Relationships between nonmesonic weak decays in different hypernuclei
Krmpotic, Franjo
2010-11-15
Using as a tool the s-wave approximation (sWA), this work demonstrates that the nonmesonic weak decay transition rates {Gamma}{sub n} and {Gamma}{sub p} can be expressed in all hypernuclei up to {sub {Lambda}}{sup 29}Si (and very likely in heavier ones too) in the same way as in the s-shell hypernuclei, i.e., as a linear combination of only three elementary transition rates. This finding leads to the analytic prediction that, independently of the transition mechanism, all hypernuclei that are on the stability line (N=Z), i.e., {sub {Lambda}}{sup 5}He, {sub {Lambda}}{sup 7}Li, {sub {Lambda}}{sup 9}Be, {sub {Lambda}}{sup 11}B, {sub {Lambda}}{sup 13}C, {sub {Lambda}}{sup 17}O, {sub {Lambda}}{sup 29}Si, etc., should roughly have the same ratio {Gamma}{sub n}/{Gamma}{sub p}, the magnitude of which rapidly increases when one approaches the neutron drip line (N>>Z), and the opposite happens when one goes toward the proton drip line (N<
Relativistic model for the nonmesonic weak decay of single-lambda hypernuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fontoura, C. E.; Krmpotić, F.; Galeão, A. P.; De Conti, C.; Krein, G.
2016-06-01
Having in mind its future extension for theoretical investigations related to charmed nuclei, we develop a relativistic formalism for the nonmesonic weak decay (NMWD) of single-Λ hypernuclei in the framework of the independent-particle shell model and with the dynamics represented by the (π ,K) one-meson-exchange model. Numerical results for the one-nucleon-induced transition rates of {}{{Λ }}12{{C}} are presented and compared with those obtained in the analogous nonrelativistic calculation. There is satisfactory agreement between the two approaches, and the only noteworthy difference is that the ratio {{{Γ }}}n/{{{Γ }}}p is appreciably higher and closer to the experimental value in the relativistic calculation. The ability of describing existing data, including the most recent ones, on NMWD of Λ-hypernuclei, warrants application of the formalism to evaluate similar decay processes in charmed nuclei.
Experimental Investigation of Weak Non-Mesonic Decay of 10Be(Lambda)Hypernuclei at CEBAF
S. Majewski; L. Majling; A. Margaryan; L. Tang
2005-08-05
Hypernuclei are convenient laboratory to study the baryon-baryon weak interaction and associated effective Hamiltonian. The strangeness changing process, in which a Lambda hyperon converts to a neutron with a release up to 176 MeV, provides a clear signal for a conversion of an s-quark to a d-quark. We propose to perform a non-mesonic weak decay study of 10Be(Lambda)hypernuclei using the (e,eK) reaction. These investigations will fully utilize the unique parameters of the CEBAF CW electron beam and RF system and are enabled by (1) the use of new detector for alpha particles based on the recently developed RF timing technique with picosecond resolution and (2) the small angle and large acceptance kaon spectrometer-HKS in Hall C.
Nonmesonic weak decay dynamics from proton spectra of Λ-hypernuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krmpotić, Franjo; de Conti, Cláudio
2014-12-01
A novel comparison between the data and the theory is proposed for the nonmesonic (NM) weak decay of hypernuclei. Instead of confronting the primary decay rates, as is usually done, we focus our attention on the effective decay rates that are straightforwardly related with the number of emitted particles. Proton kinetic energy spectra of {}5Λ He, {}7Λ Li, {}9Λ Be, {}11Λ B, {}12Λ C, {}13Λ C, {}15Λ N and {}16Λ O, measured by FINUDA, are evaluated theoretically. The independent particle shell model (IPSM) is used as the nuclear structure framework, while the dynamics is described by the one-meson-exchange (OME) potential. Only for the {}5Λ He, {}7Λ Li and {}12Λ C hypernuclei it is possible to make a comparison with the data, since for the rest there is no published experimental information on number of produced hypernuclei. Considering solely the one-nucleon-induced (1N-NM) decay channel, the theory reproduces correctly the shapes of all three spectra at medium and high energies (Ep ≳ 40 MeV). Yet, it greatly overestimates their magnitudes, as well as the corresponding transition rates when the full OME (π + K + η + ρ + ω + K*) model is used. The agreement is much improved when only the π + K mesons with soft dipole cutoff parameters participate in the decay process. We find that the IPSM is a fair first-order approximation to disentangle the dynamics of the 1N-NM decay, the knowledge of which is indispensable to inquire about the baryon-baryon strangeness-flipping interaction. It is shown that the IPSM provides very useful insights regarding the determination the 2N-NM decay rate. In a new analysis of the FINUDA data, we derive two results for this quantity with one of them close to that obtained previously.
Proton energy spectra in the nonmesonic weak decay of 12lambdaC and 28lambdaSi hypernuclei.
Hashimoto, O; Ajimura, S; Aoki, K; Bhang, H; Hasegawa, T; Hotchi, H; Kim, Y D; Kishimoto, T; Maeda, K; Noumi, H; Ohta, Y; Omata, K; Outa, H; Park, H; Sato, Y; Sekimoto, M; Shibata, T; Takahashi, T; Youn, M
2002-01-28
Numbers of protons per Gamma hypernuclear weak decay were measured as a function of proton energy above 40 MeV, explicitly identifying production of Gamma hypernuclei by the (pi+,K+) reaction. The ratios between the neutron-stimulated to proton-stimulated nonmesonic decay widths, Gamma((Lambda)n-->nn)/Gamma((Lambda)p-->np) ( = Gamma(n)/Gamma(p)) were extracted by fitting the proton energy spectra. The present result claims that the proton yields are suppressed and the Gamma(n)/Gamma(p) ratios are close to 1 both for 12LambdaC and 28LambdaSi in contradiction to theoretical expectations based on meson exchange models. PMID:11801115
One-nucleon-induced nonmesonic hypernuclear decay in laboratory coordinates
Galeao, A. P.; Barbero, C.; De Conti, C.; Krmpotic, F.
2013-05-06
We present a formalism for the computation of one-nucleon-induced nonmesonic weak hypernuclear decay rates in laboratory coordinates, within an independent-particle shell model framework, with a view to its generalization to the case of two-nucleon-induced transitions.
{lambda}(1405)-induced nonmesonic decay in kaonic nuclei
Sekihara, T.; Jido, D.; Kanada-En'yo, Y.
2009-06-15
Nonmesonic decay of kaonic nuclei is investigated under a {lambda}(1405) doorway picture in which the K absorptions in nuclei take place through the {lambda}(1405) resonance. Calculating {lambda}(1405)N{yields}YN transitions with one-meson exchange, we find that the nonmesonic decay ratio {gamma}{sub {lambda}}{sub N}/{gamma}{sub {sigma}{sup 0}}{sub N} depends strongly on the ratio of the couplings {lambda}(1405)-KN and {lambda}(1405)-{pi}{sigma}. Especially, a larger {lambda}(1405)-KN coupling leads to enhancement of the decay to {lambda}N. Using the chiral unitary approach for description of the KN amplitudes, we obtain {gamma}{sub {lambda}}{sub N}/{gamma}{sub {sigma}{sup 0}}{sub N}{approx_equal}1.2 almost independently of the nucleon density and find the total nonmesonic decay width calculated in uniform nuclear matter to be 22 MeV at the normal density.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itonaga, K.; Motoba, T.
The recent theoretical studies of Lambda-hypernuclear weak decaysof the nonmesonic and pi-mesonic ones are developed with the aim to disclose the link between the experimental decay observables and the underlying basic weak decay interactions and the weak decay mechanisms. The expressions of the nonmesonic decay rates Gamma_{nm} and the decay asymmetry parameter alpha_1 of protons from the polarized hypernuclei are presented in the shell model framework. We then introduce the meson theoretical Lambda N -> NN interactions which include the one-meson exchanges, the correlated-2pi exchanges, and the chiral-pair-meson exchanges. The features of meson exchange potentials and their roles on the nonmesonic decays are discussed. With the adoption of the pi + 2pi/rho + 2pi/sigma + omega + K + rhopi/a_1 + sigmapi/a_1 exchange potentials, we have carried out the systematic calculations of the nonmesonic decay observables for light-to-heavy hypernuclei. The present model can account for the available experimental data of the decay rates, Gamma_n/Gamma_p ratios, and the intrinsic asymmetry parameters alpha_Lambda (alpha_Lambda is related to alpha_1) of emitted protons well and consistently within the error bars. The hypernuclear lifetimes are evaluated by converting the total weak decay rates Gamma_{tot} = Gamma_pi + Gamma_{nm} to tau, which exhibit saturation property for the hypernuclear mass A ≥ 30 and agree grossly well with experimental data for the mass range from light to heavy hypernuclei except for the very light ones. Future extensions of the model and the remaining problems are also mentioned. The pi-mesonic weak processes are briefly surveyed, and the calculations and predictions are compared and confirmed by the recent high precision FINUDA pi-mesonic decay data. This shows that the theoretical basis seems to be firmly grounded.
L. Majling; A. Parreno; Amur Margaryan; Liguang Tang
2001-12-15
We demonstrate how the nuclear structure aspects of the problem, an often unwelcome detail of the calculations attempting to understand basic two-body interactions, can be used to pick out components of the effective weak Hamiltonian.
De Conti, C.; Barbero, C.; Galeão, A. P.; Krmpotić, F.
2014-11-11
In this work we compute the one-nucleon-induced nonmesonic hypernuclear decay rates of {sub Λ}{sup 5}He, {sub Λ}{sup 12}C and {sub Λ}{sup 13}C using a formalism based on the independent particle shell model in terms of laboratory coordinates. To ascertain the correctness and precision of the method, these results are compared with those obtained using a formalism in terms of center-of-mass coordinates, which has been previously reported in the literature. The formalism in terms of laboratory coordinates will be useful in the shell-model approach to two-nucleon-induced transitions.
The weak decay of helium hypernuclei
Athanas, M.J.
1992-08-01
A {Lambda} hyperon replaces a neutron in a nucleus to form a hypernucleus via the {sup A}X(K{sup {minus}}, {pi}{sup {minus}}) {sub {Lambda}}{sup A}X reaction at 750 MeV/c (Brookhaven Experiment 788). The free {Lambda} decay rates {Gamma}({Lambda} {yields} p{pi}{sup {minus}}) and {Gamma}({Lambda} {yields} n{pi}{sup 0}) are diminished due to Pauli blocking; but a non-mesonic decay mode, nucleon stimulated decay N{Lambda} {yields} Nn, is present and is detected via the energetic decay nucleon(s) ({approx} 400MeV/c). Measurements of the various hypernuclear decay rates {Gamma}({Lambda} {yields} p{pi}{sup {minus}}), {Gamma}({Lambda} {yields} n{pi}{sup 0}) and {Gamma}({Lambda}n {yields} nn) provides insight into the strong modification of the weak interaction such as the baryon-baryon {Delta}I ={1/2} rule. The hypernuclear state is isolated by momentum analysis of (K{sup {minus}}, {pi}{sup {minus}}) target reaction. Out-of-beam large volume scintillation detectors and tracking chambers axe used to make particle identification of the hypernuclear decay products by time-of-flight, dE/dx, and range. The kinetic energy of the decay neutrons are measured by time of flight using the large volume 100 element neutron detector system. The hypernuclear lifetime is directly measured using precision scintillator counters and tracking chambers. Measurements of the various decay rates as well as the total lifetime are discussed for {sub {Lambda}}{sup 4}He.
Grace, R.
1983-01-01
The Moby Dick spectrometer (at BNL) in coincidence with a range spectrometer and a TOF neutron detector will be used to study the weak decay modes of /sup 12/C. The Moby Dick spectrometer will be used to reconstruct and tag events in which specific hypernuclear states are formed in the reaction K/sup -/ + /sup 12/C ..-->.. ..pi../sup -/ + /sup 12/C. Subsequent emission of decay products (pions, protons and neutrons) in coincidence with the fast forward pion will be detected in a time and range spectrometer, and a neutron detector.
Weak radiative baryonic decays of B mesons
Kohara, Yoji
2004-11-01
Weak radiative baryonic B decays B{yields}B{sub 1}B{sub 2}-bar{gamma} are studied under the assumption of the short-distance b{yields}s{gamma} electromagnetic penguin transition dominance. The relations among the decay rates of various decay modes are derived.
Mesonic and nonmesonic absorption of kaon in nuclear matter and {Lambda}(1405) doorway process
Sekihara, T.; Yamagata-Sekihara, J.; Jido, D.; Kanada-En'yo, Y.
2010-12-28
The mesonic and nonmesonic absorptions of kaon into nuclear systems are investigated from a viewpoint of {Lambda}(1405) doorway process. Using a one-meson exchange model in the calculation of the nonmesonic {Lambda}(1405)N{yields}YN transition and using the chiral unitary approach for the description of the {Lambda}(1405), we obtain the nonmesonic transition ratio {Gamma}{sub {Lambda}N}/{Gamma}{sub {Sigma}}{sup 0}{sub N{approx_equal}}1.2 which is almost independent of the nucleon density, and find the total nonmesonic decay width of the {Lambda}(1405) in uniform nuclear matter to be 22 MeV at the normal density. We also calculate the absorption for stopped K{sup -} in nuclear matter, and find that the ''formation rate'' of {Lambda}(1405) is important for the density dependence and the absolute value of the absorption potential of kaon in nuclear matter.
Short range correlations in the weak decay of {Lambda} hypernuclei
Parreno, A.; Ramos, A.; Oset, E.
1995-05-01
The differences found in the relativistic and nonrelativistic methods used in the literature to account for short range nuclear correlations in the decay of {Lambda} hypernuclei are analyzed. By means of a schematic microscopic model for the origin of correlations, the appropriate method to include them in nuclear processes is derived and is found to be the same one used in the nonrelativistic approach. The differences do not stem from relativistic effects but from the improper implementation of the correlations in the relativistic approach, which leads to several pathologies as shown in the paper. General formulas are given to evaluate the nonmesonic decay width of finite hypernuclei and results are obtained for {sub {Lambda}}{sup 5}He and {sub {Lambda}}{sup 12}C.
Constraining weak annihilation using semileptonic D decays
Ligeti, Zoltan; Luke, Michael; Manohar, Aneesh V.
2010-08-01
The recently measured semileptonic D{sub s} decay rate can be used to constrain weak annihilation (WA) effects in semileptonic D and B decays. We revisit the theoretical predictions for inclusive semileptonic D{sub (s)} decays using a variety of quark mass schemes. The most reliable results are obtained if the fits to B decay distributions are used to eliminate the charm quark mass dependence, without using any specific charm mass scheme. Our fit to the available data shows that WA is smaller than commonly assumed. There is no indication that the WA octet contribution (which is better constrained than the singlet contribution) dominates. The results constrain an important source of uncertainty in the extraction of |V{sub ub}| from inclusive semileptonic B decays.
Weak Decays of Excited B Mesons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grinstein, B.; Martin Camalich, J.
2016-04-01
We investigate the decays of the excited (b q ¯) mesons as probes of the short-distance structure of the weak Δ B =1 transitions. These states are unstable under the electromagnetic or strong interactions, although their widths are typically suppressed by phase space. Compared to the pseudoscalar B meson, the purely leptonic decays of the vector B* are not chirally suppressed and are sensitive to different combinations of the underlying weak effective operators. An interesting example is Bs*→ℓ+ℓ-, which has a rate that can be accurately predicted in the standard model. The branching fraction is B ˜10-11, irrespective of the lepton flavor and where the main uncertainty stems from the unmeasured and theoretically not well known Bs* width. We discuss the prospects for producing this decay mode at the LHC and explore the possibility of measuring the Bs*→ℓℓ amplitude, instead, through scattering experiments at the Bs* resonance peak.
Weak Decays of Excited B Mesons.
Grinstein, B; Martin Camalich, J
2016-04-01
We investigate the decays of the excited (bq[over ¯]) mesons as probes of the short-distance structure of the weak ΔB=1 transitions. These states are unstable under the electromagnetic or strong interactions, although their widths are typically suppressed by phase space. Compared to the pseudoscalar B meson, the purely leptonic decays of the vector B^{*} are not chirally suppressed and are sensitive to different combinations of the underlying weak effective operators. An interesting example is B_{s}^{*}→ℓ^{+}ℓ^{-}, which has a rate that can be accurately predicted in the standard model. The branching fraction is B∼10^{-11}, irrespective of the lepton flavor and where the main uncertainty stems from the unmeasured and theoretically not well known B_{s}^{*} width. We discuss the prospects for producing this decay mode at the LHC and explore the possibility of measuring the B_{s}^{*}→ℓℓ amplitude, instead, through scattering experiments at the B_{s}^{*} resonance peak. PMID:27104698
Penguin diagram dominance in radiative weak decays of bottom baryons
Kohara, Yoji
2005-05-01
Radiative weak decays of antitriplet bottom baryons are studied under the assumption of penguin diagram dominance and flavor-SU(3) (or SU(2)) symmetry. Relations among decay rates of various decay modes are derived.
Weak decay studies from an effective theory standpoint
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yechan Gunja, Aditya
In this doctoral dissertation I discuss the phenomenology of some weak interaction decays using a model independent approach by employing effective field theories. I discuss the soft photon contribution and background effect to the rare dimuonic decay of the neutral B meson. I also study some radiative exclusive W boson decays in the standard model in the context of pQCD and SCET. Additionally I invoke leptonic decays of charged mesons to constrain two general models of light dark matter.
Nonleptonic weak decays of charmed mesons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buccella, F.; Lusignoli, M.; Miele, G.; Pugliese, A.; Santorelli, P.
1995-04-01
A previous analysis of two-body Cabibbo-allowed nonleptonic decays of D0 mesons and of Cabibbo-allowed and first-forbidden decays of D+ and D+s has been adjourned using more recent experimental data and extended to the Cabibbo-forbidden decays of D0. Annihilation and W-exchange contributions as well as final state interaction effects (assumed to be dominated by nearby resonances) have been included and are in fact crucial to obtain a reasonable agreement with the experimental data, which show large flavor SU(3) violations. New fitting parameters are necessary to describe rescattering effects for Cabibbo-forbidden D0 decays, given the lack of experimental information on isoscalar resonances. We keep their number to a minimum, three, using phenomenologically based considerations. We also discuss CP-violating asymmetries.
On weak decays of heavy flavors, mixing and CP violation
Bigi, I.I.
1987-10-01
Detailed studies of weak decays serve not only to confirm the Standard Model, but possess also a high sensitivity to New Physics: tau and top decays are discussed in this vein, with some short remarks on beauty and charm. The sensitivity to New Physics is even higher in delicate phenomena like mixing and CP violation: a fairly detailed discussion on K/sup 0/ - anti K/sup 0/, D/sup 0/ - anti D/sup 0/, and B/sup 0/ - anti B/sup 0/ mixing and on CP violation in K/sup 0/ and B decays is presented. 48 refs., 11 figs.
Weak annihilation and new physics in charmless decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobeth, Christoph; Gorbahn, Martin; Vickers, Stefan
2015-07-01
We use currently available data of nonleptonic charmless 2-body decays () that are mediated by QCD- and QED-penguin operators to study weak annihilation and new-physics effects in the framework of QCD factorization. In particular we introduce one weak-annihilation parameter for decays related by quark interchange and test this universality assumption. Within the standard model, the data supports this assumption with the only exceptions in the system, which exhibits the well-known " puzzle", and some tensions in . Beyond the standard model, we simultaneously determine weak-annihilation and new-physics parameters from data, employing model-independent scenarios that address the " puzzle", such as QED-penguins and current-current operators. We discuss also possibilities that allow further tests of our assumption once improved measurements from LHCb and Belle II become available.
Probing the Goldstone equivalence theorem in heavy weak doublet decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, Bhaskar; Gao, Yu; Sanford, David; Walker, Joel W.
2016-03-01
This paper investigates the decays from heavy Higgsino-like weak doublets into Z , h bosons and missing particles. When pair-produced at the LHC, the subsequent Z , h →ℓℓ , b b ¯ decays in the doublet decay cascade can yield 4 ℓ , 2 ℓ2 b and 4 b + E T+j (s ) final states. Mutual observation of any two of these channels would provide information on the associated doublets' decay branching fractions into a Z or h , thereby probing the Goldstone equivalence relation, shedding additional light on the Higgs sector of beyond the Standard Model theories and facilitating the discrimination of various contending models, in turn. We compare the Z /h decay ratio expected in the minimal supersymmetric model, the next-to-minimal supersymmetric model (NMSSM)and a minimal singlet-doublet dark matter model. Additionally, we conduct a full Monte Carlo analysis of the prospects for detecting the targeted final states during 14 TeV running of the LHC in the context of a representative NMSSM benchmark model.
Heavy-flavor-conserving hadronic weak decays of heavy baryons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Hai-Yang; Cheung, Chi-Yee; Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Yeu-Chung; Yan, Tung-Mow; Yu, Hoi-Lai
2016-03-01
More than two decades ago, we studied heavy-flavor-conserving weak decays of heavy baryons within the framework that incorporates both heavy-quark and chiral symmetries. In view of the first observation of Ξ b - → Λ b 0 π - by LHCb recently, we have reexamined these decays and presented updated predictions. The predicted rates for Ξ b - → Λ b 0 π - in the MIT bag and diquark models are consistent with experiment. The major theoretical uncertainty stems from the evaluation of baryon matrix elements. The branching fraction of Ξ c → Λ c π is predicted to be of order 10-4. It is suppressed relative to {B}({Ξ}_bto {Λ}_bπ ) owing to the shorter lifetime of Ξ c relative to Ξ b and the destructive nonspectator W-exchange contribution. The kinematically accessible weak decays of the sextet heavy baryon Ω Q are Ω Q → Ξ Q π. Due to the absence of the {{B}}_6-{{B}}{_3-} transition in the heavy quark limit and the {{B}}_6-{{B}}_6 transition in the model calculations, Ω Q → Ξ Q π vanish in the heavy quark limit.
Model independent predictions for rare top decays with weak coupling
Datta, Alakabha; Duraisamy, Murugeswaran
2010-04-01
Measurements at B factories have provided important constraints on new physics in several rare processes involving the B meson. New physics, if present in the b quark sector may also affect the top sector. In an effective Lagrangian approach, we write down operators, where effects in the bottom and the top sector are related. Assuming the couplings of the operators to be of the same size as the weak coupling g of the standard model and taking into account constraints on new physics from the bottom sector as well as top branching ratios, we make predictions for the rare top decays t{yields}cV, where V={gamma}, Z. We find branching fractions for these decays within possible reach of the LHC. Predictions are also made for t{yields}sW.
Growth and decay of weak shock waves in magnetogasdynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, L. P.; Singh, D. B.; Ram, S. D.
2015-12-01
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the problem of the propagation of weak shock waves in an inviscid, electrically conducting fluid under the influence of a magnetic field. The analysis assumes the following two cases: (1) a planar flow with a uniform transverse magnetic field and (2) cylindrically symmetric flow with a uniform axial or varying azimuthal magnetic field. A system of two coupled nonlinear transport equations, governing the strength of a shock wave and the first-order discontinuity induced behind it, are derived that admit a solution that agrees with the classical decay laws for a weak shock. An analytic expression for the determination of the shock formation distance is obtained. How the magnetic field strength, whether axial or azimuthal, influences the shock formation is also assessed.
Weak decays of heavy hadrons into dynamically generated resonances
Oset, Eulogio; Liang, Wei -Hong; Bayar, Melahat; Xie, Ju -Jun; Dai, Lian Rong; Albaladejo, Miguel; Nielsen, Marina; Sekihara, Takayasu; Navarra, Fernando; Roca, Luis; et al
2016-01-28
In this study, we present a review of recent works on weak decay of heavy mesons and baryons with two mesons, or a meson and a baryon, interacting strongly in the final state. The aim is to learn about the interaction of hadrons and how some particular resonances are produced in the reactions. It is shown that these reactions have peculiar features and act as filters for some quantum numbers which allow to identify easily some resonances and learn about their nature. The combination of basic elements of the weak interaction with the framework of the chiral unitary approach allowmore » for an interpretation of results of many reactions and add a novel information to different aspects of the hadron interaction and the properties of dynamically generated resonances.« less
Indirect evidences for existence of exotic mesons in hadronic weak decays of K and charm mesons
Terasaki, K.
1998-05-29
It is demonstrated that hadronic weak decays of K and charm mesons are intimately related to hadron spectroscopy. Long standing puzzles in hadronic weak decays of charm mesons can be solved by taking account of dynamical contributions of various hadrons including non-qq-bar mesons.
Electro-Weak Penguin and Leptonic Decays in BaBar
Di Lodovico, F.; /Queen Mary, U. of London
2005-09-08
Electro-weak penguin and leptonic decays provide an indirect probe for physics beyond the Standard Model and contribute to the determination of Standard Model parameters. Copious quantities of B mesons produced at the B-Factories permit precision measurements of the electro-weak penguin decays and searches for leptonic decays. We review the current experimental status of b {yields} s(d){gamma}, B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0}{gamma}, b {yields} s{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} and finally B{sup +} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{nu}{sub {tau}} decays at BABAR.
Freely Decaying Weak Turbulence for Sea Surface Gravity Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Onorato, M.; Osborne, A. R.; Serio, M.; Resio, D.; Pushkarev, A.; Zakharov, V. E.; Brandini, C.
2002-09-01
We study the long-time evolution of deep-water ocean surface waves in order to better understand the behavior of the nonlinear interaction processes that need to be accurately predicted in numerical models of wind-generated ocean surface waves. Of particular interest are those nonlinear interactions which are predicted by weak turbulence theory to result in a wave energy spectrum of the form of |k|-2.5. We numerically implement the primitive Euler equations for surface waves and demonstrate agreement between weak turbulence theory and the numerical results.
Freely decaying weak turbulence for sea surface gravity waves.
Onorato, M; Osborne, A R; Serio, M; Resio, D; Pushkarev, A; Zakharov, V E; Brandini, C
2002-09-30
We study the long-time evolution of deep-water ocean surface waves in order to better understand the behavior of the nonlinear interaction processes that need to be accurately predicted in numerical models of wind-generated ocean surface waves. Of particular interest are those nonlinear interactions which are predicted by weak turbulence theory to result in a wave energy spectrum of the form of [k](-2.5). We numerically implement the primitive Euler equations for surface waves and demonstrate agreement between weak turbulence theory and the numerical results. PMID:12366050
Freely Decaying Weak Turbulence For Sea Surface Gravity Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Onorato, M.; Osborne, A.; Resio, D.; Pushkarev, A.; Zakharov, V.; Serio, M.; Brandini, C.
We study numerically the generation of power laws in the framework of weak turbu- lence theory for surface gravity waves in deep water. Starting from a random wave field, we let the system evolve numerically according to the nonlinear Euler equations for gravity waves in infinitely deep water. In agreement with the theory of Zakharov and Filonenko, we find the formation of a power spectrum characterized by a power law of the form of |k|-2 . .5
Longitudinal vector form factors in weak decays of nuclei
Šimkovic, F.; Kovalenko, S.; Krivoruchenko, M. I.
2015-10-28
The longitudinal form factors of the weak vector current of particles with spin J = 1/2 and isospin I = 1/2 are determined by the mass difference and the charge radii of members of the isotopic doublets. The most promising reactions to measure these form factors are the reactions with large momentum transfers involving the spin-1/2 isotopic doublets with a maximum mass splitting. Numerical estimates of longitudinal form factors are given for nucleons and eight nuclear spin-1/2 isotopic doublets.
Atomic alchemy: Weak decays of muonic and pionic atoms into other atoms
Greub, C.; Wyler, D.; Brodsky, S.J.; Munger, C.T.
1995-10-01
The rates of weak transitions between electromagnetic bound states, for example, ({pi}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}}){r_arrow}({mu}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}}){nu}{sub {mu}}, and the exclusive weak decay of a muonic atom into an electronic atom, ({ital Z}{mu}{sup {minus}}){r_arrow}({ital Ze}{sup {minus}}){nu}{sub {mu}}{bar {nu}}{sub {ital e}}, are calculated. For {ital Z}=80, relativistic effects are shown to increase the latter rate by a factor of 50 compared to the results of a nonrelativistic calculation. It is argued that the conditions for producing the muonic decay in neon gas ({ital Z}=10), where the branching ratio for the decay per captured muon is 1.7{times}10{sup {minus}9}, can be realized using cyclotron traps, though the prospect for a practical experiment seems remote. In lead the same ratio would be approximately {similar_to}1{times}10{sup {minus}6}. In addition to providing detailed information on the high momentum tail of the wave functions in atomic physics, these decays of QED bound states provide a simple toy model for investigating kinematically analogous situations in exclusive heavy hadronic decays in quantum chromodynamics, such as {ital B}{r_arrow}{ital K}{sup *}{gamma} or {ital B}{r_arrow}{pi}{ital e}{nu}.
Experimental Limits on Weak Annihilation Contributions to b{yields}ul{nu} Decays
Rosner, J.L.; Adam, N.E.; Alexander, J.P.; Berkelman, K.; Cassel, D.G.; Duboscq, J.E.; Ecklund, K.M.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Hertz, D.; Jones, C.D.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D.L.; Kuznetsov, V.E.; Mahlke-Krueger, H.
2006-03-31
We present the first experimental limits on high-q{sup 2} contributions to charmless semileptonic B decays of the form expected from the weak annihilation (WA) decay mechanism. Such contributions could bias determinations of vertical bar V{sub ub} vertical bar from inclusive measurements of B{yields}X{sub u}l{nu}. Using a wide range of models based on available theoretical input we set a limit of {gamma}{sub WA}/{gamma}{sub b{yields}}{sub u}<7.4% (90% confidence level) on the WA fraction, and assess the impact on previous inclusive determinations of vertical bar V{sub ub} vertical bar.
Lack of strength; Muscle weakness ... feel weak but have no real loss of strength. This is called subjective weakness. It may be ... flu. Or, you may have a loss of strength that can be noted on a physical exam. ...
Lorentz structure of weak current in ν interactions and inverse muon decay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, Sanjib R.
1991-04-01
Neutrino interactions uniquely convey the Lorentz structure of weak current. Two studies that probe this structure are reviewed: structure functions from νμ -and ν μ - induced charged current events; and the inverse muon decay process, νμ+e -→ μ-+ νe. In the first study, the relative absence of νμ-induced charged current events with respect to νμ-induced events at large z (> 0.45) and large y (> 0.70) (investigated by CDHS and CCFR) restricts |η| 2 = |g R/g L| 2 < 0.0015 with 90 % CL (CCFR). Within the framework of left-right symmetric models, this measurement imposes a limit upon the mixing angle of the left and right handed bosons. Unlike the limits imposed by the μ-decay and the nuclear β-decay experiments, the present limit is valid irrespective of the mass of the right handed neutrino. In the second study, recent high statistics measurements of inverse muon decay by CCFR and CHARM II yield a total cross section, σ( νμ+e -→ μ-+ νe) = (17.3±0.72(stat)±0.39(syst)]E ν10 -42 cm 2/GeV. This restricts the scalar coupling of the muon | gLLS| < 0.25 with 90% CL.
Evidence for the Strangeness-Changing Weak Decay Ξb-→Λb0π-
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aaij, R.; Abellán Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianı, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zucchelli, S.; LHCb Collaboration
2015-12-01
Using a p p collision data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb-1 , collected by the LHCb detector, we present the first search for the strangeness-changing weak decay Ξb-→Λb0π-. No b hadron decay of this type has been seen before. A signal for this decay, corresponding to a significance of 3.2 standard deviations, is reported. The relative rate is measured to be f/Ξb- fΛb0 B (Ξb-→Λb0π-)=(5.7 ±1. 8-0.9+0.8)×10-4, where fΞb- and fΛb0 are the b →Ξb- and b →Λb0 fragmentation fractions, and B (Ξb-→Λb0π-) is the branching fraction. Assuming fΞb-/fΛb0 is bounded between 0.1 and 0.3, the branching fraction B (Ξb-→Λb0π-) would lie in the range from (0.57 ±0.21 )% to (0.19 ±0.07 )%.
Evidence for the Strangeness-Changing Weak Decay Ξ_{b}^{-}→Λ_{b}^{0}π^{-}.
Aaij, R; Abellán Beteta, C; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Demmer, M; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Di Ruscio, F; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fohl, K; Fol, P; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, X; Loh, D; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G
2015-12-11
Using a pp collision data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb^{-1}, collected by the LHCb detector, we present the first search for the strangeness-changing weak decay Ξ_{b}^{-}→Λ_{b}^{0}π^{-}. No b hadron decay of this type has been seen before. A signal for this decay, corresponding to a significance of 3.2 standard deviations, is reported. The relative rate is measured to be f_{Ξ_{b}^{-}}/f_{Λ_{b}^{0}}B(Ξ_{b}^{-}→Λ_{b}^{0}π^{-})=(5.7±1.8_{-0.9}^{+0.8})×10^{-4},where f_{Ξ_{b}^{-}} and f_{Λ_{b}^{0}} are the b→Ξ_{b}^{-} and b→Λ_{b}^{0} fragmentation fractions, and B(Ξ_{b}^{-}→Λ_{b}^{0}π^{-}) is the branching fraction. Assuming f_{Ξ_{b}^{-}}/f_{Λ_{b}^{0}} is bounded between 0.1 and 0.3, the branching fraction B(Ξ_{b}^{-}→Λ_{b}^{0}π^{-}) would lie in the range from (0.57±0.21)% to (0.19±0.07)%. PMID:26705625
The Decay of a Weak Large-scale Magnetic Field in Two-dimensional Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondić, Todor; Hughes, David W.; Tobias, Steven M.
2016-06-01
We investigate the decay of a large-scale magnetic field in the context of incompressible, two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. It is well established that a very weak mean field, of strength significantly below equipartition value, induces a small-scale field strong enough to inhibit the process of turbulent magnetic diffusion. In light of ever-increasing computer power, we revisit this problem to investigate fluids and magnetic Reynolds numbers that were previously inaccessible. Furthermore, by exploiting the relation between the turbulent diffusion of the magnetic potential and that of the magnetic field, we are able to calculate the turbulent magnetic diffusivity extremely accurately through the imposition of a uniform mean magnetic field. We confirm the strong dependence of the turbulent diffusivity on the product of the magnetic Reynolds number and the energy of the large-scale magnetic field. We compare our findings with various theoretical descriptions of this process.
Weak {gamma}-transition intensities in the electron capture decay of {sup 144}Pm
Robinson, S.J.; Altgilbers, A.S.; Hindi, M.M.; Norman, E.B.; Larimer, R.
1996-09-01
We have determined the absolute intensity of weak {gamma} transitions in the level scheme of {sup 144}Nd, observed following the electron capture decay of {sup 144}Pm. The absolute intensity of the 1397-keV {ital E}3 branch from the 2093-keV (5{sub 1}{sup {minus}}) level was determined to be (4.9 {plus_minus} 0.7) {times} 10{sup {minus}4}{percent}. This leads to a revised absolute transition rate of {ital B}({ital E}3;5{sub 1}{sup {minus}}{r_arrow}2{sup +}{sub 1})=26{sub {minus}12}{sup +15} Weisskopf units, which is still consistent with an interpretation of the 5{sub 1}{sup {minus}} level based on quadrupole-octupole coupling. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Forbidden nonunique β decays and effective values of weak coupling constants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haaranen, M.; Srivastava, P. C.; Suhonen, J.
2016-03-01
Forbidden nonunique β decays feature shape functions that are complicated combinations of different nuclear matrix elements and phase-space factors. Furthermore, they depend in a very nontrivial way on the values of the weak coupling constants, gV for the vector part and gA for the axial-vector part. In this work we include also the usually omitted second-order terms in the shape functions to see their effect on the computed decay half-lives and electron spectra (β spectra). As examples we study the fourth-forbidden nonunique ground-state-to-ground-state β- decay branches of 113Cd and 115In using the microscopic quasiparticle-phonon model and the nuclear shell model. A striking new feature that is reported in this paper is that the calculated shape of the β spectrum is quite sensitive to the values of gV and gA and hence comparison of the calculated with the measured spectrum shape opens a way to determine the values of these coupling constants. This article is designed to show the power of this comparison, coined spectrum-shape method (SSM), by studying the two exemplary β transitions within two different nuclear-structure frameworks. While the SSM seems to confine the gV values close to the canonical value gV=1.0 , the values of gA extracted from the half-life data and by the SSM emerge contradictory in the present calculations. This calls for improved nuclear-structure calculations and more measured data to systematically employ SSM for determination of the effective value of gA in the future.
On the spatial asymptotic decay of a suitable weak solution to the Navier-Stokes Cauchy problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crispo, F.; Maremonti, P.
2016-04-01
We prove space-time decay estimates of suitable weak solutions to the Navier-Stokes Cauchy problem, corresponding to a given asymptotic behavior of the initial data of the same order of decay. We use two main tools. The first is a result obtained in [7] for the behavior of the solution in a neighborhood of t = 0 in the L\\text{loc}∞ -norm, which enables us to furnish a representation formula for a suitable weak solution. The second is the asymptotic behavior of \\parallel u(t){{\\parallel}{{L2}≤ft({{{R}}3}\\backslash {{B}R}\\right)}} for R\\to ∞ . Following Leray’s point of view, roughly speaking our result proves that a possible space-time turbulence does not perturb the asymptotic spatial behavior of the initial data of a suitable weak solution.
Strong, weak and electromagnetic forces at work in atomic nuclei, decay properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benzoni, G.
2016-04-01
A survey of basic properties of the decay of unstable nuclei is here presented, with a focus on α and β decay. An overview of basic properties and the description of few examples of recently measured decays in exotic nuclei are given in the lecture.
Interplay of particle, nuclear and atomic physics in rare weak decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suhonen, Jouni
2010-11-01
The neutrinoless double beta decays of atomic nuclei are considered at the present the most viable way to access the fundamenntal nature and absolute mass scale of the neutrino. Recently one sub-class of these decays, the neutrinoless double electron capture (0νECEC), has attracted a lot of attention due to its potential of detection. In particular, the resonant 0νECEC is of interest owing to the possible huge enhancement of the corresponding decay rate by a resonance condition. At present the mass differences of the involved atom pairs are being measured by the Penning trap technique for several potential resonant 0νECEC decays. By evaluating the associated nuclear matrix elements using nuclear-structure models one can access the half-lives of these decays and thus predict their detection potential in underground experiments in the future. The absolute mass scale of the neutrino can also be accessed through beta decays of small decay energy. In these cases the effects of atomic origin may introduce non-negligible, even dramatic effects for Q values in the regime of few hundreds of eV and below.
Long-distance weak annihilation contribution to the B±→(π±,K±)ℓ+ℓ- decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guevara, A.; López Castro, G.; Roig, P.; Tostado, S. L.
2015-09-01
We propose an alternative evaluation of the long-distance weak annihilation (WA, also called one-photon exchange in this paper) contribution to the rare semileptonic B±→(π±,K±)ℓ+ℓ-(ℓ=e,μ) decays. This hadronic description at low energies is matched at intermediate energies to its short-distance counterpart in terms of quark and gluon degrees of freedom. Although the WA contribution does not contribute to solve the possible breaking of lepton universality observed by LHCb in the B±→K± (μ+μ-/e+e-) ratio, nor does it provide an important hadronic contamination to their decay rates, its contribution to the branching ratios (and direct C P asymmetry) of the B±→π±ℓ+ ℓ- transitions turns out to be significant. This hadronic pollution should be taken into account when looking for new physics effects in decays into pions, which suggests to restrict these searches to squared lepton-pair invariant mass in the (1 ,8 ) GeV 2 range. The interference of the one-photon exchange contribution with the dominant short-distance one-loop amplitude induces a sizable C P asymmetry in these rare decays, which calls for dedicated measurements.
Search for the a0(980)-f0(980) mixing in weak decays of Ds/Bs mesons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wei
2016-08-01
Scalar mesons a00 (980) and f0 (980) can mix with each other through isospin violating effects, and the mixing intensity has been predicted at the percent level in various theoretical models. However the mixing has not been firmed established on the experimental side to date. In this work we explore the possibility to extract the a0-f0 mixing intensity using weak decays of heavy mesons: Ds → [π0 η ,π+π- ]e+ ν, Bs → [π0 η ,π+π- ]ℓ+ℓ- and the Bs → J / ψ [π0 η ,π+π- ] decays. Based on the large amount of data accumulated by various experimental facilities including BEPC-II, LHC, Super KEKB and the future colliders, we find that the a0-f0 mixing intensity might be determined to a high precision, which will lead to a better understanding of the nature of scalar mesons.
Weak decay processes in pre-supernova core evolution within the gross theory
Ferreira, R. C.; Dimarco, A. J.; Samana, A. R.; Barbero, C. A.
2014-03-20
The beta decay and electron capture rates are of fundamental importance in the evolution of massive stars in a pre-supernova core. The beta decay process gives its contribution by emitting electrons in the plasma of the stellar core, thereby increasing pressure, which in turn increases the temperature. From the other side, the electron capture removes free electrons from the plasma of the star core contributing to the reduction of pressure and temperature. In this work we calculate the beta decay and electron capture rates in stellar conditions for 63 nuclei of relevance in the pre-supernova stage, employing Gross Theory as the nuclear model. We use the abundances calculated with the Saha equations in the hypothesis of nuclear statistical equilibrium to evaluate the time derivative of the fraction of electrons. Our results are compared with other evaluations available in the literature. They have shown to be one order less or equal than the calculated within other models. Our results indicate that these differences may influence the evolution of the star in the later stages of pre-supernova.
Scalar mesons in weak semileptonic decays of B{sub (s)}
Wang Yuming; Lue Caidian; Aslam, M. Jamil
2008-07-01
The transition form factors of B{sub (s)}{yields}S, with S denoting a scalar meson, are investigated in the light-cone sum rules approach. The numerical values are approximately twice the number estimated in the light-front quark model and QCD sum rules approach. Using these form factors, we present the analysis of the decay rates for B{yields}a{sub 0}(1450)l{nu}{sub l}, B{yields}K{sub 0}*(1430)ll, B{sub s}{yields}K{sub 0}*(1430)l{nu}{sub l}, and B{sub s}{yields}f{sub 0}(1500)ll with l=e, {mu}, {tau}. The results indicate that magnitudes of BR(B{sub 0}{yields}a{sub 0}(1450)l{nu}{sub l}) and BR(B{sub s}{yields}K{sub 0}*(1430)l{nu}{sub l}) arrive at the order of 10{sup -4}, which can be measured in future experiments to clarify the inner structure of scalar mesons. It is also observed that BR(B{yields}K{sub 0}*(1430){tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -}) and BR(B{sub s}{yields}f{sub 0}(1500){tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -}) are an order of magnitude smaller than the corresponding channels of e{sup +}e{sup -} and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} final states due to the heavily suppressed phase space. Moreover, the longitudinal lepton polarization asymmetry for B{yields}K{sub 0}*(1430)ll and B{sub s}{yields}f{sub 0}(1500)ll are also investigated, whose values are close to -1 for the e{sup +}e{sup -} and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} pair except for the region close to the endpoints.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byrne, J.
2011-03-01
Experimental data from unpolarized and polarized neutron beta -decay yield accurate values for the basic parameters of the P-violating T-conserving charged current weak interaction, thereby posing a potentially stringent unitarity test of the CKM quark mixing matrix. Experimental studies of the radiative (BR ~3.10-3) and two-body (BR ~ 4.10-6) decay branches are currently in progress.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chadima, M.; Chadimova, L.
2015-12-01
In some geological and environmental processes, such as diagenesis, very low grade metamorphism, pedogenesis, anthropogenic pollution, new ultra-fine magnetic minerals may be formed. The variation in content of these minerals has been routinely investigated by frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility. Although being quite reliable for most rocks, frequency-dependent susceptibility reaches its limit when applied to very weakly magnetic rock types, e.g. carbonates. Assuming a broad size distribution of the ultra-fine magnetic particles spanning across the SP/SSD boundary we suggest assessing their content by quantification of time-decay of viscous remanent magnetization. Using artificially-imparted magnetization we usually obtain much stronger signal compared to that of magnetic susceptibility. For that purpose we employed a LDA5/PAM1 Pulse Magnetizer coupled with a JR6 Spinner Magnetometer (both manufactured by Agico, Inc.). Both instruments are simultaneously controlled thus they work in the same time frame. Magnetic remanence is measured repeatedly as a function of time and exponential decay curves are fitted on the acquired data and the relative ratio of viscous and non-viscous particles is estimated. The proposed method is tested on two sets of samples representing biostratigraphically well-established sections across Silurian shallow-water limestone facies in the Prague Synform (Czech Republic). Sampling interval comprises so-called Lau Event which belongs to one of the major environmental and biological perturbances in the Phanerozoic Ocean. This level is also associated with very strong geochemical changes, so-called global Middle Ludfordian Carbon Isotope Excursion, recognized in numerous areas worldwide. Other geophysical methods applied include high-resolution magnetic susceptibility measurements and gamma-ray spectrometry, supplemented by rock magnetic measurements (ARM/IRM) and frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility.
Updated Next-to-Next-to-Leading-Order QCD Predictions for the Weak Radiative B-Meson Decays.
Misiak, M; Asatrian, H M; Boughezal, R; Czakon, M; Ewerth, T; Ferroglia, A; Fiedler, P; Gambino, P; Greub, C; Haisch, U; Huber, T; Kamiński, M; Ossola, G; Poradziński, M; Rehman, A; Schutzmeier, T; Steinhauser, M; Virto, J
2015-06-01
Weak radiative decays of the B mesons belong to the most important flavor changing processes that provide constraints on physics at the TeV scale. In the derivation of such constraints, accurate standard model predictions for the inclusive branching ratios play a crucial role. In the current Letter we present an update of these predictions, incorporating all our results for the O(α_{s}^{2}) and lower-order perturbative corrections that have been calculated after 2006. New estimates of nonperturbative effects are taken into account, too. For the CP- and isospin-averaged branching ratios, we find B_{sγ}=(3.36±0.23)×10^{-4} and B_{dγ}=(1.73_{-0.22}^{+0.12})×10^{-5}, for E_{γ}>1.6 GeV. Both results remain in agreement with the current experimental averages. Normalizing their sum to the inclusive semileptonic branching ratio, we obtain R_{γ}≡(B_{sγ}+B_{dγ})/B_{cℓν}=(3.31±0.22)×10^{-3}. A new bound from B_{sγ} on the charged Higgs boson mass in the two-Higgs-doublet-model II reads M_{H^{±}}>480 GeV at 95% C.L. PMID:26196614
Updated Next-to-Next-to-Leading-Order QCD Predictions for the Weak Radiative B -Meson Decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misiak, M.; Asatrian, H. M.; Boughezal, R.; Czakon, M.; Ewerth, T.; Ferroglia, A.; Fiedler, P.; Gambino, P.; Greub, C.; Haisch, U.; Huber, T.; Kamiński, M.; Ossola, G.; Poradziński, M.; Rehman, A.; Schutzmeier, T.; Steinhauser, M.; Virto, J.
2015-06-01
Weak radiative decays of the B mesons belong to the most important flavor changing processes that provide constraints on physics at the TeV scale. In the derivation of such constraints, accurate standard model predictions for the inclusive branching ratios play a crucial role. In the current Letter we present an update of these predictions, incorporating all our results for the O (αs2) and lower-order perturbative corrections that have been calculated after 2006. New estimates of nonperturbative effects are taken into account, too. For the C P - and isospin-averaged branching ratios, we find Bs γ=(3.36 ±0.23 )×10-4 and Bd γ=(1.7 3-0.22+0.12) ×10-5 , for Eγ>1.6 GeV . Both results remain in agreement with the current experimental averages. Normalizing their sum to the inclusive semileptonic branching ratio, we obtain Rγ≡(Bs γ+Bd γ) /Bc ℓν=(3.31 ±0.22 )×10-3 . A new bound from Bs γ on the charged Higgs boson mass in the two-Higgs-doublet-model II reads MH±>480 GeV at 95% C.L.
Majling, L. Kuzmin, V. A. Tetereva, T. V.
2006-05-15
The possibility of a detailed investigation of weak {lambda}N interaction in the {sub {lambda}}{sup 10}Be and {sub {lambda}}{sub /10}B hypernuclei, which stand out owing to their {alpha}{alpha}N{lambda} cluster structure, is discussed. The detection of a few groups of correlated {alpha}{alpha} pairs will furnish information about decays to specific states of product nuclei ({sup 8}Be*, {sup 8}Li, {sup 8}B), thereby paving the way to a phenomenological analysis of the weak decays of p-shell hypernuclei. The ratios of the intensities of individual alpha-particle groups to be measured in experiments at the cyclotron of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna) will provide a useful criterion for choosing an appropriate model of weak {lambda}N interaction. The current state of hypernuclear physics is briefly reviewed.
Weak decays of H-like {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+} and He-like {sup 140}Pr{sup 57+} ions
Ivanov, A. N.; Faber, M.; Reda, R.; Kienle, P.
2008-08-15
The nuclear K-shell electron-capture (EC) and positron ({beta}{sup +}) decay constants, {lambda}{sub EC} and {lambda}{sub {beta}{sup +}} of H-like {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+} and He-like {sup 140}Pr{sup 57+} ions, measured recently in the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI, were calculated using standard weak interaction theory. The calculated ratios R={lambda}{sub EC}/{lambda}{sub {beta}{sup +}} of the decay constants agree with the experimental values within an accuracy better than 3%.
Weak-interaction strength from charge-exchange reactions versus {beta} decay in the A=40 isoquintet
Bhattacharya, M.; Goodman, C. D.; Garcia, A.
2009-11-15
We report a measurement of the Gamow-Teller (GT) strength distribution for {sup 40}Ar{yields}{sup 40}K using the 0 deg. (p,n) reaction. The measurement extends observed GT strength distribution in the A=40 system up to an excitation energy of {approx}8 MeV. In comparing our results with those from the {beta} decay of the isospin mirror nucleus {sup 40}Ti, we find that, within the excitation energy region probed by the {beta}-decay experiment, we observe a total GT strength that is in fair agreement with the {beta}-decay measurement. However, we find that the relative strength of the two strongest transitions differs by a factor of {approx}1.8 in comparing our results from (p,n) reactions with the {beta} decay of {sup 40}Ti. Using our results we present the neutrino-capture cross section for {sup 40}Ar.
B meson weak decays to J/ψ - f0(500) (f0(980), ρ, ω, ϕ)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayar, M.; Liang, W. H.; Oset, E.
