optimizing the weak lensing science by optimizing the survey cadence; working with Data Management to insure high-quality pipeline processing which will meet our needs; developing the necessary analysis tools well before the onset of data-taking; participating in high-fidelity simulations to test the system end-to-end; and analyzing the real dataset as it becomes available. We review the major weak lensing probes, the twoand three-point shear correlations, and how they constrain dark energy parameters. We also review the possibility of going beyond dark energy models and testing gravity with the LSST data. To realize the promise of the awesome LSST statistical precision, we must ensure that systematic errors are kept under control. We review the major sources of systematics and our plans for mitigation. We present data that demonstrate that these sources of systematics can be kept to a level smaller than the statistical error.

  14. Cartan's Supersymmetry and Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furui, Sadataka

    2015-10-01

    We apply the Cartan's supersymmetric model to the weak interaction of hadrons. The electromagnetic currents are transformed by G 12, G 123, G 13, G 132 and the factor is inserted between or when the photon is replaced by , and between or when the photon is replaced by Z. Electromagnetic currents in the Higgs boson H 0 decay into 2 and decay into and in which leptons are replaced by quarks are also studied. A possibility that the boson near the theshold GeV) is the Higgs boson partner h 0 is discussed. We adopt Dirac lepton neutrinos and Majorana quark neutrinos, and construct a model that satisfy the Z 3 symmetry of the lepton sector and the quark sector, by adding two right-handed neutrinos whose left-handed partner cannot be detected by our electro-magnetic detectors.

  15. Rare Electroweak Decays of K and B Mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Swee-Ping, Chia

    2009-07-07

    A phenomenological model is employed to treat the rare decays of mesons with neutrino-antineutrino pair production or charged lepton-antilepton production. The model takes advantage of the fact that inside the hadrons, quarks and antiquarks are tightly bound, and they behave like free particles. As such, the rare decay process can be described in terms of the corresponding quark-level decay process, but with the quarks developing 'dressed' masses because of QCD effects. The 'dressed' quark masses are estimated from the weak decays of the hadrons. With this set of 'dressed' quark masses, a reasonable description of the rare decays of the K and B mesons is obtained.

  16. Semileptonic Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Luth, Vera G.; /SLAC

    2012-10-02

    The following is an overview of the measurements of the CKM matrix elements |V{sub cb}| and |V{sub ub}| that are based on detailed studies of semileptonic B decays by the BABAR and Belle Collaborations and major advances in QCD calculations. In addition, a new and improved measurement of the ratios R(D{sup (*)}) = {Beta}({bar B} {yields} D{sup (*)}{tau}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {tau}})/{Beta}({bar B} {yields} D{sup (*)}{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}}) is presented. Here D{sup (*)} refers to a D or a D* meson and {ell} is either e or {mu}. The results, R(D) = 0.440 {+-} 0.058 {+-} 0.042 and R(D*) = 0.332 {+-} 0.024 {+-} 0.018, exceed the Standard Model expectations by 2.0{sigma} and 2.7{sigma}, respectively. Taken together, they disagree with these expectations at the 3.4{sigma} level. The excess of events cannot be explained by a charged Higgs boson in the type II two-Higgs-doublet model.

  17. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find Data by Topic > Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Main Content Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic ... important source of information on oral health and dental care in the United States since the early ...

  18. Weak Interactions and Instability Cascades.

    PubMed

    Kadoya, Taku; McCann, Kevin S

    2015-01-01

    Food web theory states that a weak interactor which is positioned in the food web such that it tends to deflect, or mute, energy away from a potentially oscillating consumer-resource interaction often enhances community persistence and stability. Here we examine how adding other weak interactions (predation/harvesting) on the stabilizing weak interactor alters the stability of food web using a set of well-established food web models/modules. We show that such "weak on weak" interaction chains drive an indirect dynamic cascade that can rapidly ignite a distant consumer-resource oscillator. Nonetheless, we also show that the "weak on weak" interactions are still more stable than the food web without them, and so weak interactions still generally act to stabilize food webs. Rather, these results are best interpreted to say that the degree of the stabilizing effect of a given important weak interaction can be severely compromised by other weak interactions (including weak harvesting). PMID:26219561

  19. Weak Gravitational Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Sandrine; Starck, Jean-Luc; Leonard, Adrienne; Réfrégier, Alexandre

    2012-03-01

    This chapter reviews the data mining methods recently developed to solve standard data problems in weak gravitational lensing. We detail the different steps of the weak lensing data analysis along with the different techniques dedicated to these applications. An overview of the different techniques currently used will be given along with future prospects. Until about 30 years ago, astronomers thought that the Universe was composed almost entirely of ordinary matter: protons, neutrons, electrons, and atoms. The field of weak lensing has been motivated by the observations made in the last decades showing that visible matter represents only about 4-5% of the Universe (see Figure 14.1). Currently, the majority of the Universe is thought to be dark, that is, does not emit electromagnetic radiation. The Universe is thought to be mostly composed of an invisible, pressure less matter - potentially relic from higher energy theories - called "dark matter" (20-21%) and by an even more mysterious term, described in Einstein equations as a vacuum energy density, called "dark energy" (70%). This "dark" Universe is not well described or even understood; its presence is inferred indirectly from its gravitational effects, both on the motions of astronomical objects and on light propagation. So this point could be the next breakthrough in cosmology. Today's cosmology is based on a cosmological model that contains various parameters that need to be determined precisely, such as the matter density parameter Omega_m or the dark energy density parameter Omega_lambda. Weak gravitational lensing is believed to be the most promising tool to understand the nature of dark matter and to constrain the cosmological parameters used to describe the Universe because it provides a method to directly map the distribution of dark matter (see [1,6,60,63,70]). From this dark matter distribution, the nature of dark matter can be better understood and better constraints can be placed on dark energy

  20. Weakly supervised glasses removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhicheng; Zhou, Yisu; Wen, Lijie

    2015-03-01

    Glasses removal is an important task on face recognition, in this paper, we provide a weakly supervised method to remove eyeglasses from an input face image automatically. We choose sparse coding as face reconstruction method, and optical flow to find exact shape of glasses. We combine the two processes iteratively to remove glasses more accurately. The experimental results reveal that our method works much better than these algorithms alone, and it can remove various glasses to obtain natural looking glassless facial images.

  1. Asymptotically Safe Weak Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmet, Xavier

    We emphasize that the electroweak interactions without a Higgs boson are very similar to quantum general relativity. The Higgs field could just be a dressing field and might not exist as a propagating particle. In that interpretation, the electroweak interactions without a Higgs boson could be renormalizable at the nonperturbative level because of a nontrivial fixed point. Tree-level unitarity in electroweak bosons scattering is restored by the running of the weak scale.

  2. Composite weak bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, M.

    1988-04-01

    Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.

  3. Teleportation of a Weak Coherent Cavity Field State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Wesley B.; Qiang, Wen-Chao; Avelar, Ardiley T.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we propose a scheme to teleport a weak coherent cavity field state. The scheme relies on the resonant atom-field interaction inside a high-Q cavity. The mean photon-number of the cavity field is assumed much smaller than one, hence the field decay inside the cavity can be effectively suppressed.

  4. Teleportation of a Weak Coherent Cavity Field State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Wesley B.; Qiang, Wen-Chao; Avelar, Ardiley T.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we propose a scheme to teleport a weak coherent cavity field state. The scheme relies on the resonant atom-field interaction inside a high-Q cavity. The mean photon-number of the cavity field is assumed much smaller than one, hence the field decay inside the cavity can be effectively suppressed.

  5. QCD in heavy quark production and decay

    SciTech Connect

    Wiss, J.

    1997-06-01

    The author discusses how QCD is used to understand the physics of heavy quark production and decay dynamics. His discussion of production dynamics primarily concentrates on charm photoproduction data which are compared to perturbative QCD calculations which incorporate fragmentation effects. He begins his discussion of heavy quark decay by reviewing data on charm and beauty lifetimes. Present data on fully leptonic and semileptonic charm decay are then reviewed. Measurements of the hadronic weak current form factors are compared to the nonperturbative QCD-based predictions of Lattice Gauge Theories. He next discusses polarization phenomena present in charmed baryon decay. Heavy Quark Effective Theory predicts that the daughter baryon will recoil from the charmed parent with nearly 100% left-handed polarization, which is in excellent agreement with present data. He concludes by discussing nonleptonic charm decay which is traditionally analyzed in a factorization framework applicable to two-body and quasi-two-body nonleptonic decays. This discussion emphasizes the important role of final state interactions in influencing both the observed decay width of various two-body final states as well as modifying the interference between interfering resonance channels which contribute to specific multibody decays. 50 refs., 77 figs.

  6. Decays of the heavy lepton, tau (1785)

    SciTech Connect

    Blocker, C.A.

    1980-04-01

    The structure of the weak hadronic current coupled to the tau is investigated via some of the hadronic decays of the tau. The vector current coupling is determined by measuring the tau ..-->.. rho ..nu../sub tau/ branching ratio. The axial-vector coupling is determined by measuring the tau ..-->.. ..pi.. ..nu../sub tau/ branching ratio. The Cabibbo structure of the hadronic current is established by observing the decay tau ..-->.. K*(890)..nu../sub tau/ and measuring its branching ratio. The branching ratios for the decays tau ..-->.. e anti ..nu../sub e/..nu../sub tau/ and tau ..-->.. ..mu.. anti ..nu../sub ..mu../..nu../sub tau/ are measured as a normalization for the hadronic decays and as a check on the validity of the measurements. The leptonic branching ratios agree well with previous experiments. From a kinematic fit to the pion energy spectrum in the decay tau ..-->.. ..pi.. ..nu../sub tau/, an upper limit (95% confidence level) of 245 MeV is placed on the tau neutrino mass. From a simultaneous fit of the center of mass energy dependence of the tau production cross section and the pion energy spectrum in the decay tau ..-->.. ..pi.. ..nu../sub tau/, the tau mass is determined to be 1.787 +- .010 GeV/c. All properties of the tau measured here are consistent with it being a sequential lepton coupled to the ordinary weak hadronic current.

  7. Proton decay theory

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Topics include minimal SU(5) predictions, gauge boson mediated proton decay, uncertainties in tau/sub p/, Higgs scalar effects, proton decay via Higgs scalars, supersymmetric SU(5), dimension 5 operators and proton decay, and Higgs scalars and proton decay. (WHK)

  8. Weakly broken galileon symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Pirtskhalava, David; Santoni, Luca; Trincherini, Enrico; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2015-09-01

    Effective theories of a scalar ϕ invariant under the internal galileon symmetryϕ→ϕ+b{sub μ}x{sup μ} have been extensively studied due to their special theoretical and phenomenological properties. In this paper, we introduce the notion of weakly broken galileon invariance, which characterizes the unique class of couplings of such theories to gravity that maximally retain their defining symmetry. The curved-space remnant of the galileon’s quantum properties allows to construct (quasi) de Sitter backgrounds largely insensitive to loop corrections. We exploit this fact to build novel cosmological models with interesting phenomenology, relevant for both inflation and late-time acceleration of the universe.

  9. Branching ratios of B{sub c} meson decays into tensor meson in the final state

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Neelesh

    2010-01-01

    Two-body hadronic weak decays of B{sub c} meson involving tensor meson in the final state are studied by using the Isgur-Scora-Grinstein-Wise II model. Decay amplitudes are obtained using the factorization scheme in the spectator quark model. Branching ratios for the charm changing and bottom changing decay modes are predicted.

  10. Weakly relativistic plasma expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Fermous, Rachid Djebli, Mourad

    2015-04-15

    Plasma expansion is an important physical process that takes place in laser interactions with solid targets. Within a self-similar model for the hydrodynamical multi-fluid equations, we investigated the expansion of both dense and under-dense plasmas. The weakly relativistic electrons are produced by ultra-intense laser pulses, while ions are supposed to be in a non-relativistic regime. Numerical investigations have shown that relativistic effects are important for under-dense plasma and are characterized by a finite ion front velocity. Dense plasma expansion is found to be governed mainly by quantum contributions in the fluid equations that originate from the degenerate pressure in addition to the nonlinear contributions from exchange and correlation potentials. The quantum degeneracy parameter profile provides clues to set the limit between under-dense and dense relativistic plasma expansions at a given density and temperature.

  11. Ring current proton decay by charge exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. H.; Hoffman, R. A.; Fritz, T.

    1975-01-01

    Explorer 45 measurements during the recovery phase of a moderate magnetic storm have confirmed that the charge exchange decay mechanism can account for the decay of the storm-time proton ring current. Data from the moderate magnetic storm of 24 February 1972 was selected for study since a symmetrical ring current had developed and effects due to asymmetric ring current losses could be eliminated. It was found that after the initial rapid decay of the proton flux, the equatorially mirroring protons in the energy range 5 to 30 keV decayed throughout the L-value range of 3.5 to 5.0 at the charge exchange decay rate calculated by Liemohn. After several days of decay, the proton fluxes reached a lower limit where an apparent equilibrium was maintained, between weak particle source mechanisms and the loss mechanisms, until fresh protons were injected into the ring current region during substorms. While other proton loss mechanisms may also be operating, the results indicate that charge exchange can entirely account for the storm-time proton ring current decay, and that this mechanism must be considered in all studies involving the loss of proton ring current particles.

  12. Limits Of Quantum Information In Weak Interaction Processes Of Hyperons

    PubMed Central

    Hiesmayr, B. C.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the achievable limits of the quantum information processing of the weak interaction revealed by hyperons with spin. We find that the weak decay process corresponds to an interferometric device with a fixed visibility and fixed phase difference for each hyperon. Nature chooses rather low visibilities expressing a preference to parity conserving or violating processes (except for the decay Σ+→ pπ0). The decay process can be considered as an open quantum channel that carries the information of the hyperon spin to the angular distribution of the momentum of the daughter particles. We find a simple geometrical information theoretic interpretation of this process: two quantization axes are chosen spontaneously with probabilities where α is proportional to the visibility times the real part of the phase shift. Differently stated, the weak interaction process corresponds to spin measurements with an imperfect Stern-Gerlach apparatus. Equipped with this information theoretic insight we show how entanglement can be measured in these systems and why Bell’s nonlocality (in contradiction to common misconception in literature) cannot be revealed in hyperon decays. Last but not least we study under which circumstances contextuality can be revealed. PMID:26144247

  13. Search for a Scalar Component in the Weak Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakoucky, Dalibor; Baczyk, Pavel; Ban, Gilles; Beck, Marcus; Breitenfeldt, Martin; Couratin, Claire; Fabian, Xavier; Finlay, Paul; Flechard, Xavier; Friedag, Peter; Glück, Ferenc; Herlert, Alexander; Knecht, Andreas; Kozlov, Valentin; Lienard, Etienne; Porobic, Tomica; Soti, Gergelj; Tandecki, Michael; Vangorp, Simon; Weinheimer, Christian; Wursten, Elise; Severijns, Nathal

    Weak interactions are described by the Standard Model which uses the basic assumption of a pure "V(ector)-A(xial vector)" character for the interaction. However, after more than half a century of model development and experimental testing of its fundamental ingredients, experimental limits for possible admixtures of scalar and/or tensor interactions are still as high as 7%. The WITCH project (Weak Interaction Trap for CHarged particles) at the isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN is trying to probe the structure of the weak interaction in specific low energy β-decays in order to look for possible scalar or tensor components or at least significantly improve the current experimental limits. This worldwide unique experimental setup consisting of a combination of two Penning ion traps and a retardation spectrometer allows to catch, trap and cool the radioactive nuclei provided by the ISOLDE separator, form a cooled and scattering-free radioactive source of β-decaying nuclei and let these nuclei decay at rest. The precise measurement of the shape of the energy spectrum of the recoiling nuclei, the shape of which is very sensitive to the character of the weak interaction, enables searching for a possible admixture of a scalar/tensor component in the dominant vector/axial vector mode. First online measurements with the isotope 35Ar were performed in 2011 and 2012. The current status of the experiment, the data analysis and results as well as extensive simulations will be presented and discussed.

