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Sample records for nonparasitized creamy-bellied thrush

  1. Thrush

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Thrush is a yeast infection of the tongue and lining of the ... do not fit well. Candida can also cause yeast infections in the vagina. Thrush in newborns is ...

  2. Thrush in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Candidiasis - oral - newborn; Oral thrush - newborn; Fungal infection - mouth - newborn; Candida - oral - newborn ... yeast called Candida albicans grows in a baby's mouth. Germs called bacteria and fungi naturally grow in ...

  3. Thrush in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Candidiasis - oral - newborn; Oral thrush - newborn; Fungal infection - mouth - newborn; Candida - oral - newborn ... the mother's nipples are perfect places for a yeast infection. Babies can also get a yeast infection on ...

  4. Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A A In oral candidiasis, normal mouth yeast overgrows, causing white, slightly elevated lesions. Overview Thrush ( ... candidiasis), also known as oral moniliasis, is a yeast infection of the mouth or throat (the oral ...

  5. Orwell's Thrush Is a Hardy Bird.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, W. Russell

    1984-01-01

    Explores the linkages between Thomas Hardy's poem "The Darkling Thrush" and the thrush scene in George Orwell's novel "1984." Suggests a variety of enrichment projects for students that deal with aspects of these two works. (RBW)

  6. Clinicopathological evaluation of non-parasitic dermatoses in canines

    PubMed Central

    Sindha, M. J.; Trangadia, B. J.; Vihol, P. D.; Parmar, R. S.; Patel, B. V.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study has been carried out to detect non-parasitic dermatoses in canines brought at the Nandini Veterinary Hospital, Surat. Materials and Methods: The current investigation was carried out on skin scrapping, skin biopsy specimens, blood, and serum samples of 210 freshly registered cases of dogs with dermatological afflictions. Dogs found healthy on clinical examination were used as control animals (n=15). The incidence of non-parasitic dermatoses has been recorded as per age, breed, and sex of dogs. For bacterial isolation, the pus/exudates samples were collected from 40 cases of pyoderma and streaked onto brain-heart infusion agar while 13 skin scrapping samples were inoculated on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar with chloramphenicol for isolation of fungi. The organisms were identified on the basis of gross and microscopic observation of cultural growth on media. The blood and sera samples were also collected to note alteration in hematology and biochemical parameters, respectively. Tissue samples from lesions were collected and subsequently preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathology. Results: Out of 210 cases of dermatoses, 60 cases were of non-parasitic dermatoses, i.e., 28.57%. Of these, bacterial skin infections (pyoderma) were found to be the predominant at 80.00%, followed by other non-parasitic dermatological disorders, i.e., 11.67% and fungal skin infection, i.e., 8.33%. The dogs belonging to age group 1-3 years showed greater susceptibility to non-parasitic dermatological conditions. Breed wise incidence of pyoderma was found more in the Pomeranian breed (20.83%), whereas fungal skin affections were found to be higher in mongrel breed (60.00% and 42.86%, respectively). Male dogs showed greater involvement in bacterial, fungal, and other non-parasitic dermatoses. Bacteriological culture examination of 40 pus swabs resulted in the growth of 39 bacterial isolates. Mycological culture of skin scrapings from 13 suspected cases

  7. Non-parasitic splenic cysts: A report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    A, Macheras; EP, Misiakos; T, Liakakos; D, Mpistarakis; C, Fotiadis; G, Karatzas

    2005-01-01

    Primary splenic cyst is a relatively rare disease, and the majority of cases are classified as epithelial cysts. Three cases with nonparasitic splenic cysts are presented: two epithelial and one pseudocyst. All cases had an atypical symptomatology, consisted mainly of fullness in the left upper abdomen and a palpable mass. Preoperative diagnosis was established with ultrasonography and computerized tomography. Two cases with large cysts located in the splenic hilum were treated with open complete splenectomy. The most recent case, a pseudocyst, was managed laparoscopically with partial cystectomy. All cases did not have any problems or recurrence during follow-up. Laparoscopic partial cystectomy is an acceptable procedure for the treatment of splenic cysts, because it cures the disease preserving the splenic tissue. Complete splenectomy is reserved for cases in which cyst excision cannot be done otherwise. PMID:16425403

  8. The New Zealand Thrush: An Extinct Oriole

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Ulf S.; Pasquet, Eric; Irestedt, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The New Zealand Thrush, or Piopio, is an extinct passerine that was endemic to New Zealand. It has often been placed in its own family (Turnagridae), unresolved relative to other passerines, but affinities with thrushes, Australaian magpies, manucodes, whistlers, birds-of-paradise and bowerbirds has been suggested based on morphological data. An affinity with the bowerbirds was also indicated in an early molecular study, but low statistical support make this association uncertain. In this study we use sequence data from three nuclear introns to examine the phylogenetic relationships of the piopios. All three genes independently indicate an oriole (Oriolidae) affinity of the piopios, and the monophyly of the typical orioles (Oriolus), figbirds (Sphecotheres), and the piopios is strongly supported in the Bayesian analysis of the concatenated data set (posterior probability = 1.0). The exact placement of the piopios within Oriolidae is, however, more uncertain but in the combined analysis and in two of the gene trees the piopios are placed basal to the typical orioles while the third gene suggest a sister relationship with the figbirds. This is the first time an oriole affinity has been proposed for the piopios. Divergence time estimates for the orioles suggest that the clade originated ca 20 million years ago, and based on these estimates it is evident that the piopios must have arrived on New Zealand by dispersal across the Tasman Sea and not as a result of vicariance when New Zealand separated from Gondwana in the late Cretaceous. PMID:21931679

  9. The New Zealand Thrush: an extinct oriole.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ulf S; Pasquet, Eric; Irestedt, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The New Zealand Thrush, or Piopio, is an extinct passerine that was endemic to New Zealand. It has often been placed in its own family (Turnagridae), unresolved relative to other passerines, but affinities with thrushes, Australaian magpies, manucodes, whistlers, birds-of-paradise and bowerbirds has been suggested based on morphological data. An affinity with the bowerbirds was also indicated in an early molecular study, but low statistical support make this association uncertain. In this study we use sequence data from three nuclear introns to examine the phylogenetic relationships of the piopios. All three genes independently indicate an oriole (Oriolidae) affinity of the piopios, and the monophyly of the typical orioles (Oriolus), figbirds (Sphecotheres), and the piopios is strongly supported in the Bayesian analysis of the concatenated data set (posterior probability = 1.0). The exact placement of the piopios within Oriolidae is, however, more uncertain but in the combined analysis and in two of the gene trees the piopios are placed basal to the typical orioles while the third gene suggest a sister relationship with the figbirds. This is the first time an oriole affinity has been proposed for the piopios. Divergence time estimates for the orioles suggest that the clade originated ca 20 million years ago, and based on these estimates it is evident that the piopios must have arrived on New Zealand by dispersal across the Tasman Sea and not as a result of vicariance when New Zealand separated from Gondwana in the late Cretaceous. PMID:21931679

  10. Thrush - nightmare of the foundling hospitals.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Before safe artificial nutrition, refrigeration, and microorganisms became known, thrush was a severe and frequently lethal disease in foundling hospitals. Overcrowded and understaffed, these institutions were the ideal breeding ground for this disease. Malnutrition, especially when breastfeeding was denied, contributed to the fatal course. Nosocomial infections and high mortality led to a prejudice against infant hospitals in the late 19th century. Candida albicans was discovered in 1840 when a cooperation at the Paris Foundling Hospital between the Hungarian emigrant David Gruby and the Swede Frederik Berg led to this organism being the first pathogen to be identified. After World War II, Candida infections increased with the use of antibiotics. The disease became less threatening after the development of nystatin, the result of an interdisciplinary cooperation in New York between the microbiologist Elizabeth Hazen and the biochemist Rachel Brown. PMID:22024688

  11. Experimental analysis and simulation modeling of forest management impacts on wood thrushes, Hylocichla mustelina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    North American Breeding Bird Survey data show that wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) populations in eastern U.S. forests have declined 1.8% per year during 1966-95. The declining quality of breeding forest tracts in North America is one possible cause for the apparent decline of some neotropical migratory birds, such as the wood thrush. In Georgia, however, wood thrush populations have declined during a period of increasing pine forest area and larger patch sizes. We hypothesized that forest management practices such as thinning and prescribed burning might create unsuitable habitat for wood thrushes. We conducted a four-year before/after, treatment/control experiment at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia to study to the effects of a treatment of thinning and prescribed burning on wood thrush demographic parameters. We simultaneously monitored wood thrush adults and juveniles with mark-recapture, radio-telemetry, nest searches, and plot-map surveys. Our analyses showed that wood thrushes were less likely to emigrate from the study compartments after the treatment, and wood thrushes exhibited some tendency to increase preference for hardwood habitats and decrease preference for pine habitats following the treatment. However, we observed no effects of treatment on nest success, adult survival, and adult and juvenile dispersal distances. We also found that female wood thrushes had lower survival rates than males during the breeding season, and we documented large-scale, within-year dispersal movements of adult (up to 17 km) and juvenile (up to 7 km) wood thrushes. We conclude that landscape level habitat quantity and quality must be considered during songbird management decisions. The documentation of sex- and age-specific wood thrush survival and movement rates was critical for construction of a set of population models. We used three stochastic models to learn more about wood thrush population dynamics and make predictions about population

  12. [Population dynamics of thrushes and seasonal resource partition].

    PubMed

    Burskiĭ, O V; Demidova, E Iu; Morkovin, A A

    2014-01-01

    We studied seasonal population dynamics in birds using four thrush species from the Yenisei middle taiga region as an example. Long-term data on bird route censuses, capture-mark-recapture, and nest observa- tions were incorporated in the analysis. Particularly, methodological problems that complicate a direct comparison between assessed numbers at different phases of the annual cycle are considered. The integrated analysis of the results allowed comparing changes in numbers, energy expenditure, age structure, migrating status, and density distribution of selected populations during the snowless period and relating them to seasonal changes in food resource abundance. Thrush population numbers within the breeding range, and their energy consumption in the Yenisei middle taiga proportionately reflect the seasonal change in abundance of food resources. The compliance between resource intake and carrying capacity of the environment is attained by: timing of arrival and departure regarding to the species' range of tolerance; change in numbers as a result of reproduction and mortality; change in numbers due to habitat changes and long-distance movements; increasing energetic expenditures during reproduction and molt; timing, intensity and replication of nesting attempts; timing of molt and proportion of molting individuals in a population; individual variations of the annual cycle. Reproductive growth of local bird populations is not fast enough to catch up with seasonal growth of ecosystems productivity. Superabundance of invertebrates at the peak of the season offers a temporal niche which, on the one hand, is suitable for species capable of diet switching, while, on the other hand, may be used by specialized consumers, namely tropical migrants for whom, at high resource level, a shortened breeding period suffices. PMID:25786310

  13. Formation of a fluvial non-parasitic population of Lethenteron camtschaticum as the first step in petromyzontid speciation.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Y; Yokoyama, R; Nagai, T; Goto, A

    2011-12-01

    To elucidate the petromyzontid speciation process, the genetic independence of the fluvial non-parasitic populations within the anadromous parasitic Lethenteron camtschaticum was estimated by using polymorphic microsatellite loci. Abundant gene flow was revealed in multitemporal scales between potentially sympatric populations, suggesting ongoing gene flow resulting from imperfect size-assortative mating between them and plastic determination of life histories. On the contrary, landlocked fluvial non-parasitic populations in the upper region of dams were genetically divergent from anadromous parasitic populations. The temporal heterogeneity of gene flow, i.e. contemporary little gene flow but significant gene flow over the long-term between the landlocked fluvial non-parasitic and anadromous parasitic populations was elucidated. In addition, the divergence time of isolation of the landlocked populations from the ancestral anadromous parasitic population was estimated to have occurred 17.9-428.2 years ago, which includes the construction times of an initial dam c. 90 years ago. These instances indicate that the landlocked populations should have very recently been established, and subsequent accumulation of divergence and development of reproductive isolation are predicted. The present landlocked fluvial non-parasitic populations should be analogous to the founder populations in terms of petromyzontid speciation. The data also strongly support the hypothesis of multitemporal and multispatial speciation in the petromyzontid stem-satellite species complex. PMID:22141904

  14. Laparoscopic Surgery in Nonparasitic Cysts of the Liver: Results Observed in a Series of Consecutive Cases.

    PubMed

    Manterola, Carlos; Otzen, Tamara

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the results of laparoscopic treatment of nonparasitic cysts of the liver (NPCL) in terms of postoperative morbidity (POM) and recurrence. Prospective case series of patients operated on for NPCL at the Clínica Mayor in Temuco, Chile (2008 to 2015). The preoperative study consisted of general examinations, abdominal ultrasound or computed tomographic scan. The outcome variable was POM. Other variables of interest were surgical time, need for conversion, hospital stay, mortality, and recurrence. In the study period, 41 patients with NPCL underwent surgery. Median age of the series was 58 years, and 75.6% of the cases were female. The median ultrasound diameter of the lesions was 10 cm and surgical time was 50 minutes. All patients underwent a cystectomy. There was no conversion, no record of POM, mortality or recurrence. The treatment applied in this series of NPCL is associated with an adequate postoperative evolution. PMID:27403620

  15. Giant congenital solitary nonparasitic cyst of the liver causing respiratory distress in a neonate

    PubMed Central

    Bhosale, Minakshi; Singh, Dasmit

    2016-01-01

    A 3-day-old male neonate delivered at 34 weeks of gestational age was brought with breathing difficulty since birth. The abdomen was massively distended. A soft cystic mass was occupying almost the entire abdomen and causing obvious respiratory distress. On exploration, a huge, solitary, unilocular cyst was found between the two lobes of the liver. Growing extrahepatically between the two lobes, it had displaced them laterally on either side. Enucleation of the cyst and marsupialization of its base was done. Histopathology showed evidence of congenital solitary nonparasitic cyst of the liver. Symptomatic presentation of CSNCL in children, especially in a neonate is extremely rare and not considered as a differential diagnosis of an abdominal mass. Hence, the case report. PMID:27046978

  16. Immune function in an avian brood parasite and its nonparasitic relative.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Loren; O'Loghlen, Adrian L; Wingfield, John C; Rothstein, Stephen I

    2013-01-01

    Organisms that breed multiple times must trade off resources between current and future reproduction. In many species, sexual selection can lead to reduced levels of immune function in males because they invest heavily in current reproduction at the expense of self-maintenance. Much less is known about whether the same trend is seen in species such as the brood-parasitic brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater (hereafter "cowbird"), in which females invest heavily in current reproduction. We examined two measures of immune function (bactericidal capacity of the plasma and the phytohemagglutinin swelling response) and baseline levels of corticosterone in both sexes of the cowbird and its nonparasitic relative the red-winged blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus (hereafter "redwing") during the breeding and subsequent nonbreeding seasons. We found that female cowbirds exhibited significantly lower levels of both measures of immune function than did male cowbirds and female redwings during the breeding season but had comparable levels during the nonbreeding season. Female redwings, in contrast, exhibited higher or comparable levels of immune function when compared with male redwings during the breeding season. In conjunction with published accounts documenting significantly higher rates of mortality for female cowbirds compared with male cowbirds and the fact that female cowbirds produce very high numbers of eggs (25-65) in a single breeding season, our results suggest that female cowbirds invest heavily in current reproduction at the expense of self-maintenance. PMID:23303321

  17. Mercury concentrations in Bicknell's thrush and other insectivorous passerines in Montane forests of northeastern North America.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, Christopher C; Mcfarland, Kent P; Evers, David C; Miller, Eric K; Aubry, Yves; Busby, Daniel; Taylor, Robert J

    2005-03-01

    Anthropogenic input of mercury (Hg) into the environment has elevated risk to fish and wildlife, particularly in northeastern North America. Investigations into the transfer and fate of Hg have focused on inhabitants of freshwater aquatic ecosystems, as these are the habitats at greatest risk for methylmercury (MeHg) biomagnification. Deviating from such an approach, we documented MeHg availability in a terrestrial montane ecosystem using a suite of insectivorous passerines. Intensive and extensive sampling of Bicknell's thrush (Catharus bicknelli) indicated significant heterogeneity in MeHg availability across 21 mountaintops in northeastern North America. Southern parts of the breeding range tended to be at greater risk than northern parts. Mean blood Hg concentrations for Bicknell's thrush at 21 distinct breeding sites ranged from 0.08 to 0.38 ug/g (ww) and at seven Greater Antillean wintering sites ranged from 0.03 to 0.42 ug/g (ww). Overall concentrations were significantly greater in wintering than in breeding areas. Mercury exposure profiles for four passerine species on Mt. Mansfield, Vermont indicated greatest MeHg uptake in Bicknell's thrush and yellow-rumped warbler (Dendroica coronata) and lowest in blackpoll warbler (Dendroica striata) and white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis). The MeHg and total Hg ratio in blood in these four species was nearly 1:1. There was no correlation between blood and feather Hg concentrations in breeding Bicknell's thrush, in part because of apparent retention of winter Hg body burdens, within-season variation of MeHg availability, and confounding factors such as influences from age. Adult thrushes had significantly higher concentrations of feather Hg than did young-of-the-year. Although individual patterns of inter-year feather Hg concentrations were disordered, some individuals exhibited bioaccumulation of MeHg. Female blood Hg concentrations were significantly lower than males', in part because females have

  18. Impacts of cowbird parasitism on wood thrushes and other neotropical migrants in suburban Maryland forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowell, B.A.; Fallon, J.E.; Robbins, C.S.; Dawson, D.K.; Fallon, F.W.

    2000-01-01

    During 1988-1993, we monitored nests of neotropical migrant birds in seven suburban Maryland forests to compare parasitism and predation rates in forests of different areas. Of 1,122 nests monitored, 672 were of Wood Thrush, the most commonly found nesting species. Study sites were forests that ranged in size from 21 ha to more than 1,300 ha in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain regions of Maryland within 50 km of Washington, D.C. Parasitism rates of Wood Thrush nests varied greatly among sites, ranging from 0% (29 nests in 1990-1992) in a site in extensive forest to 68% (31 nests 1992-1993) in a 21-ha, selectively logged old-growth forest. A sudden increase in parasitism from 9% (102 nests 1990-1991) to 35% (125 nests 1992-1993) in a 23-ha old-growth forest was noteworthy. The surrounding environment at this site is changing from rural to residential. Wood Thrush parasitism rates dropped as the breeding season progressed, but peaks of parasitism coincided with peaks of nesting activity. Parasitism rates for Hooded Warblers (88% of 17 nests-all sites) were most alarming. High predation rates were a much greater factor in low productivity for Wood Thrushes than parasitism.

  19. How migratory thrushes conquered northern North America: a comparative phylogeography approach

    PubMed Central

    Topp, Carrie M.; Pruett, Christin L.; McCracken, Kevin G.

    2013-01-01

    Five species of migratory thrushes (Turdidae) occupy a transcontinental distribution across northern North America. They have largely overlapping breeding ranges, relatively similar ecological niches, and mutualistic relationships with northern woodland communities as insectivores and seed-dispersing frugivores. As an assemblage of ecologically similar species, and given other vertebrate studies, we predicted a shared pattern of genetic divergence among these species between their eastern and western populations, and also that the timing of the coalescent events might be similar and coincident with historical glacial events. To determine how these five lineages effectively established transcontinental distributions, we used mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences to assess genetic structure and lineage coalescence from populations on each side of the continent. Two general patterns occur. Hermit and Swainson’s thrushes (Catharus guttatus and C. ustulatus) have relatively deep divergences between eastern and western phylogroups, probably reflecting shared historic vicariance. The Veery (C. fuscescens), Gray-cheeked Thrush (C. minimus), and American Robin (Turdus migratorius) have relatively shallow divergences between eastern and western populations. However, coalescent and approximate Bayesian computational analyses indicated that among all species as many as five transcontinental divergence events occurred. Divergence within both Hermit and Swainson’s thrushes resembled the divergence between Gray-cheeked Thrushes and Veeries and probably occurred during a similar time period. Despite these species’ ecological similarities, the assemblage exhibits heterogeneity at the species level in how they came to occupy transcontinental northern North America but two general continental patterns at an among-species organizational level, likely related to lineage age. PMID:24255819

  20. A simple sonographic scoring system combined with routine serology is useful in differentiating parasitic from non-parasitic cysts of the liver☆

    PubMed Central

    Grisolia, A.; Troìa, G.; Mariani, G.; Brunetti, E.; Filice, C.

    2009-01-01

    In the absence of a detached endocyst, unilocular echinococcal cysts of the liver may be difficult to distinguish from non-parasitic cysts. In an attempt to identify sonographic features that could help distinguish these two types of cysts, we retrospectively analyzed 64 cases of fluid-filled hepatic cysts whose parasitic nature was ultimately excluded. This experience allowed us to develop a simple scoring system that quantifies the likelihood that hepatic cysts are non-parasitic. Sonographic criteria, together with the results of standard serological testing for cystic echinococcosis, proved to be sufficiently specific to allow definitive diagnosis without resorting to further tests. PMID:23396670

  1. A simple sonographic scoring system combined with routine serology is useful in differentiating parasitic from non-parasitic cysts of the liver().

    PubMed

    Grisolia, A; Troìa, G; Mariani, G; Brunetti, E; Filice, C

    2009-06-01

    In the absence of a detached endocyst, unilocular echinococcal cysts of the liver may be difficult to distinguish from non-parasitic cysts. In an attempt to identify sonographic features that could help distinguish these two types of cysts, we retrospectively analyzed 64 cases of fluid-filled hepatic cysts whose parasitic nature was ultimately excluded. This experience allowed us to develop a simple scoring system that quantifies the likelihood that hepatic cysts are non-parasitic. Sonographic criteria, together with the results of standard serological testing for cystic echinococcosis, proved to be sufficiently specific to allow definitive diagnosis without resorting to further tests. PMID:23396670

  2. Effects of forest management on density, survival, and population growth of wood thrushes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, L.A.; Lang, J.D.; Conroy, M.J.; Krementz, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Loss and alteration of breeding habitat have been proposed as causes of declines in several Neotropical migrant bird populations. We conducted a 4-year study to determine the effects of winter prescribed burning and forest thinning on breeding wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) populations at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge (PNWR) in Georgia. We estimated density, adult and juvenile survival rates, and apparent annual survival using transect surveys, radiotelemetry, and mist netting. Burning and thinning did not cause lower densities (P = 0.25); wood thrush density ranged from 0.15 to 1.30 pairs/10 ha. No radiomarked male wood thrushes (n = 68) died during the 4 years, but female (n = 63) weekly survival was 0.981 ? 0.014 (SE) for females (n = 63) and 0.976 ? 0.010 for juveniles (n = 38). Apparent annual adult survival was 0.579 (SE = 0.173). Thinning and prescribed burning did not reduce adult or juvenile survival during the breeding season or apparent annual adult survival. Annual population growth (lambda) at PNWR was 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.32--1.63), and the considerable uncertainty in this prediction underscores the need for long term monitoring to effectively manage Neotropical migrants. Population growth increased on experimental compartments after the burn and thin (95% CI before = 0.91--0.97, after = 0.98--1.05), while control compartment declined (before = 0.98--1.05, after = 0.87--0.92). We found no evidence that the current management regime at PNWR, designed to improve red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) habitat, negatively affected wood thrushes.

  3. Determinants of wood thrush nest success: A multi-scale, model selection approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, M.J.L.; Donovan, T.; Mickey, R.; Howard, A.; Fleming, K.K.

    2005-01-01

    We collected data on 212 wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) nests in central New York from 1998 to 2000 to determine the factors that most strongly influence nest success. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess and rank 9 models that examined the relationship between nest success (i.e., the probability that a nest would successfully fledge at least 1 wood thrush offspring) and habitat conditions at different spatial scales. We found that 4 variables were significant predictors of nesting success for wood thrushes: (1) total core habitat within 5 km of a study site, (2) distance to forest-field edge, (3) total forest cover within 5 km of the study site, and (4) density and variation in diameter of trees and shrubs surrounding the nest. The coefficients of these predictors were all positive. Of the 9 models evaluated, amount of core habitat in the 5-km landscape was the best-fit model, but the vegetation structure model (i.e., the density of trees and stems surrounding a nest) was also supported by the data. Based on AIC weights, enhancement of core area is likely to be a more effective management option than any other habitat-management options explored in this study. Bootstrap analysis generally confirmed these results; core and vegetation structure models were ranked 1, 2, or 3 in over 50% of 1,000 bootstrap trials. However, bootstrap results did not point to a decisive model, which suggests that multiple habitat factors are influencing wood thrush nesting success. Due to model uncertainty, we used a model averaging approach to predict the success or failure of each nest in our dataset. This averaged model was able to correctly predict 61.1% of nest outcomes.

  4. Habitat partitioning of four sympatric thrush species at three spatial scales on a managed forest in West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dellinger, R.L.; Wood, P.B.; Keyser, P.D.; Seidel, G.

    2007-01-01

    Four thrush species are sympatric in the central Appalachians: Veery (Catharus fuscescens), Hermit Thrush (C. guttatus), Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and American Robin (Turdus migratorius). The four species often nest near one another, which suggests that habitat partitioning may have developed to minimize past interspecific competition. Our objectives were to determine which specific characteristics of nesting habitat were partitioned among the species and to evaluate the relationship of these characteristics to nest survival. We monitored nests and sampled habitat variables at three spatial scales: nest substrate, nest site, and territory. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated a difference (P < 0.01) in the nest sites of all species and in each pairwise species contrast. An analysis of variance and Fisher's exact tests detected differences (P < 0.05) among species in 21 of 36 variables measured. Classification tree analysis correctly classified nests by species at a rate better than would be expected at random. Habitat partitioning among the four thrush species occurred at all three scales sampled, with the most important partitioning variables being nest height, distance-to-edge, sapling density, and elevation. Mayfield logistic regression found a positive relationship (P < 0.05) between decreasing nest height and American Robin nest survival. Overall, nest survival was similar among the four thrush species examined, and most of the variables that we measured were unrelated to survival. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  5. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of date from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes particularly regarding the trade-off between precison and potential bias o parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  6. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of data from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes, particularly regarding the trade-off between precision and potential bias of parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  7. Eggshell colour does not predict measures of maternal investment in eggs of Turdus thrushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassey, Phillip; Ewen, John G.; Blackburn, Tim M.; Hauber, Mark E.; Vorobyev, Misha; Marshall, N. Justin

    2008-08-01

    The striking diversity of avian eggshell colour has long fascinated biologists. Recently, it has been proposed that the blue-green colour of some eggs may function as a post-mating sexually selected signal of female phenotypic quality to their mates to induce higher allocation of paternal care. It has been suggested that maternally deposited yolk carotenoids may be the specific aspect of reproductive quality that the female is signalling via eggshell colour. We use the known properties of the thrush visual system ( Turdus sp.) to calculate photon capture for the four single cone photoreceptors, and the principal member of the double cone class for eggs in clutches of two introduced European thrush species ( Turdus merula and Turdus philomelos) in New Zealand. We show that differences in the avian-perceived colours of individual eggs are not consistently correlated with different measures of maternal investment in the egg. Given the growing extent of the knowledge between maternal quality, parental investment and eggshell pigmentation across avian taxa, we encourage the use of avian perceptual modelling for testing alternative non-signalling explanations for the structural and physiological basis of these relationships.

  8. Intraoperative air leak test was useful for the detection of a small biliary fistula: A rare case of non-parasitic hepatic cysts with biliary communication

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Atsushi; Hata, Shojiro; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Teruya, Masanori; Kaminishi, Michio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Symptomatic non-parasitic hepatic cysts with biliary communication are rare and no standard treatment has been established yet. Careful attention should be paid to avoidance of postoperative bile leakage during surgical treatment. Presentation of case We report the case of a 74-year-old man who visited our department complaining of right upper abdominal pain and elevated serum levels of the liver enzymes. Computed tomography revealed hepatic cysts including a large one measuring 16 cm in diameter in Segments IV and VIII. Percutaneous drainage of the cyst revealed bile-staining of the cyst fluid. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography demonstrated the presence of a cyst–biliary communication. We performed open deroofing of the cyst. During the operation, the biliary fistula was invisible, however, air injection into the bile duct through the stump of the cystic duct caused release of air bubbles from the cyst cavity, which allowed us to detect the small biliary orifice and repair it successfully by suture. Discussion We utilized the intraoperative air leak test, which has previously been reported to be effective for preventing postoperative bile leakage in patients undergoing hepatectomy to detect of a small cyst–biliary communication in a case undergoing non-parasitic hepatic cyst surgery. Conclusion An intraoperative air leak test may be a useful test during surgical treatment of non-parasitic hepatic cysts with biliary communication. PMID:26398333

  9. Candidiasis (Thrush)

    MedlinePlus

    ... chelitis. In the vagina, the infection is called yeast infection or vaginitis . This is a common vaginal ... There are effective drugs to treat it The yeast could develop resistance to the medications. Strengthening your ...

  10. Non-parasitic weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds lower potato yield and quality by competing for light, nutrients, water, and space. Weeds can also interfere with harvest operations. Weeds can be categorized into annual, biennial, and perennial based on their life cycle. Perennial weeds live for three years or more and reproduce by various t...

  11. Habitat selection by juvenile Swainson’s thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) in headwater riparian areas, northwestern Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Stephanie R.; Betts, Matthew G.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hagar, Joan C.

    2013-01-01

    Lower order, non-fish-bearing streams, often termed “headwater streams”, have received minimal research effort and protection priority, especially in mesic forests where distinction between riparian and upland vegetation can be subtle. Though it is generally thought that breeding bird abundance is higher in riparian zones, little is known about species distributions when birds are in their juvenile stage – a critical period in terms of population viability. Using radio telemetry, we examined factors affecting habitat selection by juvenile Swainson’s thrushes during the post-breeding period in headwater basins in the Coast Range of Oregon, USA. We tested models containing variables expected to influence the amount of food and cover (i.e., deciduous cover, coarse wood volume, and proximity to stream) as well as models containing variables that are frequently measured and manipulated in forest management (i.e., deciduous and coniferous trees separated into size classes). Juvenile Swainson’s thrushes were more likely to select locations with at least 25% cover of deciduous, mid-story vegetation and more than 2.0 m3/ha of coarse wood within 40 m of headwater streams. We conclude that despite their small and intermittent nature, headwater streams and adjacent riparian areas are selected over upland areas by Swainson’s thrush during the postfledging period in the Oregon Coast Range.