2016-05-01
In this talk we review recent results on the B¯ 0 and B¯s 0 decays into J/ψ f0 (980), J/ψ f0 (500), and J/ψ κ(800). In addition, we summarize the decay of these B states into J/ψ and a vector meson, ρ, ω, ϕ, K*0, K¯*0 . We obtained a remarkable agreement with experimental results which range over several orders of magnitude.
Colangelo, Pietro; De Fazio, Fulvia; Wang Wei
2011-05-01
We analyze nonleptonic B{sub s} decays to a charmonium state and a light meson, induced by the b{yields}ccs transition, which are useful to access the B{sub s}-B{sub s} mixing phase {beta}{sub s}. We use generalized factorization and SU(3){sub F} symmetry to relate such modes to correspondent B decay channels. We discuss the feasibility of the measurements in the various channels, stressing the importance of comparing different determinations of {beta}{sub s} in view of the hints of new physics effects recently emerged in the B{sub s} sector. Finally, adopting a general parametrization of new physics contributions to the decay amplitudes, we discuss how to experimentally constrain new physics parameters.
Determining the weak phase γ using the decays Bd, B+-->Kη(η') and Bs-->πη(η')
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agashe, K.; Deshpande, N. G.
1999-05-01
We suggest two methods (based on flavor SU(3) symmetry) to determine the CKM angle γ using the decays Bd, B+-->Kη(η') and Bs-->πη(η'), respectively. Rescattering effects are partly included - we neglect annihilation amplitudes, but do not assume any other relation between the SU(3) invariant amplitudes. We use the fact that the amplitude (including the Electroweak Penguin contribution) for Bd, B+-->πK with final state I(isospin)=3/2 is known as a function of γ from the decay rate B+-->π0π+.
Ping, Huican
2005-01-01
The large sample of {Xi}{sup 0} hyperons available at KTeV 799 provides an opportunity to search for the Weak Radiative Hyperon Decay {Xi}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}. They present a branching fraction measurement of {Xi}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma} based on the E799-II experiment data-taking in 1999 at KTeV, Fermilab. They used the principal decay of {Xi}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} where {Lambda} decays to a proton and a {pi}{sup -} as the flux normalization mode. This is the first observation of this interesting decay mode. 4 candidate events are found in the data. The branching ratio at 90% confidence level has been measured to be (1.67{sub -0.80}{sup +1.45}(stat.) {+-} 0.50(syst.)) x 10{sup -5} or (1.67{sub -0.69}{sup +1.16}(stat.) {+-} 0.50(syst.)) x 10{sup -5} at 68.27% confidence level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; da Costa, J. Barreiro Guimarães; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S. A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M. 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2012-06-01
A search for the decay of a light Higgs boson (120-140 GeV) to a pair of weakly interacting, long-lived particles in 1.94fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at s=7TeV recorded in 2011 by the ATLAS detector is presented. The search strategy requires that both long-lived particles decay inside the muon spectrometer. No excess of events is observed above the expected background and limits on the Higgs boson production times branching ratio to weakly interacting, long-lived particles are derived as a function of the particle proper decay length.
Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdelalim, A A; Abdesselam, A; Abdinov, O; Abi, B; Abolins, M; Abouzeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Acerbi, E; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Aderholz, M; Adomeit, S; Adragna, P; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Aharrouche, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahles, F; Ahmad, A; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Akdogan, T; Akesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Akiyama, A; Alam, M S; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Aliyev, M; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral, P; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amorim, A; Amorós, G; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Andrieux, M-L; Anduaga, X S; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoun, S; Aperio Bella, L; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Archambault, J P; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnault, C; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Arutinov, D; Asai, S; Asfandiyarov, R; Ask, S; Asman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astbury, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Aubert, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Avramidou, R; Axen, D; Ay, C; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Baccaglioni, G; Bacci, C; Bach, A M; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Bachy, G; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Badescu, E; Bagnaia, P; Bahinipati, S; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, M D; Baker, S; Banas, E; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, Sw; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barashkou, A; Barbaro Galtieri, A; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; da Costa, J Barreiro Guimarães; Barrillon, P; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartsch, V; Bates, R L; Batkova, L; Batley, J R; Battaglia, A; Battistin, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beale, S; Beare, B; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becks, K H; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bedikian, S; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Begel, M; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P K; Beimforde, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellina, F; Bellomo, M; Belloni, A; Beloborodova, O; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Benchouk, C; Bendel, M; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Benoit, M; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Berglund, E; Beringer, J; Bernat, P; Bernhard, R; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bertella, C; Bertin, A; Bertinelli, F; Bertolucci, F; Besana, M I; Besson, N; Bethke, S; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Bieniek, S P; Bierwagen, K; Biesiada, J; Biglietti, M; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biscarat, C; Bitenc, U; Black, K M; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G; Blazek, T; Blocker, C; Blocki, J; Blondel, A; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V B; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Boddy, C R; Boehler, M; Boek, J; Boelaert, N; Böser, S; Bogaerts, J A; Bogdanchikov, A; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Bolnet, N M; Bona, M; Bondarenko, V G; Bondioli, M; Boonekamp, M; Boorman, G; Booth, C N; Bordoni, S; Borer, C; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borjanovic, I; Borroni, S; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boterenbrood, H; Botterill, D; Bouchami, J; Boudreau, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozhko, N I; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Braem, A; Branchini, P; Brandenburg, G W; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brelier, B; Bremer, J; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Breton, D; Britton, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Brodbeck, T J; Brodet, E; Broggi, F; Bromberg, C; Bronner, J; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brown, H; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Bucci, F; Buchanan, J; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, P; Buckingham, R M; Buckley, A G; Buda, S I; Budagov, I A; Budick, B; Büscher, V; Bugge, L; Bulekov, O; Bunse, M; Buran, T; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgess, T; Burke, S; Busato, E; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butin, F; Butler, B; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Buttinger, W; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cakir, O; Calafiura, P; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Calkins, R; Caloba, L P; Caloi, R
2012-06-22
A search for the decay of a light Higgs boson (120-140 GeV) to a pair of weakly interacting, long-lived particles in 1.94 fb(-1) of proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s] = 7 TeV recorded in 2011 by the ATLAS detector is presented. The search strategy requires that both long-lived particles decay inside the muon spectrometer. No excess of events is observed above the expected background and limits on the Higgs boson production times branching ratio to weakly interacting, long-lived particles are derived as a function of the particle proper decay length. PMID:23004585
Xing Zhizhong; Zhang He
2005-03-01
We present an algebraic isospin approach towards a more straightforward and model-independent determination of the weak phase {alpha} (or {phi}{sub 2}) and QCD penguin pollution in B{yields}{pi}{pi} decays. The world averages of current experimental data allow us to impose some useful constraints on the isospin parameters of B{yields}{pi}{pi} transitions. We find that the magnitude of {alpha} (or {phi}{sub 2}) extracted from the indirect CP violation in the {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} mode is in agreement with the standard-model expectation from other indirect measurements, but its fourfold discrete ambiguity has to be resolved in the near future.
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2012-08-17
We combine searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for the associated production of a Higgs boson with a W or Z boson and subsequent decay of the Higgs boson to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. The data, originating from Fermilab Tevatron pp collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV, correspond to integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb(-1). The searches are conducted for a Higgs boson with mass in the range 100-150 GeV/c(2). We observe an excess of events in the data compared with the background predictions, which is most significant in the mass range between 120 and 135 GeV/c(2). The largest local significance is 3.3 standard deviations, corresponding to a global significance of 3.1 standard deviations. We interpret this as evidence for the presence of a new particle consistent with the standard model Higgs boson, which is produced in association with a weak vector boson and decays to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. PMID:23006359
Asner, D. M.; Cunningham, M.; Dejong, S.; Randrianarivony, K.; Santamarina, C.; Schram, M.
2010-11-01
One of the primary goals of the Large Hadron Collider is to understand the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism. In the standard model, electroweak symmetry breaking is described by the Higgs mechanism which includes a scalar Higgs boson. Electroweak measurements constrain the standard model Higgs boson mass to be in the 114.4 to 157 GeV/c{sup 2} range. For m{sub h}<135 GeV/c{sup 2}, the Higgs predominantly decays into two b-quarks. As such, we investigate the prospect of observing the standard model Higgs decaying to bb produced in weak-boson-fusion with an associated central photon. An isolated, high p{sub T}, central photon trigger is expected to be available at the ATLAS and CMS experiments. In this study, we investigated the effects originating from showering, hadronization, the underlying event model, and jet performance including b-jet calibration on the sensitivity of this channel. We found that the choice of Monte Carlo simulation and its tune has a large effect on the efficacy of the central jet veto and consequently the signal significance. A signal significance of 1.6{sub -0.3}{sup +0.5} can be achieved for m{sub h}=115 GeV/c{sup 2} with 100 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity which correspond to 1 yr at design luminosity at 14 TeV pp collisions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. 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E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; di Ciaccio, A.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Domenico, A.; di Donato, C.; di Girolamo, A.; di Girolamo, B.; di Mattia, A.; di Micco, B.; di Nardo, R.; di Simone, A.; di Sipio, R.; di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; Do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. 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S. P.; Mueller, T.; Muenstermann, D.; Mullen, P.; Munwes, Y.; Murillo Quijada, J. A.; Murray, W. J.; Musheghyan, H.; Musto, E.; Myagkov, A. G.; Myska, M.; Nackenhorst, O.; Nadal, J.; Nagai, K.; Nagai, R.; Nagai, Y.; Nagano, K.; Nagarkar, A.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nagata, K.; Nagel, M.; Nagy, E.; Nairz, A. M.; Nakahama, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, I.; Namasivayam, H.; Naranjo Garcia, R. F.; Narayan, R.; Naumann, T.; Navarro, G.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Nechaeva, P. Yu.; Neep, T. J.; Nef, P. D.; Negri, A.; Negrini, M.; Nektarijevic, S.; Nellist, C.; Nelson, A.; Nemecek, S.; Nemethy, P.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Nessi, M.; Neubauer, M. S.; Neumann, M.; Neves, R. M.; Nevski, P.; Newman, P. R.; Nguyen, D. H.; Nickerson, R. B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nicquevert, B.; Nielsen, J.; Nikiforou, N.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsen, J. K.; Nilsson, P.; Ninomiya, Y.; Nisati, A.; Nisius, R.; Nobe, T.; Nomachi, M.; Nomidis, I.; Nooney, T.; Norberg, S.; Nordberg, M.; Novgorodova, O.; Nowak, S.; Nozaki, M.; Nozka, L.; Ntekas, K.; Nunes Hanninger, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Nurse, E.; Nuti, F.; O'Brien, B. J.; O'Grady, F.; O'Neil, D. C.; O'Shea, V.; Oakham, F. G.; Oberlack, H.; Obermann, T.; Ocariz, J.; Ochi, A.; Ochoa, I.; Oda, S.; Odaka, S.; Ogren, H.; Oh, A.; Oh, S. H.; Ohm, C. C.; Ohman, H.; Oide, H.; Okamura, W.; Okawa, H.; Okumura, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Olariu, A.; Olivares Pino, S. A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Oliver Garcia, E.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Oram, C. J.; Oreglia, M. J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlando, N.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Orr, R. S.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Otero Y Garzon, G.; Otono, H.; Ouchrif, M.; Ouellette, E. A.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Oussoren, K. P.; Ouyang, Q.; Ovcharova, A.; Owen, M.; Owen, R. E.; Ozcan, V. E.; Ozturk, N.; Pachal, K.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Pagáčová, M.; Pagan Griso, S.; Paganis, E.; Pahl, C.; Paige, F.; Pais, P.; Pajchel, K.; Palacino, G.; Palestini, S.; Palka, M.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Pan, Y. B.; Panagiotopoulou, E.; Pandini, C. E.; Panduro Vazquez, J. G.; Pani, P.; Panitkin, S.; Paolozzi, L.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Paramonov, A.; Paredes Hernandez, D.; Parker, M. A.; Parker, K. A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr.; Pásztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Patel, N. D.; Pater, J. R.; Pauly, T.; Pearce, J.; Pearson, B.; Pedersen, L. E.; Pedersen, M.; Pedraza Lopez, S.; Pedro, R.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Pelikan, D.; Peng, H.; Penning, B.; Penwell, J.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perez Codina, E.; Pérez García-Estañ, M. T.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrella, S.; Peschke, R.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Peters, R. F. Y.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Pettersson, N. E.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Pickering, M. A.; Piegaia, R.; Pignotti, D. T.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pingel, A.; Pinto, B.; Pires, S.; Pitt, M.; Pizio, C.; Plazak, L.; Pleier, M.-A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Plucinski, P.; Pluth, D.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prasad, S.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Proissl, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopapadaki, E.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Ptacek, E.; Puddu, D.; Pueschel, E.; Puldon, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravenscroft, T.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reisin, H.; Relich, M.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Renaud, A.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosendahl, P. L.; Rosenthal, O.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rubinskiy, I.; Rud, V. I.; Ruderman, J. T.; Rudolph, C.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Saddique, A.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Saimpert, M.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salek, D.; Sales de Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sato, K.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Schwoerer, M.; Sciacca, F. G.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Selbach, K. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simoniello, R.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soueid, P.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; St. Denis, R. D.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van den Wollenberg, W.; van der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Leeuw, R.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, L.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration
2015-07-01
A search for the decay of neutral, weakly interacting, long-lived particles using data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC is presented. This analysis uses the full data set recorded in 2012: 20.3 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data at √{s }=8 TeV . The search employs techniques for reconstructing decay vertices of long-lived particles decaying to jets in the inner tracking detector and muon spectrometer. Signal events require at least two reconstructed vertices. No significant excess of events over the expected background is found, and limits as a function of proper lifetime are reported for the decay of the Higgs boson and other scalar bosons to long-lived particles and for Hidden Valley Z' and Stealth SUSY benchmark models. The first search results for displaced decays in Z' and Stealth SUSY models are presented. The upper bounds of the excluded proper lifetimes are the most stringent to date.
Hieke, Andreas
2014-01-21
Unimolecular decay of sample ions imposes a limit on the usable laser fluence in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) ion sources. Traditionally, some modest degree of collisional sample ion cooling has been achieved by connecting MALDI ion sources directly to gas-filled radio frequency (RF) multipoles. It was also discovered in the early 1990s that gas-filled RF multipoles exhibit increased ion transmission efficiency due to collisional ion focusing effects. This unexpected experimental finding was later supported by elementary Monte Carlo simulations. Both experiments and simulations assumed a resting background gas with typical pressures of the order of 1 Pa. However, considerable additional improvements can be achieved if laser desorbed sample ions are introduced immediately after desorption, still within the ion source, in an axisymmetric rarefied supersonic gas jet with peak pressure of the order of 100 Pa and flow velocities >300 m/s, and under weak electric fields. We describe here the design principle and report performance data of an ion source coined “MALDI-2,” which incorporates elements of both rarefied aerodynamics and particle optics. Such a design allows superb suppression of metastable fragmentation due to rapid collisional cooling in <10 μs and nearly perfect injection efficiency into the attached RF ion guide, as numerous experiments have confirmed.
Hieke, Andreas
2014-01-21
Unimolecular decay of sample ions imposes a limit on the usable laser fluence in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) ion sources. Traditionally, some modest degree of collisional sample ion cooling has been achieved by connecting MALDI ion sources directly to gas-filled radio frequency (RF) multipoles. It was also discovered in the early 1990s that gas-filled RF multipoles exhibit increased ion transmission efficiency due to collisional ion focusing effects. This unexpected experimental finding was later supported by elementary Monte Carlo simulations. Both experiments and simulations assumed a resting background gas with typical pressures of the order of 1 Pa. However, considerable additional improvements can be achieved if laser desorbed sample ions are introduced immediately after desorption, still within the ion source, in an axisymmetric rarefied supersonic gas jet with peak pressure of the order of 100 Pa and flow velocities >300 m/s, and under weak electric fields. We describe here the design principle and report performance data of an ion source coined "MALDI-2," which incorporates elements of both rarefied aerodynamics and particle optics. Such a design allows superb suppression of metastable fragmentation due to rapid collisional cooling in <10 μs and nearly perfect injection efficiency into the attached RF ion guide, as numerous experiments have confirmed. PMID:25669372
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Lee, T. D.
1957-06-01
Experimental results on the non-conservation of parity and charge conservation in weak interactions are reviewed. The two-component theory of the neutrino is discussed. Lepton reactions are examined under the assumption of the law of conservation of leptons and that the neutrino is described by a two- component theory. From the results of this examination, the universal Fermi interactions are analyzed. Although reactions involving the neutrino can be described, the same is not true of reactions which do not involve the lepton, as the discussion of the decay of K mesons and hyperons shows. The question of the invariance of time reversal is next examined. (J.S.R.)
Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; et al
2015-07-17
A search for the decay of neutral, weakly interacting, long-lived particles using data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC is presented. This analysis uses the full data set recorded in 2012: 20.3 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data at √s = 8 TeV. The search employs techniques for reconstructing decay vertices of long-lived particles decaying to jets in the inner tracking detector and muon spectrometer. Signal events require at least two reconstructed vertices. No significant excess of events over the expected background is found, and limits as a function of proper lifetime are reported for the decay of themore » Higgs boson and other scalar bosons to long-lived particles and for Hidden Valley Z' and Stealth SUSY benchmark models. The first search results for displaced decays in Z' and Stealth SUSY models are presented. The upper bounds of the excluded proper lifetimes are the most stringent to date.« less
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Lee, T. D.
1970-07-01
While the phenomenon of beta-decay was discovered near the end of the last century, the notion that the weak interaction forms a separate field of physical forces evolved rather gradually. This became clear only after the experimental discoveries of other weak reactions such as muon-decay, muon-capture, etc., and the theoretical observation that all these reactions can be described by approximately the same coupling constant, thus giving rise to the notion of a universal weak interaction. Only then did one slowly recognize that the weak interaction force forms an independent field, perhaps on the same footing as the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, and the strong nuclear and sub-nuclear forces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. 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M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; de Filippis, N.; de Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. 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P., III; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; McGinn, C.; Mironov, C.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira de Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Kress, M.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. 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G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Christian, A.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Gomber, B.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.
2016-06-01
The CP-violating weak phase ϕs of the Bs0 meson and the decay width difference ΔΓs of the Bs0 light and heavy mass eigenstates are measured with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data sample of Bs0 → J / ψ ϕ (1020) →μ+μ-K+K- decays. The analysed data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.7fb-1 collected in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8TeV. A total of 49 200 reconstructed Bs0 decays are used to extract the values of ϕs and ΔΓs by performing a time-dependent and flavour-tagged angular analysis of the μ+μ-K+K- final state. The weak phase is measured to be ϕs = - 0.075 ± 0.097 (stat) ± 0.031 (syst) rad, and the decay width difference is ΔΓs = 0.095 ± 0.013 (stat) ± 0.007 (syst) ps-1.
Khachatryan, Vardan
2015-07-28
The CP-violating weak phase φ_{s} of the B^{0} _{s} meson and the decay width difference ΔΓs of the B^{0} _{s} light and heavy mass eigenstates are measured with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data sample of B^{0} _{s} →J/ψ φ(1020) → µ ^{+}µ ^{-}K^{+}K^{-} decays. Our analysed data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb^{-1} collected in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. Additionally, a total of 49 200 reconstructed B^{0} _{s} decays are used to extract the values of φs and ΔΓ_{s} by performing a time-dependent and flavourtagged angular analysis of the µ ^{+}µ ^{-}K^{+}K^{-} final state. The weak phase is measured to be φ_{s} = -0.075 ± 0.097 (stat) ± 0.031 (syst) rad, and the decay width difference is ΔΓ_{s} = 0.095 ± 0.013 (stat) ± 0.007 (syst) ps^{-1} .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; El Sawy, M.; El-Khateeb, E.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mohamed, A.; Radi, A.; Salama, E.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Jarvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.
2016-06-01
The CP-violating weak phase ϕs of the Bs0 meson and the decay width difference ΔΓs of the Bs0 light and heavy mass eigenstates are measured with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data sample of Bs0 → J / ψ ϕ (1020) →μ+μ-K+K- decays. The analysed data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.7fb-1 collected in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8TeV. A total of 49 200 reconstructed Bs0 decays are used to extract the values of ϕs and ΔΓs by performing a time-dependent and flavour-tagged angular analysis of the μ+μ-K+K- final state. The weak phase is measured to be ϕs = - 0.075 ± 0.097 (stat) ± 0.031 (syst) rad, and the decay width difference is ΔΓs = 0.095 ± 0.013 (stat) ± 0.007 (syst) ps-1.
Weak interactions and presupernova evolution
Aufderheide, M.B. State Univ. of New York . Dept. of Physics)
1991-02-19
The role of weak interactions, particularly electron capture and {beta}{sup {minus}} decay, in presupernova evolution is discussed. The present uncertainty in these rates is examined and the possibility of improving the situation is addressed. 12 refs., 4 figs.
Search for the weak decay η'→K±π∓ and precise measurement of the branching fraction B (J /ψ →ϕ η')
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, X. Q.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kühn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration
2016-04-01
We present the first search for the rare decay of η' into K±π∓ in J /ψ →ϕ η' , using a sample of 1.3 ×1 09 J /ψ events collected with the BESIII detector. No significant signal is observed, and the upper limit at the 90% confidence level for the ratio B/(η'→K±π∓) B (η'→γ π+π-) is determined to be 1.3 ×1 0-4 . In addition, we report the measurement of the branching fraction of J /ψ →ϕ η' to be [5.10 ±0.03 (stat)±0.32 (syst)]×1 0-4 , which agrees with previous results from BESII.
Spin effects in the weak interaction
Freedman, S.J. Chicago Univ., IL . Dept. of Physics Chicago Univ., IL . Enrico Fermi Inst.)
1990-01-01
Modern experiments investigating the beta decay of the neutron and light nuclei are still providing important constraints on the theory of the weak interaction. Beta decay experiments are yielding more precise values for allowed and induced weak coupling constants and putting constraints on possible extensions to the standard electroweak model. Here we emphasize the implications of recent experiments to pin down the strengths of the weak vector and axial vector couplings of the nucleon.
Warping the Weak Gravity Conjecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kooner, Karta; Parameswaran, Susha; Zavala, Ivonne
2016-08-01
The Weak Gravity Conjecture, if valid, rules out simple models of Natural Inflation by restricting their axion decay constant to be sub-Planckian. We revisit stringy attempts to realise Natural Inflation, with a single open string axionic inflaton from a probe D-brane in a warped throat. We show that warped geometries can allow the requisite super-Planckian axion decay constant to be achieved, within the supergravity approximation and consistently with the Weak Gravity Conjecture. Preliminary estimates of the brane backreaction suggest that the probe approximation may be under control. However, there is a tension between large axion decay constant and high string scale, where the requisite high string scale is difficult to achieve in all attempts to realise large field inflation using perturbative string theory. We comment on the Generalized Weak Gravity Conjecture in the light of our results.
Resource Letter WI-1: Weak Interactions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Holstein, Barry R.
1977-01-01
Provides a listing of sources of literature and teaching aids to improve course content in the fields of: weak interactions, beta decay, orbital electron capture, muon capture, semileptonic decay, nonleptonic processes, parity violation in nuclei, neutrino physics, and parity violation in atomic physics. (SL)
Gilman, F.J.
1989-05-01
Recent theoretical and experimental progress on the manifestation of CP violation in K decays, and toward understanding whether CP violation originates in a phase, or phases, in the weak mixing matrix of quarks is reviewed. 23 refs., 10 figs.
Unsolved problems in hadronic charm decay
Browder, T.E.
1989-08-01
This paper describes several outstanding problems in the study of hadronic decays of charmed mesons where further experimental work and theoretical understanding is needed. Four topics are stressed: double Cabibbo suppressed decays (DCSD) of D/sup +/ mesons, hadronic D/sub s/ decays, weak hadronic quasi-two-body decays to pairs of vector mesons, and penguin decays of D mesons. 24 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.
Theoretical understanding of charm decays
Bigi, I.I.
1986-08-01
A detailed description of charm decays has emerged. The various concepts involved are sketched. Although this description is quite successful in reproducing the data the chapter on heavy flavour decays is far from closed. Relevant questions like on th real strength of weak annihilation, Penguin operators, etc. are still unanswered. Important directions in future work, both on the experimental and theoretical side are identified.
Beauty baryon decays: a theoretical overview
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yu-Ming
2014-11-01
I overview the theoretical status and recent progress on the calculations of beauty baryon decays focusing on the QCD aspects of the exclusive semi-leptonic Λb → plμ decay at large recoil and theoretical challenges of radiative and electro-weak penguin decays Λb → Λγ,Λl+l-.
Decay of relativistic hypernuclei
Majlingova, Olga
2008-05-12
The contribution is focused on the analysis of the hypernuclei decay. Hypernuclei, nuclei composed of nucleons and hyperon, enable us to more precise study baryon-baryon interaction, both weak and strong. Several experiments for study new hypernuclear objects are presently taking data or are planned in several laboratories in Italy, Germany, Russia, Japan and USA. The aim of the contribution is the introduction the catalogue of all possible decays of light hypernuclei (A{<=}12). Created catalogue could be exploited for planning next experiments.
Varganov, Alexei Valerievich
2004-04-01
The theory that describes the fundamental particle interactions is called the Standard Model, which is a gauge field theory that comprises the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model [1, 2, 3] of the weak and electromagnetic interactions and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) [4, 5, 6], the theory of the strong interactions. The discovery of the W [7, 8] and Z [9, 10] bosons in 1983 by the UA1 and UA2 collaborations at the CERN p{bar p} collider provided a direct confirmation of the unification of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. Since then, many experiments have refined our understanding of the characteristics of the W and Z bosons.
Lipkin, H. J.; High Energy Physics; Weizmann Inst. of Sciences; Tel Aviv Univ.
2000-11-30
Simple experimental tests are proposed which can clarify the origin for the anomalously high {eta}' appearance in charmless strange final states in B decays and can investigate the nature of SU(3) symmetry-breaking in weak heavy flavor decays.
Outdoor measurements of spherical acoustic shock decay.
Young, Sarah M; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; Leete, Kevin M
2015-09-01
Prior anechoic measurements of a small acetylene-oxygen balloon explosion were used to study spherical weak-shock decay over short ranges [Muhlestein et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 2422-2430 (2012)]. Here, longer-range measurements conducted at the Bonneville Salt Flats with a larger balloon are described. Waveform and spectral characteristics and comparisons of the peak pressure decay with an analytical weak-shock model are presented. Weak shocks persist to at least 305 m, with an amplitude decay that is predicted reasonably well using the model. Deviations are discussed in the context of atmospheric effects and nonlinear ground reflections. PMID:26428831
Weak quasielastic production of hyperons
Singh, S. K.; Vacas, M. J. Vicente
2006-09-01
The quasielastic weak production of {lambda} and {sigma} hyperons from nucleons and nuclei induced by antineutrinos is studied in the energy region of some ongoing neutrino oscillation experiments in the intermediate energy region. The hyperon-nucleon transition form factors determined from neutrino-nucleon scattering and an analysis of high precision data on semileptonic decays of neutron and hyperons using SU(3) symmetry have been used. The nuclear effects due to Fermi motion and final state interaction effects due to hyperon-nucleon scattering have also been studied. The numerical results for differential and total cross sections have been presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Buxton, J. T.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.
2016-01-01
We present results of a search for two hypothetical strange dibaryon states, i.e. the H-dibaryon and the possible Λn ‾ bound state. The search is performed with the ALICE detector in central (0-10%) Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV, by invariant mass analysis in the decay modes Λn ‾ → d ‾π+ and H-dibaryon → Λpπ-. No evidence for these bound states is observed. Upper limits are determined at 99% confidence level for a wide range of lifetimes and for the full range of branching ratios. The results are compared to thermal, coalescence and hybrid UrQMD model expectations, which describe correctly the production of other loosely bound states, like the deuteron and the hypertriton.
... decay starts in the outer layer, called the enamel. Without a filling, the decay can get deep into the tooth and its nerves and cause a toothache or abscess. To help prevent cavities Brush your teeth every day with a fluoride toothpaste Clean between ...
Snoek, Hella Leonie
2009-06-02
This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B^{0} → D^{*-} a_{0}^{+} decays and the non-resonant B^{0} → D^{*-} ηπ^{+} decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B^{0} → D^{*-} a{sub 0}^{+} decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10^{-6}. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B^{0} → D^{*-} a_{0}^{+} decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly
Shikano, Yutaka
2011-03-28
I show that the weak value theory is useful from the viewpoints of the experimentally verifiability, consistency, capacity for explanation as to many quantum paradoxes, and practical advantages. As an example, the initial state in the Hardy paradox can be experimentally verified using the weak value via the weak measurement.
Baryogenesis for weakly interacting massive particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Yanou; Sundrum, Raman
2013-06-01
We propose a robust, unified framework, in which the similar baryon and dark matter cosmic abundances both arise from the physics of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), with the rough quantitative success of the so-called “WIMP miracle.” In particular the baryon asymmetry arises from the decay of a metastable WIMP after its thermal freeze-out at or below the weak scale. A minimal model and its embedding in R-parity violating supersymmetry are studied as examples. The new mechanism saves R-parity violating supersymmetry from the potential crisis of washing out primordial baryon asymmetry. Phenomenological implications for the LHC and precision tests are discussed.
Aperiodic Weak Topological Superconductors.
Fulga, I C; Pikulin, D I; Loring, T A
2016-06-24
Weak topological phases are usually described in terms of protection by the lattice translation symmetry. Their characterization explicitly relies on periodicity since weak invariants are expressed in terms of the momentum-space torus. We prove the compatibility of weak topological superconductors with aperiodic systems, such as quasicrystals. We go beyond usual descriptions of weak topological phases and introduce a novel, real-space formulation of the weak invariant, based on the Clifford pseudospectrum. A nontrivial value of this index implies a nontrivial bulk phase, which is robust against disorder and hosts localized zero-energy modes at the edge. Our recipe for determining the weak invariant is directly applicable to any finite-sized system, including disordered lattice models. This direct method enables a quantitative analysis of the level of disorder the topological protection can withstand. PMID:27391744
Aperiodic Weak Topological Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fulga, I. C.; Pikulin, D. I.; Loring, T. A.
2016-06-01
Weak topological phases are usually described in terms of protection by the lattice translation symmetry. Their characterization explicitly relies on periodicity since weak invariants are expressed in terms of the momentum-space torus. We prove the compatibility of weak topological superconductors with aperiodic systems, such as quasicrystals. We go beyond usual descriptions of weak topological phases and introduce a novel, real-space formulation of the weak invariant, based on the Clifford pseudospectrum. A nontrivial value of this index implies a nontrivial bulk phase, which is robust against disorder and hosts localized zero-energy modes at the edge. Our recipe for determining the weak invariant is directly applicable to any finite-sized system, including disordered lattice models. This direct method enables a quantitative analysis of the level of disorder the topological protection can withstand.
Weak kaon production off the nucleon
Rafi Alam, M.; Sajjad Athar, M.; Ruiz Simo, I.; Vicente Vacas, M. J.
2010-08-01
The weak kaon production off the nucleon induced by neutrinos is studied at the low and intermediate energies of interest for some ongoing and future neutrino oscillation experiments. This process is also potentially important for the analysis of proton decay experiments. We develop a microscopical model based on the SU(3) chiral Lagrangians. The basic parameters of the model are f{sub {pi},} the pion decay constant, Cabibbo's angle, the proton and neutron magnetic moments, and the axial vector coupling constants for the baryons octet, D and F, that are obtained from the analysis of the semileptonic decays of neutron and hyperons. The studied mechanisms are the main source of kaon production for neutrino energies up to 1.2 to 1.5 GeV for the various channels and the cross sections are large enough to be amenable to be measured by experiments such as Minerva and T2K.
... Topics > Tooth Decay (Caries) > Seal Out Tooth Decay Seal Out Tooth Decay Main Content What are dental ... back teeth decay so easily? Who should get sealants? Should sealants be put on baby teeth? ...
Weak Mixing and Rare Decays in the Littlest Higgs Model
Bardeen, William A.; /Fermilab
2007-03-01
Little Higgs models have been introduced to resolve the fine-tuning problems associated with the stability of the electroweak scale and the constraints imposed by the precision electroweak analysis of experiments testing the Standard Model of particle physics. Flavor physics provides a sensitive probe of the new physics contained in these models at next-to-leading order.
Reionization and dark matter decay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oldengott, Isabel M.; Boriero, Daniel; Schwarz, Dominik J.
2016-08-01
Cosmic reionization and dark matter decay can impact observations of the cosmic microwave sky in a similar way. A simultaneous study of both effects is required to constrain unstable dark matter from cosmic microwave background observations. We compare two reionization models with and without dark matter decay. We find that a reionization model that fits also data from quasars and star forming galaxies results in tighter constraints on the reionization optical depth τreio, but weaker constraints on the spectral index ns than the conventional parametrization. We use the Planck 2015 data to constrain the effective decay rate of dark matter to Γeff < 2.9 × 10‑25/s at 95% C.L. This limit is robust and model independent. It holds for any type of decaying dark matter and it depends only weakly on the chosen parametrization of astrophysical reionization. For light dark matter particles that decay exclusively into electromagnetic components this implies a limit of Γ < 5.3 × 10‑26/s at 95% C.L. Specifying the decay channels, we apply our result to the case of keV-mass sterile neutrinos as dark matter candidates and obtain constraints on their mixing angle and mass, which are comparable to the ones from the diffuse X-ray background.
Constraints on axion inflation from the weak gravity conjecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudelius, Tom
2015-09-01
We derive constraints facing models of axion inflation based on decay constant alignment from a string-theoretic and quantum gravitational perspective. In particular, we investigate the prospects for alignment and `anti-alignment' of C4 axion decay constants in type IIB string theory, deriving a strict no-go result in the latter case. We discuss the relationship of axion decay constants to the weak gravity conjecture and demonstrate agreement between our string-theoretic constraints and those coming from the `generalized' weak gravity conjecture. Finally, we consider a particular model of decay constant alignment in which the potential of C4 axions in type IIB compactifications on a Calabi-Yau three-fold is dominated by contributions from D7-branes, pointing out that this model evades some of the challenges derived earlier in our paper but is highly constrained by other geometric considerations.
Constraints on axion inflation from the weak gravity conjecture
Rudelius, Tom
2015-09-08
We derive constraints facing models of axion inflation based on decay constant alignment from a string-theoretic and quantum gravitational perspective. In particular, we investigate the prospects for alignment and ‘anti-alignment’ of C{sub 4} axion decay constants in type IIB string theory, deriving a strict no-go result in the latter case. We discuss the relationship of axion decay constants to the weak gravity conjecture and demonstrate agreement between our string-theoretic constraints and those coming from the ‘generalized’ weak gravity conjecture. Finally, we consider a particular model of decay constant alignment in which the potential of C{sub 4} axions in type IIB compactifications on a Calabi-Yau three-fold is dominated by contributions from D7-branes, pointing out that this model evades some of the challenges derived earlier in our paper but is highly constrained by other geometric considerations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chuang, S. Y.; Chang, F. H.; Bell, J. R.
Consideration is given to the development of a weak bond screening system which is based on the utilization of a high power ultrasonic (HPU) technique. The instrumentation of the prototype bond strength screening system is described, and the adhesively bonded specimens used in the system developmental effort are detailed. Test results obtained from these specimens are presented in terms of bond strength and level of high power ultrasound irradiation. The following observations were made: (1) for Al/Al specimens, 2.6 sec of HPU irradiation will screen weak bond conditions due to improper preparation of bonding surfaces; (2) for composite/composite specimens, 2.0 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to under-cured conditions; (3) for Al honeycomb core with composite skin structure, 3.5 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive or oils contamination of bonding surfaces; and (4) for Nomex honeycomb with Al skin structure, 1.3 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilkes, B. J.; Mcdowell, J.
1994-01-01
Research into the optical, ultraviolet and infrared continuum emission from quasars and their host galaxies was carried out. The main results were the discovery of quasars with unusually weak infrared emission and the construction of a quantitative estimate of the dispersion in quasar continuum properties. One of the major uncertainties in the measurement of quasar continuum strength is the contribution to the continuum of the quasar host galaxy as a function of wavelength. Continuum templates were constructed for different types of host galaxy and individual estimates made of the decomposed quasar and host continua based on existing observations of the target quasars. The results are that host galaxy contamination is worse than previously suspected, and some apparent weak bump quasars are really normal quasars with strong host galaxies. However, the existence of true weak bump quasars such as PHL 909 was confirmed. The study of the link between the bump strength and other wavebands was continued by comparing with IRAS data. There is evidence that excess far infrared radiation is correlated with weaker ultraviolet bumps. This argues against an orientation effect and implies a probable link with the host galaxy environment, for instance the presence of a luminous starburst. However, the evidence still favors the idea that reddening is not important in those objects with ultraviolet weak bumps. The same work has led to the discovery of a class of infrared weak quasars. Pushing another part of the envelope of quasar continuum parameter space, the IR-weak quasars have implications for understanding the effects of reddening internal to the quasars, the reality of ultraviolet turnovers, and may allow further tests of the Phinney dust model for the IR continuum. They will also be important objects for studying the claimed IR to x-ray continuum correlation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Elvis, Martin; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Willner, Steven P.; Oey, M. S.
1989-01-01
The recent emphasis on big bumps dominating the UV continuum of quasars has obscured the facts that bump properties vary widely and that there are objects in which no such component is evident. As part of a survey of quasar continuum spectra, a class of quasars is identified in which the optical-UV continuum big bump feature appears to be weak or absent, relative to both IR and X-ray. These weak bump quasars are otherwise normal objects and constitute a few percent of the quasar population.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcdowell, J. C.; Elvis, M.; Wilkes, B. J.
1992-01-01
Examples of quasars with anomalously weak IR emission are presented, and the effects of starlight subtraction on estimates of the UV and IR component strengths are discussed. Inferred model parameters are very sensitive to the position of the peak of the UV energy distribution. In many low redshift objects the peak is not seen; even in those objects where the turnover is clear, the turnover may not be intrinsic but instead due to reddening within the quasar host galaxy. The small number of unusual quasars with weak IR emission will be of utility as a probe of the quasar phenomenon in the absence of dominant dust reprocessing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunter, John K.; Brio, Moysey
2000-05-01
We present numerical solutions of a two-dimensional inviscid Burgers equation which provides an asymptotic description of the Mach reflection of weak shocks. In our numerical solutions, the incident, reflected, and Mach shocks meet at a triple point, and there is a supersonic patch behind the triple point, as proposed by Guderley for steady weak-shock reflection. A theoretical analysis indicates that there is an expansion fan at the triple point, in addition to the three shocks. The supersonic patch is extremely small, and this work is the first time it has been resolved.
Question of Lorentz violation in muon decay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noordmans, J. P.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Wilschut, H. W.; Timmermans, R. G. E.
2016-06-01
Possibilities to test the Lorentz invariance of the weak interaction in muon decay are considered. We derive the direction-dependent muon-decay rate with a general Lorentz-violating addition to the W -boson propagator. We discuss measurements of the directional and boost dependence of the Michel parameters and of the muon lifetime as a function of absolute velocity. The total muon-decay rate in the Lorentz-violating standard model extension is addressed. Suggestions are made for dedicated (re)analyses of the pertinent data and for future experiments.
Lattice calculation of nonleptonic charm decays
Simone, J.N.
1991-11-01
The decays of charmed mesons into two body nonleptonic final states are investigated. Weak interaction amplitudes of interest in these decays are extracted from lattice four-point correlation functions using a effective weak Hamiltonian including effects to order G{sub f} in the weak interactions yet containing effects to all orders in the strong interactions. The lattice calculation allows a quantitative examination of non-spectator processes in charm decays helping to elucidate the role of effects such as color coherence, final state interactions and the importance of the so called weak annihilation process. For D {yields} K{pi}, we find that the non-spectator weak annihilation diagram is not small, and we interpret this as evidence for large final state interactions. Moreover, there is indications of a resonance in the isospin {1/2} channel to which the weak annihilation process contributes exclusively. Findings from the lattice calculation are compared to results from the continuum vacuum saturation approximation and amplitudes are examined within the framework of the 1/N expansion. Factorization and the vacuum saturation approximation are tested for lattice amplitudes by comparing amplitudes extracted from lattice four-point functions with the same amplitude extracted from products of two-point and three-point lattice correlation functions arising out of factorization and vacuum saturation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinberg, Aephraim; Feizpour, Amir; Rozema; Mahler; Hayat
2013-03-01
Quantum physics is being transformed by a radical new conceptual and experimental approach known as weak measurement that can do everything from tackling basic quantum mysteries to mapping the trajectories of photons in a Young's double-slit experiment. Aephraim Steinberg, Amir Feizpour, Lee Rozema, Dylan Mahler and Alex Hayat unveil the power of this new technique.
Weaknesses in Underperforming Schools
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van de Grift, Wim; Houtveen, Thoni
2007-01-01
In some Dutch elementary schools, the average performance of students over several years is significantly below the level that could be expected of them. This phenomenon is known as "underperformance." The most important identifiable weaknesses that go along with this phenomenon are that (a) learning material offered at school is insufficient to…
Venugopalan, Poothirikovil; Sivakumar, Puthuval; Ardley, Robert G.; Oates, Crispian
2012-01-01
We present an 11year-old boy with a weak right radial pulse, and describe the successful application of vascular ultrasound to identify the ulnar artery dominance and a thin right radial artery with below normal Doppler flow velocity that could explain the discrepancy. The implications of identifying this anomaly are discussed. PMID:22375269
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wittman, David M.; Jain, B.; Jarvis, M.; Knox, L.; Margoniner, V.; Takada, M.; Tyson, J.; Zhan, H.; LSST Weak Lensing Science Collaboration
2006-12-01
Constraining dark energy parameters with weak lensing is one of the primary science goals of the LSST. The LSST Weak Lensing Science Collaboration has been formed with the goal of optimizing the weak lensing science by optimizing the survey cadence; working with Data Management to insure high-quality pipeline processing which will meet our needs; developing the necessary analysis tools well before the onset of data-taking; participating in high-fidelity simulations to test the system end-to-end; and analyzing the real dataset as it becomes available. We review the major weak lensing probes, the twoand three-point shear correlations, and how they constrain dark energy parameters. We also review the possibility of going beyond dark energy models and testing gravity with the LSST data. To realize the promise of the awesome LSST statistical precision, we must ensure that systematic errors are kept under control. We review the major sources of systematics and our plans for mitigation. We present data that demonstrate that these sources of systematics can be kept to a level smaller than the statistical error.
Cartan's Supersymmetry and Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furui, Sadataka
2015-10-01
We apply the Cartan's supersymmetric model to the weak interaction of hadrons. The electromagnetic currents are transformed by G 12, G 123, G 13, G 132 and the factor is inserted between or when the photon is replaced by , and between or when the photon is replaced by Z. Electromagnetic currents in the Higgs boson H 0 decay into 2 and decay into and in which leptons are replaced by quarks are also studied. A possibility that the boson near the theshold GeV) is the Higgs boson partner h 0 is discussed. We adopt Dirac lepton neutrinos and Majorana quark neutrinos, and construct a model that satisfy the Z 3 symmetry of the lepton sector and the quark sector, by adding two right-handed neutrinos whose left-handed partner cannot be detected by our electro-magnetic detectors.
Luth, Vera G.; /SLAC
2012-10-02
The following is an overview of the measurements of the CKM matrix elements |V{sub cb}| and |V{sub ub}| that are based on detailed studies of semileptonic B decays by the BABAR and Belle Collaborations and major advances in QCD calculations. In addition, a new and improved measurement of the ratios R(D{sup (*)}) = {Beta}({bar B} {yields} D{sup (*)}{tau}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {tau}})/{Beta}({bar B} {yields} D{sup (*)}{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}}) is presented. Here D{sup (*)} refers to a D or a D* meson and {ell} is either e or {mu}. The results, R(D) = 0.440 {+-} 0.058 {+-} 0.042 and R(D*) = 0.332 {+-} 0.024 {+-} 0.018, exceed the Standard Model expectations by 2.0{sigma} and 2.7{sigma}, respectively. Taken together, they disagree with these expectations at the 3.4{sigma} level. The excess of events cannot be explained by a charged Higgs boson in the type II two-Higgs-doublet model.
Rare Electroweak Decays of K and B Mesons
Swee-Ping, Chia
2009-07-07
A phenomenological model is employed to treat the rare decays of mesons with neutrino-antineutrino pair production or charged lepton-antilepton production. The model takes advantage of the fact that inside the hadrons, quarks and antiquarks are tightly bound, and they behave like free particles. As such, the rare decay process can be described in terms of the corresponding quark-level decay process, but with the quarks developing 'dressed' masses because of QCD effects. The 'dressed' quark masses are estimated from the weak decays of the hadrons. With this set of 'dressed' quark masses, a reasonable description of the rare decays of the K and B mesons is obtained.
... Find Data by Topic > Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Main Content Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic ... important source of information on oral health and dental care in the United States since the early ...
Weak Interactions and Instability Cascades.
Kadoya, Taku; McCann, Kevin S
2015-01-01
Food web theory states that a weak interactor which is positioned in the food web such that it tends to deflect, or mute, energy away from a potentially oscillating consumer-resource interaction often enhances community persistence and stability. Here we examine how adding other weak interactions (predation/harvesting) on the stabilizing weak interactor alters the stability of food web using a set of well-established food web models/modules. We show that such "weak on weak" interaction chains drive an indirect dynamic cascade that can rapidly ignite a distant consumer-resource oscillator. Nonetheless, we also show that the "weak on weak" interactions are still more stable than the food web without them, and so weak interactions still generally act to stabilize food webs. Rather, these results are best interpreted to say that the degree of the stabilizing effect of a given important weak interaction can be severely compromised by other weak interactions (including weak harvesting). PMID:26219561
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pires, Sandrine; Starck, Jean-Luc; Leonard, Adrienne; Réfrégier, Alexandre
2012-03-01
This chapter reviews the data mining methods recently developed to solve standard data problems in weak gravitational lensing. We detail the different steps of the weak lensing data analysis along with the different techniques dedicated to these applications. An overview of the different techniques currently used will be given along with future prospects. Until about 30 years ago, astronomers thought that the Universe was composed almost entirely of ordinary matter: protons, neutrons, electrons, and atoms. The field of weak lensing has been motivated by the observations made in the last decades showing that visible matter represents only about 4-5% of the Universe (see Figure 14.1). Currently, the majority of the Universe is thought to be dark, that is, does not emit electromagnetic radiation. The Universe is thought to be mostly composed of an invisible, pressure less matter - potentially relic from higher energy theories - called "dark matter" (20-21%) and by an even more mysterious term, described in Einstein equations as a vacuum energy density, called "dark energy" (70%). This "dark" Universe is not well described or even understood; its presence is inferred indirectly from its gravitational effects, both on the motions of astronomical objects and on light propagation. So this point could be the next breakthrough in cosmology. Today's cosmology is based on a cosmological model that contains various parameters that need to be determined precisely, such as the matter density parameter Omega_m or the dark energy density parameter Omega_lambda. Weak gravitational lensing is believed to be the most promising tool to understand the nature of dark matter and to constrain the cosmological parameters used to describe the Universe because it provides a method to directly map the distribution of dark matter (see [1,6,60,63,70]). From this dark matter distribution, the nature of dark matter can be better understood and better constraints can be placed on dark energy
Weakly supervised glasses removal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhicheng; Zhou, Yisu; Wen, Lijie
2015-03-01
Glasses removal is an important task on face recognition, in this paper, we provide a weakly supervised method to remove eyeglasses from an input face image automatically. We choose sparse coding as face reconstruction method, and optical flow to find exact shape of glasses. We combine the two processes iteratively to remove glasses more accurately. The experimental results reveal that our method works much better than these algorithms alone, and it can remove various glasses to obtain natural looking glassless facial images.
Asymptotically Safe Weak Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calmet, Xavier
We emphasize that the electroweak interactions without a Higgs boson are very similar to quantum general relativity. The Higgs field could just be a dressing field and might not exist as a propagating particle. In that interpretation, the electroweak interactions without a Higgs boson could be renormalizable at the nonperturbative level because of a nontrivial fixed point. Tree-level unitarity in electroweak bosons scattering is restored by the running of the weak scale.
Suzuki, M.
1988-04-01
Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.
Teleportation of a Weak Coherent Cavity Field State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardoso, Wesley B.; Qiang, Wen-Chao; Avelar, Ardiley T.
2016-07-01
In this paper we propose a scheme to teleport a weak coherent cavity field state. The scheme relies on the resonant atom-field interaction inside a high-Q cavity. The mean photon-number of the cavity field is assumed much smaller than one, hence the field decay inside the cavity can be effectively suppressed.
Teleportation of a Weak Coherent Cavity Field State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardoso, Wesley B.; Qiang, Wen-Chao; Avelar, Ardiley T.
2016-02-01
In this paper we propose a scheme to teleport a weak coherent cavity field state. The scheme relies on the resonant atom-field interaction inside a high-Q cavity. The mean photon-number of the cavity field is assumed much smaller than one, hence the field decay inside the cavity can be effectively suppressed.
QCD in heavy quark production and decay
Wiss, J.
1997-06-01
The author discusses how QCD is used to understand the physics of heavy quark production and decay dynamics. His discussion of production dynamics primarily concentrates on charm photoproduction data which are compared to perturbative QCD calculations which incorporate fragmentation effects. He begins his discussion of heavy quark decay by reviewing data on charm and beauty lifetimes. Present data on fully leptonic and semileptonic charm decay are then reviewed. Measurements of the hadronic weak current form factors are compared to the nonperturbative QCD-based predictions of Lattice Gauge Theories. He next discusses polarization phenomena present in charmed baryon decay. Heavy Quark Effective Theory predicts that the daughter baryon will recoil from the charmed parent with nearly 100% left-handed polarization, which is in excellent agreement with present data. He concludes by discussing nonleptonic charm decay which is traditionally analyzed in a factorization framework applicable to two-body and quasi-two-body nonleptonic decays. This discussion emphasizes the important role of final state interactions in influencing both the observed decay width of various two-body final states as well as modifying the interference between interfering resonance channels which contribute to specific multibody decays. 50 refs., 77 figs.
Decays of the heavy lepton, tau (1785)
Blocker, C.A.