  14. CP violation in B meson decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, S.; Belle Group

    2003-06-01

    CP violation in neutral B meson decays has been observed confirming the prediction of the Kobayashi-Maskawa model where introduction of six quaks naturally induces CP violation in the weak interaction. The measurements of CP asymmetryc in B meson decays were made at the newly constructed Asymmetric B factories, which consist of high luminosity, ebergy-asymmetric e+e- colliders (KEKB and PEP-II) and detectors (Belle and BaBar). The results are in good agreement and are consistent with other experimental results within the framework of the Standard Model.

  15. Detection of weak signals in memory thermal baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Aquino, J. I.; Velasco, R. M.; Romero-Bastida, M.

    2014-11-01

    The nonlinear relaxation time and the statistics of the first passage time distribution in connection with the quasideterministic approach are used to detect weak signals in the decay process of the unstable state of a Brownian particle embedded in memory thermal baths. The study is performed in the overdamped approximation of a generalized Langevin equation characterized by an exponential decay in the friction memory kernel. A detection criterion for each time scale is studied: The first one is referred to as the receiver output, which is given as a function of the nonlinear relaxation time, and the second one is related to the statistics of the first passage time distribution.

  16. Baryonic B Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chistov, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this talk the decays of B-mesons into baryons are discussed. Large mass of B-meson makes possible the decays of the type B → baryon (+mesons). Experimental observations and measurements of these decays at B-factories Belle and BaBar have stimulate the development of theoretical models in this field. We briefly review the experimental results together with the current theoretical models which describe baryonic B decays.

  17. Moduli Decays and Gravitinos

    SciTech Connect

    Dine, Michael; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Morisse, Alexander; Shirman, Yuri

    2006-04-21

    One proposed solution of the moduli problem of string cosmology requires that the moduli are quite heavy, their decays reheating the universe to temperatures above the scale of nucleosynthesis. In many of these scenarios, the moduli are approximately supersymmetric; it is then crucial that the decays to gravitinos are helicity suppressed. In this paper, we discuss situations where these decays are, and are not, suppressed. We also comment on a possible gravitino problem from inaton decay.

  18. Kaon, pion, and proton associated photofission of Bi nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Y.; Margaryan, A.; Acha, A.; Ahmidouch, A.; Androic, D.; Asaturyan, A.; Asaturyan, R.; Baker, O. K.; Baturin, P.; Benmokhtar, F.; Carlini, R.; Chen, X.; Christy, M.; Cole, L.; Danagoulian, S.; Daniel, A.; Dharmawardane, V.; Egiyan, K.; Elaasar, M.; Ent, R.

    2010-10-15

    The first measurement of proton, pion, and kaon associated fission of Bi nuclei has been performed in a photon energy range 1. 45 < E{sub {gamma}}< 1. 55 GeV. The fission probabilities are compared with an inclusive fission probabilities obtained with photons, protons and pions. The fission probability of Bi nuclei in coincidence with kaons is 0. 18 {+-} 0. 06 which is {approx}3 times larger than the proton and pion associated fission probabilities and {approx}2 times larger than inclusive ones. The kaon associated excess fission events are explained in terms of bound {Lambda} residual states and their weak nonmesonic decays.

  19. Soccer in Indiana and models for non-leptonic decays of heavy flavours

    SciTech Connect

    Bigi, I.I. )

    1989-12-15

    Various descriptions of non-leptonic charm decays are reviewed and their relative strengths and weaknesses are listed. I conclude that it is mainly (though no necessarily solely) a destructive interference in nonleptonic D{sup +} decays that shapes the decays of charm mesons. Some more subtle features in these decays are discussed in a preview of future research before I address the presently confused situation in D{sub s} decays. Finally I give a brief theoretical discussion of inclusive and exclusive non-leptonic decays of beauty mesons.

  20. ISOLTRAP Mass Measurements for Weak-Interaction Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kellerbauer, A.; Delahaye, P.; Herlert, A.; Audi, G.; Guenaut, C.; Lunney, D.; Beck, D.; Herfurth, F.; Kluge, H.-J.; Mukherjee, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Weber, C.; Yazidjian, C.; Blaum, K.; Bollen, G.; Schwarz, S.; George, S.; Schweikhard, L.

    2006-04-26

    The conserved-vector-current (CVC) hypothesis of the weak interaction and the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix are two fundamental postulates of the Standard Model. While existing data on CVC supports vector current conservation, the unitarity test of the CKM matrix currently fails by more than two standard deviations. High-precision mass measurements performed with the ISOLTRAP experiment at ISOLDE/CERN provide crucial input for these fundamental studies by greatly improving our knowledge of the decay energy of super-allowed {beta} decays. Recent results of mass measurements on the {beta} emitters 18Ne, 22Mg, 34Ar, and 74Rb as pertaining to weak-interaction studies are presented.

  1. Roles of Nuclear Weak Processes in Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshio; Kajino, Toshitaka; Honma, Michio; Toki, Hiroshi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2015-11-01

    The roles of nuclear weak processes in stars are discussed. Neutrino-nucleus reactions on 12C, 56Fe and 40Ar are studied with new shell-model Hamiltonians. New cross sections, which give good account of experimental data, are applied to nucleosynthesis of light elements in supernova explosions. Effects of ν-oscillations are investigated, and the abundance ratio of 7Li/11B is pointed out to be sensitive to the ν mass hierarchy. Then, e-capture and β-decay rates in sd-shell nuclei are evaluated at stellar environments, and applied to study cooling of O-Ne-Mg core stars by nuclear URCA processes. The fate of 8-10 M❿ stars is sensitive to the cooling of the core. Finally, β-decay half-lives of r-process waiting-point nuclei with N=126 are evaluated by shell-model calculations taking into account both the Gamow-Teller and first-forbidden transitions. The half-lives obtained are short compared with standard FRDM values.

  2. Weak phase information from the color suppressed modes

    SciTech Connect

    Giri, A. K.; Mawlong, B.; Mohanta, R.

    2007-11-01

    The decay channels , are investigated for extracting weak Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) phase information. These channels are described by color suppressed tree diagrams only and are free from penguin contributions. The branching ratios for these channels are found to be {approx}O(10{sup -5}-10{sup -6}) which can be measured at the currently running B factories. The method presented here may be well suited to determine the CKM angle {gamma}.

  3. D+→K-π+π+: The weak vector current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, P. C.; Robilotta, M. R.

    2015-11-01

    Studies of D and B meson decays into hadrons have been used to test the standard model in the last 15 years. A heavy meson decay involves the combined effects of a primary weak vertex and subsequent hadronic final-state interactions, which determine the shapes of Dalitz plots. The fact that final products involve light mesons indicates that the QCD vacuum is an active part of the problem. This makes the description of these processes rather involved and, in spite of its importance, phenomenological analyses tend to rely on crude models. Our group produced, some time ago, a schematic calculation of the decay D+→K-π+π+, which provided a reasonable description of data. Its main assumption was the dominance of the weak vector current, which yields a nonfactorizable interaction. Here we refine that calculation by including the correct momentum dependence of the weak vertex and extending the energy ranges of π π and K π subamplitudes present into the problem. These new features make the present treatment more realistic and bring theory closer to data.

  4. Axions from string decay

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmann, C., LLNL

    1998-07-09

    We have studied numerically the evolution and decay of axion strings. These global defects decay mainly by axion emission and thus contribute to the cosmological axion energy density. The relative importance of this source relative to misalignment production of axions depends on the spectrum. Radiation spectra for various string loop configurations are presented. They support the contention that the string decay contribution is of the same order of magnitude as the contribution from misalignment.

  5. Experimental investigations of weak definite and weak indefinite noun phrases

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Natalie M.; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney M.; Carlson, Greg N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Definite noun phrases typically refer to entities that are uniquely identifiable in the speaker and addressee’s common ground. Some definite noun phrases (e.g. the hospital in Mary had to go the hospital and John did too) seem to violate this uniqueness constraint. We report six experiments that were motivated by the hypothesis that these “weak definite” interpretations arise in “incorporated” constructions. Experiments 1-3 compared nouns that seem to allow for a weak definite interpretation (e.g. hospital, bank, bus, radio) with those that do not (e.g. farm, concert, car, book). Experiments 1 and 2 used an instruction-following task and picture-judgment task, respectively, to demonstrate that a weak definite need not uniquely refer. In Experiment 3 participants imagined scenarios described by sentences such as The Federal Express driver had to go to the hospital/farm. The imagined scenarios following weak definite noun phrases were more likely to include conventional activities associated with the object, whereas following regular nouns, participants were more likely to imagine scenarios that included typical activities associated with the subject; similar effects were observed with weak indefinites. Experiment 4 found that object-related activities were reduced when the same subject and object were used with a verb that does not license weak definite interpretations. In Experiment 5, a science fiction story introduced an artificial lexicon for novel concepts. Novel nouns that shared conceptual properties with English weak definite nouns were more likely to allow weak reference in a judgment task. Experiment 6 demonstrated that familiarity for definite articles and anti- familiarity for indefinite articles applies to the activity associated with the noun, consistent with predictions made by the incorporation analysis. PMID:23685208

  6. Optimizing quantum correlation dynamics by weak measurement in dissipative environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Shao-Jiang; Xia, Yun-Jie; Duan, De-Yang; Zhang, Lu; Gao, Qiang

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the protection of quantum correlations of two qubits in independent vacuum reservoirs by means of weak measurements. It is found that the weak measurement can reduce the amount of quantum correlation for one type of initial state at the beginning in a non-Markovian environment and meanwhile it can reduce the occurrence time of entanglement sudden death (ESD) in the process of time evolution. In a Markovian environment, the quantum entanglements of the two kinds of initial states decay rapidly and the weak measurement can further weaken the quantum entanglement, therefore in this case the entanglement cannot be optimized in the evolution process. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178012 and No.11147019).

  7. Hadronic decays of the D/sub s/ meson

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserbaech, S.R.

    1989-06-01

    The D/sub s//sup +/ is the lowest-lying pseudoscalar meson containing charm and anti-strange quarks. Evidence for this state was first reported in 1977, although more recent observations disagree with some of the early results. Since 1983 the weakly decaying D/sub s//sup +/ has been observed in many experiments. Relative branching fractions have been measured for many non-leptonic decay modes, including D/sub s//sup +/ /yields/ /phi//pi//sup +/, /phi//pi//sup +//pi//sup +//pi//sup /minus//, /bar K/*/sup 0/K/sup +/, and f/sub 0/(975)/pi//sup +/. The absolute branching fractions are estimated in high energy e/sup +/e/sup /minus// annihilation from the observed numbers of reconstructed D/sub s//sup +/ decays and the expected D/sub s//sup +/ production cross section. The lowest-lying vector c/bar s/ meson, the D/sub s/*/sup +/, has also been seen in its decay to /gamma/D/sub s//sup +/. Weak decays of the heavy quark and lepton flavors are relevant to the development of the Standard Model of both the electroweak and the strong interactions. Measurements of charmed particle weak decay are useful for determining the parameter of the Standard Model and for testing phenomenological models which include strong effects. 83 refs., 56 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Five-body leptonic decays of muon and tau leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Tlalpa, A.; Castro, G. López; Roig, P.

    2016-04-01

    We study the five-body decays {μ}-to {e}-{e}+{e}-{ν}_{μ }{overline{ν}}_e and {τ}-to {ℓ}-{ℓ}^' +}{ℓ}^' -}{ν}_{τ }{overline{ν}}_{ℓ } for ℓ, ℓ ' = e, μ within the Standard Model (SM) and in a general effective field theory description of the weak interactions at low energies. We compute the branching ratios and compare our results with two previous — mutually discrepan — SM calculations. By assuming a general structure for the weak currents we derive the expressions for the energy and angular distributions of the three charged leptons when the decaying lepton is polarized, which will be useful in precise tests of the weak charged current at Belle II. In these decays, leptonic T-odd correlations in triple products of spin and momenta — which may signal time reversal violation in the leptonic sector — are suppressed by the tiny neutrino masses. Therefore, a measurement of such T-violating observables would be associated to neutrinoless lepton flavor violating (LFV) decays, where this effect is not extremely suppressed. We also study the backgrounds that the SM five-lepton lepton decays constitute to searches of LFV L - → ℓ - ℓ '+ ℓ '- decays. Searches at high values of the invariant mass of the ℓ '+ ℓ '- pair look the most convenient way to overcome the background.

  9. Resisting Weakness of the Will

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Neil

    2012-01-01

    I develop an account of weakness of the will that is driven by experimental evidence from cognitive and social psychology. I will argue that this account demonstrates that there is no such thing as weakness of the will: no psychological kind corresponds to it. Instead, weakness of the will ought to be understood as depletion of System II resources. Neither the explanatory purposes of psychology nor our practical purposes as agents are well-served by retaining the concept. I therefore suggest that we ought to jettison it, in favour of the vocabulary and concepts of cognitive psychology. PMID:22984298

  10. Weak-shock reflection factors

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-09-07

    The purpose of this paper is to compare reflection factors for weak shocks from various surfaces, and to focus attention on some unsolved questions. Three different cases are considered: square-wave planar shock reflection from wedges; square-wave planar shock reflection from cylinders; and spherical blast wave reflection from a planar surface. We restrict ourselves to weak shocks. Shocks with a Mach number of M{sub O} < 1.56 in air or with an overpressure of {Delta}{sub PI} < 25 psi (1.66 bar) under normal ambient conditions are called weak.