  12. Landscape context moderates edge effects: Nesting success of wood thrushes in Central New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, M.J.L.; Donovan, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Despite two decades of research into the effects of habitat fragmentation and edges on nesting birds, critical information about how edges affect the success of natural nests of Neotropical migratory songbirds breeding in heterogeneous landscapes is still missing. We studied abundance and nesting success in Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) breeding across a heterogeneous landscape in central New York from 1998 to 2000 to test the hypothesis that edge effects on nesting passerines are stronger in fragmented than contiguous landscapes. We monitored nests to estimate nesting success in edge and interior habitats in both fragmented and contiguously forested landscapes. In contiguous landscapes, daily survival rate did not differ between edge nests (0.963) and interior nests (0.968) (??2 = 0.19, p = 0.66). In contrast, in fragmented landscapes, daily survival estimates were higher in interior (0.971) than edge (0.953) nests (??2 = 3.1, p = 0.08). Our study supports the hypothesis that landscape composition moderates edge effects on actual nests of birds but does not determine the mechanisms causing these patterns.

  13. Life-history variation of a neotropical thrush challenges food limitation theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferretti, V.; Llambias, P.E.; Martin, T.E.

    2005-01-01

    Since David Lack first proposed that birds rear as many young as they can nourish, food limitation has been accepted as the primary explanation for variation in clutch size and other life-history traits in birds. The importance of food limitation in life-history variation, however, was recently questioned on theoretical grounds. Here, we show that clutch size differences between two populations of a neotropical thrush were contrary to expectations under Lack's food limitation hypothesis. Larger clutch sizes were found in a population with higher nestling starvation rate (i.e. greater food limitation). We experimentally equalized clutches between populations to verify this difference in food limitation. Our experiment confirmed greater food limitation in the population with larger mean clutch size. In addition, incubation bout length and nestling growth rate were also contrary to predictions of food limitation theory. Our results demonstrate the inability of food limitation to explain differences in several life-history traits: clutch size, incubation behaviour, parental feeding rate and nestling growth rate. These life-history traits were better explained by inter-population differences in nest predation rates. Food limitation may be less important to life history evolution in birds than suggested by traditional theory. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  14. Magnetic cues and time of season affect fuel deposition in migratory thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia).

    PubMed Central

    Kullberg, Cecilia; Lind, Johan; Fransson, Thord; Jakobsson, Sven; Vallin, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    Bird migration requires high energy expenditure, and long-distance migrants accumulate fat for use as fuel during stopovers throughout their journey. Recent studies have shown that long-distance migratory birds, besides accumulating fat for use as fuel, also show adaptive phenotypic flexibility in several organs during migration. The migratory routes of many songbirds include stretches of sea and desert where fuelling is not possible. Large fuel loads increase flight costs and predation risk, therefore extensive fuelling should occur only immediately prior to crossing inhospitable zones. However, despite their crucial importance for the survival of migratory birds, both strategic refuelling decisions and variation in phenotypic flexibility during migration are not well understood. First-year thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) caught in the early phase of the onset of autumn migration in southeast Sweden and exposed to a magnetic treatment simulating a migratory flight to northern Egypt increased more in fuel load than control birds. By contrast, birds trapped during the late phase of the onset of autumn migration accumulated a high fuel load irrespective of magnetic treatment. Furthermore, early birds increased less in flight-muscle size than birds trapped later in autumn. We suggest that the relative importance of endogenous and environmental factors in individual birds is affected by the time of season and by geographical area. When approaching a barrier, environmental cues may act irrespective of the endogenous time programme. PMID:12639316

  15. "Hanseniaspora uvarum" the ultrastructural morphology of a rare ascomycete, isolated from oral thrush.

    PubMed

    Emmanouil-Nikoloussi, E; Kanellaki-Kyparissi, M; Papavassiliou, P; Koliakos, K; Dermentzopoulou, M; Foroglou, C

    1994-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections, including oral thrush, often affect aged full denture wearers and many individuals over 65 years old. The aim of this study was to examine the ultrastructural morphology of a very rare yeast, named Hanseniaspora uvarum/guillermondi, member of the Ascomycetes family, whose pathogenesis and behaviour is not widely known. The yeast was isolated from whitish lesions of the buccal mucosa of an 70 years old woman. The specimen was collected with a mouth swab and cultured in Sabourauds-Dextrose agar. The identification of the organism was performed on the Api 20C Aux system. The yeast colonies, after fixation in glutaraldehyde 3% for 1 hour were immersed in OsO4 1% solution for 1 hour and were "in tissue" stained with uranyl acetate. Ultrathin sections, were observed with TEM Jeol C x 100. Our ultrastructural observations showed that this yeast had a thick cell wall in which the outer surface appeared fuzzy. In some yeasts we observed multilayered intracytoplasmic membrane a figure which is not described as far as we know in any yeast. Many vacuoles were frequently observed in the cytoplasm and especially in the center of the oval shaped cells. Bilateral budding which form ascospores is identical for the morphology of this yeast. PMID:7994154

  16. Pathogenicity, serological responses, and diagnosis of experimental and natural malarial infections in native Hawaiian thrushes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, C.T.; Lease, J.K.; Drake, B.M.; Shema, N.P.

    2001-01-01

    Omao (Myadestes obscurus) from the Hawaiian Islands typically have very low prevalences of infection with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and it is not clear whether they share the same high susceptibility to this parasite that has been documented in native Hawaiian honeycreepers. We exposed four captive Omao to single infective mosquito bites and measured parasitemia, serological responses, and mortality over time. All four birds experienced transient infections with low parasitemias and were immune when rechallenged with multiple infective mosquito bites. By contrast, three of four honeycreepers (Maui Alauahio, Paroreomyza montana) that were exposed to the same dose and parasite isolate succumbed to infection. All four Omao developed antibodies to a common suite of malarial antigens that were detectable on immunoblots of a crude red blood cell extract of P. relictum. We used this technique to screen plasma samples from wild Omao and endangered Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri) that were captured at elevations between 900 and 1300 m on the islands of Hawaii and Kauai. We found that the true prevalence of infection at elevations where active malaria transmission occurs is much higher than estimates based on blood smears alone. Hawaiian thrushes appear to have a high tolerance for malaria, with most individuals developing chronic, low-level infections after exposure that cannot be diagnosed accurately by blood smears.

  17. Magnetic cues and time of season affect fuel deposition in migratory thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia).

    PubMed

    Kullberg, Cecilia; Lind, Johan; Fransson, Thord; Jakobsson, Sven; Vallin, Adrian

    2003-02-22

    Bird migration requires high energy expenditure, and long-distance migrants accumulate fat for use as fuel during stopovers throughout their journey. Recent studies have shown that long-distance migratory birds, besides accumulating fat for use as fuel, also show adaptive phenotypic flexibility in several organs during migration. The migratory routes of many songbirds include stretches of sea and desert where fuelling is not possible. Large fuel loads increase flight costs and predation risk, therefore extensive fuelling should occur only immediately prior to crossing inhospitable zones. However, despite their crucial importance for the survival of migratory birds, both strategic refuelling decisions and variation in phenotypic flexibility during migration are not well understood. First-year thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) caught in the early phase of the onset of autumn migration in southeast Sweden and exposed to a magnetic treatment simulating a migratory flight to northern Egypt increased more in fuel load than control birds. By contrast, birds trapped during the late phase of the onset of autumn migration accumulated a high fuel load irrespective of magnetic treatment. Furthermore, early birds increased less in flight-muscle size than birds trapped later in autumn. We suggest that the relative importance of endogenous and environmental factors in individual birds is affected by the time of season and by geographical area. When approaching a barrier, environmental cues may act irrespective of the endogenous time programme. PMID:12639316

  18. The skeleton flight apparatus of North American bluebirds (Sialia): phylogenetic thrushes or functional flycatchers?

    PubMed

    Corbin, Clay E; Lowenberger, Lauren K; Dorkoski, Ryan P

    2013-08-01

    To better understand ecological traits of organisms, one can study them from two, not necessarily mutually exclusive perspectives: how the traits evolved, and their current adaptive utility. In birds, foraging behavior and associated morphological traits generally are explained by a combination of adaptive and phylogenetic predictors. The avian skeleton and more specifically, the skeletal flight apparatus is under well-known functional and phylogenetic constraints. This is an interesting area to partition the relative contributions of adaptive correlated evolution and phylogenetic constraint to species clustering in morphological space. A prediction of convergent evolution is that nonphylogenetic morphological clustering is a characteristic of ecological similarity. We tested this using representatives of North American birds from two clades, one with a mixture of foraging modes (Turdid thrushes, solitaires, and bluebirds) and one with more canalized foraging behaviors (Tyrannid flycatchers). Nine characters on the skeletal flight apparatus from 19 species were used to characterize the morphological space and test for ecomorphological clustering. When body size and phylogeny are considered, the three bluebird species and Townsend's solitaire cluster with the ecologically similar flycatchers rather than with their phylogenetic close relatives. Furthermore, sit-and-wait foragers tend to exhibit relatively long distal elements and a long keel while active ground foragers have deeper keels and a longer humerus. Distal elements, expected to be relatively shorter and more bowed in the flycatchers and bluebirds, were actually longer and narrower. A reduction of distal element mass may be more important for facilitating maneuverability than surface area for insertion of wing-rotational musculature. PMID:23576285

  19. A Winter Distribution Model for Bicknell’s Thrush (Catharus bicknelli), a Conservation Tool for a Threatened Migratory Songbird

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Kent P.; Rimmer, Christopher C.; Goetz, James E.; Aubry, Yves; Wunderle, Joseph M.; Sutton, Anne; Townsend, Jason M.; Sosa, Alejandro Llanes; Kirkconnell, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Conservation planning and implementation require identifying pertinent habitats and locations where protection and management may improve viability of targeted species. The winter range of Bicknell’s Thrush (Catharus bicknelli), a threatened Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbird, is restricted to the Greater Antilles. We analyzed winter records from the mid-1970s to 2009 to quantitatively evaluate winter distribution and habitat selection. Additionally, we conducted targeted surveys in Jamaica (n = 433), Cuba (n = 363), Dominican Republic (n = 1,000), Haiti (n = 131) and Puerto Rico (n = 242) yielding 179 sites with thrush presence. We modeled Bicknell’s Thrush winter habitat selection and distribution in the Greater Antilles in Maxent version 3.3.1. using environmental predictors represented in 30 arc second study area rasters. These included nine landform, land cover and climatic variables that were thought a priori to have potentially high predictive power. We used the average training gain from ten model runs to select the best subset of predictors. Total winter precipitation, aspect and land cover, particularly broadleaf forests, emerged as important variables. A five-variable model that contained land cover, winter precipitation, aspect, slope, and elevation was the most parsimonious and not significantly different than the models with more variables. We used the best fitting model to depict potential winter habitat. Using the 10 percentile threshold (>0.25), we estimated winter habitat to cover 33,170 km2, nearly 10% of the study area. The Dominican Republic contained half of all potential habitat (51%), followed by Cuba (15.1%), Jamaica (13.5%), Haiti (10.6%), and Puerto Rico (9.9%). Nearly one-third of the range was found to be in protected areas. By providing the first detailed predictive map of Bicknell’s Thrush winter distribution, our study provides a useful tool to prioritize and direct conservation planning for this and

  20. Full-scale wind-tunnel investigation of an Ayres S2R-800 Thrush Agricultural Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. L., Jr.; Mclemore, H. C.; White, R.; Jordan, F. L., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes the significant results of recent full-scale wind tunnel tests at the NASA-Langley Research Center of the Ayres S2R-800 Thrush Agricultural Aircraft. The purpose of the tests was to provide fundamental aerodynamic, performance, and stability and control information of the airplane and dispersal equipment; and to study near-field wake interaction characteristics behind the aircraft. The aerodynamic tests included the use of a propeller thrust-torque balance to measure the efficiency of the propeller in the presence of the engine and to provide data for determining slipstream interference effects and slip-stream drag.

  1. FRUIT ABUNDANCE AND LOCAL DISTRIBUTION OF WINTERING HERMIT THRUSHES (CATHARUS GUTTATUS) AND YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLERS (DENDROICA CORONATA) IN SOUTH CAROLINA.

    SciTech Connect

    KWIT, CHARLES; LEVEY, DOUGLAS, J.; GREENBERG, CATHRYN, H.; PEARSON, SCOTT, F.; MCCARTY, JOHN, P.; SARGENT, SARAH; MUMME, RONALD, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Auk 121(1):46-57, 2004 We conducted winter censuses of two short-distance migrants, Hermit Thrushes (Catharus guttatus) and Yellow-rumped Warblers (Dendroica coronata), over seven years in five different habitats to determine whether their local abundances could be predicted by fruit pulp biomass. Sampled habitats were stands of upland and bottomland hardwood, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), longleaf pine (P. palustris), and young «10 years) longleaf pine. Hermit Thrush abundance, which was highest in bottomland hardwood habitats, was positively related to total dry mass of fruit pulp. Those results are consistent with the hypothesis that resource availability affects the local distribution of migrant passerines on their wintering grounds. Our results also indicate that bottomland hardwood habitats in the southeastern United States may be especially important to wintering Hermit Thrushes. Yellow-rumped Warbler abundance was correlated with ripe-fruit pulp dry mass of Myrica cerifera, a major source of winter food for that species. However, because M. cerifera pulp dry mass was confounded with habitat type, we could not distinguish the relative importance of fruit resources and habitat for Yellow- rumped Warblers. Our results underscore the importance of fruit to wintering birds. However, the overall percentage of variation in winter bird abundance explained by differences in ripe-fruit biomass was modest, indicating that other factors are also important.

  2. A new feather mite of the genus Pteronyssoides Hull, 1931 (Astigmata: Pteronyssidae) from thrushes (Passeriformes: Turdidae) in the New World.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Sergey V; Hernandes, Fabio A; Valim, Michel P

    2016-01-01

    A new feather mite species, Pteronyssoides turdinus n. sp. (Acariformes: Pteronyssidae), is described from two species of thrushes, Turdus amaurochalinus Cabanis (type-host) and T. leucomelas Vieillot (Passeriformes: Turdidae) in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species belongs to the parinus species group and most clearly differs from previously known species of this group by the following features: in both sexes of P. turdinus, setae c2 are anterior to the level of the sejugal furrow; in males, the anterior margin of the hysteronotal shield has a deep trapezoidal concavity, setae d1 are situated on the striated tegument, the adanal shield is represented by a narrow longitudinal sclerite, and tarsus and tibia of legs IV are subequal in length; in females, the opisthosomal sclerites are split into proper opisthosomal sclerites and pygidial fragments encompassing the bases of setae h2 and h3. This is the first description of a feather mite of the genus Pteronyssoides Hull, 1931 from birds of the family Turdidae. PMID:26739290

  3. Overtone-based pitch selection in hermit thrush song: Unexpected convergence with scale construction in human music

    PubMed Central

    Doolittle, Emily L.; Gingras, Bruno; Endres, Dominik M.; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2014-01-01

    Many human musical scales, including the diatonic major scale prevalent in Western music, are built partially or entirely from intervals (ratios between adjacent frequencies) corresponding to small-integer proportions drawn from the harmonic series. Scientists have long debated the extent to which principles of scale generation in human music are biologically or culturally determined. Data from animal “song” may provide new insights into this discussion. Here, by examining pitch relationships using both a simple linear regression model and a Bayesian generative model, we show that most songs of the hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) favor simple frequency ratios derived from the harmonic (or overtone) series. Furthermore, we show that this frequency selection results not from physical constraints governing peripheral production mechanisms but from active selection at a central level. These data provide the most rigorous empirical evidence to date of a bird song that makes use of the same mathematical principles that underlie Western and many non-Western musical scales, demonstrating surprising convergence between human and animal “song cultures.” Although there is no evidence that the songs of most bird species follow the overtone series, our findings add to a small but growing body of research showing that a preference for small-integer frequency ratios is not unique to humans. These findings thus have important implications for current debates about the origins of human musical systems and may call for a reevaluation of existing theories of musical consonance based on specific human vocal characteristics. PMID:25368163

  4. Urbanization Breaks Up Host-Parasite Interactions: A Case Study on Parasite Community Ecology of Rufous-Bellied Thrushes (Turdus rufiventris) along a Rural-Urban Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Calegaro-Marques, Cláudia; Amato, Suzana B.

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization drastically alters natural ecosystems and the structure of their plant and animal communities. Whereas some species cope successfully with these environmental changes, others may go extinct. In the case of parasite communities, the expansion of urban areas has a critical effect by changing the availability of suitable substrates for the eggs or free-larval stages of those species with direct life cycles or for the range of hosts of those species with complex cycles. In this study we investigated the influence of the degree of urbanization and environmental heterogeneity on helminth richness, abundance and community structure of rufous-bellied thrushes (Turdus rufiventris) along a rural-urban gradient in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This common native bird species of southern Brazil hosts 15 endoparasite species at the study region. A total of 144 thrushes were collected with mist nets at 11 sites. The degree of urbanization and environmental heterogeneity were estimated by quantifying five landscape elements: buildings, woodlands, fields, bare lands, and water. Landscape analyses were performed at two spatial scales (10 and 100 ha) taking into account home range size and the potential dispersal distance of thrushes and their prey (intermediate hosts). Mean parasite richness showed an inverse relationship with the degree of urbanization, but a positive relationship with environmental heterogeneity. Changes in the structure of component communities along the rural-urban gradient resulted from responses to the availability of particular landscape elements that are compatible with the parasites' life cycles. We found that the replacement of natural environments with buildings breaks up host-parasite interactions, whereas a higher environmental (substrate) diversity allows the survival of a wider range of intermediate hosts and vectors and their associated parasites. PMID:25068271

  5. Urbanization breaks up host-parasite interactions: a case study on parasite community ecology of rufous-bellied thrushes (Turdus rufiventris) along a rural-urban gradient.

    PubMed

    Calegaro-Marques, Cláudia; Amato, Suzana B

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization drastically alters natural ecosystems and the structure of their plant and animal communities. Whereas some species cope successfully with these environmental changes, others may go extinct. In the case of parasite communities, the expansion of urban areas has a critical effect by changing the availability of suitable substrates for the eggs or free-larval stages of those species with direct life cycles or for the range of hosts of those species with complex cycles. In this study we investigated the influence of the degree of urbanization and environmental heterogeneity on helminth richness, abundance and community structure of rufous-bellied thrushes (Turdus rufiventris) along a rural-urban gradient in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This common native bird species of southern Brazil hosts 15 endoparasite species at the study region. A total of 144 thrushes were collected with mist nets at 11 sites. The degree of urbanization and environmental heterogeneity were estimated by quantifying five landscape elements: buildings, woodlands, fields, bare lands, and water. Landscape analyses were performed at two spatial scales (10 and 100 ha) taking into account home range size and the potential dispersal distance of thrushes and their prey (intermediate hosts). Mean parasite richness showed an inverse relationship with the degree of urbanization, but a positive relationship with environmental heterogeneity. Changes in the structure of component communities along the rural-urban gradient resulted from responses to the availability of particular landscape elements that are compatible with the parasites' life cycles. We found that the replacement of natural environments with buildings breaks up host-parasite interactions, whereas a higher environmental (substrate) diversity allows the survival of a wider range of intermediate hosts and vectors and their associated parasites. PMID:25068271

  6. Localization of fluconazole in oral cavity by preferential coating of buccoadhesive tablet for treatment of oral thrush

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Kamla; Sharma, Vijay; Akhtar, Nida; Rastogi, Pragya

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present research work was aimed at localization of fluconazole in the oral cavity by preferential coating of buccoadhesive tablet for the treatment of oral thrush. Materials and Methods: In order to achieve the aim, buccoadhesive tablets were optimized using 32 full factorial design to study the influence of varying content of chitosan and carbopol 934P (input variables) on the responses. Results: Perturbation plots revealed high sensitivity of the input variables to ex vivo mucoadhesion force and percent cumulative drug release (CDR) whereas the ex vivo mucoadhesion time was less sensitive to the input variables. Based on the highest desirability factor of 0.693 the formulation F9 was identified as the optimized formulation and was preferentially coated with ethyl cellulose (3% w/v) on one tablet face to get F9C. In reference to F9, F9C showed superior mucoadhesive features (P < 0.05) but the % CDR was comparable (f2 = 50.80). The preferential coating (F9C, Jss = 0.812 μg/cm2/h) limited the permeation of fluconazole across goat buccal mucosa by almost half the value of F9 (Jss = 1.34 μg/cm2/h) that could serve as an advantage in establishing high local concentration of drug in the oral cavity, thereby facilitating faster attainment of minimum inhibitory concentration. Scanning electron microscopy and histological analysis established nonirritant potential. The developed formulation was stable and demonstrated antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Conclusion: Thus it can be concluded that preferentially coated buccoadhesive tablets of fluconazole might be considered as a precise approach to localize the drug delivery in oral cavity. PMID:27051630

  7. Thrush - children and adults

    MedlinePlus

    Edwards JE Jr. Candida species. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  8. Oral Thrush (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is caused by the overgrowth of a yeast (a type of fungus) called Candida albicans . Most ... Candida overgrowth also causes diaper rash and vaginal (yeast) infections. Candida overgrowth (or candidiasis ) can happen after ...

  9. Are traditional methods of determining nest predators and nest fates reliable? An experiment with Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) using miniature video cameras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Gary E.; Wood, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    We used miniature infrared video cameras to monitor Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) nests during 1998-2000. We documented nest predators and examined whether evidence at nests can be used to predict predator identities and nest fates. Fifty-six nests were monitored; 26 failed, with 3 abandoned and 23 depredated. We predicted predator class (avian, mammalian, snake) prior to review of video footage and were incorrect 57% of the time. Birds and mammals were underrepresented whereas snakes were over-represented in our predictions. We documented ???9 nest-predator species, with the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) taking the most nests (n = 8). During 2000, we predicted fate (fledge or fail) of 27 nests; 23 were classified correctly. Traditional methods of monitoring nests appear to be effective for classifying success or failure of nests, but ineffective at classifying nest predators.

  10. Evaluation of the supply of antifungal medication for the treatment of vaginal thrush in the community pharmacy setting: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Carl R.; Emery, Lyndal; Brostek, Raisa; Clifford, Rhonda M.

    Background The Pharmaceutical Society of Australia have developed "guidance" for the supply of several medicines available without prescription to the general public. Limited research has been published assessing the effect of these guidelines on the provision of medication within the practice of pharmacy. Objective To assess appropriate supply of non-prescription antifungal medications for the treatment of vaginal thrush in community pharmacies, with and without a guideline. A secondary aim was to describe the assessment and counseling provided to patients when requesting this medication. Methods A randomized controlled trial was undertaken whereby two simulated patients conducted visits to 100 randomly selected community pharmacies in a metropolitan region. A product-based request for fluconazole (an oral antifungal that has a guideline was compared to a product-based request for clotrimazole (a topical antifungal without a guideline). The same patient details were used for both requests. Outcome measures of the visits were the appropriateness of supply and referral to a medical practitioner. Results Overall 16% (n=16) of visits resulted in an appropriate outcome; 10% (n=5) of fluconozaole requests compared with 22% (n=11) of clotrimazole requests (chi-square=2.68, p=0.10). There was a difference in the type of assessment performed by pharmacy staff between visits for fluconazole and clotrimazole. A request for clotrimazole resulted in a significant increase in frequency in regards to assessment of the reason for the request (chi-square=8.57, p=0.003), symptom location (chi-square=8.27, p=0.004), and prior history (chi-square=5.09, p=0.02). Conclusions Overall practice was poor, with the majority of pharmacies inappropriately supplying antifungal medication. New strategies are required to improve current practice of community pharmacies for provision of non-prescription antifungals in the treatment of vaginal thrush. PMID:24223077

  11. Morphology and genetics reveal an intriguing pattern of differentiation at a very small geographic scale in a bird species, the forest thrush Turdus lherminieri

    PubMed Central

    Arnoux, E; Eraud, C; Navarro, N; Tougard, C; Thomas, A; Cavallo, F; Vetter, N; Faivre, B; Garnier, S

    2014-01-01

    Mobile organisms are expected to show population differentiation only over fairly large geographical distances. However, there is growing evidence of discrepancy between dispersal potential and realized gene flow. Here we report an intriguing pattern of differentiation at a very small spatial scale in the forest thrush (Turdus lherminieri), a bird species endemic to the Lesser Antilles. Analysis of 331 individuals from 17 sampling sites distributed over three islands revealed a clear morphological and genetic differentiation between these islands isolated by 40–50 km. More surprisingly, we found that the phenotypic divergence between the two geographic zones of the island of Guadeloupe was associated with a very strong genetic differentiation (Fst from 0.073–0.153), making this pattern a remarkable case in birds given the very small spatial scale considered. Molecular data (mitochondrial control region sequences and microsatellite genotypes) suggest that this strong differentiation could have occurred in situ, although alternative hypotheses cannot be fully discarded. This study suggests that the ongoing habitat fragmentation, especially in tropical forests, may have a deeper impact than previously thought on avian populations. PMID:24984605

  12. Geographic isolation drives divergence of uncorrelated genetic and song variation in the Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus frantzii; Aves: Turdidae).

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Ramírez, Marco F; Andersen, Michael J; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G

    2016-01-01

    Montane barriers influence the evolutionary history of lineages by promoting isolation of populations. The effects of these historical processes are evident in patterns of differentiation among extant populations, which are often expressed as genetic and behavioral variation between populations. We investigated the effects of geographic barriers on the evolutionary history of a Mesoamerican bird by studying patterns of genetic and vocal variation in the Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Turdidae: Catharus frantzii), a non-migratory oscine bird that inhabits montane forests from central Mexico to Panama. We reconstructed the phylogeographic history and estimated divergence times between populations using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods. We found strong support for the existence of four mitochondrial lineages of C. frantzii corresponding to isolated mountain ranges: Sierra Madre Oriental; Sierra Madre del Sur; the highlands of Chiapas, Guatemala, and El Salvador; and the Talamanca Cordillera. Vocal features in C. frantzii were highly variable among the four observed clades, but vocal variation and genetic variation were uncorrelated. Song variation in C. frantzii suggests that sexual selection and cultural drift could be important factors driving song differentiation in C. frantzii. PMID:26302950

  13. Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2006-2013 Logical Images, Inc. All rights reserved. Advertising Notice This Site and third parties who place ... would like to obtain more information about these advertising practices and to make choices about online behavioral ...

  14. Oropharyngeal/Esophageal Candidiasis ("Thrush")

    MedlinePlus

    ... that occurs when there is overgrowth of a yeast called Candida . Candida yeasts normally live on the skin or mucous membranes ... inside the mouth or throat becomes imbalanced, the yeasts can multiply and cause symptoms. Candida overgrowth can ...

  15. Thrush and Other Candida Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... these infections are caused by Candida albicans, a yeast-like fungus, although other species of Candida are ... in some cases. Teenaged girls who develop a yeast infection of the vagina and the surrounding area ...

  16. The Complete Sequence of a West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Strain Detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum Tick Collected from a Song Thrush (Turdus philomelos) in Eastern Romania in 2013 Revealed Closest Genetic Relationship to Strain Volgograd 2007

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Marinov, Mihai; Kiss, Botond J.; Alexe, Vasile; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In this study the first complete sequence of the West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 strain currently circulating in Romania was determined. The virus was detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a juvenile song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in the Romanian Danube Delta close to the city of Tulcea, end of August 2013. Our finding emphasizes the role of ticks in introduction and maintenance of WNV infections. Sequence analyses revealed close genetic relationship of the Romanian WNV strain to strain Reb_Volgograd_07_H, which was isolated from human brain tissue during an outbreak of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) in Russia in 2007. In 2010 the Eastern European lineage 2 WNV caused an outbreak of human WNND in Romania. Partial sequences from subsequent years demonstrated that this WNV strain became endemic in Eastern Europe and has been causing outbreaks of varying sizes in southern Russia since 2007 and in Romania since 2010. PMID:25279973

  17. Nonparasitic Nematoda provide evidence for a linear response of functionally important soil biota to increasing livestock density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, Christian; Dijkstra, Jan B.; Setälä, Heikki

    2005-07-01

    Soil acidity, nutrient availability and livestock density have a major influence on the belowground ecological community. As fast decomposition rates are due mostly to bacterial-based pathways and slower decomposition rates mostly to fungal-based pathways, it is helpful to condense empirical information in the so-called Nematode Channel Ratio (NCR). The NCR is shown to be a good indicator of efficiency in soil decomposition processes. We argue that in intensive agroecosystems, other fungivore members of the decomposer food web may outcompete the hyphal-feeding nematodes. We demonstrate how the NCR can be used to set ecological standards for sustainable use of the soil in agroecosystems. To summarize the interactions between the microbial resources and the decomposer nematofauna according to increasing land management, we propose the use of the fifth percentile as proxy for a sustainable environmental quality of grasslands on sandy soils, and the NCR mean as the upper threshold for low-stocked farms.

  18. Shiny cowbird parasitism in two avian communities in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The shiny cowbird (M. bonariensis), a brood parasite, has recently expanded its range from South America to Puerto Rico via the Lesser Antilles. This species is a host generalist and, on reaching Puerto Rico, encounteed avian species with no history of social parasitism. In mangrove habitat study areas, 42% of the resident non-raptorial land bird species were parasitized. Some species were heavily parasitized; e.g., yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), 76% of nests parasitized black-whiskered vireo (Vireo altiloquus), 82%, Puerto Rican flycatcher (Myiarchus antillarum), 85%, yellow-shouldered blackbird (Agelaius xanthomus), 95%, troupial (Icterus icterus), 100%, black-cowled oriole (I. dominicensis), 100%. Others suffered low rates of parasitism (2-17% of nests examined); e.g., gray kingbird (Tyrannus dominicensis), red-legged thrush (Turdus plumbeus), bronze mannikin (Lonchura cucullata), northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos), greater antillean grackle (Quiscalus niger). Cowbird parasitism affected hosts by depressing nest success an average of 41% below non-parasitized nests and reducing host productivity. Parasitized host nests hatched 12% fewer eggs an fledged 67% fewer of their own chicks than non-parasitized pairs.