1980-04-01
The structure of the weak hadronic current coupled to the tau is investigated via some of the hadronic decays of the tau. The vector current coupling is determined by measuring the tau ..-->.. rho ..nu../sub tau/ branching ratio. The axial-vector coupling is determined by measuring the tau ..-->.. ..pi.. ..nu../sub tau/ branching ratio. The Cabibbo structure of the hadronic current is established by observing the decay tau ..-->.. K*(890)..nu../sub tau/ and measuring its branching ratio. The branching ratios for the decays tau ..-->.. e anti ..nu../sub e/..nu../sub tau/ and tau ..-->.. ..mu.. anti ..nu../sub ..mu../..nu../sub tau/ are measured as a normalization for the hadronic decays and as a check on the validity of the measurements. The leptonic branching ratios agree well with previous experiments. From a kinematic fit to the pion energy spectrum in the decay tau ..-->.. ..pi.. ..nu../sub tau/, an upper limit (95% confidence level) of 245 MeV is placed on the tau neutrino mass. From a simultaneous fit of the center of mass energy dependence of the tau production cross section and the pion energy spectrum in the decay tau ..-->.. ..pi.. ..nu../sub tau/, the tau mass is determined to be 1.787 +- .010 GeV/c. All properties of the tau measured here are consistent with it being a sequential lepton coupled to the ordinary weak hadronic current.
Marciano, W.J.
1983-01-01
Topics include minimal SU(5) predictions, gauge boson mediated proton decay, uncertainties in tau/sub p/, Higgs scalar effects, proton decay via Higgs scalars, supersymmetric SU(5), dimension 5 operators and proton decay, and Higgs scalars and proton decay. (WHK)
Weakly broken galileon symmetry
Pirtskhalava, David; Santoni, Luca; Trincherini, Enrico; Vernizzi, Filippo
2015-09-01
Effective theories of a scalar ϕ invariant under the internal galileon symmetryϕ→ϕ+b{sub μ}x{sup μ} have been extensively studied due to their special theoretical and phenomenological properties. In this paper, we introduce the notion of weakly broken galileon invariance, which characterizes the unique class of couplings of such theories to gravity that maximally retain their defining symmetry. The curved-space remnant of the galileon’s quantum properties allows to construct (quasi) de Sitter backgrounds largely insensitive to loop corrections. We exploit this fact to build novel cosmological models with interesting phenomenology, relevant for both inflation and late-time acceleration of the universe.
Branching ratios of B{sub c} meson decays into tensor meson in the final state
Sharma, Neelesh
2010-01-01
Two-body hadronic weak decays of B{sub c} meson involving tensor meson in the final state are studied by using the Isgur-Scora-Grinstein-Wise II model. Decay amplitudes are obtained using the factorization scheme in the spectator quark model. Branching ratios for the charm changing and bottom changing decay modes are predicted.
Weakly relativistic plasma expansion
Fermous, Rachid Djebli, Mourad
2015-04-15
Plasma expansion is an important physical process that takes place in laser interactions with solid targets. Within a self-similar model for the hydrodynamical multi-fluid equations, we investigated the expansion of both dense and under-dense plasmas. The weakly relativistic electrons are produced by ultra-intense laser pulses, while ions are supposed to be in a non-relativistic regime. Numerical investigations have shown that relativistic effects are important for under-dense plasma and are characterized by a finite ion front velocity. Dense plasma expansion is found to be governed mainly by quantum contributions in the fluid equations that originate from the degenerate pressure in addition to the nonlinear contributions from exchange and correlation potentials. The quantum degeneracy parameter profile provides clues to set the limit between under-dense and dense relativistic plasma expansions at a given density and temperature.
Ring current proton decay by charge exchange
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, P. H.; Hoffman, R. A.; Fritz, T.
1975-01-01
Explorer 45 measurements during the recovery phase of a moderate magnetic storm have confirmed that the charge exchange decay mechanism can account for the decay of the storm-time proton ring current. Data from the moderate magnetic storm of 24 February 1972 was selected for study since a symmetrical ring current had developed and effects due to asymmetric ring current losses could be eliminated. It was found that after the initial rapid decay of the proton flux, the equatorially mirroring protons in the energy range 5 to 30 keV decayed throughout the L-value range of 3.5 to 5.0 at the charge exchange decay rate calculated by Liemohn. After several days of decay, the proton fluxes reached a lower limit where an apparent equilibrium was maintained, between weak particle source mechanisms and the loss mechanisms, until fresh protons were injected into the ring current region during substorms. While other proton loss mechanisms may also be operating, the results indicate that charge exchange can entirely account for the storm-time proton ring current decay, and that this mechanism must be considered in all studies involving the loss of proton ring current particles.
Limits Of Quantum Information In Weak Interaction Processes Of Hyperons
Hiesmayr, B. C.
2015-01-01
We analyze the achievable limits of the quantum information processing of the weak interaction revealed by hyperons with spin. We find that the weak decay process corresponds to an interferometric device with a fixed visibility and fixed phase difference for each hyperon. Nature chooses rather low visibilities expressing a preference to parity conserving or violating processes (except for the decay Σ+→ pπ0). The decay process can be considered as an open quantum channel that carries the information of the hyperon spin to the angular distribution of the momentum of the daughter particles. We find a simple geometrical information theoretic interpretation of this process: two quantization axes are chosen spontaneously with probabilities where α is proportional to the visibility times the real part of the phase shift. Differently stated, the weak interaction process corresponds to spin measurements with an imperfect Stern-Gerlach apparatus. Equipped with this information theoretic insight we show how entanglement can be measured in these systems and why Bell’s nonlocality (in contradiction to common misconception in literature) cannot be revealed in hyperon decays. Last but not least we study under which circumstances contextuality can be revealed. PMID:26144247
Search for a Scalar Component in the Weak Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakoucky, Dalibor; Baczyk, Pavel; Ban, Gilles; Beck, Marcus; Breitenfeldt, Martin; Couratin, Claire; Fabian, Xavier; Finlay, Paul; Flechard, Xavier; Friedag, Peter; Glück, Ferenc; Herlert, Alexander; Knecht, Andreas; Kozlov, Valentin; Lienard, Etienne; Porobic, Tomica; Soti, Gergelj; Tandecki, Michael; Vangorp, Simon; Weinheimer, Christian; Wursten, Elise; Severijns, Nathal
Weak interactions are described by the Standard Model which uses the basic assumption of a pure "V(ector)-A(xial vector)" character for the interaction. However, after more than half a century of model development and experimental testing of its fundamental ingredients, experimental limits for possible admixtures of scalar and/or tensor interactions are still as high as 7%. The WITCH project (Weak Interaction Trap for CHarged particles) at the isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN is trying to probe the structure of the weak interaction in specific low energy β-decays in order to look for possible scalar or tensor components or at least significantly improve the current experimental limits. This worldwide unique experimental setup consisting of a combination of two Penning ion traps and a retardation spectrometer allows to catch, trap and cool the radioactive nuclei provided by the ISOLDE separator, form a cooled and scattering-free radioactive source of β-decaying nuclei and let these nuclei decay at rest. The precise measurement of the shape of the energy spectrum of the recoiling nuclei, the shape of which is very sensitive to the character of the weak interaction, enables searching for a possible admixture of a scalar/tensor component in the dominant vector/axial vector mode. First online measurements with the isotope 35Ar were performed in 2011 and 2012. The current status of the experiment, the data analysis and results as well as extensive simulations will be presented and discussed.
CP violation in B meson decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noguchi, S.; Belle Group
2003-06-01
CP violation in neutral B meson decays has been observed confirming the prediction of the Kobayashi-Maskawa model where introduction of six quaks naturally induces CP violation in the weak interaction. The measurements of CP asymmetryc in B meson decays were made at the newly constructed Asymmetric B factories, which consist of high luminosity, ebergy-asymmetric e+e- colliders (KEKB and PEP-II) and detectors (Belle and BaBar). The results are in good agreement and are consistent with other experimental results within the framework of the Standard Model.
Detection of weak signals in memory thermal baths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez-Aquino, J. I.; Velasco, R. M.; Romero-Bastida, M.
2014-11-01
The nonlinear relaxation time and the statistics of the first passage time distribution in connection with the quasideterministic approach are used to detect weak signals in the decay process of the unstable state of a Brownian particle embedded in memory thermal baths. The study is performed in the overdamped approximation of a generalized Langevin equation characterized by an exponential decay in the friction memory kernel. A detection criterion for each time scale is studied: The first one is referred to as the receiver output, which is given as a function of the nonlinear relaxation time, and the second one is related to the statistics of the first passage time distribution.
Dine, Michael; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Morisse, Alexander; Shirman, Yuri
2006-04-21
One proposed solution of the moduli problem of string cosmology requires that the moduli are quite heavy, their decays reheating the universe to temperatures above the scale of nucleosynthesis. In many of these scenarios, the moduli are approximately supersymmetric; it is then crucial that the decays to gravitinos are helicity suppressed. In this paper, we discuss situations where these decays are, and are not, suppressed. We also comment on a possible gravitino problem from inaton decay.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chistov, R.
2016-02-01
In this talk the decays of B-mesons into baryons are discussed. Large mass of B-meson makes possible the decays of the type B → baryon (+mesons). Experimental observations and measurements of these decays at B-factories Belle and BaBar have stimulate the development of theoretical models in this field. We briefly review the experimental results together with the current theoretical models which describe baryonic B decays.
Kaon, pion, and proton associated photofission of Bi nuclei
Song, Y.; Margaryan, A.; Acha, A.; Ahmidouch, A.; Androic, D.; Asaturyan, A.; Asaturyan, R.; Baker, O. K.; Baturin, P.; Benmokhtar, F.; Carlini, R.; Chen, X.; Christy, M.; Cole, L.; Danagoulian, S.; Daniel, A.; Dharmawardane, V.; Egiyan, K.; Elaasar, M.; Ent, R.
2010-10-15
The first measurement of proton, pion, and kaon associated fission of Bi nuclei has been performed in a photon energy range 1. 45 < E{sub {gamma}}< 1. 55 GeV. The fission probabilities are compared with an inclusive fission probabilities obtained with photons, protons and pions. The fission probability of Bi nuclei in coincidence with kaons is 0. 18 {+-} 0. 06 which is {approx}3 times larger than the proton and pion associated fission probabilities and {approx}2 times larger than inclusive ones. The kaon associated excess fission events are explained in terms of bound {Lambda} residual states and their weak nonmesonic decays.
Soccer in Indiana and models for non-leptonic decays of heavy flavours
Bigi, I.I. )
1989-12-15
Various descriptions of non-leptonic charm decays are reviewed and their relative strengths and weaknesses are listed. I conclude that it is mainly (though no necessarily solely) a destructive interference in nonleptonic D{sup +} decays that shapes the decays of charm mesons. Some more subtle features in these decays are discussed in a preview of future research before I address the presently confused situation in D{sub s} decays. Finally I give a brief theoretical discussion of inclusive and exclusive non-leptonic decays of beauty mesons.
ISOLTRAP Mass Measurements for Weak-Interaction Studies
Kellerbauer, A.; Delahaye, P.; Herlert, A.; Audi, G.; Guenaut, C.; Lunney, D.; Beck, D.; Herfurth, F.; Kluge, H.-J.; Mukherjee, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Weber, C.; Yazidjian, C.; Blaum, K.; Bollen, G.; Schwarz, S.; George, S.; Schweikhard, L.
2006-04-26
The conserved-vector-current (CVC) hypothesis of the weak interaction and the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix are two fundamental postulates of the Standard Model. While existing data on CVC supports vector current conservation, the unitarity test of the CKM matrix currently fails by more than two standard deviations. High-precision mass measurements performed with the ISOLTRAP experiment at ISOLDE/CERN provide crucial input for these fundamental studies by greatly improving our knowledge of the decay energy of super-allowed {beta} decays. Recent results of mass measurements on the {beta} emitters 18Ne, 22Mg, 34Ar, and 74Rb as pertaining to weak-interaction studies are presented.
Roles of Nuclear Weak Processes in Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Toshio; Kajino, Toshitaka; Honma, Michio; Toki, Hiroshi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi
2015-11-01
The roles of nuclear weak processes in stars are discussed. Neutrino-nucleus reactions on 12C, 56Fe and 40Ar are studied with new shell-model Hamiltonians. New cross sections, which give good account of experimental data, are applied to nucleosynthesis of light elements in supernova explosions. Effects of ν-oscillations are investigated, and the abundance ratio of 7Li/11B is pointed out to be sensitive to the ν mass hierarchy. Then, e-capture and β-decay rates in sd-shell nuclei are evaluated at stellar environments, and applied to study cooling of O-Ne-Mg core stars by nuclear URCA processes. The fate of 8-10 M❿ stars is sensitive to the cooling of the core. Finally, β-decay half-lives of r-process waiting-point nuclei with N=126 are evaluated by shell-model calculations taking into account both the Gamow-Teller and first-forbidden transitions. The half-lives obtained are short compared with standard FRDM values.
Weak phase information from the color suppressed modes
Giri, A. K.; Mawlong, B.; Mohanta, R.
2007-11-01
The decay channels , are investigated for extracting weak Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) phase information. These channels are described by color suppressed tree diagrams only and are free from penguin contributions. The branching ratios for these channels are found to be {approx}O(10{sup -5}-10{sup -6}) which can be measured at the currently running B factories. The method presented here may be well suited to determine the CKM angle {gamma}.
D+→K-π+π+: The weak vector current
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magalhães, P. C.; Robilotta, M. R.
2015-11-01
Studies of D and B meson decays into hadrons have been used to test the standard model in the last 15 years. A heavy meson decay involves the combined effects of a primary weak vertex and subsequent hadronic final-state interactions, which determine the shapes of Dalitz plots. The fact that final products involve light mesons indicates that the QCD vacuum is an active part of the problem. This makes the description of these processes rather involved and, in spite of its importance, phenomenological analyses tend to rely on crude models. Our group produced, some time ago, a schematic calculation of the decay D+→K-π+π+, which provided a reasonable description of data. Its main assumption was the dominance of the weak vector current, which yields a nonfactorizable interaction. Here we refine that calculation by including the correct momentum dependence of the weak vertex and extending the energy ranges of π π and K π subamplitudes present into the problem. These new features make the present treatment more realistic and bring theory closer to data.
Hagmann, C., LLNL
1998-07-09
We have studied numerically the evolution and decay of axion strings. These global defects decay mainly by axion emission and thus contribute to the cosmological axion energy density. The relative importance of this source relative to misalignment production of axions depends on the spectrum. Radiation spectra for various string loop configurations are presented. They support the contention that the string decay contribution is of the same order of magnitude as the contribution from misalignment.
Experimental investigations of weak definite and weak indefinite noun phrases
Klein, Natalie M.; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney M.; Carlson, Greg N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.
2013-01-01
Definite noun phrases typically refer to entities that are uniquely identifiable in the speaker and addressee’s common ground. Some definite noun phrases (e.g. the hospital in Mary had to go the hospital and John did too) seem to violate this uniqueness constraint. We report six experiments that were motivated by the hypothesis that these “weak definite” interpretations arise in “incorporated” constructions. Experiments 1-3 compared nouns that seem to allow for a weak definite interpretation (e.g. hospital, bank, bus, radio) with those that do not (e.g. farm, concert, car, book). Experiments 1 and 2 used an instruction-following task and picture-judgment task, respectively, to demonstrate that a weak definite need not uniquely refer. In Experiment 3 participants imagined scenarios described by sentences such as The Federal Express driver had to go to the hospital/farm. The imagined scenarios following weak definite noun phrases were more likely to include conventional activities associated with the object, whereas following regular nouns, participants were more likely to imagine scenarios that included typical activities associated with the subject; similar effects were observed with weak indefinites. Experiment 4 found that object-related activities were reduced when the same subject and object were used with a verb that does not license weak definite interpretations. In Experiment 5, a science fiction story introduced an artificial lexicon for novel concepts. Novel nouns that shared conceptual properties with English weak definite nouns were more likely to allow weak reference in a judgment task. Experiment 6 demonstrated that familiarity for definite articles and anti- familiarity for indefinite articles applies to the activity associated with the noun, consistent with predictions made by the incorporation analysis. PMID:23685208
Optimizing quantum correlation dynamics by weak measurement in dissipative environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Shao-Jiang; Xia, Yun-Jie; Duan, De-Yang; Zhang, Lu; Gao, Qiang
2015-04-01
We investigate the protection of quantum correlations of two qubits in independent vacuum reservoirs by means of weak measurements. It is found that the weak measurement can reduce the amount of quantum correlation for one type of initial state at the beginning in a non-Markovian environment and meanwhile it can reduce the occurrence time of entanglement sudden death (ESD) in the process of time evolution. In a Markovian environment, the quantum entanglements of the two kinds of initial states decay rapidly and the weak measurement can further weaken the quantum entanglement, therefore in this case the entanglement cannot be optimized in the evolution process. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178012 and No.11147019).
Hadronic decays of the D/sub s/ meson
Wasserbaech, S.R.
1989-06-01
The D/sub s//sup +/ is the lowest-lying pseudoscalar meson containing charm and anti-strange quarks. Evidence for this state was first reported in 1977, although more recent observations disagree with some of the early results. Since 1983 the weakly decaying D/sub s//sup +/ has been observed in many experiments. Relative branching fractions have been measured for many non-leptonic decay modes, including D/sub s//sup +/ /yields/ /phi//pi//sup +/, /phi//pi//sup +//pi//sup +//pi//sup /minus//, /bar K/*/sup 0/K/sup +/, and f/sub 0/(975)/pi//sup +/. The absolute branching fractions are estimated in high energy e/sup +/e/sup /minus// annihilation from the observed numbers of reconstructed D/sub s//sup +/ decays and the expected D/sub s//sup +/ production cross section. The lowest-lying vector c/bar s/ meson, the D/sub s/*/sup +/, has also been seen in its decay to /gamma/D/sub s//sup +/. Weak decays of the heavy quark and lepton flavors are relevant to the development of the Standard Model of both the electroweak and the strong interactions. Measurements of charmed particle weak decay are useful for determining the parameter of the Standard Model and for testing phenomenological models which include strong effects. 83 refs., 56 figs., 12 tabs.
Five-body leptonic decays of muon and tau leptons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flores-Tlalpa, A.; Castro, G. López; Roig, P.
2016-04-01
We study the five-body decays {μ}-to {e}-{e}+{e}-{ν}_{μ }{overline{ν}}_e and {τ}-to {ℓ}-{ℓ}^' +}{ℓ}^' -}{ν}_{τ }{overline{ν}}_{ℓ } for ℓ, ℓ ' = e, μ within the Standard Model (SM) and in a general effective field theory description of the weak interactions at low energies. We compute the branching ratios and compare our results with two previous — mutually discrepan — SM calculations. By assuming a general structure for the weak currents we derive the expressions for the energy and angular distributions of the three charged leptons when the decaying lepton is polarized, which will be useful in precise tests of the weak charged current at Belle II. In these decays, leptonic T-odd correlations in triple products of spin and momenta — which may signal time reversal violation in the leptonic sector — are suppressed by the tiny neutrino masses. Therefore, a measurement of such T-violating observables would be associated to neutrinoless lepton flavor violating (LFV) decays, where this effect is not extremely suppressed. We also study the backgrounds that the SM five-lepton lepton decays constitute to searches of LFV L - → ℓ - ℓ '+ ℓ '- decays. Searches at high values of the invariant mass of the ℓ '+ ℓ '- pair look the most convenient way to overcome the background.
Resisting Weakness of the Will
Levy, Neil
2012-01-01
I develop an account of weakness of the will that is driven by experimental evidence from cognitive and social psychology. I will argue that this account demonstrates that there is no such thing as weakness of the will: no psychological kind corresponds to it. Instead, weakness of the will ought to be understood as depletion of System II resources. Neither the explanatory purposes of psychology nor our practical purposes as agents are well-served by retaining the concept. I therefore suggest that we ought to jettison it, in favour of the vocabulary and concepts of cognitive psychology. PMID:22984298
Reichenbach, H.; Kuhl, A.L.
1993-09-07
The purpose of this paper is to compare reflection factors for weak shocks from various surfaces, and to focus attention on some unsolved questions. Three different cases are considered: square-wave planar shock reflection from wedges; square-wave planar shock reflection from cylinders; and spherical blast wave reflection from a planar surface. We restrict ourselves to weak shocks. Shocks with a Mach number of M{sub O} < 1.56 in air or with an overpressure of {Delta}{sub PI} < 25 psi (1.66 bar) under normal ambient conditions are called weak.
Radiative Neutron β-Decay in Effective Field Theory
Gardner, Susan; Bernard, Véronique; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Zhang, Chi
2005-01-01
We consider radiative β-decay of the neutron in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. Nucleon-structure effects not encoded in the weak coupling constants gA and gV are determined at next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion, and enter at the O(0.5%)-level, making a sensitive test of the Dirac structure of the weak currents possible. PMID:27308159
Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering
Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin
2007-03-01
We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities.
Weak ferromagnetism in the cuprates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chovan, J.; Papanicolaou, N.
2001-02-01
An effective field theory that describes the low-frequency spin dynamics in the low-temperature orthorhombic phase of La 2CuO 4 is derived. The main features of the inherent covert weak ferromagnetism are thus accounted for in a straightforward manner but some of the finer theoretical predictions would require further experimental investigation. In particular, theory predicts the occurrence of magnetic stripes in undoped La 2CuO 4 which mediate the observed weak-ferromagnetic transition.
Does the b quark decay left-handedly
Gronau, M. ); Wakaizumi, S. )
1992-03-23
The left-handedness of the {ital b} quark weak couplings has not yet been tested experimentally. We present an SU(2){sub {ital L}}{times}SU(2){sub {ital R}}{times}U(1) model with purely right-handed {ital b} decay couplings. We show that the model is consistent with the quite severe existing experimental constraints from {ital B} decays, from {ital B}{sup 0-}{ital {bar B}} {sup 0} mixing, from the neutral {ital K} mass difference, and from {ital CP} violation in the kaon system. We point out a difficulty in distinguishing our scheme from the standard model in semileptonic {ital B} decays.
Charged-particle multiplicities in B-meson decay
Alam, M.S.; Csorna, S.E.; Fridman, A.; Hicks, R.G.; Panvini, R.S.; Andrews, D.; Avery, P.; Berkelman, K.; Cabenda, R.; Cassel, D.G.; DeWire, J.W.; Ehrlich, R.; Ferguson, T.; Gilchriese, M.G.D.; Gittelman, B.; Hartill, D.L.; Herrup, D.; Herzlinger, M.; Holzner, S.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D.L.; Mistry, N.B.; Morrow, F.; Nordberg, E.; Perchonok, R.; Plunkett, R.; Silverman, A.; Stein, P.C.; Stone, S.; Weber, D.; Wilcke, R.; Sadoff, A.J.; Bebek, C.; Haggerty, J.; Hempstead, M.; Izen, J.M.; Loomis, W.A.; MacKay, W.W.; Pipkin, F.M.; Rohlf, J.; Tanenbaum, W.; Wilson, R.; Chadwick, K.; Chauveau, J.; Ganci, P.; Gentile, T.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Melissinos, A.C.; Olsen, S.L.; Poling, R.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rucinski, G.; Thorndike, E.H.; Green, J.; Sannes, F.; Skubic, P.; Snyder, A.; Stone, R.; Brody, A.; Chen, A.; Goldberg, M.; Horwitz, N.; Lipari, P.; Kooy, H.; Moneti, G.C.; Pistilli, P.
1982-08-09
The charged multiplicity has been measured at the UPSILON(4S) and a value of 5.75 +- 0.1 +- 0.2 has been obtained for the mean charged multiplicity in B-meson decay. Combining this result with the measurement of prompt letpons from B decay, the values 4.1 +- 0.35 +- 0.2 and 6.3 +- 0.2 +- 0.2 are found for the semileptonic and nonleptonic charged multiplicities, respectively. If b..-->..c dominance is assumed for the weak decay of the B meson, then the semileptonic multiplicity is consistent with the recoil mass determined from the lepton momentum spectrum.
Rare {Lambda}{sub b} decays in a quark model
Mott, L.; Roberts, W.
2010-08-05
Hadronic form factors for the rare weak transitions {Lambda}{sub b{yields}{Lambda}}{sup (*)} are calculated using a nonrelativistic quark model. The form factors obtained in this way are found to satisfy the relationships expecetd from the heavy quark effective theory. Differential decay rates and branching ratios are calculated for the dileptonic decays {Lambda}{sub b{yields}{Lambda}}{sup (*)}l{sup +}l{sup -}, for both ground state and excited daughter baryons. Inclusion of the long distance contributions from charmonium resonances significantly enhances the decay rates. Future work is outlined.
Radioactive Decay - An Analog.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McGeachy, Frank
1988-01-01
Presents an analog of radioactive decay that allows the student to grasp the concept of half life and the exponential nature of the decay process. The analog is devised to use small, colored, plastic poker chips or counters. Provides the typical data and a graph which supports the analog. (YP)
Mesonic Decay of Charm Hypernuclei Λc+
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Fontoura, Carlos E.; Krein, Gastão
2016-03-01
Λc+ hypernuclei are expected to have binding energies and other properties similar to those of strange hypernuclei in view of the similarity between the quark structures of the strange and charmed hyperons, namely Λ(uds) and Λc+(udc). One striking difference however occurs in their mesonic decays, as there is almost no Pauli blocking in the nucleonic decay of a charm hypernucleus because the final-state nucleons leave the nucleus at high energies. The nuclear medium nevertheless affects the mesonic decays of charm hypernucleus because the nuclear mean fields modify the masses of the charm hyperon. In the present communication we present results of a first investigation of the effects of finite baryon density on different weak mesonic decay channels of the Λc+ baryon. We found a non-negligible reduction of the decay widths as compared to their vacuum values.
Investigating the Pygmy Dipole Resonance Using β Decay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheck, M.; Mishev, S.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Chapman, R.; Gaffney, L. P.; Gregor, E. T.; Pietralla, N.; Spagnoletti, P.; Savran, D.; Simpson, G. S.
2016-04-01
In this contribution it is explored whether γ -ray spectroscopy following β decay with high Q values from mother nuclei with low ground-state spin can be exploited as a probe for the pygmy dipole resonance. The suitability of this approach is demonstrated by a comparison between data from photon scattering, 136Xe (γ ,γ') , and 136I [J0π=(1-)]→136Xe* β -decay data. It is demonstrated that β decay populates 1- levels associated with the pygmy dipole resonance, but only a fraction of those. The complementary insight into the wave functions probed by β decay is elucidated by calculations within the quasiparticle phonon model. It is demonstrated that β decay dominantly populates complex configurations, which are only weakly excited in inelastic scattering experiments.
Investigating the Pygmy Dipole Resonance Using β Decay.
Scheck, M; Mishev, S; Ponomarev, V Yu; Chapman, R; Gaffney, L P; Gregor, E T; Pietralla, N; Spagnoletti, P; Savran, D; Simpson, G S
2016-04-01
In this contribution it is explored whether γ-ray spectroscopy following β decay with high Q values from mother nuclei with low ground-state spin can be exploited as a probe for the pygmy dipole resonance. The suitability of this approach is demonstrated by a comparison between data from photon scattering, ^{136}Xe(γ,γ^{'}), and ^{136}I [J_{0}^{π}=(1^{-})]→^{136}Xe^{*} β-decay data. It is demonstrated that β decay populates 1^{-} levels associated with the pygmy dipole resonance, but only a fraction of those. The complementary insight into the wave functions probed by β decay is elucidated by calculations within the quasiparticle phonon model. It is demonstrated that β decay dominantly populates complex configurations, which are only weakly excited in inelastic scattering experiments. PMID:27081972
Standard Model Treatment of the Radiative Corrections to Neutron β-Decay
Bunatian, G. G.
2005-01-01
Starting with the Standard Model electroweak Lagrangian, the radiative corrections to neutron β-decay are obtained. Nucleon compositeness is considered by appropriate parameterization of the nucleon weak transition current and electromagnetic form factors. PMID:27308144
Propagation of a curved weak shock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monica, A.; Prasad, Phoolan
2001-05-01
Propagation of a curved shock is governed by a system of shock ray equations which is coupled to an infinite system of transport equations along these rays. For a two-dimensional weak shock, it has been suggested that this system can be approximated by a hyperbolic system of four partial differential equations in a ray coordinate system, which consists of two independent variables ([zeta], t) where the curves t = constant give successive positions of the shock and [zeta] = constant give rays. The equations show that shock rays not only stretch longitudinally due to finite amplitude on a shock front but also turn due to a non-uniform distribution of the shock strength on it. These changes finally lead to a modification of the amplitude of the shock strength. Since discontinuities in the form of kinks appear on the shock, it is necessary to study the problem by using the correct conservation form of these equations. We use such a system of equations in conservation form to construct a total-variation-bounded finite difference scheme. The numerical solution captures converging shock fronts with a pair of kinks on them the shock front emerges without the usual folds in the caustic region. The shock strength, even when the shock passes through the caustic region, remains so small that the small-amplitude theory remains valid. The shock strength ultimately decays with a well-defined geometrical shape of the shock front a pair of kinks which separate a central disc from a pair of wings on the two sides. We also study the ultimate shape and decay of shocks of initially periodic shapes and plane shocks with a dent and a bulge.
... spine) Stroke MUSCLE DISEASES Becker muscular dystrophy Dermatomyositis Muscular dystrophy (Duchenne) Myotonic dystrophy POISONING Botulism Poisoning ( insecticides , nerve gas) Shellfish poisoning OTHER Anemia Myasthenia gravis Polio
Quantum discord with weak measurements
Singh, Uttam Pati, Arun Kumar
2014-04-15
Weak measurements cause small change to quantum states, thereby opening up the possibility of new ways of manipulating and controlling quantum systems. We ask, can weak measurements reveal more quantum correlation in a composite quantum state? We prove that the weak measurement induced quantum discord, called as the “super quantum discord”, is always larger than the quantum discord captured by the strong measurement. Moreover, we prove the monotonicity of the super quantum discord as a function of the measurement strength and in the limit of strong projective measurement the super quantum discord becomes the normal quantum discord. We find that unlike the normal discord, for pure entangled states, the super quantum discord can exceed the quantum entanglement. Our results provide new insights on the nature of quantum correlation and suggest that the notion of quantum correlation is not only observer dependent but also depends on how weakly one perturbs the composite system. We illustrate the key results for pure as well as mixed entangled states. -- Highlights: •Introduced the role of weak measurements in quantifying quantum correlation. •We have introduced the notion of the super quantum discord (SQD). •For pure entangled state, we show that the SQD exceeds the entanglement entropy. •This shows that quantum correlation depends not only on observer but also on measurement strength.
Chang, S; Hagmann, C; Sikivie, P
2001-01-08
The authors discuss the decay of axion walls bounded by strings and present numerical simulations of the decay process. In these simulations, the decay happens immediately, in a time scale of order the light travel time, and the average energy of the radiated axions is
Assadullahi, Hooshyar; Wands, David; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein E-mail: firouz@mail.ipm.ir E-mail: david.wands@port.ac.uk
2013-03-01
We study primordial density perturbations generated by the late decay of a curvaton field whose decay rate may be modulated by the local value of another isocurvature field, analogous to models of modulated reheating at the end of inflation. We calculate the primordial density perturbation and its local-type non-Gaussianity using the sudden-decay approximation for the curvaton field, recovering standard curvaton and modulated reheating results as limiting cases. We verify the Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality between bispectrum and trispectrum parameters for the primordial density field generated by multiple field fluctuations, and find conditions for the bound to be saturated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dzyublik, A. Ya.
2016-05-01
We analyzed in details the combined decay of the atomic-nuclear state, which consists of the excited 3/2+ level of 63 153 Eu and K hole, formed in the K capture by 153Gd. This decay proceeds in two stages. First, the nucleus transfers its energy to 2 p electron, which flies into the continuum spectrum, and then returns into 1s hole, emitting γ quantum with the energy equal to the sum of energies of the nuclear and atomic transitions. We estimated the decay probability to be 2.2 × 10-13, that is much less than the recent experimental findings.
Anomalous baryogenesis at the weak scale
Singleton, R.L. Jr.
1991-06-01
One of the fundamental constants of nature is the baryon asymmetry of the universe -- the ratio of the number of baryons to the entropy. This constant is about 10{sup {minus}11}. In baryon- number conserving theories, this was just an initial condition. With the advent of the grand unified theories (GUTs), baryon number is no longer conserved, and this asymmetry can be generated dynamically. Unfortunately, however, there are reasons for preferring another mechanism. For example, GUTs predict proton decay which, after extensive searches, has not been found. An alternative place to look for baryogenesis is the electroweak phase transition, described by the standard model, which posses all the necessary ingredients for baryogenesis. Anomalous baryon-number violation in weak interactions becomes large at high temperatures, which offers the prospect of creating the asymmetry with the standard model or minimal extensions. This can just barely be done if certain conditions are fulfilled. CP violation must be large, which rules out the minimal standard model as the source of the asymmetry, but which is easily arranged with an extended Higgs sector. The baryon-number violating rates themselves are not exactly known, and they must be pushed to their theoretical limits. A more exact determination of these rates is needed before a definitive answer can be given. Finally, the phase transition must be at least weakly first order. Such phase transitions are accompanied by the formation and expansion of bubbles of true vacuum within the false vacuum, much like the boiling of water. As the bubbles expand, they provide a departure from thermal equilibrium, otherwise the dynamics will adjust the net baryon number to zero. The bubble expansion also provides a biasing that creates an asymmetry on the bubbles surface. Under optimal conditions, the observed asymmetry can just be produced. 31 refs., 10 figs.
Interaction of Oblique Instability Waves with Weak Streamwise Vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M. E.; Wundrow, David W.
1994-01-01
This paper is concerned with the effect of a weak spanwise-variable mean-flow distortion on the growth of oblique instability waves in a Blasius boundary layer. The streamwise component of the distortion velocity initially grows linearly with increasing streamwise distance, reaches a maximum, and eventually decays through the action of viscosity. This decay occurs slowly and allows the distortion to destabilize the Blasius flow over a relatively large streamwise region. It is shown that even relatively weak distortions can cause certain oblique Rayleigh instability waves to grow much faster than the usual two-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting waves that would be the dominant instability modes in the absence of the distortion. The oblique instability waves can then become large enough to interact nonlinearly within a common critical layer. It is shown that the resulting nonlinearity is weak and that the common amplitude of the interacting oblique waves is governed by the amplitude evolution equation derived in Goldstein & Choi (1989). The implications of these results for Klebanoff-type transition are discussed.
Cosmology and the weak interaction
Schramm, D.N. ):)
1989-12-01
The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N{sub {nu}} {approximately} 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.
Cosmology and the weak interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schramm, David N.
1989-01-01
The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. Two of its most publicized comological connections are emphasized: big bang nucleosynthesis and dark matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of neutrine flavors, N(sub nu) is approximately 3 which in now being confirmed. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galacty and structure formation in the universe. The role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure is demonstrated.
Bard, D.; /Imperial Coll., London
2011-11-23
I discuss recent results in radiative B decays from the Belle and BaBar collaborations. I report new measurements of the decay rate and CP asymmetries in b {yields} s{gamma} and b {yields} d{gamma} decays, and measurements of the photon spectrum in b {yields} s{gamma}. Radiative penguin decays are flavour changing neutral currents which do not occur at tree level in the standard model (SM), but must proceed via one loop or higher order diagrams. These transitions are therefore suppressed in the SM, but offer access to poorlyknown SM parameters and are also a sensitive probe of new physics. In the SM, the rate is dominated by the top quark contribution to the loop, but non-SM particles could also contribute with a size comparable to leading SM contributions. The new physics effects are potentially large which makes them theoretically very interesting, but due to their small branching fractions they are typically experimentally challenging.
LITTENBERG, L.
2005-07-19
Lepton flavor violation (LFV) experiments have probed sensitivities corresponding to mass scales of well over 100 TeV, making life difficult for models predicting accessible LFV in kaon decay and discouraging new dedicated experiments of this type.
Bottle mouth; Bottle carries; Baby bottle tooth decay; Early childhood caries (ECC) ... chap 304. Ribeiro NM, Ribeiro MA. Breastfeeding and early childhood caries: a critical review. J Pediatr (Rio J) . ...
Observation of charmless hadronic B decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Padilla, C.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Girone, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A. O.; Bonvicini, G.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Cattaneo, M.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lutters, G.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Moneta, L.; Oest, T.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rizzo, G.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, F.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Abbaneo, D.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Giehl, I.; Greene, A. M.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Ragusa, F.; Bauer, C.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Denis, R. St.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Choi, Y.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Grahl, J.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, A. M.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration
1996-02-01
Four candidates for charmless hadronic B decay are observed in a data sample of four million hadronic Z decays recorded by the ALEPH detector at LEP. The probability that these events come from background sources is estimated to be less than 10 -6. The average branching ratio of weakly decaying B hadrons (a mixture of B d0, B s0 and Λb weighted by their production cross sections and lifetimes, here denoted B) into two long-lived charged hadrons (pions, kaons or protons) is measured to be Br(B → h +h -) = (1.7 -0.7+1.0 ± 0.2) × 10 -5. The relative branching fraction {Br( B d(s)0 → π +π -(K -)) }/{Br( B d(s)0 → h +h -) } is measured to be 1.0 -0.3 -0.1+0.0 +0.0. In addition, branching ratio upper limits are obtained for a variety of exclusive charmless hadronic two-body decays of B hadrons.
Graczyk, Krzysztof M.
2011-11-23
A short review of the Rein-Sehgal and isobar models is presented. The attention is focused on the nucleon-{Delta}(1232) weak transition form-factors. The results of the recent re-analyses of the ANL and BNL bubble chamber neutrino-deuteron scattering data are discussed.
Focal weakness following herpes zoster.
Cockerell, O C; Ormerod, I E
1993-01-01
Three patients presented with focal weakness of an arm which followed segmental herpes zoster affecting the same limb. Neurophysiological investigations suggest that the site of the lesion lay at the root, plexus, or peripheral nerve level. This reflects the various ways in which the virus may affect the peripheral nervous system. PMID:8410022
Cosmology with weak lensing surveys.
Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick
2005-12-15
Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening mass. Since the lensing effects arise from deflections of the light rays due to fluctuations of the gravitational potential, they can be directly related to the underlying density field of the large-scale structures. Weak gravitational surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background observations as they probe unbiased nonlinear matter power spectra at medium redshift. Ongoing CMBR experiments such as WMAP and a future Planck satellite mission will measure the standard cosmological parameters with unprecedented accuracy. The focus of attention will then shift to understanding the nature of dark matter and vacuum energy: several recent studies suggest that lensing is the best method for constraining the dark energy equation of state. During the next 5 year period, ongoing and future weak lensing surveys such as the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM; e.g. SNAP) or the Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope will play a major role in advancing our understanding of the universe in this direction. In this review article, we describe various aspects of probing the matter power spectrum and the bi-spectrum and other related statistics with weak lensing surveys. This can be used to probe the background dynamics of the universe as well as the nature of dark matter and dark energy. PMID:16286284
Relaxion monodromy and the Weak Gravity Conjecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibáñez, L. E.; Montero, M.; Uranga, A. M.; Valenzuela, I.
2016-04-01
The recently proposed relaxion models require extremely large trans-Planckian axion excursions as well as a potential explicitly violating the axion shift symmetry. The latter property is however inconsistent with the axion periodicity, which corresponds to a gauged discrete shift symmetry. A way to make things consistent is to use monodromy, i.e. both the axion and the potential parameters transform under the discrete shift symmetry. The structure is better described in terms of a 3-form field C μνρ coupling to the SM Higgs through its field strength F 4. The 4-form also couples linearly to the relaxion, in the Kaloper-Sorbo fashion. The extremely small relaxion-Higgs coupling arises in a see-saw fashion as g ≃ F 4 /f , with f being the axion decay constant. We discuss constraints on this type of constructions from membrane nucleation and the Weak Gravity Conjecture. The latter requires the existence of membranes, whose too fast nucleation could in principle drive the theory out of control, unless the cut-off scale is lowered. This allows to rule out the simplest models with the QCD axion as relaxion candidate on purely theoretical grounds. We also discuss possible avenues to embed this structure into string theory.
Decay of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos.
Beacom, John F; Bell, Nicole F; Hooper, Dan; Pakvasa, Sandip; Weiler, Thomas J
2003-05-01
Existing limits on the nonradiative decay of one neutrino to another plus a massless particle (e.g., a singlet Majoron) are very weak. The best limits on the lifetime to mass ratio come from solar neutrino observations and are tau/m greater, similar 10(-4) s/eV for the relevant mass eigenstate(s). For lifetimes even several orders of magnitude longer, high-energy neutrinos from distant astrophysical sources would decay. This would strongly alter the flavor ratios from the phi(nu(e)):phi(nu(mu)):phi(nu(tau))=1:1:1 expected from oscillations alone and should be readily visible in the near future in detectors such as IceCube. PMID:12785996
The production and decay of hypernuclei
Szymanski, J.J.
1990-01-01
Hypernuclei have been studied for the last 35 years using several techniques. Since 1970, the {sup A}Z (K{sup {minus}},{pi}{sup {minus}}) {sub {Lambda}}{sup A}Z strangeness-exchange reaction has been used at CERN, BNL, and KEK to produce hypernuclei and study their spectroscopic properties. These studies also include experiments where decay gamma rays and hypernuclear weak decay products are detected in coincidence with hypernuclear production. Recent experiments at BNL and KEK have proven the utility of the {sup A}Z ({pi}{sup +},K{sup +}) {sub {Lambda}}{sup A}Z reaction to study hypernuclear spectroscopy. Although I have no hope of covering this field in much detail, I write this paper as an introduction to the subject and highlights some of the recent experimental developments. 37 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.
Spin transport of weakly disordered Heisenberg chain at infinite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khait, Ilia; Gazit, Snir; Yao, Norman Y.; Auerbach, Assa
2016-06-01
We study the disordered Heisenberg spin chain, which exhibits many-body localization at strong disorder, in the weak to moderate disorder regime. A continued fraction calculation of dynamical correlations is devised, using a variational extrapolation of recurrents. Good convergence for the infinite chain limit is shown. We find that the local spin correlations decay at long times as C ˜t-β , whereas the conductivity exhibits a low-frequency power law σ ˜ωα . The exponents depict subdiffusive behavior β <1 /2 ,α >0 at all finite disorders and convergence to the scaling result α +2 β =1 at large disorders.
Measuring the Higgs-bottom coupling in weak boson fusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Englert, Christoph; Mattelaer, Olivier; Spannowsky, Michael
2016-05-01
We study Higgs production through weak boson fusion with subsequent decay to bottom quarks. By combining jet substructure techniques and matrix element methods in different limits we motivate this channel as a probe of the bottom-Yukawa interactions in the boosted regime. In particular we ameliorate the "no-go" results of cut-and-count analyses in this channel. After applying a data-driven reconstruction approach we find that the Higgs-bottom coupling can be limited to 0.82
Decay of metastable topological defects
Preskill, J. ); Vilenkin, A. Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 )
1993-03-15
We systematically analyze the decay of metastable topological defects that arise from the spontaneous breakdown of gauge or global symmetries. Quantum-mechanical tunneling rates are estimated for a variety of decay processes. The decay rate for a global string, vortex, domain wall, or kink is typically suppressed compared to the decay rate for its gauged counterpart. We also discuss the decay of global texture, and of semilocal and electroweak strings.
Weak values and weak coupling maximizing the output of weak measurements
Di Lorenzo, Antonio
2014-06-15
In a weak measurement, the average output 〈o〉 of a probe that measures an observable A{sup -hat} of a quantum system undergoing both a preparation in a state ρ{sub i} and a postselection in a state E{sub f} is, to a good approximation, a function of the weak value A{sub w}=Tr[E{sub f}A{sup -hat} ρ{sub i}]/Tr[E{sub f}ρ{sub i}], a complex number. For a fixed coupling λ, when the overlap Tr[E{sub f}ρ{sub i}] is very small, A{sub w} diverges, but 〈o〉 stays finite, often tending to zero for symmetry reasons. This paper answers the questions: what is the weak value that maximizes the output for a fixed coupling? What is the coupling that maximizes the output for a fixed weak value? We derive equations for the optimal values of A{sub w} and λ, and provide the solutions. The results are independent of the dimensionality of the system, and they apply to a probe having a Hilbert space of arbitrary dimension. Using the Schrödinger–Robertson uncertainty relation, we demonstrate that, in an important case, the amplification 〈o〉 cannot exceed the initial uncertainty σ{sub o} in the observable o{sup -hat}, we provide an upper limit for the more general case, and a strategy to obtain 〈o〉≫σ{sub o}. - Highlights: •We have provided a general framework to find the extremal values of a weak measurement. •We have derived the location of the extremal values in terms of preparation and postselection. •We have devised a maximization strategy going beyond the limit of the Schrödinger–Robertson relation.
J /ψ →Ds ,dπ , Ds ,dK decays with perturbative QCD approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Junfeng; Yang, Yueling; Gao, Jie; Chang, Qin; Huang, Jinshu; Lu, Gongru
2016-08-01
Besides the conventional strong and electromagnetic decay modes, the J /ψ particle can also decay via the weak interaction in the standard model. In this paper, nonleptonic J /ψ →Ds ,dπ , Ds ,dK weak decays, corresponding to the externally emitted virtual W boson process, are investigated with the perturbative QCD approach. It is found that the branching ratio for the Cabibbo-favored J /ψ →Dsπ decay can reach up to O (10-10), which might be potentially measurable at the future high-luminosity experiments.
Tomography and weak lensing statistics
Munshi, Dipak; Coles, Peter; Kilbinger, Martin E-mail: peter.coles@astro.cf.ac.uk
2014-04-01
We provide generic predictions for the lower order cumulants of weak lensing maps, and their correlators for tomographic bins as well as in three dimensions (3D). Using small-angle approximation, we derive the corresponding one- and two-point probability distribution function for the tomographic maps from different bins and for 3D convergence maps. The modelling of weak lensing statistics is obtained by adopting a detailed prescription for the underlying density contrast that involves hierarchal ansatz and lognormal distribution. We study the dependence of our results on cosmological parameters and source distributions corresponding to the realistic surveys such as LSST and DES. We briefly outline how photometric redshift information can be incorporated in our results. We also show how topological properties of convergence maps can be quantified using our results.
Overdamping by weakly coupled environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esposito, Massimiliano; Haake, Fritz
2005-12-01
A quantum system weakly interacting with a fast environment usually undergoes a relaxation with complex frequencies whose imaginary parts are damping rates quadratic in the coupling to the environment in accord with Fermi’s “golden rule.” We show for various models (spin damped by harmonic-oscillator or random-matrix baths, quantum diffusion, and quantum Brownian motion) that upon increasing the coupling up to a critical value still small enough to allow for weak-coupling Markovian master equations, a different relaxation regime can occur. In that regime, complex frequencies lose their real parts such that the process becomes overdamped. Our results call into question the standard belief that overdamping is exclusively a strong coupling feature.
Overdamping by weakly coupled environments
Esposito, Massimiliano; Haake, Fritz
2005-12-15
A quantum system weakly interacting with a fast environment usually undergoes a relaxation with complex frequencies whose imaginary parts are damping rates quadratic in the coupling to the environment in accord with Fermi's 'golden rule'. We show for various models (spin damped by harmonic-oscillator or random-matrix baths, quantum diffusion, and quantum Brownian motion) that upon increasing the coupling up to a critical value still small enough to allow for weak-coupling Markovian master equations, a different relaxation regime can occur. In that regime, complex frequencies lose their real parts such that the process becomes overdamped. Our results call into question the standard belief that overdamping is exclusively a strong coupling feature.
Optimizing SNAP for Weak Lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
High, F. W.; Ellis, R. S.; Massey, R. J.; Rhodes, J. D.; Lamoureux, J. I.; SNAP Collaboration
2004-12-01
The Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) satellite proposes to measure weak gravitational lensing in addition to type Ia supernovae. Its pixel scale has been set to 0.10 arcsec per pixel as established by the needs of supernova observations. To find the optimal pixel scale for accurate weak lensing measurements we conduct a tradeoff study in which, via simulations, we fix the suvey size in total pixels and vary the pixel scale. Our preliminary results show that with a smaller scale of about 0.08 arcsec per pixel we can minimize the contribution of intrinsic shear variance to the error on the power spectrum of mass density distortion. Currently we are testing the robustness of this figure as well as determining whether dithering yields analogous results.
Weak nuclear interactions in neon-21 and neon-18
Von Lintig, Richard David
1981-01-01
The results of two experiments involving weak meson exchange among nucleons are reviewed. Measurements are described of the circular polarization of 2.789 MeV gamma rays associated with the 2.789/2.796 MeV parity mixed doublet in /sup 21/Ne. Also reported are measurements of the 0/sup +/ - 0/sup -/ beta decay from /sup 18/Ne to the 1.081 MeV 0/sup -/ state of /sup 18/F, itself part of a spin-zero doublet of considerable interest for parity mixing. The significance of the results to the theory of weak non-leptonic interactions is examined. An argument is repeated that more careful interpretation of the results in terms of the fundamental weak interaction is needed. The circular polarization of the 2.789 MeV radiation from /sup 21/Ne is (20 +- 26) x 10/sup -4/, a small result in view of the enhancement of this effect due to narrow doublet separation and the forbidden character of the transition. Simultaneous measurements of the circular polarization of 2.439 MeV radiation, which should not exhibit the parity violating effect even if the 1/2/sup -/ (2.789 MeV) state contains a significant parity impurity, indicate an absence of bias in the measurements. The relative probability of the 0/sup +/ - 0/sup -/ (1.081 MeV) decay from /sup 18/Ne is (2.26 +- .37) x 10/sup -4/. The two-body (or meson exchange) contribution to this transition is the isospin analog of parity mixing between the 1042-keV (J/sup ..pi../;T = 0/sup +/;1) and 1081-keV (J/sup ..pi../;T = 0/sup -/;0) states of /sup 18/F. The theoretical relation which has been shown to exist between these two weak interaction phenomena is recounted, so that the importance of the beta-decay measurement to non-leptonic weak interaction physics can be appreciated.
Flavor-changing leptonic decays of heavy Higgs bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sher, Marc; Thrasher, Keith
2016-03-01
CMS has reported indications (2.4 σ ) of the decay of the Higgs boson into μ τ . The simplest explanation for such a decay would be a general two-Higgs doublet model (2HDM). In this case, one would expect the heavy neutral Higgs bosons, H and A , to also decay in a similar manner. We study two specific models. The first is the type III 2HDM, and the second is a 2HDM, originally proposed by Branco et al., in which all flavor-changing neutral processes are given by the weak mixing matrix. In the latter model, since mixing between the second and third generations in the lepton sector is large, flavor-changing interactions are large. In this model, we find that the decays of H and A to μ τ can be as high as 60%.