  11. Radiative Neutron β-Decay in Effective Field Theory

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Susan; Bernard, Véronique; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Zhang, Chi

    2005-01-01

    We consider radiative β-decay of the neutron in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. Nucleon-structure effects not encoded in the weak coupling constants gA and gV are determined at next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion, and enter at the O(0.5%)-level, making a sensitive test of the Dirac structure of the weak currents possible. PMID:27308159

  12. Charged-particle multiplicities in B-meson decay

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, M.S.; Csorna, S.E.; Fridman, A.; Hicks, R.G.; Panvini, R.S.; Andrews, D.; Avery, P.; Berkelman, K.; Cabenda, R.; Cassel, D.G.; DeWire, J.W.; Ehrlich, R.; Ferguson, T.; Gilchriese, M.G.D.; Gittelman, B.; Hartill, D.L.; Herrup, D.; Herzlinger, M.; Holzner, S.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D.L.; Mistry, N.B.; Morrow, F.; Nordberg, E.; Perchonok, R.; Plunkett, R.; Silverman, A.; Stein, P.C.; Stone, S.; Weber, D.; Wilcke, R.; Sadoff, A.J.; Bebek, C.; Haggerty, J.; Hempstead, M.; Izen, J.M.; Loomis, W.A.; MacKay, W.W.; Pipkin, F.M.; Rohlf, J.; Tanenbaum, W.; Wilson, R.; Chadwick, K.; Chauveau, J.; Ganci, P.; Gentile, T.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Melissinos, A.C.; Olsen, S.L.; Poling, R.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rucinski, G.; Thorndike, E.H.; Green, J.; Sannes, F.; Skubic, P.; Snyder, A.; Stone, R.; Brody, A.; Chen, A.; Goldberg, M.; Horwitz, N.; Lipari, P.; Kooy, H.; Moneti, G.C.; Pistilli, P.

    1982-08-09

    The charged multiplicity has been measured at the UPSILON(4S) and a value of 5.75 +- 0.1 +- 0.2 has been obtained for the mean charged multiplicity in B-meson decay. Combining this result with the measurement of prompt letpons from B decay, the values 4.1 +- 0.35 +- 0.2 and 6.3 +- 0.2 +- 0.2 are found for the semileptonic and nonleptonic charged multiplicities, respectively. If b..-->..c dominance is assumed for the weak decay of the B meson, then the semileptonic multiplicity is consistent with the recoil mass determined from the lepton momentum spectrum.

  13. Rare {Lambda}{sub b} decays in a quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Mott, L.; Roberts, W.

    2010-08-05

    Hadronic form factors for the rare weak transitions {Lambda}{sub b{yields}{Lambda}}{sup (*)} are calculated using a nonrelativistic quark model. The form factors obtained in this way are found to satisfy the relationships expecetd from the heavy quark effective theory. Differential decay rates and branching ratios are calculated for the dileptonic decays {Lambda}{sub b{yields}{Lambda}}{sup (*)}l{sup +}l{sup -}, for both ground state and excited daughter baryons. Inclusion of the long distance contributions from charmonium resonances significantly enhances the decay rates. Future work is outlined.

  14. Does the b quark decay left-handedly

    SciTech Connect

    Gronau, M. ); Wakaizumi, S. )

    1992-03-23

    The left-handedness of the {ital b} quark weak couplings has not yet been tested experimentally. We present an SU(2){sub {ital L}}{times}SU(2){sub {ital R}}{times}U(1) model with purely right-handed {ital b} decay couplings. We show that the model is consistent with the quite severe existing experimental constraints from {ital B} decays, from {ital B}{sup 0-}{ital {bar B}} {sup 0} mixing, from the neutral {ital K} mass difference, and from {ital CP} violation in the kaon system. We point out a difficulty in distinguishing our scheme from the standard model in semileptonic {ital B} decays.

  15. Radioactive Decay - An Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeachy, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Presents an analog of radioactive decay that allows the student to grasp the concept of half life and the exponential nature of the decay process. The analog is devised to use small, colored, plastic poker chips or counters. Provides the typical data and a graph which supports the analog. (YP)

  16. Weak ferromagnetism in the cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chovan, J.; Papanicolaou, N.

    2001-02-01

    An effective field theory that describes the low-frequency spin dynamics in the low-temperature orthorhombic phase of La 2CuO 4 is derived. The main features of the inherent covert weak ferromagnetism are thus accounted for in a straightforward manner but some of the finer theoretical predictions would require further experimental investigation. In particular, theory predicts the occurrence of magnetic stripes in undoped La 2CuO 4 which mediate the observed weak-ferromagnetic transition.

  17. Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2007-03-01

    We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities.

  18. Mesonic Decay of Charm Hypernuclei Λc+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Fontoura, Carlos E.; Krein, Gastão

    2016-03-01

    Λc+ hypernuclei are expected to have binding energies and other properties similar to those of strange hypernuclei in view of the similarity between the quark structures of the strange and charmed hyperons, namely Λ(uds) and Λc+(udc). One striking difference however occurs in their mesonic decays, as there is almost no Pauli blocking in the nucleonic decay of a charm hypernucleus because the final-state nucleons leave the nucleus at high energies. The nuclear medium nevertheless affects the mesonic decays of charm hypernucleus because the nuclear mean fields modify the masses of the charm hyperon. In the present communication we present results of a first investigation of the effects of finite baryon density on different weak mesonic decay channels of the Λc+ baryon. We found a non-negligible reduction of the decay widths as compared to their vacuum values.

  19. Investigating the Pygmy Dipole Resonance Using β Decay.

    PubMed

    Scheck, M; Mishev, S; Ponomarev, V Yu; Chapman, R; Gaffney, L P; Gregor, E T; Pietralla, N; Spagnoletti, P; Savran, D; Simpson, G S

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution it is explored whether γ-ray spectroscopy following β decay with high Q values from mother nuclei with low ground-state spin can be exploited as a probe for the pygmy dipole resonance. The suitability of this approach is demonstrated by a comparison between data from photon scattering, ^{136}Xe(γ,γ^{'}), and ^{136}I [J_{0}^{π}=(1^{-})]→^{136}Xe^{*} β-decay data. It is demonstrated that β decay populates 1^{-} levels associated with the pygmy dipole resonance, but only a fraction of those. The complementary insight into the wave functions probed by β decay is elucidated by calculations within the quasiparticle phonon model. It is demonstrated that β decay dominantly populates complex configurations, which are only weakly excited in inelastic scattering experiments. PMID:27081972

  20. Investigating the Pygmy Dipole Resonance Using β Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheck, M.; Mishev, S.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Chapman, R.; Gaffney, L. P.; Gregor, E. T.; Pietralla, N.; Spagnoletti, P.; Savran, D.; Simpson, G. S.

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution it is explored whether γ -ray spectroscopy following β decay with high Q values from mother nuclei with low ground-state spin can be exploited as a probe for the pygmy dipole resonance. The suitability of this approach is demonstrated by a comparison between data from photon scattering, 136Xe (γ ,γ') , and 136I [J0π=(1-)]→136Xe* β -decay data. It is demonstrated that β decay populates 1- levels associated with the pygmy dipole resonance, but only a fraction of those. The complementary insight into the wave functions probed by β decay is elucidated by calculations within the quasiparticle phonon model. It is demonstrated that β decay dominantly populates complex configurations, which are only weakly excited in inelastic scattering experiments.

  1. Standard Model Treatment of the Radiative Corrections to Neutron β-Decay

    PubMed Central

    Bunatian, G. G.

    2005-01-01

    Starting with the Standard Model electroweak Lagrangian, the radiative corrections to neutron β-decay are obtained. Nucleon compositeness is considered by appropriate parameterization of the nucleon weak transition current and electromagnetic form factors. PMID:27308144

  2. Propagation of a curved weak shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monica, A.; Prasad, Phoolan

    2001-05-01

    Propagation of a curved shock is governed by a system of shock ray equations which is coupled to an infinite system of transport equations along these rays. For a two-dimensional weak shock, it has been suggested that this system can be approximated by a hyperbolic system of four partial differential equations in a ray coordinate system, which consists of two independent variables ([zeta], t) where the curves t = constant give successive positions of the shock and [zeta] = constant give rays. The equations show that shock rays not only stretch longitudinally due to finite amplitude on a shock front but also turn due to a non-uniform distribution of the shock strength on it. These changes finally lead to a modification of the amplitude of the shock strength. Since discontinuities in the form of kinks appear on the shock, it is necessary to study the problem by using the correct conservation form of these equations. We use such a system of equations in conservation form to construct a total-variation-bounded finite difference scheme. The numerical solution captures converging shock fronts with a pair of kinks on them the shock front emerges without the usual folds in the caustic region. The shock strength, even when the shock passes through the caustic region, remains so small that the small-amplitude theory remains valid. The shock strength ultimately decays with a well-defined geometrical shape of the shock front a pair of kinks which separate a central disc from a pair of wings on the two sides. We also study the ultimate shape and decay of shocks of initially periodic shapes and plane shocks with a dent and a bulge.

  3. Weakness

    MedlinePlus

    ... spine) Stroke MUSCLE DISEASES Becker muscular dystrophy Dermatomyositis Muscular dystrophy (Duchenne) Myotonic dystrophy POISONING Botulism Poisoning ( insecticides , nerve gas) Shellfish poisoning OTHER Anemia Myasthenia gravis Polio

  4. Quantum discord with weak measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Uttam Pati, Arun Kumar

    2014-04-15

    Weak measurements cause small change to quantum states, thereby opening up the possibility of new ways of manipulating and controlling quantum systems. We ask, can weak measurements reveal more quantum correlation in a composite quantum state? We prove that the weak measurement induced quantum discord, called as the “super quantum discord”, is always larger than the quantum discord captured by the strong measurement. Moreover, we prove the monotonicity of the super quantum discord as a function of the measurement strength and in the limit of strong projective measurement the super quantum discord becomes the normal quantum discord. We find that unlike the normal discord, for pure entangled states, the super quantum discord can exceed the quantum entanglement. Our results provide new insights on the nature of quantum correlation and suggest that the notion of quantum correlation is not only observer dependent but also depends on how weakly one perturbs the composite system. We illustrate the key results for pure as well as mixed entangled states. -- Highlights: •Introduced the role of weak measurements in quantifying quantum correlation. •We have introduced the notion of the super quantum discord (SQD). •For pure entangled state, we show that the SQD exceeds the entanglement entropy. •This shows that quantum correlation depends not only on observer but also on measurement strength.

  5. Modulated curvaton decay

    SciTech Connect

    Assadullahi, Hooshyar; Wands, David; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein E-mail: firouz@mail.ipm.ir E-mail: david.wands@port.ac.uk

    2013-03-01

    We study primordial density perturbations generated by the late decay of a curvaton field whose decay rate may be modulated by the local value of another isocurvature field, analogous to models of modulated reheating at the end of inflation. We calculate the primordial density perturbation and its local-type non-Gaussianity using the sudden-decay approximation for the curvaton field, recovering standard curvaton and modulated reheating results as limiting cases. We verify the Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality between bispectrum and trispectrum parameters for the primordial density field generated by multiple field fluctuations, and find conditions for the bound to be saturated.

  6. Combinedatomic-nuclear decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzyublik, A. Ya.

    2016-05-01

    We analyzed in details the combined decay of the atomic-nuclear state, which consists of the excited 3/2+ level of 63 153 Eu and K hole, formed in the K capture by 153Gd. This decay proceeds in two stages. First, the nucleus transfers its energy to 2 p electron, which flies into the continuum spectrum, and then returns into 1s hole, emitting γ quantum with the energy equal to the sum of energies of the nuclear and atomic transitions. We estimated the decay probability to be 2.2 × 10-13, that is much less than the recent experimental findings.

  7. Axions from wall decay

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S; Hagmann, C; Sikivie, P

    2001-01-08

    The authors discuss the decay of axion walls bounded by strings and present numerical simulations of the decay process. In these simulations, the decay happens immediately, in a time scale of order the light travel time, and the average energy of the radiated axions is {approx_equal} 7m{sub a} for v{sub a}/m{sub a} {approx_equal} 500. is found to increase approximately linearly with ln(v{sub a}/m{sub a}). Extrapolation of this behavior yields {approx_equal} 60 m{sub a} in axion models of interest.

  8. Anomalous baryogenesis at the weak scale

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, R.L. Jr.

    1991-06-01

    One of the fundamental constants of nature is the baryon asymmetry of the universe -- the ratio of the number of baryons to the entropy. This constant is about 10{sup {minus}11}. In baryon- number conserving theories, this was just an initial condition. With the advent of the grand unified theories (GUTs), baryon number is no longer conserved, and this asymmetry can be generated dynamically. Unfortunately, however, there are reasons for preferring another mechanism. For example, GUTs predict proton decay which, after extensive searches, has not been found. An alternative place to look for baryogenesis is the electroweak phase transition, described by the standard model, which posses all the necessary ingredients for baryogenesis. Anomalous baryon-number violation in weak interactions becomes large at high temperatures, which offers the prospect of creating the asymmetry with the standard model or minimal extensions. This can just barely be done if certain conditions are fulfilled. CP violation must be large, which rules out the minimal standard model as the source of the asymmetry, but which is easily arranged with an extended Higgs sector. The baryon-number violating rates themselves are not exactly known, and they must be pushed to their theoretical limits. A more exact determination of these rates is needed before a definitive answer can be given. Finally, the phase transition must be at least weakly first order. Such phase transitions are accompanied by the formation and expansion of bubbles of true vacuum within the false vacuum, much like the boiling of water. As the bubbles expand, they provide a departure from thermal equilibrium, otherwise the dynamics will adjust the net baryon number to zero. The bubble expansion also provides a biasing that creates an asymmetry on the bubbles surface. Under optimal conditions, the observed asymmetry can just be produced. 31 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Interaction of Oblique Instability Waves with Weak Streamwise Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. E.; Wundrow, David W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the effect of a weak spanwise-variable mean-flow distortion on the growth of oblique instability waves in a Blasius boundary layer. The streamwise component of the distortion velocity initially grows linearly with increasing streamwise distance, reaches a maximum, and eventually decays through the action of viscosity. This decay occurs slowly and allows the distortion to destabilize the Blasius flow over a relatively large streamwise region. It is shown that even relatively weak distortions can cause certain oblique Rayleigh instability waves to grow much faster than the usual two-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting waves that would be the dominant instability modes in the absence of the distortion. The oblique instability waves can then become large enough to interact nonlinearly within a common critical layer. It is shown that the resulting nonlinearity is weak and that the common amplitude of the interacting oblique waves is governed by the amplitude evolution equation derived in Goldstein & Choi (1989). The implications of these results for Klebanoff-type transition are discussed.