  19. Perforation of a duodenal ulcer into a non-parasitic liver cyst: a rare case of a penetrate hole blockaded with conservative medical management.

    PubMed

    Ono, Koichi; Takeda, Masaharu; Makihata, Eiichi; Okazaki, Junji; Nagai, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An 88-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital for abdominal pain with a raised inflammatory reaction. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and computed tomography (CT) showed a duodenal ulcer punching a liver cyst. Since neither ascites nor free air were detected on CT and her family did not wish for aggressive medical treatment, the patient received clinical observation and conservative management. Antibiotic and proton-pump inhibitor therapy was effective, and she exhibited an uneventful recovery. A reexamination of EGD and CT confirmed that the fistulous tract between the liver cyst and duodenum was blockaded. PMID:24827482

  20. Unifying view of stem-loop hairpin RNA as origin of current and ancient parasitic and non-parasitic RNAs, including in giant viruses.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé; Raoult, Didier

    2016-06-01

    Putatively, stem-loop RNA hairpins explain networks of selfish elements and RNA world remnants. Their genomic density increases with intracellular lifestyle, especially when comparing giant viruses and their virophages. RNA protogenomes presumably templated for mRNAs and self-replicating stem-loops, ancestors of modern genes and parasitic sequences, including tRNAs and rRNAs. Primary and secondary structure analyses suggest common ancestry for t/rRNAs and parasitic RNAs, parsimoniously link diverse RNA metabolites (replication origins, tRNAs, ribozymes, riboswitches, miRNAs and rRNAs) to parasitic RNAs (ribosomal viroids, Rickettsia repeated palindromic elements (RPE), stem-loop hairpins in giant viruses, their virophages, and transposable retrovirus-derived elements). Results indicate ongoing genesis of small RNA metabolites, and common ancestry or similar genesis for rRNA and retroviral sequences. Assuming functional integration of modular duplicated RNA hairpins evolutionarily unifies diverse molecules, postulating stem-loop hairpin RNAs as origins of genetic innovation, ancestors of rRNAs, retro- and Mimivirus sequences, and cells. PMID:26716728

  1. Non-Parasitic Chyluria: Our Experience With Sclerotherapy With Solution of Povidone-Iodine and Destrose and A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Guttilla, Andrea; Beltrami, Paolo; Bettin, Laura; Galantini, Andrea; Dal Moro, Fabrizio; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2016-09-01

    Chyluria is the passage of chyle in the urine. The cause seems to be the rupture of retroperitoneal lymphatics into the pyelocaliceal system, giving urine a milky appearance. This condition if left untreated it leads to significant morbidity because of hematochyluria, recurrent renal colic, nutritional problems due to protein losses and immunosuppression resulting from lymphocyturia. We report our experience with the use of povidone iodine with dextrose solution as a sclerosing agent in the management of chyluria in two patients. PMID:27413693

  2. Landscape and regional context differentially affect nest parasitism and nest predation for Wood Thrush in central Virginia, USA (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many empirical studies have shown that forest-breeding songbirds suffer greater rates of nest predation and nest parasitism in smaller forest patches and in fragmented landscapes. To compare the performance of different metrics of spatial habitat configuration resulting from defo...

  3. Landscape and regional context differentially affect nest parasitism and nest predation for Wood Thrush in central Virginia, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many empirical studies have shown that forest-breeding songbirds, and neotropical migrants in particular, are found in lower abundance in small patches of forest in the Eastern United States compared to similar, but larger patches in the same region. A common hypothesis for the ...

  4. Evaluating effective swath width and droplet distribution of aerial spraying systems on M-18B and Thrush 510G airplanes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial spraying plays an important role in promoting agricultural production and protecting the biological environment due to its flexibility, high effectiveness, and large operational area per unit of time. In order to evaluate the performance parameters of the spraying systems on two fixed wing ai...

  5. 75 FR 3127 - Airworthiness Directives; Thrush Aircraft, Inc. Model 600 S2D and S2R Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... (68 FR 15653), the Director of the Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference of Quality... FR 36055), the Director of the Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference of Ayres... rulemaking (NPRM) on May 4, 2009 (74 FR 20431). The NPRM proposed to supersede AD 2006-07-15, Amendment...

  6. Comparison of selected lift and sideslip characteristics of the Ayres Thrush S2R-800, winglets off and winglets on, to full-scale wind-tunnel data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Williams, M.

    1981-01-01

    All calculations were done in the stability axes system. The winglets used were constructed of modified GA(w)-2 airfoils. Aerodynamic characteristics discussed include: angle of attack; lift-curve slope; side force; yawing moments; rolling moments.

  7. Generalist birds govern the seed dispersal of a parasitic plant with strong recruitment constraints.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Ana; Zamora, Regino

    2014-09-01

    Mistletoes constitute instructive study cases with which to address the role of generalist consumers in the study of plant-animal interactions. Their ranges of safe sites for recruitment are among the most restricted of any plant; therefore, frugivores specializing in mistletoe have been considered almost indispensable for the seed dispersal of these parasitic plants. However, the absence of such specialists in numerous regions inhabited by many mistletoe species raises the question of whether unspecialized vectors may successfully disperse mistletoe seeds to narrowly defined safe sites. Using the European mistletoe Viscum album subsp. austriacum as a study case, we recorded a broad range of 11 bird species that disperse mistletoe seeds. For these species, we studied the mistletoe-visitation rate and feeding behavior to estimate the quantity component of dispersal effectiveness, and the post-foraging microhabitat use, seed handling, and recruitment probabilities of different microhabitats as a measure of the quality component of effectiveness. Both endozoochory and ectozoochory are valid dispersal mechanisms, as the seeds do not need to be ingested to germinate, increasing seed-dispersal versatility. Thrushes were the most effective dispersers, although they were rather inefficient, whereas small birds (both frugivores and non-frugivores) offered low-quantity but high-quality services for depositing seeds directly upon safe sites. As birds behave similarly on parasitized and non-parasitized hosts, and vectors have broad home ranges, reinfection within patches and the colonization of new patches are ensured by an ample assemblage of generalist birds. Thus, a parasitic plant requiring precision in seed dispersal can rely on unspecialized dispersers. PMID:25004870

  8. 77 FR 48934 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Bicknell...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... announced that finding in the Animal Candidate Review for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species (59 FR... thrush from candidate status (61 FR 64481). Although the Bicknell's thrush was removed from the list of... 2010 Candidate Notice of Review (75 FR 69222). The agreements also include additional...

  9. CONCURRENT EXPERIMENTAL Streptococcus SPP. INFECTIONS AND NATURAL PARASITISM IN CHANNEL CATFISH Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are usually not considered pathogens of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, though concurrent infections may decrease catfish survival when infected with streptococcal organisms. Non-parasitized or naturally-parasitized channel catfish fry were challenged wit...

  10. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL TRICHODINA SP.PARASITISM ON EXPERIMENTAL STREPTOCOCCUS INIAE OR Streptococcus AGALACTIAE INFECTION AND SURVIVAL OF YOUNG CHANNEL CATFISH ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS (RAFINESQUE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are usually not considered pathogens of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, though concurrent infections may decrease catfish survival when infected with streptococcal organisms. Non-parasitized or naturally-parasitized channel catfish fry were challenged wit...

  11. How Is Kaposi Sarcoma Staged?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs is a particularly bad sign. I (immune system) status The immune status is assessed using a ... in healthy people but affect people with suppressed immune systems) or thrush (a fungal infection in the mouth). ...

  12. Yeast Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotics, it can multiply and cause an infection. Yeast infections affect different parts of the body in different ways: Thrush is a yeast infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida ...

  13. Mouth ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Canker sores Gingivostomatitis Herpes simplex ( fever blister ) Leukoplakia Oral cancer Oral lichen planus Oral thrush A skin sore ... bacterial infection of ulcers Dental infections ( tooth abscesses ) Oral cancer Spread of contagious disorders to other people When ...

  14. Mouth ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... by many disorders. These include: Canker sores Gingivostomatitis Herpes simplex ( fever blister ) Leukoplakia Oral cancer Oral lichen planus Oral thrush A skin sore caused by histoplasmosis may also appear as a mouth ulcer.

  15. Sjögren's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... cornea. Dry mouth may cause an increase in dental decay, gingivitis (gum inflammation), and oral yeast infections (thrush) that may cause pain and burning. Some patients have episodes of painful ...

  16. Nipple Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this problem including: Eczema (atopic dermatitis) Thrush (oral yeast infection) An allergic reaction (contact dermatitis) Local irritation ... Breast-feeding women with a previous history of yeast vaginitis or whose infants also use a bottle ...

  17. Clotrimazole

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the vagina, mouth, and skin such as athlete's foot, jock itch, and body ringworm. It can also be used to prevent oral thrush in certain patients.This medication is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your ...

  18. Calculates Thermal Neutron Scattering Kernel.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1989-11-10

    Version 00 THRUSH computes the thermal neutron scattering kernel by the phonon expansion method for both coherent and incoherent scattering processes. The calculation of the coherent part is suitable only for calculating the scattering kernel for heavy water.

  19. Subtotal resection and omentoplasty of the epidermoid splenic cyst: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Spahija, Gazmend S; Hashani, Shemsedin I; Osmani, Eshref A; Hoxha, Sejdullah A; Hamza, Astrit H; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije H

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Nonparasitic splenic cysts are uncommon clinical entity and because of it, there is no information regarding their optimal surgical treatment. Case presentation A 41-years-old female with incidentally diagnosed nonparasitic splenic cyst which initially was asymptomatic. After two years of follow up, the patient underwent surgery; subtotal cystectomy and omentoplasty as an additional procedure. Postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion Short and mid term results showed that near total cystectomy with omentoplasty was a safe successful procedure for treatment of epidermoid splenic cyst. PMID:19829799

  20. [Laboratory diagnosis of pseudoparasites, artifacts and parasitic delusions].

    PubMed

    Podhorský, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Common practice in a diagnostic parasitology laboratory involves distinguishing parasitic organisms from various artifacts. Artifacts mean pseudoparasites, supposed parasites and parasitic delusions. Pseudoparasites include undigested leftovers or coincidentally or purposely ingested nonparasitic organisms or their parts. Supposed parasites are wild organisms which were incorrectly identified as the components of faeces. In parasitic delusions, it is impossible to find any kind of parasites while patients describe imaginary parasites in detail. All the above categories of nonparasitic findings including case reports are described and discussed in the article. PMID:21780030

  1. A productivity model for parasitized, multibrooded songbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, L.A.; Knutson, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    We present an enhancement of a simulation model to predict annual productivity for Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) and American Redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla); the model includes effects of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism. We used species-specific data from the Driftless Area Ecoregion of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa to parameterize the model as a case study. The simulation model predicted annual productivity of 2.03 ?? 1.60 SD for Wood Thrushes and 1.56 ?? 1.31 SD for American Redstarts. Our sensitivity analysis showed that high parasitism lowered Wood Thrush annual productivity more than American Redstart productivity, even though parasitism affected individual nests of redstarts more severely. Annual productivity predictions are valuable for habitat managers, but productivity is not easily obtained from field studies. Our model provides a useful means of integrating complex life history parameters to predict productivity for songbirds that experience nest parasitism. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  2. The use of cultures and immunologic procedures to predict oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients on steroid aerosols.

    PubMed

    Spector, S L; Wangaard, C; Bardana, E J

    1982-05-01

    Sixty-seven asthmatic individuals treated with either beclomethasone diproprionate or flunisolide were sequentially evaluated for up to 32 months to determine the incidence of oropharyngeal candidiasis as well as laboratory parameters which might be predictive of this complication. Throat cultures and measurements of Candida antibody by immunodiffusion and radioimmunoassay were performed and compared over time and treatment groups. Unlike other studies, pre-treatment Candida precipitins did not predict increased risk for clinical thrush nor did quantitative determinations of Candida antibody. Those patients with positive cultures pre-trial, however, had a significantly higher incidence of clinical thrush than those with negative cultures (P less than 0.01). No significant changes occurred over time or between drugs for any of the parameters. Symptomatic thrush, however, was slightly more common in those patients treated with beclomethasone. PMID:7105391

  3. Pathological and Ecological Host Consequences of Infection by an Introduced Fish Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Britton, J. Robert; Pegg, Josephine; Williams, Chris F.

    2011-01-01

    The infection consequences of the introduced cestode fish parasite Bothriocephalus acheilognathi were studied in a cohort of wild, young-of-the-year common carp Cyprinus carpio that lacked co-evolution with the parasite. Within the cohort, parasite prevalence was 42% and parasite burdens were up to 12% body weight. Pathological changes within the intestinal tract of parasitized carp included distension of the gut wall, epithelial compression and degeneration, pressure necrosis and varied inflammatory changes. These were most pronounced in regions containing the largest proportion of mature proglottids. Although the body lengths of parasitized and non-parasitized fish were not significantly different, parasitized fish were of lower body condition and reduced weight compared to non-parasitized conspecifics. Stable isotope analysis (δ15N and δ13C) revealed trophic impacts associated with infection, particularly for δ15N where values for parasitized fish were significantly reduced as their parasite burden increased. In a controlled aquarium environment where the fish were fed ad libitum on an identical food source, there was no significant difference in values of δ15N and δ13C between parasitized and non-parasitized fish. The growth consequences remained, however, with parasitized fish growing significantly slower than non-parasitized fish, with their feeding rate (items s−1) also significantly lower. Thus, infection by an introduced parasite had multiple pathological, ecological and trophic impacts on a host with no experience of the parasite. PMID:22022606

  4. DYNAMICS OF NEMATODE POPULATIONS IN CACAO GROWN UNDER TRADIONALLY SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT IN PERUVIAN AMAZON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nature of crops and management systems greatly influences population dynamics of parasitic and nonparasitic nematodes in soil. An experiment was undertaken at Tropical Crop Research institute (ICT), Tarapoto, Peru to assess the population dynamics of nematodes in a Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.)-Banana ...

  5. Travel-associated Diseases, Indian Ocean Islands, 1997–2010

    PubMed Central

    Gautret, Philippe; Gaudart, Jean; Field, Vanessa; Castelli, Francesco; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Lim, Poh Lian; Shaw, Marc; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Loutan, Louis; Simon, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Data collected by the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network for 1,415 ill travelers returning from Indian Ocean islands during 1997–2010 were analyzed. Malaria (from Comoros and Madagascar), acute nonparasitic diarrhea, and parasitoses were the most frequently diagnosed infectious diseases. An increase in arboviral diseases reflected the 2005 outbreak of chikungunya fever. PMID:23876977

  6. Application of nuclear techniques to improve the mass production and management of fruit fly parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of irradiated hosts in the mass rearing of tephritid fruit fly parasitoids represents an important technical advance regarding application of augmentative biological control. Irradiation of hosts during the mass rearing process assures that fly emergence is avoided in non-parasitized hosts, ...

  7. [Laparoscopic decapsulation of congenital splenic cyst].

    PubMed

    Visnjić, Stjepan; Zupancić, Bozidar; Car, Andrija; Roić, Goran

    2007-01-01

    Nonparasitic splenic cysts are uncommon and may be congenital or post-traumatic in origin. Complications may include enlargement with pain, rupture, and infection. The laparoscopy is widely accepted method in the treatment of this condition with numerous approaches. A technique of partial decapsulation-fenestration designed to minimize the risk of splenic loss and cyst recurrence is presented. PMID:18018710

  8. YVUN Celebrates Its 4th Year!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonka, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the formation of the Youth Visits the United Nations (YVUN) program. The program began in 2003 with funds provided by the Ursula Thrush Peace Seed Grant. Its purpose is to bring middle school students to New York to attend sessions of the United Nations, allowing these adolescents the opportunity to learn about global issues…

  9. 77 FR 13248 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 46 Species in Idaho...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... 59244; 12/14/ 1992. Thrush, Molokai Myadestes Endangered........ U.S.A. (HI)....... 35 FR 16047; 10/13... listing rule Animals Akepa, Maui Loxops coccineus Endangered........ U.S.A. (HI)....... 35 FR 16047; 10/13/ ochraceus. 1970. Creeper, Molokai Paroreomyza Endangered........ U.S.A. (HI)....... 35 FR 16047;...

  10. SIMULATION OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN PROFILES IN A TRANSPARENT, DIMICTIC LAKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thrush Lake is a small, highly transparent lake in northeastern Minnesota. rom 1986 to 1991, vertical profiles of water temperature, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a concentration, underwater light irradiance, and Secchi depths were measured at monthly intervals during the ice-fre...

  11. Lucibufagins: Defensive steroids from the fireflies Photinus ignitus and P. marginellus (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)*

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Thomas; Wiemer, David F.; Haynes, LeRoy W.; Meinwald, Jerrold

    1978-01-01

    Feeding tests with thrushes (Hylocichla spp.) led to the isolation of three novel steroid pyrones from fireflies (Photinus ignitus and P. marginellus) responsible, in part at least, for the unpalatability of these insects to the birds. The term lucibufagin is coined for these steroidal pyrones. The closest known relatives of lucibufagins are the familiar cardiotonic bufadienolides, found in certain toads and plants. PMID:16592501

  12. Effects of Land Cover on the Movement of Frugivorous Birds in a Heterogeneous Landscape

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Movement is a key spatiotemporal process that enables interactions between animals and other elements of nature. The understanding of animal trajectories and the mechanisms that influence them at the landscape level can yield insight into ecological processes and potential solutions to specific ecological problems. Based upon optimal foraging models and empirical evidence, we hypothesized that movement by thrushes is highly tortuous (low average movement speeds and homogeneous distribution of turning angles) inside forests, moderately tortuous in urban areas, which present intermediary levels of resources, and minimally tortuous (high movement speeds and turning angles next to 0 radians) in open matrix types (e.g., crops and pasture). We used data on the trajectories of two common thrush species (Turdus rufiventris and Turdus leucomelas) collected by radio telemetry in a fragmented region in Brazil. Using a maximum likelihood model selection approach we fit four probability distribution models to average speed data, considering short-tailed, long-tailed, and scale-free distributions (to represent different regimes of movement variation), and one distribution to relative angle data. Models included land cover type and distance from forest-matrix edges as explanatory variables. Speed was greater farther away from forest edges and increased faster inside forest habitat compared to urban and open matrices. However, turning angle was not influenced by land cover. Thrushes presented a very tortuous trajectory, with many displacements followed by turns near 180 degrees. Thrush trajectories resembled habitat and edge dependent, tortuous random walks, with a well-defined movement scale inside each land cover type. Although thrushes are habitat generalists, they showed a greater preference for forest edges, and thus may be considered edge specialists. Our results reinforce the importance of studying animal movement patterns in order to understand ecological processes such as

  13. [Potential role of winter rape weeds in the extension of broomrape in Poitou-Charentes].

    PubMed

    Gibot-Leclerc, Stéphanie; Brault, Marianne; Pinochet, Xavier; Sallé, Georges

    2003-07-01

    In the Poitou-Charentes district, among the 82 species of winter rape weeds identified, 22 displayed a strong affinity for this crop (Brassica napus L.). In fields, 50% of these weeds were parasitized by Orobanche ramosa, playing the role of host plants. Greenhouse co-cultures (weed/Orobanche ramosa) showed that weeds non-parasitized in fields could be attacked by broomrape, developing a more or less complete cycle. In vitro co-cultures (weed/Orobanche ramosa) revealed that root exudates of non-parasitized weeds, in fields or in greenhouse co-cultures, could induce Orobanche ramosa seed germination, but not attachment. These weeds could play the role of false hosts. PMID:14556384

  14. Reproductive conflict in social insects: male production by workers in a slave-making ant.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Elisabeth; Trindl, Andreas; Falk, Karl H; Heinze, Juergen; D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2005-11-01

    In insect societies, workers cooperate but may also pursue their individual interests, such as laying viable male eggs. The case of obligatory slave-making ants is of particular interest because workers do not engage in maintenance activities and foraging. Therefore, worker egg laying is expected to be less detrimental for colony efficiency than in related, nonparasitic species. Furthermore, as slave-making workers usually do not perform brood care and thus might have little power in manipulating sex allocation, they might be more strongly selected to increase their direct fitness by producing their own sons than workers in nonparasitic species. In this study we investigated worker reproduction in four natural colonies of the slave-making ant Polyergus rufescens, using highly variable microsatellite markers. Our results show that workers produce up to 100% of the males. This study thus presents the first direct evidence of an almost complete takeover of male reproduction by workers in ants. PMID:16396188

  15. Genomics of Loa loa, a Wolbachia-free filarial parasite of humans.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Christopher A; Cerqueira, Gustavo C; Goldberg, Jonathan M; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C; Haas, Brian J; Zucker, Jeremy; Ribeiro, José M C; Saif, Sakina; Levin, Joshua Z; Fan, Lin; Zeng, Qiandong; Russ, Carsten; Wortman, Jennifer R; Fink, Doran L; Birren, Bruce W; Nutman, Thomas B

    2013-05-01

    Loa loa, the African eyeworm, is a major filarial pathogen of humans. Unlike most filariae, L. loa does not contain the obligate intracellular Wolbachia endosymbiont. We describe the 91.4-Mb genome of L. loa and that of the related filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and predict 14,907 L. loa genes on the basis of microfilarial RNA sequencing. By comparing these genomes to that of another filarial parasite, Brugia malayi, and to those of several other nematodes, we demonstrate synteny among filariae but not with nonparasitic nematodes. The L. loa genome encodes many immunologically relevant genes, as well as protein kinases targeted by drugs currently approved for use in humans. Despite lacking Wolbachia, L. loa shows no new metabolic synthesis or transport capabilities compared to other filariae. These results suggest that the role of Wolbachia in filarial biology is more subtle than previously thought and reveal marked differences between parasitic and nonparasitic nematodes. PMID:23525074

  16. From red to white urine: a patient's nightmare with a rather benign outcome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chyluria is a medical condition with presence of chyle in the urine. The disease is most prevalent in endemic regions of Africa and the Indian subcontinent where it is mostly caused by parasitic infections, particularly lymphatic filariasis due to wucheria bancrofti. Non-parasitic chyluria, however, is a very rare finding. Case Presentation We report the case of a 48 year old woman who developed a lymphorenal fistula with chyluria following ureterrenoscopy with biopsies taken for urological work-up of persistent macrohematuria. Renal biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of benign familial hematuria due to thin basement nephropathy, a condition frequently associated with episodes of macrohematuria. Conclusions This case highlights a rare case of non-parasitic chyluria as a complication of urological work-up for macrohematuria of benign nature. PMID:22296661

  17. Splenic Epidermoid Cyst in a Five-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Bhavna; Sood, Neena; Singh, Satpal

    2016-01-01

    Splenic epidermoid cysts are rare non-parasitic true cysts affecting the spleen. We report a five-year-old child who presented with an abdominal lump associated with pain of 15 days. Ultrasonography of the abdomen showed a huge cystic lesion of obscure origin. At laprotomy a huge unilocular cyst involving upper part of spleen containing pultaceous fluid was seen and its removal necessitated splenectomy. Histopathological findings were consistent with splenic epidermoid cyst. Thus histopathology helped in elucidating the aetiology and diagnosis.

  18. Examination of Foods for Extraneous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Extraneous materials are any foreign substances in foods that are associated with objectionable conditions or practices in production, storage, or distribution of foods. Extraneous materials include: (a) filth or objectionable matter contributed by animal contamination (rodent, insect, or bird matter) or unsanitary conditions; (b) decomposed material or decayed tissues due to parasitic or nonparasitic causes; and (c) miscellaneous matter (sand, soil, glass, rust, or other foreign substances). Bacterial contamination is excluded from these substances.

  19. Can Interactions Between an Omnivorous Hemipteran and an Egg Parasitoid Limit the Level of Biological Control for the Tomato Pinworm?

    PubMed

    Cabello, Tomas; Bonfil, Francisco; Gallego, Juan R; Fernandez, Francisco J; Gamez, Manuel; Garay, Jozsef

    2015-02-01

    Relationships between the omnivorous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) and the egg parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti were studied in the laboratory (no-choice and choice assays, and functional responses) and in a greenhouse experiment. Both natural enemies are utilized in the biological control of tomato pinworm on greenhouse-grown tomato crops. Three different food items were offered to the predator: nonparasitized prey, prey parasitized for less than 4 d by T. achaeae, and prey parasitized for more than 4 d by the parasitoid. There were significant differences in consumption of food types, with highest consumption for nonparasitized prey, followed by parasitized (<4 d) and then parasitized (>4 d), both in no-choice and choice trials. At the same time, the predator causes a significant mortality in the prey (over 80%) regardless of previous parasitism, resulting in a very coincidental intraguild predation detrimental to the parasitoid. It has also been observed that there was a change in the functional response by the predator from Type II in presence of nonparasitized prey to Type I when there was a combination of parasitized and nonparasitized prey. This represents an increase of instantaneous search rate (a') and a decrease of handling time (Th), which indicates a change in feeding behavior on the two prey types. Under greenhouse conditions, the intraguild predation reduced the percentage of parasitism by T. achaeae in just over 20%. However, when both natural enemies were present, a better control of pest Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) was achieved than in the case of application of any of them alone. PMID:26308802

  20. The endoparasitoid Cotesia kariyai (Ck) regulates the growth and metabolic efficiency of Pseudaletia separata larvae by venom and Ck polydnavirus.

    PubMed

    Nakamatsu, Y; Gyotoku, Y; Tanaka, T

    2001-06-01

    It was previously demonstrated that parasitization by Cotesia kariyai caused a decrease in weight gain and food consumption in host larvae, resulting in a lower final weight for parasitized hosts. It is predicted that C. kariyai regulates the physiological condition of the host to obtain maximum food under restricted nutritional conditions. Approximate digestibility (AD) was higher following parasitization but the efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD) of the parasitized hosts was lower. This suggests that resources available to the parasitoid larvae are enhanced in the parasitized hosts. We evaluated the physiological changes caused by injection of calyx fluid (polydnavirus) plus venom (C+V) in nonparasitized hosts. Injection of C+V into the nonparasitized hosts duplicated the effects of parasitism, namely it increased the AD and decreased the ECD. Furthermore, C+V injections elevated trehalose concentrations in nonparasitized host 7 to 10 d after injection (2nd stadium of the parasitoid larva). Protein content also increased on days 9 and 10 after C+V injection. These results suggest that the nutrients that parasitoid larvae require for their growth increase in the hemolymph of the host during the 2nd stadium of the parasitoid larva. PMID:11249945

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Analyses Reveal Core Parasitism Genes and Suggest Gene Duplication and Repurposing as Sources of Structural Novelty

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhenzhen; Wafula, Eric K.; Honaas, Loren A.; Zhang, Huiting; Das, Malay; Fernandez-Aparicio, Monica; Huang, Kan; Bandaranayake, Pradeepa C.G.; Wu, Biao; Der, Joshua P.; Clarke, Christopher R.; Ralph, Paula E.; Landherr, Lena; Altman, Naomi S.; Timko, Michael P.; Yoder, John I.; Westwood, James H.; dePamphilis, Claude W.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of novel traits is recognized as an important process underlying many major evolutionary radiations. We studied the genetic basis for the evolution of haustoria, the novel feeding organs of parasitic flowering plants, using comparative transcriptome sequencing in three species of Orobanchaceae. Around 180 genes are upregulated during haustorial development following host attachment in at least two species, and these are enriched in proteases, cell wall modifying enzymes, and extracellular secretion proteins. Additionally, about 100 shared genes are upregulated in response to haustorium inducing factors prior to host attachment. Collectively, we refer to these newly identified genes as putative “parasitism genes.” Most of these parasitism genes are derived from gene duplications in a common ancestor of Orobanchaceae and Mimulus guttatus, a related nonparasitic plant. Additionally, the signature of relaxed purifying selection and/or adaptive evolution at specific sites was detected in many haustorial genes, and may play an important role in parasite evolution. Comparative analysis of gene expression patterns in parasitic and nonparasitic angiosperms suggests that parasitism genes are derived primarily from root and floral tissues, but with some genes co-opted from other tissues. Gene duplication, often taking place in a nonparasitic ancestor of Orobanchaceae, followed by regulatory neofunctionalization, was an important process in the origin of parasitic haustoria. PMID:25534030

  2. Immune phagocytosis of Plasmodium yoelii-infected erythrocytes by macrophages and eosinophils.

    PubMed Central

    Tosta, C E; Wedderburn, N

    1980-01-01

    Unstimulated peritoneal cells from C57Bl mice were allowed to phagocytose in vitro different mixtures of Percoll-separated parasitized and non-parasitized erythrocytes (PE and NPE) from the blood of mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii in the presence of immune and normal serum. Immune serum caused a significant enhancement of phagocytosis, and both the number of PE adhering to and/or ingested by 100 macrophages and the number of the latter cells engaged in phagocytosis was increased. The effect of immune serum was more marked when the ratio of PE/macrophages was 5--40/1, but was less at a ratio of 80/1, when considerable phagocytosis of PE occurred in the presence of normal serum. From 83--100% of the phagocytosed cells were parasitized erythrocytes, even when the ratio of PE/NPE was as low as 1/15. In the system used, macrophages were unable to discriminate between non-parasitized erythrocytes from infected mice and normal erythrocytes. Eosinophils were also observed to engage in phagocytosis of parasitized erythrocytes. Their activity was entirely dependent on immune serum and was never directed against non-parasitized red blood cells. PMID:7460387

  3. Effects of brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds may persist in the post fledging period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Sean M.; Streby, Henry M.; Andersen, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) typically decreases the number of host juveniles that fledge: however, little information exists regarding the effect of cowbird parasitism during the post-fledging period. We monitored 115 Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) nests in 2006–2008 in northcentral Minnesota, six of which were parasitized. We used radiotelemetry to monitor movements of 36 Ovenbird fledglings (nine additional fledglings depredated <24 hrs after fledging were excluded from the movement analysis) from non-parasitized nests and one fledgling from a parasitized nest. Clutch sizes and productivity were lower in parasitized Ovenbird nests than non-parasitized nests, similar to populations at other locations. The fledgling we tracked from a parasitized nest (in 2008) died after 26 days. It was the only fledgling in our study that died (n  =  20) with no sign of predation and an empty stomach. That fledgling took 12 days to travel >50 m from its nest and 25 days to travel >100 m from its nest. Fledglings from non-parasitized broods tracked for ≥25 days during 2008 (n  =  16) took 4.1 ± 0.71 and 9.5 ± 1.14 days to travel the same distances. Our observations suggest that negative effects of brood parasitism may persist into the post-fledging period, possibly confirming observations of cowbird-only survival compiled from the literature.