Langmuir wave decay in turbulent inhomogeneous solar wind plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krafft, C.; Volokitin, A.
2016-03-01
Langmuir wave decay in solar wind plasmas typical of type III bursts' source regions near 1 AU have been reported by several spacecraft observations. In such plasmas, due to the presence of random density fluctuations, wave decay occurs usually simultaneously and compete with other coupling effects between the fields and the density irregularities, as reflection, scattering and/or refraction processes. Numerical simulations show that resonant three-wave coupling processes including several cascades of Langmuir wave decay can occur in such plasmas, leading to wave energy transfer to smaller wavenumbers k, as shown in the frame of weak turbulence theory. However, in such conditions, and contrary to what occurs in homogeneous plasmas, the decay process is localized in space at a given time. Moreover, wave-wave coupling plays a significant role in the modulation of the Langmuir waveforms, in agreement with recent space observations.
Concentration of Laplace Eigenfunctions and Stabilization of Weakly Damped Wave Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burq, N.; Zuily, C.
2016-08-01
In this article, we prove some universal bounds on the speed of concentration on small (frequency-dependent) neighbourhoods of sub-manifolds of L 2-norms of quasi modes for Laplace operators on compact manifolds. We deduce new results on the rate of decay of weakly damped wave equations.
Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cremonesi, Oliviero
2016-05-01
After more than 3/4 of century from its proposal, Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (NLDBD) is still missing observation and continues to represent the only practical method for investigating the Dirac/Majorana nature of neutrinos. In case neutrinos would be Majorana particles, NLDBD would provide unique informations on their properties (absolute mass scale and Majorana phases). Boosted by the discovery of neutrino oscillations, a number of experiments with improved sensitivity have been proposed in the past decade. Some of them have recently started operation and others are ready to start. They will push the experimental sensitivity on the decay halflife beyond 1026 year, starting to analyze the region of the inverted mass hierarchy. The status and perspectives of the ongoing experimental effort are reviewed. Uncertainties coming from the calculation othe decay nuclear matrix elements (NME) as well as the recently suggested possibility of a relevant quenching of the axial coupling constant are also discussed.
Carpenter, M.P.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.
1995-12-31
One of the major challenges in the study of superdeformation is to directly connect the large number of superdeformed bands now known to the yrast states. In this way, excitation energies, spins and parities can be assigned to the levels in the second well which is essential to establish the collective and single-particle components of these bands. This paper will review some of the progress which has been made to understand the decay of superdeformed bands using the new arrays including the measurement of the total decay spectrum and the establishment of direct one-step decays from the superdeformed band to the yrast line in {sup 194}Hg. 42 refs., 5 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casanova Mohr, R.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gastaldi, U.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthieu, K.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Ninci, D.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.
2015-08-01
A search for decays is performed using 3 .0 fb1- of pp collision data recorded by the LHCb experiment during 2011 and 2012. The f 0(980) meson is reconstructed through its decay to the π + π - final state in the mass window 900 MeV /c 2 < m( π + π -) < 1080 MeV /c 2. No significant signal is observed. The first upper limits on the branching fraction of are set at 90 % (95 %) confidence level. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Hadronic D decays involving even-parity light mesons
Cheng, H.-Y.; Chiang, C.-W.
2010-04-01
We study the hadronic D meson decays into a pseudoscalar meson P and an even-parity meson M, where M represents a scalar meson S, an axial-vector meson A, or a tensor meson T. These decays are first analyzed in the flavor-diagram approach. Fits to the SP modes with S being a nonstrange scalar meson show that neither the simple qq picture nor the q{sup 2}q{sup 2} scheme is favored by data. Current measurements on the AP decays are insufficient for a meaningful analysis. Some TP data are inconsistent with the others. In certain cases, the W-annihilation diagrams indicated by the data are unexpectedly large. As a comparison, we also compute their decay rates in the factorization approach using form factors extracted from the covariant light-front model. We find that factorization works well for Cabibbo-allowed D{sup +{yields}}SP, AP decays free of the weak annihilation contributions (W-exchange or W-annihilation). For the other SP and AP modes, it is necessary to include weak annihilation contributions to account for the data. However, factorization fails for D{yields}TP decays for some unknown reason; the predicted rates are in general too small by at least 2 orders of magnitude compared to experiment. We also examine the finite-width effects of resonances. Some decay modes which are kinematically forbidden become physically allowed due to the finite width of the resonance. We show that the branching fraction of D{sup +{yields}{sigma}{pi}+} extracted from three-body decays is enhanced by a factor of 2, whereas B(D{sup 0{yields}}f{sub 2}(1270)K{sup 0}) is reduced by a factor of 4 by finite-width effects.
Competing weak localization and weak antilocalization in ultrathin topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lang, Murong; He, Liang; Kou, Xufeng; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Fan, Yabin; Chu, Hao; Yeh, Nai-Chang; Wang, Kang
2013-03-01
We demonstrate the evidences of a surface gap opening in (Bi0.57Sb0.43)2 Te3 samples for film thickness below 6 quintuple layers, through magnetotransport and scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements. By tuning Fermi level position relative to the gap, the striking crossover between weak antilocalization and weak localization is observed in nonmagnetic 4 and 5 QL films at low field region, a characteristic feature of quantum interferences competition, possibly owing to the change of net Berry phase. Furthermore, when the Fermi level is swept into the surface gap, the overall unitary behaviors are revealed at higher magnetic field, which are in contrast to the pure WAL signals obtained in thicker films. Besides, the surface bandgap of ultrathin film is also determined by low temperature STS measurements. Our findings show an exotic phenomenon characterizing the gapped TI surface states and point to the future realization of quantum spin Hall effect and dissipationless TI-based applications. This work was in part supported by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Focus Center Research Program-Center on Functional Engineered Nano Architectonics (FENA).
Decay Time of Cathodoluminescence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kraftmakher, Yaakov
2009-01-01
Simple measurements of the decay time of cathodoluminescence are described. Cathodoluminescence is used in many devices, including computer monitors, oscilloscopes, radar displays and television tubes. The experimental setup is simple and easy to build. Two oscilloscopes, a function generator, and a fast photodiode are needed for the experiments.…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fok, R.; Kribs, Graham D.
2011-08-01
We calculate the two-body decay rates of quirkonium states formed from quirks that acquire mass solely through electroweak symmetry breaking. We consider SU(N)ic infracolor with two flavors of quirks transforming under the electroweak group (but not QCD) of the standard model. In one case, the quirks are in a chiral representation of the electroweak group, while in the other case, a vectorlike representation. The differences in the dominant decay channels between “chiral quirkonia” versus “vectorlike quirkonia” are striking. Several chiral quirkonia states can decay into the unique two-body resonance channels WH, ZH, tt¯, tb¯/bt¯, and γH, which never dominate for vectorlike quirkonia. Additionally, the channels WW, WZ, ZZ, and Wγ, are shared among both chiral and vectorlike quirkonia. Resonances of dileptons or light quarks (dijets) can dominate for some vectorlike quirkonia states throughout their mass range, while these modes never dominate for chiral quirkonia unless the decays into pairs of gauge or Higgs bosons are kinematically forbidden.
Fok, R.; Kribs, Graham D.; /Fermilab
2011-06-01
We calculate the two-body decay rates of quirkonium states formed from quirks that acquire mass solely through electroweak symmetry breaking. We consider SU(N){sub ic} infracolor with two flavors of quirks transforming under the electroweak group (but not QCD) of the standard model. In one case, the quirks are in a chiral representation of the electroweak group, while in the other case, a vectorlike representation. The differences in the dominant decay channels between 'chiral quirkonia' versus 'vectorlike quirkonia' are striking. Several chiral quirkonia states can decay into the unique two-body resonance channels WH, ZH, t{bar t}, t{bar b}/b{bar t}, and {gamma}H, which never dominate for vectorlike quirkonia. Additionally, the channels WW, WZ, ZZ, and W{gamma}, are shared among both chiral and vectorlike quirkonia. Resonances of dileptons or light quarks (dijets) can dominate for some vectorlike quirkonia states throughout their mass range, while these modes never dominate for chiral quirkonia unless the decays into pairs of gauge or Higgs bosons are kinematically forbidden.
Weak lensing by galaxy troughs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gruen, Daniel
2016-06-01
Galaxy troughs, i.e. underdensities in the projected galaxy field, are a weak lensing probe of the low density Universe with high signal-to-noise ratio. I present measurements of the radial distortion of background galaxy images and the de-magnification of the CMB by troughs constructed from Dark Energy Survey and Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy catalogs. With high statistical significance and a relatively robust modeling, these probe gravity in regimes of density and scale difficult to access for conventional statistics.
Detecting weakly interacting massive particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drukier, A. K.; Gelmini, G. B.
The growing synergy between astrophysics, particle physics, and low background experiments strengthens the possibility of detecting astrophysical non-baryonic matter. The idea of direct detection is that an incident, massive weakly interacting particle could collide with a nucleus and transfer an energy that could be measured. The present low levels of background achieved by the PNL/USC Ge detector represent a new technology which yields interesting bounds on Galactic cold dark matter and on light bosons emitted from the Sun. Further improvements require the development of cryogenic detectors. The authors analyse the practicality of such detectors, their optimalization and background suppression using the "annual modulation effect".
Margaryan, A.; Hashimoto, O.; Kakoyan, V.; Knyazyan, S.; Tang, L.
2011-02-15
A new 'tagged-weak {pi} method' is proposed for determination of electromagnetic transition probabilities B(E2) and B(M1) of the hypernuclear states with lifetimes of {approx}10{sup -10} s. With this method, we are planning to measure B(E2) and B(M1) for light hypernuclei at JLab. The results of Monte Carlo simulations for the case of E2(5/2{sup +}, 3/2{sup +} {yields} 1/2{sup +}) transitions in {sub {Lambda}}{sup 7}He hypernuclei are presented.
Electromagnetic weak turbulence theory revisited
Yoon, P. H.; Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R.; Pavan, J.
2012-10-15
The statistical mechanical reformulation of weak turbulence theory for unmagnetized plasmas including fully electromagnetic effects was carried out by Yoon [Phys. Plasmas 13, 022302 (2006)]. However, the wave kinetic equation for the transverse wave ignores the nonlinear three-wave interaction that involves two transverse waves and a Langmuir wave, the incoherent analogue of the so-called Raman scattering process, which may account for the third and higher-harmonic plasma emissions. The present paper extends the previous formalism by including such a term.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bel, Lennaert; De Bruyn, Kristof; Fleischer, Robert; Mulder, Mick; Tuning, Niels
2015-07-01
The decays B {/d 0} → D {/d -} D {/d +} and B {/s 0} → D {/s -} D {/s +} probe the CP-violating mixing phases ϕ d and ϕ s , respectively. The theoretical uncertainty of the corresponding determinations is limited by contributions from penguin topologies, which can be included with the help of the U-spin symmetry of the strong interaction. We analyse the currently available data for B {/d, s 0} → D {/d, s -} D {/d, s +} decays and those with similar dynamics to constrain the involved non-perturbative parameters. Using further information from semileptonic B {/d 0} → D {/d -} ℓ + ν ℓ decays, we perform a test of the factorisation approximation and take non-factorisable SU(3)-breaking corrections into account. The branching ratios of the B {/d 0} → D {/d -} D {/d +}, B {/s 0} → D {/s -} D {/d +} and B {/s 0} → D {/s -} D {/s +}, B {/d 0} → D {/d -} D {/s +} decays show an interesting pattern which can be accommodated through significantly enhanced exchange and penguin annihilation topologies. This feature is also supported by data for the B {/s 0} → D {/d -} D {/d +} channel. Moreover, there are indications of potentially enhanced penguin contributions in the B {/d 0} → D {/d -} D {/d +} and B {/s 0} → D {/s -} D {/s +} decays, which would make it mandatory to control these effects in the future measurements of ϕ d and ϕ s . We discuss scenarios for high-precision measurements in the era of Belle II and the LHCb upgrade.
Charge on a weak polyelectrolyte
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shengqin; Granick, Steve; Zhao, Jiang
2008-12-01
Fluorescence measurements with single-molecule sensitivity are used to measure the hydrodynamic size and local pH of a weak polyelectrolyte, poly-2-vinyl pyridine end labeled with pH-sensitive dye, the polyelectrolyte having concentration so low (nanomolars) that molecular properties are resolvable only from fluorescence experiments and cannot be accessed by light scattering. We find that the local pH near the dye, inferred from its brightness, is consistently three orders of magnitude higher than the bulk pH. Upon varying the bulk pH, we measure the collapse point at which hydrophobic attraction overwhelms electrostatic repulsion between charged elements along the chain, and conclude that adding monovalent salt shifts this coil-to-globule collapse to higher pH than in the absence of salt. The influence of salt appears to shift the ionization equilibrium of this weak polyelectrolyte in the direction of the chain possessing enhanced electric charge at a given pH. Phenomenologically, this is opposite to the case for strong polyelectrolytes, although the mechanism differs.
Airway clearance in neuromuscular weakness.
Gauld, Leanne Maree
2009-05-01
Impaired airway clearance leads to recurrent chest infections and respiratory deterioration in neuromuscular weakness. It is frequently the cause of death. Cough is the major mechanism of airway clearance. Cough has several components, and assessment tools are available to measure the different components of cough. These include measuring peak cough flow, respiratory muscle strength, and inspiratory capacity. Each is useful in assessing the ability to generate an effective cough, and can be used to guide when techniques of assisting airway clearance may be effective for the individual and which are most effective. Techniques to assist airway clearance include augmenting inspiration by air stacking, augmenting expiration by assisting the cough, and augmenting both inspiration and expiration with the mechanical insufflator-exsufflator or by direct suctioning via a tracheostomy. Physiotherapists are invaluable in assisting airway clearance, and in teaching patients and their families how to use these techniques. Use of the mechanical insufflator-exsufflator has gained popularity in recent times, but several simpler, more economical methods are available to assist airway clearance that can be used effectively alone or in combination. This review examines the literature available on the assessment and management of impaired airway clearance in neuromuscular weakness. PMID:19379290
Weak lensing and cosmological investigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acquaviva, Viviana
2005-03-01
In the last few years the scientific community has been dealing with the challenging issue of identifying the dark energy component. We regard weak gravitational lensing as a brand new, and extremely important, tool for cosmological investigation in this field. In fact, the features imprinted on the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation by the lensing from the intervening distribution of matter represent a pretty unbiased estimator, and can thus be used for putting constraints on different dark energy models. This is true in particular for the magnetic-type B-modes of CMB polarization, whose unlensed spectrum at large multipoles (l ~= 1000) is very small even in presence of an amount of gravitational waves as large as currently allowed by the experiments: therefore, on these scales the lensing phenomenon is the only responsible for the observed power, and this signal turns out to be a faithful tracer of the dark energy dynamics. We first recall the formal apparatus of the weak lensing in extended theories of gravity, introducing the physical observables suitable to cast the bridge between lensing and cosmology, and then evaluate the amplitude of the expected effect in the particular case of a Non-Minimally-Coupled model, featuring a quadratic coupling between quintessence and Ricci scalar.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, Lawrence J.; Pinner, David; Ruderman, Joshua T.
2014-12-01
The measured values of the weak scale, v, and the first generation masses, m u, d, e , are simultaneously explained in the multiverse, with all these parameters scanning independently. At the same time, several remarkable coincidences are understood. Small variations in these parameters away from their measured values lead to the instability of hydrogen, the instability of heavy nuclei, and either a hydrogen or a helium dominated universe from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. In the 4d parameter space of ( m u , m d , m e , v), catastrophic boundaries are reached by separately increasing each parameter above its measured value by a factor of (1.4, 1.3, 2.5, ˜ 5), respectively. The fine-tuning problem of the weak scale in the Standard Model is solved: as v is increased beyond the observed value, it is impossible to maintain a significant cosmological hydrogen abundance for any values of m u, d, e that yield both hydrogen and heavy nuclei stability.
Weak antilocalisation in topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bi, Xintao; Hankiewicz, Ewelina; Culcer, Dimitrie
2014-03-01
Topological insulators (TI) have changed our understanding of insulating behaviour. They are insulators in the bulk but conducting along their surfaces due to spin-orbit interaction. Much of the recent research focuses on overcoming the transport bottleneck, the fact that surface state transport is overwhelmed by bulk transport stemming from unintentional doping. The key to overcoming this bottleneck is identifying unambiguous signatures of surface state transport. This talk will discuss one such signature, which is manifest in the coherent backscattering of electrons. Due to strong spin-orbit coupling in TI one expects to observe weak antilocalisation rather than weak localisation, meaning that coherent backscattering increases the electrical conductivity. The features of this effect, however, are rather subtle, because in TI the impurities have strong spin-orbit coupling as well. I will show that spin-orbit coupled impurities introduce an additional time scale, which is expected to be shorter than the dephasing time, and the resulting conductivity has a logarithmic dependence on the carrier density, a behaviour hitherto unknown in 2D electron systems. The result we predict is observable experimentally and would provide a smoking gun test of surface transport.
Determination of AFBb using jet charge measurements in Z decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
ALEPH Collaboration; Barate, R.; Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Pietrzyk, B.; Alemany, R.; Boix, G.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Graugès, E.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Becker, U.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Casper, D.; Cattaneo, M.; Ciulli, V.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Lehraus, I.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moneta, L.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Chazelle, G.; Deschamps, O.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J.-C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Halley, A. W.; Lynch, J. G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Buchmüller, O.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Martin, E. B.; Marinelli, N.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Spagnolo, P.; Williams, M. D.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Buck, P. G.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Robertson, N. A.; Williams, M. I.; Giehl, I.; Greene, A. M.; Hoffmann, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Etienne, F.; Leroy, O.; Motsch, F.; Payre, P.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Antonelli, M.; Ragusa, F.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Mannert, C.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Tournefier, E.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Boccali, T.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Chambers, J. T.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M.-C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Konstantinidis, N.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Kelly, M. S.; Lehto, M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Affholderbach, K.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y.; González, S.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; McNamara, P. A., III; Nachtman, J. M.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.
1998-04-01
An improved measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry in decays is presented, based on a sample of 4.1 million hadronic Z decays collected by ALEPH between 1991 and 1995. Data are analysed as a function of polar angle of the event axis and b purity. The event tagging efficiency and mean b-jet hemisphere charge are measured directly from data. From the measured forward-backward jet charge asymmetry, the b quark asymmetry at is determined to be: . In the context of the Standard Model this corresponds to a value of the effective weak mixing angle of .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tung, Kwong-Kwai Humphrey
1992-01-01
The rare decays bto sX are sensitive to strong interaction corrections. The effects can be estimated by a renormalization group technique which requires the evaluation of QCD mixing among effective operators. In the dimensional reduction and the naive dimensional regularization methods, there are discrepancies in evaluating the QCD mixing of the four-quark operators with the bto sgamma and bto s+gluon dipole operators. In this thesis, the problem is investigated by considering the contributions of the epsilon -scalar field and the epsilon -dimensional operators that distinguish between the two methods. The discrepancies are shown to come from the epsilon-dimensional four-quark operators in dimensional reduction and not from the epsilon -scalar field. In the decay bto sl^+l^ -, the intermediate of cc pairs in the charm-penguin diagram can form the resonance states J/psi and psi^'. In the published literature, there is a sign discrepancy in the Breit-Wigner amplitude for the resonance effects. Here, the sign difference is settled by considering the unitarity limit of the amplitude in the Argand diagram. The effects of the resonances are quite substantial on the invariant mass spectrum for this decay. However, they are shown to be negligible on the dilepton energy spectrum below 0.95 GeV. The energy spectrum is, thus, more useful than the invariant mass spectrum for measurements of the top -quark mass. The decays Bto K^*X are well modeled by the quark-level decays bto sX. In the quark model, the hadronization is done using a nonrelativistic wave function. In the decay B to K^*gamma, the large K ^* recoil creates an uncertainty in calculating the branching ratio using the quark model. The problem is explored by considering other meson processes where data exist. The data on the pi form factor and the omegapi^0 transition form factor suggest the necessity to retain relativistic spinor and meson normalizations in the quark -model; however, the data do not resolve the
Continuum-state and bound-state β--decay rates of the neutron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faber, M.; Ivanov, A. N.; Ivanova, V. A.; Marton, J.; Pitschmann, M.; Serebrov, A. P.; Troitskaya, N. I.; Wellenzohn, M.
2009-09-01
For the β--decay of the neutron we analyze the continuum-state and bound-state decay modes. We calculate the decay rates, the electron energy spectrum for the continuum-state decay mode, and angular distributions of the decay probabilities for the continuum-state and bound-state decay modes. The theoretical results are obtained for the new value for the axial coupling constant gA=1.2750(9), obtained recently by H. Abele [Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 60, 1 (2008)] from the fit of the experimental data on the coefficient of the correlation of the neutron spin and the electron momentum of the electron energy spectrum of the continuum-state decay mode. We take into account the contribution of radiative corrections and the scalar and tensor weak couplings. The calculated angular distributions of the probabilities of the bound-state decay modes of the polarized neutron can be used for the experimental measurements of the bound-state β--decays into the hyperfine states with total angular momentum F=1 and scalar and tensor weak coupling constants.
B Decays Involving Light Mesons
Eschrich, Ivo Gough; /UC, Irvine
2007-01-09
Recent BABAR results for decays of B-mesons to combinations of non-charm mesons are presented. This includes B decays to two vector mesons, B {yields} {eta}{prime}({pi}, K, {rho}) modes, and a comprehensive Dalitz Plot analysis of B {yields} KKK decays.
Artuso, M.; Asner, D.M.; Ball, P.; Baracchini, E.; Bell, G.; Beneke, M.; Berryhill, J.; Bevan, A.; Bigi, I.I.; Blanke, M.; Bobeth, Ch.; Bona, M.; Borzumati, F.; Browder, T.; Buanes, T.; Buchalla, G.; Buchmuller, O.; Buras, A.J.; Burdin, S.; Cassel, D.G.; Cavanaugh, R.; /Syracuse U. /Carleton U. /Durham U., IPPP /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Karlsruhe U. /RWTH Aachen U. /Fermilab /Queen Mary, U. of London /Notre Dame U. /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Dortmund U. /Annecy, LAPP /ICTP, Trieste /Taiwan, Natl. Central U. /Hawaii U. /Bergen U. /Munich U. /CERN /Liverpool U.
2008-03-07
The present report documents the results of Working Group 2: B, D and K decays, of the workshop on Flavor in the Era of the LHC, held at CERN from November 2005 through March 2007. With the advent of the LHC, we will be able to probe New Physics (NP) up to energy scales almost one order of magnitude larger than it has been possible with present accelerator facilities. While direct detection of new particles will be the main avenue to establish the presence of NP at the LHC, indirect searches will provide precious complementary information, since most probably it will not be possible to measure the full spectrum of new particles and their couplings through direct production. In particular, precision measurements and computations in the realm of flavor physics are expected to play a key role in constraining the unknown parameters of the Lagrangian of any NP model emerging from direct searches at the LHC. The aim of Working Group 2 was twofold: on one hand, to provide a coherent, up-to-date picture of the status of flavor physics before the start of the LHC; on the other hand, to initiate activities on the path towards integrating information on NP from high-p{sub T} and flavor data. This report is organized as follows. In Sec. 1, we give an overview of NP models, focusing on a few examples that have been discussed in some detail during the workshop, with a short description of the available computational tools for flavor observables in NP models. Sec. 2 contains a concise discussion of the main theoretical problem in flavor physics: the evaluation of the relevant hadronic matrix elements for weak decays. Sec. 3 contains a detailed discussion of NP effects in a set of flavor observables that we identified as 'benchmark channels' for NP searches. The experimental prospects for flavor physics at future facilities are discussed in Sec. 4. Finally, Sec. 5 contains some assessments on the work done at the workshop and the prospects for future developments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchalla, G.; Komatsubara, T. K.; Muheim, F.; Silvestrini, L.; Artuso, M.; Asner, D. M.; Ball, P.; Baracchini, E.; Bell, G.; Beneke, M.; Berryhill, J.; Bevan, A.; Bigi, I. I.; Blanke, M.; Bobeth, Ch.; Bona, M.; Borzumati, F.; Browder, T.; Buanes, T.; Buchmüller, O.; Buras, A. J.; Burdin, S.; Cassel, D. G.; Cavanaugh, R.; Ciuchini, M.; Colangelo, P.; Crosetti, G.; Dedes, A.; de Fazio, F.; Descotes-Genon, S.; Dickens, J.; Doležal, Z.; Dürr, S.; Egede, U.; Eggel, C.; Eigen, G.; Fajfer, S.; Feldmann, Th.; Ferrandes, R.; Gambino, P.; Gershon, T.; Gibson, V.; Giorgi, M.; Gligorov, V. V.; Golob, B.; Golutvin, A.; Grossman, Y.; Guadagnoli, D.; Haisch, U.; Hazumi, M.; Heinemeyer, S.; Hiller, G.; Hitlin, D.; Huber, T.; Hurth, T.; Iijima, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Isidori, G.; Jäger, S.; Khodjamirian, A.; Koppenburg, P.; Lagouri, T.; Langenegger, U.; Lazzeroni, C.; Lenz, A.; Lubicz, V.; Lucha, W.; Mahlke, H.; Melikhov, D.; Mescia, F.; Misiak, M.; Nakao, M.; Napolitano, J.; Nikitin, N.; Nierste, U.; Oide, K.; Okada, Y.; Paradisi, P.; Parodi, F.; Patel, M.; Petrov, A. A.; Pham, T. N.; Pierini, M.; Playfer, S.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Poschenrieder, A.; Raimondi, P.; Recksiegel, S.; Řezníček, P.; Robert, A.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruggiero, G.; Sarti, A.; Schneider, O.; Schwab, F.; Simula, S.; Sivoklokov, S.; Slavich, P.; Smith, C.; Smizanska, M.; Soni, A.; Speer, T.; Spradlin, P.; Spranger, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stech, B.; Stocchi, A.; Stone, S.; Tarantino, C.; Teubert, F.; T'jampens, S.; Toms, K.; Trabelsi, K.; Trine, S.; Uhlig, S.; Vagnoni, V.; van Hunen, J. J.; Weiglein, G.; Weiler, A.; Wilkinson, G.; Xie, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Zhu, G.; Zupan, J.; Zwicky, R.
2008-09-01
The present report documents the results of Working Group 2: B, D and K decays, of the workshop on Flavor in the Era of the LHC, held at CERN from November 2005 through March 2007. With the advent of the LHC, we will be able to probe New Physics (NP) up to energy scales almost one order of magnitude larger than it has been possible with present accelerator facilities. While direct detection of new particles will be the main avenue to establish the presence of NP at the LHC, indirect searches will provide precious complementary information, since most probably it will not be possible to measure the full spectrum of new particles and their couplings through direct production. In particular, precision measurements and computations in the realm of flavor physics are expected to play a key role in constraining the unknown parameters of the Lagrangian of any NP model emerging from direct searches at the LHC. The aim of Working Group 2 was twofold: on the one hand, to provide a coherent up-to-date picture of the status of flavor physics before the start of the LHC; on the other hand, to initiate activities on the path towards integrating information on NP from high- p T and flavor data. This report is organized as follows: in Sect. 1, we give an overview of NP models, focusing on a few examples that have been discussed in some detail during the workshop, with a short description of the available computational tools for flavor observables in NP models. Section 2 contains a concise discussion of the main theoretical problem in flavor physics: the evaluation of the relevant hadronic matrix elements for weak decays. Section 3 contains a detailed discussion of NP effects in a set of flavor observables that we identified as “benchmark channels” for NP searches. The experimental prospects for flavor physics at future facilities are discussed in Sect. 4. Finally, Sect. 5 contains some assessments on the work done at the workshop and the prospects for future developments.
2016-01-01
The fractional cell kill is a mathematical expression describing the rate at which a certain population of cells is reduced to a fraction of itself. We investigate the mathematical function that governs the rate at which a solid tumor is lysed by a cell population of cytotoxic lymphocytes. We do it in the context of enzyme kinetics, using geometrical and analytical arguments. We derive the equations governing the decay of a tumor in the limit in which it is plainly surrounded by immune cells. A cellular automaton is used to test such decay, confirming its validity. Finally, we introduce a modification in the fractional cell kill so that the expected dynamics is attained in the mentioned limit. We also discuss the potential of this new function for non-solid and solid tumors which are infiltrated with lymphocytes. PMID:27310010
The Computational Complexity of Weak Saddles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandt, Felix; Brill, Markus; Fischer, Felix; Hoffmann, Jan
We continue the recently initiated study of the computational aspects of weak saddles, an ordinal set-valued solution concept proposed by Shapley. Brandt et al. gave a polynomial-time algorithm for computing weak saddles in a subclass of matrix games, and showed that certain problems associated with weak saddles of bimatrix games are NP-complete. The important question of whether weak saddles can be found efficiently was left open. We answer this question in the negative by showing that finding weak saddles of bimatrix games is NP-hard, under polynomial-time Turing reductions. We moreover prove that recognizing weak saddles is coNP-complete, and that deciding whether a given action is contained in some weak saddle is hard for parallel access to NP and thus not even in NP unless the polynomial hierarchy collapses. Our hardness results are finally shown to carry over to a natural weakening of weak saddles.
Heterogeneous, weakly coupled map lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotelo Herrera, M.^{a.} Dolores; San Martín, Jesús; Porter, Mason A.
2016-07-01
Coupled map lattices (CMLs) are often used to study emergent phenomena in nature. It is typically assumed (unrealistically) that each component is described by the same map, and it is important to relax this assumption. In this paper, we characterize periodic orbits and the laminar regime of type-I intermittency in heterogeneous weakly coupled map lattices (HWCMLs). We show that the period of a cycle in an HWCML is preserved for arbitrarily small coupling strengths even when an associated uncoupled oscillator would experience a period-doubling cascade. Our results characterize periodic orbits both near and far from saddle-node bifurcations, and we thereby provide a key step for examining the bifurcation structure of heterogeneous CMLs.
Weakly ionized cerium plasma radiography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Eiichi; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Germer, Rudolf; Koorikawa, Yoshitake; Murakami, Kazunori; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Ichimaru, Toshio; Obata, Fumiko; Takahashi, Kiyomi; Sato, Sigehiro; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Ido, Hideaki
2004-02-01
In the plasma flash x-ray generator, high-voltage main condenser of about 200 nF is charged up to 55 kV by a power supply, and electric charges in the condenser are discharged to an x-ray tube after triggering the cathode electrode. The flash x-rays are then produced. The x-ray tube is of a demountable triode that is connected to a turbo molecular pump with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. As electron flows from the cathode electrode are roughly converged to a rod cerium target of 3.0 mm in diameter by electric field in the x-ray tube, the weakly ionized linear plasma, which consists of cerium ions and electrons, forms by target evaporating. At a charging voltage of 55 kV, the maximum tube voltage was almost equal to the charging voltage of the main condenser, and the peak current was about 20 kA. When the charging voltage was increased, weakly ionized cerium plasma formed, and the K-series characteristic x-ray intensities increased. The x-ray pulse widths were about 500 ns, and the time-integrated x-ray intensity had a value of about 40 μC/kg at 1.0 m from x-ray source with a charging voltage of 55 kV. In the angiography, we employed a film-less computed radiography (CR) system and iodine-based microspheres. Because K-series characteristic x-rays are absorbed easily by the microspheres, high-contrast angiography has been performed.
Statistical theory of electromagnetic weak turbulence
Yoon, Peter H.
2006-02-15
The weak turbulence theory as commonly found in the literature employs electrostatic approximation and is applicable to unmagnetized plasmas only. To this date, fully electromagnetic generalization of the existing weak turbulence theory based upon statistical mechanical approach remains largely incomplete. Instead, electromagnetic effects are incorporated into the weak turbulence formalism by means of the semiclassical approach. The present paper reformulates the fully electromagnetic weak turbulence theory from classical statistical mechanical (i.e., the Klimontovich) approach.
Inspecting the Higgs for new weakly interacting particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheung, Clifford; McDermott, Samuel D.; Zurek, Kathryn M.
2013-04-01
We explore new physics scenarios which are optimally probed through precision Higgs measurements rather than direct collider searches. Such theories consist of additional electroweak charged or singlet states which couple directly to or mix with the Higgs boson; particles of this kind may be weakly constrained by direct limits due to their meager production rates and soft decay products. We present a simplified framework which characterizes the effects of these states on Higgs physics by way of tree level mixing (with neutral scalars) and loop level modifications (from electrically charged states), all expressed in terms of three mixing angles and three loop parameters, respectively. The theory parameters are constrained and in some cases even fixed by ratios of Higgs production and decay rates. Our setup is simpler than a general effective operator analysis, in that we discard parameters irrelevant to Higgs observables while retaining complex correlations among measurements that arise due to the underlying mixing and radiative effects. We show that certain correlated observations are forbidden, e.g. a depleted ratio of Higgs production from gluon fusion versus vector boson fusion together with a depleted ratio of Higgs decays to boverline{b} versus WW. Moreover, we study the strong correlation between the Higgs decay rate to γγ and WW and how it can be violated in the presence of additional electrically charged particles. Our formalism maps straightforwardly onto a variety of new physics models, such as the NMSSM. We show, for example, that with a Higgsino of mass {m_{{χ_1^{± }}}}gtrsim 100 GeV and a singlet-Higgs coupling of λ = 0.7, the photon signal strength can deviate from the vector signal strength by up to ˜ 40 - 60% while depleting the vector signal strength by only 5 - 15% relative to the Standard Model.
RADIATIVE PENGUIN DECAYS FROM BABAR
Eigen, Gerald
2003-08-28
Electroweak penguin decays provide a promising hunting ground for Physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). The decay B {yields} X{sub s}{gamma}, which proceeds through an electromagnetic penguin loop, already provides stringent constraints on the supersymmetric (SUSY) parameter space. The present data samples of {approx}1 x 10{sup 8} B{bar B} events allow to explore radiative penguin decays with branching fractions of the order of 10{sup -6} or less. In this brief report they discuss a study of B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} decay modes and a search for B {yields} {rho}({omega}){gamma} decays.
Donega, Mauro; /Geneva U.
2005-07-01
The authors report on the charmless B decays measurements performed on 180 pb{sup -1} of data collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. This paper describes: the first observation of the decay mode B{sub s} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and the measurement of the direct Cp asymmetry in the ({bar B}){sub d} {yields} K{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} decay; the first evidence of the decay mode B{sub s} {yields} {phi}{phi} and the branching ratio and Cp asymmetry for the B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}} decay.
Sharma, Neelesh; Verma, R. C.; Dhir, Rohit
2011-01-01
In this paper, we investigate phenomenologically two-body weak decays of the bottom mesons emitting pseudoscalar/vector meson and a tensor meson. Form factors are obtained using the improved Isgur-Scora-Grinstein-Wise II model. Consequently, branching ratios for the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa-favored and Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa-suppressed decays are calculated.
Sharma, Neelesh; Verma, R. C.
2010-11-01
Two-body hadronic weak decays of B{sub c} meson emitting pseudoscalar and heavy scalar mesons are investigated using the Spectator Quark Model. Decay amplitudes are obtained using the factorization scheme; consequently, branching ratios are predicted in the Isgur-Scora-Grinstein-Wise (ISGW II) model.
Pion Asymmetries due to Hyperon Decays in the Qweak Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elledge, Jacob
2015-10-01
The Qweak experiment took place at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility between 2010 and 2012. In the experiment an electron beam was directed onto a liquid hydrogen target. The purpose of the Qweak experiment is to investigate the weak interaction between the proton and the electron. The experiment determined the proton's weak charge by measuring the asymmetry in elastic scattering when changing the helicity of the incoming electron beam 960 times per second. Under different kinematic conditions the experiment investigated inelastic scattering with pions in the final state, a background for the elastic scattering measurement. In this inelastic measurement, a false asymmetry due to parity-violating hyperon decays must be determined. Using the results of a simulation written in Geant4, I have been able to isolate the cross sections for samples of opposite helicities. By combining this cross section with the signal of detected pions from hyperon decay, I was able to isolate the expected false asymmetry.
General analysis of U-spin breaking in B decays
Jung, Martin; Mannel, Thomas
2009-12-01
We analyze the breaking of U-spin on a group theoretical basis. Because of the simple behavior of the weak effective Hamiltonian under U-spin and the unique structure of the breaking terms such a group theoretical analysis leads to a manageable number of parameters. Several applications are discussed, including the decays B{yields}J/{psi}K and B{yields}DK.
B meson decays into charmless pseudoscalar scalar mesons
Delepine, D.; Lucio M, J. L.; Ramirez, Carlos A.; Mendoza S, J. A.
2007-06-19
The nonleptonic weak decays of meson B into a scalar and pseudoscalar meson are studied. The scalar mesons under consideration are {sigma} (or f0(600)), f0(980), a0(980) and K{sub 0}{sup *}(1430). We calculate the Branching ratios in the Naive Factorization approximation. Scalars are assumed to be qq-bar bounded sates, but an estimation can be obtained in the case they are four bounded states.
Efficient generation of distant atom entanglement via cavity decay
Chimczak, Grzegorz
2005-05-15
We show how the entanglement of two atoms, trapped in distant separate cavities, can be generated with arbitrarily high probability of success. The scheme proposed employs sudden excitation of the atoms proving that the weakly driven condition is not necessary to obtain the success rate close to unity. The modified scheme works properly even if each cavity contains many atoms interacting with the cavity modes. We also show that our method is robust against spontaneous atomic decay.
Nuclear matrix elements for double-β decay
Engel, Jonathan
2015-07-15
Recent progress in nuclear-structure theory has been dramatic. I describe applications in progress of ab inito calculations to double-beta decay, and discuss the recent and future application of generator-coordinate methods to the same problem. I also discuss the old and vexing problem of the renormalization of the weak nuclear axial-vector coupling constant “in medium” and plans to resolve it.
Protecting weak measurements against systematic errors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pang, Shengshi; Alonso, Jose Raul Gonzalez; Brun, Todd A.; Jordan, Andrew N.
2016-07-01
In this work, we consider the systematic error of quantum metrology by weak measurements under decoherence. We derive the systematic error of maximum likelihood estimation in general to the first-order approximation of a small deviation in the probability distribution and study the robustness of standard weak measurement and postselected weak measurements against systematic errors. We show that, with a large weak value, the systematic error of a postselected weak measurement when the probe undergoes decoherence can be significantly lower than that of a standard weak measurement. This indicates another advantage of weak-value amplification in improving the performance of parameter estimation. We illustrate the results by an exact numerical simulation of decoherence arising from a bosonic mode and compare it to the first-order analytical result we obtain.
Weak percolation on multiplex networks.
Baxter, Gareth J; Dorogovtsev, Sergey N; Mendes, José F F; Cellai, Davide
2014-04-01
Bootstrap percolation is a simple but nontrivial model. It has applications in many areas of science and has been explored on random networks for several decades. In single-layer (simplex) networks, it has been recently observed that bootstrap percolation, which is defined as an incremental process, can be seen as the opposite of pruning percolation, where nodes are removed according to a connectivity rule. Here we propose models of both bootstrap and pruning percolation for multiplex networks. We collectively refer to these two models with the concept of "weak" percolation, to distinguish them from the somewhat classical concept of ordinary ("strong") percolation. While the two models coincide in simplex networks, we show that they decouple when considering multiplexes, giving rise to a wealth of critical phenomena. Our bootstrap model constitutes the simplest example of a contagion process on a multiplex network and has potential applications in critical infrastructure recovery and information security. Moreover, we show that our pruning percolation model may provide a way to diagnose missing layers in a multiplex network. Finally, our analytical approach allows us to calculate critical behavior and characterize critical clusters. PMID:24827287
Weakly Supervised Human Fixations Prediction.
Zhang, Luming; Li, Xuelong; Nie, Liqiang; Yang, Yi; Xia, Yingjie
2016-01-01
Automatically predicting human eye fixations is a useful technique that can facilitate many multimedia applications, e.g., image retrieval, action recognition, and photo retargeting. Conventional approaches are frustrated by two drawbacks. First, psychophysical experiments show that an object-level interpretation of scenes influences eye movements significantly. Most of the existing saliency models rely on object detectors, and therefore, only a few prespecified categories can be discovered. Second, the relative displacement of objects influences their saliency remarkably, but current models cannot describe them explicitly. To solve these problems, this paper proposes weakly supervised fixations prediction, which leverages image labels to improve accuracy of human fixations prediction. The proposed model hierarchically discovers objects as well as their spatial configurations. Starting from the raw image pixels, we sample superpixels in an image, thereby seamless object descriptors termed object-level graphlets (oGLs) are generated by random walking on the superpixel mosaic. Then, a manifold embedding algorithm is proposed to encode image labels into oGLs, and the response map of each prespecified object is computed accordingly. On the basis of the object-level response map, we propose spatial-level graphlets (sGLs) to model the relative positions among objects. Afterward, eye tracking data is employed to integrate these sGLs for predicting human eye fixations. Thorough experiment results demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art. PMID:26168451
A Universe without Weak Interactions
Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad
2006-04-07
A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''Weakless Universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting Standard Model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the Weakless Universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multi-parameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe.
Weak percolation on multiplex networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baxter, Gareth J.; Dorogovtsev, Sergey N.; Mendes, José F. F.; Cellai, Davide
2014-04-01
Bootstrap percolation is a simple but nontrivial model. It has applications in many areas of science and has been explored on random networks for several decades. In single-layer (simplex) networks, it has been recently observed that bootstrap percolation, which is defined as an incremental process, can be seen as the opposite of pruning percolation, where nodes are removed according to a connectivity rule. Here we propose models of both bootstrap and pruning percolation for multiplex networks. We collectively refer to these two models with the concept of "weak" percolation, to distinguish them from the somewhat classical concept of ordinary ("strong") percolation. While the two models coincide in simplex networks, we show that they decouple when considering multiplexes, giving rise to a wealth of critical phenomena. Our bootstrap model constitutes the simplest example of a contagion process on a multiplex network and has potential applications in critical infrastructure recovery and information security. Moreover, we show that our pruning percolation model may provide a way to diagnose missing layers in a multiplex network. Finally, our analytical approach allows us to calculate critical behavior and characterize critical clusters.
Bounding hadronic uncertainties in c →u decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bevan, A. J.; Meadows, B.
2014-11-01
Time-dependent C P asymmetry measurements in D →h+h- decays, where h =π or ρ can, in principal, be used to constrain the angle βc of the c u unitarity triangle up to theoretical uncertainties. Here we discuss the theoretical uncertainty from penguin contributions that can be investigated through the use of isospin analyses. We show that uncertainty from penguin pollution on a measurement of βc (or alternatively the mixing phase) in D0→π+π- (ρ+ρ-) decays is 2.7° (4.6°). We also comment on the applicability of this method to D0→ρ π decays for which measurements of weak phases with a precision below the one degree level may be possible.
Kavatsyuk, O.; Mazzocchi, C.; Janas, Z.; Banu, A.; Batist, L.; Becker, F.; Blazhev, A.; Bruchle, W.; Doring, J.; Faestermann, T.; Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Jungclaus, A.; Karny, M.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Klepper, O.; Kirchner, R.; La Commara, M.; Miernik, K.; Mukha, I.; Plettner, C.; Plochocki, A.; Roeckl, E.; Romoli, M.; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Schadel, M.; Schmidt, K.; Schwengner, R.; Zylicz, J.
2007-01-01
The {beta} decay of the very neutron-deficient isotope 101Sn was studied at the GSI on-line mass separator using silicon detectors for recording charged particles and germanium detectors for {gamma}-ray spectroscopy. Based on the {beta}-delayed proton data the production cross-section of 101Sn in the 50Cr + 58Ni fusion-evaporation reaction was determined to be about 60nb. The half-life of 101Sn was measured to be 1.9(3)s. For the first time {beta}-delayed {gamma}-rays of 101Sn were tentatively identified, yielding weak evidence for a cascade of 352 and 1065keV transitions in 101In. The results for the 101Sn decay as well as those from previous work on the 103Sn decay are discussed by comparing them to predictions obtained from shell model calculations employing a new interaction in the 88Sr to 132Sn model space.
Anharmonic phonon decay in cubic GaN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuscó, R.; Domènech-Amador, N.; Novikov, S.; Foxon, C. T.; Artús, L.
2015-08-01
We present a Raman-scattering study of optical phonons in zinc-blende (cubic) GaN for temperatures ranging from 80 to 750 K. The experiments were performed on high-quality, cubic GaN films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs (001) substrates. The observed temperature dependence of the optical phonon frequencies and linewidths is analyzed in the framework of anharmonic decay theory, and possible decay channels are discussed in the light of density-functional-theory calculations. The longitudinal-optical (LO) mode relaxation is found to occur via asymmetric decay into acoustic phonons, with an appreciable contribution of higher-order processes. The transverse-optical mode linewidth shows a weak temperature dependence and its frequency downshift is primarily determined by the lattice thermal expansion. The LO phonon lifetime is derived from the observed Raman linewidth and an excellent agreement with previous theoretical predictions is found.
Superheavy-quarkonium decays with two Higgs doublets
Eboli, O.J.P.; Natale, A.A.; Sima-tildeo, F.R.A.
1989-05-01
We study the decay modes of a S-wave superheavy quarkonium, formed by a possible fourth-generation quark in two-Higgs-doublet models. Because of the enhancement of Yukawa couplings and longitudinal weak bosons the main decays of these superheavy states will be into neutral scalar bosons H/sub i//sup 0/H/sub j//sup 0/ and a charged scalar plus a W boson. If the H/sup minus-or-plus/W/sup +- / channel is open for the psi(1/sup --/) superheavy quarkonium it will provide a quite clean signal for a charged Higgs boson. The decay of the pseudoscalar quarkonium eta(0/sup -+/) into a Z boson and one of the scalars will also be present in a large amount.
Jackson, P.D.; /Victoria U.
2006-02-24
Recent results from Belle and BaBar on rare B decays involving flavor-changing neutral currents or purely leptonic final states are presented. Measurements of the CP asymmetries in B {yields} K*{gamma} and b {yields} s{gamma} are reported. Also reported are updated limits on B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}, B{sup +} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{nu}, B{sup +} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{nu} and the recent measurement of B {yields} X{sub s}{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}.
Brown, B. Alex; Rae, W. D. M.
2011-05-06
Rare electric hexacontatetrapole (E6) transitions are studied in the full (f{sub 7/2},f{sub 5/2},p{sub 3/2},p{sub 1/2}) shell-model basis. Comparison of theory to the results from the gamma decay in {sup 53}Fe and from inelastic electron scattering on {sup 52}Cr provides unique and interesting tests of the valence wavefunctions, the models used for energy density functionals and into the origin of effective charge.
Multifluid magnetohydrodynamics of weakly ionized plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menzel, Raymond
show that the total electric field in the asteroid may either be of comparable strength to the electric field predicted by Sonett et al. or vanish depending on the magnetic field geometry. We include the effects of dust grains in the gas and calculate the heating rates in the plasma flow due to ion-neutral scattering and viscous dissipation. We term this newly discovered heating mechanism "electrodynamic heating", use measurements of asteroid electrical conductivities to estimate the upper limits of the possible heating rates and amount of thermal energy that can be deposited in the solid body, and compare these to the heating produced by the decay of radioactive nuclei like Al26. For the second problem we modeled molecular line emission from time-dependent multifluid MHD shock waves in star-forming regions. By incorporating realistic radiative cooling by CO and H2 into the numerical method developed by Ciolek & Roberge (2013), we present the only current models of truly time-dependent multifluid MHD shock waves in weakly-ionized plasmas. Using the physical conditions determined by our models, we present predictions of molecular emission in the form of excitation diagrams, which can be compared to observations of protostellar outflows in order to trace the physical conditions of these environments. Current work focuses on creating models for varying initial conditions and shock ages, which are and will be the subject of several in progress studies of observed molecular outflows and will provide further insight into the physics and chemistry of these flows.
Link, J.M.; Yager, P.M.; Anjos, J.C.; Bediaga, I.; Castromonte, C.; Machado, A.A.; Magnin, J.; Massafferri, A.; de Miranda, J.M.; Pepe, I.M.; Polycarpo, E.; dos Reis, A.C.; Carrillo, S.; Casimiro, E.; Cuautle, E.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Uribe, C.; Vazquez, F.; Agostino, L.; Cinquini, L.; Cumalat, J.P.; /Colorado U. /Fermilab /Frascati /Guanajuato U. /Illinois U., Urbana /Indiana U. /Korea U. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /North Carolina U. /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /Rio de Janeiro, Pont. U. Catol. /Puerto Rico U., Mayaguez /South Carolina U. /Tennessee U. /Vanderbilt U. /Wisconsin U., Madison
2005-09-01
Using data from the FOCUS (E831) experiment at Fermilab, we present a new measurement of the weak decay-asymmetry parameter a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} in {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Lambda}{pi}{sup +} decay. Comparing particle with antiparticle decays, we obtain the first measurement of the CP violation parameter {Alpha} {triple_bond} a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} + a{sub {ovr {Lambda}{sub c}}}/a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} - a{sub {ovr {Lambda}{sub c}}}. We obtain a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} = -0.78 {+-} 0.16 {+-} 0.13 and {Alpha} = -0.07 {+-} 0.19 {+-} 0.12 where errors are statistical and systematic.
Pixelation Effects in Weak Lensing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
High, F. William; Rhodes, Jason; Massey, Richard; Ellis, Richard
2007-01-01
Weak gravitational lensing can be used to investigate both dark matter and dark energy but requires accurate measurements of the shapes of faint, distant galaxies. Such measurements are hindered by the finite resolution and pixel scale of digital cameras. We investigate the optimum choice of pixel scale for a space-based mission, using the engineering model and survey strategy of the proposed Supernova Acceleration Probe as a baseline. We do this by simulating realistic astronomical images containing a known input shear signal and then attempting to recover the signal using the Rhodes, Refregier, and Groth algorithm. We find that the quality of shear measurement is always improved by smaller pixels. However, in practice, telescopes are usually limited to a finite number of pixels and operational life span, so the total area of a survey increases with pixel size. We therefore fix the survey lifetime and the number of pixels in the focal plane while varying the pixel scale, thereby effectively varying the survey size. In a pure trade-off for image resolution versus survey area, we find that measurements of the matter power spectrum would have minimum statistical error with a pixel scale of 0.09' for a 0.14' FWHM point-spread function (PSF). The pixel scale could be increased to 0.16' if images dithered by exactly half-pixel offsets were always available. Some of our results do depend on our adopted shape measurement method and should be regarded as an upper limit: future pipelines may require smaller pixels to overcome systematic floors not yet accessible, and, in certain circumstances, measuring the shape of the PSF might be more difficult than those of galaxies. However, the relative trends in our analysis are robust, especially those of the surface density of resolved galaxies. Our approach thus provides a snapshot of potential in available technology, and a practical counterpart to analytic studies of pixelation, which necessarily assume an idealized shape
Weak {}^* convergence of operator means
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romanov, Alexandr V.