  10. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1989-01-01

    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. Two of its most publicized comological connections are emphasized: big bang nucleosynthesis and dark matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of neutrine flavors, N(sub nu) is approximately 3 which in now being confirmed. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galacty and structure formation in the universe. The role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure is demonstrated.

  11. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N. ):)

    1989-12-01

    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N{sub {nu}} {approximately} 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Tooth decay - early childhood

    MedlinePlus

    Bottle mouth; Bottle carries; Baby bottle tooth decay; Early childhood caries (ECC) ... chap 304. Ribeiro NM, Ribeiro MA. Breastfeeding and early childhood caries: a critical review. J Pediatr (Rio J) . ...

  13. Radiative B Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Bard, D.; /Imperial Coll., London

    2011-11-23

    I discuss recent results in radiative B decays from the Belle and BaBar collaborations. I report new measurements of the decay rate and CP asymmetries in b {yields} s{gamma} and b {yields} d{gamma} decays, and measurements of the photon spectrum in b {yields} s{gamma}. Radiative penguin decays are flavour changing neutral currents which do not occur at tree level in the standard model (SM), but must proceed via one loop or higher order diagrams. These transitions are therefore suppressed in the SM, but offer access to poorlyknown SM parameters and are also a sensitive probe of new physics. In the SM, the rate is dominated by the top quark contribution to the loop, but non-SM particles could also contribute with a size comparable to leading SM contributions. The new physics effects are potentially large which makes them theoretically very interesting, but due to their small branching fractions they are typically experimentally challenging.

  14. RARE KAON DECAYS.

    SciTech Connect

    LITTENBERG, L.

    2005-07-19

    Lepton flavor violation (LFV) experiments have probed sensitivities corresponding to mass scales of well over 100 TeV, making life difficult for models predicting accessible LFV in kaon decay and discouraging new dedicated experiments of this type.

  15. Observation of charmless hadronic B decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Padilla, C.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Girone, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A. O.; Bonvicini, G.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Cattaneo, M.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lutters, G.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Moneta, L.; Oest, T.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rizzo, G.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, F.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Abbaneo, D.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Giehl, I.; Greene, A. M.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Ragusa, F.; Bauer, C.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Denis, R. St.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Choi, Y.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Grahl, J.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, A. M.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1996-02-01

    Four candidates for charmless hadronic B decay are observed in a data sample of four million hadronic Z decays recorded by the ALEPH detector at LEP. The probability that these events come from background sources is estimated to be less than 10 -6. The average branching ratio of weakly decaying B hadrons (a mixture of B d0, B s0 and Λb weighted by their production cross sections and lifetimes, here denoted B) into two long-lived charged hadrons (pions, kaons or protons) is measured to be Br(B → h +h -) = (1.7 -0.7+1.0 ± 0.2) × 10 -5. The relative branching fraction {Br( B d(s)0 → π +π -(K -)) }/{Br( B d(s)0 → h +h -) } is measured to be 1.0 -0.3 -0.1+0.0 +0.0. In addition, branching ratio upper limits are obtained for a variety of exclusive charmless hadronic two-body decays of B hadrons.

  16. N-{Delta} weak transition

    SciTech Connect

    Graczyk, Krzysztof M.

    2011-11-23

    A short review of the Rein-Sehgal and isobar models is presented. The attention is focused on the nucleon-{Delta}(1232) weak transition form-factors. The results of the recent re-analyses of the ANL and BNL bubble chamber neutrino-deuteron scattering data are discussed.

  17. Focal weakness following herpes zoster.

    PubMed Central

    Cockerell, O C; Ormerod, I E

    1993-01-01

    Three patients presented with focal weakness of an arm which followed segmental herpes zoster affecting the same limb. Neurophysiological investigations suggest that the site of the lesion lay at the root, plexus, or peripheral nerve level. This reflects the various ways in which the virus may affect the peripheral nervous system. PMID:8410022

  18. Cosmology with weak lensing surveys.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick

    2005-12-15

    Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening mass. Since the lensing effects arise from deflections of the light rays due to fluctuations of the gravitational potential, they can be directly related to the underlying density field of the large-scale structures. Weak gravitational surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background observations as they probe unbiased nonlinear matter power spectra at medium redshift. Ongoing CMBR experiments such as WMAP and a future Planck satellite mission will measure the standard cosmological parameters with unprecedented accuracy. The focus of attention will then shift to understanding the nature of dark matter and vacuum energy: several recent studies suggest that lensing is the best method for constraining the dark energy equation of state. During the next 5 year period, ongoing and future weak lensing surveys such as the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM; e.g. SNAP) or the Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope will play a major role in advancing our understanding of the universe in this direction. In this review article, we describe various aspects of probing the matter power spectrum and the bi-spectrum and other related statistics with weak lensing surveys. This can be used to probe the background dynamics of the universe as well as the nature of dark matter and dark energy. PMID:16286284

  19. Relaxion monodromy and the Weak Gravity Conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, L. E.; Montero, M.; Uranga, A. M.; Valenzuela, I.

    2016-04-01

    The recently proposed relaxion models require extremely large trans-Planckian axion excursions as well as a potential explicitly violating the axion shift symmetry. The latter property is however inconsistent with the axion periodicity, which corresponds to a gauged discrete shift symmetry. A way to make things consistent is to use monodromy, i.e. both the axion and the potential parameters transform under the discrete shift symmetry. The structure is better described in terms of a 3-form field C μνρ coupling to the SM Higgs through its field strength F 4. The 4-form also couples linearly to the relaxion, in the Kaloper-Sorbo fashion. The extremely small relaxion-Higgs coupling arises in a see-saw fashion as g ≃ F 4 /f , with f being the axion decay constant. We discuss constraints on this type of constructions from membrane nucleation and the Weak Gravity Conjecture. The latter requires the existence of membranes, whose too fast nucleation could in principle drive the theory out of control, unless the cut-off scale is lowered. This allows to rule out the simplest models with the QCD axion as relaxion candidate on purely theoretical grounds. We also discuss possible avenues to embed this structure into string theory.

  20. Decay of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Beacom, John F; Bell, Nicole F; Hooper, Dan; Pakvasa, Sandip; Weiler, Thomas J

    2003-05-01

    Existing limits on the nonradiative decay of one neutrino to another plus a massless particle (e.g., a singlet Majoron) are very weak. The best limits on the lifetime to mass ratio come from solar neutrino observations and are tau/m greater, similar 10(-4) s/eV for the relevant mass eigenstate(s). For lifetimes even several orders of magnitude longer, high-energy neutrinos from distant astrophysical sources would decay. This would strongly alter the flavor ratios from the phi(nu(e)):phi(nu(mu)):phi(nu(tau))=1:1:1 expected from oscillations alone and should be readily visible in the near future in detectors such as IceCube. PMID:12785996

  1. The production and decay of hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Szymanski, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    Hypernuclei have been studied for the last 35 years using several techniques. Since 1970, the {sup A}Z (K{sup {minus}},{pi}{sup {minus}}) {sub {Lambda}}{sup A}Z strangeness-exchange reaction has been used at CERN, BNL, and KEK to produce hypernuclei and study their spectroscopic properties. These studies also include experiments where decay gamma rays and hypernuclear weak decay products are detected in coincidence with hypernuclear production. Recent experiments at BNL and KEK have proven the utility of the {sup A}Z ({pi}{sup +},K{sup +}) {sub {Lambda}}{sup A}Z reaction to study hypernuclear spectroscopy. Although I have no hope of covering this field in much detail, I write this paper as an introduction to the subject and highlights some of the recent experimental developments. 37 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Spin transport of weakly disordered Heisenberg chain at infinite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khait, Ilia; Gazit, Snir; Yao, Norman Y.; Auerbach, Assa

    2016-06-01

    We study the disordered Heisenberg spin chain, which exhibits many-body localization at strong disorder, in the weak to moderate disorder regime. A continued fraction calculation of dynamical correlations is devised, using a variational extrapolation of recurrents. Good convergence for the infinite chain limit is shown. We find that the local spin correlations decay at long times as C ˜t-β , whereas the conductivity exhibits a low-frequency power law σ ˜ωα . The exponents depict subdiffusive behavior β <1 /2 ,α >0 at all finite disorders and convergence to the scaling result α +2 β =1 at large disorders.

  3. Measuring the Higgs-bottom coupling in weak boson fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, Christoph; Mattelaer, Olivier; Spannowsky, Michael

    2016-05-01

    We study Higgs production through weak boson fusion with subsequent decay to bottom quarks. By combining jet substructure techniques and matrix element methods in different limits we motivate this channel as a probe of the bottom-Yukawa interactions in the boosted regime. In particular we ameliorate the "no-go" results of cut-and-count analyses in this channel. After applying a data-driven reconstruction approach we find that the Higgs-bottom coupling can be limited to 0.82

  4. Decay of metastable topological defects

    SciTech Connect

    Preskill, J. ); Vilenkin, A. Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 )

    1993-03-15

    We systematically analyze the decay of metastable topological defects that arise from the spontaneous breakdown of gauge or global symmetries. Quantum-mechanical tunneling rates are estimated for a variety of decay processes. The decay rate for a global string, vortex, domain wall, or kink is typically suppressed compared to the decay rate for its gauged counterpart. We also discuss the decay of global texture, and of semilocal and electroweak strings.

  5. J /ψ →Ds ,dπ , Ds ,dK decays with perturbative QCD approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junfeng; Yang, Yueling; Gao, Jie; Chang, Qin; Huang, Jinshu; Lu, Gongru

    2016-08-01

    Besides the conventional strong and electromagnetic decay modes, the J /ψ particle can also decay via the weak interaction in the standard model. In this paper, nonleptonic J /ψ →Ds ,dπ , Ds ,dK weak decays, corresponding to the externally emitted virtual W boson process, are investigated with the perturbative QCD approach. It is found that the branching ratio for the Cabibbo-favored J /ψ →Dsπ decay can reach up to O (10-10), which might be potentially measurable at the future high-luminosity experiments.

  6. Weak values and weak coupling maximizing the output of weak measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Di Lorenzo, Antonio

    2014-06-15

    In a weak measurement, the average output 〈o〉 of a probe that measures an observable A{sup -hat} of a quantum system undergoing both a preparation in a state ρ{sub i} and a postselection in a state E{sub f} is, to a good approximation, a function of the weak value A{sub w}=Tr[E{sub f}A{sup -hat} ρ{sub i}]/Tr[E{sub f}ρ{sub i}], a complex number. For a fixed coupling λ, when the overlap Tr[E{sub f}ρ{sub i}] is very small, A{sub w} diverges, but 〈o〉 stays finite, often tending to zero for symmetry reasons. This paper answers the questions: what is the weak value that maximizes the output for a fixed coupling? What is the coupling that maximizes the output for a fixed weak value? We derive equations for the optimal values of A{sub w} and λ, and provide the solutions. The results are independent of the dimensionality of the system, and they apply to a probe having a Hilbert space of arbitrary dimension. Using the Schrödinger–Robertson uncertainty relation, we demonstrate that, in an important case, the amplification 〈o〉 cannot exceed the initial uncertainty σ{sub o} in the observable o{sup -hat}, we provide an upper limit for the more general case, and a strategy to obtain 〈o〉≫σ{sub o}. - Highlights: •We have provided a general framework to find the extremal values of a weak measurement. •We have derived the location of the extremal values in terms of preparation and postselection. •We have devised a maximization strategy going beyond the limit of the Schrödinger–Robertson relation.

  7. Optimizing SNAP for Weak Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    High, F. W.; Ellis, R. S.; Massey, R. J.; Rhodes, J. D.; Lamoureux, J. I.; SNAP Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    The Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) satellite proposes to measure weak gravitational lensing in addition to type Ia supernovae. Its pixel scale has been set to 0.10 arcsec per pixel as established by the needs of supernova observations. To find the optimal pixel scale for accurate weak lensing measurements we conduct a tradeoff study in which, via simulations, we fix the suvey size in total pixels and vary the pixel scale. Our preliminary results show that with a smaller scale of about 0.08 arcsec per pixel we can minimize the contribution of intrinsic shear variance to the error on the power spectrum of mass density distortion. Currently we are testing the robustness of this figure as well as determining whether dithering yields analogous results.

  8. Overdamping by weakly coupled environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Massimiliano; Haake, Fritz

    2005-12-01

    A quantum system weakly interacting with a fast environment usually undergoes a relaxation with complex frequencies whose imaginary parts are damping rates quadratic in the coupling to the environment in accord with Fermi’s “golden rule.” We show for various models (spin damped by harmonic-oscillator or random-matrix baths, quantum diffusion, and quantum Brownian motion) that upon increasing the coupling up to a critical value still small enough to allow for weak-coupling Markovian master equations, a different relaxation regime can occur. In that regime, complex frequencies lose their real parts such that the process becomes overdamped. Our results call into question the standard belief that overdamping is exclusively a strong coupling feature.

  9. Overdamping by weakly coupled environments

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, Massimiliano; Haake, Fritz

    2005-12-15

    A quantum system weakly interacting with a fast environment usually undergoes a relaxation with complex frequencies whose imaginary parts are damping rates quadratic in the coupling to the environment in accord with Fermi's 'golden rule'. We show for various models (spin damped by harmonic-oscillator or random-matrix baths, quantum diffusion, and quantum Brownian motion) that upon increasing the coupling up to a critical value still small enough to allow for weak-coupling Markovian master equations, a different relaxation regime can occur. In that regime, complex frequencies lose their real parts such that the process becomes overdamped. Our results call into question the standard belief that overdamping is exclusively a strong coupling feature.

  10. Tomography and weak lensing statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Munshi, Dipak; Coles, Peter; Kilbinger, Martin E-mail: peter.coles@astro.cf.ac.uk

    2014-04-01

    We provide generic predictions for the lower order cumulants of weak lensing maps, and their correlators for tomographic bins as well as in three dimensions (3D). Using small-angle approximation, we derive the corresponding one- and two-point probability distribution function for the tomographic maps from different bins and for 3D convergence maps. The modelling of weak lensing statistics is obtained by adopting a detailed prescription for the underlying density contrast that involves hierarchal ansatz and lognormal distribution. We study the dependence of our results on cosmological parameters and source distributions corresponding to the realistic surveys such as LSST and DES. We briefly outline how photometric redshift information can be incorporated in our results. We also show how topological properties of convergence maps can be quantified using our results.