  4. Coevolution is linked with phenotypic diversification but not speciation in avian brood parasites.

    PubMed

    Medina, Iliana; Langmore, Naomi E

    2015-12-22

    Coevolution is often invoked as an engine of biological diversity. Avian brood parasites and their hosts provide one of the best-known examples of coevolution. Brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other species, selecting for host defences and reciprocal counteradaptations in parasites. In theory, this arms race should promote increased rates of speciation and phenotypic evolution. Here, we use recently developed methods to test whether the three largest avian brood parasitic lineages show changes in rates of phenotypic diversity and speciation relative to non-parasitic lineages. Our results challenge the accepted paradigm, and show that there is little consistent evidence that lineages of brood parasites have higher speciation or extinction rates than non-parasitic species. However, we provide the first evidence that the evolution of brood parasitic behaviour may affect rates of evolution in morphological traits associated with parasitism. Specifically, egg size and the colour and pattern of plumage have evolved up to nine times faster in parasitic than in non-parasitic cuckoos. Moreover, cuckoo clades of parasitic species that are sympatric (and share similar host genera) exhibit higher rates of phenotypic evolution. This supports the idea that competition for hosts may be linked to the high phenotypic diversity found in parasitic cuckoos. PMID:26702044

  5. Comparative Study of Lead Concentration in Feathers of Urban and Rural Passerines in Merida, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nava-Diaz, Remedios; Hoogesteijn, Almira L; Erosa, Mercy Dzul; Febles, Jose L; Mendez-Gonzalez, Rosa M

    2015-10-01

    Lead is a commonly monitored heavy metal because of potential health effects on exposed organisms. We quantified lead in secondary feathers of two passerine bird species, clay-colored thrushes (Turdus grayi) and great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus), from an urban and a rural site in the municipality of Merida, Yucatan. Urban lead concentration was significantly higher than its rural counterpart for both species (p < 0.05). In the urban site, lead concentration was similar in both species (p = 0.14). However, data from the rural site showed that lead concentration was significantly higher in thrush feathers (p < 0.05). Lead levels herein presented are among the lowest ever reported suggesting that either lead accumulation or absorption is limited. Finally, our data seem to support the hypothesis that species feeding ecology plays a major role in lead accumulation. PMID:26253842

  6. West Nile Virus Infection of Birds, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Sánchez, Sergio; Cuevas-Romero, Sandra; Nemeth, Nicole M.; Trujillo-Olivera, María Teresa Jesús; Worwa, Gabriella; Dupuis, Alan; Brault, Aaron C.; Kramer, Laura D.; Komar, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has caused disease in humans, equids, and birds at lower frequency in Mexico than in the United States. We hypothesized that the seemingly reduced virulence in Mexico was caused by attenuation of the Tabasco strain from southeastern Mexico, resulting in lower viremia than that caused by the Tecate strain from the more northern location of Baja California. During 2006–2008, we tested this hypothesis in candidate avian amplifying hosts: domestic chickens, rock pigeons, house sparrows, great-tailed grackles, and clay-colored thrushes. Only great-tailed grackles and house sparrows were competent amplifying hosts for both strains, and deaths occurred in each species. Tecate strain viremia levels were higher for thrushes. Both strains produced low-level viremia in pigeons and chickens. Our results suggest that certain avian hosts within Mexico are competent for efficient amplification of both northern and southern WNV strains and that both strains likely contribute to bird deaths. PMID:22172633

  7. Not all songbirds calibrate their magnetic compass from twilight cues: a telemetry study.

    PubMed

    Chernetsov, Nikita; Kishkinev, Dmitry; Kosarev, Vladislav; Bolshakov, Casimir V

    2011-08-01

    Migratory birds are able to use the sun and associated polarised light patterns, stellar cues and the geomagnetic field for orientation. No general agreement has been reached regarding the hierarchy of orientation cues. Recent data from naturally migrating North American Catharus thrushes suggests that they calibrate geomagnetic information daily from twilight cues. Similar results have been shown in caged birds in a few studies but not confirmed in others. We report that free-flying European migrants, song thrushes Turdus philomelos, released after pre-exposure to a horizontally rotated magnetic field, do not recalibrate their magnetic compass from solar cues, but rather show a simple domination of either the magnetic or the stellar compass. We suggest that different songbird species possess different hierarchies of orientation cues, depending on the geographic and ecological challenges met by the migrants. PMID:21753048

  8. Meeting of the southeast management working group (4th) abstracts. Held in Memphis, Tennessee on November 12-14, 1992. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.P.

    1993-08-01

    Contents: hurricane effects on neotropical migrants at a South Carolina bottomland hardwood site; point count results from 9 bottomland hardwood sites in South Carolina; bird banding at hilton pond: monitoring and managing for neotropical migrants in South Carolina's piedmont region; effects of forest management on population parameters and habitat use of wood thrushes; and influence of red-cockaded woodpecker habitat management on the abundance of neotropical migrant breeding birds in two loblolly pine forests of Mississippi: study design and preliminary results.

  9. Lead exposure and poisoning of songbirds using the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, James A.; Audet, Daniel; Spears, Brian L.; Healy, Kate A.; Brazzle, Roy E.; Hoffman, David J.; Dailey, Anne; Beyer, W. Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have found widespread Pb poisoning of waterfowl in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin in northern Idaho, USA, which has been contaminated by mining and smelting activities. We studied the exposure of ground-feeding songbirds to Pb, sampling 204 American robins (Turdus migratorius), song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), and Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) throughout the basin. These songbirds had mean blood Pb concentrations (mg/kg, dry weight) of less than 0.19 at a reference area (25 mg Pb/kg soil), 1.09 at moderately contaminated sites (170 to 1300 mg Pb/kg soil), and 2.06 at highly contaminated sites (2000 to 5000 mg Pb/kg soil). Based on guidelines for evaluating blood Pb in birds, 6% of robins from the highly contaminated sites had background concentrations, 24% were subclinically poisoned, 52% were clinically poisoned, and 18% were severely clinically poisoned with Pb. Blood Pb concentrations were lower in song sparrows than in robins and lowest in Swainson's thrushes. More than half of the robins and song sparrows from all contaminated sites and more than half of the Swainson's thrushes from highly contaminated sites showed at least 50% inhibition of the activity of the enzyme δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), commonly used as a measure of exposure to Pb. The highest hepatic Pb concentration of 61 mg/kg (dry weight) was detected in a song sparrow. Using Al as a marker for soil in songbird ingesta, we estimated average soil ingestion rates as 20% in robins, 17% in song sparrows, and 0.7% in Swainson's thrushes. Soil Pb in ingesta accounted for almost all of the songbirds' exposure to Pb. Based on these results, it is recommended that ecological risk assessments of ground-feeding songbirds at contaminated sites include soil ingestion as a pathway of exposure to Pb.

  10. Lead exposure and poisoning of songbirds using the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho, USA.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James A; Audet, Daniel; Spears, Brian L; Healy, Kate A; Brazzle, Roy E; Hoffman, David J; Dailey, Anne; Beyer, W Nelson

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies have found widespread Pb poisoning of waterfowl in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin in northern Idaho, USA, which has been contaminated by mining and smelting activities. We studied the exposure of ground-feeding songbirds to Pb, sampling 204 American robins (Turdus migratorius), song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), and Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) throughout the basin. These songbirds had mean blood Pb concentrations (mg/kg, dry weight) of less than 0.19 at a reference area (25 mg Pb/kg soil), 1.09 at moderately contaminated sites (170 to 1300 mg Pb/kg soil), and 2.06 at highly contaminated sites (2000 to 5000 mg Pb/kg soil). Based on guidelines for evaluating blood Pb in birds, 6% of robins from the highly contaminated sites had background concentrations, 24% were subclinically poisoned, 52% were clinically poisoned, and 18% were severely clinically poisoned with Pb. Blood Pb concentrations were lower in song sparrows than in robins and lowest in Swainson's thrushes. More than half of the robins and song sparrows from all contaminated sites and more than half of the Swainson's thrushes from highly contaminated sites showed at least 50% inhibition of the activity of the enzyme δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), commonly used as a measure of exposure to Pb. The highest hepatic Pb concentration of 61 mg/kg (dry weight) was detected in a song sparrow. Using Al as a marker for soil in songbird ingesta, we estimated average soil ingestion rates as 20% in robins, 17% in song sparrows, and 0.7% in Swainson's thrushes. Soil Pb in ingesta accounted for almost all of the songbirds' exposure to Pb. Based on these results, it is recommended that ecological risk assessments of ground-feeding songbirds at contaminated sites include soil ingestion as a pathway of exposure to Pb. PMID:21538831

  11. Fat, weather, and date affect migratory songbirds’ departure decisions, routes, and time it takes to cross the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deppe, Jill L.; Ward, Michael P.; Bolus, Rachel; Diehl, Robert H.; Celis-Murillo, A.; Zenzal, Theodore J.; Moore, Frank R.; Benson, Thomas J.; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Schofield, Lynn N.; Enstrom, David A.; Paxton, Eben; Bohrer, Gil; Beveroth, Tara A.; Raim, Arlo; Obringer, Renee L.; Delaney, David; Cochran, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately two thirds of migratory songbirds in eastern North America negotiate the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), where inclement weather coupled with no refueling or resting opportunities can be lethal. However, decisions made when navigating such features and their consequences remain largely unknown due to technological limitations of tracking small animals over large areas. We used automated radio telemetry to track three songbird species (Red-eyed Vireo, Swainson’s Thrush, Wood Thrush) from coastal Alabama to the northern Yucatan Peninsula (YP) during fall migration. Detecting songbirds after crossing ∼1,000 km of open water allowed us to examine intrinsic (age, wing length, fat) and extrinsic (weather, date) variables shaping departure decisions, arrival at the YP, and crossing times. Large fat reserves and low humidity, indicative of beneficial synoptic weather patterns, favored southward departure across the Gulf. Individuals detected in the YP departed with large fat reserves and later in the fall with profitable winds, and flight durations (mean = 22.4 h) were positively related to wind profit. Age was not related to departure behavior, arrival, or travel time. However, vireos negotiated the GOM differently than thrushes, including different departure decisions, lower probability of detection in the YP, and longer crossing times. Defense of winter territories by thrushes but not vireos and species-specific foraging habits may explain the divergent migratory behaviors. Fat reserves appear extremely important to departure decisions and arrival in the YP. As habitat along the GOM is degraded, birds may be limited in their ability to acquire fat to cross the Gulf.

  12. Fat, weather, and date affect migratory songbirds’ departure decisions, routes, and time it takes to cross the Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Deppe, Jill L.; Ward, Michael P.; Bolus, Rachel T.; Diehl, Robert H.; Celis-Murillo, Antonio; Zenzal, Theodore J.; Moore, Frank R.; Benson, Thomas J.; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Schofield, Lynn N.; Enstrom, David A.; Paxton, Eben H.; Bohrer, Gil; Beveroth, Tara A.; Raim, Arlo; Obringer, Renee L.; Delaney, David; Cochran, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately two thirds of migratory songbirds in eastern North America negotiate the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), where inclement weather coupled with no refueling or resting opportunities can be lethal. However, decisions made when navigating such features and their consequences remain largely unknown due to technological limitations of tracking small animals over large areas. We used automated radio telemetry to track three songbird species (Red-eyed Vireo, Swainson’s Thrush, Wood Thrush) from coastal Alabama to the northern Yucatan Peninsula (YP) during fall migration. Detecting songbirds after crossing ∼1,000 km of open water allowed us to examine intrinsic (age, wing length, fat) and extrinsic (weather, date) variables shaping departure decisions, arrival at the YP, and crossing times. Large fat reserves and low humidity, indicative of beneficial synoptic weather patterns, favored southward departure across the Gulf. Individuals detected in the YP departed with large fat reserves and later in the fall with profitable winds, and flight durations (mean = 22.4 h) were positively related to wind profit. Age was not related to departure behavior, arrival, or travel time. However, vireos negotiated the GOM differently than thrushes, including different departure decisions, lower probability of detection in the YP, and longer crossing times. Defense of winter territories by thrushes but not vireos and species-specific foraging habits may explain the divergent migratory behaviors. Fat reserves appear extremely important to departure decisions and arrival in the YP. As habitat along the GOM is degraded, birds may be limited in their ability to acquire fat to cross the Gulf. PMID:26578793

  13. Fat, weather, and date affect migratory songbirds' departure decisions, routes, and time it takes to cross the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Deppe, Jill L; Ward, Michael P; Bolus, Rachel T; Diehl, Robert H; Celis-Murillo, Antonio; Zenzal, Theodore J; Moore, Frank R; Benson, Thomas J; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A; Schofield, Lynn N; Enstrom, David A; Paxton, Eben H; Bohrer, Gil; Beveroth, Tara A; Raim, Arlo; Obringer, Renee L; Delaney, David; Cochran, William W

    2015-11-17

    Approximately two thirds of migratory songbirds in eastern North America negotiate the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), where inclement weather coupled with no refueling or resting opportunities can be lethal. However, decisions made when navigating such features and their consequences remain largely unknown due to technological limitations of tracking small animals over large areas. We used automated radio telemetry to track three songbird species (Red-eyed Vireo, Swainson's Thrush, Wood Thrush) from coastal Alabama to the northern Yucatan Peninsula (YP) during fall migration. Detecting songbirds after crossing ∼1,000 km of open water allowed us to examine intrinsic (age, wing length, fat) and extrinsic (weather, date) variables shaping departure decisions, arrival at the YP, and crossing times. Large fat reserves and low humidity, indicative of beneficial synoptic weather patterns, favored southward departure across the Gulf. Individuals detected in the YP departed with large fat reserves and later in the fall with profitable winds, and flight durations (mean = 22.4 h) were positively related to wind profit. Age was not related to departure behavior, arrival, or travel time. However, vireos negotiated the GOM differently than thrushes, including different departure decisions, lower probability of detection in the YP, and longer crossing times. Defense of winter territories by thrushes but not vireos and species-specific foraging habits may explain the divergent migratory behaviors. Fat reserves appear extremely important to departure decisions and arrival in the YP. As habitat along the GOM is degraded, birds may be limited in their ability to acquire fat to cross the Gulf. PMID:26578793

  14. Synanthropic birds influence the distribution of Borrelia species: analysis of Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Dubska, Lenka; Literak, Ivan; Kocianova, Elena; Taragelova, Veronika; Sverakova, Veronika; Sychra, Oldrich; Hromadko, Miloslav

    2011-02-01

    Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from 835 birds and from vegetation in the Czech Republic were analyzed. Host-seeking ticks (n = 427) were infected predominantly by Borrelia afzelii (25%). Ticks (n = 1,012) from songbirds (Passeriformes) were infected commonly by Borrelia garinii (12.1%) and Borrelia valaisiana (13.4%). Juveniles of synanthropic birds, Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrushes (Turdus philomelos), were major reservoir hosts of B. garinii. PMID:21148704

  15. The seroprevalence of avipoxvirus and its association with avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) infection in introduced passerine birds in the southern regions of the North Island of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ha, H J; Banda, M; Alley, M R; Howe, L; Gartrell, B D

    2013-03-01

    Blood samples were collected from 65 free-ranging birds from six species in the southern North Island of New Zealand. Sera from the birds were tested for the presence of avipoxvirus (APV) antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and blood cells from 55 birds were also tested for Plasmodium spp. by PCR. Forty-five birds (69.2%) tested seropositive to APV. Song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) presented the highest seroprevalence at 100% (4/4), followed by Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula) (96.86%, 31/32), chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) (54.55%, 6/11), starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) (25%, 3/12), greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) (25%, 1/4), and European goldfinches (Carduelis carduelis) (0%, 0/2). Plasmodium spp. DNA was detected in 15/55 birds (27.3%), including 11 Eurasian blackbirds, one song thrush, and three starlings. Eight Eurasian blackbird isolates (73%) grouped within the subgenus Novyella. Two Eurasian blackbird isolates and the song thrush isolate clustered within a different group with previously reported lineages LINN1 and AFTRU5. In addition, all three starling isolates clustered within the well-characterized lineage Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum GRW06. All Plasmodium-positive Eurasian blackbirds and the song thrush were seropositive to APV, whereas only 67% of Plasmodium-positive starlings showed evidence of previous exposure to APV. A significant relationship between birds seropositive to APV and birds infected by Plasmodium spp. was observed (chi2 = 5.69, df = 1, P = 0.0086). To the authors' knowledge this is the first report describing the seroprevalence of APV and its association with Plasmodium spp. infection in introduced bird species in New Zealand. PMID:23678738

  16. Costs of detection bias in index-based population monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, C.T.; Kendall, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Managers of wildlife populations commonly rely on indirect, count-based measures of the population in making decisions regarding conservation, harvest, or control. The main appeal in the use of such counts is their low material expense compared to methods that directly measure the population. However, their correct use rests on the rarely-tested but often-assumed premise that they proportionately reflect population size, i.e., that they constitute a population index. This study investigates forest management for the endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) and the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia, U.S.A. Optimal decision policies for a joint species objective were derived for two alternative models of Wood Thrush population dynamics. Policies were simulated under scenarios of unbiasedness, consistent negative bias, and habitat-dependent negative bias in observed Wood Thrush densities. Differences in simulation outcomes between biased and unbiased detection scenarios indicated the expected loss in resource objectives (here, forest habitat and birds) through decision-making based on biased population counts. Given the models and objective function used in our analysis, expected losses were as great as 11%, a degree of loss perhaps not trivial for applications such as endangered species management. Our analysis demonstrates that costs of uncertainty about the relationship between the population and its observation can be measured in units of the resource, costs which may offset apparent savings achieved by collecting uncorrected population counts.

  17. Ecology of avian brood parasitism at an early interfacing of host and parasite populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The shiny cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis), a brood parasite, has recently spread into the Greater Antilles from South America via the Lesser Antilles. This species is a host generalist and upon reaching Puerto Rico exploited avian communities with no history of social parasitism. Forty-two percent of the resident non-raptorial land bird species were parasitized in mangrove habitat study areas. Cowbird parasitism affected hosts by (1) depressing nest success an average of 41 percent below non-parasitized nests, and (2) reducing host productivity. Parasitized hosts produced 12 percent fewer eggs and fledged 67 percent fewer of their own chicks than non-parasitized pairs. Growth rates of chicks of some host species were lower in parasitized nests compared with non-parasitized nests while growth of others was not affected by brood parasitism. Cowbird chick growth varied directly with host size; i.e., cowbird chicks grew faster and attained greater fledging weight and body size in nests of larger hosts. Factors important in shiny cowbird host selection were examined within the mangrove study community. Cowbirds did not parasitize avian species in proportion to their abundance. The cowbird breeding season coincided with that of its major hosts, which were high quality foster species, and did not extend into other periods even though nests of poor quality species were available. Food habits and egg size of cowbirds were similar to those of their hosts, suggesting that cowbirds choose hosts partly on the basis of this alignment. Cowbirds locate nests by cryptically watching activities of birds in likely habitat. Despite the recency of the cowbird's arrival in Puerto Rico, some nesting species have effective anti-parasite strategies, including alien egg rejection and nest guarding. Behavior effective in avoiding parasitism is similar to that used by certain birds in evading nest predators. It is suggested that anti-predator behavior is preadaptive to countering cowbird

  18. Interaction of the Koinobiont Parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris of the Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis, with Two Entomopathogenic Rhabditids, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae

    PubMed Central

    Atwa, Atwa A.; Hegazi, Esmat M.; Khafagi, Wedad E.; El-Aziz, Gehan M. Abd

    2013-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are generally considered beneficial organisms. However, they can affect beneficial insects such as parasitoids. The interaction between the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) and Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, and the parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kokujev (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was investigated in the laboratory. In non-parasitized hosts, Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae exposed to H. bacteriophora showed a higher percent mortality than those exposed to S. carpocapsae. Both nematodes were able to invade and propagate in non-parasitized S. littoralis larvae and those parasitized by M. rufiventris. Both nematode species reproduced in Microplitis-parasitized hosts, but there was a higher number of nematodes in non-parasitized larvae. S. carpocapsae yielded higher numbers of infective juveniles than H. bacteriophora. Generally, the number of nematodes harvested increased as their host's size increased. The interaction between the nematodes and parasitoid favored the nematodes when the nematodes were inoculated during the parasitoid egg stage or the young parasitoid larvae, thus giving the nematodes a better chance to grow and reproduce, resulting in the death of the parasitoid larvae. Conversely, when the nematodes were inoculated during the late larval instar of the parasitoid, the competition partially favored the wasp, thus giving approximately 50% of the wasps a better chance to develop, emerge, and reproduce, providing evidence that both nematodes and wasps could reproduce in the same host. Egg maturation of female wasps derived from nematode-infected hosts was not significantly different than those from control hosts. The combined application of nematodes and parasitoids may be beneficial if the detrimental effects of the nematodes on the parasitoid could be avoided by precisely timing the application strategies. It is clear that

  19. Healing in the irradiated wound

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.H.; Rudolph, R. )

    1990-07-01

    Poor or nonhealing of irradiated wounds has been attributed to progressive obliterative endarteritis. Permanently damaged fibroblasts may also play an important part in poor healing. Regardless of the cause, the key to management of irradiated skin is careful attention to prevent its breakdown and conservative, but adequate, treatment when wounds are minor. When wounds become larger and are painful, complete excision of the wound or ulcer is called for and coverage should be provided by a well-vascularized nonparasitic distant flap.16 references.

  20. Plants that attack plants: molecular elucidation of plant parasitism.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Satoko; Shirasu, Ken

    2012-12-01

    Obligate parasitic plants in the family Orobanchaceae, such as Striga and Orobanche (including Phelipanche) spp., parasitize important crops and cause severe agricultural damage. Recent molecular studies have begun to reveal how these parasites have adapted to hosts in a parasitic lifecycle. The parasites detect nearby host roots and germinate by a mechanism that seems to have evolved from a conserved germination system found in non-parasites. The development of a specialized infecting organ called a haustorium is a unique feature of plant parasites and is triggered by host compounds and redox signals. Newly developed genomic and genetic resources will facilitate more rapid progress toward a molecular understanding of plant parasitism. PMID:22898297

  1. Ascaridia galli infection influences the development of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity after Newcastle Disease vaccination in chickens.

    PubMed

    Pleidrup, Janne; Dalgaard, Tina S; Norup, Liselotte R; Permin, Anders; Schou, Torben W; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Vadekær, Dorte F; Jungersen, Gregers; Sørensen, Poul; Juul-Madsen, Helle R

    2014-01-01

    Potent vaccine efficiency is crucial for disease control in both human and livestock vaccination programmes. Free range chickens and chickens with access to outdoor areas have a high risk of infection with parasites including Ascaridia galli, a gastrointestinal nematode with a potential influence on the immunological response to vaccination against other infectious diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether A. galli infection influences vaccine-induced immunity to Newcastle Disease (ND) in chickens from an MHC-characterized inbred line. Chickens were experimentally infected with A. galli at 4 weeks of age or left as non-parasitized controls. At 10 and 13 weeks of age half of the chickens were ND-vaccinated and at 16 weeks of age, all chickens were challenged with a lentogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). A. galli infection influenced both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses after ND vaccination. Thus, significantly lower NDV serum titres were found in the A. galli-infected group as compared to the non-parasitized group early after vaccination. In addition, the A. galli-infected chickens showed significantly lower frequencies of NDV-specific T cells in peripheral blood three weeks after the first ND vaccination as compared to non-parasitized chickens. Finally, A. galli significantly increased local mRNA expression of IL-4 and IL-13 and significantly decreased TGF-ß4 expression in the jejunum two weeks after infection with A. galli. At the time of vaccination (six and nine weeks after A. galli infection) the local expression in the jejunum of both IFN-? and IL-10 was significantly decreased in A. galli-infected chickens. Upon challenge with the NDV LaSota strain, viral genomes persisted in the oral cavity for a slightly longer period of time in A. galli-infected vaccinees as compared to non-parasitized vaccinees. However, more work is needed in order to determine if vaccine-induced protective immunity is impaired in A. galli

  2. New feather mites of the genera Aniacarus and Aniibius (Acariformes: Pterolichidae) from two cuckoo species (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Sergey V; Hernandes, Fabio A; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A

    2015-01-01

    Five new species of the family Pterolichidae are described from two common non-parasitic cuckoo species of the subfamily Crotophaginae (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) in Brazil: Aniacarus ani sp. n. from the Smooth-billed Ani, Crotophaga ani Linnaeus, A. simplex sp. n., A. robustus sp. n., A. coronatus sp. n. and Aniibius guirae sp. n. from the Guira Cuckoo, Guira guira (Gmelin). A key to all known species of Aniacarus is provided. All four pterolichid species associated with the G. guira can occur simultaneously on one host individual. A brief review of studies of feather mites associated with Cuculidae is given. PMID:25947463

  3. Parasitic plants have increased rates of molecular evolution across all three genomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Theoretical models and experimental evidence suggest that rates of molecular evolution could be raised in parasitic organisms compared to non-parasitic taxa. Parasitic plants provide an ideal test for these predictions, as there are at least a dozen independent origins of the parasitic lifestyle in angiosperms. Studies of a number of parasitic plant lineages have suggested faster rates of molecular evolution, but the results of some studies have been mixed. Comparative analysis of all parasitic plant lineages, including sequences from all three genomes, is needed to examine the generality of the relationship between rates of molecular evolution and parasitism in plants. Results We analysed DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial, nuclear and chloroplast genomes for 12 independent evolutionary origins of parasitism in angiosperms. We demonstrated that parasitic lineages have a faster rate of molecular evolution than their non-parasitic relatives in sequences for all three genomes, for both synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions. Conclusions Our results prove that raised rates of molecular evolution are a general feature of parasitic plants, not confined to a few taxa or specific genes. We discuss possible causes for this relationship, including increased positive selection associated with host-parasite arms races, relaxed selection, reduced population size or repeated bottlenecks, increased mutation rates, and indirect causal links with generation time and body size. We find no evidence that faster rates are due to smaller effective populations sizes or changes in selection pressure. Instead, our results suggest that parasitic plants have a higher mutation rate than their close non-parasitic relatives. This may be due to a direct connection, where some aspect of the parasitic lifestyle drives the evolution of raised mutation rates. Alternatively, this pattern may be driven by an indirect connection between rates and parasitism: for example, parasitic

  4. Oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options. PMID:27343964

  5. Museum egg collections as stores of long-term phenological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharlemann, J. P. W.

      Museum collections hold large amounts of data on collecting dates and localities of eggs collected over the past 150 years. Egg collections hold the longest available time series for a wide range of bird species on a large spatial scale. Using data for two British species I investigate whether egg collection data can be used in phenological research. A method is presented allowing laying dates to be estimated from collecting dates. Problems and biases in the data are highlighted. Both the dipper and song thrush have started laying earlier over the past 150 years. The advance in laying is significantly correlated with mean March temperature.

  6. Molecular characterization and distribution of Haemoproteus minutus (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae): a pathogenic avian parasite.

    PubMed

    Palinauskas, Vaidas; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Križanauskienė, Asta; Markovets, Mikhail Yu; Bensch, Staffan; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2013-08-01

    Recently, the lineage hTURDUS2 of Haemoproteus minutus (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae) was reported to cause mortality in captive parrots. This parasite lineage is widespread and prevalent in the blackbird Turdus merula throughout its entire distribution range. Species identity of other closely related lineages recently reported in dead parrots remains unclear, but will be important to determine for a better understanding of the epidemiology of haemoproteosis. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based and microscopic methods, we analyzed 265 blood samples collected from 52 species of wild birds in Eurasia (23 samples from Kamchatka Peninsula, 73 from Sakhalin Island, 150 from Ekaterinburg and 19 from Irkutsk regions of Russia). Single infections of the lineages hTURDUS2 (hosts are redwing Turdus iliacus and fieldfare Turdus pilaris), hTUPHI1 (song thrush Turdus philomelos) and hTUCHR01 (fieldfare, redwing, song thrush and brown-headed thrush Turdus chysolaus) were detected. We identified species of these haemoproteids based on morphology of their blood stages and conclude that these lineages belong to H. minutus, a widespread parasite of different species of thrushes (genus Turdus), which serve as reservoir hosts of this haemoproteid infection. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the lineages hTURDUS2, hTUCHR01 and hTUPHI1 of H. minutus are closely related to Haemoproteus pallidus (lineages hPFC1 and hCOLL2), Haemoproteus pallidulus (hSYAT03), and Haemoproteus sp. (hMEUND3); genetic distance among their mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) lineages is small (<1% or<4 nucleotides). All these blood parasites are different in many morphological characters, but are similar due to one feature, which is the pale staining of their macrogametocytes' cytoplasm with Giemsa. Because of the recent publications about mortality caused by the lineages hTUPHI1 and hTURDUS2 of H. minutus in captive parrots in Europe, H. minutus and the closely related H. pallidus and H. pallidulus are

  7. Genes and song: genetic and social connections in fragmented habitat in a woodland bird with limited dispersal.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Alexandra; Amos, J Nevil; Goretskaia, Maria I; Beme, Irina R; Buchanan, Katherine L; Takeuchi, Naoko; Radford, James Q; Sunnucks, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the processes leading to population declines in fragmented landscapes is essential for successful conservation management. However, isolating the influence of disparate processes, and dispersal in particular, is challenging. The Grey Shrike-thrush, Colluricincla harmonica, is a sedentary woodland-dependent songbird, with learned vocalizations whose incidence in suitable habitat patches falls disproportionally with decline in tree cover in the landscape. Although it has been suggested that gaps in tree cover might act as barriers to its dispersal, the species remains in many remnants of native vegetation in agricultural landscapes, suggesting that it may have responded to habitat removal and fragmentation by maintaining or even increasing dispersal distances. We quantified population connectivity of the Grey Shrike-thrush in a system fragmented over more than 120 years using genetic (microsatellites) and acoustic (song types) data. First, we tested for population genetic and acoustic structure at regional and local scales in search of barriers to dispersal or gene flow and signals of local spatial structuring indicative of restricted dispersal or localized acoustic similarity. Then we tested for effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on genetic and acoustic connectivity by fitting alternative models of mobility (isolation-by-distance [the null model] and reduced and increased movement models) across treeless vs. treed areas. Birds within -5 km of each other had more similar genotypes and song types than those farther away, suggesting that dispersal and song matching are limited in the region. Despite restricted dispersal detected for females (but not males), populations appeared to be connected by gene flow and displayed some cultural (acoustic) connectivity across the region. Fragmentation did not appear to impact greatly the dispersal of the Grey Shrike-thrush: none of the mobility models fit the genetic distances of males, whereas for females, an

  8. Fluconazole use during breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Yusuf Cem; Koren, Gideon; Ito, Shinya; Bozzo, Pina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Question I have a patient with persistent breast and nipple thrush. Other therapies have failed, so I have decided to treat her with a loading dose of 400 mg of oral fluconazole followed by 100 mg twice daily for at least 2 weeks. Is there any need for her to interrupt breastfeeding during this treatment? Answer Available data regarding fluconazole use during breastfeeding are reassuring. Fluconazole is also used in the treatment of fungal diseases in infants and has a good safety profile. Therefore, there is no need to interrupt breastfeeding when a mother is treated with fluconazole. PMID:26759844

  9. [Weight loss and night sweats with unexpected tumor localization].