2011-12-01
For a linear operator U with \\Vert U^n\\Vert \\le \\operatorname{const} on a Banach space X we discuss conditions for the convergence of ergodic operator nets T_\\alpha corresponding to the adjoint operator U^* of U in the {W^*O}-topology of the space \\operatorname{End} X^*. The accumulation points of all possible nets of this kind form a compact convex set L in \\operatorname{End} X^*, which is the kernel of the operator semigroup G=\\overline{\\operatorname{co}}\\,\\Gamma_0, where \\Gamma_0=\\{U_n^*, n \\ge 0\\}. It is proved that all ergodic nets T_\\alpha weakly {}^* converge if and only if the kernel L consists of a single element. In the case of X=C(\\Omega) and the shift operator U generated by a continuous transformation \\varphi of a metrizable compactum \\Omega we trace the relationships among the ergodic properties of U, the structure of the operator semigroups L, G and \\Gamma=\\overline{\\Gamma}_0, and the dynamical characteristics of the semi-cascade (\\varphi,\\Omega). In particular, if \\operatorname{card}L=1, then a) for any \\omega \\in\\Omega the closure of the trajectory \\{\\varphi^n\\omega, n \\ge 0\\} contains precisely one minimal set m, and b) the restriction (\\varphi,m) is strictly ergodic. Condition a) implies the {W^*O}-convergence of any ergodic sequence of operators T_n \\in \\operatorname{End} X^* under the additional assumption that the kernel of the enveloping semigroup E(\\varphi,\\Omega) contains elements obtained from the `basis' family of transformations \\{\\varphi^n, n \\ge 0\\} of the compact set \\Omega by using some transfinite sequence of sequential passages to the limit.
Pixelation Effects in Weak Lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
High, F. William; Rhodes, Jason; Massey, Richard; Ellis, Richard
2007-11-01
Weak gravitational lensing can be used to investigate both dark matter and dark energy but requires accurate measurements of the shapes of faint, distant galaxies. Such measurements are hindered by the finite resolution and pixel scale of digital cameras. We investigate the optimum choice of pixel scale for a space-based mission, using the engineering model and survey strategy of the proposed Supernova Acceleration Probe as a baseline. We do this by simulating realistic astronomical images containing a known input shear signal and then attempting to recover the signal using the Rhodes, Refregier, & Groth algorithm. We find that the quality of shear measurement is always improved by smaller pixels. However, in practice, telescopes are usually limited to a finite number of pixels and operational life span, so the total area of a survey increases with pixel size. We therefore fix the survey lifetime and the number of pixels in the focal plane while varying the pixel scale, thereby effectively varying the survey size. In a pure trade-off for image resolution versus survey area, we find that measurements of the matter power spectrum would have minimum statistical error with a pixel scale of 0.09" for a 0.14" FWHM point-spread function (PSF). The pixel scale could be increased to ~0.16" if images dithered by exactly half-pixel offsets were always available. Some of our results do depend on our adopted shape measurement method and should be regarded as an upper limit: future pipelines may require smaller pixels to overcome systematic floors not yet accessible, and, in certain circumstances, measuring the shape of the PSF might be more difficult than those of galaxies. However, the relative trends in our analysis are robust, especially those of the surface density of resolved galaxies. Our approach thus provides a snapshot of potential in available technology, and a practical counterpart to analytic studies of pixelation, which necessarily assume an idealized shape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charles, François; Coston-Guarini, Jennifer; Guarini, Jean-Marc; Fanfard, Sandrine
2016-08-01
The oceans and seas receive coarse woody debris since the Devonian, but the kinetics of wood degradation remains one of many unanswered questions about the fate of driftwood in the marine environment. A simple gravimetric experiment was carried out at a monitoring station located at the exit of a steep, forested Mediterranean watershed in the Eastern Pyrenees. The objective was to describe and quantify, with standardized logs (in shape, structure and constitution), natural degradation of wood in the sea. Results show that the mass decrease of wood logs over time can be described by a sigmoidal curve. The primary process of wood decay observed at the monitoring station was due to the arrival and installation of wood-boring species that consumed more than half of the total wood mass in six months. Surprisingly, in a region where there is little remaining wood marine infrastructure, "shipworms", i.e. xylophagous bivalves, are responsible for an important part of this wood decay. This suggests that these communities are maintained probably by a frequent supply of a large quantity of riparian wood entering the marine environment adjacent to the watershed. By exploring this direct link between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, our long term objective is to determine how these supplies of terrestrial organic carbon can sustain wood-based marine communities as it is observed in the Mediterranean Sea.
Effective photons in weakly absorptive dielectric media and the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Judge, A. C.; Brownless, J. S.; Bhat, N. A. R.; Sipe, J. E.; Steel, M. J.; de Sterke, C. Martijn
2014-04-01
We derive effective photon modes that facilitate an intuitive and convenient picture of photon dynamics in a structured Kramers-Kronig dielectric in the limit of weak absorption. Each mode is associated with a mode field distribution that includes the effects of both material and structural dispersion, and an effective line-width that determines the temporal decay rate of the photon. These results are then applied to obtain an expression for the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law absorption coefficient for unidirectional propagation in structured media consisting of dispersive, weakly absorptive dielectric materials.
Magnetic field decay in isolated neutron stars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldreich, Peter; Reisenegger, Andreas
1992-01-01
Three mechanisms that promote the loss of magnetic flux from an isolated neutron star - Ohmic decay, ambipolar diffusion, and Hall drift - are investigated. Equations of motions are solved for charged particles in the presence of a magnetic field and a fixed background of neutrons, while allowing for the creation and destruction of particles by weak interactions. Although these equations apply to normal neutrons and protons, the present interpretations of their solutions are extended to cover cases of neutron superfluidity and proton superconductivity. The equations are manipulated to prove that, in the presence of a magnetic force, the charged particles cannot be simultaneously in magnetostatic equilibrium and chemical equilibrium with the neutrons. The application of the results to real neutron stars is discussed.
Alpha decay in electron surrounding
Igashov, S. Yu.; Tchuvil’sky, Yu. M.
2013-12-15
The influence of atomic electron shells on the constant of alpha decay of heavy and mediummass nuclei was considered in detail. A method for simultaneously taking into account the change in the potential-barrier shape and the effect of reflection of a diverging Coulomb wave in the classically allowed region was developed. The ratios of decay probabilities per unit time for a bare nucleus and the respective neutral atom were found for some alpha-decaying isotopes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albrecht, H.; Hamacher, T.; Hofmann, R. P.; Kirchhoff, T.; Mankel, R.; Nau, A.; Nowak, S.; Reßing, D.; Schröder, H.; Schulz, H. D.; Walter, M.; Wurth, R.; Hast, C.; Kapitza, H.; Kolanoski, H.; Kosche, A.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Schieber, M.; Siegmund, T.; Spaan, B.; Thurn, H.; Töpfer, D.; Wegener, D.; Eckstein, P.; Frankl, C.; Graf, J.; Schmidtler, M.; Schramm, M.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Waldi, R.; Reim, K.; Wegener, H.; Eckmann, R.; Kuipers, H.; Mai, O.; Mundt, R.; Oest, T.; Reiner, R.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Stiewe, J.; Werner, S.; Ehret, K.; Hofmann, W.; Hüpper, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Spengler, J.; Krieger, P.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Prentice, J. D.; Saull, P. R. B.; Tzamariudaki, K.; van de Water, R. G.; Yoon, T.-S.; Schneider, M.; Weseler, S.; Kernel, G.; Križan, P.; Križnič, E.; Podobnik, T.; Živko, T.; Balagura, V.; Barsuk, S.; Belyaev, I.; Chistov, R.; Danilov, M.; Gershtein, L.; Gershtein, Yu.; Golutyin, A.; Korolko, I.; Kostina, G.; Litvintsev, D.; Pakhlov, P.; Semenov, S.; Snizhko, A.; Tichomirov, I.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Argus Collaboration
1995-02-01
Using the ARGUS detector at the e +e - storage ring DORIS II at DESY, we have searched for decays b → sgluon through full reconstruction of a whole event. Two B overlineB decays were found with one of B meson decaying into a final state without charmed particles. We also obtained an upper limit of Br(B + → τ+ντ) of 1.04% at 90% CL.
The ϒ(1S)→Bcρ decay with perturbative QCD approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Junfeng; Yang, Yueling; Li, Qingxia; Lu, Gongru; Huang, Jinshu; Chang, Qin
2016-08-01
With the potential prospects of the ϒ (1 S) data samples at the running LHC and upcoming SuperKEKB, the ϒ (1 S) →Bc ρ weak decay is studied with the pQCD approach. It is found that (1) the lion's share of branching ratio comes from the longitudinal polarization helicity amplitudes; (2) branching ratio for the ϒ (1 S) →Bc ρ decay can reach up to O (10-9), which might be hopefully measurable.
Study of B{sub c{yields}}KK decay with perturbative QCD approach
Yang Yueling; Sun Junfeng; Wang Na
2010-04-01
In the framework of the perturbative QCD approach, we study the charmless pure weak annihilation B{sub c}{sup -{yields}}K{sup -}K{sup 0} decay and find that the branching ratio BR(B{sub c{yields}}KK){approx}O(10{sup -7}). This prediction is so tiny that the B{sub c{yields}}KK decay might be unmeasurable at the Large Hadron Collider.
Kinetic theory of weak turbulence in magnetized plasmas: Perpendicular propagation
Yoon, Peter H.
2015-08-15
The present paper formulates a weak turbulence theory in which electromagnetic perturbations are assumed to propagate in directions perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. By assuming that all wave vectors lie in one direction transverse to the ambient magnetic field, the linear solution and second-order nonlinear solutions to the equation for the perturbed distribution function are obtained. Nonlinear perturbed current from the second-order nonlinearity is derived in general form, but the limiting situation of cold plasma temperature is taken in order to derive an explicit nonlinear wave kinetic equation that describes three-wave decay/coalescence interactions among X and Z modes. A potential application of the present formalism is also discussed.
Weakly superconducting, thin-film structures as radiation detectors.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kirschman, R. K.
1972-01-01
Measurements were taken with weakly superconducting quantum structures of the Notarys-Mercereau type, representing a thin superconductor film with a short region that is weakened in the sense that its transition temperature is lower than in the remaining portion of the film. The structure acts as a superconducting relaxation oscillator in which the supercurrent increases with time until the critical current of the weakened section is attained, at which moment the supercurrent decays and the cycle repeats. Under applied radiation, a series of constant-voltage steps appears in the current-voltage curve, and the size of the steps varies periodically with the amplitude of applied radiation. Measurements of the response characteristics were made in the frequency range of 10 to 450 MHz.
Rheology of weakly vibrated granular materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dijksman, J. A.; Wortel, G.; van Hecke, M.
2009-06-01
We show how weak vibrations substantially modify the rheology of granular materials. We experimentally probe dry granular flows in a weakly vibrated split bottom shear cell—the weak vibrations modulate gravity and act as an agitation source. By tuning the applied stress and vibration strength, and monitoring the resulting strain as a function of time, we uncover a rich phase diagram in which non-trivial transitions separate a jammed phase, a creep flow case, and a steady flow case.
Nonsense-Mediated Decay Enables Intron Gain in Drosophila
Dolezal, Marlies; Hua, Liushuai; Schlötterer, Christian
2010-01-01
Intron number varies considerably among genomes, but despite their fundamental importance, the mutational mechanisms and evolutionary processes underlying the expansion of intron number remain unknown. Here we show that Drosophila, in contrast to most eukaryotic lineages, is still undergoing a dramatic rate of intron gain. These novel introns carry significantly weaker splice sites that may impede their identification by the spliceosome. Novel introns are more likely to encode a premature termination codon (PTC), indicating that nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) functions as a backup for weak splicing of new introns. Our data suggest that new introns originate when genomic insertions with weak splice sites are hidden from selection by NMD. This mechanism reduces the sequence requirement imposed on novel introns and implies that the capacity of the spliceosome to recognize weak splice sites was a prerequisite for intron gain during eukaryotic evolution. PMID:20107520
Allmond, James M
2016-01-01
The synthesis of Coulomb excitation and decay offers very practical advantages in the study of nuclear shapes and collectivity. For instance, Coulomb excitation is unique in its ability to measure the electric quadrupole moments, i.e., I2 ||M(E2)||I1 matrix elements, of excited, non-isomeric states in atomic nuclei, providing information on the intrinsic shape. However, the Coulomb excitation analysis and structural inter- pretation can be strongly dependent upon weak transitions or decay branches, which are often obscured by the Compton background. Transitions of particular interest are those low in energy and weak in intensity due to the E 5 attenuation factor. These weak decay branches can often be determined with high precision from -decay studies. Recently, 106Mo and 110Cd were studied by both Coulomb excitation and decay. Preliminary results of new weak decay branches following decay of 110mAg to 110Cd are presented; these results will challenge competing interpretations based on vibrations and configuration mixing.
Contribution of excited states to stellar weak-interaction rates in odd-A nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarriguren, P.
2016-05-01
Weak-interaction rates, including β decay and electron capture, are studied in several odd-A nuclei in the p f -shell region at various densities and temperatures of astrophysical interest. Special attention is paid to the relative contribution to these rates of thermally populated excited states in the decaying nucleus. The nuclear structure involved in the weak processes is studied within a quasiparticle random-phase approximation with residual interactions in both particle-hole and particle-particle channels on top of a deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock mean field with pairing correlations. In the range of densities and temperatures considered, it is found that the total rates do not differ much from the rates of the ground state fully populated. In any case, the changes are not larger than the uncertainties due to the nuclear-model dependence of the rates.
CP violation in K decays and rare decays
Buchalla, G.
1996-12-01
The present status of CP violation in decays of neutral kaons is reviewed. In addition selected rare decays of both K and B mesons are discussed. The emphasis is in particular on observables that can be reliably calculated and thus offer the possibility of clean tests of standard model flavor physics. 105 refs.
Determination of weak transition intensities in {sup 144}Nd
Robinson, S.J.; Altgilbers, A.; Hindi, M.M.
1995-10-01
We have conducted an experiment to determine the intensities of weak transitions in {sup 144}Nd following the EC-decay of {sup 144}Pm were counted in a 20% HPGe detector with a resolution of 4-keV at 1332-keV. To minimize the effects of coincidence summing and pile-up in the region around 1400-keV an absorber of 3.8 cm of lead was placed between the source and the detector. The absolute intensity (per 100 decays of the parent) of the 1397-keV, 5{sub 1}{sup -} {r_arrow}2{sub 1}{sup +} transition, which is important in the interpretation of the 2093-keV 5{sup -} level as a quadrupole-octupole coupled state, has been measured to be (4.6{plus_minus}0.7) x 10{sup -4}%. Also, the intensity of the 1413-keV transition from the 2110-keV (4{sup +}) level has been measured as (4.3{plus_minus}0.1) x 10{sup -3%} and a limit of <3 x 10{sup -4%} has been placed on the 1508-keV transition from the 2205-keV level. The significance of these results, and ongoing lifetime measurements, will be discussed in terms of quadrupole-octupole coupling.
137 Ba Double Gamma Decay Measurement with GAMMASPHERE
Merchán, E.; Moran, K.; Lister, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; McCutchan, E. A.; Greene, J. P.; Zhu, S.; Lauritsen, T.; Carpenter, M. P.; Shearman, R.
2015-05-28
The study of the electromagnetic moments (EM), and decay probability, provides detailed information about nuclear wave functions. The well-know properties of EM interactions are good for extracting information about the motion of nucleons. Higher order EM processes always occur, but are usually too weak to be measured. In the case of a 0+ → 0+ transitions, where a single gamma transition is forbidden, the simultaneous emission of two γ-rays has been studied. An interesting opportunity to further investigate 2-photon emission phenomena is by using a standard 137Cs source populating, via β-decay, the Jπ = 11/2- isomeric state at 662 keVmore » in 137Ba. In this case, two photon process can have contributions from quadrupole-quadrupole or dipole-octupole multipolarities in direct competition with the high multipolarity M4 decay. Since the yield of the double gamma decay is around six orders of magnitude less than the first order transition, very good statistics are needed in order to observe the phenomena and great care must be taken to suppress the first-order decay. The Gammasphere array is ideal since its configuration allows a good coverage of the angular distribution and the Compton events can be suppressed. Nevertheless the process to understand and eliminate the Compton background is a challenge. Geant4 simulations were carried out to help understand and correct for those factors.« less
^{137} Ba Double Gamma Decay Measurement with GAMMASPHERE
Merchán, E.; Moran, K.; Lister, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; McCutchan, E. A.; Greene, J. P.; Zhu, S.; Lauritsen, T.; Carpenter, M. P.; Shearman, R.
2015-05-28
The study of the electromagnetic moments (EM), and decay probability, provides detailed information about nuclear wave functions. The well-know properties of EM interactions are good for extracting information about the motion of nucleons. Higher order EM processes always occur, but are usually too weak to be measured. In the case of a 0^{+} → 0^{+} transitions, where a single gamma transition is forbidden, the simultaneous emission of two γ-rays has been studied. An interesting opportunity to further investigate 2-photon emission phenomena is by using a standard ^{137}Cs source populating, via β-decay, the J^{π} = 11/2^{-} isomeric state at 662 keV in ^{137}Ba. In this case, two photon process can have contributions from quadrupole-quadrupole or dipole-octupole multipolarities in direct competition with the high multipolarity M4 decay. Since the yield of the double gamma decay is around six orders of magnitude less than the first order transition, very good statistics are needed in order to observe the phenomena and great care must be taken to suppress the first-order decay. The Gammasphere array is ideal since its configuration allows a good coverage of the angular distribution and the Compton events can be suppressed. Nevertheless the process to understand and eliminate the Compton background is a challenge. Geant4 simulations were carried out to help understand and correct for those factors.
Beta decay and other processes in strong electromagnetic fields
Akhmedov, E. Kh.
2011-09-15
We consider effects of the fields of strong electromagnetic waves on various characteristics of quantum processes. After a qualitative discussion of the effects of external fields on the energy spectra and angular distributions of the final-state particles as well as on the total probabilities of the processes (such as decay rates and total cross sections), we present a simple method of calculating the total probabilities of processes with production of nonrelativistic charged particles. Using nuclear {beta} decay as an example, we study the weak- and strong-field limits, as well as the field-induced {beta} decay of nuclei stable in the absence of the external fields, both in the tunneling and multiphoton regimes. We also consider the possibility of accelerating forbidden nuclear {beta} decays by lifting the forbiddeness due to the interaction of the parent or daughter nuclei with the field of a strong electromagnetic wave. It is shown that for currently attainable electromagnetic fields all effects on total {beta}-decay rates are unobservably small.
Energy decay rate of the thermoelastic Bresse system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhuangyi; Rao, Bopeng
2009-01-01
In this paper, we study the energy decay rate for the thermoelastic Bresse system which describes the motion of a linear planar, shearable thermoelastic beam. If the longitudinal motion and heat transfer are neglected, this model reduces to the well-known thermoelastic Timoshenko beam equations. The system consists of three wave equations and two heat equations coupled in certain pattern. The two wave equations about the longitudinal displacement and shear angle displacement are effectively damped by the dissipation from the two heat equations. Actually, the corresponding energy decays exponentially like the classical one-dimensional thermoelastic system. However, the third wave equation about the vertical displacement is only weakly damped. Thus the decay rate of the energy of the overall system is still unknown. We will show that the exponentially decay rate is preserved when the wave speed of the vertical displacement coincides with the wave speed of longitudinal displacement or of the shear angle displacement. Otherwise, only a polynomial type decay rate can be obtained. These results are proved by verifying the frequency domain conditions.
Decay of a Yukawa fermion at finite temperature and applications to leptogenesis
Kiessig, Clemens P.; Pluemacher, Michael; Thoma, Markus H.
2010-08-01
We calculate the decay rate of a Yukawa fermion in a thermal bath using finite-temperature cutting rules and effective Green's functions according to the hard thermal loop resummation technique. We apply this result to the decay of a heavy Majorana neutrino in leptogenesis. Compared to the usual approach where thermal masses are inserted into the kinematics of final states, we find that deviations arise through two different leptonic dispersion relations. The decay rate differs from the usual approach by more than 1 order of magnitude in the temperature range which is interesting for the weak washout regime. We discuss how to arrive at consistent finite-temperature treatments of leptogenesis.
Decay of dark and bright plasmonic modes in a metallic nanoparticle dimer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandstetter-Kunc, Adam; Weick, Guillaume; Weinmann, Dietmar; Jalabert, Rodolfo A.
2015-01-01
We develop a general quantum theory of the coupled plasmonic modes resulting from the near-field interaction between localized surface plasmons in a heterogeneous metallic nanoparticle dimer. In particular, we provide analytical expressions for the frequencies and decay rates of the bright and dark plasmonic modes. We show that, for sufficiently small nanoparticles, the main decay channel for the dark plasmonic mode, which is weakly coupled to light and, hence, immune to radiation damping, is of nonradiative origin and corresponds to Landau damping, i.e., decay into electron-hole pairs.
Tau decays: A theoretical perspective
Marciano, W.J.
1992-11-01
Theoretical predictions for various tau decay rates are reviewed. Effects of electroweak radiative corrections are described. Implications for precision tests of the standard model and ``new physics`` searches are discussed. A perspective on the tau decay puzzle and 1-prong problem is given.
Tau decays: A theoretical perspective
Marciano, W.J.
1992-11-01
Theoretical predictions for various tau decay rates are reviewed. Effects of electroweak radiative corrections are described. Implications for precision tests of the standard model and new physics'' searches are discussed. A perspective on the tau decay puzzle and 1-prong problem is given.
Counterflow driven by swirl decay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shtern, Vladimir N.; Borissov, Anatoli A.
2010-06-01
The global meridional circulation of a viscous fluid, caused by swirl decay in a cylindrical container, is studied. To this end, a new solution to the Navier-Stokes equations is obtained, and simple experiments are performed to verify the predictions of the theory. The swirl decay mechanism explains elongated counterflows in hydrocyclones and vortex tubes sometimes extending over a hundred diameters.
CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Fitch, V. L.
1972-03-23
Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.
On modeling weak sinks in MODPATH.
Abrams, Daniel; Haitjema, H; Kauffman, L
2013-01-01
Regional groundwater flow systems often contain both strong sinks and weak sinks. A strong sink extracts water from the entire aquifer depth, while a weak sink lets some water pass underneath or over the actual sink. The numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW may allow a sink cell to act as a strong or weak sink, hence extracting all water that enters the cell or allowing some of that water to pass. A physical strong sink can be modeled by either a strong sink cell or a weak sink cell, with the latter generally occurring in low-resolution models. Likewise, a physical weak sink may also be represented by either type of sink cell. The representation of weak sinks in the particle tracing code MODPATH is more equivocal than in MODFLOW. With the appropriate parameterization of MODPATH, particle traces and their associated travel times to weak sink streams can be modeled with adequate accuracy, even in single layer models. Weak sink well cells, on the other hand, require special measures as proposed in the literature to generate correct particle traces and individual travel times and hence capture zones. We found that the transit time distributions for well water generally do not require special measures provided aquifer properties are locally homogeneous and the well draws water from the entire aquifer depth, an important observation for determining the response of a well to non-point contaminant inputs. PMID:23025655
Spin Seebeck effect in a weak ferromagnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arboleda, Juan David; Arnache Olmos, Oscar; Aguirre, Myriam Haydee; Ramos, Rafael; Anadon, Alberto; Ibarra, Manuel Ricardo
2016-06-01
We report the observation of room temperature spin Seebeck effect (SSE) in a weak ferromagnetic normal spinel Zinc Ferrite (ZFO). Despite the weak ferromagnetic behavior, the measurements of the SSE in ZFO show a thermoelectric voltage response comparable with the reported values for other ferromagnetic materials. Our results suggest that SSE might possibly originate from the surface magnetization of the ZFO.
Staggering towards a calculation of weak amplitudes
Sharpe, S.R.
1988-09-01
An explanation is given of the methods required to calculate hadronic matrix elements of the weak Hamiltonians using lattice QCD with staggered fermions. New results are presented for the 1-loop perturbative mixing of the weak interaction operators. New numerical techniques designed for staggered fermions are described. A preliminary result for the kaon B parameter is presented. 24 refs., 3 figs.
Fixing Employee Weaknesses: Addressing the Myth.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gilley, Jerry W.
2001-01-01
Suggests that human resources development professionals need to change their performance improvement focus and philosophy to embrace the importance of building on strengths and managing weaknesses. Identifies five characteristics indicative of employees' strengths. Describes seven strategies to help employees minimize their weaknesses while…
Crossing Institutional Boundaries: Writing Strengths and Weaknesses.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lumpkins, Julie
At any level, good writing requires an acknowledgment of writing strengths and weaknesses by both student and instructor. The four project collaborators/writing teachers outlined six specific areas on a teacher feedback sheet to note students' writing strengths and weaknesses; the areas of purpose, audience, thesis, development, organization, and…
Weak lasing in one-dimensional polariton superlattices
Zhang, Long; Xie, Wei; Wang, Jian; Poddubny, Alexander; Lu, Jian; Wang, Yinglei; Gu, Jie; Liu, Wenhui; Xu, Dan; Shen, Xuechu; Rubo, Yuri G.; Altshuler, Boris L.; Kavokin, Alexey V.; Chen, Zhanghai
2015-01-01
Bosons with finite lifetime exhibit condensation and lasing when their influx exceeds the lasing threshold determined by the dissipative losses. In general, different one-particle states decay differently, and the bosons are usually assumed to condense in the state with the longest lifetime. Interaction between the bosons partially neglected by such an assumption can smear the lasing threshold into a threshold domain—a stable lasing many-body state exists within certain intervals of the bosonic influxes. This recently described weak lasing regime is formed by the spontaneously symmetry breaking and phase-locking self-organization of bosonic modes, which results in an essentially many-body state with a stable balance between gains and losses. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first observation of the weak lasing phase in a one-dimensional condensate of exciton–polaritons subject to a periodic potential. Real and reciprocal space photoluminescence images demonstrate that the spatial period of the condensate is twice as large as the period of the underlying periodic potential. These experiments are realized at room temperature in a ZnO microwire deposited on a silicon grating. The period doubling takes place at a critical pumping power, whereas at a lower power polariton emission images have the same periodicity as the grating. PMID:25787253
Weak lasing in one-dimensional polariton superlattices.
Zhang, Long; Xie, Wei; Wang, Jian; Poddubny, Alexander; Lu, Jian; Wang, Yinglei; Gu, Jie; Liu, Wenhui; Xu, Dan; Shen, Xuechu; Rubo, Yuri G; Altshuler, Boris L; Kavokin, Alexey V; Chen, Zhanghai
2015-03-31
Bosons with finite lifetime exhibit condensation and lasing when their influx exceeds the lasing threshold determined by the dissipative losses. In general, different one-particle states decay differently, and the bosons are usually assumed to condense in the state with the longest lifetime. Interaction between the bosons partially neglected by such an assumption can smear the lasing threshold into a threshold domain--a stable lasing many-body state exists within certain intervals of the bosonic influxes. This recently described weak lasing regime is formed by the spontaneously symmetry breaking and phase-locking self-organization of bosonic modes, which results in an essentially many-body state with a stable balance between gains and losses. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first observation of the weak lasing phase in a one-dimensional condensate of exciton-polaritons subject to a periodic potential. Real and reciprocal space photoluminescence images demonstrate that the spatial period of the condensate is twice as large as the period of the underlying periodic potential. These experiments are realized at room temperature in a ZnO microwire deposited on a silicon grating. The period doubling takes place at a critical pumping power, whereas at a lower power polariton emission images have the same periodicity as the grating. PMID:25787253
Lipkin, H.J.
1980-09-01
Nonleptonic weak decays of strange hadrons are complicated by the interplay of weak and strong interactions. Models based either on symmetry properties or on the selection of certain types of diagrams are both open to criticism. The symmetries used are all broken in strong interactions, and the selection of some diagrams and neglect of others is never seriously justified. Furthermore, the number of related decays of strange hadrons is small, so that experimental data are insufficient for singificant tests of phenomenological models with a few free parameters. The discovery of charmed particles with many open channels for nonleptonic decays has provided a new impetus for a theoretical understanding of these processes. The GIM current provides a well defined weak hamiltonian, which can justifiably be used to first order. The QCD approach to strong interactions gives flavor-indpendent couplings and flavor symmetry broken only by quark masses. In a model with n generations of quarks and 2n flavors, a flavor symmetry group SU(2n) can be defined which is broken only by H/sub weak/ and the quark masses.Here again, the same two approaches by symmetry and dynamics have been used. But both types of treatment tend to consider only the symmetry properties or dominant diagrams of the weak interaction, including some subtle effects, while overlooking rather obvious effects of strong interactions.
Gaitan, R.; Miranda, O. G.; Cabral-Rosetti, L. G.
2009-04-20
Top quark decays are interesting as a mean to test the Standard Model (SM) predictions. The Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM)-suppressed process t{yields}cWW, and the rare decays t{yields}cZ, t{yields}H{sup 0}+c, and t{yields}c{gamma} an excellent window to probe the predictions of theories beyond the SM. We evaluate the flavor changing neutral currents (FCNC) decay t{yields}H{sup 0}+c in the context of Alternative Left-Right symmetric Models (ALRM) with extra isosinglet heavy fermions; the FCNC decays may place at tree level and are only supressed by the mixing between ordinary top and charm quarks. We also comment on the decay process t{yields}c+{gamma}, which involves radiative corrections.
Logarithmic decays of unstable states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giraldi, Filippo
2015-01-01
It is known that the survival amplitude of unstable quantum states deviates from exponential relaxations and exhibits decays that depend on the integral and analytic properties of the energy distribution density. In the same scenario, model independent dominant logarithmic decays t -1- α0log t of the survival amplitude are induced over long times by special conditions on the energy distribution density. While the instantaneous decay rate exhibits the dominant long time relaxation 1 / t, the instantaneous energy tends to the minimum value of the energy spectrum with the dominant logarithmic decay 1/( tlog 2 t) over long times. Similar logarithmic relaxations have already been found in the dynamics of short range potential systems with even dimensional space or in the Weisskopf-Wigner model of spontaneous emission from a two-level atom. Here, logarithmic decays are obtained as a pure model independent quantum effect in general unstable states.
Maximal Holevo Quantity Based on Weak Measurements
Wang, Yao-Kun; Fei, Shao-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Xi; Cao, Jun-Peng; Fan, Heng
2015-01-01
The Holevo bound is a keystone in many applications of quantum information theory. We propose “ maximal Holevo quantity for weak measurements” as the generalization of the maximal Holevo quantity which is defined by the optimal projective measurements. The scenarios that weak measurements is necessary are that only the weak measurements can be performed because for example the system is macroscopic or that one intentionally tries to do so such that the disturbance on the measured system can be controlled for example in quantum key distribution protocols. We evaluate systematically the maximal Holevo quantity for weak measurements for Bell-diagonal states and find a series of results. Furthermore, we find that weak measurements can be realized by noise and project measurements. PMID:26090962
Identical Quantum Particles and Weak Discernibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dieks, Dennis; Versteegh, Marijn A. M.
2008-10-01
Saunders has recently claimed that “identical quantum particles” with an anti-symmetric state (fermions) are weakly discernible objects, just like irreflexively related ordinary objects in situations with perfect symmetry (Black’s spheres, for example). Weakly discernible objects have all their qualitative properties in common but nevertheless differ from each other by virtue of (a generalized version of) Leibniz’s principle, since they stand in relations an entity cannot have to itself. This notion of weak discernibility has been criticized as question begging, but we defend and accept it for classical cases likes Black’s spheres. We argue, however, that the quantum mechanical case is different. Here the application of the notion of weak discernibility indeed is question begging and in conflict with standard interpretational ideas. We conclude that the introduction of the conceptual resource of weak discernibility does not change the interpretational status quo in quantum mechanics.
Persisting weakness after withdrawal of a statin.
Mygland, Åse; Ljøstad, Unn; Krossnes, Bård Kronen
2014-01-01
An 81-year-old woman treated with simvastatin for several years followed by atorvastatin for about 1 year presented with fatigue, weakness and unsteady gait. The finding of elevated creatine kinase (CK) and symmetric muscle weakness around shoulders and hips led to suspicion of a toxic statin-associated myopathy. Atorvastatin was withdrawn, but her weakness persisted. Owing to persisting weakness, an autoimmune myopathy (myositis) was suspected, but initially disregarded since a muscle biopsy showed necrotic muscle fibres without inflammatory cell infiltrates and myositis-specific autoantibodies were absent. After 18 months with slowly progressive weakness and increasing CK values, awareness of new knowledge about autoimmunity as a cause of necrotic myopathy, led to a successful treatment trial with intravenous immunoglobulines, followed by steroids and metothrexate. Antibodies to the target enzyme of statins (HMGCR (3-hydroksy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase)) were detected in her serum, and she was diagnosed with autoimmune necrotic myositis probably triggered by atorvastatin. PMID:24713712
S -wave nonleptonic hyperon decays and Ξb-→π-Λb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gronau, Michael; Rosner, Jonathan L.
2016-02-01
The decay Ξb-→π-Λb has recently been observed by the LHCb Collaboration at CERN. In contrast to most weak decays of b -flavored baryons, this process involves the decay of the strange quark in Ξb and thus has features in common with nonleptonic weak decays of hyperons. Thanks to the expected pure S-wave nature of the decay in question in the heavy b quark limit, we find that its amplitude may be related to those for S-wave nonleptonic decays of Λ , Σ , and Ξ in a picture inspired by duality. The calculated branching fraction B (Ξb-→π-Λb)=(6.3 ±4.2 )×10-3 is consistent with the range allowed in the LHCb analysis. The error is dominated by an assumed 30% uncertainty in the amplitude due to possible U(3) violation. A more optimistic view based on sum rules involving nonleptonic hyperon decay S-wave amplitudes reduces the error on the branching fraction to 2.0 ×10-3.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slade, Gordon; Tomberg, Alexandre
2016-03-01
We extend and apply a rigorous renormalisation group method to study critical correlation functions, on the 4-dimensional lattice Z4, for the weakly coupled n-component {|\\varphi|4} spin model for all {n ≥ 1}, and for the continuous-time weakly self-avoiding walk. For the {|\\varphi|4} model, we prove that the critical two-point function has | x|-2 (Gaussian) decay asymptotically, for {n ≥ 1}. We also determine the asymptotic decay of the critical correlations of the squares of components of {\\varphi}, including the logarithmic corrections to Gaussian scaling, for {n ≥ 1}. The above extends previously known results for n = 1 to all {n ≥ 1}, and also observes new phenomena for n > 1, all with a new method of proof. For the continuous-time weakly self-avoiding walk, we determine the decay of the critical generating function for the "watermelon" network consisting of p weakly mutually- and self-avoiding walks, for all {p ≥ 1}, including the logarithmic corrections. This extends a previously known result for p = 1, for which there is no logarithmic correction, to a much more general setting. In addition, for both models, we study the approach to the critical point and prove the existence of logarithmic corrections to scaling for certain correlation functions. Our method gives a rigorous analysis of the weakly self-avoiding walk as the n = 0 case of the {|\\varphi|4} model, and provides a unified treatment of both models, and of all the above results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, Jongil; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Proctor, Fred H.
1999-01-01
The effects of ambient turbulence on decay and descent of aircraft wake vortices are studied using a validated, three-dimensional: large-eddy simulation model. Numerical simulations are performed in order to isolate the effect of ambient turbulence on the wake vortex decay rate within a neutrally-stratified atmosphere. Simulations are conducted for a range of turbulence intensities, by injecting wake vortex pairs into an approximately homogeneous and isotropic turbulence field. The decay rate of the vortex circulation increases clearly with increasing ambient turbulence level, which is consistent with field observations. Based on the results from the numerical simulations, simple decay models are proposed as functions of dimensionless ambient turbulence intensity (eta) and dimensionless time (T) for the circulation averaged over a range of radial distances. With good agreement with the numerical results, a Gaussian type of vortex decay model is proposed for weak turbulence: while an exponential type of Tortex decay model can be applied for strong turbulence. A relationship for the vortex descent based on above vortex decay model is also proposed. Although the proposed models are based on simulations assuming neutral stratification, the model predictions are compared to Lidar vortex measurements observed during stable, neutral, and unstable atmospheric conditions. In the neutral and unstable atmosphere, the model predictions appear to be in reasonable agreement with the observational data, while in the stably-stratified atmosphere, they largely underestimate the observed circulation decay with consistent overestimation of the observed vortex descent. The underestimation of vortex decay during stably-stratified conditions suggests that stratification has an important influence on vortex decay when ambient levels of turbulence are weak.
Beauty meson decays to charmonium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ershov, Alexey Valerievich
2001-10-01
We study decays of beauty (B) mesons into the final states containing charmonium mesons. The data were collected by the CLEO experiment at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring from 1990 to 1999. First, we describe a technique that significantly improves the reconstruction efficiency for decays of J/ y and y (2S) mesons into a pair of leptons. This reconstruction method is used in all the analyses presented in this dissertation. Then we present a study of B decays to the χc 1 and χc2 charmonium states and compare our results with the predictions of different theoretical models of charmonium production. After that we report the first observation of the decay B --> J/ y φK, which is the first B meson decay requiring a creation of an additional ss¯ quark pair. Then we measure the B0 and B+ meson masses from B0 --> y (') K0S and B+ --> y (') K+ decays. The method employed eliminates the dominant systematic uncertainty associated with the previous B meson mass measurements at the e+e- colliders and results in a significant improvement in precision. After that we present a study of three B0 decay modes useful for time-dependent CP asymmetry measurements. In this study we reconstruct B0 --> J/ y K0S , B0 --> χc 1 K0S , and B0 --> J/ y π0 decays. The latter two decay modes are observed for the first time. We describe a K0S --> π0π0 detection technique and its application to the reconstruction of the decay B 0 --> J/ y K0S . Then we present a sensitivity study for the measurement of the mixing-induced CP violation in the neutral B meson system (parameter sin 2β) at CLEO using the method that requires a measurement of the decay time of only one meson in a B0overline B0 pair. Finally, we search for direct CP violation in decays B+/- --> J/ y K+/- and B +/- --> y (2S) K+/- . The results of this search are consistent with the Standard Model expectations and provide the first experimental test of the assumption that direct CP violation is negligible in B --> y (') K decays.
Primordial nucleosynthesis with decaying particles. I - Entropy-producing decays. II - Inert decays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scherrer, Robert J.; Turner, Michael S.
1988-01-01
The effect of a nonrelativistic particle X, which decays out of equilibrium, on primordial nucleosynthesis is investigated, including both the energy density of the X particle and the electromagnetic entropy production from its decay. The results are parametrized in terms of the X particle lifetime and the density parameter rm(X), where m(X) is the X particle mass and r is the ratio of X number density to photon number density prior to nucleosynthesis. The results rule out particle lifetimes greater than 1-10 s for large values of rm(X). The question of a decaying particle which produces no electromagnetic entropy in the course of its decay is addressed, and particles which produce both entropy and an inert component in their decay are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubinstein, Robert; Auslender, Aaron H.
1999-01-01
The decay of anomalous effects on shock waves in weakly ionized gases following plasma generator extinction has been measured in the anticipation that the decay time must correlate well with the relaxation time of the mechanism responsible for the anomalous effects. When the relaxation times cannot be measured directly, they are inferred theoretically, usually assuming that the initial state is nearly in thermal equilibrium. In this paper, it is demonstrated that relaxation from any steady state far from equilibrium, including the state of a weakly ionized gas, can proceed much more slowly than arguments based on relaxation from near equilibrium states might suggest. This result justifies a more careful analysis of the relaxation times in weakly ionized gases and suggests that although the experimental measurements of relaxation times did not lead to an unambiguous conclusion, this approach to understanding the anomalous effects may warrant further investigation.
Spectrum of Mathematical Weaknesses: Related Neuropsychological Correlates.
Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R; Le, Jessica; Hertza, Jeremy; Cohen, Morris J
2015-01-01
Math disorders have been recognized for as long as language disorders yet have received far less research. Mathematics is a complex construct and its development may be dependent on multiple cognitive abilities. Several studies have shown that short-term memory, working memory, visuospatial skills, processing speed, and various language skills relate to and may facilitate math development and performance. The hypotheses explored in this research were that children who performed worse on math achievement than on Full-Scale IQ would exhibit weaknesses in executive functions, memory, and visuoperceptual skills. Participants included 436 children (27% girls, 73% boys; age range = 5-17 years, M(age) = 9.45 years) who were referred for neuropsychological evaluations due to academic and/or behavioral problems. This article specifically focuses on the spectrum of math weakness rather than clinical disability, which has yet to be investigated in the literature. Results suggest that children with relative weakness to impairments in math were significantly more likely to have cognitive weaknesses to impairments on neuropsychological variables, as compared with children without math weaknesses. Specifically, the math-weak children exhibit a weakness to impairment on measures involving attention, language, visuoperceptual skills, memory, reading, and spelling. Overall, our results suggest that math development is multifaceted. PMID:25117216
Nuclear-structure aspects of double beta decay
Suhonen, Jouni
2010-11-24
Neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay of nuclei is a process that requires the neutrino to be a massive Majorana particle and thus cannot proceed in the standard model of electro-weak interactions. Recent results of the neutrino-oscillation experiments have produced accurate information on the mixing of neutrinos and their squared mass differences. The 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay takes place in atomic nuclei where it can be observed, at least in principle, by underground neutrino experiments. The need of nuclei in observation of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay bears two facets: The nucleus serves as laboratory for detection but at the same time its complicated many-nucleon structure interferes strongly with the analysis of the experimental data. The information about the weak-interaction observables, like the neutrino mass, has to be filtered from the data through the nuclear matrix elements (NMEs). Hence, exact knowledge about the NMEs is of paramount importance in the analysis of the data provided by the expensive and time-consuming underground experiments.
Weak Measurements Destroy Too Much Quantum Correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Shao-xiong; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chang-shui; Song, He-shan
2016-01-01
The quantum correlation under weak measurements is studied via skew information. For 2 × d-dimensional states, it can be given by a closed form which linearly depends on the quantum correlation [EPL. 107 (2014) 10007] determined by the strength of the weak measurement. It is found that the quantum correlation under weak measurements only captures partial quantumness of the state. In particular, the extraction of the residual quantumness by the latter measurements will inevitably destroy too much quantumness. To demonstration, the Werner state is given as an example.
Weak side of strong topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sbierski, Björn; Schneider, Martin; Brouwer, Piet W.
2016-04-01
Strong topological insulators may have nonzero weak indices. The nonzero weak indices allow for the existence of topologically protected helical states along line defects of the lattice. If the lattice admits line defects that connect opposite surfaces of a slab of such a "weak-and-strong" topological insulator, these states effectively connect the surface states at opposite surfaces. Depending on the phases accumulated along the dislocation lines, this connection results in a suppression of in-plane transport and the opening of a spectral gap or in an enhanced density of states and an increased conductivity.
Structural features of sequential weak measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diósi, Lajos
2016-07-01
We discuss the abstract structure of sequential weak measurement (WM) of general observables. In all orders, the sequential WM correlations without postselection yield the corresponding correlations of the Wigner function, offering direct quantum tomography through the moments of the canonical variables. Correlations in spin-1/2 sequential weak measurements coincide with those in strong measurements, they are constrained kinematically, and they are equivalent with single measurements. In sequential WMs with postselection, an anomaly occurs, different from the weak value anomaly of single WMs. In particular, the spread of polarization σ ̂ as measured in double WMs of σ ̂ will diverge for certain orthogonal pre- and postselected states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Padilla, C.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Girone, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A. O.; Bonvicini, G.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lutters, G.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Moneta, L.; Oest, T.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rizzo, G.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, F.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Abbaneo, D.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Giehl, I.; Greene, A. M.; Hoffmann, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Ragusa, F.; Bauer, C.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Denis, R. St.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Choi, Y.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Grahl, J.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, A. M.; Walsh, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration
1996-02-01
The inclusive production of charmed particles in Z → b overlineb decays has been measured from the yield of D0, D+, Ds+ and Λc+ decays in a sample of q overlineq events with high b purity collected with the ALEPH detector from 1992 to 1995. From these measurements, adding the charmonia production rate and an estimate of the charmed strange baryon contribution, the average number of charm quarks per b decay is determined to be nc = 1.230 ± 0.036 ± 0.038 ± 0.053, where the uncertainties are due to statistics, systematic effects and branching ratios, respectively.
Glueball decay in holographic QCD
Hashimoto, Koji; Tan, C.-I; Terashima, Seiji
2008-04-15
Using holographic QCD based on D4-branes and D8-anti-D8-branes, we have computed couplings of glueballs to light mesons. We describe glueball decay by explicitly calculating its decay widths and branching ratios. Interestingly, while glueballs remain less well understood both theoretically and experimentally, our results are found to be consistent with the experimental data for the scalar glueball candidate f{sub 0}(1500). More generally, holographic QCD predicts that decay of any glueball to 4{pi}{sup 0} is suppressed, and that mixing of the lightest glueball with qq mesons is small.
Optimizing VANDLE for Decay Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brewer, N. T.; Taylor, S. Z.; Grzywacz, R.; Madurga, M.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Cizewski, J. A.; Peters, W. A.; Vandle Collaboration
2013-10-01
Understanding the decay properties of neutron rich isotopes has well established importance to the path of the r-process and to the total decay heat for reactor physics. Specifically, the half-life, branching ratio and spectra for β-n decay is of particular interest. With that in mind, we have continued attempts to improve upon the Versatile Array of Neutron Detectors at Low Energy (VANDLE) in terms of efficiency and TOF resolution through the use of new and larger scintillators. Details of the new implementation, design and characterization of the array will be shown and compared to previous results.
Weak-triplet, color-octet scalars and the CDF dijet excess
Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Krnjaic, Gordan Z.
2012-04-24
We extend the standard model to include a weak-triplet and color-octet scalar. This 'octo-triplet' field consists of three particles, two charged and one neutral, whose masses and renormalizable interactions depend only on two new parameters. The charged octo-triplet decay into a W boson and a gluon is suppressed by a loop factor and an accidental cancellation. Thus, the main decays of the charged octo-triplet may occur through higher-dimensional operators, mediated by a heavy vectorlike fermion, into quark pairs. For an octo-triplet mass below the tb¯ threshold, the decay into Wb b¯ through an off-shell top quark has a width comparable to that into cs¯ or cb¯. Pair production with one octo-triplet decaying to two jets and the other decaying to a W and two soft b jets may explain the dijet-plus-W excess reported by the CDF Collaboration. The same higher-dimensional operators lead to CP violation in B_{s}-B¯_{s} mixing.
Weak-triplet, color-octet scalars and the CDF dijet excess
Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Krnjaic, Gordan Z.
2012-04-24
We extend the standard model to include a weak-triplet and color-octet scalar. This 'octo-triplet' field consists of three particles, two charged and one neutral, whose masses and renormalizable interactions depend only on two new parameters. The charged octo-triplet decay into a W boson and a gluon is suppressed by a loop factor and an accidental cancellation. Thus, the main decays of the charged octo-triplet may occur through higher-dimensional operators, mediated by a heavy vectorlike fermion, into quark pairs. For an octo-triplet mass below the tb¯ threshold, the decay into Wb b¯ through an off-shell top quark has a width comparablemore » to that into cs¯ or cb¯. Pair production with one octo-triplet decaying to two jets and the other decaying to a W and two soft b jets may explain the dijet-plus-W excess reported by the CDF Collaboration. The same higher-dimensional operators lead to CP violation in Bs-B¯s mixing.« less
Chen, Edward Tann
2007-01-01
We present the results of a search for B^{+} meson decays into γℓ^{+}v_{ℓ}, where ℓ = e,μ. We use a sample of 232 million B$\\bar{B}$ meson pairs recorded at the Υ(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory. We measure a partial branching fraction Δβ in a restricted region of phase space that reduces the effect of theoretical uncertainties, requiring the lepton energy to be in the range 1.875 and 2.850 GeV, the photon energy to be in the range 0.45 and 2.35 GeV, and the cosine of the angle between the lepton and photon momenta to be less than -0.36, with all quantities computed in the Υ(4S) center-of-mass frame. We find Δβ(B^{+} → γℓ^{+}v_{ℓ}) = (-0.3_{1.5}^{+1.3}(statistical) _{-0.6}^{+0.6}(systematic) ± 0.1(theoretical)) x 10^{-6}, under the assumption of lepton universality. Interpreted as a 90% confidence-level Bayesian upper limit, the result corresponds to 1.7 x 10^{-6} for a prior at in amplitude, and 2.3 x 10^{-6} for a prior at in branching fraction.
Reversing entanglement change by a weak measurement
Sun Qingqing; Zubairy, M. Suhail; Al-Amri, M.; Davidovich, Luiz
2010-11-15
Entanglement of a system changes due to interactions with the environment. A typical type of interaction is amplitude damping. If we add a detector to monitor the environment and only select the no-damping outcome, this amplitude damping is modified into a weak measurement. Here we show that the entanglement change of a two-qubit state due to amplitude damping or weak measurement can be probabilistically reversed. For the amplitude-damping case, the entanglement partially recovers under most conditions. For the weak-measurement case, the recovery of the initial entangled state is exact. The reversal procedure involves another weak measurement, preceded and followed by bit flips applied to both qubits. We propose a linear optics scheme for the experimental demonstration of these procedures.
Composite weld rod corrects individual filler weaknesses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grimaldo, S.
1967-01-01
Composite filler wire welds together an assembly made from components of Rene 41 nickel base alloy. Using equal parts of Rene 41 and Hastelloy W weld wire in the filler reduces the cracking and weaknesses of the individual parent metals.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Drake, Jeremy J.; Lambert, David L.