  11. Weak nuclear interactions in neon-21 and neon-18

    SciTech Connect

    Von Lintig, Richard David

    1981-01-01

    The results of two experiments involving weak meson exchange among nucleons are reviewed. Measurements are described of the circular polarization of 2.789 MeV gamma rays associated with the 2.789/2.796 MeV parity mixed doublet in /sup 21/Ne. Also reported are measurements of the 0/sup +/ - 0/sup -/ beta decay from /sup 18/Ne to the 1.081 MeV 0/sup -/ state of /sup 18/F, itself part of a spin-zero doublet of considerable interest for parity mixing. The significance of the results to the theory of weak non-leptonic interactions is examined. An argument is repeated that more careful interpretation of the results in terms of the fundamental weak interaction is needed. The circular polarization of the 2.789 MeV radiation from /sup 21/Ne is (20 +- 26) x 10/sup -4/, a small result in view of the enhancement of this effect due to narrow doublet separation and the forbidden character of the transition. Simultaneous measurements of the circular polarization of 2.439 MeV radiation, which should not exhibit the parity violating effect even if the 1/2/sup -/ (2.789 MeV) state contains a significant parity impurity, indicate an absence of bias in the measurements. The relative probability of the 0/sup +/ - 0/sup -/ (1.081 MeV) decay from /sup 18/Ne is (2.26 +- .37) x 10/sup -4/. The two-body (or meson exchange) contribution to this transition is the isospin analog of parity mixing between the 1042-keV (J/sup ..pi../;T = 0/sup +/;1) and 1081-keV (J/sup ..pi../;T = 0/sup -/;0) states of /sup 18/F. The theoretical relation which has been shown to exist between these two weak interaction phenomena is recounted, so that the importance of the beta-decay measurement to non-leptonic weak interaction physics can be appreciated.

  12. Flavor-changing leptonic decays of heavy Higgs bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sher, Marc; Thrasher, Keith

    2016-03-01

    CMS has reported indications (2.4 σ ) of the decay of the Higgs boson into μ τ . The simplest explanation for such a decay would be a general two-Higgs doublet model (2HDM). In this case, one would expect the heavy neutral Higgs bosons, H and A , to also decay in a similar manner. We study two specific models. The first is the type III 2HDM, and the second is a 2HDM, originally proposed by Branco et al., in which all flavor-changing neutral processes are given by the weak mixing matrix. In the latter model, since mixing between the second and third generations in the lepton sector is large, flavor-changing interactions are large. In this model, we find that the decays of H and A to μ τ can be as high as 60%.

  13. Langmuir wave decay in turbulent inhomogeneous solar wind plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, C.; Volokitin, A.

    2016-03-01

    Langmuir wave decay in solar wind plasmas typical of type III bursts' source regions near 1 AU have been reported by several spacecraft observations. In such plasmas, due to the presence of random density fluctuations, wave decay occurs usually simultaneously and compete with other coupling effects between the fields and the density irregularities, as reflection, scattering and/or refraction processes. Numerical simulations show that resonant three-wave coupling processes including several cascades of Langmuir wave decay can occur in such plasmas, leading to wave energy transfer to smaller wavenumbers k, as shown in the frame of weak turbulence theory. However, in such conditions, and contrary to what occurs in homogeneous plasmas, the decay process is localized in space at a given time. Moreover, wave-wave coupling plays a significant role in the modulation of the Langmuir waveforms, in agreement with recent space observations.

  14. Concentration of Laplace Eigenfunctions and Stabilization of Weakly Damped Wave Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burq, N.; Zuily, C.

    2016-08-01

    In this article, we prove some universal bounds on the speed of concentration on small (frequency-dependent) neighbourhoods of sub-manifolds of L 2-norms of quasi modes for Laplace operators on compact manifolds. We deduce new results on the rate of decay of weakly damped wave equations.

  15. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremonesi, Oliviero

    2016-05-01

    After more than 3/4 of century from its proposal, Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (NLDBD) is still missing observation and continues to represent the only practical method for investigating the Dirac/Majorana nature of neutrinos. In case neutrinos would be Majorana particles, NLDBD would provide unique informations on their properties (absolute mass scale and Majorana phases). Boosted by the discovery of neutrino oscillations, a number of experiments with improved sensitivity have been proposed in the past decade. Some of them have recently started operation and others are ready to start. They will push the experimental sensitivity on the decay halflife beyond 1026 year, starting to analyze the region of the inverted mass hierarchy. The status and perspectives of the ongoing experimental effort are reviewed. Uncertainties coming from the calculation othe decay nuclear matrix elements (NME) as well as the recently suggested possibility of a relevant quenching of the axial coupling constant are also discussed.

  16. Decay of superdeformed bands

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.P.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major challenges in the study of superdeformation is to directly connect the large number of superdeformed bands now known to the yrast states. In this way, excitation energies, spins and parities can be assigned to the levels in the second well which is essential to establish the collective and single-particle components of these bands. This paper will review some of the progress which has been made to understand the decay of superdeformed bands using the new arrays including the measurement of the total decay spectrum and the establishment of direct one-step decays from the superdeformed band to the yrast line in {sup 194}Hg. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Hadronic D decays involving even-parity light mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.-Y.; Chiang, C.-W.

    2010-04-01

    We study the hadronic D meson decays into a pseudoscalar meson P and an even-parity meson M, where M represents a scalar meson S, an axial-vector meson A, or a tensor meson T. These decays are first analyzed in the flavor-diagram approach. Fits to the SP modes with S being a nonstrange scalar meson show that neither the simple qq picture nor the q{sup 2}q{sup 2} scheme is favored by data. Current measurements on the AP decays are insufficient for a meaningful analysis. Some TP data are inconsistent with the others. In certain cases, the W-annihilation diagrams indicated by the data are unexpectedly large. As a comparison, we also compute their decay rates in the factorization approach using form factors extracted from the covariant light-front model. We find that factorization works well for Cabibbo-allowed D{sup +{yields}}SP, AP decays free of the weak annihilation contributions (W-exchange or W-annihilation). For the other SP and AP modes, it is necessary to include weak annihilation contributions to account for the data. However, factorization fails for D{yields}TP decays for some unknown reason; the predicted rates are in general too small by at least 2 orders of magnitude compared to experiment. We also examine the finite-width effects of resonances. Some decay modes which are kinematically forbidden become physically allowed due to the finite width of the resonance. We show that the branching fraction of D{sup +{yields}{sigma}{pi}+} extracted from three-body decays is enhanced by a factor of 2, whereas B(D{sup 0{yields}}f{sub 2}(1270)K{sup 0}) is reduced by a factor of 4 by finite-width effects.

  18. Search for the decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casanova Mohr, R.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gastaldi, U.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthieu, K.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Ninci, D.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.

    2015-08-01

    A search for decays is performed using 3 .0 fb1- of pp collision data recorded by the LHCb experiment during 2011 and 2012. The f 0(980) meson is reconstructed through its decay to the π + π - final state in the mass window 900 MeV /c 2 < m( π + π -) < 1080 MeV /c 2. No significant signal is observed. The first upper limits on the branching fraction of are set at 90 % (95 %) confidence level. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Competing weak localization and weak antilocalization in ultrathin topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Murong; He, Liang; Kou, Xufeng; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Fan, Yabin; Chu, Hao; Yeh, Nai-Chang; Wang, Kang

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate the evidences of a surface gap opening in (Bi0.57Sb0.43)2 Te3 samples for film thickness below 6 quintuple layers, through magnetotransport and scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements. By tuning Fermi level position relative to the gap, the striking crossover between weak antilocalization and weak localization is observed in nonmagnetic 4 and 5 QL films at low field region, a characteristic feature of quantum interferences competition, possibly owing to the change of net Berry phase. Furthermore, when the Fermi level is swept into the surface gap, the overall unitary behaviors are revealed at higher magnetic field, which are in contrast to the pure WAL signals obtained in thicker films. Besides, the surface bandgap of ultrathin film is also determined by low temperature STS measurements. Our findings show an exotic phenomenon characterizing the gapped TI surface states and point to the future realization of quantum spin Hall effect and dissipationless TI-based applications. This work was in part supported by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Focus Center Research Program-Center on Functional Engineered Nano Architectonics (FENA).

  20. Decay Time of Cathodoluminescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Simple measurements of the decay time of cathodoluminescence are described. Cathodoluminescence is used in many devices, including computer monitors, oscilloscopes, radar displays and television tubes. The experimental setup is simple and easy to build. Two oscilloscopes, a function generator, and a fast photodiode are needed for the experiments.…

  1. Chiral quirkonium decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fok, R.; Kribs, Graham D.

    2011-08-01

    We calculate the two-body decay rates of quirkonium states formed from quirks that acquire mass solely through electroweak symmetry breaking. We consider SU(N)ic infracolor with two flavors of quirks transforming under the electroweak group (but not QCD) of the standard model. In one case, the quirks are in a chiral representation of the electroweak group, while in the other case, a vectorlike representation. The differences in the dominant decay channels between “chiral quirkonia” versus “vectorlike quirkonia” are striking. Several chiral quirkonia states can decay into the unique two-body resonance channels WH, ZH, tt¯, tb¯/bt¯, and γH, which never dominate for vectorlike quirkonia. Additionally, the channels WW, WZ, ZZ, and Wγ, are shared among both chiral and vectorlike quirkonia. Resonances of dileptons or light quarks (dijets) can dominate for some vectorlike quirkonia states throughout their mass range, while these modes never dominate for chiral quirkonia unless the decays into pairs of gauge or Higgs bosons are kinematically forbidden.

  2. Chiral Quirkonium Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Fok, R.; Kribs, Graham D.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-01

    We calculate the two-body decay rates of quirkonium states formed from quirks that acquire mass solely through electroweak symmetry breaking. We consider SU(N){sub ic} infracolor with two flavors of quirks transforming under the electroweak group (but not QCD) of the standard model. In one case, the quirks are in a chiral representation of the electroweak group, while in the other case, a vectorlike representation. The differences in the dominant decay channels between 'chiral quirkonia' versus 'vectorlike quirkonia' are striking. Several chiral quirkonia states can decay into the unique two-body resonance channels WH, ZH, t{bar t}, t{bar b}/b{bar t}, and {gamma}H, which never dominate for vectorlike quirkonia. Additionally, the channels WW, WZ, ZZ, and W{gamma}, are shared among both chiral and vectorlike quirkonia. Resonances of dileptons or light quarks (dijets) can dominate for some vectorlike quirkonia states throughout their mass range, while these modes never dominate for chiral quirkonia unless the decays into pairs of gauge or Higgs bosons are kinematically forbidden.

  3. Weak lensing by galaxy troughs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruen, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Galaxy troughs, i.e. underdensities in the projected galaxy field, are a weak lensing probe of the low density Universe with high signal-to-noise ratio. I present measurements of the radial distortion of background galaxy images and the de-magnification of the CMB by troughs constructed from Dark Energy Survey and Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy catalogs. With high statistical significance and a relatively robust modeling, these probe gravity in regimes of density and scale difficult to access for conventional statistics.

  4. Detecting weakly interacting massive particles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drukier, A. K.; Gelmini, G. B.

    The growing synergy between astrophysics, particle physics, and low background experiments strengthens the possibility of detecting astrophysical non-baryonic matter. The idea of direct detection is that an incident, massive weakly interacting particle could collide with a nucleus and transfer an energy that could be measured. The present low levels of background achieved by the PNL/USC Ge detector represent a new technology which yields interesting bounds on Galactic cold dark matter and on light bosons emitted from the Sun. Further improvements require the development of cryogenic detectors. The authors analyse the practicality of such detectors, their optimalization and background suppression using the "annual modulation effect".

  5. Tagged-weak {pi} method

    SciTech Connect

    Margaryan, A.; Hashimoto, O.; Kakoyan, V.; Knyazyan, S.; Tang, L.

    2011-02-15

    A new 'tagged-weak {pi} method' is proposed for determination of electromagnetic transition probabilities B(E2) and B(M1) of the hypernuclear states with lifetimes of {approx}10{sup -10} s. With this method, we are planning to measure B(E2) and B(M1) for light hypernuclei at JLab. The results of Monte Carlo simulations for the case of E2(5/2{sup +}, 3/2{sup +} {yields} 1/2{sup +}) transitions in {sub {Lambda}}{sup 7}He hypernuclei are presented.

  6. Electromagnetic weak turbulence theory revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, P. H.; Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R.; Pavan, J.

    2012-10-15

    The statistical mechanical reformulation of weak turbulence theory for unmagnetized plasmas including fully electromagnetic effects was carried out by Yoon [Phys. Plasmas 13, 022302 (2006)]. However, the wave kinetic equation for the transverse wave ignores the nonlinear three-wave interaction that involves two transverse waves and a Langmuir wave, the incoherent analogue of the so-called Raman scattering process, which may account for the third and higher-harmonic plasma emissions. The present paper extends the previous formalism by including such a term.

  7. Anatomy of decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bel, Lennaert; De Bruyn, Kristof; Fleischer, Robert; Mulder, Mick; Tuning, Niels

    2015-07-01

    The decays B {/d 0} → D {/d -} D {/d +} and B {/s 0} → D {/s -} D {/s +} probe the CP-violating mixing phases ϕ d and ϕ s , respectively. The theoretical uncertainty of the corresponding determinations is limited by contributions from penguin topologies, which can be included with the help of the U-spin symmetry of the strong interaction. We analyse the currently available data for B {/d, s 0} → D {/d, s -} D {/d, s +} decays and those with similar dynamics to constrain the involved non-perturbative parameters. Using further information from semileptonic B {/d 0} → D {/d -} ℓ + ν ℓ decays, we perform a test of the factorisation approximation and take non-factorisable SU(3)-breaking corrections into account. The branching ratios of the B {/d 0} → D {/d -} D {/d +}, B {/s 0} → D {/s -} D {/d +} and B {/s 0} → D {/s -} D {/s +}, B {/d 0} → D {/d -} D {/s +} decays show an interesting pattern which can be accommodated through significantly enhanced exchange and penguin annihilation topologies. This feature is also supported by data for the B {/s 0} → D {/d -} D {/d +} channel. Moreover, there are indications of potentially enhanced penguin contributions in the B {/d 0} → D {/d -} D {/d +} and B {/s 0} → D {/s -} D {/s +} decays, which would make it mandatory to control these effects in the future measurements of ϕ d and ϕ s . We discuss scenarios for high-precision measurements in the era of Belle II and the LHCb upgrade.

  8. Charge on a weak polyelectrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengqin; Granick, Steve; Zhao, Jiang

    2008-12-01

    Fluorescence measurements with single-molecule sensitivity are used to measure the hydrodynamic size and local pH of a weak polyelectrolyte, poly-2-vinyl pyridine end labeled with pH-sensitive dye, the polyelectrolyte having concentration so low (nanomolars) that molecular properties are resolvable only from fluorescence experiments and cannot be accessed by light scattering. We find that the local pH near the dye, inferred from its brightness, is consistently three orders of magnitude higher than the bulk pH. Upon varying the bulk pH, we measure the collapse point at which hydrophobic attraction overwhelms electrostatic repulsion between charged elements along the chain, and conclude that adding monovalent salt shifts this coil-to-globule collapse to higher pH than in the absence of salt. The influence of salt appears to shift the ionization equilibrium of this weak polyelectrolyte in the direction of the chain possessing enhanced electric charge at a given pH. Phenomenologically, this is opposite to the case for strong polyelectrolytes, although the mechanism differs.