    PubMed

    Oberholzer, C; Sawatzki, M; Rothermundt, C

    2007-11-28

    A 52-year-old patient presented himself with weight loss and night sweats. Laboratory analyses revealed a high sedimentation rate, elevated immunoglobulines and anaemia with sludge phenomenon. Differential diagnoses included Multiple Myeloma and Lymphoma. Having a risk constellation for HIV infection and just having recovered from oral thrush also made this diagnosis possible. Urinary analysis and chest x-ray were normal; however, CT-scan detected renal cell cancer with pulmonary metastases. Renal cell cancer is heterogeneous in presentation, symptoms are unspecific, therefore they are often discovered late when they have already metastasized. Paraneoplastic syndromes, e.g. hypercalcaemia or hypertension are not infrequent in renal cell cancer. PMID:18072582

  10. Azole resistance in oropharyngeal Candida albicans strains isolated from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    He, X; Tiballi, R N; Zarins, L T; Bradley, S F; Sangeorzan, J A; Kauffman, C A

    1994-01-01

    For 212 oropharyngeal isolates of Candida albicans, the fluconazole MICs for 50 and 90% of strains tested were 0.5 and 16 micrograms/ml, respectively, and those of itraconazole were 0.05 and 0.2 micrograms/ml, respectively. Of 16 isolates for which fluconazole MICs were > 64 micrograms/ml, itraconazole MICs for 14 were < or = 0.8 micrograms/ml and for 2 were > 6.4 micrograms/ml. Most fluconazole-resistant strains remained susceptible to itraconazole; whether itraconazole will prove effective for refractory thrush remains to be shown. PMID:7840596

  11. Effect of deforestation and introduction of exotic grasses as livestock forage on the population dynamics of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Nava, Santiago; Mastropaolo, Mariano; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Mangold, Atilio J

    2013-12-01

    The effect of deforestation and the introduction of exotic grasses on the population dynamics of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in northern Argentina was analysed. Biological parameters that were measured included proportion of females ovipositing, pre-oviposition period, incubation period of eggs, proportion of egg clusters hatching, larval longevity and total non-parasitic period. No significant differences were observed in proportion of females ovipositing and in pre-oviposition period between forested and grassland areas. Regarding the other parameters, in the majority of the temporal series there were no significant differences. In the cases where differences with statistical significance were detected, they were not unidirectional. The replacement of native forest by grasses can potentially increase tick abundance not by the modification of microclimatic conditions, but by increasing the tick-host encounter rate due to a higher cattle density. The hypothesis that deforestation and introduction of exotic grasses affects the non-parasitic phase of R. microplus in northern Argentina was not supported. PMID:24140239

  12. Goblet cells: are they an unspecific barrier against Giardia intestinalis or a gate?

    PubMed

    Ponce-Macotela, Martha; González-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Martínez-Gordillo, Mario N

    2008-02-01

    Giardiosis is one of the major intestinal parasitic diseases of human beings as well as wild and domesticated animals. Several protective mechanisms against infection have been described. However, specific information about relationship between giardiosis and the increased proliferation of goblet cells (GC) in patients infected with Giardia intestinalis (Syn. G. duodenalis, G. lamblia) is scarce. In this work, we compare and quantify the number of GC, and have inferred their metabolic state in the small intestine of dogs parasitized with Giardia intestinalis compared to dogs without parasites. Small intestine segments were processed using routine methods for histology and electron microscopy; areas and cells were screened with an Axiovision Ver. 4.0 system. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and comparison of averages. Parasitized dogs showed higher GC numbers than nonparasitized ones. Averages were: 20+/-0.81 GC/25 microm(2) with independent mucin granules and 11+/-1.53 GC/25 microm(2) that were expelling mucus, compared to 11+/-0.94 GC/25 microm(2) and 1+/-0.27 GC/25 microm(2), respectively, in nonparasitized dogs (Tukey, p<0.001). The increases in GC number seem to be an unspecific defensive mechanism against Giardia trophozoites. However, we found some evidence supporting that GC hyperplasia could be a prejudicial to epithelial barrier that gives rise to gates allowing for Giardia-tissue invasion. PMID:18038237

  13. Genetic, morphological, and ecological characterization of a hybrid zone that spans a migratory divide.

    PubMed

    Ruegg, Kristen

    2008-02-01

    This study characterizes a hybrid zone that spans a migratory divide between subspecies of the Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus), a long distance migratory songbird, in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia. To assess the potential for a barrier to gene flow between the subspecies, I: (1) analyzed the shape and width of genetic and morphological clines relative to estimates of dispersal distance, (2) assessed the ratio of parental to hybrid genotypes across the hybrid zone, (3) estimated population density across the hybrid zone, and (4) compared the spatial relationship between the hybrid zone and an existing environmental gradient. The results indicate that the hybrid zone is characterized by mostly concordant character clines that are narrow relative to dispersal, the absence of a hybrid swarm, and low population density at the center of the zone. This hybrid zone and additional regions of contact between these subspecies are found on the border between coastal and interior climatic regions throughout the Pacific Northwest. An identified shift in the location, but not the width, of the mtDNA cline relative to the nuclear clines is consistent with asymmetrical hybridization. Neutral diffusion of populations following secondary contact and hybrid superiority within an ecotone are insufficient explanations for the observed patterns. The hypothesis that best fits the data is that the Swainson's thrush hybrid zone is a tension zone maintained by dispersal and ecologically mediated barriers to gene flow. PMID:18039327

  14. [Sick or made sick? Recurrent episodes of cutaneous and subcutaneous ulcers, colitis, arthralgia and hair loss... a systemic disease or iatrogenic?].

    PubMed

    Woitzek, Katja; Dusemund, Frank; Müller, Beat

    2010-12-01

    Recurrent episodes of cutaneous and subcutaneous ulcers, especially in the oral cavity, represent a high psychological and painful burden for the patient. If there in addition are symptoms of arthralgia and/or colitis, an autoimmune disease with vasculitis, particularly a Morbus Behçet has to be considered as a possible differential diagnosis. The therapy therefore would be an immunosuppressive one. Also a wide immunologic diagnostic process has to be started. Furthermore, a chronic inflammatory bowel disease has to be excluded by colonoscopic biopsy. An infectious etiology of the symptoms (viral/bacterial/parasitic) should be investigated by microbiological and laboratory tests. A thrush or a herpes-infection caused by immunosuppression (toxic or due to illness) has to be considered as a further differential diagnosis. Also a precise medical and drug history is very important because of possible toxic adverse effects. Until confirmation of a final diagnosis, only a symptomatic analgetic or antifungal or antiviral therapy in case of a positive thrush or herpes culture respectively should be initiated with respect to the very different kinds of treatment of the diseases included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:21108189

  15. Quantifying drivers of population dynamics for a migratory bird throughout the annual cycle.

    PubMed

    Rushing, Clark S; Ryder, Thomas B; Marra, Peter P

    2016-01-27

    Worldwide, migratory species are undergoing rapid declines but understanding the factors driving these declines is hindered by missing information about migratory connectivity and the lack of data to quantify environmental processes across the annual cycle. Here, we combined range-wide information about migratory connectivity with global remote-sensing data to quantify the relative importance of breeding and non-breeding environmental processes to persistent long-term population declines of a migratory songbird, the wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). Consistent with theoretical predictions about population limitation of migratory birds, our results suggest that habitat loss and climate have contributed to the observed declines in wood thrush breeding abundance, yet the relative importance of breeding versus non-breeding factors is population-specific. For example, high-abundance core breeding populations appear to be more limited by habitat loss, whereas low-abundance, peripheral populations appear to be limited by climate-driven seasonal interactions. Further, our analysis indicates that the relative impact of breeding habitat loss is at least three to six times greater than the impact of equivalent non-breeding habitat loss and therefore the steepest regional declines have likely been driven by the loss of breeding habitat. These results underscore the need for population-specific conservation strategies implemented throughout the annual cycle to reverse long-term declines. PMID:26817774

  16. Reduced density and nest survival of ground-nesting songbirds relative to earthworm invasions in northern hardwood forests.

    PubMed

    Loss, Scott R; Blair, Robert B

    2011-10-01

    European earthworms (Lumbricus spp.) are spreading into previously earthworm-free forests in the United States and Canada and causing substantial changes, including homogenization of soil structure, removal of the litter layer, and reduction in arthropod abundance and species richness of understory plants. Whether these changes affect songbirds that nest and forage on the forest floor is unknown. In stands with and without earthworms in the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Wisconsin (U.S.A.), we surveyed for, monitored nests of, and measured attributes of habitat of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus) and Hermit Thrushes (Catharus guttatus), both ground-dwelling songbirds, and we sampled earthworms at survey points and nests. Bird surveys indicated significantly lower densities of Ovenbirds and Hermit Thrushes in relation to Lumbricus invasions at survey point and stand extents (3.1 and 15-20 ha, respectively). Modeling of Ovenbird nest survival (i.e., the probability that nestlings successfully fledge) indicated that lower survival probabilities were associated with increased sedge cover and decreased litter depth, factors that are related to Lumbricus invasions, possibly due to reduced nest concealment or arthropod abundance. Our findings provide compelling evidence that earthworm invasions may be associated with local declines of forest songbird populations. PMID:21797927

  17. Summer inventory of landbirds in Kenai Fjords National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2006-01-01

    As part of the National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring Program, we conducted a summer inventory of landbirds within Kenai Fjords National Park. Using a stratified random sampling design of areas accessible by boat or on foot, we selected sites that encompassed the breadth of habitat types within the Park. We detected 101 species across 52 transects, including 62 species of landbirds, which confirmed presence of 87% of landbird species expected to occur in the Park during the summer breeding season. We found evidence of breeding for three Partners in Flight Watch List species, Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus), Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperi), and Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus), which are of particular conservation concern due to recent population declines. Kenai Fjords National Park supports extremely high densities of Hermit Thrush, Orange-crowned Warbler, and Wilson’s Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) compared with other regions of Alaska. Other commonly observed species included Fox Sparrow (Passerella iliaca), Varied Thrush (Ixoreus naevius), Rubycrowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula), and Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia). More than half of the landbird species we observed occurred in needleleaf forests, and several of these species were strongly associated with the coastforest interface. Tall shrub habitats, which occurred across all elevations and in recently deglaciated areas, supported high densities and a diverse array of passerines. Two major riparian corridors, with their broadleaf forests, wetlands, and connectivity to interior Alaska, provided unique and important landbird habitats within the region.

  18. Seasonal change in tropical habitat quality and body condition for a declining migratory songbird.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Emily A; Rotenberg, James A; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2015-10-01

    Many migratory songbirds spend their non-breeding season in tropical humid forests, where climate change is predicted to increase the severity and frequency of droughts and decrease rainfall. For conservation of these songbirds, it is critical to understand how resources during the non-breeding season are affected by seasonal patterns of drying, and thereby predict potential long-term effects of climate change. We studied habitat quality for a declining tropical forest-dwelling songbird, the wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and tested the hypothesis that habitat moisture and arthropod abundance are drivers of body condition during the overwintering period. We examined habitat moisture, abundance of arthropods and fruit, and condition of individual birds (n = 418) in three habitat types--mature forest, mature forest with increased presence of human activity, and riparian scrub--from October to April. We found a strong pattern of habitat drying from October (wet season) to March (prior to spring migration) in all habitats, with concurrent declines in arthropod and fruit abundance. Body condition of birds also declined (estimated ~5 % decline over the wintering period), with no significant difference by habitat. Relatively poor condition (low body condition index, low fat and pectoral muscles scores) was equally apparent in all habitat types in March. Climate change is predicted to increase the severity of dry seasons in Central America, and our results suggest that this could negatively affect the condition of individual wood thrushes. PMID:26001604

  19. Effects of breeding versus winter habitat loss and fragmentation on the population dynamics of a migratory songbird.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Caz M; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2016-03-01

    Many migratory species are in decline and understanding these declines is challenging because individuals occupy widely divergent and geographically distant habitats during a single year and therefore populations across the range are interconnected in complex ways. Network modeling has been used to show, theoretically, that shifts in migratory connectivity patterns can occur in response to habitat or climate changes and that habitat loss in one region can affect sub-populations in regions that are not directly connected. Here, we use a network model, parameterized by integrating long-term monitoring data with direct tracking of -100 individuals, to explain population trends in the rapidly declining Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) and to predict future trends. Our model suggests that species-level declines in Wood Thrush are driven primarily by tropical deforestation in Central America but that protection of breeding habitat in some regions is necessary to prevent shifts in migratory connectivity and to sustain populations in all breeding regions. The model illustrates how shifts in migratory connectivity may lead to unexpected population declines in key regions. We highlight current knowledge gaps that make modeling full life-cycle population demographics in migratory species challenging but also demonstrate that modeling can inform conservation while these gaps are being filled. PMID:27209785

  20. Optimal orientation in flows: providing a benchmark for animal movement strategies.

    PubMed

    McLaren, James D; Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Dokter, Adriaan M; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Bouten, Willem

    2014-10-01

    Animal movements in air and water can be strongly affected by experienced flow. While various flow-orientation strategies have been proposed and observed, their performance in variable flow conditions remains unclear. We apply control theory to establish a benchmark for time-minimizing (optimal) orientation. We then define optimal orientation for movement in steady flow patterns and, using dynamic wind data, for short-distance mass movements of thrushes (Turdus sp.) and 6000 km non-stop migratory flights by great snipes, Gallinago media. Relative to the optimal benchmark, we assess the efficiency (travel speed) and reliability (success rate) of three generic orientation strategies: full compensation for lateral drift, vector orientation (single-heading movement) and goal orientation (continually heading towards the goal). Optimal orientation is characterized by detours to regions of high flow support, especially when flow speeds approach and exceed the animal's self-propelled speed. In strong predictable flow (short distance thrush flights), vector orientation adjusted to flow on departure is nearly optimal, whereas for unpredictable flow (inter-continental snipe flights), only goal orientation was near-optimally reliable and efficient. Optimal orientation provides a benchmark for assessing efficiency of responses to complex flow conditions, thereby offering insight into adaptive flow-orientation across taxa in the light of flow strength, predictability and navigation capacity. PMID:25056213

  1. Efficacy and safety of miconazole for oral candidiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L-W; Fu, J-Y; Hua, H; Yan, Z-M

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of miconazole for treating oral candidiasis. Twelve electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials evaluating treatments for oral candidiasis and complemented by hand searching. The clinical and mycological outcomes, as well as adverse effects, were set as the primary outcome criteria. Seventeen trials were included in this review. Most studies were considered to have a high or moderate level of bias. Miconazole was more effective than nystatin for thrush. For HIV-infected patients, there was no significant difference in the efficacy between miconazole and other antifungals. For denture wearers, microwave therapy was significantly better than miconazole. No significant difference was found in the safety evaluation between miconazole and other treatments. The relapse rate of miconazole oral gel may be lower than that of other formulations. This systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that miconazole may be an optional choice for thrush. Microwave therapy could be an effective adjunct treatment for denture stomatitis. Miconazole oral gel may be more effective than other formulations with regard to long-term results. However, future studies that are adequately powered, large-scale, and well-designed are needed to provide higher-quality evidence for the management of oral candidiasis. PMID:26456226

  2. Polymerase chain reaction assay for verifying the labeling of meat and commercial meat products from game birds targeting specific sequences from the mitochondrial D-loop region.

    PubMed

    Rojas, M; González, I; Pavón, M A; Pegels, N; Hernández, P E; García, T; Martín, R

    2010-05-01

    A PCR assay was developed for the identification of meats and commercial meat products from quail (Coturnix coturnix), pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), partridge (Alectoris spp.), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), pigeon (Columba spp.), Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), and song thrush (Turdus philomelos) based on oligonucleotide primers targeting specific sequences from the mitochondrial D-loop region. The primers designed generated specific fragments of 96, 100, 104, 106, 147, 127, and 154 bp in length for quail, pheasant, partridge, guinea fowl, pigeon, Eurasian woodcock, and song thrush tissues, respectively. The specificity of each primer pair was tested against DNA from various game and domestic species. In this work, satisfactory amplification was accomplished in the analysis of experimentally pasteurized (72 degrees C for 30 min) and sterilized (121 degrees C for 20 min) meats, as well as in commercial meat products from the target species. The technique was also applied to raw and sterilized muscular binary mixtures, with a detection limit of 0.1% (wt/wt) for each of the targeted species. The proposed PCR assay represents a rapid and straightforward method for the detection of possible mislabeling in game bird meat products. PMID:20371856

  3. Forest management under uncertainty for multiple bird population objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, C.T.; Plummer, W.T.; Conroy, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    We advocate adaptive programs of decision making and monitoring for the management of forest birds when responses by populations to management, and particularly management trade-offs among populations, are uncertain. Models are necessary components of adaptive management. Under this approach, uncertainty about the behavior of a managed system is explicitly captured in a set of alternative models. The models generate testable predictions about the response of populations to management, and monitoring data provide the basis for assessing these predictions and informing future management decisions. To illustrate these principles, we examine forest management at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, where management attention is focused on the recovery of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population. However, managers are also sensitive to the habitat needs of many non-target organisms, including Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) and other forest interior Neotropical migratory birds. By simulating several management policies on a set of-alternative forest and bird models, we found a decision policy that maximized a composite response by woodpeckers and Wood Thrushes despite our complete uncertainty regarding system behavior. Furthermore, we used monitoring data to update our measure of belief in each alternative model following one cycle of forest management. This reduction of uncertainty translates into a reallocation of model influence on the choice of optimal decision action at the next decision opportunity.

  4. Campylobacter jejuni Colonization in Wild Birds: Results from an Infection Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Waldenström, Jonas; Axelsson-Olsson, Diana; Olsen, Björn; Hasselquist, Dennis; Griekspoor, Petra; Jansson, Lena; Teneberg, Susann; Svensson, Lovisa; Ellström, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in most parts of the world. The bacterium has a broad host range and has been isolated from many animals and environments. To investigate shedding patterns and putative effects on an avian host, we developed a colonization model in which a wild bird species, the European Robin Erithacus rubecula, was inoculated orally with C. jejuni from either a human patient or from another wild bird species, the Song Thrush Turdus philomelos. These two isolates were genetically distinct from each other and provoked very different host responses. The Song Thrush isolate colonized all challenged birds and colonization lasted 6.8 days on average. Birds infected with this isolate also showed a transient but significant decrease in body mass. The human isolate did not colonize the birds and could be detected only in the feces of the birds shortly after inoculation. European Robins infected with the wild bird isolate generated a specific antibody response to C. jejuni membrane proteins from the avian isolate, which also was cross-reactive to membrane proteins of the human isolate. In contrast, European Robins infected with the human isolate did not mount a significant response to bacterial membrane proteins from either of the two isolates. The difference in colonization ability could indicate host adaptations. PMID:20140204

  5. Optimal orientation in flows: providing a benchmark for animal movement strategies

    PubMed Central

    McLaren, James D.; Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Dokter, Adriaan M.; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Bouten, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Animal movements in air and water can be strongly affected by experienced flow. While various flow-orientation strategies have been proposed and observed, their performance in variable flow conditions remains unclear. We apply control theory to establish a benchmark for time-minimizing (optimal) orientation. We then define optimal orientation for movement in steady flow patterns and, using dynamic wind data, for short-distance mass movements of thrushes (Turdus sp.) and 6000 km non-stop migratory flights by great snipes, Gallinago media. Relative to the optimal benchmark, we assess the efficiency (travel speed) and reliability (success rate) of three generic orientation strategies: full compensation for lateral drift, vector orientation (single-heading movement) and goal orientation (continually heading towards the goal). Optimal orientation is characterized by detours to regions of high flow support, especially when flow speeds approach and exceed the animal's self-propelled speed. In strong predictable flow (short distance thrush flights), vector orientation adjusted to flow on departure is nearly optimal, whereas for unpredictable flow (inter-continental snipe flights), only goal orientation was near-optimally reliable and efficient. Optimal orientation provides a benchmark for assessing efficiency of responses to complex flow conditions, thereby offering insight into adaptive flow-orientation across taxa in the light of flow strength, predictability and navigation capacity. PMID:25056213

  6. Autochthonous and migratory birds as a dispersion source for Ixodes ricinus in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Falchi, Alessandro; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Lorusso, Vincenzo; Malia, Egidio; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-10-01

    The present study was carried out in a protected wooded area, which is part of the Parco Regionale Gallipoli Cognato Piccole Dolomiti Lucane, one of the most important ecological reserves in southern Italy. From April 2010 to April 2011, 212 birds, comprising 22 species from 12 families, were captured and examined for ticks. A total of 75 (35.4 %) birds were found infested by ticks, with 451 ticks being collected. All ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus, of which 241 (53.4 %) were larvae and 210 nymphs (46.6 %). The highest intensity of infestation was found in April 2010, when 117 ticks were retrieved on 25 birds. No ticks were found on birds (n = 5) netted in December 2010. High infestation rates were recorded on blackbirds (Turdus merula) (90 %; 29 birds examined) and on mistle thrushes (Turdus viscivorus) (100 %; 2 birds examined). The highest intensity of infestation by larvae was found on wrens (5.6 larvae/bird) and by nymphs on mistle thrushes (11.5 nymphs/bird). Temperature and number of hours of light showed to influence the activity of larvae and nymphs. These data support the notion that birds may be responsible for the heterogeneous distribution of I. ricinus in Europe, thus playing a role in the epidemiology of certain tick-borne pathogens. PMID:22610454

  7. Experimental hybridization among five species of lampreys from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piavis, George W.; Howell, John H.; Smith, Allen J.

    1970-01-01

    Experimental hybridization among five species of lampreys of the Upper Great Lakes routinely produced embryos through stage 8, and four crosses produced embryos to the larval stage. Three critical periods in the embryogenesis of hybrid lampreys were between stages 8 and 9, among stages 10, 11, and 12, and at stage 15. Embryonic development in hybrid lamprey embryos is basically identical to that of controls and is identical to that of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Synchrony of development was observed among stages of viable hybrids and their controls but lethal hybrids generally did not maintain such synchrony. The derivative species concept has been confirmed experimentally. Questions have been raised concerning some evidence cited in behalf of the appropriateness of the concept that nonparasitic lampreys are the derived species.

  8. Robotic surgery for treatment of chyluria.

    PubMed

    Barman, Naman; Palese, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Chyle is a milky lymphatic fluid that is normally formed in the small intestine to aid in the absorption of dietary fats. Occasionally, chyle leaks into the kidney, ureter, or bladder, which results in chyluria. Chyluria is most commonly caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and is therefore extremely rare in the USA. The use of robotic surgery for treatment has been suggested as a viable option, but has not been thoroughly reported in the literature. This article reviews the literature on the various treatment options for chyluria and presents the case of a 75-year-old Indian female from the USA who was diagnosed with non-parasitic, persistent chyluria and treated with right robotic ureterolysis, renal hilar dissection and intraperitonealization of the ureter. PMID:26861449

  9. Impact of fuel fabrication and fuel management technologies on uranium utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Arnsberger, P.L.; Stucker, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Uranium utilization in commercial pressurized water reactors is a complex function of original NSSS design, utility energy requirements, fuel assembly design, fuel fabrication materials and fuel management optimization. Fuel design and fabrication technologies have reacted to the resulting market forcing functions with a combination of design and material changes. The technologies employed have included ever-increasing fuel discharge burnup, non-parasitic structural materials, burnable absorbers, and fissile material core zoning schemes (both in the axial and radial direction). The result of these technological advances has improved uranium utilization by roughly sixty percent from the infancy days of nuclear power to present fuel management. Fuel management optimization technologies have also been developed in recent years which provide fuel utilization improvements due to core loading pattern optimization. This paper describes the development and impact of technology advances upon uranium utilization in modem pressurized water reactors.

  10. Splenic epidermoid cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, F G; Yellin, A E; Lingua, R W; Craig, J R; Turrill, F L; Mikkelsen, W P

    1978-01-01

    Four patients with splenic masses were operated upon and found to have epidermoid cysts of the spleen, a rare lesion comprising less than 10% of benign, nonparasitic splenic cysts. The patients were young and had vague, non-specific symptoms which were related to the size of the slowly enlarging splenic mass. Three patients had palpable masses. Contrast gastrointestinal studies and intravenous urography will help exclude mass lesions of the gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract. Sonar scan may confirm the cystic nature of the lesion and localize it to the spleen. A review of 42,327 autopsy records at the Los Angeles County--University of Southern California Medical Center revealed 32 benign splenic cysts found incidentally at autopsy. Hemorrhage, infection, rupture, and rarely, malignant change are complications of splenic cysts. Splenectomy is recommended to eliminate the symptoms produced by the cyst and prevent the potential complications. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:637577

  11. Floral Volatiles in Parasitic Plants of the Orobanchaceae. Ecological and Taxonomic Implications.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Peter; Undas, Anna K; Verstappen, Francel; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2016-01-01

    The holoparasitic broomrapes, Orobanche spp. and Phelipanche spp. (Orobanchaceae), are root parasites that completely depend on a host plant for survival and reproduction. There is considerable controversy on the taxonomy of this biologically and agronomically important family. Flowers of over 25 parasitic Orobanchaceae and a number of close, parasitic and non-parasitic, relatives emitted a complex blend of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), consisting of over 130 VOCs per species. Floral VOC blend-based phylogeny supported the known taxonomy in internal taxonomic grouping of genus and eliminated the uncertainty in some taxonomical groups. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis suggested separation of the broomrapes into two main groups parasitizing annual and perennial hosts, and for the annual hosts, into weedy and non-weedy broomrapes. We conclude that floral VOCs are a significant tool in species identification and possibly even in defining new species and can help to improve controversial taxonomy in the Orobanchaceae. PMID:27014329

  12. Malaria and anemia.

    PubMed

    Ekvall, Håkan

    2003-03-01

    Anemia due to infection is a major health problem in endemic areas for young children and pregnant women. The anemia is caused by excess removal of nonparasitized erythrocytes in addition to immune destruction of parasitized red cells, and impaired compensation for this loss by bone marrow dysfunction. The pathogenesis is complex, and a predominant mechanism has not been identified. Certain parasite and host characteristics may modify the anemia. Concomitant infections and nutritional deficiencies also contribute to anemia and may interact with the malarial infection. Few preventive strategies exist, and the management of severe malarial anemia with blood transfusion carries a risk of HIV transmission. The current increase in malaria-specific childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa attributed to drug-resistant infection is likely partly related to an increase in severe anemia. This review summarizes recent findings on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of malarial anemia. PMID:12579035

  13. Host-parasite relationships of monogeneans in gills of Astyanax altiparanae and Rhamdia quelen of the São Francisco Verdadeiro River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferrari-Hoeinghaus, A P; Takemoto, R M; Oliveira, L C; Makrakis, M C; Baumgartner, G

    2006-12-01

    This study investigates the ecology of monogenean gill parasites of Aslyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 and Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) in a stretch of the Sao Francisco Verdadeiro River, Parana, Brazil. Statistical and ecological indices were used to examine observed levels of parasitism in relation to host and environmental characteristics. A. altiparance and R. quelen had infestation intensities of 2.8 and 23.1 parasites per fish, respectively. The only significant environmental influence was observed at the upstream station for R. quelen. For both host species, parasitized and non-parasitized individuals presented similar weight-ength relationships. Parasitized individuals had dispersed K,, values indicating abnormal conditions. The low levels of parasitism observed in this study suggest that the environment is relatively undisturbed. Additional studies should compare these two species and their respective parasites following completion of the hydroelectric headquarters planned for construction in this stretch of the Sao Francisco Verdoadeiro River. PMID:17285853

  14. Crystalline inclusions in erythrocytes parasitized with Babesia equi following treatment of ponies with imidocarb.

    PubMed

    Simpson, C F; Taylor, W J; Kitchen, H

    1980-08-01

    Four splenectomized Welsh ponies were infected with Babesia equi. Two ponies were treated with imidocarb dipropionate, and two were not treated. By light microscopic examination, 1% to 2% of the parasitized erythrocytes of treated ponies contained crystalline inclusions. The crystals were rectangular, diamond, or burr shaped. They occupied most of the erythrocytic cytoplasm, and, as a result, the remainder of the pale staining cytoplasm was inconspicuous in Wright-Giemsa-stained blood smears. The size and shape of intraerythrocytic inclusions varied when examined by electron microscopy, but in most instances they were either adhered to or were located close to the parasite. The sides of crystals were either smooth or serrated, and corners were either sharp or notched. Fractures or faults were common in large crystals. Parasitized erythrocytes of nontreated ponies and nonparasitized erythrocytes of treated ponies did not contain crystals. Four hemoglobulin types were identified in five noninfected, nontreated Welsh ponies from the same herd. PMID:6255836

  15. Macroscopic lesions of the ventriculus of Rhea americana , Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Rheidae) naturally infected by Sicarius uncinipenis (Molin, 1860) (Nematoda: Habronematidae).