1994-01-01
Sodium abundances have been determined for eight weak G-band giants whose atmospheres are greatly enriched with products of the CN-cycling H-burning reactions. Systematic errors are minimized by comparing the weak G-band giants to a sample of similar but normal giants. If, further, Ca is selected as a reference element, model atmosphere-related errors should largely be removed. For the weak-G-band stars (Na/Ca) = 0.16 +/- 0.01, which is just possibly greater than the result (Na/Ca) = 0.10 /- 0.03 from the normal giants. This result demonstrates that the atmospheres of the weak G-band giants are not seriously contaminated with products of ON cycling.
Moretto, L.G.; Wozniak, G.J.
1988-11-01
The formation of hot compound nuclei in intermediate-energy heavy ion reactions is discussed. The statistical decay of such compound nuclei is responsible for the abundant emission of complex fragments and high energy gamma rays. 43 refs., 23 figs.
Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth
1988-01-01
Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marshak, Marvin L.
1984-01-01
Provides the rationale for and examples of experiments designed to test the stability of protons and bound neutrons. Also considers the unification question, cosmological implications, current and future detectors, and current status of knowledge on proton decay. (JN)
Littenberg, L.
1995-05-01
The status and future prospects of searches for and studies of forbidden and highly suppressed K decays are reviewed. Here the author discusses three areas of recent activity in rare K decay. These are lepton-flavor violating decays, which are entirely forbidden in the Standard Model, K{sub S} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}{pi}{sup 0}, which is of interest from the point of view of CP-violation, and `one loop` decays of the form K{sup 0,{+-}} {yields} ({pi}{sup 0,{+-}})l{bar l}, that can throw light on Standard Model CP-violation and determine parameters such as V{sub td}.
Electromagnetic and Weak transitions in light nuclei
M. Viviani; L.E. Marcucci; A. Kievsky; S. Rosati; R. Schiavilla
2002-09-01
Recent advances in the study of the p -- d radiative and mu -- {sup 3}He weak capture processes by our group are presented and discussed. The trinucleon bound and scattering states have been obtained from variational calculations by expanding the corresponding wave functions in terms of correlated hyper-spherical harmonic functions. The electromagnetic and weak transition currents include one- and two-body operators. The accuracy achieved in these calculations allows for interesting comparisons with experimental data.
Elastic scattering with weakly bound projectiles
Figueira, J. M.; Abriola, D.; Arazi, A.; Capurro, O. A.; Marti, G. V.; Martinez Heinmann, D.; Pacheco, A. J.; Testoni, J. E.; Barbara, E. de; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Padron, I.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.
2007-02-12
Possible effects of the break-up channel on the elastic scattering threshold anomaly has been investigated. We used the weakly bound 6,7Li nuclei, which is known to undergo break-up, as projectiles in order to study the elastic scattering on a 27Al target. In this contribution we present preliminary results of these experiments, which were analyzed in terms of the Optical Model and compared with other elastic scattering data using weakly bound nuclei as projectile.
Some Topics in Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bjorken, James D.
1982-01-01
The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * LECTURE I QUANTUM-ELECTRODYNAMICS TESTS; TESTS OF Jμ Jμ STRUCTURE IN WEAK INTERACTIONS; HIGHER-ORDER WEAK INTERACTIONS * LECTURE II PHENOMENOLOGY OF DEEP-INELASTIC PROCESSES; NO FINAL-STATE HADRONS OBSERVED * LECTURE III LIGHT-CONE COMMUTATORS; MODELS OF THE STRUCTURE FUNCTIONS * LECTURE IV HADRON FINAL STATES IN DEEP-INELASTIC PROCESSES; GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS * LECTURE V INCLUSIVE PROCESSES AT VERY HIGH TRANSVERSE MOMENTUM * REFERENCES
Looking for heavier weak bosons with DUMAND
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, R. W.; Stecker, F. W.
1980-01-01
One or more heavier weak bosons may coexist with the standard weak boson, a broad program may be laid out for a search for the heavier W's via change in the total cross section due to the additional propagator, a concomitant search, and a subsequent search for significant antimatter in the universe involving the same annihilation, but being independent of possible neutrino oscillations. The program is likely to require detectors sensitive to higher energies, such as acoustic detectors.
Proton decay and nuclear dynamics
Alvioli, M.; Strikman, M.; Benhar, O.; Ericson, M.
2010-04-15
The kinematics of the decay of a bound proton is governed by the proton spectral function. We evaluate this quantity in {sup 16}O using the information from nuclear physics experiments. It also includes a correlated part. The reliability of this evaluation is sufficient to open the possibility of correlated cuts in the missing mass and momentum variables to identify the decay events from the bound protons with a possible increase of the signal-to-noise ratio.
Thermal corrections to Electroweak Decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masood, Samina
2016-03-01
We study the electroweak processes at finite temperatures. This includes the decay rates of electroweak gauge bosons and beta decays. Major thermal corrections come from QED type radiative corrections. Heavy mass of the electroweak gauge bosons helps to suppress the radiative corrections due to the electroweak gauge boson loops. Therefore, dominant thermal corrections are due to the photon loops. We also discuss the relevance of our results to astrophysics and cosmology.
Volk, Alexei; /Dresden, Tech. U.
2010-08-26
The study of the semileptonic B-meson decays is the most accessible and cleanest way to determine the CKM matrix elements |V{sub cb}| and V{sub ub}. These decays also provide experimental access to study the QCD form-factors, heavy quark masses, and HQE parameters. The theoretical description of semileptonic B-meson decays at the parton level is very simple because there is no interaction between leptonic and hadronic currents. At the hadron level one needs to introduce corrections due to the strong interaction between quarks. Especially in the description of the inclusive B-meson decays the motion of the b-quark inside the B-meson plays a crucial role. All these effects are described in the frameworks of Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET) and Lattice QCD (LQCD). We give an overview about results of studies of semileptonic B-meson decays collected with the BABAR and Belle detectors at the PEP-II and the KEKB e{sup +}e{sup -}-storage rings. We present recent results on hadronic moments measured in inclusive B {yields} X{sub c}lv and B {yields} X{sub u}lv decays and extracted heavy quark masses m{sub b} and m{sub c} and dominant non-perturbative Heavy Quark Expansion (HQE) parameters. We also report the measurements of the CKM matrix elements |V{sub cb}| and |V{sub ub}| in inclusive and in exclusive semileptonic B-meson decays. We describe the studies of the form-factor parameters for the decay B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup -}l{sup +}v and present the measurement of the B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup -}l{sup +}v form-factor shape.
Correlation measurements in nuclear {beta}-decay using traps and polarized low energy beams
Naviliat-Cuncic, Oscar
2013-05-06
Precision measurements in nuclear {beta}-decay provide sensitive means to test discrete symmetries in the weak interaction and to determine some of the fundamental constants in semi-leptonic decays, like the coupling of the lightest quarks to charged weak bosons. The main motivation of such measurements is to find deviations from Standard Model predictions as possible indications of new physics. In this contribution I will focus on two topics related to precision measurements in nuclear {beta}-decay: i) the determination of the V{sub ud} element of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix from nuclear mirror transitions and ii) the search for exotic scalar or tensor contributions from {beta}{nu} angular correlations. The purpose is to underline the role being played by experimental techniques based on the confinement of radioactive species with atom and ion traps as well as the plans to use low energy polarized beams.
Line splitting and modified atomic decay of atoms coupled with N quantized cavity modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Yifu
1992-05-01
We study the interaction of a two-level atom with N non-degenerate quantized cavity modes including dissipations from atomic decay and cavity damps. In the strong coupling regime, the absorption or emission spectrum of weakly excited atom-cavity system possesses N + 1 spectral peaks whose linewidths are the weighted averages of atomic and cavity linewidths. The coupled system shows subnatural (supernatural) atomic decay behavior if the photon loss rates from the N cavity modes are smaller (larger) than the atomic decay rate. If N cavity modes are degenerate, they can be treated effectively as a single mode. In addition, we present numerical calculations for N = 2 to characterize the system evolution from the weak coupling to strong coupling limits.
Majorana neutrino masses and the neutrinoless double-beta decay
Faessler, A.
2006-12-15
Neutrinoless double-beta decay is forbidden in the Standard Model of electroweak and strong interaction but allowed in most Grand Unified Theories (GUTs). Only if the neutrino is a Majorana particle (identical with its antiparticle) and if it has a mass is neutrinoless double-beta decay allowed. Apart from one claim that the neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge is measured, one has only upper limits for this transition probability. But even the upper limits allow one to give upper limits for the electron Majorana neutrino mass and upper limits for parameters of GUTs and the minimal R-parity-violating supersymmetric model. One further can give lower limits for the vector boson mediating mainly the right-handed weak interaction and the heavy mainly right-handed Majorana neutrino in left-right symmetric GUTs. For that, one has to assume that the specific mechanism is the leading one for neutrinoless double-beta decay and one has to be able to calculate reliably the corresponding nuclear matrix elements. In the present work, one discusses the accuracy of the present status of calculating of the nuclear matrix elements and the corresponding limits of GUTs and supersymmetric parameters.
Search for anomalies in the decay of radioactive Mn-54
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silverman, M. P.
2016-06-01
Recent papers have reported that 54Mn, which decays by electron capture (a weak nuclear interaction) with half-life ∼312 days, is influenced by solar activity. Should this actually occur, new physics would be needed to explain it. This paper reports results of an analysis of 54Mn activity measured over a time interval of ∼3.6 half-lives. If standard nuclear physics applies, the logarithmic residuals of 54Mn activities should form a stationary set of independent random variables whose statistics are determined solely by a constant decay rate λ and initial mean count μ. Analysis of the time-variation, autocorrelation, and power spectra of the 54Mn logarithmic residuals agrees exquisitely with standard nuclear physics. Computer-simulated activities exhibiting periodic decay of amplitude A=αλ show that anomalies would be detectable by these statistical tests for values of α as low as ∼1 part in 104. This limit is about 10 times lower than reported deviations from exponential decay.
Detecting the Radiative Decay Mode of the Neutron
Fisher, B. M.; Wietfeldt, F. E.; Dewey, M. S.; Gentile, T. R.; Nico, J. S.; Thompson, A. K.; Coakley, K. J.; Beise, E. J.; Kiriluk, K. G.; Byrne, J.
2005-01-01
Beta decay of the neutron into a proton, electron, and electron antineutrino is occasionally accompanied by the emission of a photon. Despite decades of detailed experimental studies of neutron beta-decay, this rare branch of a fundamental weak decay has never been observed. An experiment to study the radiative beta-decay of the neutron is currently being developed for the NG-6 fundamental physics endstation at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research (NCNR). The experiment will make use of the existing apparatus for the NIST proton-trap lifetime experiment, which can provide substantial background reduction by providing an electron-proton coincidence trigger. Tests and design of a detector for gamma-rays in the 10 keV to 200 keV range are under development. The need for a large solid-angle gamma-ray detector that can operate in a strong magnetic field and at low temperature has led us to consider scintillating crystals in conjunction with avalanche photodiodes. The motivation and experimental technique will be discussed. PMID:27308161
Scalar currents in 0(+) going to 0(+) beta decay and the boron-8 neutrino spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortiz, Chris Eduardo
2000-07-01
Two experiments to understand the standard electro-weak model are presented. In one experiment scalar contributions to the weak interaction were searched for by determining with accuracy the e - ν correlation coefficient in a 0+ --> 0+ decay. The correlation coefficient for the 0+ --> 0+ β-decay of 32Ar was measured to be a = 0.9989 +/- 0.0052 +/- 0.0036, for vanishing Fierz interference. This was used to put unprecedented limits on scalar contributions to the weak interaction. In the second experiment the β-delayed α spectrum from 8B was measured. The experiment was designed to overcome systematic uncertainties that plagued previous measurements. This spectrum differs significantly from previous measurements. The measured α spectrum was used to deduce the ν spectrum. This will be used as a benchmark by experiments trying to detect distortions of the solar-ν spectrum in the search for physics beyond the standard model.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Decay. 51.898 Section 51.898 Agriculture Regulations... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.898 Decay. Decay means.... Slight surface development of green mold (Cladosporium) shall not be considered decay....
Measurement of Lifetime and Decay-Width Difference in B_{s};{0}-->J/psivarphi Decays.
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Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S
2008-03-28
We measure the mean lifetime tau=2/(Gamma_{L}+Gamma_{H}) and the decay-width difference DeltaGamma=Gamma_{L}-Gamma_{H} of the light and heavy mass eigenstates of the B_{s}{0} meson, B_{sL}{0} and B_{sH}{0}, in B_{s}{0}-->J/psivarphi decays using 1.7 fb;{-1} of data collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp[over ] collider. Assuming CP conservation, a good approximation for the B_{s}{0} system in the standard model, we obtain DeltaGamma=0.076_{-0.063}{+0.059}(stat)+/-0.006(syst) ps{-1} and tau=1.52+/-0.04(stat)+/-0.02(syst) ps, the most precise measurements to date. Our constraints on the weak phase and DeltaGamma are consistent with CP conservation. PMID:18517856
Weak matrix elements for CP violation.
Lee, W.; Gupta, R.; Christ, N.; Fleming, G. T.; Kilcup, G.; Liu, G.; Mawhinney, R.; Sharpe, S.; Wu, L.; Bhattacharya, T.
2001-01-01
We present preliminary results of matrix elements of four fermion operators relevant to the determination of e and E ' / E using staggered fermions. To calculate the matrix elements relevant to CP violation in Kaon decays it is important to use a lattice formulation which preserves (some) chiral symmetry.
Nuclear beta-decay, Atomic Parity Violation, and New Physics
Michael Ramsey-Musolf
2000-08-01
Determinations of vuds with super-allowed Fermi beta-decay in nuclei and of the weak charge of the cesium in atomic parity-violation deviate from the Standard Model predictions by 2 sigma or more. In both cases, the Standard Model over-predicts the magnitudes of the relevant observables. I discuss the implications of these results for R-parity violating (RPV) extensions of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model. I also explore the possible consequences for RPV supersymmetry of prospective future low-energy electroweak measurements.
Semileptonic decays of Bs to ϕ meson in QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khosravi, R.; Falahati, F.
2013-09-01
The semileptonic Bs→ϕνν¯, and Bs→ϕl+l-, l=τ, μ, e transitions are investigated in the framework of the three-point QCD sum rules in the standard model. These rare decays take place at loop level by electroweak penguin and weak box diagrams in the standard model via the flavor-changing neutral current transition of b→s. Considering the quark condensate contributions, the relevant form factors as well as the branching fractions of these transitions are calculated. The longitudinal lepton polarization and forward-backward asymmetries are also investigated.
Elemental Abundance Variations in a Decaying EUV-Bright Region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Landi, E.; Feldman, U.; Young, P.
2010-05-01
The EIS instrument on Hinode observed an EUV-bright region at N15 as it evolved during a course of four days on December 7-11, 2009. Although containing no sunspots, this region was associated with a weak magnetic concentration and exhibited large variations in loop and footpoint brightening. It was in a decay phase with dispersing magnetic field and weakening high-temperature emission. We present the variations of elemental abundances in this region among different spatial structures and with time. Implications in factors that can be associated with the First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect will be discussed.
Weak crystallization theory of metallic alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Ivar; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Demler, Eugene A.
2016-06-01
Crystallization is one of the most familiar, but hardest to analyze, phase transitions. The principal reason is that crystallization typically occurs via a strongly first-order phase transition, and thus rigorous treatment would require comparing energies of an infinite number of possible crystalline states with the energy of liquid. A great simplification occurs when crystallization transition happens to be weakly first order. In this case, weak crystallization theory, based on unbiased Ginzburg-Landau expansion, can be applied. Even beyond its strict range of validity, it has been a useful qualitative tool for understanding crystallization. In its standard form, however, weak crystallization theory cannot explain the existence of a majority of observed crystalline and quasicrystalline states. Here we extend the weak crystallization theory to the case of metallic alloys. We identify a singular effect of itinerant electrons on the form of weak crystallization free energy. It is geometric in nature, generating strong dependence of free energy on the angles between ordering wave vectors of ionic density. That leads to stabilization of fcc, rhombohedral, and icosahedral quasicrystalline (iQC) phases, which are absent in the generic theory with only local interactions. As an application, we find the condition for stability of iQC that is consistent with the Hume-Rothery rules known empirically for the majority of stable iQC; namely, the length of the primary Bragg-peak wave vector is approximately equal to the diameter of the Fermi sphere.
Explaining numeracy development in weak performing kindergartners.
Toll, Sylke W M; Van Luit, Johannes E H
2014-08-01
Gaining better insight into precursors of early numeracy in young children is important, especially in those with inadequate numeracy skills. Therefore, in the current study, visual and verbal working memory, non-symbolic and symbolic comparison skills, and specific math-related language were used to explain early numeracy performance and development of weak performing children throughout kindergarten. The early numeracy ability of both weak performers and typical performers was measured at four time points during 2 years of kindergarten to compare growth rates. Results show a significant faster development of early numeracy in the weak performers. The development of weak performers' numeracy was influenced by verbal working memory, symbolic comparison skills, and math language, whereas only math language was positively related to the slope of typical performers' numeracy. In the weak performers, visual working memory, non-symbolic comparison skills, and math language showed an effect on the initial early numeracy level of these children. The intercept of the typical performers was predicted by five covariates, all except non-symbolic comparison. PMID:24786672
DRAM Weak Cell Characterization for Retention Time.
Kang, Jonghyuk; Lee, Sungho; Choi, Byoungdeog
2016-05-01
This work proposes a sequence of tests for detecting refresh weak cells based on data retention time distribution in the main cell array of DRAMs and verify the feasibility of the proposed method through analysis of 30 nm design-rule DRAM cells with Recess Channel Array Transistor (RCAT) and Buried Channel Array Transistor (BCAT). Basic idea of the proposed mechanism is to test with different bias conditions and break down retention failures based on their root causes such as Gate Induced Drain Leakage, sub-threshold leakage and junction leakage. This categorization helps to determine the physical locations of each failure group, enabling precise Physical Failure Analysis (PFA). The characterization of data retention weak cells for 30 nm design rule DRAMs with BCAT and RCAT has been investigated. Most weak cells were classified as GIDL leaky cells in both cases. In the case of BCAT, the distance between the word line and the storage node, caused by the process distribution, is the main origin of weak cells. In the case of RCAT, the sharp corner of the active layer in the storage node is the main cause of weak cells. PMID:27483878
Hadronic Weak Interaction Studies at the SNS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fomin, Nadia
2016-03-01
Neutrons have been a useful probe in many fields of science, as well as an important physical system for study in themselves. Modern neutron sources provide extraordinary opportunities to study a wide variety of physics topics. Among them is a detailed study of the weak interaction. An overview of studies of the hadronic weak (quark-quark) as well as semi-leptonic (quark-lepton) interactions at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is presented. These measurements, done in few-nucleon systems, are finally letting us gain knowledge of the hadronic weak interaction without the contributions from nuclear effects. Forthcoming results from the NPDGamma experiment will, due to the simplicity of the neutron, provide an unambiguous measurement of the long range pion-nucleon weak coupling (often referred to as hπ), which will finally test the theoretical predictions. Results from NPDGamma and future results from the n +3 He experiment will need to be complemented by additional measurements to completely describe the hadronic weak interaction.
Persisting weakness after withdrawal of a statin
Mygland, Åse; Ljøstad, Unn; Krossnes, Bård Kronen
2014-01-01
An 81-year-old woman treated with simvastatin for several years followed by atorvastatin for about 1 year presented with fatigue, weakness and unsteady gait. The finding of elevated creatine kinase (CK) and symmetric muscle weakness around shoulders and hips led to suspicion of a toxic statin-associated myopathy. Atorvastatin was withdrawn, but her weakness persisted. Owing to persisting weakness, an autoimmune myopathy (myositis) was suspected, but initially disregarded since a muscle biopsy showed necrotic muscle fibres without inflammatory cell infiltrates and myositis-specific autoantibodies were absent. After 18 months with slowly progressive weakness and increasing CK values, awareness of new knowledge about autoimmunity as a cause of necrotic myopathy, led to a successful treatment trial with intravenous immunoglobulines, followed by steroids and metothrexate. Antibodies to the target enzyme of statins (HMGCR (3-hydroksy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase)) were detected in her serum, and she was diagnosed with autoimmune necrotic myositis probably triggered by atorvastatin. PMID:24713712
Active and sterile neutrino mass effects on beta decay spectra
Boillos, Juan Manuel; Moya de Guerra, Elvira
2013-06-10
We study the spectra of the emitted charged leptons in charge current weak nuclear processes to analyze the effect of neutrino masses. Standard active neutrinos are studied here, with masses of the order of 1 eV or lower, as well as sterile neutrinos with masses of a few keV. The latter are warm dark matter (WDM) candidates hypothetically produced or captured as small mixtures with the active neutrinos. We compute differential decay or capture rates spectra in weak charged processes of different nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 187}Re, {sup 107}Pd, {sup 163}Ho, etc) using different masses of both active and sterile neutrinos and different values of the mixing parameter.
Disturbance in weak measurements and the difference between quantum and classical weak values
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ipsen, Asger C.
2015-06-01
The role of measurement-induced disturbance in weak measurements is of central importance for the interpretation of the weak value. Uncontrolled disturbance can interfere with the postselection process and make the weak value dependent on the details of the measurement process. Here we develop the concept of a generalized weak measurement for classical and quantum mechanics. The two cases appear remarkably similar, but we point out some important differences. A priori it is not clear what the correct notion of disturbance should be in the context of weak measurements. We consider three different notions and get three different results: (1) For a "strong" definition of disturbance, we find that weak measurements are disturbing. (2) For a weaker definition we find that a general class of weak measurements is nondisturbing, but that one gets weak values which depend on the measurement process. (3) Finally, with respect to an operational definition of the "degree of disturbance," we find that the AAV weak measurements are the least disturbing, but that the disturbance is always nonzero.
Decay curve study in a standard electron capture decay
Nishimura, D.; Fukuda, M.; Kisamori, K.; Kuwada, Y.; Makisaka, K.; Matsumiya, R.; Matsuta, K.; Mihara, M.; Takagi, A.; Yokoyama, R.; Izumikawa, T.; Ohtsubo, T.; Suzuki, T.; Yamaguchi, T.
2010-05-12
We have searched for a time-modulated decay in a standard electron capture experiment for {sup 140}Pr, in order to confirm a report from GSI, where an oscillatory decay has been observed for hydrogen-like {sup 140}Pr and {sup 142}Pm ions in the cooler storage ring. {sup 140}Pr has been produced with the {sup 140}Ce(p, n) reaction by a pulsed proton beam accelerated from the Van de Graaff accelerator at Osaka University. Resultant time dependence of the K{sub a}lpha and K{sub b}eta X-ray intensities from the daughter shows no oscillatory behavior.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nyasulu, Frazier; McMills, Lauren; Barlag, Rebecca
2013-01-01
A laboratory to determine the equilibrium constants of weak acid negative weak base reactions is described. The equilibrium constants of component reactions when multiplied together equal the numerical value of the equilibrium constant of the summative reaction. The component reactions are weak acid ionization reactions, weak base hydrolysis…
Weak localization effect in superconducting thin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Yong-Jihn; Chang, K. J.
1997-03-01
It was claimed(1. R. C. Dynes et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 57), 2195 (1986). that the Eliashberg theory breaks down for two-dimensional superconductivity in weakly disordered systems. From tunneling measurements on Pb films, both the electron-phonon interaction λ and the Coulomb pseudopotential μ^* were suggested to decrease by disordering. In this problem, it was previously noted that the Dyson expansion of Green's function in the presence of impurities is inappropriate.(2. Y.-J. Kim and A. W. Overhauser, Phys. Rev. B47), 8025 (1993). Alternatively, employing time-reversed scattered-state pairs, we note that the phonon-mediated coupling parameter λ is decreased by weak localization. With solving both the BCS and Eliashberg gap equations, we find good agreements between our calculations and existing experimental data. We also discuss the weak localization effect on superconductivity in one- and three-dimensional systems.
Weak lensing in the Dark Energy Survey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Troxel, Michael
2016-03-01
I will present the current status of weak lensing results from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES will survey 5000 square degrees in five photometric bands (grizY), and has already provided a competitive weak lensing catalog from Science Verification data covering just 3% of the final survey footprint. I will summarize the status of shear catalog production using observations from the first year of the survey and discuss recent weak lensing science results from DES. Finally, I will report on the outlook for future cosmological analyses in DES including the two-point cosmic shear correlation function and discuss challenges that DES and future surveys will face in achieving a control of systematics that allows us to take full advantage of the available statistical power of our shear catalogs.
Dispersion relations in weakly degenerate plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rocchi, F.; Molinari, V. G.; Mostacci, D.; Sumini, M.
2001-06-01
From a quantum mechanical point of view, electrons in laser produced plasmas can be regarded as weakly degenerate. For instance, for a plasma with electron density of 10 22 cm -3 and electron temperature of 1 eV, Sommerfeld's parameter is between 1 and 2. Under these conditions the usual dispersion relations for waves in plasmas need be corrected to account for degeneracy. In the present work, starting from the transport equation with a simplified version of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck collision kernel the propagation of waves impinging on a plasma with weakly degenerate electrons is investigated and dispersion relations accounting for degeneracy are derived. These dispersion relations give the classical ones in the limit for Sommerfeld's parameter approaching zero. A shift of the wavenumber value and a non-collisional damping due to degeneracy effects are predicted which render a weakly degenerate plasma more opaque to radiation than a non-degenerate one.
Composition of weakly altered Martian crust
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mustard, J. F.; Murchie, S. L.; Erard, S.
1993-01-01
The mineralogic and chemical composition of weakly altered crust remains an unresolved question for Mars. Dark regions hold clues to the composition since they are thought to comprise surface exposures of weakly altered crustal materials. Understanding the in situ composition of relatively pristine crustal rocks in greater detail is important for investigating basic volcanic processes. Also, this will provide additional constraints on the chemical pathways by which pristine rocks are altered to produce the observed ferric iron-bearing assemblages and inferred clay silicate, sulphate, and magnetic oxide phases. Reflectance spectra of dark regions obtained with the ISM instrument are being used to determine the basic mineralogy of weakly altered crust for a variety of regions on Mars.
On configurational weak phase transitions in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sfyris, Dimitris
2016-07-01
We report a study on configurational weak phase transitions for a freestanding monolayer graphene. Firstly, we characterize weak transformation neighborhoods by suitably bounding the metric components. Then, we distinguish between structural and configurational phase changes and elaborate on the second class of them. We evaluate the irreducible invariant subspaces corresponding to these phase changes and lay down symmetry-breaking as well as symmetry-preserving stretches. In the reduced bifurcation diagram, symmetry-preserving stretches are related to a turning point with a change of stability but not of symmetry. Symmetry-breaking stretches are related to a first-order weak phase transition. We evaluate symmetry-breaking stretches as well as their generating cosets. The reduced bifurcation diagram consists of three transcritical bifurcating curves which are all unstable but can be stabilized producing a subcritical bifurcation. We, also, shortly comment on the hysteretical behavior that might appear in this case.
Extrapolating Weak Selection in Evolutionary Games
Wu, Bin; García, Julián; Hauert, Christoph; Traulsen, Arne
2013-01-01
In evolutionary games, reproductive success is determined by payoffs. Weak selection means that even large differences in game outcomes translate into small fitness differences. Many results have been derived using weak selection approximations, in which perturbation analysis facilitates the derivation of analytical results. Here, we ask whether results derived under weak selection are also qualitatively valid for intermediate and strong selection. By “qualitatively valid” we mean that the ranking of strategies induced by an evolutionary process does not change when the intensity of selection increases. For two-strategy games, we show that the ranking obtained under weak selection cannot be carried over to higher selection intensity if the number of players exceeds two. For games with three (or more) strategies, previous examples for multiplayer games have shown that the ranking of strategies can change with the intensity of selection. In particular, rank changes imply that the most abundant strategy at one intensity of selection can become the least abundant for another. We show that this applies already to pairwise interactions for a broad class of evolutionary processes. Even when both weak and strong selection limits lead to consistent predictions, rank changes can occur for intermediate intensities of selection. To analyze how common such games are, we show numerically that for randomly drawn two-player games with three or more strategies, rank changes frequently occur and their likelihood increases rapidly with the number of strategies . In particular, rank changes are almost certain for , which jeopardizes the predictive power of results derived for weak selection. PMID:24339769
Jet Definitions in Effective Field Theory and Decaying Dark Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheung, William Man Yin
2012-06-01
In this thesis jet production and cosmological constraints on decaying dark matter are studied. The powerful framework of effective field theory is applied in both cases to further our knowledge of particle physics. We first discuss how to apply the Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) for calculating hadronic jet production rate. By applying SCET power counting, we develop a consistent approach to perform phase space integrations. This approach is then successfully applied to one-loop calculations with regard to a variety of jet algorithms. This allows us to study if the soft contribution can be factorized from the collinear ones. In particular we point out the connection between such factorization and the choice of ultraviolet regulator. We then further our study of the (exclusive) kT and C/A jet algorithms in SCET with the introduction of an additional regulator. Regularizing the virtualities and rapidities of graphs in SCET, we are able to write the next-to-leading-order dijet cross section as the product of separate hard, jet, and soft contributions. We show how to reproduce the Sudakov form factor to next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy previously calculated by the coherent branching formalism. Our resummed expression only depends on the renormalization group evolution of the hard function, rather than on that of the hard and jet functions as is usual in SCET. Finally we present a complete analysis of the cosmological constraints on decaying dark matter. For this, we have updated and extended previous analyses to include Lyman-alpha forest, large scale structure, and weak lensing observations. Astrophysical constraints are not considered in this thesis. The bounds on the lifetime of decaying dark matter are dominated by either the late-time integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect for the scenario with weak reionization, or CMB polarisation observations when there is significant reionization. For the respective scenarios, the lifetimes for decaying dark matter are
Extraction of {gamma} from charmless hadronic B {yields} PP decays using SU(3) flavor symmetry
Suprun, Denis A.
2006-07-11
The decays of B mesons to a pair of charmless pseudoscalar mesons (PP decays) have been analyzed within the framework of flavor SU(3) symmetry and quark-diagrammatic topological approach. Flavor symmetry breaking is taken into account in tree (T) amplitudes through ratios of decay constants fK and f{pi}; exact SU(3) is assumed elsewhere. Acceptable fits to B {yields} PP branching ratios and CP asymmetries are obtained with tree, color-suppressed and QCD penguin amplitudes. Singlet penguin amplitude was introduced to describe decay amplitudes of the modes with {eta} and {eta}' mesons in the final state. Electroweak penguin amplitudes were expressed in terms of the corresponding tree-level diagrams. Values of the weak phase {gamma} were found to be consistent with the current indirect bounds from other analyses of CKM parameters.
Effect of resonance decay on conserved number fluctuations in a hadron resonance gas model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, D. K.; Garg, P.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Mohanty, A. K.
2016-07-01
We study the effect of charged secondaries coming from resonance decay on the net-baryon, net-charge, and net-strangeness fluctuations in high-energy heavy-ion collisions within the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model. We emphasize the importance of including weak decays along with other resonance decays in the HRG, while comparing with the experimental observables. The effect of kinematic cuts on resonances and primordial particles on the conserved number fluctuations are also studied. The HRG model calculations with the inclusion of resonance decays and kinematical cuts are compared with the recent experimental data from STAR and PHENIX experiments. We find good agreement between our model calculations and the experimental measurements for both net-proton and net-charge distributions.
First measurement of the CP-violating phase in Bs(0) → ϕϕ decays.
Aaij, R; Abellan Beteta, C; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNulty, R; Mcnab, A; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; 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Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A
2013-06-14
A first flavor-tagged measurement of the time-dependent CP-violating asymmetry in B(s)(0) → ϕϕ decays is presented. In this decay channel, the CP-violating weak phase arises due to CP violation in the interference between B(s)(0)-B(s)(0) mixing and the b → sss gluonic penguin decay amplitude. Using a sample of pp collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb(-1) and collected at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the LHCb detector, 880 B(s)(0) → ϕϕ signal decays are obtained. The CP-violating phase is measured to be in the interval [-2.46,-0.76] rad at a 68% confidence level. The p value of the standard model prediction is 16%. PMID:25165914
Simple understanding of quantum weak values
Qin, Lupei; Feng, Wei; Li, Xin-Qi
2016-01-01
In this work we revisit the important and controversial concept of quantum weak values, aiming to provide a simplified understanding to its associated physics and the origin of anomaly. Taking the Stern-Gerlach setup as a working system, we base our analysis on an exact treatment in terms of quantum Bayesian approach. We also make particular connection with a very recent work, where the anomaly of the weak values was claimed from the pure statistics in association with “disturbance” and “post-selection”, rather than the unique quantum nature. Our analysis resolves the related controversies through a clear and quantitative way. PMID:26838670
Weak Lie symmetry and extended Lie algebra
Goenner, Hubert
2013-04-15
The concept of weak Lie motion (weak Lie symmetry) is introduced. Applications given exhibit a reduction of the usual symmetry, e.g., in the case of the rotation group. In this context, a particular generalization of Lie algebras is found ('extended Lie algebras') which turns out to be an involutive distribution or a simple example for a tangent Lie algebroid. Riemannian and Lorentz metrics can be introduced on such an algebroid through an extended Cartan-Killing form. Transformation groups from non-relativistic mechanics and quantum mechanics lead to such tangent Lie algebroids and to Lorentz geometries constructed on them (1-dimensional gravitational fields).
Weak values and the quantum phase space
Lobo, A. C.; Ribeiro, C. A.
2009-07-15
We address the issue of how to properly treat, and in a more general setting, the concept of a weak value of a weak measurement in quantum mechanics. We show that for this purpose, one must take in account the effects of the measuring process on the entire phase space of the measuring system. By using coherent states, we go a step further than Jozsa in a recent paper and we present an example where the result of the measurement is symmetrical in the position and momentum observables and seems to be much better suited for quantum optical implementation.
Spectroscopy of a weakly isolated horizon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ge-Rui; Huang, Yong-Chang
2016-06-01
The spectroscopy of a weakly isolated horizon has been investigated. We obtain an equally spaced entropy spectrum with its quantum equal to the one given by Bekenstein (Phys Rev D 7:2333, 1973). We demonstrate that the quantization of entropy and area is a generic property of horizons which exists in a wide class of spacetimes admitting weakly isolated horizons. Our method based on the tunneling method also indicates that the entropy quantum of black hole horizons is closely related to Hawking temperature.
Haines, T.; Kaneyuki, K.; McGrew, C.; Mohapatra, R.; Peterson, E.; Cline, D.B.
1994-12-31
The conservation of the quantum number called baryon number, like lepton (or family) number, is an empirical fact even though there are very good reasons to expect otherwise. Experimentalists have been searching for baryon number violating decays of the proton and neutron for decades now without success. Theorists have evolved deep understanding of the relationship between the natural forces in the development of various Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) that nearly universally predict baryon number violating proton decay, or related phenomena like n-{bar n} oscillations. With this in mind, the Proton Decay Working Group reviewed the current experimental and theoretical status of the search for baryon number violation with an eye to the advancement in the next decade.
Tunneling decay of false kinks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dupuis, Éric; Gobeil, Yan; MacKenzie, Richard; Marleau, Luc; Paranjape, M. B.; Ung, Yvan
2015-07-01
We consider the decay of "false kinks," that is, kinks formed in a scalar field theory with a pair of degenerate symmetry-breaking false vacua in 1 +1 dimensions. The true vacuum is symmetric. A second scalar field and a peculiar potential are added in order for the kink to be classically stable. We find an expression for the decay rate of a false kink. As with any tunneling event, the rate is proportional to exp (-SE) where SE is the Euclidean action of the bounce describing the tunneling event. This factor varies wildly depending on the parameters of the model. Of interest is the fact that for certain parameters SE can get arbitrarily small, implying that the kink is only barely stable. Thus, while the false vacuum itself may be very long-lived, the presence of kinks can give rise to rapid vacuum decay.
Observable signatures of inflaton decays
Battefeld, Diana; Battefeld, Thorsten; Giblin, John T. Jr.; Pease, Evan K. E-mail: tbattefe@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de E-mail: peasee@kenyon.edu
2011-02-01
We numerically compute features in the power-spectrum that originate from the decay of fields during inflation. Using a simple, phenomenological, multi-field setup, we increase the number of fields from a few to thousands. Whenever a field decays, its associated potential energy is transferred into radiation, causing a jump in the equation of state parameter and mode mixing at the perturbed level. We observe discrete steps in the power-spectrum if the number of fields is low, in agreement with analytic arguments in the literature. These features become increasingly smeared out once many fields decay within a given Hubble time. In this regime we confirm the validity of the analytic approach to staggered inflation, which is based on a coarse-graining procedure. Our numerical approach bridges the aforementioned analytic treatments, and can be used in more complicated scenarios.
Free radical decay in adamantane
Tegowski, A.T.; Pratt, D.W.
1984-01-11
Kinetic electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques have been used to characterize the decay behavior of the ''stable'' free radical 2-cyclohexanonyl in the plastic crystal phase f an adamantane matrix over the temperature range 257-313 K. Typical plots of the EPR signal intensity as a function of time are biexponential in nature, suggesting the existence of at least two channels for free radical decay. The activation parameters for both processes have been measured in both protonated and deuterated samples. A comparison of these results with those in other systems suggests that the host does, as expected, considerably reduce the pre-exponential factors for decay of the radical by bimolecular processes but has relatively little influence on the corresponding activation energies. 3 figures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sodaye, Suparna; Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Sharma, S. K.; Pujari, P. K.; Palit, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.
2014-12-01
Berkelium isotopes have been produced in 11B-induced reaction on 238U. The EC decay of 244Bk → 244Cm has been studied by carrying out the single and coincidence measurements of the γ-rays emitted during the de-excitation of the 244Cm levels. Radiochemical separations have been carried out to minimize the contribution from the fission products and target. The new half-life of 244Bk is obtained as 5.02 ± 0.03 h, which is close to the theoretically calculated value. The relative intensities of the decay γ-rays have been re-evaluated. Based on the coincidence measurements, a tentative partial level scheme for 244Bk → 244Cm decay has been proposed.
Heavy quark spectroscopy and decay
Schindler, R.H.
1987-01-01
The understanding of q anti q systems containing heavy, charmed, and bottom quarks has progressed rapidly in recent years, through steady improvements in experimental techniques for production and detection of their decays. These lectures are meant to be an experimentalist's review of the subject. In the first of two lectures, the existing data on the spectroscopy of the bound c anti c and b anti b systems will be discussed. Emphasis is placed on comparisons with the theoretical models. The second lecture covers the rapidly changing subject of the decays of heavy mesons (c anti q and b anti q), and their excited states. In combination, the spectroscopy and decays of heavy quarks are shown to provide interesting insights into both the strong and electroweak interactions of the heavy quarks. 103 refs., 39 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuijlaars, A. B. J.
2001-08-01
The asymptotic behavior of polynomials that are orthogonal with respect to a slowly decaying weight is very different from the asymptotic behavior of polynomials that are orthogonal with respect to a Freud-type weight. While the latter has been extensively studied, much less is known about the former. Following an earlier investigation into the zero behavior, we study here the asymptotics of the density of states in a unitary ensemble of random matrices with a slowly decaying weight. This measure is also naturally connected with the orthogonal polynomials. It is shown that, after suitable rescaling, the weak limit is the same as the weak limit of the rescaled zeros.
Choi, Ho-Meoyng; Ji, Chueng-Ryong
2009-12-01
We study exclusive nonleptonic two-body B{sub c}{yields}(D{sub (s)},{eta}{sub c},B{sub (s)})+F decays with F (pseudoscalar or vector mesons) factored out in the QCD factorization approach. The nonleptonic decay amplitudes are related to the product of meson decay constants and the form factors for semileptonic B{sub c} decays. As inputs in obtaining the branching ratios for a large set of nonleptonic B{sub c} decays, we use the weak form factors for the semileptonic B{sub c}{yields}(D{sub (s)},{eta}{sub c},B{sub (s)}) decays in the whole kinematical region and the unmeasured meson decay constants obtained from our previous light-front quark model. We compare our results for the branching ratios with those of other theoretical studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ju, Wan-Li; Wang, Guo-Li; Fu, Hui-Feng; Wang, Tian-Hong; Jiang, Yue
2014-04-01
In this paper, we study rare decays within the Standard Model. The penguin, box, annihilation, color-favored cascade and color-suppressed cascade contributions are included. Based on our calculation, the annihilation and color-favored cascade diagrams play important roles in the differential branching fractions, forward-backward asymmetries, longitudinal polarizations of the final vector mesons and leptonic longitudinal polarization asymmetries. More importantly, color-favored cascade decays largely enhance the resonance cascade contributions. To avoid the resonance cascade contribution pollution, new cutting regions are put forward.
Liu Aihua; Li Shumin; Berakdar, Jamal
2007-06-22
We show theoretically that the muon lifetime can be changed dramatically by embedding the decaying muon in a strong linearly polarized laser field. Evaluating the S-matrix elements taking all electronic multiphoton processes into account we find that a CO{sub 2} laser with an electric field amplitude of 10{sup 6} V cm{sup -1} results in an order of magnitude shorter lifetime of the muon. We also analyze the dependencies of the decay rate on the laser frequency and intensity.
Distance decay among coral assemblages during a cycle of disturbance and recovery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Done, Terence; Gilmour, James; Fisher, Rebecca
2015-09-01
The characterization of distance decay in similarity among plant or animal communities both extends ecosystem description and provides insights into formative ecological events and processes. Here, we examine distance decay among coral communities in a common habitat on northwestern Australian reefs, seeking to better understand the roles of disturbance and coral life history strategies in the changing reefscape. In established communities in 1997, when coral cover and generic richness were uniformly high, there was high similarity (~81 %) and negligible distance decay, both within sets of 15 contiguous 50-m transects and among 250-m sites separated by <25 to >500 km. Following a 75 % reduction in coral cover and a comparable loss of generic richness to mass bleaching in 1998, similarity declined to ~67 % and there was strong distance decay at <25 km. By 2010, pre-disturbance coral cover and generic richness had been restored and similarity had returned to ~80 %, but weak distance decay had persisted in the community. Among assemblages with contrasting life histories, the disturbance increased distance decay most in the brooding corals, and it remained strong until 2010. In contrast, broadcast spawning corals and the more resistant regenerating corals had largely reverted to their pre-disturbance state of high mean similarity and weak distance decay by 2010. These differences among life history groups reflect the greater vagility of the broadcast spawning corals, the resistance of the regenerator assemblages to the disturbance and their recovery from uniformly distributed remnants, and the susceptibility of the brooding species combined with their limited capacity to disperse beyond the local site. Beyond a spatial extent of 25 km, distance decay was absent in all years and for all coral groups, indicating the qualitatively different source-sink dynamics when reefs are separated by 10s of km of open ocean.
Reaction zone structure for strong, weak overdriven, and weak underdriven oblique detonations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Powers, Joseph M.; Gonthier, Keith A.
1992-01-01
A simple dynamic systems analysis is used to give examples of strong, weak overdriven, and weak underdriven oblique detonations. Steady oblique detonations consisting of a straight lead shock attached to a solid wedge followed by a resolved reaction zone structure are admitted as solutions to the reactive Euler equations. This is demonstrated for a fluid that is taken to be an inviscid, calorically perfect ideal gas that undergoes a two-step irreversible reaction with the first step exothermic and the second step endothermic. This model admits solutions for a continuum of shock wave angles for two classes of solutions identified by a Rankine-Hugoniot analysis: strong and weak overdriven waves. The other class, weak underdriven, is admitted for eigenvalue shock-wave angles. Chapman-Jouguet waves, however, are not admitted. These results contrast those for a corresponding onestep model that, for detonations with a straight lead shock, only admits strong, weak overdriven, and Chapman-Jouguet solutions.
Decay Data Evaluation Project (DDEP): evaluation of the main 233Pa decay characteristics.
Chechev, Valery P; Kuzmenko, Nikolay K
2006-01-01
The results of a decay data evaluation are presented for 233Pa (beta-) decay to nuclear levels in 233U. These evaluated data have been obtained within the Decay Data Evaluation Project using information published up to 2005. PMID:16574422
Structure Process, Weak Values and Local Momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiley, B. J.
2016-03-01
We explain how weak values and the local momentum can be better understood in terms of Bohm's notion of structure process. The basic ideas of this approach can be expressed in a fully algebraic way, generalising Heisenberg's original matrix mechanics. This approach leads to questions that are now being experimentally investigated by our group at University College London.
Molecular Handshake: Recognition through Weak Noncovalent Interactions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murthy, Parvathi S.
2006-01-01
The weak noncovalent interactions between substances, the handshake in the form of electrostatic interactions, van der Waals' interactions or hydrogen bonding is universal to all living and nonliving matter. They significantly influence the molecular and bulk properties and behavior of matter. Their transient nature affects chemical reactions and…
[A strong man with a weak shoulder].
Henket, Marjolijn; Lycklama á Nijeholt, Geert J; van der Zwaal, Peer
2013-01-01
A 47-year-old former olympic athlete had pain and weakness of his left shoulder. There was no prior trauma. He had full range-of-motion and a scapular dyskinesia. There was atrophy of the trapezius and sternocleidomastoideus muscles. He was diagnosed with 'idiopathic neuritis of the accessorius nerve'. PMID:24326139
Modeling, Measuring, and Compensating Color Weak Vision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oshima, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui
2016-06-01
We use methods from Riemann geometry to investigate transformations between the color spaces of color-normal and color weak observers. The two main applications are the simulation of the perception of a color weak observer for a color normal observer and the compensation of color images in a way that a color weak observer has approximately the same perception as a color normal observer. The metrics in the color spaces of interest are characterized with the help of ellipsoids defined by the just-noticable-differences between color which are measured with the help of color-matching experiments. The constructed mappings are isometries of Riemann spaces that preserve the perceived color-differences for both observers. Among the two approaches to build such an isometry, we introduce normal coordinates in Riemann spaces as a tool to construct a global color-weak compensation map. Compared to previously used methods this method is free from approximation errors due to local linearizations and it avoids the problem of shifting locations of the origin of the local coordinate system. We analyse the variations of the Riemann metrics for different observers obtained from new color matching experiments and describe three variations of the basic method. The performance of the methods is evaluated with the help of semantic differential (SD) tests.
Transitivity, weakly mixing property and chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lidong; Liang, Jianhua; Wang, Yiyi; Sun, Xuelian
2016-01-01
Let X be a compact metric space without isolated points and let f : X → X be a continuous map. In this paper, if (X,f) is a transitive dynamical system with a repelling periodic point, then f is chaotic in the sense of Kato. In addition, if f is weakly topologically mixing, then f is chaotic in the strong sense of Kato.
Axion monodromy and the weak gravity conjecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hebecker, Arthur; Rompineve, Fabrizio; Westphal, Alexander
2016-04-01
Axions with broken discrete shift symmetry (axion monodromy) have recently played a central role both in the discussion of inflation and the `relaxion' approach to the hierarchy problem. We suggest a very minimalist way to constrain such models by the weak gravity conjecture for domain walls: while the electric side of the conjecture is always satisfied if the cosine-oscillations of the axion potential are sufficiently small, the magnetic side imposes a cutoff, Λ3 ˜ mf M pl, independent of the height of these `wiggles'. We compare our approach with the recent related proposal by Ibanez, Montero, Uranga and Valenzuela. We also discuss the non-trivial question which version, if any, of the weak gravity conjecture for domain walls should hold. In particular, we show that string compactifications with branes of different dimensions wrapped on different cycles lead to a `geometric weak gravity conjecture' relating volumes of cycles, norms of corresponding forms and the volume of the compact space. Imposing this `geometric conjecture', e.g. on the basis of the more widely accepted weak gravity conjecture for particles, provides at least some support for the (electric and magnetic) conjecture for domain walls.
Cultural Capital: Strengths, Weaknesses and Two Advancements
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van de Werfhorst, Herman G.
2010-01-01
In this paper I discuss two weaknesses in Bourdieu's work on cultural capital, both of which are related to his integration of the multidimensional nature of social space in different domains of life: social mobility, lifestyle differentiation, and political orientation. First, there is an anomaly between the work on social mobility and on…
Quantum Signature Scheme with Weak Arbitrator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Ming-Xing; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Yun, Deng; Yang, Yi-Xian
2012-07-01
In this paper, we propose one quantum signature scheme with a weak arbitrator to sign classical messages. This scheme can preserve the merits in the original arbitrated scheme with some entanglement resources, and provide a higher efficiency in transmission and reduction the complexity of implementation. The arbitrator is costless and only involved in the disagreement case.
Photoexcited energy transfer in a weakly coupled dimer
Hernandez, Laura Alfonso; Nelson, Tammie; Tretiak, Sergei; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian
2015-01-08
Nonadiabatic excited-state molecular dynamics (NA-ESMD) simulations have been performed in order to study the time-dependent exciton localization during energy transfer between two chromophore units of the weakly coupled anthracene dimer dithia-anthracenophane (DTA). Simulations are done at both low temperature (10 K) and room temperature (300 K). The initial photoexcitation creates an exciton which is primarily localized on a single monomer unit. Subsequently, the exciton experiences an ultrafast energy transfer becoming localized on either one monomer unit or the other, whereas delocalization between both monomers never occurs. In half of the trajectories, the electronic transition density becomes completely localized on themore » same monomer as the initial excitation, while in the other half, it becomes completely localized on the opposite monomer. In this article, we present an analysis of the energy transfer dynamics and the effect of thermally induced geometry distortions on the exciton localization. Finally, simulated fluorescence anisotropy decay curves for both DTA and the monomer unit dimethyl anthracene (DMA) are compared. As a result, our analysis reveals that changes in the transition density localization caused by energy transfer between two monomers in DTA is not the only source of depolarization and exciton relaxation within a single DTA monomer unit can also cause reorientation of the transition dipole.« less
Photoexcited energy transfer in a weakly coupled dimer
Hernandez, Laura Alfonso; Nelson, Tammie; Tretiak, Sergei; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian
2015-01-08
Nonadiabatic excited-state molecular dynamics (NA-ESMD) simulations have been performed in order to study the time-dependent exciton localization during energy transfer between two chromophore units of the weakly coupled anthracene dimer dithia-anthracenophane (DTA). Simulations are done at both low temperature (10 K) and room temperature (300 K). The initial photoexcitation creates an exciton which is primarily localized on a single monomer unit. Subsequently, the exciton experiences an ultrafast energy transfer becoming localized on either one monomer unit or the other, whereas delocalization between both monomers never occurs. In half of the trajectories, the electronic transition density becomes completely localized on the same monomer as the initial excitation, while in the other half, it becomes completely localized on the opposite monomer. In this article, we present an analysis of the energy transfer dynamics and the effect of thermally induced geometry distortions on the exciton localization. Finally, simulated fluorescence anisotropy decay curves for both DTA and the monomer unit dimethyl anthracene (DMA) are compared. As a result, our analysis reveals that changes in the transition density localization caused by energy transfer between two monomers in DTA is not the only source of depolarization and exciton relaxation within a single DTA monomer unit can also cause reorientation of the transition dipole.