  9. Airway clearance in neuromuscular weakness.

    PubMed

    Gauld, Leanne Maree

    2009-05-01

    Impaired airway clearance leads to recurrent chest infections and respiratory deterioration in neuromuscular weakness. It is frequently the cause of death. Cough is the major mechanism of airway clearance. Cough has several components, and assessment tools are available to measure the different components of cough. These include measuring peak cough flow, respiratory muscle strength, and inspiratory capacity. Each is useful in assessing the ability to generate an effective cough, and can be used to guide when techniques of assisting airway clearance may be effective for the individual and which are most effective. Techniques to assist airway clearance include augmenting inspiration by air stacking, augmenting expiration by assisting the cough, and augmenting both inspiration and expiration with the mechanical insufflator-exsufflator or by direct suctioning via a tracheostomy. Physiotherapists are invaluable in assisting airway clearance, and in teaching patients and their families how to use these techniques. Use of the mechanical insufflator-exsufflator has gained popularity in recent times, but several simpler, more economical methods are available to assist airway clearance that can be used effectively alone or in combination. This review examines the literature available on the assessment and management of impaired airway clearance in neuromuscular weakness. PMID:19379290

  10. Weak lensing and cosmological investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaviva, Viviana

    2005-03-01

    In the last few years the scientific community has been dealing with the challenging issue of identifying the dark energy component. We regard weak gravitational lensing as a brand new, and extremely important, tool for cosmological investigation in this field. In fact, the features imprinted on the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation by the lensing from the intervening distribution of matter represent a pretty unbiased estimator, and can thus be used for putting constraints on different dark energy models. This is true in particular for the magnetic-type B-modes of CMB polarization, whose unlensed spectrum at large multipoles (l ~= 1000) is very small even in presence of an amount of gravitational waves as large as currently allowed by the experiments: therefore, on these scales the lensing phenomenon is the only responsible for the observed power, and this signal turns out to be a faithful tracer of the dark energy dynamics. We first recall the formal apparatus of the weak lensing in extended theories of gravity, introducing the physical observables suitable to cast the bridge between lensing and cosmology, and then evaluate the amplitude of the expected effect in the particular case of a Non-Minimally-Coupled model, featuring a quadratic coupling between quintessence and Ricci scalar.

  11. The weak scale from BBN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Pinner, David; Ruderman, Joshua T.

    2014-12-01

    The measured values of the weak scale, v, and the first generation masses, m u, d, e , are simultaneously explained in the multiverse, with all these parameters scanning independently. At the same time, several remarkable coincidences are understood. Small variations in these parameters away from their measured values lead to the instability of hydrogen, the instability of heavy nuclei, and either a hydrogen or a helium dominated universe from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. In the 4d parameter space of ( m u , m d , m e , v), catastrophic boundaries are reached by separately increasing each parameter above its measured value by a factor of (1.4, 1.3, 2.5, ˜ 5), respectively. The fine-tuning problem of the weak scale in the Standard Model is solved: as v is increased beyond the observed value, it is impossible to maintain a significant cosmological hydrogen abundance for any values of m u, d, e that yield both hydrogen and heavy nuclei stability.

  12. Weak antilocalisation in topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xintao; Hankiewicz, Ewelina; Culcer, Dimitrie

    2014-03-01

    Topological insulators (TI) have changed our understanding of insulating behaviour. They are insulators in the bulk but conducting along their surfaces due to spin-orbit interaction. Much of the recent research focuses on overcoming the transport bottleneck, the fact that surface state transport is overwhelmed by bulk transport stemming from unintentional doping. The key to overcoming this bottleneck is identifying unambiguous signatures of surface state transport. This talk will discuss one such signature, which is manifest in the coherent backscattering of electrons. Due to strong spin-orbit coupling in TI one expects to observe weak antilocalisation rather than weak localisation, meaning that coherent backscattering increases the electrical conductivity. The features of this effect, however, are rather subtle, because in TI the impurities have strong spin-orbit coupling as well. I will show that spin-orbit coupled impurities introduce an additional time scale, which is expected to be shorter than the dephasing time, and the resulting conductivity has a logarithmic dependence on the carrier density, a behaviour hitherto unknown in 2D electron systems. The result we predict is observable experimentally and would provide a smoking gun test of surface transport.

  13. Determination of AFBb using jet charge measurements in Z decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ALEPH Collaboration; Barate, R.; Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Pietrzyk, B.; Alemany, R.; Boix, G.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Graugès, E.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Becker, U.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Casper, D.; Cattaneo, M.; Ciulli, V.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Lehraus, I.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moneta, L.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Chazelle, G.; Deschamps, O.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J.-C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Halley, A. W.; Lynch, J. G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Buchmüller, O.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Martin, E. B.; Marinelli, N.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Spagnolo, P.; Williams, M. D.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Buck, P. G.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Robertson, N. A.; Williams, M. I.; Giehl, I.; Greene, A. M.; Hoffmann, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Etienne, F.; Leroy, O.; Motsch, F.; Payre, P.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Antonelli, M.; Ragusa, F.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Mannert, C.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Tournefier, E.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Boccali, T.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Chambers, J. T.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M.-C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Konstantinidis, N.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Kelly, M. S.; Lehto, M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Affholderbach, K.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y.; González, S.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; McNamara, P. A., III; Nachtman, J. M.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.

    1998-04-01

    An improved measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry in decays is presented, based on a sample of 4.1 million hadronic Z decays collected by ALEPH between 1991 and 1995. Data are analysed as a function of polar angle of the event axis and b purity. The event tagging efficiency and mean b-jet hemisphere charge are measured directly from data. From the measured forward-backward jet charge asymmetry, the b quark asymmetry at is determined to be: . In the context of the Standard Model this corresponds to a value of the effective weak mixing angle of .

  14. Rare Down Quark Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Kwong-Kwai Humphrey

    1992-01-01

    The rare decays bto sX are sensitive to strong interaction corrections. The effects can be estimated by a renormalization group technique which requires the evaluation of QCD mixing among effective operators. In the dimensional reduction and the naive dimensional regularization methods, there are discrepancies in evaluating the QCD mixing of the four-quark operators with the bto sgamma and bto s+gluon dipole operators. In this thesis, the problem is investigated by considering the contributions of the epsilon -scalar field and the epsilon -dimensional operators that distinguish between the two methods. The discrepancies are shown to come from the epsilon-dimensional four-quark operators in dimensional reduction and not from the epsilon -scalar field. In the decay bto sl^+l^ -, the intermediate of cc pairs in the charm-penguin diagram can form the resonance states J/psi and psi^'. In the published literature, there is a sign discrepancy in the Breit-Wigner amplitude for the resonance effects. Here, the sign difference is settled by considering the unitarity limit of the amplitude in the Argand diagram. The effects of the resonances are quite substantial on the invariant mass spectrum for this decay. However, they are shown to be negligible on the dilepton energy spectrum below 0.95 GeV. The energy spectrum is, thus, more useful than the invariant mass spectrum for measurements of the top -quark mass. The decays Bto K^*X are well modeled by the quark-level decays bto sX. In the quark model, the hadronization is done using a nonrelativistic wave function. In the decay B to K^*gamma, the large K ^* recoil creates an uncertainty in calculating the branching ratio using the quark model. The problem is explored by considering other meson processes where data exist. The data on the pi form factor and the omegapi^0 transition form factor suggest the necessity to retain relativistic spinor and meson normalizations in the quark -model; however, the data do not resolve the

  15. Continuum-state and bound-state β--decay rates of the neutron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, M.; Ivanov, A. N.; Ivanova, V. A.; Marton, J.; Pitschmann, M.; Serebrov, A. P.; Troitskaya, N. I.; Wellenzohn, M.

    2009-09-01

    For the β--decay of the neutron we analyze the continuum-state and bound-state decay modes. We calculate the decay rates, the electron energy spectrum for the continuum-state decay mode, and angular distributions of the decay probabilities for the continuum-state and bound-state decay modes. The theoretical results are obtained for the new value for the axial coupling constant gA=1.2750(9), obtained recently by H. Abele [Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 60, 1 (2008)] from the fit of the experimental data on the coefficient of the correlation of the neutron spin and the electron momentum of the electron energy spectrum of the continuum-state decay mode. We take into account the contribution of radiative corrections and the scalar and tensor weak couplings. The calculated angular distributions of the probabilities of the bound-state decay modes of the polarized neutron can be used for the experimental measurements of the bound-state β--decays into the hyperfine states with total angular momentum F=1 and scalar and tensor weak coupling constants.

  16. B Decays Involving Light Mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Eschrich, Ivo Gough; /UC, Irvine

    2007-01-09

    Recent BABAR results for decays of B-mesons to combinations of non-charm mesons are presented. This includes B decays to two vector mesons, B {yields} {eta}{prime}({pi}, K, {rho}) modes, and a comprehensive Dalitz Plot analysis of B {yields} KKK decays.

  17. B, D and K Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Artuso, M.; Asner, D.M.; Ball, P.; Baracchini, E.; Bell, G.; Beneke, M.; Berryhill, J.; Bevan, A.; Bigi, I.I.; Blanke, M.; Bobeth, Ch.; Bona, M.; Borzumati, F.; Browder, T.; Buanes, T.; Buchalla, G.; Buchmuller, O.; Buras, A.J.; Burdin, S.; Cassel, D.G.; Cavanaugh, R.; /Syracuse U. /Carleton U. /Durham U., IPPP /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Karlsruhe U. /RWTH Aachen U. /Fermilab /Queen Mary, U. of London /Notre Dame U. /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Dortmund U. /Annecy, LAPP /ICTP, Trieste /Taiwan, Natl. Central U. /Hawaii U. /Bergen U. /Munich U. /CERN /Liverpool U.

    2008-03-07

    The present report documents the results of Working Group 2: B, D and K decays, of the workshop on Flavor in the Era of the LHC, held at CERN from November 2005 through March 2007. With the advent of the LHC, we will be able to probe New Physics (NP) up to energy scales almost one order of magnitude larger than it has been possible with present accelerator facilities. While direct detection of new particles will be the main avenue to establish the presence of NP at the LHC, indirect searches will provide precious complementary information, since most probably it will not be possible to measure the full spectrum of new particles and their couplings through direct production. In particular, precision measurements and computations in the realm of flavor physics are expected to play a key role in constraining the unknown parameters of the Lagrangian of any NP model emerging from direct searches at the LHC. The aim of Working Group 2 was twofold: on one hand, to provide a coherent, up-to-date picture of the status of flavor physics before the start of the LHC; on the other hand, to initiate activities on the path towards integrating information on NP from high-p{sub T} and flavor data. This report is organized as follows. In Sec. 1, we give an overview of NP models, focusing on a few examples that have been discussed in some detail during the workshop, with a short description of the available computational tools for flavor observables in NP models. Sec. 2 contains a concise discussion of the main theoretical problem in flavor physics: the evaluation of the relevant hadronic matrix elements for weak decays. Sec. 3 contains a detailed discussion of NP effects in a set of flavor observables that we identified as 'benchmark channels' for NP searches. The experimental prospects for flavor physics at future facilities are discussed in Sec. 4. Finally, Sec. 5 contains some assessments on the work done at the workshop and the prospects for future developments.

  18. B, D and K decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchalla, G.; Komatsubara, T. K.; Muheim, F.; Silvestrini, L.; Artuso, M.; Asner, D. M.; Ball, P.; Baracchini, E.; Bell, G.; Beneke, M.; Berryhill, J.; Bevan, A.; Bigi, I. I.; Blanke, M.; Bobeth, Ch.; Bona, M.; Borzumati, F.; Browder, T.; Buanes, T.; Buchmüller, O.; Buras, A. J.; Burdin, S.; Cassel, D. G.; Cavanaugh, R.; Ciuchini, M.; Colangelo, P.; Crosetti, G.; Dedes, A.; de Fazio, F.; Descotes-Genon, S.; Dickens, J.; Doležal, Z.; Dürr, S.; Egede, U.; Eggel, C.; Eigen, G.; Fajfer, S.; Feldmann, Th.; Ferrandes, R.; Gambino, P.; Gershon, T.; Gibson, V.; Giorgi, M.; Gligorov, V. V.; Golob, B.; Golutvin, A.; Grossman, Y.; Guadagnoli, D.; Haisch, U.; Hazumi, M.; Heinemeyer, S.; Hiller, G.; Hitlin, D.; Huber, T.; Hurth, T.; Iijima, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Isidori, G.; Jäger, S.; Khodjamirian, A.; Koppenburg, P.; Lagouri, T.; Langenegger, U.; Lazzeroni, C.; Lenz, A.; Lubicz, V.; Lucha, W.; Mahlke, H.; Melikhov, D.; Mescia, F.; Misiak, M.; Nakao, M.; Napolitano, J.; Nikitin, N.; Nierste, U.; Oide, K.; Okada, Y.; Paradisi, P.; Parodi, F.; Patel, M.; Petrov, A. A.; Pham, T. N.; Pierini, M.; Playfer, S.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Poschenrieder, A.; Raimondi, P.; Recksiegel, S.; Řezníček, P.; Robert, A.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruggiero, G.; Sarti, A.; Schneider, O.; Schwab, F.; Simula, S.; Sivoklokov, S.; Slavich, P.; Smith, C.; Smizanska, M.; Soni, A.; Speer, T.; Spradlin, P.; Spranger, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stech, B.; Stocchi, A.; Stone, S.; Tarantino, C.; Teubert, F.; T'jampens, S.; Toms, K.; Trabelsi, K.; Trine, S.; Uhlig, S.; Vagnoni, V.; van Hunen, J. J.; Weiglein, G.; Weiler, A.; Wilkinson, G.; Xie, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Zhu, G.; Zupan, J.; Zwicky, R.