    PubMed

    Ederli, N B; de Oliveira, F C R

    2014-12-01

    There are few studies concerning the parasites of rheas. However, parasitism is the major cause of the limited success in captive breeding of these birds. Deletrocephalus dimidiatus, Deletrocephalus cesarpintoi, Paradeletrocephalus minor, and Sicarius uncinipenis are the most prevalent nematode species affecting these birds, but the lesions caused by these parasites have not been previously reported. Four adult rheas were necropsied to determine the presence or absence of gross lesions within the gastrointestinal tract, associated with parasitic infection. Two rheas parasitized by S. uncinipenis had ulcers on the koilin layer or had parasites penetrating this layer, resulting in widespread necrosis and hemorrhagic areas, whereas the 2 nonparasitized birds did not present lesions. The degree of injury was proportional to the parasitic load found in the birds. Thus, high parasitic loads can result in necrosis of the ventriculus, which may contribute to the death of birds, resulting in economic losses in the rural production of these birds. PMID:25001213

  16. Metals, Parasites, and Environmental Conditions Affecting Breeding Populations of Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) in Northern Arkansas, USA.

    PubMed

    DeMali, Heather M; Trauth, Stanley E; Bouldin, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    The spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) is indigenous to northern Arkansas, and several breeding sites are known to exist in the region. Spotted salamanders (n = 17) were collected and examined for parasites and only three females harbored nematodes (Physaloptera spp.). Chronic aquatic bioassays were conducted using water collected from eight breeding ponds during different hydroperiod events. No lethal or sublethal effects were measured in Ceriodaphnia dubia; however, decreased growth and survival were seen in Pimephales promelas. Aqueous, sediment, and salamander hepatic samples were analyzed for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Ni. Metal analysis revealed possible increased metal exposure following precipitation, with greatest metal concentrations measured in sediment samples. Hepatic metal concentrations were similar in parasitized and non-parasitized individuals, and greatest Pb concentrations were measured following normal precipitation events. Determining environmental stressors of amphibians, especially during their breeding and subsequent larval life stage, is imperative to improve species conservation. PMID:26886425

  17. Floral Volatiles in Parasitic Plants of the Orobanchaceae. Ecological and Taxonomic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Peter; Undas, Anna K.; Verstappen, Francel; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2016-01-01

    The holoparasitic broomrapes, Orobanche spp. and Phelipanche spp. (Orobanchaceae), are root parasites that completely depend on a host plant for survival and reproduction. There is considerable controversy on the taxonomy of this biologically and agronomically important family. Flowers of over 25 parasitic Orobanchaceae and a number of close, parasitic and non-parasitic, relatives emitted a complex blend of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), consisting of over 130 VOCs per species. Floral VOC blend-based phylogeny supported the known taxonomy in internal taxonomic grouping of genus and eliminated the uncertainty in some taxonomical groups. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis suggested separation of the broomrapes into two main groups parasitizing annual and perennial hosts, and for the annual hosts, into weedy and non-weedy broomrapes. We conclude that floral VOCs are a significant tool in species identification and possibly even in defining new species and can help to improve controversial taxonomy in the Orobanchaceae. PMID:27014329

  18. A syndromic approach to common parasitic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shafran, Stephen D.; Chow, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Standard textbooks discuss parasitic disease according to specific organisms. In contrast, patients with parasitic infections present to physicians with a variety of clinical manifestations that may involve any of several organ systems and that often mimic nonparasitic diseases. A syndromic approach to the clinical situation may help the physician in considering the most important parasitic agents. Many parasitic infections can be acquired in temperate climates. While often considered tropical or exotic, other parasitic diseases are now seen more frequently in developed countries because of immigration and increased world travel. In this review the clinical syndromes associated with common parasitic diseases in North America are discussed, with an emphasis on risk factors and diagnosis of specific infections. PMID:4042057

  19. Rosmarinus officinalis L. increases Caenorhabditis elegans stress resistance and longevity in a DAF-16, HSF-1 and SKN-1-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Zamberlan, D.C.; Amaral, G.P.; Arantes, L.P.; Machado, M.L.; Mizdal, C.R.; Campos, M.M.A.; Soares, F.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Improving overall health and quality of life, preventing diseases and increasing life expectancy are key concerns in the field of public health. The search for antioxidants that can inhibit oxidative damage in cells has received a lot of attention. Rosmarinus officinalis L. represents an exceptionally rich source of bioactive compounds with pharmacological properties. In the present study, we explored the effects of the ethanolic extract of R. officinalis (eeRo) on stress resistance and longevity using the non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model. We report for the first time that eeRo increased resistance against oxidative and thermal stress and extended C. elegans longevity in an insulin/IGF signaling pathway-dependent manner. These data emphasize the eeRo beneficial effects on C. elegans under stress. PMID:27533765

  20. Parasitic Cowbirds have increased immunity to West Nile and other mosquitoborne encephalitis viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisen, W.K.; Hahn, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    The rapid geographic spread of West Nile Virus [WNV, Flaviviridae, Flavivirus] across the United States has stimulated interest in comparative host infection studies of avian species to delineate competent reservoir hosts critical for viral amplification. Striking taxonomic differences in avian susceptibility have been noted, offering the opportunity to strategically select species on the basis of life history traits to examine aspects of pathogen virulence or host immunity. We hypothesized that avian brood parasites would show increased resistance to pathogens compared to related taxa, because they have been exposed in their evolutionary history to a wide array of infectious organisms from their different parenting species. The Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) is a generalist brood parasite that parasitizes 200+ North American species. Elevated exposure to other species? parasites may have created an unusual degree of pathogen resistance. We compared the relative susceptibility of adult cowbirds to three closely-related non-parasitic species, Red-winged blackbirds, Tricolored blackbirds and Brewer?s blackbirds, to invading NY99 strain of WNV that is highly virulent for many passeriform birds. Previously we had experimentally infected these species with two North American mosquitoborne encephalitis viruses, western equine encephalomyelitis virus [WEEV, Togaviridae, Alphavirus] and St. Louis encephalitis virus [SLEV, Flaviviridae, Flavivirus]. Our results showed that cowbirds exhibited significantly lower viremia responses against all three viruses as well as after co-infection with both WEEV and WNV than did the three related, non-parasitic species. These data supported our hypothesis and indicated that cowbirds were more resistant to infection to both native and introduced viruses.

  1. Obligate brood parasites show more functionally effective innate immune responses: an eco-immunological hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, D. Caldwell; Summers, Scott G.; Genovese, Kenneth J.; He, Haiqi; Kogut, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Immune adaptations of obligate brood parasites attracted interest when three New World cowbird species (Passeriformes, Icteridae, genus Molothrus) proved unusually resistant to West Nile virus. We have used cowbirds as models to investigate the eco-immunological hypothesis that species in parasite-rich environments characteristically have enhanced immunity as a life history adaptation. As part of an ongoing program to understand the cowbird immune system, in this study we measured degranulation and oxidative burst, two fundamental responses of the innate immune system. Innate immunity provides non-specific, fast-acting defenses against a variety of invading pathogens, and we hypothesized that innate immunity experiences particularly strong selection in cowbirds, because their life history strategy exposes them to diverse novel and unpredictable parasites. We compared the relative effectiveness of degranulation and oxidative burst responses in two cowbird species and one related, non-parasitic species. Both innate immune defenses were significantly more functionally efficient in the two parasitic cowbird species than in the non-parasitic red-winged blackbird (Icteridae, Agelaius phoeniceus). Additionally, both immune defenses were more functionally efficient in the brown-headed cowbird (M. ater), an extreme host-generalist brood parasite, than in the bronzed cowbird (M. aeneus), a moderate host-specialist with lower exposure to other species and their parasites. Thus the relative effectiveness of these two innate immune responses corresponds to the diversity of parasites in the niche of each species and to their relative resistance to WNV. This study is the first use of these two specialized assays in a comparative immunology study of wild avian species.

  2. Kinetoplastid Phylogenomics Reveals the Evolutionary Innovations Associated with the Origins of Parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Andrew P.; Otto, Thomas D.; Aslett, Martin; Armstrong, Stuart D.; Bringaud, Frederic; Schlacht, Alexander; Hartley, Catherine; Sanders, Mandy; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Dacks, Joel B.; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Field, Mark C.; Ginger, Michael L.; Berriman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Summary The evolution of parasitism is a recurrent event in the history of life and a core problem in evolutionary biology. Trypanosomatids are important parasites and include the human pathogens Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania spp., which in humans cause African trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis, respectively. Genome comparison between trypanosomatids reveals that these parasites have evolved specialized cell-surface protein families, overlaid on a well-conserved cell template. Understanding how these features evolved and which ones are specifically associated with parasitism requires comparison with related non-parasites. We have produced genome sequences for Bodo saltans, the closest known non-parasitic relative of trypanosomatids, and a second bodonid, Trypanoplasma borreli. Here we show how genomic reduction and innovation contributed to the character of trypanosomatid genomes. We show that gene loss has “streamlined” trypanosomatid genomes, particularly with respect to macromolecular degradation and ion transport, but consistent with a widespread loss of functional redundancy, while adaptive radiations of gene families involved in membrane function provide the principal innovations in trypanosomatid evolution. Gene gain and loss continued during trypanosomatid diversification, resulting in the asymmetric assortment of ancestral characters such as peptidases between Trypanosoma and Leishmania, genomic differences that were subsequently amplified by lineage-specific innovations after divergence. Finally, we show how species-specific, cell-surface gene families (DGF-1 and PSA) with no apparent structural similarity are independent derivations of a common ancestral form, which we call “bodonin.” This new evidence defines the parasitic innovations of trypanosomatid genomes, revealing how a free-living phagotroph became adapted to exploiting hostile host environments. PMID:26725202

  3. Five new species of Isospora from Hawaiian birds.

    PubMed

    Levine, N D; Van Riper, S; Van Riper, C

    1980-08-01

    The following species are described from Hawaiian birds: Isospora brayi sp. n., with oocysts 27 X 26 micron and sporocysts 19 X 12 micron, from the Japanese white-eye, Zosterops japonicus Temminck & Schlegel; Isospora cardinalis sp. n., with oocysts 24 X 23 micron, and sporocysts 16 X 10 micron, from the cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis (Linnaeus); Isospora ivensae sp. n., with oocysts 26 X 25 micron, and sporocysts 18 X 12 micron, from the spotted or white-throated munia, Lonchura punctulata (Linnaeus); Isospora loxopis sp. n., with oocysts 26 X 23 micron, and sporocysts 16 X 13 micron, from the amakihi or honeycreeper, Loxops virens (Gmelin); and Isospora phaeornis sp. n., with oocysts 27 X 19 micron, and sporocysts 16 X 11 micron, from the omao or Hawaiian thrush, Phaeornis obscurus (Gmelin). All the host birds belong to the order Passerorida. PMID:7452523

  4. Helping carers to cope.

    PubMed

    Moss, V

    1998-01-01

    The care of sick and dying persons with AIDS is often provided in the home by family, partners, and friends. This article outlines simple guidelines for such caregivers. Nursing techniques are suggested for common problems such as changing dirty bedclothes with a person in the bed, making a sick person comfortable, eating or swallowing difficulties, pressure sores, mouth care and oral thrush, and loss of memory or personality changes. Health workers can help caregivers to plan how they will manage and share their responsibilities, keep simple medication records, and look after their own health and needs as well as refer them to support groups. Bereavement counseling gives people an opportunity to talk about the events leading up to a death and the death itself, reassure caregivers that any feelings of depression and anger are normal, and enable people to accept the reality of their loss and look to the future. PMID:12294383

  5. Gedunin, a limonoid from Xylocarpus granatum, inhibits the growth of CaCo-2 colon cancer cell line in vitro.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Shaikh J; Nahar, Lutfun; Shilpi, Jamil A; Shoeb, Mohammad; Borkowski, Tomasz; Gibbons, Simon; Middleton, Moira; Byres, Maureen; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2007-08-01

    Xylocarpus granatum J. König (Meliaceae), commonly known as 'dhundul', is a Bangladeshi mangrove tree, and well distributed in a number of other countries of south-east Asia, Australia and east Africa. Traditionally, X. granatum has been used as an astringent and febrifuge, and also for the treatment of fever, malaria, thrush, cholera, dysentery and diarrhoea in many countries including Bangladesh. Two limonoids, gedunin and 1alpha-hydroxy-1,2-dihydrogedunin, the latter being new, have been isolated from the bark of Xylocarpus granatum by reversed-phase preparative HPLC, and the structures were confirmed by spectroscopic means. The cytotoxic potential of gedunin has been evaluated by the Promega's CellTiter 96 non-radioactive cell proliferation assay using the CaCo-2 colon cancer cell line (IC(50) = 16.83 microM). A summary of the biological activities of gedunin reported to date is also presented. PMID:17450509

  6. Delayed-onset grade 4 neutropenia associated with rituximab therapy in a patient with lymphoma: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Motl, Susannah E; Baskin, Reed C

    2005-08-01

    A 53-year-old man developed delayed-onset neutropenia 6 weeks after completing first-line therapy with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, mitoxantrone, vincristine, and prednisone for high-grade B-cell lymphoma. Bone marrow biopsy demonstrated hypercellular marrow with normal maturation. He also developed interstitial pneumonitis, an adverse event associated with rituximab use. Infiltrates of T cells were found in the patient's lungs. For the next 6 months, the patient required subcutaneous granulocyte colony-stimulating factor 300 mug twice/week to maintain a granulocyte count above 1000 cells/mm3. He also received oral antibiotics for mouth sores and thrush. Based on the existing evidence, monitoring blood counts for as long as 8 weeks after rituximab therapy may be advisable, although the literature reports that neutropenia can develop up to 1 year after treatment. The development of a registry and uniform testing may help uncover the cause of this delayed-onset neutropenia. PMID:16207108

  7. Robins gather in a tree

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In a wooded area of Kennedy Space Center, robins gather on a tree branch just beginning to show new Spring growth. A member of the thrush family, robins inhabit towns, gardens, open woodlands and agricultural lands. They range through most of North America, spending winters in large roosts mostly in the United States but also Newfoundland, southern Ontario and British Columbia. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, a haven and habitat for more than 331 species of birds. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are also a habitat for 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  8. Hybrid songbirds employ intermediate routes in a migratory divide.

    PubMed

    Delmore, Kira E; Irwin, Darren E

    2014-10-01

    Migratory divides are contact zones between populations that use different routes to navigate around unsuitable areas on seasonal migration. Hybrids in divides have been predicted to employ intermediate and potentially inferior routes. We provide the first direct test of this hypothesis, using light-level geolocators to track birds breeding in a hybrid zone between Swainson's thrushes in western Canada. Compared to parental forms, hybrids exhibited increased variability in their migratory routes, with some using intermediate routes that crossed arid and mountainous regions, and some using the same routes as one parental group on fall migration and the other on spring migration. Hybrids also tended to use geographically intermediate wintering sites. Analysis of genetic variation across the hybrid zone suggests moderately strong selection against hybrids. These results indicate that seasonal migratory behaviour might be a source of selection against hybrids, supporting a possible role for migration in speciation. PMID:25040456

  9. Habitat constraints on the distribution of passerine residents and neotropical migrants in Latin America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    With continuing tropical deforestation, there is increased concern for birds that depend on forest habitats in Latin America. During the past 10 northern winters, we have conducted quantitative studies of habitat use by wintering migrant songbirds and by residents in the Greater Antilles, Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. Many migrants, but few residents, winter in forest fragments and in certain arboreal agricultural habitats (citrus, cacao, shade coffee). Many other agricultural habitats (sun coffee, mango, commercial banana plantations, and heavily grazed pasture) are avoided by most birds. Some species, such as thrushes and ground-feeding warblers, depend on closed-canopy forest. Some, such as Northern Waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis) and Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea), winter primarily in mangroves or other swamp forests. The majority of neotropical migrant passerines winter in forest fragments and certain agricultural habitats, as well as mature forest; but many resident species, especially suboscines (Furnariidae, Dendrocolaptidae, Formicariidae, Papridae), are heavily impacted by loss and fragmentation of the forest.

  10. Blackbirds Turdus merula as competent reservoirs for Borrelia turdi and Borrelia valaisiana in Portugal: evidence from a xenodiagnostic experiment.

    PubMed

    Norte, Ana C; Lopes de Carvalho, Isabel; Núncio, Maria S; Ramos, Jaime A; Gern, Lise

    2013-08-01

    To confirm that thrushes, such as blackbirds Turdus merula, play a role as reservoir for some Borrelia genospecies, we performed a xenodiagnostic experiment with blackbirds captured in a mixed wood located in Western Portugal where Borrelia turdi, an uncommon genospecies in Europe, was the most prevalent genospecies associated with birds. Two out of five birds harboured B. turdi infected Ixodes frontalis at the time of capture. Four out of five birds transmitted spirochaetes to Ixodes ricinus xenodiagnostic ticks: two birds transmitted Borrelia valaisiana to 25.7% and 10.5% of ticks, and two transmitted B. turdi to 6.4% and 5.4% of ticks. Our results showed that blackbirds transmit B. valaisiana and B. turdi to I. ricinus feeding larvae, acting as reservoir hosts for these genospecies in nature. PMID:23864576

  11. Demography and movements of the omao (Myadestes obscurus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralph, C.J.; Fancy, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    Density, age-specific survival, timing of breeding and molting, and movements of the Omao or Hawaiian Thrush (Myadestes obscurus) were studied at four sites on the island of Hawaii. Mean monthly density (birds/ha) was 3.23 +- 0.57, 1.07 +- 0.33, 3.23 +- 0. 16, and 3.74 +- 0.36 at Kau Forest, Hamakua. Keauhou Ranch, and Kilauea Forest study areas, respectively. Annual survival of juvenile Omao (0.40 +- 0.09) was lower than that of adults (0.66 +- 0.08). Emigration and mortality was greatest during November through May. Breeding and molting occurred throughout the year, with peak breeding in May through July. Omao showed strong site fidelity and were highly sedentary. Mean home range size (n = 39) was 2.20 t 0.26 ha and did not differ between sexes or study sites.

  12. Overwinter survival of neotropical migratory birds in early successional and mature tropical forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, C.J.; Powell, G.V.N.; Nichols, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Many Neotropical migratory species inhabit both mature and early successional forest on their wintering grounds, yet comparisons of survival rates between habitats are lacking. Consequently, the factors affecting habitat suitability for Neotropical migrants and the potential effects of tropical deforestation on migrants are not well understood. We estimated over-winter survival and capture probabilities of Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus), Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina), and Kentucky Warbler (Oporomis formosus) inhabiting two common tropical habitat types, mature and early-successional forest. Our results suggest that large differences (for example, ratio of survival rates (gamma) < 0.85) in overwinter survival between these habitats do not exist for any of these species. Age ratios did not differ between habitats, but males were more common in forest habitats and females more common in successional habitats for Hooded Warblers and Kentucky Warblers. Future research on overwinter survival should address the need for age- and sex-specific survival estimates before we can draw strong conclusions regarding winter habitat suitability. Our estimates of over-winter survival extrapolated to annual survival rates that were generally lower than previous estimates of annual survival of migratory birds. Capture probability differed between habitats for Kentucky Warblers, but our results provide strong evidence against large differences in capture probability between habitats for Wood Thrush, Hooded Warblers, and Ovenbirds. We found no temporal or among site differences in survival or capture probability for any of the four species. Additional research is needed to examine the effects of winter habitat use on survival during migration and between-winter survival.

  13. Vitamin D Status and its Association with Morbidity Including Wasting and Opportunistic Illnesses in HIV-Infected Women in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mugusi, Ferdinand M.; Spiegelman, Donna; Villamor, Eduardo; Finkelstein, Julia L.; Hertzmark, Ellen; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Msamanga, Gernard I.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Vitamin D has a potential role in preventing HIV-related complications, based on its extensive involvement in immune and metabolic function, including preventing osteoporosis and premature cardiovascular disease. However, this association has not been examined in large studies or in resource-limited settings. Vitamin D levels were assessed in 884 HIV-infected pregnant women at enrollment in a trial of multivitamin supplementation (excluding vitamin D) in Tanzania. Information on HIV related complications was recorded during follow-up (median, 70 months). Proportional hazards models and generalized estimating equations were used to assess the relationship of vitamin D status with these outcomes. Women with low vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<32 ng/mL) had 43% higher risk of reaching a body mass index (BMI) less than 18 kg/m2 during the first 2 years of follow-up, compared to women with adequate vitamin D levels (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.43; 95% confidence intervals: [1.03–1.99]). The relationship between continuous vitamin D levels and risk of BMI less than 18 kg/m2 during follow-up was inverse and linear (p=0.03). Women with low vitamin D levels had significantly higher incidence of acute upper respiratory infections (HR: 1.27 [1.04–1.54]) and thrush (HR: 2.74 [1.29-5.83]) diagnosed during the first 2 years of follow-up. Low vitamin D status was a significant risk factor for wasting and HIV-related complications such as thrush during follow-up in this prospective cohort in Tanzania. If these protective associations are confirmed in randomized trials, vitamin D supplementation could represent a simple and inexpensive method to improve health and quality of life of HIV-infected patients, particularly in resource-limited settings. PMID:21916603

  14. Host responses to interspecific brood parasitism: a by-product of adaptations to conspecific parasitism?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Why have birds evolved the ability to reject eggs? Typically, foreign egg discrimination is interpreted as evidence that interspecific brood parasitism (IP) has selected for the host’s ability to recognize and eliminate foreign eggs. Fewer studies explore the alternative hypothesis that rejection of interspecific eggs is a by-product of host defenses, evolved against conspecific parasitism (CP). We performed a large scale study with replication across taxa (two congeneric Turdus thrushes), space (populations), time (breeding seasons), and treatments (three types of experimental eggs), using a consistent design of egg rejection experiments (n = 1057 nests; including controls), in areas with potential IP either present (Europe; native populations) or absent (New Zealand; introduced populations). These comparisons benefited from the known length of allopatry (one and a half centuries), with no gene flow between native and introduced populations, which is rarely available in host-parasite systems. Results Hosts rejected CP at unusually high rates for passerines (up to 60%). CP rejection rates were higher in populations with higher conspecific breeding densities and no risks of IP, supporting the CP hypothesis. IP rejection rates did not covary geographically with IP risk, contradicting the IP hypothesis. High egg rejection rates were maintained in the relatively long-term isolation from IP despite non-trivial rejection costs and errors. Conclusions These egg rejection patterns, combined with recent findings that these thrushes are currently unsuitable hosts of the obligate parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), are in agreement with the hypothesis that the rejection of IP is a by-product of fine-tuned egg discrimination evolved due to CP. Our study highlights the importance of considering both IP and CP simultaneously as potential drivers in the evolution of egg discrimination, and illustrates how populations introduced to novel ecological contexts

  15. Colonization of Abandoned Land by Juniperus thurifera Is Mediated by the Interaction of a Diverse Dispersal Assemblage and Environmental Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Escribano-Avila, Gema; Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Pías, Beatriz; Virgós, Emilio; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Land abandonment is one of the most powerful global change drivers in developed countries where recent rural exodus has been the norm. Abandonment of traditional land use practices has permitted the colonization of these areas by shrub and tree species. For fleshy fruited species the colonization of new areas is determined by the dispersal assemblage composition and abundance. In this study we showed how the relative contribution to the dispersal process by each animal species is modulated by the environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure. This complex interaction caused differential patterns on the seed dispersal in both, landscape patches in which the process of colonization is acting nowadays and mature woodlands of Juniperus thurifera, a relict tree distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin. Thrushes (Turdus spp) and carnivores (red fox and stone marten) dispersed a high amount of seeds while rabbits and sheeps only a tiny fraction. Thrushes dispersed a significant amount of seeds in new colonization areas, however they were limited by the presence of high perches with big crop size. While carnivores dispersed seeds to all studied habitats, even in those patches where no trees of J. thurifera were present, turning out to be critical for primary colonization. The presence of Pinus and Quercus was related to a reduced consumption of J. thurifera seeds while the presence of fleshy fruited shrubs was related with higher content of J. thurifera seeds in dispersers’ faeces. Therefore environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure had a great influence on dispersers feeding behaviour, and should be considered in order to accurately describe the role of seed dispersal in ecological process, such as regeneration and colonization. J. thurifera expansion is not seed limited thanks to its diverse dispersal community, hence the conservation of all dispersers in an ecosystem enhance ecosystems services and resilience. PMID:23071692

  16. Colonization of abandoned land by Juniperus thurifera is mediated by the interaction of a diverse dispersal assemblage and environmental heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Escribano-Avila, Gema; Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Pías, Beatriz; Virgós, Emilio; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Land abandonment is one of the most powerful global change drivers in developed countries where recent rural exodus has been the norm. Abandonment of traditional land use practices has permitted the colonization of these areas by shrub and tree species. For fleshy fruited species the colonization of new areas is determined by the dispersal assemblage composition and abundance. In this study we showed how the relative contribution to the dispersal process by each animal species is modulated by the environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure. This complex interaction caused differential patterns on the seed dispersal in both, landscape patches in which the process of colonization is acting nowadays and mature woodlands of Juniperus thurifera, a relict tree distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin. Thrushes (Turdus spp) and carnivores (red fox and stone marten) dispersed a high amount of seeds while rabbits and sheeps only a tiny fraction. Thrushes dispersed a significant amount of seeds in new colonization areas, however they were limited by the presence of high perches with big crop size. While carnivores dispersed seeds to all studied habitats, even in those patches where no trees of J. thurifera were present, turning out to be critical for primary colonization. The presence of Pinus and Quercus was related to a reduced consumption of J. thurifera seeds while the presence of fleshy fruited shrubs was related with higher content of J. thurifera seeds in dispersers' faeces. Therefore environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure had a great influence on dispersers feeding behaviour, and should be considered in order to accurately describe the role of seed dispersal in ecological process, such as regeneration and colonization. J. thurifera expansion is not seed limited thanks to its diverse dispersal community, hence the conservation of all dispersers in an ecosystem enhance ecosystems services and resilience. PMID:23071692

  17. Using bioacoustics to examine shifts in songbird phenology.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Rachel T; Brown, Emma; Sharman, Lewis; Gabriele, Christine M; McKenna, Megan F

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring patterns in biodiversity and phenology have become increasingly important given accelerating levels of anthropogenic change. Long-term monitoring programs have reported earlier occurrence of spring activity, reflecting species response to climate change. Although tracking shifts in spring migration represents a valuable approach to monitoring community-level consequences of climate change, robust long-term observations are challenging and costly. Audio recordings and metrics of bioacoustic activity could provide an effective method for monitoring changes in songbird activity and broader biotic interactions. We used 3 years of spring and fall recordings at six sites in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, an area experiencing rapid warming and glacial retreat, to examine the utility of bioacoustics to detect changes in songbird phenology. We calculated the Acoustic Complexity Index (ACI), an algorithm representing an index of bird community complexity. Abrupt changes in ACI values from winter to spring corresponded to spring transition, suggesting that ACI may be an effective, albeit coarse metric to detect the arrival of migrating songbirds. The first peak in ACI shifted from April 16 to April 11 from 2012 to 2014. Changes in ACI were less abrupt in the fall due to weather events, suggesting spring recordings are better suited to indicate phenology. To ensure changes in ACI values were detecting real changes in songbird activity, we explored the relationship between ACI and song of three species: varied thrush (Ixoreus naevius), Pacific wren (Troglodytes pacificus), and ruby-crowned kinglet (Regulus calendula). ACI was positively related to counts of all species, but most markedly with song of the varied thrush, the most common species in our recordings and a known indicator of forest ecosystem health. We conclude that acoustic recordings paired with bioacoustic indices may be a useful method of monitoring shifts in songbird communities due to climate

  18. Effects of matrix characteristics and interpatch distance on functional connectivity in fragmented temperate rainforests.

    PubMed

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Larrinaga, Asier R; Santamaría, Luis

    2012-04-01

    The connectivity of remnant patches of habitat may affect the persistence of species in fragmented landscapes. We evaluated the effects of the structural connectivity of forest patches (i.e., distance between patches) and matrix class (land-cover type) on the functional connectivity of 3 bird species (the White-crested Elaenia [Elaenia albiceps], the Green-backed Firecrown Hummingbird [Sephanoides sephaniodes], and the Austral Thrush [Turdus falklandii]). We measured functional connectivity as the rate at which each species crossed from one patch to another. We also evaluated whether greater functional connectivity translated into greater ecological connectivity (dispersal of fruit and pollen) by comparing among forest patches fruit set of a plant pollinated by hummingbirds and abundance of seedlings and adults of 2 plants with bird- and wind-dispersed seeds. Interpatch distance was strongly associated with functional connectivity, but its effect was not independent of matrix class. For one of the bird-dispersed plants, greater functional connectivity for White-crested Elaenias and Austral Thrushes (both frugivores) was associated with higher densities of this plant. The lack of a similar association for the wind-dispersed species suggests this effect is linked to the dispersal vector. The abundance of the hummingbird-pollinated species was not related to the presence of hummingbirds. Interpatch distance and matrix class affect animal movement in fragmented landscapes and may have a cascading effect on the distribution of some animal-dispersed species. On the basis of our results, we believe effort should be invested in optimizing patch configuration and modifying the matrix so as to mitigate the effects of patch isolation in fragmented landscapes. PMID:22443129

  19. Predator-prey relationships in a changing environment: the case of the sparrowhawk and its avian prey community in a rural area.