Weak Interactions of Hot Nuclei in Stellar Collapse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misch, Gordon Wendell
The physics of the atomic nucleus and supernovas are fundamental to our very being. Indeed, supernovas provide the wind that disperses the nuclei of which we are composed, and the physics of nuclei is pivotal in supernova dynamics. During supernova core collapse, the extremely high temperatures and densities and low entropy favor large, neutron-rich nuclei at high excitation energy. My collaborators and I examine two weak interactions that occur in nuclei under these conditions. First, we study the production of neutrino pairs via de-excitation of hot nuclei. In de-exciting, the nucleus can emit a virtual Z0 boson that decays into a neutrino-antineutrino pair. We find this to be the dominant source of neutrino pairs of all flavors during collapse. Second, we use modern shell model computation techniques to revise the Brink-Axel hypothesis method of computing electron capture rates that was pioneered by Fuller, Fowler, and Newman. Our results show that the Brink-Axel hypothesis (which posits that the bulk of nuclear transition strength is distributed among transition energies independently of initial excitation energy) fails at low and moderate excitation, but that at high initial energies, the strength is largely independent of excitation. The failure of the Brink-Axel hypothesis manifests as the redistribution of strength to low and negative transition energies, which can have the effect of increasing the overall electron capture rate in the core.
Photoinduced strong acid–weak base reactions in a polar aprotic solvent
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Young Min; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Heesu; Gyum Kim, Taeg; Kwon, Oh-Hoon
2016-06-01
The excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) of the strong photoacid, N-methyl-7-hydroxyquinolinium, was studied in the presence of different weak bases such as methanol, ethanol, and dimethyl sulfoxide in an aprotic solvent of acetonitrile. Here, we present chemical kinetics analysis of the ESPT mechanism to explain biphasic fluorescence decay of the parent photoacid and the sign reversal of the rise and decay of the resulting conjugate-base fluorescence. The ESPT of the free photoacid showed a molecularity of 2 with reacting alcohol molecules. In the ground state, it was found that a fraction of the photoacid formed 1 : 2 hydrogen-bonded complexes with the residual water present in the aprotic solvent or 1 : 1 complexes with the additive alcohols. In the excited state, these adducts underwent proton transfer when complexed further with diffusing alcohol molecules.
TURBULENCE IN WEAKLY IONIZED PROTOPLANETARY DISKS
Flock, M.; Henning, Th.; Klahr, H.
2012-12-20
We investigate the characteristic properties of self-sustained magneto-rotational instability (MRI) turbulence in low-ionized protoplanetary disks. We study the transition regime between active and dead zones, performing three-dimensional global non-ideal MHD simulations of stratified disks covering a range of magnetic Reynolds numbers between 2700 {approx}< R{sub m} {approx}< 6600. We found converged and saturated MRI turbulence for R{sub m} {approx}>5000 with a strength of {alpha}{sub SS} {approx} 0.01. Below R{sub m} {approx}< 5000, the MRI starts to decay at the midplane at first because the Elsasser number drops below 1. We find a transition regime between 3300{approx}
A general framework for the distance–decay of similarity in ecological communities
Morlon, Hélène; Chuyong, George; Condit, Richard; Hubbell, Stephen; Kenfack, David; Thomas, Duncan; Valencia, Renato; Green, Jessica L
2008-01-01
Species spatial turnover, or β-diversity, induces a decay of community similarity with geographic distance known as the distance–decay relationship. Although this relationship is central to biodiversity and biogeography, its theoretical underpinnings remain poorly understood. Here, we develop a general framework to describe how the distance–decay relationship is influenced by population aggregation and the landscape-scale species-abundance distribution. We utilize this general framework and data from three tropical forests to show that rare species have a weak influence on distance–decay curves, and that overall similarity and rates of decay are primarily influenced by species abundances and population aggregation respectively. We illustrate the utility of the framework by deriving an exact analytical expression of the distance–decay relationship when population aggregation is characterized by the Poisson Cluster Process. Our study provides a foundation for understanding the distance–decay relationship, and for predicting and testing patterns of beta-diversity under competing theories in ecology. Ecology Letters (2008) 11: 904–917 PMID:18494792
Composite Stress Rupture: A New Reliability Model Based on Strength Decay
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reeder, James R.
2012-01-01
A model is proposed to estimate reliability for stress rupture of composite overwrap pressure vessels (COPVs) and similar composite structures. This new reliability model is generated by assuming a strength degradation (or decay) over time. The model suggests that most of the strength decay occurs late in life. The strength decay model will be shown to predict a response similar to that predicted by a traditional reliability model for stress rupture based on tests at a single stress level. In addition, the model predicts that even though there is strength decay due to proof loading, a significant overall increase in reliability is gained by eliminating any weak vessels, which would fail early. The model predicts that there should be significant periods of safe life following proof loading, because time is required for the strength to decay from the proof stress level to the subsequent loading level. Suggestions for testing the strength decay reliability model have been made. If the strength decay reliability model predictions are shown through testing to be accurate, COPVs may be designed to carry a higher level of stress than is currently allowed, which will enable the production of lighter structures
Multiple photon emission in heavy particle decays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Asakimori, K.; Burnett, T. H.; Cherry, M. L.; Christl, M. J.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.
1994-01-01
Cosmic ray interactions, at energies above 1 TeV/nucleon, in emulsion chambers flown on high altitude balloons have yielded two events showing apparent decays of a heavy particle into one charged particle and four photons. The photons converted into electron pairs very close to the decay vertex. Attempts to explain this decay topology with known particle decays are presented. Unless both events represent a b yields u transition, which is statistically unlikely, then other known decay modes for charmed or bottom particles do not account satisfactorily for these observations. This could indicate, possibly, a new decay channel.
Farrington, Sinead M.; /Liverpool U.
2006-10-01
The confidence level limits of the CDF search for the B{sub s}{sup 0} and B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} rare decays and the branching ratio measurement of B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +} D{sub s}{sup -} are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Chen Ning
2013-05-01
Throughout his lifetime Enrico Fermi (1901-1954) had considered his 1934 β-decay theory as his most important contribution to theoretical physics. E. Segrè (1905-1989) had vividly written about an episode at the inception of that paper:1...
Stoker, D.P.
1991-07-01
Measurements of the {tau} decay modes are reviewed and compared with the predictions of the Standard Model. While the agreement is generally good, the status of the 1-prong puzzle'' remains controversial and a discrepancy between the measured leptonic branching fractions and the {tau} lifetime persists. Prospects for precision measurements at a Tau-Charm Factory are also reviewed. 20 refs., 2 tabs.
Nuclear structure from radioactive decay
Wood, J.L.
1990-09-30
This report discusses the nuclear structure of the following isotopes as a result of radioactive decays: neutron-deficient iridium isotopes; neutron-deficient platinum isotopes; neutron-deficient gold isotopes; neutron-deficient mercury isotopes; neutron-deficient thallium isotopes; neutron-deficient lead isotopes; neutron-deficient promethium isotopes; and neutron-deficient samarium isotopes.
Entanglement entropy in particle decay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lello, Louis; Boyanovsky, Daniel; Holman, Richard
2013-11-01
The decay of a parent particle into two or more daughter particles results in an entangled quantum state as a consequence of conservation laws in the decay process. Recent experiments at Belle and BaBar take advantage of quantum entanglement and the correlations in the time evolution of the product particles to study CP and T violations. If one (or more) of the product particles are not observed, their degrees of freedom are traced out of the pure state density matrix resulting from the decay, leading to a mixed state density matrix and an entanglement entropy. This entropy is a measure of the loss of information present in the original quantum correlations of the entangled state. We use the Wigner-Weisskopf method to construct an approximation to this state that evolves in time in a manifestly unitary way. We then obtain the entanglement entropy from the reduced density matrix of one of the daughter particles obtained by tracing out the unobserved states, and follow its time evolution. We find that it grows over a time scale determined by the lifetime of the parent particle to a maximum, which when the width of the parent particle is narrow, describes the phase space distribution of maximally entangled Bell-like states. The method is generalized to the case in which the parent particle is described by a wave packet localized in space. Possible experimental avenues to measure the entanglement entropy in the decay of mesons at rest are discussed.
Charmless Hadronic B Decays at Belle and BaBar
Wilson, F.F.; /Rutherford
2011-11-30
I report on recent measurements from the Belle and BABAR collaborations on the decay of the B meson to hadronic final states without a charm quark. The study of the branching fractions and angular distributions of B meson decays to hadronic final states without a charm quark probes the dynamics of both the weak and strong interactions, and plays an important role in understanding CP Violation (CPV) in the quark sector. CP Violation at the B factories is described graphically by a triangle with sides formed from the CKM matrix elements V{sub qd}V*{sub qb} (q = u, c, t) and internal angles {alpha}, {beta} {gamma} (or {phi}{sub 2}, {phi}{sub 1}, {phi}{sub 3}). Discrepancies in the measured values of the sides and angles could be an indication of New Physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) due to enhanced branching fractions or modified CP asymmetries. The experimental measurements of branching fractions, CP asymmetries, polarization and phases (both weak and strong) can be compared to theoretical models based on, for example, QCD factorization, SU(3) symmetry and Lattice QCD.
The weak measurement process and the weak value of spin for metastable helium 23S1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monachello, Vincenzo; Barker, Peter; Flack, Robert; Hiley, Basil
2016-05-01
An experiment is being designed and constructed in order to measure the weak value of spin for an atomic system. The principle of the ``weak measurement'' process was first proposed by Aharonov, Albert and Vaidman, and describes a scenario in which a system is weakly coupled to a pointer between well-defined pre- and post-selected states. This experiment will utilise a pulsed supersonic beam of spin-1 metastable Helium (He*) atoms in the 23S1 state. The spin of the pre-selected He* atoms will be weakly coupled to its centre-of-mass. During its flight, the atomic beam will be prepared in a desired quantum state and travel through two inhomogeneous magnets (weak and strong) which both comprise the ``weak measurement'' process. The deviation of the post-selected ms = + 1 state as measured using a micro-channel plate, phosphor screen and CCD camera setup will allow for the determination of the weak value of spin. This poster will report on the methods used and the experimental realisation.
Determination of the axial-vector weak coupling constant with ultracold neutrons.
Liu, J; Mendenhall, M P; Holley, A T; Back, H O; Bowles, T J; Broussard, L J; Carr, R; Clayton, S; Currie, S; Filippone, B W; García, A; Geltenbort, P; Hickerson, K P; Hoagland, J; Hogan, G E; Hona, B; Ito, T M; Liu, C-Y; Makela, M; Mammei, R R; Martin, J W; Melconian, D; Morris, C L; Pattie, R W; Pérez Galván, A; Pitt, M L; Plaster, B; Ramsey, J C; Rios, R; Russell, R; Saunders, A; Seestrom, S J; Sondheim, W E; Tatar, E; Vogelaar, R B; VornDick, B; Wrede, C; Yan, H; Young, A R
2010-10-29
A precise measurement of the neutron decay β asymmetry A₀ has been carried out using polarized ultracold neutrons from the pulsed spallation ultracold neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. Combining data obtained in 2008 and 2009, we report A₀ = -0.119 66±0.000 89{-0.001 40}{+0.001 23}, from which we determine the ratio of the axial-vector to vector weak coupling of the nucleon g{A}/g{V}=-1.275 90{-0.004 45}{+0.004 09}. PMID:21231098
Nonlinear Stability Analysis with Decay Rates of Two Classes of Waves for Conservation Laws.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zingano, Paulo Ricardo
1990-08-01
We study in this work the decay rate of disturbances to certain elementary waves for conservation laws when their initial profile is perturbed. In the first problem, rarefaction waves for the scalar equation u_ {t}+f(u)_{x}=u_{xx }, f convex, are considered, and we show that disturbances decay in the L^2 -norm as O(t^{-1/4+mu }), for mu > 0 arbitrarily small, provided they belong to the space L^1cap H^1 initially. The second problem concerns the stability of weak shock waves of a certain class of hyperbolic systems with relaxation, disturbances in this case are shown to decay in L ^2 at certain algebraic rates which depend on how fast they die off as x to +/- infty at initial time, provided they are sufficiently weak. This behavior is due to the compressibility of such waves with respect to the dynamic characteristics governing the propagation of disturbances, a basic feature of shock waves. This result is in vivid contrast to the corresponding one for rarefaction waves, where the decay is ultimately governed by diffusion processes which impose a limit on the overall rate. In both problems treated here, the analysis is based on the derivation of suitable energy inequalities with appropriate decay rates.
New weak keys in simplified IDEA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hafman, Sari Agustini; Muhafidzah, Arini
2016-02-01
Simplified IDEA (S-IDEA) is simplified version of International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) and useful teaching tool to help students to understand IDEA. In 2012, Muryanto and Hafman have found a weak key class in the S-IDEA by used differential characteristics in one-round (0, ν, 0, ν) → (0,0, ν, ν) on the first round to produce input difference (0,0, ν, ν) on the fifth round. Because Muryanto and Hafman only use three differential characteristics in one-round, we conducted a research to find new differential characteristics in one-round and used it to produce new weak key classes of S-IDEA. To find new differential characteristics in one-round of S-IDEA, we applied a multiplication mod 216+1 on input difference and combination of active sub key Z1, Z4, Z5, Z6. New classes of weak keys are obtained by combining all of these characteristics and use them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA with or without the 4th round sub key. In this research, we found six new differential characteristics in one round and combined them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used and the 4th round sub key required, we obtain 2 new classes of weak keys, 213 and 28. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used, yet the 4th round sub key is not required, the weak key class of 213 will be 221 and 28 will be 210. Membership test can not be applied to recover the key bits in those weak key classes. The recovery of those unknown key bits can only be done by using brute force attack. The simulation result indicates that the bit of the key can be recovered by the longest computation time of 0,031 ms.
Weak Gravitatational Lensing by Illustris-1 Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brainerd, Tereasa G.; Koh, Patrick H.
2016-06-01
We compute the weak gravitational lensing signal of isolated, central galaxies obtained from the z=0.5 timestep of the ΛCDM Illustris-1 simulation. The galaxies have stellar masses ranging from 9.5 ≤ log10(M*/Msun) ≤ 11.0 and are located outside cluster and rich group environments. Although there is local substructure present in the form of small, luminous satellite galaxies, the central galaxies are the dominant objects within the virial radii (r200), and each central galaxy is at least 5 times brighter than any other luminous galaxy within the friends-of-friends halo. We compute the weak lensing signal within projected radii 0.05 < rp/r200 < 1.5 and investigate the degree to which the weak lensing signal is anisotropic. Since CDM halos are non-spherical, the weak lensing signal is expected to be anisotropic; however, the degree of anisotropy that is observed depends upon the symmetry axes that are used to define the geometry. The anisotropy is expected to be maximized when the major axis of the projected dark matter mass distribution is used to define the geomety. In practice in the observed universe, one must necessarily use the projected distribution of the luminous mass to define the geometry. If mass and light are not well-aligned, this results in a suppression of the weak lensing anistropy. Our initial analysis shows that the ellipticity of the projected dark matter halo is uncorrelated with the ellipticity of the projected stellar mass. That is εhalo ≠ f × εlight, where f is a constant multiplicative factor. In addition, in projection on the sky, the major axis of the dark matter mass is offset from that of the stellar mass by ∼40o on average. On scales rp ≤ 0.15 r200, the weak lensing anisotropy obtained when using the stellar mass to define the geometry is of order 7% and agrees well with the anisotropy obtained when using the dark matter mass to define the geometry. On scales rp ∼ r200, the anisotropy obtained when using the stellar mass
Sanchez-Arriaga, G.; Laveder, D.; Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.
2010-07-15
Numerical integrations of the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation for Alfven waves, supplemented by a weak dissipative term (originating from diffusion or Landau damping), with initial conditions in the form of a bright soliton with nonvanishing conditions at infinity (oblique soliton), reveal an interesting phenomenon of 'quasicollapse': as the dissipation parameter is reduced, larger amplitudes are reached and smaller scales are created, but on an increasing time scale. This process involves an early bifurcation of the initial soliton toward a breather that is analyzed by means of a numerical inverse scattering technique. This evolution leads to the formation of persistent dark solitons that are only weakly affected when crossed by the decaying breather which has the form of either a localized structure or an extended wave packet.
Critical Two-Point Function of the 4-Dimensional Weakly Self-Avoiding Walk
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauerschmidt, Roland; Brydges, David C.; Slade, Gordon
2015-08-01
We prove decay of the critical two-point function for the continuous-time weakly self-avoiding walk on , in the upper critical dimension d = 4. This is a statement that the critical exponent exists and is equal to zero. Results of this nature have been proved previously for dimensions using the lace expansion, but the lace expansion does not apply when d = 4. The proof is based on a rigorous renormalisation group analysis of an exact representation of the continuous-time weakly self-avoiding walk as a supersymmetric field theory. Much of the analysis applies more widely and has been carried out in a previous paper, where an asymptotic formula for the susceptibility is obtained. Here, we show how observables can be incorporated into the analysis to obtain a pointwise asymptotic formula for the critical two-point function. This involves perturbative calculations similar to those familiar in the physics literature, but with error terms controlled rigorously.
Implications of charmless B decays with large direct CP violation
Wu Yueliang; Zhou Yufeng
2005-01-15
Based on the most recent data in charmless B decays including the very recently reported large direct CP violations, it is shown that the weak phase {gamma} can well be extracted without twofold ambiguity even only from two decay modes {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and {pi}{sup +}K{sup -}, and its value is remarkably consistent with the global standard model fit at a compatible accuracy. A fit to all the {pi}{pi},{pi}K data favor both large electroweak penguin and color-suppressed tree amplitude with large strong phases. It is demonstrated that the inclusion of SU(3) symmetry breaking effects of strong phases and the inelastic rescattering effects can well improve the consistency of the data, while both effects may not be sufficient to arrive at a small electroweak penguin amplitude in the standard model. It is of interest to notice that large or small electroweak penguin amplitude becomes a testable prediction as they lead to significantly different predictions for the direct CP violations for {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, {pi}{sup 0}K{sup 0} modes. Clearly, precise measurements on charmless B decays will provide a window for probing new physics.
Scintillating bolometers: A promising tool for rare decays search
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pattavina, L.
2013-12-01
The idea of using a scintillating bolometer was first suggested for solar neutrino experiments in 1989. After many years of developments, now we are able to exploit this experimental technique, based on the calorimetric approach with cryogenic particle detectors, to investigate rare events such as Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay and interaction of Dark Matter candidates. The possibility to have high resolution detectors in which a very large part of the natural background can be discriminated with respect to the weak expected signal is very appealing. The goal to distinguish the different types of interactions in the detector can be achieved by means of scintillating bolometer. The simultaneous read-out of the heat and scintillation signals made with two independent bolometers enable this precious feature leading to possible background free experiment. In the frame of the LUCIFER project we report on how exploiting this technique to investigate Double Beta Decay for different isotope candidates. Moreover we demonstrate how scintillating bolometers are suited for investigating other rare events such as α decays of long living isotopes of lead and bismuth.
Nab: toward a precise experimental characterization of neutron beta decay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pocanic, Dinko; Nab Collaboration
2013-10-01
Nab, a new program of measurements at the Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge, TN, will study unpolarized neutron beta decays, with the goal to determine a, the electron-neutrino correlation with precision of δa / a =10-3 , and b, the Fierz interference term, with uncertainty δb ~= 3 ×10-3 . Neutron beta decay offers a means to study the weak interaction with great precision; its relatively simple theoretical description in the Standard Model (SM) is overconstrained by the set of available observables. Projected Nab results will lead to a new precise determination of the ratio λ =GA /GV , and to significant reductions in the allowed limits for both right- and left-handed scalar and tensor currents. Alternatively, the experiment may detect a discrepancy from SM predictions consistent with certain realizations of supersymmetry. An optimized, asymmetric spectrometer has been designed to achieve the narrow proton momentum response function required to meet the physics goals of the experiment. The apparatus is to be used in a follow-up measurement (abBA) of observables A and B in polarized neutron decay. Nab is fully funded, and is in the construction stage. We discuss the experiment's motivation, expected reach, and method. Work supported by NSF grants PHY-0970013, 1126683, and others.
Decay of the standard model Higgs field after inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Figueroa, Daniel G.; García-Bellido, Juan; Torrentí, Francisco
2015-10-01
We study the nonperturbative dynamics of the standard model (SM) after inflation, in the regime where the SM is decoupled from (or weakly coupled to) the inflationary sector. We use classical lattice simulations in an expanding box in (3 +1 ) dimensions, modeling the SM gauge interactions with both global and Abelian-Higgs analogue scenarios. We consider different postinflationary expansion rates. During inflation, the Higgs forms a condensate, which starts oscillating soon after inflation ends. Via nonperturbative effects, the oscillations lead to a fast decay of the Higgs into the SM species, transferring most of the energy into Z and W± bosons. All species are initially excited far away from equilibrium, but their interactions lead them into a stationary stage, with exact equipartition among the different energy components. From there on, the system eventually reaches equilibrium. We have characterized in detail, in the different expansion histories considered, the evolution of the Higgs and of its dominant decay products until equipartition is established. We provide a useful mapping between simulations with different parameters, from which we derive a master formula for the Higgs decay time as a function of the coupling constants, Higgs initial amplitude and postinflationary expansion rate.
Limit on Tensor Currents from ^{8}Li β Decay.
Sternberg, M G; Segel, R; Scielzo, N D; Savard, G; Clark, J A; Bertone, P F; Buchinger, F; Burkey, M; Caldwell, S; Chaudhuri, A; Crawford, J E; Deibel, C M; Greene, J; Gulick, S; Lascar, D; Levand, A F; Li, G; Pérez Galván, A; Sharma, K S; Van Schelt, J; Yee, R M; Zabransky, B J
2015-10-30
In the standard model, the weak interaction is formulated with a purely vector-axial-vector (V-A) structure. Without restriction on the chirality of the neutrino, the most general limits on tensor currents from nuclear β decay are dominated by a single measurement of the β-ν[over ¯] correlation in ^{6}He β decay dating back over a half century. In the present work, the β-ν[over ¯]-α correlation in the β decay of ^{8}Li and subsequent α-particle breakup of the ^{8}Be^{*} daughter was measured. The results are consistent with a purely V-A interaction and in the case of couplings to right-handed neutrinos (C_{T}=-C_{T}^{'}) limits the tensor fraction to |C_{T}/C_{A}|^{2}<0.011 (95.5% C.L.). The measurement confirms the ^{6}He result using a different nuclear system and employing modern ion-trapping techniques subject to different systematic uncertainties. PMID:26565463
Decay of magnetic fields in de Sitter and FRW universes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia de Andrade, L. C.; Ferrández, A.
2011-11-01
Magnetic curvature effects, investigated by Barrow and Tsagas (Phys. Rev. D 77, 107302 (2008)), as a mechanism for magnetic field decay in open Friedmann universes ( Λ < 0), are applied to dynamo geometric Ricci flows in 3D curved substrate in laboratory. By simple derivation, a covariant three-dimensional magnetic self-induction equation is obtained. The presence of these curvature effects indicates that de Sitter cosmological constant ( Λ ≥ 0 leads to enhancement in the fast kinematic dynamo action which induces a stretching in plasma flows. From the magnetic growth rate, the strong shear case implies an anti-de Sitter case ( Λ < 0) where BT magnetic decaying fields are possible. For weak shear, fast dynamos are possible. The self-induced equation in Ricci flows is similar to the equation derived by BT in the (3 + 1)-spacetime continuum. Lyapunov-de Sitter metric is obtained from Ricci flow eigenvalue problem. In the de Sitter analogue there is a decay rate of γ ≈ - Λ ≈ -10-35 s-2 from the corresponding cosmological constant Λ. This shows that, even in the dynamo case, the magnetic field growth is slower than de Sitter inflation, which renders strongly support to BT result.
Decaying dark matter and the tension in σ8
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enqvist, Kari; Nadathur, Seshadri; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Tomo
2015-09-01
We consider decaying dark matter (DDM) as a resolution to the possible tension between cosmic microwave background (CMB) and weak lensing (WL) based determinations of the amplitude of matter fluctuations, σ8. We perform N-body simulations in a model where dark matter decays into dark radiation and develop an accurate fitting formula for the non-linear matter power spectrum, which enables us to test the DDM model by the combined measurements of CMB, WL and the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO). We employ a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis to examine the overlap of posterior distributions of the cosmological parameters, comparing CMB alone with WL+BAO. We find an overlap that is significantly larger in the DDM model than in the standard CDM model. This may be hinting at DDM, although current data is not constraining enough to unambiguously favour a non-zero dark matter decay rate Γ. From the combined CMB+WL data, we obtain a lower bound Γ-1>= 97 Gyr at 95 % C.L, which is less tight than the constraint from CMB alone.
On the recent anomalies in semileptonic B decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biancofiore, P.
2014-11-01
Both BABAR and LHCb Collaborations have recently claimed signals of possible deviations with respect to the Standard Model through the analyses of specific semileptonic B-meson decays. We firstly investigate the semileptonic b → c decay with a τ lepton in the final state for which new BABAR measurements are available, showing a deviation from the Standard Model at 3.4 σ level. We study the effects of a new tensor operator in the effective weak Hamiltonian on a set of observables, in semileptonic B → D(∗) modes as well as in semileptonic B and Bs decays to excited charmed mesons. Moreover, we discuss the phenomenology of the mode B → K∗ ℓ+ ℓ-, in the framework of a warped extra-dimensional model. Since a complete set of form factor almost independent observables have been recently measured by the LHCb Collaboration, with few sizable deviations with respect to the Standard Model in some of them, it would be interesting to put constraints on such a scenario from the FCNC transition b → sℓ+ℓ-.
Capturing the rare decay kaon+ to pion+ neutrino antineutrino
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stone, Jesse R.
This thesis describes a search for the rare decay K+-->p+noverlinenoverline , a Flavor Changing Neutral Current (FCNC) process forbidden to first order in the Standard Model by the GIM mechanism. The decay is allowed at second order, however, and expected to have a branching ratio of approximately 10-10. Thanks to the presence of an internal top quark in the diagrams for this process, a measurement of the branching ratio for K+-->p+noverlinenoverline provides a measurement of the Cabibbo- Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element Vtd. Data collected by Experiment 787 at Brookhaven National Laboratory during the 1995 run were analyzed, and one candidate event surfaced with an expected background of 0.08 +/- 0.03 events. This first observation of K+-->p+noverlinenoverline yields a branching ratio of BR( K+-->p+noverlinenoverline ) = ( (2.54
The Nuclear and Particle Physics of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haxton, Wick
2014-03-01
Fortuitous properties of nuclei allow us to isolate and study the rare second-order weak process of double beta decay. In particular, the decay channel in which a final state of two electrons and no neutrinos is produced - neutrinoless double beta decay - provides our best test of lepton number conservation and the Majorana mass of the electron neutrino. I will describe the connections between this process and the charge conjugation properties of the neutrino, including the possibility that the presence of both Dirac and Majorana masses accounts for the anomalous scale of neutrino masses. The extraordinary progress made over the past two decades has prepared the way for next-generation experiments that will probe Majorana masses at levels where nonzero rates may be found, given what we now know about neutrino mass splittings. I will describe some of the heroic efforts underway to develop detectors of unprecedented size, radiopurity, depth, and thus sensitivity. Work supported by the Office of Science, US DOE.
Improved Studies of b Fragmentation in Z^0 Decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nesom, Gavin
2001-04-01
We present preliminary results of a new measurement of the inclusive b quark fragmentation function in Z^0 decays and of the B-barB energy correlation, using a novel kinematic B hadron energy reconstruction technique. The measurement is performed using hadronic Z^0 events recorded in the SLD experiment at SLAC between 1996 and 1998. The small and stable SLC beam spot and the CCD-based vertex detector are used to reconstruct B-decay vertices with high efficiency and purity, and to provide precise measurements of the kinematic quantities used in this technique. We measure the B energy with good efficiency and resolution over the full kinematic range. We compare the scaled energy distribution of weakly decaying B hadrons with the predictions of several models of b quark fragmentation, and also test several hypothesized functional forms. We exclude many of these models and functional forms, and we present a corrected distribution with a small and well defined model dependence and a precise measurement of the mean value. We also measure the two-dimensional distribution of the B and barB hadron energies in Z^0 arrow bbarb events. A comparison with theory of the moments of the 2D and 1D distributions provides a new test of QCD factorization.
Nuclear Structure of 124Xe Studied with β+/EC-Decay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radich, A. J.; Garrett, P. E.; Allmond, J. M.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Bianco, L.; Bildstein, V.; Chagnon-Lessard, S.; Cross, D. S.; Diaz Varela, A.; Dunlop, R.; Finlay, P.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hackman, G.; Hadinia, B.; Jigmeddorj, B.; Laffoley, A. T.; Leach, K. G.; Michetti-Wilson, J.; Orce, J. N.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rand, E.; Starosta, K.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wang, Z. M.; Wood, J. L.; Wong, J.; Williams, S. J.; Yates, S. W.
The nuclear structure of 124Xe was investigated using γ-ray spectroscopy following the β+/EC-decay of 124Cs. A very high-statistics data set was collected and γγ coincidence data was analyzed, greatly adding to the 124Xe level scheme. A new decay branch from the high-spin isomer of 124Cs was observed as well as weak E2 transitions into excited 0+ states in 124Xe. B(E2) transition strengths of such low-spin transitions are very important in determining collective properties, which are currently poorly characterized in the region of neutron-deficient xenon isotopes.
Decay of electrostatic hydrogen cyclotron waves into ion acoustic modes in auroral field lines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergmann, R.; Hudson, M. K.
1987-03-01
The coherent three-wave decay of a linearly unstable electrostatic hydrogen cyclotron (EHC) wave into stable EHC and ion acoustic modes is considered. The general problem of the three weakly interacting electrostatic normal modes in a Maxwellian plasma is discussed. EHC is examined in a fluid description, and the results are used to guide a similar study in a Vlasov plasma system intended to model the aurora acceleration region parameters. The time dependence of the decay in a simple three-wave interaction is presented in order to show how wave saturation can arise.
Model reduction of strong-weak neurons.
Du, Bosen; Sorensen, Danny; Cox, Steven J
2014-01-01
We consider neurons with large dendritic trees that are weakly excitable in the sense that back propagating action potentials are severly attenuated as they travel from the small, strongly excitable, spike initiation zone. In previous work we have shown that the computational size of weakly excitable cell models may be reduced by two or more orders of magnitude, and that the size of strongly excitable models may be reduced by at least one order of magnitude, without sacrificing the spatio-temporal nature of its inputs (in the sense we reproduce the cell's precise mapping of inputs to outputs). We combine the best of these two strategies via a predictor-corrector decomposition scheme and achieve a drastically reduced highly accurate model of a caricature of the neuron responsible for collision detection in the locust. PMID:25566048
Amplification effects in optomechanics via weak measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Gang; Wang, Tao; Song, He-Shan
2014-07-01
We revisit the scheme of single-photon weak-coupling optomechanics using postselection, proposed by Pepper, Ghobadi, Jeffrey, Simon, and Bouwmeester [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 023601 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.023601], by analyzing the exact solution of the dynamical evolution. Positive and negative amplification effects of the displacement of the mirror's position can be generated when the Kerr phase is considered. This effect occurs when the postselected state of the photon is orthogonal to the initial state, which cannot be explained by the usual weak measurement results. The amplification effect can be further modulated by a phase shifter, and the maximal displacement state can appear within a short evolution time.
Towards weakly constrained double field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Kanghoon
2016-08-01
We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon) transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X-ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.
From weak discontinuities to nondissipative shock waves
Garifullin, R. N. Suleimanov, B. I.
2010-01-15
An analysis is presented of the effect of weak dispersion on transitions from weak to strong discontinuities in inviscid fluid dynamics. In the neighborhoods of transition points, this effect is described by simultaneous solutions to the Korteweg-de Vries equation u{sub t}'+ uu{sub x}' + u{sub xxx}' = 0 and fifth-order nonautonomous ordinary differential equations. As x{sup 2} + t{sup 2} {yields}{infinity}, the asymptotic behavior of these simultaneous solutions in the zone of undamped oscillations is given by quasi-simple wave solutions to Whitham equations of the form r{sub i}(t, x) = tl{sub i} x/t{sup 2}.
Model reduction of strong-weak neurons
Du, Bosen; Sorensen, Danny; Cox, Steven J.
2014-01-01
We consider neurons with large dendritic trees that are weakly excitable in the sense that back propagating action potentials are severly attenuated as they travel from the small, strongly excitable, spike initiation zone. In previous work we have shown that the computational size of weakly excitable cell models may be reduced by two or more orders of magnitude, and that the size of strongly excitable models may be reduced by at least one order of magnitude, without sacrificing the spatio–temporal nature of its inputs (in the sense we reproduce the cell's precise mapping of inputs to outputs). We combine the best of these two strategies via a predictor-corrector decomposition scheme and achieve a drastically reduced highly accurate model of a caricature of the neuron responsible for collision detection in the locust. PMID:25566048
Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Joseph A., III
1999-01-01
An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.
Experimental observation of weak non-Markovianity
Bernardes, Nadja K.; Cuevas, Alvaro; Orieux, Adeline; Monken, C. H.; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Santos, Marcelo F.
2015-01-01
Non-Markovianity has recently attracted large interest due to significant advances in its characterization and its exploitation for quantum information processing. However, up to now, only non-Markovian regimes featuring environment to system backflow of information (strong non-Markovianity) have been experimentally simulated. In this work, using an all-optical setup we simulate and observe the so-called weak non-Markovian dynamics. Through full process tomography, we experimentally demonstrate that the dynamics of a qubit can be non-Markovian despite an always increasing correlation between the system and its environment which, in our case, denotes no information backflow. We also show the transition from the weak to the strong regime by changing a single parameter in the environmental state, leading us to a better understanding of the fundamental features of non-Markovianity. PMID:26627910
Experimental observation of weak non-Markovianity.
Bernardes, Nadja K; Cuevas, Alvaro; Orieux, Adeline; Monken, C H; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Santos, Marcelo F
2015-01-01
Non-Markovianity has recently attracted large interest due to significant advances in its characterization and its exploitation for quantum information processing. However, up to now, only non-Markovian regimes featuring environment to system backflow of information (strong non-Markovianity) have been experimentally simulated. In this work, using an all-optical setup we simulate and observe the so-called weak non-Markovian dynamics. Through full process tomography, we experimentally demonstrate that the dynamics of a qubit can be non-Markovian despite an always increasing correlation between the system and its environment which, in our case, denotes no information backflow. We also show the transition from the weak to the strong regime by changing a single parameter in the environmental state, leading us to a better understanding of the fundamental features of non-Markovianity. PMID:26627910
Weak Energy Condition Violation and Superluminal Travel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lobo, Francisco; Crawford, Paulo
Recent solutions to the Einstein Field Equations involving negative energy densities, i.e., matter violating the weak-energy-condition, have been obtained, namely traversable wormholes, the Alcubierre warp drive and the Krasnikov tube. These solutions are related to superluminal travel, although locally the speed of light is not surpassed. It is difficult to define faster-than-light travel in generic space-times, and one can construct metrics which apparently allow superluminal travel, but are in fact flat Minkowski space-times. Therefore, to avoid these difficulties it is important to provide an appropriate definition of superluminal travel.We investigate these problems and the relationship between weak-energy-condition violation and superluminal travel.
Thermoelectric performance of weakly coupled granular materials.
Glatz, A.; Beloborodov, I. S.; Materials Science Division; California State Univ. at Northridge
2009-01-01
We study thermoelectric properties of inhomogeneous nanogranular materials for weak tunneling conductance between the grains, g{sub t} < 1. We calculate the thermopower and figure of merit taking into account the shift of the chemical potential and the asymmetry of the density of states in the vicinity of the Fermi surface. We show that the weak coupling between the grains leads to a high thermopower and low thermal conductivity resulting in relatively high values of the figure of merit on the order of one. We estimate the temperature at which the figure of merit has its maximum value for two- and three-dimensional samples. Our results are applicable for many emerging materials, including artificially self-assembled nanoparticle arrays.
Weak cosmic censorship: as strong as ever.
Hod, Shahar
2008-03-28
Spacetime singularities that arise in gravitational collapse are always hidden inside of black holes. This is the essence of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. The hypothesis, put forward by Penrose 40 years ago, is still one of the most important open questions in general relativity. In this Letter, we reanalyze extreme situations which have been considered as counterexamples to the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. In particular, we consider the absorption of scalar particles with large angular momentum by a black hole. Ignoring back reaction effects may lead one to conclude that the incident wave may overspin the black hole, thereby exposing its inner singularity to distant observers. However, we show that when back reaction effects are properly taken into account, the stability of the black-hole event horizon is irrefutable. We therefore conclude that cosmic censorship is actually respected in this type of gedanken experiments. PMID:18517851
Security Weaknesses in Arbitrated Quantum Signature Protocols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Feng; Zhang, Kejia; Cao, Tianqing
2014-01-01
Arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) is a cryptographic scenario in which the sender (signer), Alice, generates the signature of a message and then a receiver (verifier), Bob, can verify the signature with the help of a trusted arbitrator, Trent. In this paper, we point out there exist some security weaknesses in two AQS protocols. Our analysis shows Alice can successfully disavow any of her signatures by a simple attack in the first protocol. Furthermore, we study the security weaknesses of the second protocol from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. Some potential improvements of this kind of protocols are given. We also design a new method to authenticate a signature or a message, which makes AQS protocols immune to Alice's disavowal attack and Bob's forgery attack effectively.
Neutron Beta Decay Studies with Nab
Baessler, S.; Alarcon, R.; Alonzi, L. P.; Balascuta, S.; Barron-Palos, L.; Bowman, James David; Bychkov, M. A.; Byrne, J.; Calarco, J; Chupp, T.; Cianciolo, T. V.; Crawford, C.; Frlez, E.; Gericke, M. T.; Glück, F.; Greene, G. L.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Gudkov, V.; Harrison, D.; Hersman, F. W.; Ito, T.; Makela, M.; Martin, J.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGovern, S.; Page, S.; Penttila, Seppo I; Pocanic, Dinko; Salas-Bacci, A.; Tompkins, Z.; Wagner, D.; Wilburn, W. S.; Young, A. R.
2013-01-01
Precision measurements in neutron beta decay serve to determine the coupling constants of beta decay and allow for several stringent tests of the standard model. This paper discusses the design and the expected performance of the Nab spectrometer.
Anisotropy of weakly vibrated granular flows.
Wortel, Geert H; van Hecke, Martin
2015-10-01
We experimentally probe the anisotropy of weakly vibrated flowing granular media. Depending on the driving parameters-flow rate and vibration strength-this anisotropy varies significantly. We show how the anisotropy collapses when plotted as a function of the driving stresses, uncovering a direct link between stresses and anisotropy. Moreover, our data suggest that for small anisotropies, the shear stresses vanish. Anisotropy of the fabric of granular media thus plays a crucial role in determining the rheology of granular flows. PMID:26565148
Measuring neutrino masses with weak lensing
Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.
2006-11-17
Weak gravitational lensing of distant galaxies by large scale structure (LSS) provides an unbiased way to map the matter distribution in the low redshift universe. This technique, based on the measurement of small distortions in the images of the source galaxies induced by the intervening LSS, is expected to become a key cosmological probe in the future. We discuss how future lensing surveys can probe the sum of the neutrino masses at the 0 05 eV level.
Mutual synchronization of weakly coupled gyrotrons
Rozental, R. M.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Sergeev, A. S.; Zotova, I. V.; Ginzburg, N. S.
2015-09-15
The processes of synchronization of two weakly coupled gyrotrons are studied within the framework of non-stationary equations with non-fixed longitudinal field structure. With the allowance for a small difference of the free oscillation frequencies of the gyrotrons, we found a certain range of parameters where mutual synchronization is possible while a high electronic efficiency is remained. It is also shown that synchronization regimes can be realized even under random fluctuations of the parameters of the electron beams.
Rheology of weakly vibrated granular media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wortel, Geert H.; Dijksman, Joshua A.; van Hecke, Martin
2014-01-01
We probe the rheology of weakly vibrated granular flows as function of flow rate, vibration strength, and pressure by performing experiments in a vertically vibrated split-bottom shear cell. For slow flows, we establish the existence of a vibration-dominated granular flow regime, where the driving stresses smoothly vanish as the driving rate is diminished. We distinguish three qualitatively different vibration-dominated rheologies, most strikingly a regime where the shear stresses no longer are proportional to the pressure.
Anisotropy of weakly vibrated granular flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wortel, Geert H.; van Hecke, Martin
2015-10-01
We experimentally probe the anisotropy of weakly vibrated flowing granular media. Depending on the driving parameters—flow rate and vibration strength—this anisotropy varies significantly. We show how the anisotropy collapses when plotted as a function of the driving stresses, uncovering a direct link between stresses and anisotropy. Moreover, our data suggest that for small anisotropies, the shear stresses vanish. Anisotropy of the fabric of granular media thus plays a crucial role in determining the rheology of granular flows.
Weakly bound states in heterogeneous waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.; Hofmann, Christoph P.
2016-07-01
We study the spectrum of the Helmholtz equation in a two-dimensional infinite waveguide, containing a weak heterogeneity localized at an internal point, and obeying Dirichlet boundary conditions at its border. We use the variational theorem to derive the condition for which the lowest eigenvalue of the spectrum falls below the continuum threshold and a bound state appears, localized at the heterogeneity. We devise a rigorous perturbation scheme and derive the exact expression for the energy to third order in the heterogeneity.
Weak coupling tests of lattice QCD
Kovacs, E.
1984-01-01
For many arbitrary lattices with arbitrary SU(N) actions, the perturbative value of ..lambda../sub latt//..lambda../sub MOM/ can be estimated from the Monte Carlo data at weak coupling by analyzing the perturbative expansions for various Wilson loop ratios. Here, general loop ratios including those of polygons and parallelograms are considered. The lowest order perturbative expansions are calculated and some applications to the Monte Carlo data are presented.
Chaotic dynamics of weakly nonlinear systems
Vavriv, D.M.
1996-06-01
A review is given on the recent results in studying chaotic phenomena in weakly nonlinear systems. We are concerned with the class of chaotic states that can arise in physical systems with any degree of nonlinearity however small. The conditions for, and the mechanisms of, the transitions to chaos are discussed. These findings are illustrated by the results of the stability analysis of practical microwave and optical devices. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Fusion and Breakup of Weakly Bound Nuclei
Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Padron, I.; Crema, E.; Chamon, L. C.; Hussein, M. S.; Canto, L. F.
2006-08-14
We discuss the influence of the breakup process of weakly bound nuclei on the fusion cross section. The complete fusion for heavy targets is found to be suppressed due to the incomplete fusion following the breakup, whereas this effect is negligible for light targets. The total fusion cross sections for stable projectiles are not affected by the breakup process, whereas it is suppressed for halo projectiles. The non capture breakup is the dominant process at sub-barrier energies.
Decay Spectroscopy for Nuclear Astrophysics: {beta}-delayed Proton Decay
Trache, L.; Simmons, E.; Spiridon, A.; McCleskey, M.; Roeder, B. T.; Tribble, R. E.; Saastamoinen, A.; Jokinen, A.; Aysto, J.; Davinson, T.; Woods, P. J.; Pollacco, E.; Kebbiri, M.
2011-11-30
Decay spectroscopy is one of the oldest indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics. We have developed at TAMU techniques to measure beta- and beta-delayed proton decay of sd-shell, proton-rich nuclei. The short-lived radioactive species are produced in-flight, separated, then slowed down (from about 40 MeV/u) and implanted in the middle of very thin Si detectors. These allowed us to measure protons with energies as low as 200 keV from nuclei with lifetimes of 100 ms or less. At the same time we measure gamma-rays up to 8 MeV with high resolution HPGe detectors. We have studied the decay of {sup 23}Al, {sup 27}P, {sup 31}Cl, all important for understanding explosive H-burning in novae. The technique has shown a remarkable selectivity to beta-delayed charged-particle emission and works even at radioactive beam rates of a few pps. The states populated are resonances for the radiative proton capture reactions {sup 22}Na(p,{gamma}){sup 23}Mg(crucial for the depletion of {sup 22}Na in novae), {sup 26m}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 27}Si and {sup 30}P(p,{gamma}){sup 31}S(bottleneck in novae and XRB burning), respectively. More recently we have radically improved the technique using a gas based detector we call AstroBox.
Weak measurement and Bohmian conditional wave functions
Norsen, Travis; Struyve, Ward
2014-11-15
It was recently pointed out and demonstrated experimentally by Lundeen et al. that the wave function of a particle (more precisely, the wave function possessed by each member of an ensemble of identically-prepared particles) can be “directly measured” using weak measurement. Here it is shown that if this same technique is applied, with appropriate post-selection, to one particle from a perhaps entangled multi-particle system, the result is precisely the so-called “conditional wave function” of Bohmian mechanics. Thus, a plausibly operationalist method for defining the wave function of a quantum mechanical sub-system corresponds to the natural definition of a sub-system wave function which Bohmian mechanics uniquely makes possible. Similarly, a weak-measurement-based procedure for directly measuring a sub-system’s density matrix should yield, under appropriate circumstances, the Bohmian “conditional density matrix” as opposed to the standard reduced density matrix. Experimental arrangements to demonstrate this behavior–and also thereby reveal the non-local dependence of sub-system state functions on distant interventions–are suggested and discussed. - Highlights: • We study a “direct measurement” protocol for wave functions and density matrices. • Weakly measured states of entangled particles correspond to Bohmian conditional states. • Novel method of observing quantum non-locality is proposed.
Weak lensing of the primary CMB bispectrum
Cooray, Asantha; Sarkar, Devdeep; Serra, Paolo
2008-06-15
The bispectrum of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies is a well-known probe of the non-Gaussianity of primordial perturbations. Just as the intervening large-scale structure modifies the CMB angular power spectrum through weak gravitational lensing, the CMB primary bispectrum generated at the last scattering surface is also modified by lensing. We discuss the lensing modification to the CMB bispectrum and show that lensing leads to an overall decrease in the amplitude of the primary bispectrum at multipoles of interest between 100 and 2000 through additional smoothing introduced by lensing. Since weak lensing is not accounted for in current estimators of the primordial non-Gaussianity parameter, the existing measurements of f{sub NL} of the local model with WMAP out to l{sub max}{approx}750 is biased low by about 6%. For a high resolution experiment such as Planck, the lensing modification to the bispectrum must be properly included when attempting to estimate the primordial non-Gaussianity or the bias will be at the level of 30%. For Planck, weak lensing increases the minimum detectable value for the non-Gaussianity parameter of the local type f{sub NL} to 7 from the previous estimate of about 5 without lensing. The minimum detectable value of f{sub NL} for a cosmic variance limited experiment is also increased from less than 3 to {approx}5.
Weak double layers in the auroral ionosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hudson, M. K.; Crystal, T. L.; Lotko, W.; Barnes, C.
1987-01-01
Previous work on the evolution of weak double layers in a hydrogen plasma was extended to include H(+) and O(+) with relative drift. The relative drift between hydrogen and oxygen ions due to a quasi-static parallel electric field gives rise to a strong linear fluid instability which dominates the ion-acoustic mode at the bottom of the auroral acceleration region. This ion-ion instability can modify ion distributions at lower altitudes and the subsequent nonlinear evolution of weak double layers at higher altitudes in the ion-acoustic regime. Ion hole formation can occur for smaller relative electron-ion drifts than seen in previous simulations, due to the hydrogen-oxygen two-stream instability. This results in local modification of the ion distributions in phase space, and a partial filling of the valley between the hydrogen and oxygen peaks, which would be expected at higher altitudes on auroral field lines. The observed velocity diffusion does not necessarily preclude ion hole and double layer formation in hydrogen in the ion-acoustic regime. These simulation results are consistent with the experimentally measured persistence of separate hydrogen and oxygen peaks, and the observation of weak double layers above an altitude of 3000 km on auroral field lines.
Weak localization with nonlinear bosonic matter waves
Hartmann, Timo; Michl, Josef; Petitjean, Cyril; Wellens, Thomas; Urbina, Juan-Diego; Richter, Klaus; Schlagheck, Peter
2012-08-15
We investigate the coherent propagation of dilute atomic Bose-Einstein condensates through irregularly shaped billiard geometries that are attached to uniform incoming and outgoing waveguides. Using the mean-field description based on the nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we develop a diagrammatic theory for the self-consistent stationary scattering state of the interacting condensate, which is combined with the semiclassical representation of the single-particle Green function in terms of chaotic classical trajectories within the billiard. This analytical approach predicts a universal dephasing of weak localization in the presence of a small interaction strength between the atoms, which is found to be in good agreement with the numerically computed reflection and transmission probabilities of the propagating condensate. The numerical simulation of this quasi-stationary scattering process indicates that this interaction-induced dephasing mechanism may give rise to a signature of weak antilocalization, which we attribute to the influence of non-universal short-path contributions. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical simulation of scattering of Bose-Einstein condensate through billiards. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel analytical semiclassical theory for nonlinear coherent scattering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inversion of weak localization due to mean-field interaction within the condensate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relevance of non-universal short-path contributions.
SUNGLASS: A Weak-lensing Simulation Pipeline
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiessling, Alina; Taylor, A.; Heavens, A.; Rhodes, J.; Bartlett, J.
2013-01-01
Weak gravitational lensing analysis is a powerful tool to investigate the dark Universe. Next generation weak-lensing telescope surveys (e.g. Euclid and WFIRST) promise to determine the equation of state of dark energy to 1% as well as probing the possibilities of extra dimensional gravity models and alternative cosmologies. To realize the potential of these new telescope surveys and to test new weak-lensing analysis techniques, challenges must be met. To achieve the small statistical errors required, experiments require full end-to-end simulations of huge volumes, which also probe the non-linear regime to assist in understanding the limitations of the analysis techniques. We have developed a new cosmic shear analysis pipeline SUNGLASS (Simulated UNiverses for Gravitational Lensing Analysis and Shear Surveys) that rapidly generates cosmic shear and convergence catalogues using N-body simulations. In this poster, I introduce the SUNGLASS pipeline and show how the SUNGLASS mock shear catalogues can be used in preparation for upcoming telescope missions and for analysis of existing observational data sets.