    2008-09-01

    The present report documents the results of Working Group 2: B, D and K decays, of the workshop on Flavor in the Era of the LHC, held at CERN from November 2005 through March 2007. With the advent of the LHC, we will be able to probe New Physics (NP) up to energy scales almost one order of magnitude larger than it has been possible with present accelerator facilities. While direct detection of new particles will be the main avenue to establish the presence of NP at the LHC, indirect searches will provide precious complementary information, since most probably it will not be possible to measure the full spectrum of new particles and their couplings through direct production. In particular, precision measurements and computations in the realm of flavor physics are expected to play a key role in constraining the unknown parameters of the Lagrangian of any NP model emerging from direct searches at the LHC. The aim of Working Group 2 was twofold: on the one hand, to provide a coherent up-to-date picture of the status of flavor physics before the start of the LHC; on the other hand, to initiate activities on the path towards integrating information on NP from high- p T and flavor data. This report is organized as follows: in Sect. 1, we give an overview of NP models, focusing on a few examples that have been discussed in some detail during the workshop, with a short description of the available computational tools for flavor observables in NP models. Section 2 contains a concise discussion of the main theoretical problem in flavor physics: the evaluation of the relevant hadronic matrix elements for weak decays. Section 3 contains a detailed discussion of NP effects in a set of flavor observables that we identified as “benchmark channels” for NP searches. The experimental prospects for flavor physics at future facilities are discussed in Sect. 4. Finally, Sect. 5 contains some assessments on the work done at the workshop and the prospects for future developments.

  19. Decay Dynamics of Tumors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The fractional cell kill is a mathematical expression describing the rate at which a certain population of cells is reduced to a fraction of itself. We investigate the mathematical function that governs the rate at which a solid tumor is lysed by a cell population of cytotoxic lymphocytes. We do it in the context of enzyme kinetics, using geometrical and analytical arguments. We derive the equations governing the decay of a tumor in the limit in which it is plainly surrounded by immune cells. A cellular automaton is used to test such decay, confirming its validity. Finally, we introduce a modification in the fractional cell kill so that the expected dynamics is attained in the mentioned limit. We also discuss the potential of this new function for non-solid and solid tumors which are infiltrated with lymphocytes. PMID:27310010

  20. The Computational Complexity of Weak Saddles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Felix; Brill, Markus; Fischer, Felix; Hoffmann, Jan

    We continue the recently initiated study of the computational aspects of weak saddles, an ordinal set-valued solution concept proposed by Shapley. Brandt et al. gave a polynomial-time algorithm for computing weak saddles in a subclass of matrix games, and showed that certain problems associated with weak saddles of bimatrix games are NP-complete. The important question of whether weak saddles can be found efficiently was left open. We answer this question in the negative by showing that finding weak saddles of bimatrix games is NP-hard, under polynomial-time Turing reductions. We moreover prove that recognizing weak saddles is coNP-complete, and that deciding whether a given action is contained in some weak saddle is hard for parallel access to NP and thus not even in NP unless the polynomial hierarchy collapses. Our hardness results are finally shown to carry over to a natural weakening of weak saddles.

  1. Heterogeneous, weakly coupled map lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotelo Herrera, M.a. Dolores; San Martín, Jesús; Porter, Mason A.

    2016-07-01

    Coupled map lattices (CMLs) are often used to study emergent phenomena in nature. It is typically assumed (unrealistically) that each component is described by the same map, and it is important to relax this assumption. In this paper, we characterize periodic orbits and the laminar regime of type-I intermittency in heterogeneous weakly coupled map lattices (HWCMLs). We show that the period of a cycle in an HWCML is preserved for arbitrarily small coupling strengths even when an associated uncoupled oscillator would experience a period-doubling cascade. Our results characterize periodic orbits both near and far from saddle-node bifurcations, and we thereby provide a key step for examining the bifurcation structure of heterogeneous CMLs.

  2. Weakly ionized cerium plasma radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Germer, Rudolf; Koorikawa, Yoshitake; Murakami, Kazunori; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Ichimaru, Toshio; Obata, Fumiko; Takahashi, Kiyomi; Sato, Sigehiro; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Ido, Hideaki

    2004-02-01

    In the plasma flash x-ray generator, high-voltage main condenser of about 200 nF is charged up to 55 kV by a power supply, and electric charges in the condenser are discharged to an x-ray tube after triggering the cathode electrode. The flash x-rays are then produced. The x-ray tube is of a demountable triode that is connected to a turbo molecular pump with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. As electron flows from the cathode electrode are roughly converged to a rod cerium target of 3.0 mm in diameter by electric field in the x-ray tube, the weakly ionized linear plasma, which consists of cerium ions and electrons, forms by target evaporating. At a charging voltage of 55 kV, the maximum tube voltage was almost equal to the charging voltage of the main condenser, and the peak current was about 20 kA. When the charging voltage was increased, weakly ionized cerium plasma formed, and the K-series characteristic x-ray intensities increased. The x-ray pulse widths were about 500 ns, and the time-integrated x-ray intensity had a value of about 40 μC/kg at 1.0 m from x-ray source with a charging voltage of 55 kV. In the angiography, we employed a film-less computed radiography (CR) system and iodine-based microspheres. Because K-series characteristic x-rays are absorbed easily by the microspheres, high-contrast angiography has been performed.

  3. Statistical theory of electromagnetic weak turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Peter H.

    2006-02-15

    The weak turbulence theory as commonly found in the literature employs electrostatic approximation and is applicable to unmagnetized plasmas only. To this date, fully electromagnetic generalization of the existing weak turbulence theory based upon statistical mechanical approach remains largely incomplete. Instead, electromagnetic effects are incorporated into the weak turbulence formalism by means of the semiclassical approach. The present paper reformulates the fully electromagnetic weak turbulence theory from classical statistical mechanical (i.e., the Klimontovich) approach.

  4. Inspecting the Higgs for new weakly interacting particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Clifford; McDermott, Samuel D.; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2013-04-01

    We explore new physics scenarios which are optimally probed through precision Higgs measurements rather than direct collider searches. Such theories consist of additional electroweak charged or singlet states which couple directly to or mix with the Higgs boson; particles of this kind may be weakly constrained by direct limits due to their meager production rates and soft decay products. We present a simplified framework which characterizes the effects of these states on Higgs physics by way of tree level mixing (with neutral scalars) and loop level modifications (from electrically charged states), all expressed in terms of three mixing angles and three loop parameters, respectively. The theory parameters are constrained and in some cases even fixed by ratios of Higgs production and decay rates. Our setup is simpler than a general effective operator analysis, in that we discard parameters irrelevant to Higgs observables while retaining complex correlations among measurements that arise due to the underlying mixing and radiative effects. We show that certain correlated observations are forbidden, e.g. a depleted ratio of Higgs production from gluon fusion versus vector boson fusion together with a depleted ratio of Higgs decays to boverline{b} versus WW. Moreover, we study the strong correlation between the Higgs decay rate to γγ and WW and how it can be violated in the presence of additional electrically charged particles. Our formalism maps straightforwardly onto a variety of new physics models, such as the NMSSM. We show, for example, that with a Higgsino of mass {m_{{χ_1^{± }}}}gtrsim 100 GeV and a singlet-Higgs coupling of λ = 0.7, the photon signal strength can deviate from the vector signal strength by up to ˜ 40 - 60% while depleting the vector signal strength by only 5 - 15% relative to the Standard Model.

  5. RADIATIVE PENGUIN DECAYS FROM BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Eigen, Gerald

    2003-08-28

    Electroweak penguin decays provide a promising hunting ground for Physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). The decay B {yields} X{sub s}{gamma}, which proceeds through an electromagnetic penguin loop, already provides stringent constraints on the supersymmetric (SUSY) parameter space. The present data samples of {approx}1 x 10{sup 8} B{bar B} events allow to explore radiative penguin decays with branching fractions of the order of 10{sup -6} or less. In this brief report they discuss a study of B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} decay modes and a search for B {yields} {rho}({omega}){gamma} decays.

  6. Charmless b decays at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Donega, Mauro; /Geneva U.

    2005-07-01

    The authors report on the charmless B decays measurements performed on 180 pb{sup -1} of data collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. This paper describes: the first observation of the decay mode B{sub s} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and the measurement of the direct Cp asymmetry in the ({bar B}){sub d} {yields} K{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} decay; the first evidence of the decay mode B{sub s} {yields} {phi}{phi} and the branching ratio and Cp asymmetry for the B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}} decay.

  7. Decays of bottom mesons emitting tensor mesons in the final state using the Isgur-Scora-Grinstein-Wise II model

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Neelesh; Verma, R. C.; Dhir, Rohit

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate phenomenologically two-body weak decays of the bottom mesons emitting pseudoscalar/vector meson and a tensor meson. Form factors are obtained using the improved Isgur-Scora-Grinstein-Wise II model. Consequently, branching ratios for the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa-favored and Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa-suppressed decays are calculated.

  8. Predictions of B{sub c} meson decay emitting pseudoscalar and heavy scalar mesons using ISGW II model

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Neelesh; Verma, R. C.

    2010-11-01

    Two-body hadronic weak decays of B{sub c} meson emitting pseudoscalar and heavy scalar mesons are investigated using the Spectator Quark Model. Decay amplitudes are obtained using the factorization scheme; consequently, branching ratios are predicted in the Isgur-Scora-Grinstein-Wise (ISGW II) model.

  9. Pion Asymmetries due to Hyperon Decays in the Qweak Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elledge, Jacob

    2015-10-01

    The Qweak experiment took place at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility between 2010 and 2012. In the experiment an electron beam was directed onto a liquid hydrogen target. The purpose of the Qweak experiment is to investigate the weak interaction between the proton and the electron. The experiment determined the proton's weak charge by measuring the asymmetry in elastic scattering when changing the helicity of the incoming electron beam 960 times per second. Under different kinematic conditions the experiment investigated inelastic scattering with pions in the final state, a background for the elastic scattering measurement. In this inelastic measurement, a false asymmetry due to parity-violating hyperon decays must be determined. Using the results of a simulation written in Geant4, I have been able to isolate the cross sections for samples of opposite helicities. By combining this cross section with the signal of detected pions from hyperon decay, I was able to isolate the expected false asymmetry.

  10. General analysis of U-spin breaking in B decays

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Martin; Mannel, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    We analyze the breaking of U-spin on a group theoretical basis. Because of the simple behavior of the weak effective Hamiltonian under U-spin and the unique structure of the breaking terms such a group theoretical analysis leads to a manageable number of parameters. Several applications are discussed, including the decays B{yields}J/{psi}K and B{yields}DK.

  11. Nuclear matrix elements for double-β decay

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, Jonathan

    2015-07-15

    Recent progress in nuclear-structure theory has been dramatic. I describe applications in progress of ab inito calculations to double-beta decay, and discuss the recent and future application of generator-coordinate methods to the same problem. I also discuss the old and vexing problem of the renormalization of the weak nuclear axial-vector coupling constant “in medium” and plans to resolve it.

  12. B meson decays into charmless pseudoscalar scalar mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Delepine, D.; Lucio M, J. L.; Ramirez, Carlos A.; Mendoza S, J. A.

    2007-06-19

    The nonleptonic weak decays of meson B into a scalar and pseudoscalar meson are studied. The scalar mesons under consideration are {sigma} (or f0(600)), f0(980), a0(980) and K{sub 0}{sup *}(1430). We calculate the Branching ratios in the Naive Factorization approximation. Scalars are assumed to be qq-bar bounded sates, but an estimation can be obtained in the case they are four bounded states.

  13. Efficient generation of distant atom entanglement via cavity decay

    SciTech Connect

    Chimczak, Grzegorz

    2005-05-15

    We show how the entanglement of two atoms, trapped in distant separate cavities, can be generated with arbitrarily high probability of success. The scheme proposed employs sudden excitation of the atoms proving that the weakly driven condition is not necessary to obtain the success rate close to unity. The modified scheme works properly even if each cavity contains many atoms interacting with the cavity modes. We also show that our method is robust against spontaneous atomic decay.

  14. Protecting weak measurements against systematic errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Shengshi; Alonso, Jose Raul Gonzalez; Brun, Todd A.; Jordan, Andrew N.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we consider the systematic error of quantum metrology by weak measurements under decoherence. We derive the systematic error of maximum likelihood estimation in general to the first-order approximation of a small deviation in the probability distribution and study the robustness of standard weak measurement and postselected weak measurements against systematic errors. We show that, with a large weak value, the systematic error of a postselected weak measurement when the probe undergoes decoherence can be significantly lower than that of a standard weak measurement. This indicates another advantage of weak-value amplification in improving the performance of parameter estimation. We illustrate the results by an exact numerical simulation of decoherence arising from a bosonic mode and compare it to the first-order analytical result we obtain.

  15. A Universe without Weak Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2006-04-07

    A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''Weakless Universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting Standard Model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the Weakless Universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multi-parameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe.

  16. Weak percolation on multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Gareth J.; Dorogovtsev, Sergey N.; Mendes, José F. F.; Cellai, Davide

    2014-04-01

    Bootstrap percolation is a simple but nontrivial model. It has applications in many areas of science and has been explored on random networks for several decades. In single-layer (simplex) networks, it has been recently observed that bootstrap percolation, which is defined as an incremental process, can be seen as the opposite of pruning percolation, where nodes are removed according to a connectivity rule. Here we propose models of both bootstrap and pruning percolation for multiplex networks. We collectively refer to these two models with the concept of "weak" percolation, to distinguish them from the somewhat classical concept of ordinary ("strong") percolation. While the two models coincide in simplex networks, we show that they decouple when considering multiplexes, giving rise to a wealth of critical phenomena. Our bootstrap model constitutes the simplest example of a contagion process on a multiplex network and has potential applications in critical infrastructure recovery and information security. Moreover, we show that our pruning percolation model may provide a way to diagnose missing layers in a multiplex network. Finally, our analytical approach allows us to calculate critical behavior and characterize critical clusters.