    PubMed

    Millon, Alexandre; Nielsen, Jan Tøttrup; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Møller, Anders Pape

    2009-09-01

    1. Changes in community composition are expected to entail cascading effects at different trophic levels within a food web. However, empirical evidence on the impact of changes in prey communities on the population dynamics of generalist predators, and on the extent of possible feedback processes, remains scarce. 2. We analysed the dynamics of a generalist predator, the European sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus L., in a rural area of Northern Denmark. Over a 20-year period, the diet of the predator has been thoroughly assessed (>30,000 identified prey items) and quantitative information about its avian prey community, based on standard breeding bird surveys, has revealed significant trends for several passerine species, although the overall prey biomass available remained stable. 3. The growth rate of the sparrowhawk breeding population was negatively related to the previous sparrowhawk density and to winter temperature, but was positively related to available prey biomass. Contrary to expectations for a generalist predator, sparrowhawks seemed to be predominantly sensitive to changes in the cumulative abundance of their two main prey species, the skylark Alauda arvensis L. and the blackbird Turdus merula L., but less so to changes in the wider prey community. 4. In demographic terms, the two-phase sparrowhawk dynamic recorded here (a recovery following an initial decrease) was mainly driven by recruitment of yearling females into the breeding population rather than by variation in the apparent survival of breeding females. 5. Our findings emphasize that changes in the composition of a prey community, affected by environmental changes, impacted population dynamics of a generalist predator. Finally, we found conditions that might enable apparent competition between blackbirds and song thrushes Turdus philomelos L. to occur. High blackbird abundance, maintaining sparrowhawks at a relatively high density may, in turn, push song thrushes into a predator pit. PMID:19558613

  20. Egg arrangement in avian clutches covaries with the rejection of foreign eggs.

    PubMed

    Polačiková, Lenka; Takasu, Fugo; Stokke, Bård G; Moksnes, Arne; Røskaft, Eivin; Cassey, Phillip; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš

    2013-09-01

    In birds, the colour, maculation, shape, and size of their eggs play critical roles in discrimination of foreign eggs in the clutch. So far, however, no study has examined the role of egg arrangement within a clutch on host rejection responses. We predicted that individual females which maintain consistent egg arrangements within their clutch would be better able to detect and reject foreign eggs than females without a consistent egg arrangement (i.e. whose eggs change positions more often across incubation). We tested this "egg arrangement hypothesis" in blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrush (T. philomelos). Both species are suitable candidates for research on egg rejection, because they show high inter-individual variation and individual repeatability in egg rejection responses. As predicted, using our custom-defined metrics of egg arrangement, rejecter females' clutches showed significantly more consistent patterns in egg arrangement than acceptor females' clutches. Only parameters related to blunt pole showed consistent differences between rejecters and acceptors. This finding makes biological sense because it is already known that song thrush use blunt pole cues to reject foreign eggs. We propose that a disturbance of the original egg arrangement pattern by the laying parasite may alert host females that maintain a consistent egg arrangement to the risk of having been parasitized. Once alerted, these hosts may shift their discrimination thresholds to be more restrictive so as to reject a foreign egg with higher probability. Future studies will benefit from experimentally testing whether these two and other parasitized rejecter host species may rely on the use of consistent egg arrangements as a component of their anti-parasitic defence mechanisms. PMID:23443406

  1. Host selection in the forest interior: cowbirds target ground-nesting species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, D.C.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated patterns of cowbird host selection in a large (1300 ha), unfragmented forest in eastern New York in 1992-3 to determine whether cowbird parasitism rates can be attributed to species-specific traits or to other features associated with nest sites. Nest height was significantly associated with parasitism (P = 0.003) in this community of 23 species (n = 430 nests, 23% parasitized). Further analysis revealed that the difference in mean nest heights between parasitized and unparasitized nests was due to species identity, and within each species there was no difference in mean nest heights between parasitized and unparasitized nests. These results imply that during 1992-3 cowbirds in this forest specialized on species that have low nests and did not necessarily select low nests regardless of species. This was further supported by a negative association across all 23 species between mean nest height and parasitism rate (P = 0.03). Thus, although most of the forest-nesting species in this community experienced cowbird parasitism, there was a tendency for higher parasitism rates on low-nesting species such as the Ovenbird, Black-and-white Warbler, Louisiana Waterthrush, Veery, and Hermit Thrush. The Wood Thrush, a mid-range nester which is heavily parasitized in southern Illinois, experienced only 10% parasitism in our site and ranked 9th in parasitism rate, although it was the most abundant species in this forest in terms of the number of nests found. A long-term study is necessary to determine whether this cowbird population consistently parasitizes the ground-nesting species of this forest community more often than those nesting at higher levels or whether they periodically shift among hosts at different heights and in different habitats across the local landscape.

  2. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments. PMID:24223794

  3. Crematoenones – a novel substance class exhibited by ants functions as appeasement signal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasitic, commensalistic, and mutualistic guests in social insect colonies often circumvent their hosts’ nestmate recognition system to be accepted. These tolerance strategies include chemical mimicry and chemical insignificance. While tolerance strategies have been studied intensively in social parasites, little is known about these mechanisms in non-parasitic interactions. Here, we describe a strategy used in a parabiotic association, i.e. two mutualistic ant species that regularly share a common nest although they have overlapping food niches. One of them, Crematogaster modiglianii, produces an array of cuticular compounds which represent a substance class undescribed in nature so far. They occur in high abundances, which suggests an important function in the ant’s association with its partner Camponotus rufifemur. Results We elucidated the structure of one of the main compounds from cuticular extracts using gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, chemical derivatizations and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The compound consists of two fused six-membered rings with two alkyl groups, one of which carries a keto functionality. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification of this substance class in nature. We suggest naming the compound crematoenone. In behavioural assays, crematoenones reduced interspecific aggression. Camponotus showed less aggression to allospecific cuticular hydrocarbons when combined with crematoenones. Thus, they function as appeasement substances. However, although the crematoenone composition was highly colony-specific, interspecific recognition was mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons, and not by crematoenones. Conclusions Crematenones enable Crematogaster to evade Camponotus aggression, and thus reduce potential costs from competition with Camponotus. Hence, they seem to be a key factor in the parabiosis, and help Crematogaster to gain a net benefit from the association and thus maintain a

  4. Venom of Euplectrus separatae causes hyperlipidemia by lysis of host fat body cells.

    PubMed

    Nakamatsu, Y; Tanaka, T

    2004-04-01

    Although the lepidopteran larva Pseudaletia separata is attacked by the gregarious ectoparasitoid Euplectrus separatae, it continues to feed and grow. Lipid concentration in the hemolymph of the parasitized host was higher than that of the nonparasitized host from 3 to 8 days after parasitization. Artificial injection of parasitoid venom also elevated lipid concentration in the host hemolymph. One day after venom injection the host's fat body contained many lipid particles, but most of the lipid particles disappeared 7 days later. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed the lipid particles leaving the fat body cells as a result of the lysis of the fat body cells. These results suggest that the venom elevated the lipid concentration in the host hemolymph by provoking the release of lipid particles from the fat body. Though most of the lipid particles were freely floating in the host hemolymph, a portion of the released lipid particles were phagocytized by hemocytes. The amount of lipid that was loaded to lipophorin in the hemolymph of the venom-injected host was measured, but it was not sufficient to explain the high lipid titer in the hemolymph of parasitized and venom-injected host larvae. The fact that parasitoid larva consumed many hemocytes as evidenced by their presence in the midgut supported the hypothesis that the parasitoid larvae fed on the host hemolymph containing the free lipid particles, the hemocytes phagocytizing the lipid particles, and the lipid-loaded lipophorin. The possibility of the venom contribution to the disruption of the intercellular matrix was examined. The venom showed high activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), especially when it was mixed with the hemolymph of non-parasitized 5th instar larvae. We suggest that the MMP in the venom was activated by some components of the host hemolymph. On the other hand, the venom mixed with hemolymph could not decompose gelatin on zymography, suggesting that the venom

  5. Proteomic and Immunochemical Characterization of Glutathione Transferase as a New Allergen of the Nematode Ascaris lumbricoides

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G.; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments. PMID:24223794

  6. Dynamics of Vector-Host Interactions in Avian Communities in Four Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Foci in the Northeastern U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Molaei, Goudarz; Thomas, Michael C.; Muller, Tim; Medlock, Jan; Shepard, John J.; Armstrong, Philip M.; Andreadis, Theodore G.

    2016-01-01

    three species. We developed an empirically informed mathematical model for EEE virus transmission using Cs. melanura abundance and preferred and non-preferred avian hosts. To our knowledge this is the first mathematical model for EEE virus, a pathogen with many potential hosts, in the northeastern U.S. We measured strong feeding preferences for a number of avian species based on the proportion of mosquito blood meals identified from these bird species in relation to their observed frequencies. These included: American Robin, Tufted Titmouse, Common Grackle, Wood Thrush, Chipping Sparrow, Black-capped Chickadee, Northern Cardinal, and Warbling Vireo. We found that these bird species, most notably Wood Thrush, play a dominant role in supporting EEE virus amplification. It is also noteworthy that the competence of some of the aforementioned avian species for EEE virus has not been established. Our findings indicate that heterogeneity induced by mosquito host preference, is a key mediator of the epizootic transmission of vector-borne pathogens. Conclusion and significance Detailed knowledge of the vector-host interactions of mosquito populations in nature is essential for evaluating their vectorial capacity and for assessing the role of individual vertebrates as reservoir hosts involved in the maintenance and amplification of zoonotic agents of human diseases. Our study clarifies the host associations of Cs. melanura in four EEE virus foci in the northeastern U.S., identifies vector host preferences as the most important transmission parameter, and quantifies the contribution of preference-induced contact heterogeneity to enzootic transmission. Our study identifies Wood Thrush, American Robin and a few avian species that may serve as superspreaders of EEE virus. Our study elucidates spatiotemporal host species utilization by Cs. melanura in relation to avian host community. This research provides a basis to better understand the involvement of Cs. melanura and avian hosts

  7. Does Candida and/or Staphylococcus play a role in nipple and breast pain in lactation? A cohort study in Melbourne, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Lisa H; Donath, Susan M; Garland, Suzanne M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Bennett, Catherine M; Cullinane, Meabh; Payne, Matthew S

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate Candida species and Staphylococcus aureus and the development of ‘nipple and breast thrush’ among breastfeeding women. Design Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Setting Two hospitals in Melbourne, Australia (one public, one private) with follow-up in the community. Participants 360 nulliparous women recruited at ≥36 weeks’ gestation from November 2009 to June 2011. Participants were followed up six times: in hospital, at home weekly until 4 weeks postpartum and by telephone at 8 weeks. Main outcome measures Case definition ‘nipple and breast thrush’: burning nipple pain and breast pain (not related to mastitis); detection of Candida spp (using culture and PCR) in the mother's vagina, nipple or breast milk or in the baby's mouth; detection of S aureus in the mother's nipple or breast milk. Results Women with the case definition of nipple/breast thrush were more likely to have Candida spp in nipple/breast milk/baby oral samples (54%) compared to other women (36%, p=0.014). S aureus was common in nipple/breast milk/baby samples of women with these symptoms as well as women without these symptoms (82% vs 79%) (p=0.597). Time-to-event analysis examined predictors of nipple/breast thrush up to and including the time of data collection. Candida in nipple/breast milk/baby predicted incidence of the case definition (rate ratio (RR) 1.87 (95% CI 1.10 to 3.16, p=0.018). We do not have evidence that S aureus colonisation was a predictor of these symptoms (RR 1.53, 95% CI 0.88 to 2.64, p=0.13). Nipple damage was also a predictor of these symptoms, RR 2.30 (95% CI 1.19 to 4.43, p=0.012). In the multivariate model, with all three predictors, the RRs were very similar to the univariate RRs. This indicates that Candida and nipple damage are independent predictors of our case definition. PMID:23474794

  8. Widespread dispersal of Borrelia burgdorferi-infected ticks collected from songbirds across Canada.

    PubMed

    Scott, John D; Anderson, John F; Durden, Lance A

    2012-02-01

    Millions of Lyme disease vector ticks are dispersed annually by songbirds across Canada, but often overlooked as the source of infection. For clarity on vector distribution, we sampled 481 ticks (12 species and 3 undetermined ticks) from 211 songbirds (42 species/subspecies) nationwide. Using PCR, 52 (29.5%) of 176 Ixodes ticks tested were positive for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Immature blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis , collected from infested songbirds had a B. burgdorferi infection prevalence of 36% (larvae, 48%; nymphs, 31%). Notably, Ixodes affinis is reported in Canada for the first time and, similarly, Ixodes auritulus for the initial time in the Yukon. Firsts for bird-parasitizing ticks include I. scapularis in Quebec and Saskatchewan. We provide the first records of 3 tick species cofeeding on passerines (song sparrow, Swainson's thrush). New host records reveal I. scapularis on the blackpoll warbler and Nashville warbler. We furnish the following first Canadian reports of B. burgdorferi-positive ticks: I. scapularis on chipping sparrow, house wren, indigo bunting; I. auritulus on Bewick's wren; and I. spinipalpis on a Bewick's wren and song sparrow. First records of B. burgdorferi-infected ticks on songbirds include the following: the rabbit-associated tick, Ixodes dentatus, in western Canada; I. scapularis in Quebec, Saskatchewan, northern New Brunswick, northern Ontario; and Ixodes spinipalpis (collected in British Columbia). The presence of B. burgdorferi in Ixodes larvae suggests reservoir competency in 9 passerines (Bewick's wren, common yellowthroat, dark-eyed junco, Oregon junco, red-winged blackbird, song sparrow, Swainson's thrush, swamp sparrow, and white-throated sparrow). We report transstadial transmission (larva to nymph) of B. burgdorferi in I. auritulus. Data suggest a possible 4-tick, i.e., I. angustus, I. auritulus, I. pacificus, and I. spinipalpis, enzootic cycle of B. burgdorferi on Vancouver Island

  9. Simultaneous use of mark-recapture and radiotelemetry to estimate survival, movement, and capture rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, L.A.; Conroy, M.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Krementz, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Biologists often estimate separate survival and movement rates from radio-telemetry and mark-recapture data from the same study population. We describe a method for combining these data types in a single model to obtain joint, potentially less biased estimates of survival and movement that use all available data. We furnish an example using wood thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) captured at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia in 1996. The model structure allows estimation of survival and capture probabilities, as well as estimation of movements away from and into the study area. In addition, the model structure provides many possibilities for hypothesis testing. Using the combined model structure, we estimated that wood thrush weekly survival was 0.989 ? 0.007 ( ?SE). Survival rates of banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [S_radioed, ~ S_banded]=log [S hat _radioed/ S hat _banded]=0.0239 ? 0.0435). Fidelity rates (weekly probability of remaining in a stratum) did not differ between geographic strata (psi hat=0.911 ? 0.020; alpha hat [psi11, psi22]=0.0161 ? 0.047), and recapture rates ( = 0.097 ? 0.016) banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [p_radioed, p_banded]=0.145 ? 0.655). Combining these data types in a common model resulted in more precise estimates of movement and recapture rates than separate estimation, but ability to detect stratum or mark-specific differences in parameters was week. We conducted simulation trials to investigate the effects of varying study designs on parameter accuracy and statistical power to detect important differences. Parameter accuracy was high (relative bias [RBIAS] <2 %) and confidence interval coverage close to nominal, except for survival estimates of banded birds for the 'off study area' stratum, which were negatively biased (RBIAS -7 to -15%) when sample sizes were small (5-10 banded or radioed animals 'released' per time interval). To provide

  10. Carry-Over Effects of Nonbreeding Habitat on Start-to-Finish Spring Migration Performance of a Songbird

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Emily A.; Stanley, Calandra Q.; Stutchbury, Bridget J. M.

    2015-01-01

    For migratory animals, conditions during the nonbreeding period may carry-over to influence spring migration performance. Animals in low-quality habitats are predicted to be in poorer condition, show later migration timing, and travel at slower speeds. This can result in subsequent negative effects on fitness. We tested the hypothesis that nonbreeding season body condition and habitat quality carry-over to affect spring migration performance of a long-distance migratory songbird, the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). We tracked individual birds between multiple breeding sites in North America and nonbreeding sites in Central America. First, we compared body condition of nonbreeding birds migrating to the same general region of the breeding range with spring migration performance (timing, speed, and duration) obtained from light-level geolocators. Second, we assessed the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as a proxy for nonbreeding habitat quality, and predicted that birds from wetter habitat or in wetter years (higher NDVI) would show improved migration performance relative to birds from drier sites. We found no evidence of individual-level carry-over effects of nonbreeding season body condition on spring migration performance. Lower NDVI of nonbreeding habitat resulted in delayed spring migration departure, but this effect disappeared by arrival at breeding sites. Birds occupying drier nonbreeding sites migrated faster and for fewer days, compensating for their relatively late departure. We also documented a broader pattern in NDVI and migration timing and distance, in that birds that occupied the wettest areas in the southern part of the nonbreeding range departed significantly later and migrated farther. Our results suggest that individual carry-over effects of nonbreeding habitat quality may be compensated for by a faster and shorter migration strategy. At a broad scale, consistently later spring timing and longer migration distances were

  11. Evaluating the ability of regional models to predict local avian abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeBrun, Jaymi J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Miller, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial modeling over broad scales can potentially direct conservation efforts to areas with high species-specific abundances. We examined the performance of regional models for predicting bird abundance at spatial scales typically addressed in conservation planning. Specifically, we used point count data on wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) and blue-winged warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera) from 2 time periods (1995-1998 and 2006-2007) to evaluate the ability of regional models derived via Bayesian hierarchical techniques to predict bird abundance. We developed models for each species within Bird Conservation Region (BCR) 23 in the upper midwestern United States at 800-ha, 8,000-ha, and approximately 80,000-ha scales. We obtained count data from the Breeding Bird Survey and land cover data from the National Land Cover Dataset (1992). We evaluated predictions from the best models, as defined by an information-theoretic criterion, using point count data collected within an ecological subregion of BCR 23 at 131 count stations in the 1990s and again in 2006-2007. Competing (Deviance Information Criteria rs = 0.57; P = 0.14), the survey period that most closely aligned with the time period of data used for regional model construction. Wood thrush models exhibited positive correlations with point count data for all survey areas and years combined (rs = 0.58, P ≤ 0.001). In comparison, blue-winged warbler models performed worse as time increased between the point count surveys and vintage of the model building data (rs = 0.03, P = 0.92 for Iowa and rs = 0.13, P = 0.51 for all areas, 2006-2007), likely related to the ephemeral nature of their preferred early successional habitat. Species abundance and sensitivity to changing habitat conditions seems to be an important factor in determining the predictive ability of regional models. Hierarchical models can be a useful tool for concentrating efforts at the scale of management units and should be one of many tools used by

  12. Carry-Over Effects of Nonbreeding Habitat on Start-to-Finish Spring Migration Performance of a Songbird.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Emily A; Stanley, Calandra Q; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2015-01-01

    For migratory animals, conditions during the nonbreeding period may carry-over to influence spring migration performance. Animals in low-quality habitats are predicted to be in poorer condition, show later migration timing, and travel at slower speeds. This can result in subsequent negative effects on fitness. We tested the hypothesis that nonbreeding season body condition and habitat quality carry-over to affect spring migration performance of a long-distance migratory songbird, the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). We tracked individual birds between multiple breeding sites in North America and nonbreeding sites in Central America. First, we compared body condition of nonbreeding birds migrating to the same general region of the breeding range with spring migration performance (timing, speed, and duration) obtained from light-level geolocators. Second, we assessed the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as a proxy for nonbreeding habitat quality, and predicted that birds from wetter habitat or in wetter years (higher NDVI) would show improved migration performance relative to birds from drier sites. We found no evidence of individual-level carry-over effects of nonbreeding season body condition on spring migration performance. Lower NDVI of nonbreeding habitat resulted in delayed spring migration departure, but this effect disappeared by arrival at breeding sites. Birds occupying drier nonbreeding sites migrated faster and for fewer days, compensating for their relatively late departure. We also documented a broader pattern in NDVI and migration timing and distance, in that birds that occupied the wettest areas in the southern part of the nonbreeding range departed significantly later and migrated farther. Our results suggest that individual carry-over effects of nonbreeding habitat quality may be compensated for by a faster and shorter migration strategy. At a broad scale, consistently later spring timing and longer migration distances were

  13. Effects of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Rotations with Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) on Nematode Populations and Soil Microflora

    PubMed Central

    Kokalis-Burelle, N.; Mahaffee, W. F.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Kloepper, J. W.; BOWEN, K. L.

    2002-01-01

    A 3-year field rotation study was conducted to assess the potential of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) to suppress root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria), southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii), and aflatoxigenic fungi (Aspergillus sp.) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and to assess shifts in microbial populations following crop rotation. Switchgrass did not support populations of root-knot nematodes but supported high populations of nonparasitic nematodes. Peanut with no nematicide applied and following 2 years of switchgrass had the same nematode populations as continuous peanut plus nematicide. Neither previous crop nor nematicide significantly reduced the incidence of pods infected with Aspergillus. However, pod invasion by A. flavus was highest in plots previously planted with peanut and not treated with nematicide. Peanut with nematicide applied at planting following 2 years of switchgrass had significantly less incidence of southern blight than either continuous peanut without nematicide application or peanut without nematicide following 2 years of cotton. Peanut yield did not differ among rotations in either sample year. Effects of crop rotation on the microbial community structure associated with peanut were examined using indices for diversity, richness, and similarity derived from culture-based analyses. Continuous peanut supported a distinctly different rhizosphere bacterial microflora compared to peanut following 1 year of switchgrass, or continuous switchgrass. Richness and diversity indices for continuous peanut rhizosphere and geocarposphere were not consistently different from peanut following switchgrass, but always differed in the specific genera present. These shifts in community structure were associated with changes in parasitic nematode populations. PMID:19265915

  14. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis can induce B7-independent antigen-specific development of IL-4-producing T cells from naive CD4 T cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhugong; Liu, Qian; Pesce, John; Whitmire, Jeannette; Ekkens, Melinda J; Foster, Anthony; VanNoy, Jansie; Sharpe, Arlene H; Urban, Joseph F; Gause, William C

    2002-12-15

    Th2 immune responses to a number of infectious pathogens are dependent on B7-1/B7-2 costimulatory molecule interactions. We have now examined the Th2 immune response to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) in B7-1/B7-2(-/-) mice and show that Th2 effector cells develop that can mediate worm expulsion and produce substantial Th2 cytokines comparable with wild-type infected mice; however, in marked contrast, B cell Ag-specific Ab production is abrogated after B7 blockade. To examine the mechanism of T cell activation, OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were transferred to recipient mice, which were then immunized with a combination of Nb plus OVA or either alone. Only the combination of Nb plus OVA triggered T cell differentiation to OVA-specific Th2 cells, suggesting that Nb acts as an adjuvant to stimulate Ag-specific naive T cells to differentiate to effector Th2 cells. Furthermore, using the DO11.10 TCR-transgenic T cell adoptive transfer model, we show that blocking B7-1/B7-2 interactions does not impair nonparasite Ag-specific DO11.10 Th2 cell differentiation; however, DO11.10 T cell cycle progression and migration to the B cell zone are inhibited. PMID:12471130

  15. The inverse niche model for food webs with parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warren, Christopher P.; Pascual, Mercedes; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2010-01-01

    Although parasites represent an important component of ecosystems, few field and theoretical studies have addressed the structure of parasites in food webs. We evaluate the structure of parasitic links in an extensive salt marsh food web, with a new model distinguishing parasitic links from non-parasitic links among free-living species. The proposed model is an extension of the niche model for food web structure, motivated by the potential role of size (and related metabolic rates) in structuring food webs. The proposed extension captures several properties observed in the data, including patterns of clustering and nestedness, better than does a random model. By relaxing specific assumptions, we demonstrate that two essential elements of the proposed model are the similarity of a parasite's hosts and the increasing degree of parasite specialization, along a one-dimensional niche axis. Thus, inverting one of the basic rules of the original model, the one determining consumers' generality appears critical. Our results support the role of size as one of the organizing principles underlying niche space and food web topology. They also strengthen the evidence for the non-random structure of parasitic links in food webs and open the door to addressing questions concerning the consequences and origins of this structure.

  16. Fungi Parasitic on Juveniles and Egg Masses of Meloidogyne hapla in Organic Soils from New York

    PubMed Central

    Viaene, Nicole M.; Abawi, George S.

    1998-01-01

    Fungi associated with egg masses and juveniles of Meloidogyne hapla were isolated from organic soil samples obtained from five fields planted to lettuce or onion in NewYork. The soil samples were placed in sterilized clay pots, infested with M. hapla, and planted to lettuce. After 4 months, egg masses and juveniles were surface-disinfested, plated on water agar, and examined for fungal infection. Depending on the soil sample, fungal isolates were recovered from 13% to 30%, and from 5% to 24% of the egg masses and juveniles, respectively. A total of 24 and 16 isolates collected from egg masses and juveniles, respectively, were selected for further characterization. Fifteen of the isolates were considered as egg-mass pathogens as they were able to infect healthy assay egg masses and could be succesfully reisolated. These fungi included species of Fusarium, Alternatia, and Verticillium psalliotae. Six of the egg-mass-parasitizing fungi could not be identified. Nine fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic to juveniles of M. hapla; six were identified as Monacrosporium sp., two as Arthrobotrys sp., and one as Hirsutella rhossiliensis. The remaining 16 fungal isolates were unable to infect egg masses or juveniles, and thus were considered nonparasitic to M. hapla. PMID:19274258

  17. Competition, virulence, host body mass and the diversification of macro-parasites

    PubMed Central

    Rascalou, Guilhem; Gourbière, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive speciation has been much debated in recent years, with a strong emphasis on how competition can lead to the diversification of ecological and sexual traits. Surprisingly, little attention has been paid to this evolutionary process to explain intrahost diversification of parasites. We expanded the theory of competitive speciation to look at the effect of key features of the parasite lifestyle, namely fragmentation, aggregation and virulence, on the conditions and rate of sympatric speciation under the standard ‘pleiotropic scenario’. The conditions for competitive speciation were found similar to those for non-parasite species, but not the rate of diversification. Adaptive evolution proceeds faster in highly fragmented parasite populations and for weakly aggregated and virulent parasites. Combining these theoretical results with standard empirical allometric relationships, we showed that parasite diversification can be faster in host species of intermediate body mass. The increase in parasite load with body mass, indeed, fuels evolution by increasing mutants production, but because of the deleterious effect of virulence, it simultaneously weakens selection for resource specialization. Those two antagonistic effects lead to optimal parasite burden and host body mass for diversification. Data on the diversity of fishes' gills parasites were found consistent with the existence of such optimum. PMID:24522783

  18. The Behavior Response of Amphipods Infected by Hedruris suttonae (Nematoda) and Pseudocorynosoma sp. (Acanthocephala).

    PubMed

    Casalins, Laura M; Brugni, Norma L; Rauque, Carlos A

    2015-12-01

    The manipulation of intermediate host behavior may increase chances of parasite transmission to the definitive host. In freshwater environments of the Neotropical Region, studies on behavioral manipulations by parasites are rare, and the majority of these consider only a single parasite species and/or 1 life stage of a particular parasite species. In Andean Patagonian lakes of Argentina, the amphipod Hyalella patagonica is infected by larvae of the fish nematode Hedruris suttonae and by the bird acanthocephalan Pseudocorynosoma sp. The 3 objectives of the present study were to determine whether H. suttonae and Pseudocorynosoma sp. differ in their effects on behavior of H. patagonica , whether such modification is associated with parasite development, and to assess the associations between behavioral traits. From naturally parasitized amphipods, activity (swimming levels) and phototaxis (light preference) was measured. Only in phototaxis trials did larvae of H. suttonae induce significantly higher levels of photophilia, suggesting that they are manipulative. Scores of activity and phototaxis were positive and significantly related for non-parasitized female amphipods and for amphipods parasitized by larvae of Pseudocorynosoma sp. but were not associated in amphipods parasitized with larvae of H. suttonae (infective and non-infective), suggesting that infection separated the relationship between these variables. PMID:26295566

  19. Rendering the Intractable More Tractable: Tools from Caenorhabditis elegans Ripe for Import into Parasitic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jordan D

    2015-12-01

    Recent and rapid advances in genetic and molecular tools have brought spectacular tractability to Caenorhabditis elegans, a model that was initially prized because of its simple design and ease of imaging. C. elegans has long been a powerful model in biomedical research, and tools such as RNAi and the CRISPR/Cas9 system allow facile knockdown of genes and genome editing, respectively. These developments have created an additional opportunity to tackle one of the most debilitating burdens on global health and food security: parasitic nematodes. I review how development of nonparasitic nematodes as genetic models informs efforts to import tools into parasitic nematodes. Current tools in three commonly studied parasites (Strongyloides spp., Brugia malayi, and Ascaris suum) are described, as are tools from C. elegans that are ripe for adaptation and the benefits and barriers to doing so. These tools will enable dissection of a huge array of questions that have been all but completely impenetrable to date, allowing investigation into host-parasite and parasite-vector interactions, and the genetic basis of parasitism. PMID:26644478

  20. Characterization of Constituents and Anthelmintic Properties of Hagenia abyssinica

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Henrieke; Reider, Katrin; Franke, Katrin; Wessjohann, Ludger A.; Keiser, Jennifer; Dagne, Ermias; Arnold, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The dried female flowers of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J. F. Gmel. (Rosaceae) are traditionally used as an anthelmintic remedy in Ethiopia and formerly were incorporated into the European Pharmacopoeia. One-, two- and tricyclic phloroglucinol derivatives (kosins) were suggested to be the active principles. However, polar constituents may also contribute to the activity. Therefore, we investigated for the first time the polar constituents. We isolated typical Rosaceae constituents such as quercetin 3-O-β-glucuronide, quercetin 3-O-β-glucoside and rutin. Polar kosin glycosides or derivatives could not be detected. The anthelmintic activity of fractions of different polarity were tested against the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola hepatica and the intestinal fluke Echinostoma caproni. The anthelmintic activity decreased with increasing polarity of the tested fractions. ESI-MS investigations indicated the predominant occurrence of kosins in the active fractions. Using the anthelmintic active extracts of Hagenia abyssinica we developed a simple, inexpensive bioassay against the non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which can be used as an initial screening procedure for anthelmintic properties of crude extracts of plants or fungi. The anthelmintic activity of test extracts against the model organism was determined in a microtiter plate assay by enumeration of living and dead nematodes under a microscope. PMID:22896828

  1. The 3D Structure of the Apical Complex and Association with the Flagellar Apparatus Revealed by Serial TEM Tomography in Psammosa pacifica, a Distant Relative of the Apicomplexa

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Noriko; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    The apical complex is one of the defining features of apicomplexan parasites, including the malaria parasite Plasmodium, where it mediates host penetration and invasion. The apical complex is also known in a few related lineages, including several non-parasitic heterotrophs, where it mediates feeding behaviour. The origin of the apical complex is unclear, and one reason for this is that in apicomplexans it exists in only part of the life cycle, and never simultaneously with other major cytoskeletal structures like flagella and basal bodies. Here, we used conventional TEM and serial TEM tomography to reconstruct the three dimensional structure of the apical complex in Psammosa pacifica, a predatory relative of apicomplexans and dinoflagellates that retains the archetype apical complex and the flagellar apparatus simultaneously. The P. pacifica apical complex is associated with the gullet and consists of the pseudoconoid, micronemes, and electron dense vesicles. The pseudoconoid is a convex sheet consisting of eight short microtubules, plus a band made up of microtubules that originate from the flagellar apparatus. The flagellar apparatus consists of three microtubular roots. One of the microtubular roots attached to the posterior basal body is connected to bypassing microtubular strands, which are themselves connected to the extension of the pseudoconoid. These complex connections where the apical complex is an extension of the flagellar apparatus, reflect the ancestral state of both, dating back to the common ancestor of apicaomplexans and dinoflagellates. PMID:24392150

  2. Chromerid genomes reveal the evolutionary path from photosynthetic algae to obligate intracellular parasites.

    PubMed

    Woo, Yong H; Ansari, Hifzur; Otto, Thomas D; Klinger, Christen M; Kolisko, Martin; Michálek, Jan; Saxena, Alka; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Tayyrov, Annageldi; Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Ali, Shahjahan; Bernal, Axel; del Campo, Javier; Cihlář, Jaromír; Flegontov, Pavel; Gornik, Sebastian G; Hajdušková, Eva; Horák, Aleš; Janouškovec, Jan; Katris, Nicholas J; Mast, Fred D; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mourier, Tobias; Naeem, Raeece; Nair, Mridul; Panigrahi, Aswini K; Rawlings, Neil D; Padron-Regalado, Eriko; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Samad, Nadira; Tomčala, Aleš; Wilkes, Jon; Neafsey, Daniel E; Doerig, Christian; Bowler, Chris; Keeling, Patrick J; Roos, David S; Dacks, Joel B; Templeton, Thomas J; Waller, Ross F; Lukeš, Julius; Oborník, Miroslav; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic phylum Apicomplexa encompasses thousands of obligate intracellular parasites of humans and animals with immense socio-economic and health impacts. We sequenced nuclear genomes of Chromera velia and Vitrella brassicaformis, free-living non-parasitic photosynthetic algae closely related to apicomplexans. Proteins from key metabolic pathways and from the endomembrane trafficking systems associated with a free-living lifestyle have been progressively and non-randomly lost during adaptation to parasitism. The free-living ancestor contained a broad repertoire of genes many of which were repurposed for parasitic processes, such as extracellular proteins, components of a motility apparatus, and DNA- and RNA-binding protein families. Based on transcriptome analyses across 36 environmental conditions, Chromera orthologs of apicomplexan invasion-related motility genes were co-regulated with genes encoding the flagellar apparatus, supporting the functional contribution of flagella to the evolution of invasion machinery. This study provides insights into how obligate parasites with diverse life strategies arose from a once free-living phototrophic marine alga. PMID:26175406

  3. Reconstructing the demographic history of divergence between European river and brook lampreys using approximate Bayesian computations.