Weak homological dimensions and biflat Koethe algebras
Pirkovskii, A Yu
2008-06-30
The homological properties of metrizable Koethe algebras {lambda}(P) are studied. A criterion for an algebra A={lambda}(P) to be biflat in terms of the Koethe set P is obtained, which implies, in particular, that for such algebras the properties of being biprojective, biflat, and flat on the left are equivalent to the surjectivity of the multiplication operator A otimes-hat A{yields}A. The weak homological dimensions (the weak global dimension w.dg and the weak bidimension w.db) of biflat Koethe algebras are calculated. Namely, it is shown that the conditions w.db {lambda}(P)<=1 and w.dg {lambda}(P)<=1 are equivalent to the nuclearity of {lambda}(P); and if {lambda}(P) is non-nuclear, then w.dg {lambda}(P)=w.db {lambda}(P)=2. It is established that the nuclearity of a biflat Koethe algebra {lambda}(P), under certain additional conditions on the Koethe set P, implies the stronger estimate db {lambda}(P), where db is the (projective) bidimension. On the other hand, an example is constructed of a nuclear biflat Koethe algebra {lambda}(P) such that db {lambda}(P)=2 (while w.db {lambda}(P)=1). Finally, it is shown that many biflat Koethe algebras, while not being amenable, have trivial Hochschild homology groups in positive degrees (with arbitrary coefficients). Bibliography: 37 titles.
Francium Spectroscopy for Weak Interaction Studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orozco, Luis
2014-05-01
Francium, a radioactive element, is the heaviest alkali. Its atomic and nuclear structure makes it an ideal laboratory to study the weak interaction. Laser trapping and cooling in-line with the superconducting LINAC accelerator at Stony Brook opened the precision study of its atomic structure. I will present our proposal and progress towards weak interaction measurements at TRIUMF, the National Canadian Accelerator in Vancouver. These include the commissioning run of the Francium Trapping Facility, hyperfine anomaly measurements on a chain of Fr isotopes, the nuclear anapole moment through parity non-conserving transitions in the ground state hyperfine manifold. These measurements should shed light on the nucleon-nucleon weak interaction. This work is done by the FrPNC collaboration: S. Aubin College of William and Mary, J. A. Behr TRIUMF, R. Collister U. Manitoba, E. Gomez UASLP, G. Gwinner U. Manitoba, M. R. Pearson TRIUMF, L. A. Orozco UMD, M. Tandecki TRIUMF, J. Zhang UMD Supported by NSF and DOE from the USA; TRIUMF, NRC and NSERC from Canada; and CONACYT from Mexico
Universal mechanism for Anderson and weak localization.
Filoche, Marcel; Mayboroda, Svitlana
2012-09-11
Localization of stationary waves occurs in a large variety of vibrating systems, whether mechanical, acoustical, optical, or quantum. It is induced by the presence of an inhomogeneous medium, a complex geometry, or a quenched disorder. One of its most striking and famous manifestations is Anderson localization, responsible for instance for the metal-insulator transition in disordered alloys. Yet, despite an enormous body of related literature, a clear and unified picture of localization is still to be found, as well as the exact relationship between its many manifestations. In this paper, we demonstrate that both Anderson and weak localizations originate from the same universal mechanism, acting on any type of vibration, in any dimension, and for any domain shape. This mechanism partitions the system into weakly coupled subregions. The boundaries of these subregions correspond to the valleys of a hidden landscape that emerges from the interplay between the wave operator and the system geometry. The height of the landscape along its valleys determines the strength of the coupling between the subregions. The landscape and its impact on localization can be determined rigorously by solving one special boundary problem. This theory allows one to predict the localization properties, the confining regions, and to estimate the energy of the vibrational eigenmodes through the properties of one geometrical object. In particular, Anderson localization can be understood as a special case of weak localization in a very rough landscape. PMID:22927384
Decays of near BPS heterotic strings
Gutperle, Michael; Krym, Darya
2006-10-15
The decay of highly excited massive string states in compactified heterotic string theories is discussed. We calculate the decay rate and spectrum of states carrying momentum and winding in the compactified direction. The longest lived states in the spectrum are near Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) states whose decay is dominated by a single decay channel of massless radiation which brings the state closer to being BPS.
Search for right-handed currents in muon decay
Balke, B.; Carr, J.; Gidal, G.; Gobbi, B.; Jodidio, A.; Oram, C.J.; Shinsky, K.A.; Steiner, H.M.; Stoker, D.P.; Strovink, M.
1984-07-01
The parameter xi, which characterizes the anisotropy of the emitted electrons relative to the spin direction of the muon, is a sensitive indicator of possible V+A admixtures to the dominant V-A weak interaction responsible for muon decay. We report here new results relating to the measurement of xi based on an experiment performed with a highly polarized surface muon beam at the TRIUMF cyclotron. The muons were stopped in thin metal foils in order to minimize depolarization effects. A spectrometer consisting of magnets and position sensitive detectors was tuned to accept electrons near the end point of the decay spectrum. Two largely independent methods were used to determine xi. In the first we measured the rate of positrons emitted in a direction opposite to the muon's spin as a function of their momentum when the stopping target was immersed in a 1.1 T longitudinal magnetic field. In the second method the stopping muons were subjected to a weak transverse magnetic field and the amplitude of their spin precession oscillation was used to determine xi. Based on the results from both methods lower limits on the mass of an intermediate vector boson which couples to right-handed weak currents are 400 GeV/c/sup 2/ when no constraints are placed on W/sub L/ - W/sub R/ mixing and 470 GeV/c/sup 2/ if mixing is assumed to be absent. These limits represent about an order of magnitude improvement over those obtained from previous measurements of xi. We have used the same apparatus to measure the anisotropic shape parameter delta. Preliminary results are consistent with the expected value of 3/4 with errors that are a factor of two smaller than previous measurements.
Penguin and rare decays in BABAR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akar, Simon; Babar Collaboration
2014-11-01
We present recent results from the BABAR Collaboration on radiative decays. These include searches for new physics via measurements of several observables such as the time- dependent CP asymmetry in B0 → K0Sπ-π+γ exclusive decays, as well as direct CP asymmetries and branching fractions in B → Xsγ and B → Xsl+l- inclusive decays.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bozzi, Concezio
2014-05-01
A review of B and Bs decays is presented. Emphasis is given to processes most sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model, such as radiative, electroweak and "Higgs" penguin decays, and tree-level decays involving tau leptons in the final state. An outlook on future perspectives is also given.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decay. 51.2087 Section 51.2087 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2087 Decay. Decay means that part or all...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Decay. 51.2962 Section 51.2962 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2962 Decay. Decay means that any portion...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Decay. 51.490 Section 51.490 Agriculture Regulations... Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.490 Decay. Decay means breakdown, disintegration or fermentation of the flesh or rind of the cantaloup caused by bacteria or fungi; except that dry type...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decay. 51.2962 Section 51.2962 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2962 Decay. Decay means that any portion...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decay. 51.2120 Section 51.2120 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2120 Decay. Decay means that part or all of...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Decay. 51.2120 Section 51.2120 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2120 Decay. Decay means that part or all of...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Decay. 51.2087 Section 51.2087 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2087 Decay. Decay means that part or all...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decay. 51.490 Section 51.490 Agriculture Regulations... Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.490 Decay. Decay means breakdown, disintegration or fermentation of the flesh or rind of the cantaloup caused by bacteria or fungi; except that dry type...
Internal solitary waves with a weakly stratified critical layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caillol, P.; Grimshaw, R. H. J.
2012-05-01
Motivated by observations of solitary waves in the ocean and atmosphere, this paper considers the evolution of long weakly nonlinear internal waves in an incompressible Boussinesq fluid. The motion is restricted to the vertical plane. The basic state consists of stable horizontal shear flow and density stratification. On a long time scale, the waves evolve and reach a quasi-steady régime where weak nonlinearity and weak dispersion are in balance. In many circumstances, this régime is described by a Korteweg-de-Vries equation. However, when the linear long-wave speed equals the basic flow velocity at a certain height, the critical level, the traditional assumption of weak nonlinearity breaks down due to the appearance of a singularity in the leading-order modal equation, implying a strong modification of the flow in the so-called critical layer. Since the relevant geophysical flows have high Reynolds and Péclet numbers, we invoke nonlinear effects to resolve this singularity. Viscosity and thermal conductivity are considered small but finite. Their presence renders the nonlinear-critical-layer solution unique. Crucially, the density stratification degree is assumed small at the critical level; this has the consequence that the leading-order singularity is then identical to that in an unstratified flow. Thus the asymptotic methodology employed previously for that case can be adapted to this present study. In this critical layer, the flow is fully nonlinear but laminar and quasi-steady, with a strong rearrangement of the buoyancy and vorticity contours. This inner flow is matched at the edges of the critical layer with the outer flow. The final outcome for spatially localized solutions is an integro-differential evolution equation, whose form depends on the critical-layer shape, and especially on the wave polarity, that is, depression or elevation. For a steady travelling wave, this evolution equation when expressed in terms of the streamfunction amplitude is not a
Lyapunov decay in quantum irreversibility.
García-Mata, Ignacio; Roncaglia, Augusto J; Wisniacki, Diego A
2016-06-13
The Loschmidt echo--also known as fidelity--is a very useful tool to study irreversibility in quantum mechanics due to perturbations or imperfections. Many different regimes, as a function of time and strength of the perturbation, have been identified. For chaotic systems, there is a range of perturbation strengths where the decay of the Loschmidt echo is perturbation independent, and given by the classical Lyapunov exponent. But observation of the Lyapunov decay depends strongly on the type of initial state upon which an average is carried out. This dependence can be removed by averaging the fidelity over the Haar measure, and the Lyapunov regime is recovered, as has been shown for quantum maps. In this work, we introduce an analogous quantity for systems with infinite dimensional Hilbert space, in particular the quantum stadium billiard, and we show clearly the universality of the Lyapunov regime. PMID:27140966
Resolvability of positron decay channels
Fluss, M.J.; Howell, R.H.; Rosenberg, I.J.; Meyer, P.
1985-03-07
Many data analysis treatments of positron experiments attempt to resolve two or more positron decay or exist channels which may be open simultaneously. Examples of the need to employ such treatments of the experimental results can be found in the resolution of the constituents of a defect ensemble, or in the analysis of the complex spectra which arise from the interaction of slow positrons at or near the surfaces of solids. Experimental one- and two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation experiments in Al single crystals have shown that two defect species (mono- and divacancies) can be resolved under suitable conditions. Recent experiments at LLNL indicate that there are a variety of complex exit channels open to positrons interacting at surfaces, and ultimely these decay channels must also be suitably resolved from one another. 6 refs., 4 figs.
Moltz, D.M.; Toth, K.S.; Ellis-Akovali, Y.A.; Cole, J.D.
1982-09-01
A new activity, T/sub 1/2/ = 20 +- 2 sec, was observed in /sup 12/C bombardments of /sup 144/Sm. Only one ..gamma.. ray, 476.0 +- 0.1 keV, was found to be associated with this nuclide. We identify the new isotope as /sup 150/Er and propose that it decays mainly to one level in /sup 150/Ho at an excitation energy of approx.476 keV by an allowed ..beta.. transition which connects states with the following configurations: O/sup +/(..pi..h/sub 11/2/, ..pi..h/sub 11/2/)..-->..1/sup +/(..pi..h/sub 11/2/,..nu..h/sub 9/2/). As part of the investigation, the decay properties of the high- and low-spin /sup 150/Ho isomers were reexamined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu Wang, Ling-Lie
1981-01-01
Since this is an experimental conference I shall begin my talk with that spirit. We can view that the subject of my talk as a result of ''the ORY Collaboration'' with more than fifty theorists involved. The topics covered are the results of four task forces: I. The mixing Matrix Task Force, II.. The D-decay Task Force, III. the Boredom-Escaping Group and IV. the Far-and-Beyond Group.
Optical spectroscopy and tooth decay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misra, P.; De, T.; Singh, R.
2005-11-01
Optical spectroscopy in the ultraviolet, visible and mid-infrared spectral regions has been used to discriminate between healthy and diseased teeth of patients in the age range 15-75 years. Spectral scans of absorbance versus wavenumber and fluorescence intensity versus wavelength have been recorded and investigated for caries and periodontal disease. Such optical diagnostics can prove very useful in the early detection and treatment of tooth decay.
Nuclear structure from radioactive decay
Wood, J.L.
1991-09-30
This report discusses nuclear structure from radioactive decay of the following: Neutron-Deficient Iridium Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Platinum Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Gold Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Mercury Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Thallium Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Lead Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Samarium Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Promethium Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Neodymium Isotopes; and Neutron-Deficient Praseodymium Isotopes. Also discussed are Nuclear Systematics and Models.
Tunneling decay of false vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han
2013-10-01
We consider the decay of vortices trapped in the false vacuum of a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. The potential is inspired by models with intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that completely breaks a U(1) symmetry, while in the true vacuum, the symmetry is unbroken. The false vacuum is unstable through the formation of true vacuum bubbles; however, the rate of decay can be extremely long. On the other hand, the false vacuum can contain metastable vortex solutions. These vortices contain the true vacuum inside in addition to a unit of magnetic flux and the appropriate topologically nontrivial false vacuum outside. We numerically establish the existence of vortex solutions which are classically stable; however, they can decay via tunneling. In general terms, they tunnel to a configuration which is a large, thin-walled vortex configuration that is now classically unstable to the expansion of its radius. We compute an estimate for the tunneling amplitude in the semiclassical approximation. We believe our analysis would be relevant to superconducting thin films or superfluids.
Spectrometers for Beta Decay Electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Yong; Hirshfield, Jay
2015-04-01
Inspired by the neutrino mass direct measurement experiment Project 8, precision spectrometers are proposed to simultaneously measure energy and momentum of beta-decay electrons produced in rare nuclear events with improved energy resolution. For detecting single beta decay electrons near the end-point from a gaseous source such as tritium, one type of spectrometer is proposed to utilize stimulated cyclotron resonance interaction of microwaves with electrons in a waveguide immersed in a magnetic mirror. In the external RF fields, on-resonance electrons will satisfy both the cyclotron resonance condition and waveguide dispersion relationship. By correlating the resonances at two waveguide modes, one can associate the frequencies with both the energy and longitudinal momentum of an on-resonance electron to account for the Doppler shifts. For detecting neutrino-less double-beta decay, another spectrometer is proposed with thin foil of double-beta-allowed material immersed in a magnetic field, and RF antenna array for detection of synchrotron radiation from electrons. It utilizes the correlation between the antenna signals including higher harmonics of radiation to reconstruct the total energy distribution.
Radiative decay of nonstationary system.
Banerjee, Sumana; Gangopadhyay, Gautam
2004-04-01
When a finite quantum system, say a fluorescent molecule is attached to a bulk surface and excited by a short laser pulse, the decay dynamics of the system is modulated by the surface and the signal is enhanced due to the bulk surface. We have considered the decay dynamics of a model of displaced distorted molecule whose excited potential surface is coupled to a continuum and then this first continuum is in turn coupled to a second continuum. In the short time scale there is a coherent exchange of energy between the system molecule and the first continuum states. In the long time scale the energy of the whole system plus first continuum drains out to the final continuum states. A dendrimer nanocomposite with the gold surface shows an enhanced light emission. This can be qualitatively understood from the model we proposed here. We have numerically studied the various potential parameters of the molecule which can affect the signal. When the potential surfaces are flat, the band structure of the first continuum states along with its initial excitation has some nontrivial effect on the profile of the radiative decay. PMID:15267501
Nuclear Decay Data: On-going Studies to Address and Improve Radionuclide Decay Characteristics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nichols, Alan L.
2005-05-01
Representative decay data studies are described and reviewed, ranging from various measurement programmes to the maintenance of evaluated decay-data libraries. Gross beta-decay measurements are essential to address the decay-data requirements for short-lived fission products, well-defined half-lives are required in assessments of the storage of long-lived radionuclides in waste depositories, and improved decay data continue to be demanded in safeguards, to improve detector-calibration standards, and for medical and analytical applications. Such needs require the measurement of good quality decay data, along with multinational evaluations of decay schemes by means of agreed procedures.
Constraints on hadronically decaying dark matter
Garny, Mathias; Ibarra, Alejandro; Tran, David E-mail: alejandro.ibarra@ph.tum.de
2012-08-01
We present general constraints on dark matter stability in hadronic decay channels derived from measurements of cosmic-ray antiprotons. We analyze various hadronic decay modes in a model-independent manner by examining the lowest-order decays allowed by gauge and Lorentz invariance for scalar and fermionic dark matter particles and present the corresponding lower bounds on the partial decay lifetimes in those channels. We also investigate the complementarity between hadronic and gamma-ray constraints derived from searches for monochromatic lines in the sky, which can be produced at the quantum level if the dark matter decays into quark-antiquark pairs at leading order.
Doubly charmful baryonic B decays
Cheng, H.-Y.; Chua, C.-K.; Tsai, S.-Y.
2006-04-01
There are two apparent puzzles connected with the two-body and three-body doubly charmed baryonic B decays. First, earlier calculations based on QCD sum rules or the diquark model predict B(B{sup 0}{yields}{xi}{sub c}{sup +}{lambda}{sub c}{sup -}){approx_equal}B(B{sup 0}{yields}B{sub c}N), while experimentally the former has a rate 2 orders of magnitude larger than the latter. Second, a naive estimate of the branching ratio O(10{sup -9}) for the color-suppressed three-body decay B{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{lambda}{sub c}{sup -}K, which is highly suppressed by phase space, is too small by 5 to 6 orders of magnitude compared to the experiment. We show that the great suppression for the {lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{lambda}{sub c}{sup -}K production can be alleviated provided that there exists a narrow hidden charm bound state with a mass near the {lambda}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c} threshold. This new state that couples strongly to the charmed baryon pair can be searched for in B decays and in pp collisions by studying the mass spectrum of D{sup (*)}D{sup (*)} or {lambda}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c}. The doubly charmful decay B{yields}{xi}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c} has a configuration more favorable than the singly charmful one such as B{sup 0}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}p since no hard gluon is needed to produce the energetic {xi}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c} pair in the former decay, while two hard gluons are needed for the latter process. Assuming that a soft qq quark pair is produced through the {sigma} and {pi} meson exchanges in the configuration for B{yields}{xi}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c}, it is found that its branching ratio is of order 10{sup -3}, in agreement with the experiment.
Nearly incompressible fluids: Decay of solar wind density fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunana, P.; Zank, G. P.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Shaikh, D.
2008-11-01
The evolution of density fluctuations throughout the solar wind is investigated as the basis of a newly developed theory of nearly incompressible hydrodynamics for an inhomogeneous flow. The model is explored using two-dimensional numerical simulations. The lowest-order density fluctuations (absent in the original homogeneous nearly incompressible theory) obey a passive scalar evolution equation with an additional source term that results from coupling to the large-scale inhomogeneous mean density gradient. The importance of this source term is explored, and we estimate analytically an upper bound for the maximum possible effect of a source term for nearly incompressible flows with an inhomogeneous background (static and spherically symmetric). For typical solar wind parameters, we show that this effect is rather weak beyond 0.1 AU and that the density fluctuations can be described sufficiently accurately as a pure passive scalar. Our simulations identify the sensitive dependence of density fluctuation evolution on typical initial length-scale ratio of scalar (density) and velocity fields, an effect known from the theory of passive scalar decay and experimentally measured in grid-generated turbulence. It has long been thought that the variance in the density fluctuations (δρ)2 should decay in the manner analogous to the mean background density, implying that with heliocentric distance (δρ)2 ∝ R-4 throughout the heliosphere. Analysis of plasma data obtained by the Voyager spacecraft by Bellamy et al. (2005) showed that the density fluctuations decay much more slowly than R-4 and the decay rate exhibits a flattening between 20-30 AU and a possible rise afterward. A possible mechanism to reduce the decay rate within 30 AU was suggested to be turbulence driven by stream-stream interactions followed by more dominant pickup ion interactions beyond 30 AU. Here we show that the variance in the density fluctuations as described by the inhomogeneous nearly
Lossy compression of weak lensing data
Vanderveld, R. Ali; Bernstein, Gary M.; Stoughton, Chris; Rhodes, Jason; Massey, Richard; Dobke, Benjamin M.
2011-07-12
Future orbiting observatories will survey large areas of sky in order to constrain the physics of dark matter and dark energy using weak gravitational lensing and other methods. Lossy compression of the resultant data will improve the cost and feasibility of transmitting the images through the space communication network. We evaluate the consequences of the lossy compression algorithm of Bernstein et al. (2010) for the high-precision measurement of weak-lensing galaxy ellipticities. This square-root algorithm compresses each pixel independently, and the information discarded is by construction less than the Poisson error from photon shot noise. For simulated space-based images (without cosmic rays) digitized to the typical 16 bits per pixel, application of the lossy compression followed by image-wise lossless compression yields images with only 2.4 bits per pixel, a factor of 6.7 compression. We demonstrate that this compression introduces no bias in the sky background. The compression introduces a small amount of additional digitization noise to the images, and we demonstrate a corresponding small increase in ellipticity measurement noise. The ellipticity measurement method is biased by the addition of noise, so the additional digitization noise is expected to induce a multiplicative bias on the galaxies measured ellipticities. After correcting for this known noise-induced bias, we find a residual multiplicative ellipticity bias of m {approx} -4 x 10^{-4}. This bias is small when compared to the many other issues that precision weak lensing surveys must confront, and furthermore we expect it to be reduced further with better calibration of ellipticity measurement methods.
Clinical significance of severe isolated diaphragm weakness.
Laroche, C M; Carroll, N; Moxham, J; Green, M
1988-10-01
We studied six patients with isolated bilateral paralysis or severe weakness of the diaphragm, present for 2 to 60 months (mean = 25), to document the clinical and respiratory sequelae of the condition. Severe diaphragm dysfunction was confirmed by the demonstration of the very low maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) generated by either a sniff (13 +/- 6 cm H2O, normal 148 +/- 24) or a static inspiration (11 +/- 8, normal 108 +/- 30) and during bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation (0.8 +/- 2.0, normal 22 +/- 4). Resting arterial blood gases were normal (SaO2 = 95 to 97%) and no oxygen desaturation occurred during maximal exercise on a treadmill. Maximum voluntary ventilation was low and related to PImax (r = 0.89). Overnight sleep monitoring showed that time spent in rapid eye movement sleep was normal (mean 55 +/- 36 min, range 26 to 117 min). Mean maximum increment in transcutaneous CO2 was within normal limits (6 +/- 2 mm Hg, range 3 to 9 mm Hg). Three patients had occasional brief episodes of oxygen desaturation (mean maximal decrease 13 +/- 10%, range 2 to 27%); however, only two of these spent a measurable proportion of total sleep time (TST) with an SaO2 of less than 80% (1% and 3% TST, respectively). No patient has developed any symptoms of nocturnal hypoventilation or chronic respiratory failure during periods of observation of up to five yr. We conclude that bilateral paralysis or very severe weakness of the diaphragm does not of itself lead to respiratory failure unless weakness of other respiratory muscles is present. PMID:3202460
Spurious Shear in Weak Lensing with LSST
Chang, C.; Kahn, S.M.; Jernigan, J.G.; Peterson, J.R.; AlSayyad, Y.; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Gibson, R.R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Hodge, M.A.; Jee, M.J.; Jones, L.; Krughoff, S.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, P.J.; Marshall, S.; Meert, A.
2012-09-19
The complete 10-year survey from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will image {approx} 20,000 square degrees of sky in six filter bands every few nights, bringing the final survey depth to r {approx} 27.5, with over 4 billion well measured galaxies. To take full advantage of this unprecedented statistical power, the systematic errors associated with weak lensing measurements need to be controlled to a level similar to the statistical errors. This work is the first attempt to quantitatively estimate the absolute level and statistical properties of the systematic errors on weak lensing shear measurements due to the most important physical effects in the LSST system via high fidelity ray-tracing simulations. We identify and isolate the different sources of algorithm-independent, additive systematic errors on shear measurements for LSST and predict their impact on the final cosmic shear measurements using conventional weak lensing analysis techniques. We find that the main source of the errors comes from an inability to adequately characterise the atmospheric point spread function (PSF) due to its high frequency spatial variation on angular scales smaller than {approx} 10{prime} in the single short exposures, which propagates into a spurious shear correlation function at the 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} level on these scales. With the large multi-epoch dataset that will be acquired by LSST, the stochastic errors average out, bringing the final spurious shear correlation function to a level very close to the statistical errors. Our results imply that the cosmological constraints from LSST will not be severely limited by these algorithm-independent, additive systematic effects.
Lossy compression of weak lensing data
Vanderveld, R. Ali; Bernstein, Gary M.; Stoughton, Chris; Rhodes, Jason; Massey, Richard; Dobke, Benjamin M.
2011-07-12
Future orbiting observatories will survey large areas of sky in order to constrain the physics of dark matter and dark energy using weak gravitational lensing and other methods. Lossy compression of the resultant data will improve the cost and feasibility of transmitting the images through the space communication network. We evaluate the consequences of the lossy compression algorithm of Bernstein et al. (2010) for the high-precision measurement of weak-lensing galaxy ellipticities. This square-root algorithm compresses each pixel independently, and the information discarded is by construction less than the Poisson error from photon shot noise. For simulated space-based images (without cosmicmore » rays) digitized to the typical 16 bits per pixel, application of the lossy compression followed by image-wise lossless compression yields images with only 2.4 bits per pixel, a factor of 6.7 compression. We demonstrate that this compression introduces no bias in the sky background. The compression introduces a small amount of additional digitization noise to the images, and we demonstrate a corresponding small increase in ellipticity measurement noise. The ellipticity measurement method is biased by the addition of noise, so the additional digitization noise is expected to induce a multiplicative bias on the galaxies measured ellipticities. After correcting for this known noise-induced bias, we find a residual multiplicative ellipticity bias of m {approx} -4 x 10-4. This bias is small when compared to the many other issues that precision weak lensing surveys must confront, and furthermore we expect it to be reduced further with better calibration of ellipticity measurement methods.« less
Weakness in pregnancy – expect the unexpected
Furara, S; Maw, M; Khan, F; Powell, K
2008-01-01
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is rare in pregnancy with an incidence estimated to be between 1.2 and 1.9 cases per 100,000 people annually, and it is generally accepted that it carries a high maternal risk. Delayed diagnosis is common because the initial non-specific symptoms may mimic changes in pregnancy. GBS should be considered in any pregnant patient complaining of muscle weakness, general malaise, tingling of the fingers and respiratory discomfort. This case aims to highlight the importance of early diagnosis, allowing prompt initiation of the immunomodulatory treatments which have been shown to improve outcome alongside multidisciplinary care.
Supersymmetric Higgs Bosons in Weak Boson Fusion
Hollik, Wolfgang; Plehn, Tilman; Rauch, Michael; Rzehak, Heidi
2009-03-06
We compute the complete supersymmetric next-to-leading-order corrections to the production of a light Higgs boson in weak-boson fusion. The size of the electroweak corrections is of similar order as the next-to-leading-order corrections in the standard model. The supersymmetric QCD corrections turn out to be significantly smaller than expected and than their electroweak counterparts. These corrections are an important ingredient to a precision analysis of the (supersymmetric) Higgs sector at the LHC, either as a known correction factor or as a contribution to the theory error.
Weak η production off the nucleon
Alam, M. Rafi; Athar, M. Sajjad; Alvarez-Ruso, L.; Vacas, M. J. Vicente
2015-05-15
The weak η-meson production off the nucleon induced by (anti)neutrinos is studied at low and intermediate energies, the range of interest for several ongoing and future neutrino experiments. We consider Born diagrams and the excitation of N{sup *} (1535)S{sub 11} and N{sup *} (1650)S{sub 11} resonances. The vector part of the N-S{sub 11} transition form factors has been obtained from the MAID helicity amplitudes while the poorly known axial part is constrained with the help of the partial conservation of the axial current (PCAC) and assuming the pion-pole dominance of the pseudoscalar form factor.
Relaxation properties of weakly coupled classical systems
Romero-Rochin, V.; Oppenheim, I.
1988-10-01
The relaxation properties of a small classical system weakly coupled to a large classical system which acts as a heat bath are described using a generalized Fokker-Planck equation. The Fokker-Planck equation is derived in general using a modification of the elimination of fast variables techniques previously described. The specific example in which the small system is a harmonic oscillator linearly coupled to the heat bath is treated in detail and it is demonstrated that there is a dynamic frequency shift as well as a statistical shift of the oscillator frequency.
Hollow vortices in weakly compressible flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnamurthy, Vikas; Crowdy, Darren
2014-11-01
In a two-dimensional, inviscid and steady fluid flow, hollow vortices are bounded regions of constant pressure with non-zero circulation. It is known that for an infinite row of incompressible hollow vortices, analytical solutions for the flow field and the shape of the hollow vortex boundary can be obtained using conformal mapping methods. In this talk, we show how to derive analytical expressions for a weakly compressible hollow vortex row. This is done by introducing a new method based on the Imai-Lamla formula. We will also touch upon how to extend these results to a von-Karman street of hollow vortices.
Hollow vortices in weakly compressible flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnamurthy, Vikas; Crowdy, Darren
2015-11-01
In a two-dimensional, inviscid and steady fluid flow, hollow vortices are bounded regions of constant pressure with non-zero circulation. It is known that for an infinite row of incompressible hollow vortices, analytical solutions for the flow field and the shape of the hollow vortex boundary can be obtained using conformal mapping methods. In this talk, we show how to derive analytical expressions for a weakly compressible hollow vortex row. This is done by introducing a new method based on the Imai-Lamla formula. We will also touch upon how to extend these results to a von-Karman street of hollow vortices.
Weak Localization in few layer Black Phosphorus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gillgren, Nathaniel; Shi, Yanmeng; Espiritu, Timothy; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takahashi; Lau, Chun Ning (Jeanie)
Few-layer black phosphorus has recently attracted interest from the scientific community due to its high mobility, tunable band gap, and large anisotropy. Recent experiments have demonstrated that black phosphorus provides a promising candidate to explore the physics of 2D semiconductors. In this study we explore the magnetotransport of few-layer black phosphorus-boron nitride hetereostructure devices at low magnetic fields. Weak localization is observed at low temperatures. We extract the dephasing length and measure its dependence on temperature, carrier density and electric field.
Improved Quantum Signature Scheme with Weak Arbitrator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Qi; Li, Wen-Min
2013-09-01
In this paper, we find a man-in-the-middle attack on the quantum signature scheme with a weak arbitrator (Luo et al., Int. J. Theor. Phys., 51:2135, 2012). In that scheme, the authors proposed a quantum signature based on quantum one way function which contains both verifying the signer phase and verifying the signed message phase. However, after our analysis we will show that Eve can adopt different strategies in respective phases to forge the signature without being detected. Then we present an improved scheme to increase the security.
PLASMA EMISSION BY WEAK TURBULENCE PROCESSES
Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R.; Yoon, P. H.; Pavan, J. E-mail: rudi.gaelzer@ufrgs.br E-mail: joel.pavan@ufpel.edu.br
2014-11-10
The plasma emission is the radiation mechanism responsible for solar type II and type III radio bursts. The first theory of plasma emission was put forth in the 1950s, but the rigorous demonstration of the process based upon first principles had been lacking. The present Letter reports the first complete numerical solution of electromagnetic weak turbulence equations. It is shown that the fundamental emission is dominant and unless the beam speed is substantially higher than the electron thermal speed, the harmonic emission is not likely to be generated. The present findings may be useful for validating reduced models and for interpreting particle-in-cell simulations.
Water distribution in multilayers of weak polyelectrolytes.
Tanchak, Oleh M; Yager, Kevin G; Fritzsche, Helmut; Harroun, Thad; Katsaras, John; Barrett, Christopher J
2006-05-23
The water localization in thin polyelectrolyte multilayers assembled from poly(acrylic acid) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) was investigated with neutron reflectivity in an atmosphere of controlled humidity and with bulk water. Water was found to be distributed asymmetrically within the multilayer and to localize preferentially at the polymer surface. The diffusion of water into the multilayer did not completely penetrate to the substrate, but instead there appeared to be an exclusion zone near the Si substrate. These results help to explain previous observations of anomalous water transport kinetics in weak polyelectrolyte systems. PMID:16700605
LensTools: Weak Lensing computing tools
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petri, A.
2016-02-01
LensTools implements a wide range of routines frequently used in Weak Gravitational Lensing, including tools for image analysis, statistical processing and numerical theory predictions. The package offers many useful features, including complete flexibility and easy customization of input/output formats; efficient measurements of power spectrum, PDF, Minkowski functionals and peak counts of convergence maps; survey masks; artificial noise generation engines; easy to compute parameter statistical inferences; ray tracing simulations; and many others. It requires standard numpy and scipy, and depending on tools used, may require Astropy (ascl:1304.002), emcee (ascl:1303.002), matplotlib, and mpi4py.
Nanoelectromechanics of superconducting weak links (Review Article)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parafilo, A. V.; Krive, I. V.; Shekhter, R. I.; Jonson, M.
2012-04-01
Nanoelectromechanical effects in superconducting weak links are considered. Three different superconducting devices are studied: (i) a single-Cooper-pair transistor, (ii) a transparent SNS junction, and (iii) a single-level quantum dot coupled to superconducting electrodes. The electromechanical coupling is due to electrostatic or magnetomotive forces acting on a movable part of the device. It is demonstrated that depending on the frequency of mechanical vibrations the electromechanical coupling could either suppress or enhance the Josephson current. Nonequilibrium effects associated with cooling of the vibrational subsystem or pumping energy into it at low bias voltages are discussed.
Thermodynamics of Weakly Measured Quantum Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso, Jose Joaquin; Lutz, Eric; Romito, Alessandro
2016-02-01
We consider continuously monitored quantum systems and introduce definitions of work and heat along individual quantum trajectories that are valid for coherent superposition of energy eigenstates. We use these quantities to extend the first and second laws of stochastic thermodynamics to the quantum domain. We illustrate our results with the case of a weakly measured driven two-level system and show how to distinguish between quantum work and heat contributions. We finally employ quantum feedback control to suppress detector backaction and determine the work statistics.
Chaotic system detection of weak seismic signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Y.; Yang, B. J.; Badal, J.; Zhao, X. P.; Lin, H. B.; Li, R. L.
2009-09-01
When the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio is less than -3 dB or even 0 dB, seismic events are generally difficult to identify from a common shot record. To overcome this type of problem we present a method to detect weak seismic signals based on the oscillations described by a chaotic dynamic system in phase space. The basic idea is that a non-linear chaotic oscillator is strongly immune to noise. Such a dynamic system is less influenced by noise, but it is more sensitive to periodic signals, changing from a chaotic state to a large-scale periodic phase state when excited by a weak signal. With the purpose of checking the possible contamination of the signal by noise, we have performed a numerical experiment with an oscillator controlled by the Duffing-Holmes equation, taking a distorted Ricker wavelet sequence as input signal. In doing so, we prove that the oscillator system is able to reach a large-scale periodic phase state in a strong noise environment. In the case of a common shot record with low S/N ratio, the onsets reflected from a same interface are similar to one other and can be put on a single trace with a common reference time and the periodicity of the so-generated signal follows as a consequence of moveout at a particular scanning velocity. This operation, which is called `horizontal dynamic correction' and leads to a nearly periodic signal, is implemented on synthetic wavelet sequences taking various sampling arrival times and scanning velocities. Thereafter, two tests, both in a noisy ambient of -3.7 dB, are done using a chaotic oscillator: the first demonstrates the capability of the method to really detect a weak seismic signal; the second takes care of the fundamental weakness of the dynamic correction coming from the use of a particular scanning velocity, which is investigated from the effect caused by near-surface lateral velocity variation on the periodicity of the reconstructed seismic signal. Finally, we have developed an application of the
Thermodynamics of Weakly Measured Quantum Systems.
Alonso, Jose Joaquin; Lutz, Eric; Romito, Alessandro
2016-02-26
We consider continuously monitored quantum systems and introduce definitions of work and heat along individual quantum trajectories that are valid for coherent superposition of energy eigenstates. We use these quantities to extend the first and second laws of stochastic thermodynamics to the quantum domain. We illustrate our results with the case of a weakly measured driven two-level system and show how to distinguish between quantum work and heat contributions. We finally employ quantum feedback control to suppress detector backaction and determine the work statistics. PMID:26967399
Lifetime constraints for late dark matter decay
Bell, Nicole F.; Galea, Ahmad J.; Petraki, Kalliopi
2010-07-15
We consider a class of late-decaying dark matter models, in which a dark matter particle decays to a heavy stable daughter of approximately the same mass, together with one or more relativistic particles which carry away only a small fraction of the parent rest mass. Such decays can affect galactic halo structure and evolution, and have been invoked as a remedy to some of the small-scale structure formation problems of cold dark matter. There are existing stringent limits on the dark matter lifetime if the decays produce photons. By considering examples in which the relativistic decay products instead consist of neutrinos or electron-position pairs, we derive stringent limits on these scenarios for a wide range of dark matter masses. We thus eliminate a sizable portion of the parameter space for these late-decay models if the dominant decay channel involves standard model final states.
Weakly regular T2-symmetric spacetimes. The future causal geometry of Gowdy spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LeFloch, Philippe G.; Smulevici, Jacques
2016-01-01
We investigate the future asymptotic behavior of Gowdy spacetimes on T3, when the metric satisfies weak regularity conditions, so that the metric coefficients (in suitable coordinates) are only in the Sobolev space H1 or have even weaker regularity. The authors recently introduced this class of spacetimes in the broader context of T2-symmetric spacetimes and established the existence of a global foliation by spacelike hypersurfaces when the time function is chosen to be the area of the surfaces of symmetry. In the present paper, we identify the global causal geometry of these spacetimes and, in particular, establish that weakly regular Gowdy spacetimes are future timelike geodesically complete. This result extends a theorem by Ringström for metrics with sufficiently high regularity. We emphasize that our proof of the energy decay is based on an energy functional inspired by the Gowdy-to-Ernst transformation. In order to establish the geodesic completeness property, we prove a higher regularity property concerning the metric coefficients along timelike curves and we provide a novel analysis of the geodesic equation for Gowdy spacetimes, which does not require high-order regularity estimates. Even when sufficient regularity is assumed, our proof provides an alternative and shorter proof of the energy decay and of the geodesic completeness property for Gowdy spacetimes.
Modified gravity: the CMB, weak lensing and general parameterisations
Thomas, Shaun A.; Appleby, Stephen A.; Weller, Jochen E-mail: stephen.appleby@ph.tum.de
2011-03-01
We examine general physical parameterisations for viable gravitational models in the f(R) framework. This is related to the mass of an additional scalar field, called the scalaron, that is introduced by the theories. Using a simple parameterisation for the scalaron mass M(a) we show there is an exact correspondence between the model and popular parameterisations of the modified Poisson equation μ(a,k) and the ratio of the Newtonian potentials η(a,k). We argue that although f(R) models are well described by the general [μ(a,k),η(a,k)] parameterization, specific functional forms of μ,η in the literature do not accurately represent f(R) behaviour, specifically at low redshift. We subsequently construct an improved description for the scalaron mass (and therefore μ(a,k) and η(a,k)) which captures their essential features and has benefits derived from a more physical origin. We study the scalaron's observational signatures and show the modification to the background Friedmann equation and CMB power spectrum to be small. We also investigate its effects in the linear and non linear matter power spectrum-where the signatures are evident-thus giving particular importance to weak lensing as a probe of these models. Using this new form, we demonstrate how the next generation Euclid survey will constrain these theories and its complementarity to current solar system tests. In the most optimistic case Euclid, together with a Planck prior, can constrain a fiducial scalaron mass M{sub 0} = 9.4 × 10{sup −30}eV at the ∼ 20% level. However, the decay rate of the scalaron mass, with fiducial value ν = 1.5, can be constrained to ∼ 3% uncertainty.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Vela, A.
2016-04-01
Control of the fragment state distributions produced upon decay of a resonance state is achieved by using a weak laser field consisting of two pulses with a varying time delay between them. It is shown that specific product fragment states can be significantly favored or quenched. The efficiency and flexibility of the control method are found to increase with increasing resonance width. The control scheme is completely independent of the specific system to which it is applied, which makes its applicability universal.
Exponential Decay of Dispersion-Managed Solitons for General Dispersion Profiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, William R.; Hundertmark, Dirk
2016-02-01
We show that any weak solution of the dispersion management equation describing dispersion-managed solitons together with its Fourier transform decay exponentially. This strong regularity result extends a recent result of Erdoğan, Hundertmark, and Lee in two directions, to arbitrary non-negative average dispersion and, more importantly, to rather general dispersion profiles, which cover most, if not all, physically relevant cases.
Study of the D{sup 0{yields}{pi}+{pi}-{pi}0} decay at BABAR
Gaspero, Mario
2010-08-05
The Dalitz-plot of the decay D{sup 0{yields}{pi}+{pi}-{pi}0} measured by the BABAR collaboration shows the structure of a final state having quantum numbers I{sup G}J{sup PC} = 0{sup -}0{sup --}. An isospin analysis of this Dalitz-plot finds that the fraction of the I = 0 contribution is about 96%. This high I = 0 contribution is unexpected because the weak interaction violates the isospin.
Weak compressibility of surface wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vucelja, Marija; Fouxon, Itzhak; Falkovich, Gregory
2010-11-01
Clustering of matter on the surface of lakes and pools and of oil slicks and seaweed on the sea surface is well-known empirically but there is no theory that describes it. Since surface flows are always compressible, such a theory should be based on the description of the development of density of inhomogeneities in a compressible flow. We studied the growth of small-scale inhomogeneities in the density of particles floating in weakly nonlinear small-amplitude surface waves. Despite the small amplitude, the accumulated effect of the long-time evolution may produce a strongly inhomogeneous distribution of the floaters: density fluctuations grow exponentially with a small but finite exponent. We have shown that the exponent is of sixth or higher order in wave amplitude. As a result, the inhomogeneities do not form within typical time scales of the natural environment. Thus the turbulence of surface waves is weakly compressible and alone it cannot be a realistic mechanism of the clustering of matter on liquid surfaces. However if besides waves there are also currents, the interplay of waves with currents, might be in some cases responsible for the patchiness of the floaters.
Optimizing Average Precision Using Weakly Supervised Data.
Behl, Aseem; Mohapatra, Pritish; Jawahar, C V; Kumar, M Pawan
2015-12-01
Many tasks in computer vision, such as action classification and object detection, require us to rank a set of samples according to their relevance to a particular visual category. The performance of such tasks is often measured in terms of the average precision (ap). Yet it is common practice to employ the support vector machine ( svm) classifier, which optimizes a surrogate 0-1 loss. The popularity of svmcan be attributed to its empirical performance. Specifically, in fully supervised settings, svm tends to provide similar accuracy to ap-svm, which directly optimizes an ap-based loss. However, we hypothesize that in the significantly more challenging and practically useful setting of weakly supervised learning, it becomes crucial to optimize the right accuracy measure. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a novel latent ap-svm that minimizes a carefully designed upper bound on the ap-based loss function over weakly supervised samples. Using publicly available datasets, we demonstrate the advantage of our approach over standard loss-based learning frameworks on three challenging problems: action classification, character recognition and object detection. PMID:26539857
Plasma waves downstream of weak collisionless shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coroniti, F. V.; Greenstadt, E. W.; Moses, S. L.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.
1993-01-01
In September 1983 the International Sun Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE 3) International Cometary Explorer (ICE) spacecraft made a long traversal of the distant dawnside flank region of the Earth's magnetosphere and had many encounters with the low Mach number bow shock. These weak shocks excite plasma wave electric field turbulence with amplitudes comparable to those detected in the much stronger bow shock near the nose region. Downstream of quasi-perpendicular (quasi-parallel) shocks, the E field spectra exhibit a strong peak (plateau) at midfrequencies (1 - 3 kHz); the plateau shape is produced by a low-frequency (100 - 300 Hz) emission which is more intense behind downstream of two quasi-perpendicular shocks show that the low frequency signals are polarized parallel to the magnetic field, whereas the midfrequency emissions are unpolarized or only weakly polarized. A new high frequency (10 - 30 kHz) emission which is above the maximum Doppler shift exhibit a distinct peak at high frequencies; this peak is often blurred by the large amplitude fluctuations of the midfrequency waves. The high-frequency component is strongly polarized along the magnetic field and varies independently of the lower-frequency waves.
Conformational transitions of a weak polyampholyte
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narayanan Nair, Arun Kumar; Uyaver, Sahin; Sun, Shuyu
2014-10-01
Using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of a flexible polyelectrolyte where the charges are in contact with a reservoir of constant chemical potential given by the solution pH, we study the behavior of weak polyelectrolytes in poor and good solvent conditions for polymer backbone. We address the titration behavior and conformational properties of a flexible diblock polyampholyte chain formed of two oppositely charged weak polyelectrolyte blocks, each containing equal number of identical monomers. The change of solution pH induces charge asymmetry in a diblock polyampholyte. For diblock polyampholyte chains in poor solvents, we demonstrate that a discontinuous transition between extended (tadpole) and collapsed (globular) conformational states is attainable by varying the solution pH. The double-minima structure in the probability distribution of the free energy provides direct evidence for the first-order like nature of this transition. At the isoelectric point electrostatically driven coil-globule transition of diblock polyampholytes in good solvents is found to consist of different regimes identified with increasing electrostatic interaction strength. At pH values above or below the isoelectric point diblock chains are found to have polyelectrolyte-like behavior due to repulsion between uncompensated charges along the chain.
A model of weak viscoelastic nematodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leonov, Arkady I.
2008-03-01
The paper develops a continuum theory of weak viscoelastic nematodynamics of Maxwell type. It can describe the molecular elasticity effects in mono-domain flows of liquid crystalline polymers as well as the viscoelastic effects in suspensions of uniaxially symmetric particles in polymer fluids. Along with viscoelastic and nematic kinematics, the theory employs a general form of weakly elastic thermodynamic potential and the Leslie Ericksen Parodi type constitutive equations for viscous nematic liquids, while ignoring inertia effects and the Frank (orientation) elasticity in liquid crystal polymers. In general case, even the simplest Maxwell model has many basic parameters. Nevertheless, recently discovered algebraic properties of nematic operations reveal a general structure of the theory and present it in a simple form. It is shown that the evolution equation for director is also viscoelastic. An example of magnetization exemplifies the action of non-symmetric stresses. When the magnetic field is absent, the theory is reduced to the symmetric, fluid mechanical case with relaxation properties for both the stress and director. Our recent analyses of elastic and viscous soft deformation modes are also extended to the viscoelastic case. The occurrence of possible soft modes minimizes both the free energy and dissipation, and also significantly decreases the number of material parameters. In symmetric linear case, the theory is explicitly presented in terms of anisotropic linear memory functionals. Several analytical results demonstrate a rich behavior predicted by the developed model for steady and unsteady flows in simple shearing and simple elongation.
Auroral weak double layers: A critical assessment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koskinen, Hannu E. J.; Mälkki, Anssi M.
Weak double layers (WDLs) were first observed in the mid-altitude auroral magnetosphere in 1976 by the S3-3 satellite. The observations were confirmed by Viking in 1986, when more detailed information of these small-scale plasma structures became available. WDLs are upward moving rarefactive solitary structures with negative electric potential. The potential drop over a WDL is typically 0-1 V with electric field pointing predominantly upward. The structures are usually found in relatively weak (≤2 kV) auroral acceleration regions where the field-aligned current is upward, but sometimes very small. The observations suggest that WDLs exist in regions of cool electron and ion background. Most likely the potential structures are embedded in the background ion population that may drift slowly upward. There have been several attempts for plasma physical explanation of WDLs but so far the success has not been very good. Computer simulations have been able to produce similar structures, but usually for somewhat unrealistic plasma parameters. A satisfactory understanding of the phenomenon requires consideration of the role of WDLs in the magnetosphere-ionosphere (MI) coupling, including the large-scale electric fields, both parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, and the Alfvén waves mediating the coupling. In this report we give a critical review of our present understanding of WDLs. We try to find out what can be safely deduced from the observations, what are just educated guesses, and where we may go wrong.
Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials
Johnson, Paul A; Haupert, Sylvain; Renaud, Guillaume; Riviere, Jacques; Talmant, Maryline; Laugier, Pascal
2010-12-07
Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.
Optimal Weak-Lensing Skewness Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Tong-Jie; Pen, Ue-Li; Zhang, Pengjie; Dubinski, John
2003-12-01
Weak-lensing measurements are starting to provide statistical maps of the distribution of matter in the universe that are increasingly precise and complementary to cosmic microwave background maps. The most common measurement is the correlation in alignments of background galaxies, which can be used to infer the variance of the projected surface density of matter. This measurement of the fluctuations is insensitive to the total mass content and is analogous to using waves on the ocean to measure its depths. However, when the depth is shallow, as happens near a beach, waves become skewed. Similarly, a measurement of skewness in the projected matter distribution directly measures the total matter content of the universe. While skewness has already been convincingly detected, its constraint on cosmology is still weak. We address optimal analyses for the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey in the presence of noise. We show that a compensated Gaussian filter with a width of 2.5‧ optimizes the cosmological constraint, yielding ΔΩm/Ωm~10%. This is significantly better than other filters that have been considered in the literature. This can be further improved with tomography and other sophisticated analyses.
Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu
2015-03-01
The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.
Evolution of a Langmuir Wave in a Weakly Inhomogeneous Plasma with a Positive Concentration Gradient
Matveev, A.I.
2005-11-01
Spatial evolution of a Langmuir wave excited by external sources in a weakly inhomogeneous electron plasma without external sources is considered for a small positive gradient of the plasma concentration in the direction of propagation of the wave. At the first state of the evolution, the dispersion of the wave is close to linear. When the phase velocity is doubled, the second stage of the evolution begins. The wave loses its individuality and becomes a hybrid of two waves. Its profile acquires the shape of an alternating sequence of fragments of these waves. The wave dispersion is determined by the dispersion of each fragment. In the course of evolution, the spacing between the equilibrium values of the wave fragments increases; as a result, the wave decays into two waves, which are also loaded by trapped electrons. Prior to decay, the humps of the wave become steeper; as a result, at the instant of the decay, the wave is transformed into a sequence of solitons with different polarities.