  17. Weak percolation on multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Gareth J; Dorogovtsev, Sergey N; Mendes, José F F; Cellai, Davide

    2014-04-01

    Bootstrap percolation is a simple but nontrivial model. It has applications in many areas of science and has been explored on random networks for several decades. In single-layer (simplex) networks, it has been recently observed that bootstrap percolation, which is defined as an incremental process, can be seen as the opposite of pruning percolation, where nodes are removed according to a connectivity rule. Here we propose models of both bootstrap and pruning percolation for multiplex networks. We collectively refer to these two models with the concept of "weak" percolation, to distinguish them from the somewhat classical concept of ordinary ("strong") percolation. While the two models coincide in simplex networks, we show that they decouple when considering multiplexes, giving rise to a wealth of critical phenomena. Our bootstrap model constitutes the simplest example of a contagion process on a multiplex network and has potential applications in critical infrastructure recovery and information security. Moreover, we show that our pruning percolation model may provide a way to diagnose missing layers in a multiplex network. Finally, our analytical approach allows us to calculate critical behavior and characterize critical clusters. PMID:24827287

  18. Weakly Supervised Human Fixations Prediction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luming; Li, Xuelong; Nie, Liqiang; Yang, Yi; Xia, Yingjie

    2016-01-01

    Automatically predicting human eye fixations is a useful technique that can facilitate many multimedia applications, e.g., image retrieval, action recognition, and photo retargeting. Conventional approaches are frustrated by two drawbacks. First, psychophysical experiments show that an object-level interpretation of scenes influences eye movements significantly. Most of the existing saliency models rely on object detectors, and therefore, only a few prespecified categories can be discovered. Second, the relative displacement of objects influences their saliency remarkably, but current models cannot describe them explicitly. To solve these problems, this paper proposes weakly supervised fixations prediction, which leverages image labels to improve accuracy of human fixations prediction. The proposed model hierarchically discovers objects as well as their spatial configurations. Starting from the raw image pixels, we sample superpixels in an image, thereby seamless object descriptors termed object-level graphlets (oGLs) are generated by random walking on the superpixel mosaic. Then, a manifold embedding algorithm is proposed to encode image labels into oGLs, and the response map of each prespecified object is computed accordingly. On the basis of the object-level response map, we propose spatial-level graphlets (sGLs) to model the relative positions among objects. Afterward, eye tracking data is employed to integrate these sGLs for predicting human eye fixations. Thorough experiment results demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art. PMID:26168451

  19. Beta Decay of 101Sn

    SciTech Connect

    Kavatsyuk, O.; Mazzocchi, C.; Janas, Z.; Banu, A.; Batist, L.; Becker, F.; Blazhev, A.; Bruchle, W.; Doring, J.; Faestermann, T.; Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Jungclaus, A.; Karny, M.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Klepper, O.; Kirchner, R.; La Commara, M.; Miernik, K.; Mukha, I.; Plettner, C.; Plochocki, A.; Roeckl, E.; Romoli, M.; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Schadel, M.; Schmidt, K.; Schwengner, R.; Zylicz, J.

    2007-01-01

    The {beta} decay of the very neutron-deficient isotope 101Sn was studied at the GSI on-line mass separator using silicon detectors for recording charged particles and germanium detectors for {gamma}-ray spectroscopy. Based on the {beta}-delayed proton data the production cross-section of 101Sn in the 50Cr + 58Ni fusion-evaporation reaction was determined to be about 60nb. The half-life of 101Sn was measured to be 1.9(3)s. For the first time {beta}-delayed {gamma}-rays of 101Sn were tentatively identified, yielding weak evidence for a cascade of 352 and 1065keV transitions in 101In. The results for the 101Sn decay as well as those from previous work on the 103Sn decay are discussed by comparing them to predictions obtained from shell model calculations employing a new interaction in the 88Sr to 132Sn model space.

  20. Bounding hadronic uncertainties in c →u decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevan, A. J.; Meadows, B.

    2014-11-01

    Time-dependent C P asymmetry measurements in D →h+h- decays, where h =π or ρ can, in principal, be used to constrain the angle βc of the c u unitarity triangle up to theoretical uncertainties. Here we discuss the theoretical uncertainty from penguin contributions that can be investigated through the use of isospin analyses. We show that uncertainty from penguin pollution on a measurement of βc (or alternatively the mixing phase) in D0→π+π- (ρ+ρ-) decays is 2.7° (4.6°). We also comment on the applicability of this method to D0→ρ π decays for which measurements of weak phases with a precision below the one degree level may be possible.

  1. Superheavy-quarkonium decays with two Higgs doublets

    SciTech Connect

    Eboli, O.J.P.; Natale, A.A.; Sima-tildeo, F.R.A.

    1989-05-01

    We study the decay modes of a S-wave superheavy quarkonium, formed by a possible fourth-generation quark in two-Higgs-doublet models. Because of the enhancement of Yukawa couplings and longitudinal weak bosons the main decays of these superheavy states will be into neutral scalar bosons H/sub i//sup 0/H/sub j//sup 0/ and a charged scalar plus a W boson. If the H/sup minus-or-plus/W/sup +- / channel is open for the psi(1/sup --/) superheavy quarkonium it will provide a quite clean signal for a charged Higgs boson. The decay of the pseudoscalar quarkonium eta(0/sup -+/) into a Z boson and one of the scalars will also be present in a large amount.

  2. Anharmonic phonon decay in cubic GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuscó, R.; Domènech-Amador, N.; Novikov, S.; Foxon, C. T.; Artús, L.

    2015-08-01

    We present a Raman-scattering study of optical phonons in zinc-blende (cubic) GaN for temperatures ranging from 80 to 750 K. The experiments were performed on high-quality, cubic GaN films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs (001) substrates. The observed temperature dependence of the optical phonon frequencies and linewidths is analyzed in the framework of anharmonic decay theory, and possible decay channels are discussed in the light of density-functional-theory calculations. The longitudinal-optical (LO) mode relaxation is found to occur via asymmetric decay into acoustic phonons, with an appreciable contribution of higher-order processes. The transverse-optical mode linewidth shows a weak temperature dependence and its frequency downshift is primarily determined by the lattice thermal expansion. The LO phonon lifetime is derived from the observed Raman linewidth and an excellent agreement with previous theoretical predictions is found.

  3. E6 Gamma Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B. Alex; Rae, W. D. M.

    2011-05-06

    Rare electric hexacontatetrapole (E6) transitions are studied in the full (f{sub 7/2},f{sub 5/2},p{sub 3/2},p{sub 1/2}) shell-model basis. Comparison of theory to the results from the gamma decay in {sup 53}Fe and from inelastic electron scattering on {sup 52}Cr provides unique and interesting tests of the valence wavefunctions, the models used for energy density functionals and into the origin of effective charge.

  4. Rare B Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.D.; /Victoria U.

    2006-02-24

    Recent results from Belle and BaBar on rare B decays involving flavor-changing neutral currents or purely leptonic final states are presented. Measurements of the CP asymmetries in B {yields} K*{gamma} and b {yields} s{gamma} are reported. Also reported are updated limits on B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}, B{sup +} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{nu}, B{sup +} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{nu} and the recent measurement of B {yields} X{sub s}{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}.

  5. Multifluid magnetohydrodynamics of weakly ionized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Raymond

    show that the total electric field in the asteroid may either be of comparable strength to the electric field predicted by Sonett et al. or vanish depending on the magnetic field geometry. We include the effects of dust grains in the gas and calculate the heating rates in the plasma flow due to ion-neutral scattering and viscous dissipation. We term this newly discovered heating mechanism "electrodynamic heating", use measurements of asteroid electrical conductivities to estimate the upper limits of the possible heating rates and amount of thermal energy that can be deposited in the solid body, and compare these to the heating produced by the decay of radioactive nuclei like Al26. For the second problem we modeled molecular line emission from time-dependent multifluid MHD shock waves in star-forming regions. By incorporating realistic radiative cooling by CO and H2 into the numerical method developed by Ciolek & Roberge (2013), we present the only current models of truly time-dependent multifluid MHD shock waves in weakly-ionized plasmas. Using the physical conditions determined by our models, we present predictions of molecular emission in the form of excitation diagrams, which can be compared to observations of protostellar outflows in order to trace the physical conditions of these environments. Current work focuses on creating models for varying initial conditions and shock ages, which are and will be the subject of several in progress studies of observed molecular outflows and will provide further insight into the physics and chemistry of these flows.

  6. Study of the decay asymmetry parameter and CP violation parameter in the Lambda(c)+ ---> Lambda pi+ decay

    SciTech Connect

    Link, J.M.; Yager, P.M.; Anjos, J.C.; Bediaga, I.; Castromonte, C.; Machado, A.A.; Magnin, J.; Massafferri, A.; de Miranda, J.M.; Pepe, I.M.; Polycarpo, E.; dos Reis, A.C.; Carrillo, S.; Casimiro, E.; Cuautle, E.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Uribe, C.; Vazquez, F.; Agostino, L.; Cinquini, L.; Cumalat, J.P.; /Colorado U. /Fermilab /Frascati /Guanajuato U. /Illinois U., Urbana /Indiana U. /Korea U. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /North Carolina U. /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /Rio de Janeiro, Pont. U. Catol. /Puerto Rico U., Mayaguez /South Carolina U. /Tennessee U. /Vanderbilt U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2005-09-01

    Using data from the FOCUS (E831) experiment at Fermilab, we present a new measurement of the weak decay-asymmetry parameter a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} in {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Lambda}{pi}{sup +} decay. Comparing particle with antiparticle decays, we obtain the first measurement of the CP violation parameter {Alpha} {triple_bond} a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} + a{sub {ovr {Lambda}{sub c}}}/a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} - a{sub {ovr {Lambda}{sub c}}}. We obtain a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} = -0.78 {+-} 0.16 {+-} 0.13 and {Alpha} = -0.07 {+-} 0.19 {+-} 0.12 where errors are statistical and systematic.

  7. Wood decay at sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, François; Coston-Guarini, Jennifer; Guarini, Jean-Marc; Fanfard, Sandrine

    2016-08-01

    The oceans and seas receive coarse woody debris since the Devonian, but the kinetics of wood degradation remains one of many unanswered questions about the fate of driftwood in the marine environment. A simple gravimetric experiment was carried out at a monitoring station located at the exit of a steep, forested Mediterranean watershed in the Eastern Pyrenees. The objective was to describe and quantify, with standardized logs (in shape, structure and constitution), natural degradation of wood in the sea. Results show that the mass decrease of wood logs over time can be described by a sigmoidal curve. The primary process of wood decay observed at the monitoring station was due to the arrival and installation of wood-boring species that consumed more than half of the total wood mass in six months. Surprisingly, in a region where there is little remaining wood marine infrastructure, "shipworms", i.e. xylophagous bivalves, are responsible for an important part of this wood decay. This suggests that these communities are maintained probably by a frequent supply of a large quantity of riparian wood entering the marine environment adjacent to the watershed. By exploring this direct link between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, our long term objective is to determine how these supplies of terrestrial organic carbon can sustain wood-based marine communities as it is observed in the Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Pixelation Effects in Weak Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    High, F. William; Rhodes, Jason; Massey, Richard; Ellis, Richard

    2007-11-01

    Weak gravitational lensing can be used to investigate both dark matter and dark energy but requires accurate measurements of the shapes of faint, distant galaxies. Such measurements are hindered by the finite resolution and pixel scale of digital cameras. We investigate the optimum choice of pixel scale for a space-based mission, using the engineering model and survey strategy of the proposed Supernova Acceleration Probe as a baseline. We do this by simulating realistic astronomical images containing a known input shear signal and then attempting to recover the signal using the Rhodes, Refregier, & Groth algorithm. We find that the quality of shear measurement is always improved by smaller pixels. However, in practice, telescopes are usually limited to a finite number of pixels and operational life span, so the total area of a survey increases with pixel size. We therefore fix the survey lifetime and the number of pixels in the focal plane while varying the pixel scale, thereby effectively varying the survey size. In a pure trade-off for image resolution versus survey area, we find that measurements of the matter power spectrum would have minimum statistical error with a pixel scale of 0.09" for a 0.14" FWHM point-spread function (PSF). The pixel scale could be increased to ~0.16" if images dithered by exactly half-pixel offsets were always available. Some of our results do depend on our adopted shape measurement method and should be regarded as an upper limit: future pipelines may require smaller pixels to overcome systematic floors not yet accessible, and, in certain circumstances, measuring the shape of the PSF might be more difficult than those of galaxies. However, the relative trends in our analysis are robust, especially those of the surface density of resolved galaxies. Our approach thus provides a snapshot of potential in available technology, and a practical counterpart to analytic studies of pixelation, which necessarily assume an idealized shape

  9. Pixelation Effects in Weak Lensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    High, F. William; Rhodes, Jason; Massey, Richard; Ellis, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing can be used to investigate both dark matter and dark energy but requires accurate measurements of the shapes of faint, distant galaxies. Such measurements are hindered by the finite resolution and pixel scale of digital cameras. We investigate the optimum choice of pixel scale for a space-based mission, using the engineering model and survey strategy of the proposed Supernova Acceleration Probe as a baseline. We do this by simulating realistic astronomical images containing a known input shear signal and then attempting to recover the signal using the Rhodes, Refregier, and Groth algorithm. We find that the quality of shear measurement is always improved by smaller pixels. However, in practice, telescopes are usually limited to a finite number of pixels and operational life span, so the total area of a survey increases with pixel size. We therefore fix the survey lifetime and the number of pixels in the focal plane while varying the pixel scale, thereby effectively varying the survey size. In a pure trade-off for image resolution versus survey area, we find that measurements of the matter power spectrum would have minimum statistical error with a pixel scale of 0.09' for a 0.14' FWHM point-spread function (PSF). The pixel scale could be increased to 0.16' if images dithered by exactly half-pixel offsets were always available. Some of our results do depend on our adopted shape measurement method and should be regarded as an upper limit: future pipelines may require smaller pixels to overcome systematic floors not yet accessible, and, in certain circumstances, measuring the shape of the PSF might be more difficult than those of galaxies. However, the relative trends in our analysis are robust, especially those of the surface density of resolved galaxies. Our approach thus provides a snapshot of potential in available technology, and a practical counterpart to analytic studies of pixelation, which necessarily assume an idealized shape

  10. Weak {}^* convergence of operator means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Alexandr V.

    2011-12-01

    For a linear operator U with \\Vert U^n\\Vert \\le \\operatorname{const} on a Banach space X we discuss conditions for the convergence of ergodic operator nets T_\\alpha corresponding to the adjoint operator U^* of U in the {W^*O}-topology of the space \\operatorname{End} X^*. The accumulation points of all possible nets of this kind form a compact convex set L in \\operatorname{End} X^*, which is the kernel of the operator semigroup G=\\overline{\\operatorname{co}}\\,\\Gamma_0, where \\Gamma_0=\\{U_n^*, n \\ge 0\\}. It is proved that all ergodic nets T_\\alpha weakly {}^* converge if and only if the kernel L consists of a single element. In the case of X=C(\\Omega) and the shift operator U generated by a continuous transformation \\varphi of a metrizable compactum \\Omega we trace the relationships among the ergodic properties of U, the structure of the operator semigroups L, G and \\Gamma=\\overline{\\Gamma}_0, and the dynamical characteristics of the semi-cascade (\\varphi,\\Omega). In particular, if \\operatorname{card}L=1, then a) for any \\omega \\in\\Omega the closure of the trajectory \\{\\varphi^n\\omega, n \\ge 0\\} contains precisely one minimal set m, and b) the restriction (\\varphi,m) is strictly ergodic. Condition a) implies the {W^*O}-convergence of any ergodic sequence of operators T_n \\in \\operatorname{End} X^* under the additional assumption that the kernel of the enveloping semigroup E(\\varphi,\\Omega) contains elements obtained from the `basis' family of transformations \\{\\varphi^n, n \\ge 0\\} of the compact set \\Omega by using some transfinite sequence of sequential passages to the limit.