    PubMed

    Rougemont, Quentin; Roux, Camille; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Goudet, Jérôme; Launey, Sophie; Evanno, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Inferring the history of isolation and gene flow during species divergence is a central question in evolutionary biology. The European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) and brook lamprey (L. planeri) show a low reproductive isolation but have highly distinct life histories, the former being parasitic-anadromous and the latter non-parasitic and freshwater resident. Here we used microsatellite data from six replicated population pairs to reconstruct their history of divergence using an approximate Bayesian computation framework combined with a random forest model. In most population pairs, scenarios of divergence with recent isolation were outcompeted by scenarios proposing ongoing gene flow, namely the Secondary Contact (SC) and Isolation with Migration (IM) models. The estimation of demographic parameters under the SC model indicated a time of secondary contact close to the time of speciation, explaining why SC and IM models could not be discriminated. In case of an ancient secondary contact, the historical signal of divergence is lost and neutral markers converge to the same equilibrium as under the less parameterized model allowing ongoing gene flow. Our results imply that models of secondary contacts should be systematically compared to models of divergence with gene flow; given the difficulty to discriminate among these models, we suggest that genome-wide data are needed to adequately reconstruct divergence history. PMID:27077007

  4. Caenorhabditis elegans is a useful model for anthelmintic discovery

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Andrew R.; Luciani, Genna M.; Musso, Gabriel; Bagg, Rachel; Yeo, May; Zhang, Yuqian; Rajendran, Luckshika; Glavin, John; Hunter, Robert; Redman, Elizabeth; Stasiuk, Susan; Schertzberg, Michael; Angus McQuibban, G.; Caffrey, Conor R.; Cutler, Sean R.; Tyers, Mike; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Fraser, Andy G.; MacRae, Calum A.; Gilleard, John; Roy, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes infect one quarter of the world's population and impact all humans through widespread infection of crops and livestock. Resistance to current anthelmintics has prompted the search for new drugs. Traditional screens that rely on parasitic worms are costly and labour intensive and target-based approaches have failed to yield novel anthelmintics. Here, we present our screen of 67,012 compounds to identify those that kill the non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We then rescreen our hits in two parasitic nematode species and two vertebrate models (HEK293 cells and zebrafish), and identify 30 structurally distinct anthelmintic lead molecules. Genetic screens of 19 million C. elegans mutants reveal those nematicides for which the generation of resistance is and is not likely. We identify the target of one lead with nematode specificity and nanomolar potency as complex II of the electron transport chain. This work establishes C. elegans as an effective and cost-efficient model system for anthelmintic discovery. PMID:26108372

  5. The complete chloroplast genome of Gentiana straminea (Gentianaceae), an endemic species to the Sino-Himalayan subregion.

    PubMed

    Ni, Lianghong; Zhao, Zhili; Xu, Hongxi; Chen, Shilin; Dorje, Gaawe

    2016-02-15

    Endemic to the Sino-Himalayan subregion, the medicinal alpine plant Gentiana straminea is a threatened species. The genetic and molecular data about it is deficient. Here we report the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of G. straminea, as the first sequenced member of the family Gentianaceae. The cp genome is 148,991bp in length, including a large single copy (LSC) region of 81,240bp, a small single copy (SSC) region of 17,085bp and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,333bp. It contains 112 unique genes, including 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNAs and 4 rRNAs. The rps16 gene lacks exon2 between trnK-UUU and trnQ-UUG, which is the first rps16 pseudogene found in the nonparasitic plants of Asterids clade. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 13 forward repeats, 13 palindrome repeats and 39 simple sequence repeats (SSRs). An entire cp genome comparison study of G. straminea and four other species in Gentianales was carried out. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) were performed based on 69 protein-coding genes from 36 species of Asterids. The results strongly supported the position of Gentianaceae as one member of the order Gentianales. The complete chloroplast genome sequence will provide intragenic information for its conservation and contribute to research on the genetic and phylogenetic analyses of Gentianales and Asterids. PMID:26680100

  6. Vocal matching and intensity of begging calls are associated with a forebrain song circuit in a generalist brood parasite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Chun; Rivers, James W; White, David J

    2016-06-01

    Vocalizations produced by developing young early in life have simple acoustic features and are thought to be innate. Complex forms of early vocal learning are less likely to evolve in young altricial songbirds because the forebrain vocal-learning circuit is underdeveloped during the period when early vocalizations are produced. However, selective pressure experienced in early postnatal life may lead to early vocal learning that is likely controlled by a simpler brain circuit. We found the food begging calls produced by fledglings of the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), a generalist avian brood parasite, induced the expression of several immediate early genes and early circuit innervation in a forebrain vocal-motor pathway that is later used for vocal imitation. The forebrain neural activity was correlated with vocal intensity and variability of begging calls that appears to allow cowbirds to vocally match host nestmates. The begging-induced forebrain circuits we observed in fledgling cowbirds were not detected in nonparasitic passerines, including species that are close relatives to the cowbird. The involvement of forebrain vocal circuits during fledgling begging and its association with vocal learning plasticity may be an adaptation that provides young generalist brood parasites with a flexible signaling strategy to procure food from a wide range of heterospecific host parents. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 615-625, 2016. PMID:26335154

  7. Fungi Parasitic on Juveniles and Egg Masses of Meloidogyne hapla in Organic Soils from New York.

    PubMed

    Viaene, N M; Abawi, G S

    1998-12-01

    Fungi associated with egg masses and juveniles of Meloidogyne hapla were isolated from organic soil samples obtained from five fields planted to lettuce or onion in NewYork. The soil samples were placed in sterilized clay pots, infested with M. hapla, and planted to lettuce. After 4 months, egg masses and juveniles were surface-disinfested, plated on water agar, and examined for fungal infection. Depending on the soil sample, fungal isolates were recovered from 13% to 30%, and from 5% to 24% of the egg masses and juveniles, respectively. A total of 24 and 16 isolates collected from egg masses and juveniles, respectively, were selected for further characterization. Fifteen of the isolates were considered as egg-mass pathogens as they were able to infect healthy assay egg masses and could be succesfully reisolated. These fungi included species of Fusarium, Alternatia, and Verticillium psalliotae. Six of the egg-mass-parasitizing fungi could not be identified. Nine fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic to juveniles of M. hapla; six were identified as Monacrosporium sp., two as Arthrobotrys sp., and one as Hirsutella rhossiliensis. The remaining 16 fungal isolates were unable to infect egg masses or juveniles, and thus were considered nonparasitic to M. hapla. PMID:19274258

  8. Low reproductive isolation and highly variable levels of gene flow reveal limited progress towards speciation between European river and brook lampreys.

    PubMed

    Rougemont, Q; Gaigher, A; Lasne, E; Côte, J; Coke, M; Besnard, A-L; Launey, S; Evanno, G

    2015-12-01

    Ecologically based divergent selection is a factor that could drive reproductive isolation even in the presence of gene flow. Population pairs arrayed along a continuum of divergence provide a good opportunity to address this issue. Here, we used a combination of mating trials, experimental crosses and population genetic analyses to investigate the evolution of reproductive isolation between two closely related species of lampreys with distinct life histories. We used microsatellite markers to genotype over 1000 individuals of the migratory parasitic river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) and freshwater-resident nonparasitic brook lamprey (Lampetra planeri) distributed in 10 sympatric and parapatric population pairs in France. Mating trials, parentage analyses and artificial fertilizations demonstrated a low level of reproductive isolation between species even though size-assortative mating may contribute to isolation. Most parapatric population pairs were strongly differentiated due to the joint effects of geographic distance and barriers to migration. In contrast, we found variable levels of gene flow between sympatric populations ranging from panmixia to moderate differentiation, which indicates a gradient of divergence with some population pairs that may correspond to alternative morphs or ecotypes of a single species and others that remain partially isolated. Ecologically based divergent selection may explain these variable levels of divergence among sympatric population pairs, but incomplete genome swamping following secondary contact could have also played a role. Overall, this study illustrates how highly differentiated phenotypes can be maintained despite high levels of gene flow that limit the progress towards speciation. PMID:26348652

  9. The effects of ascorbate-induced free radicals on Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Marva, E; Golenser, J; Cohen, A; Kitrossky, N; Har-el, R; Chevion, M

    1992-03-01

    Ascorbic acid has been shown to cause stage-dependent effects on the in vitro development of Plasmodium falciparum. While vitamin C marginally enhanced the development of young parasites, it proved highly destructive to the advanced forms. The present study evaluates the mechanisms by which vitamin C affects the parasite. The treatment of parasitized erythrocytes with ascorbate resulted in the conversion of added salicylate to dihydroxybenzoate products, indicating the involvement of hydroxyl radicals. There was a stage specific sensitivity, increasing conversion with progressing parasite development. This specificity could not be attributed to the altered uptake of salicylate by the parasitized erythrocyte, since salicylate uptake was similar in either parasitized or non-parasitized erythrocytes. In distinction, increased uptake of ascorbate by parasitized erythrocytes could account for an elevated oxidant stress. The treatment with ascorbate also caused the oxidation of hemoglobin to methemoglobin and the peroxidation of membrane lipids. Added catalase markedly inhibited the ascorbate-induced effects on parasite development. "Free" plasmodia were also vulnerable to treatment with ascorbate like the parasites within their host cells. These results are in accord with a free radical mechanism of damage to the infected erythrocytes. During the growth of P. falciparum the infected erythrocytes release increasing levels of iron-containing structures that are redox-active and can catalyze the formation of highly reactive oxygen derived species. The findings also indicate the multiplicity of the mode of action of ascorbate on the host-parasite system. PMID:1598503

  10. Characterization of the LTR retrotransposon repertoire of a plant clade of six diploid and one tetraploid species.

    PubMed

    Piednoël, Mathieu; Carrete-Vega, Greta; Renner, Susanne S

    2013-08-01

    Comparisons of closely related species are needed to understand the fine-scale dynamics of retrotransposon evolution in flowering plants. Towards this goal, we classified the long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons from six diploid and one tetraploid species of Orobanchaceae. The study species are the autotrophic, non-parasitic Lindenbergia philippensis (as an out-group) and six closely related holoparasitic species of Orobanche [O. crenata, O. cumana, O. gracilis (tetraploid) and O. pancicii] and Phelipanche (P. lavandulacea and P. ramosa). All major plant LTR retrotransposon clades could be identified, and appear to be inherited from a common ancestor. Species of Orobanche, but not Phelipanche, are enriched in Ty3/Gypsy retrotransposons due to a diversification of elements, especially chromoviruses. This is particularly striking in O. gracilis, where tetraploidization seems to have contributed to the Ty3/Gypsy enrichment and led to the emergence of seven large species-specific families of chromoviruses. The preferential insertion of chromoviruses in heterochromatin via their chromodomains might have favored their diversification and enrichment. Our phylogenetic analyses of LTR retrotransposons from Orobanchaceae also revealed that the Bianca clade of Ty1/Copia and the SMART-related elements are much more widely distributed among angiosperms than previously known. PMID:23663083

  11. Transcriptomes of the parasitic plant family Orobanchaceae reveal surprising conservation of chlorophyll synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wickett, Norman J; Honaas, Loren A; Wafula, Eric K; Das, Malay; Huang, Kan; Wu, Biao; Landherr, Lena; Timko, Michael P; Yoder, John; Westwood, James H; dePamphilis, Claude W

    2011-12-20

    Parasitism in flowering plants has evolved at least 11 times [1]. Only one family, Orobanchaceae, comprises all major nutritional types of parasites: facultative, hemiparasitic (partially photosynthetic), and holoparasitic (nonphotosynthetic) [2]. Additionally, the family includes Lindenbergia, a nonparasitic genus sister to all parasitic Orobanchaceae [3-6]. Parasitic Orobanchaceae include species with severe economic impacts: Striga (witchweed), for example, affects over 50 million hectares of crops in sub-Saharan Africa, causing more than $3 billion in damage annually [7]. Although gene losses and increased substitution rates have been characterized for parasitic plant plastid genomes [5, 8-11], the nuclear genome and transcriptome remain largely unexplored. The Parasitic Plant Genome Project (PPGP; http://ppgp.huck.psu.edu/) [2] is leveraging the natural variation in Orobanchaceae to explore the evolution and genomic consequences of parasitism in plants through a massive transcriptome and gene discovery project involving Triphysaria versicolor (facultative hemiparasite), Striga hermonthica (obligate hemiparasite), and Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Orobanche [12]; holoparasite). Here we present the first set of large-scale genomic resources for parasitic plant comparative biology. Transcriptomes of above-ground tissues reveal that, in addition to the predictable loss of photosynthesis-related gene expression in P. aegyptiaca, the nonphotosynthetic parasite retains an intact, expressed, and selectively constrained chlorophyll synthesis pathway. PMID:22169535

  12. Next-generation sequencing reveals the impact of repetitive DNA across phylogenetically closely related genomes of Orobanchaceae.

    PubMed

    Piednoël, Mathieu; Aberer, Andre J; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Macas, Jiri; Novak, Petr; Gundlach, Heidrun; Temsch, Eva M; Renner, Susanne S

    2012-11-01

    We used next-generation sequencing to characterize the genomes of nine species of Orobanchaceae of known phylogenetic relationships, different life forms, and including a polyploid species. The study species are the autotrophic, nonparasitic Lindenbergia philippensis, the hemiparasitic Schwalbea americana, and seven nonphotosynthetic parasitic species of Orobanche (Orobanche crenata, Orobanche cumana, Orobanche gracilis (tetraploid), and Orobanche pancicii) and Phelipanche (Phelipanche lavandulacea, Phelipanche purpurea, and Phelipanche ramosa). Ty3/Gypsy elements comprise 1.93%-28.34% of the nine genomes and Ty1/Copia elements comprise 8.09%-22.83%. When compared with L. philippensis and S. americana, the nonphotosynthetic species contain higher proportions of repetitive DNA sequences, perhaps reflecting relaxed selection on genome size in parasitic organisms. Among the parasitic species, those in the genus Orobanche have smaller genomes but higher proportions of repetitive DNA than those in Phelipanche, mostly due to a diversification of repeats and an accumulation of Ty3/Gypsy elements. Genome downsizing in the tetraploid O. gracilis probably led to sequence loss across most repeat types. PMID:22723303

  13. Thermoinhibition uncovers a role for strigolactones in Arabidopsis seed germination.

    PubMed

    Toh, Shigeo; Kamiya, Yuji; Kawakami, Naoto; Nambara, Eiji; McCourt, Peter; Tsuchiya, Yuichiro

    2012-01-01

    Strigolactones are host factors that stimulate seed germination of parasitic plant species such as Striga and Orobanche. This hormone is also important in shoot branching architecture and photomorphogenic development. Strigolactone biosynthetic and signaling mutants in model systems, unlike parasitic plants, only show seed germination phenotypes under limited growth condition. To understand the roles of strigolactones in seed germination, it is necessary to develop a tractable experimental system using model plants such as Arabidopsis. Here, we report that thermoinhibition, which involves exposing seeds to high temperatures, uncovers a clear role for strigolactones in promoting Arabidopsis seed germination. Both strigolactone biosynthetic and signaling mutants showed increased sensitivity to seed thermoinhibition. The synthetic strigolactone GR24 rescued germination of thermoinbibited biosynthetic mutant seeds but not a signaling mutant. Hormone analysis revealed that strigolactones alleviate thermoinhibition by modulating levels of the two plant hormones, GA and ABA. We also showed that GR24 was able to counteract secondary dormancy in Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia (Col) and Cape Verde island (Cvi). Systematic hormone analysis of germinating Striga helmonthica seeds suggested a common mechanism between the parasitic and non-parasitic seeds with respect to how hormones regulate germination. Thus, our simple assay system using Arabidopsis thermoinhibition allows comparisons to determine similarities and differences between parasitic plants and model experimental systems for the use of strigolactones. PMID:22173099

  14. Characterization of cathepsin B proteinase (AcCP-2) in eggs and larvae stages of hookworm Ancylostoma caninum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yurong; Qin, Weiwen; Wei, Hua; Ying, Jianxi; Zhen, Jing

    2011-11-01

    Cathepsin B proteinase constitutes a large multigenes family in parasitic and non-parasitic nematodes. The localization of cathepsin B proteinases (AcCP-1 and AcCP-2) in adult worm of Ancylostoma caninum has been characterized (Harrop et al., 1995), but the localization and function in eggs and larval stages remained undiscovered. Here we described the expressing of cathepsin B proteinase (AcCP-2) in Escherichia coli, and immuno-localization of cathepsin B proteinase in eggs and larvae stages of A. caninum. A cDNA fragment encoding a cathepsin B proteinase (AcCP-2) was cloned from A. caninum and expressed in E. coli. Gelatin digestion showed that recombinant cathepsin B proteinase (AcCP-2) has protease activity. The protein level of cathepsin B proteinase in larval and adult worm was detected by western blot. The immuno-localization of cathepsin B proteinase in eggs and larval stages was characterized. The expression of cathepsin B proteinase was more abundant in eggs and larvae stages of A. caninum. It implied that cathepsin B proteinase might play roles in the early development of A. caninum. PMID:21925175

  15. Effect of a hemiuroid trematode on the hemocyte immune parameters of the cockle Anadara trapezia.

    PubMed

    Dang, Cécile; Cribb, Thomas H; Osborne, Geoffrey; Kawasaki, Minami; Bedin, Anne-Sophie; Barnes, Andrew C

    2013-09-01

    When a trematode parasite penetrates a potential molluscan host, it has to circumvent the host's internal defense system. In molluscs, the primary effector cells of this system are the hemocytes which orchestrate many of the cellular and humoral immune functions. Survival of the parasite can occur only in the absence of a successful immune response, and continued development only if the host is physiologically suitable. This study investigated hemocytic response against asexual stages of a hemiuroid trematode by its host, the marine bivalve Anadara trapezia. Hemocyte characteristic (type, morphology) and function (mortality, phagocytosis and oxidative activity) were analyzed by flow cytometry in parasitized and non-parasitized cockles. A. trapezia possesses two types of hemocytes: amebocytes and erythrocytes. Analysis of histological section showed that there was no host hemocytic response around hemiuroid sporocysts. The infection induced a significant increase of the total circulating hemocytes with a higher proportion of erythrocytes relative to amebocytes, coupled with a lower phagocytosis rate and a statistically non-significant decrease of the intracellular oxidative activity. No significant differences were observed in hemocyte size and complexity, mortality, or phagocytic capacity. Our results indicate that in A. trapezia, hemiuroids modulate the immune response by increasing the number of circulating hemocytes and decreasing phagocytosis. PMID:23867496

  16. The status of RNAi-based transgenic research in plant nematology

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Tushar K.; Banakar, Prakash; Rao, Uma

    2015-01-01

    With the understanding of nematode-plant interactions at the molecular level, new avenues for engineering resistance have opened up, with RNA interference being one of them. Induction of RNAi by delivering double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has been very successful in the model non-parasitic nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, while in plant nematodes, dsRNA delivery has been accomplished by soaking nematodes with dsRNA solution mixed with synthetic neurostimulants. The success of in vitro RNAi of target genes has inspired the use of in planta delivery of dsRNA to feeding nematodes. The most convincing success of host-delivered RNAi has been achieved against root-knot nematodes. Plant-mediated RNAi has been shown to lead to the specific down-regulation of target genes in invading nematodes, which had a profound effect on nematode development. RNAi-based transgenics are advantageous as they do not produce any functional foreign proteins and target organisms in a sequence-specific manner. Although the development of RNAi-based transgenics against plant nematodes is still in the preliminary stage, they offer novel management strategy for the future. PMID:25628609

  17. Rendering the Intractable More Tractable: Tools from Caenorhabditis elegans Ripe for Import into Parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Jordan D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent and rapid advances in genetic and molecular tools have brought spectacular tractability to Caenorhabditis elegans, a model that was initially prized because of its simple design and ease of imaging. C. elegans has long been a powerful model in biomedical research, and tools such as RNAi and the CRISPR/Cas9 system allow facile knockdown of genes and genome editing, respectively. These developments have created an additional opportunity to tackle one of the most debilitating burdens on global health and food security: parasitic nematodes. I review how development of nonparasitic nematodes as genetic models informs efforts to import tools into parasitic nematodes. Current tools in three commonly studied parasites (Strongyloides spp., Brugia malayi, and Ascaris suum) are described, as are tools from C. elegans that are ripe for adaptation and the benefits and barriers to doing so. These tools will enable dissection of a huge array of questions that have been all but completely impenetrable to date, allowing investigation into host–parasite and parasite–vector interactions, and the genetic basis of parasitism. PMID:26644478

  18. Philometra ovata (Nematoda: Philometroidea): a potential sentinel species of heavy metal accumulation.

    PubMed

    Barus, V; Jarkovský, J; Prokes, M

    2007-04-01

    To assess the bioindicator value of parasites, the concentrations of six heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni and Zn) were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry in gravid females of the nematode Philometra ovata, body cavity parasites of gudgeon (Gobio gobio) and muscle samples of infected and uninfected hosts. The concentration of heavy metals was significantly higher in specimens of P. ovata compared to the host muscle tissue. The parasite-to-muscle ratio of heavy metals varied from 3.2 to 121.7, in increasing concentrations for Cr, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn. The presence of parasites did not influence the heavy metal content of the hosts, and no significant differences were found between muscle tissues of parasitized and non-parasitized fishes. The bioconcentration factor (BF = Cparasite/Csediment)varied between 0.4 and 25.8, in increasing order for Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni and Cr. These results indicate that P. ovata may serve as sensitive indicator species of heavy metal pollution in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:17149604

  19. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection

    PubMed Central

    Patinha, Fabia; Marinho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer. PMID:27407276

  20. THE ENDOPARASITOID Campoletis chlorideae INDUCES A HEMOLYTIC FACTOR IN THE HERBIVOROUS INSECT Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiong-Ya; Bai, Su-Fen; Li, Xin; Yin, Xin-Ming; Li, Xian-Chun

    2015-09-01

    Although lysis of invading organisms is a major innate form of immunity used by invertebrates, it remains unclear whether herbivorous insects have hemolysin or not. To address this general question, we tested the hemolytic (HL) activity of the hemolymph and tissue extracts from various stages of the polyphagous insect Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) against the erythrocytes from chicken, duck, and rabbit. An HL activity was identified in the hemolymph of H. armigera larvae. Further studies demonstrated that the HL activity is proteinaceous as it was precipitable by deproteinizing agents. Hemolysins were found in Helicoverpa egg, larva, pupa, and adult, but the activity was higher in feeding larvae than in molting or newly molted larvae. Hemolysins were distributed among a variety of larval tissues including salivary gland, fat body, epidermis, midgut, or testes, but the highest activity was found in salivary gland and fat body. Relative to nonparasitized larvae, parasitization of H. armigera larvae by the endoparasitoid Campoletis chlorideae Uchida induced a 3.4-fold increase in the HL activity in the plasma of parasitized host at day two postparasitization. The present study shows the presence of a parasitoid inducible HL factor in the parasitized insect. The HL activity increased significantly in H. armigera larvae at 12 and 24 h postinjection with Escherichia coli. We infer the HL factor(s) is inducible or due to de novo synthesis, which means that the HL factor(s) is associated with insect immune response by inhibiting or clearance of invading organisms. PMID:25929852

  1. Chromerid genomes reveal the evolutionary path from photosynthetic algae to obligate intracellular parasites

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Yong H; Ansari, Hifzur; Otto, Thomas D; Klinger, Christen M; Kolisko, Martin; Michálek, Jan; Saxena, Alka; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Tayyrov, Annageldi; Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Ali, Shahjahan; Bernal, Axel; del Campo, Javier; Cihlář, Jaromír; Flegontov, Pavel; Gornik, Sebastian G; Hajdušková, Eva; Horák, Aleš; Janouškovec, Jan; Katris, Nicholas J; Mast, Fred D; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mourier, Tobias; Naeem, Raeece; Nair, Mridul; Panigrahi, Aswini K; Rawlings, Neil D; Padron-Regalado, Eriko; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Samad, Nadira; Tomčala, Aleš; Wilkes, Jon; Neafsey, Daniel E; Doerig, Christian; Bowler, Chris; Keeling, Patrick J; Roos, David S; Dacks, Joel B; Templeton, Thomas J; Waller, Ross F; Lukeš, Julius; Oborník, Miroslav; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic phylum Apicomplexa encompasses thousands of obligate intracellular parasites of humans and animals with immense socio-economic and health impacts. We sequenced nuclear genomes of Chromera velia and Vitrella brassicaformis, free-living non-parasitic photosynthetic algae closely related to apicomplexans. Proteins from key metabolic pathways and from the endomembrane trafficking systems associated with a free-living lifestyle have been progressively and non-randomly lost during adaptation to parasitism. The free-living ancestor contained a broad repertoire of genes many of which were repurposed for parasitic processes, such as extracellular proteins, components of a motility apparatus, and DNA- and RNA-binding protein families. Based on transcriptome analyses across 36 environmental conditions, Chromera orthologs of apicomplexan invasion-related motility genes were co-regulated with genes encoding the flagellar apparatus, supporting the functional contribution of flagella to the evolution of invasion machinery. This study provides insights into how obligate parasites with diverse life strategies arose from a once free-living phototrophic marine alga. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06974.001 PMID:26175406

  2. Application of Nuclear Techniques to Improve the Mass Production and Management of Fruit Fly Parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    Cancino, Jorge; Ruíz, Lía; Viscarret, Mariana; Sivinski, John; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The use of irradiated hosts in mass rearing tephritid parasitoids represents an important technical advance in fruit fly augmentative biological control. Irradiation assures that fly emergence is avoided in non-parasitized hosts, while at the same time it has no appreciable effect on parasitoid quality, i.e., fecundity, longevity and flight capability. Parasitoids of fruit fly eggs, larvae and pupae have all been shown to successfully develop in irradiated hosts, allowing a broad range of species to be shipped and released without post-rearing delays waiting for fly emergence and costly procedures to separate flies and wasps. This facilitates the early, more effective and less damaging shipment of natural enemies within hosts and across quarantined borders. In addition, the survival and dispersal of released parasitoids can be monitored by placing irradiated sentinel-hosts in the field. The optimal radiation dosages for host-sterility and parasitoid-fitness differ among species, and considerable progress has been made in integrating radiation into a variety of rearing procedures. PMID:26466729

  3. The anesthetic effect of alcohols and alkanes in caenorhabditis elegans (C. E. )

    SciTech Connect

    Anton, A.H.; Berk, A.I.; Nicholls, C.H. )

    1991-03-11

    The authors colleagues reported that the non-parasitic roundworm, C.E., was reversibly immobilized by volatile anesthetics, whose potencies were directly related to their lipid solubilities as in other animals. In further studies on this phenomenon, they tested a homologous series of organic solvents, to determine whether they also had a reversible anesthetic effect in C.E. as in other animals. Synchronized 3-1/2 day-old cultures of about 100 worms each were exposed to increasing concentrations of the alcohols (C{sub 1} - C{sub 14}) and alkanes (C{sub 5} -C{sub 10}) in 15 ml sealed bottles in a volume of 0.5 ml. The dose that reversibly immobilized 50% of the worms was determined and a straight line was plotted against the octanol/water partition coefficient (K) of each series. As with other animals, potency was directly related to the lipid solubility of these agents so that, for example, the ID{sub 50} for methanol was 1,000 mmol (K=0.12) whereas it was 0.17 mmol for heptanol (K=3,000). The alcohols were about 20 times more potent than the alkanes even though the latter were about 10 times more lipid soluble than the alcohols. In spite of these differences, the cut-off point was at C{sub 9} in the two series.

  4. Brood parasites lay eggs matching the appearance of host clutches

    PubMed Central

    Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific brood parasitism represents a prime example of the coevolutionary arms race where each party has evolved strategies in response to the other. Here, we investigated whether common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) actively select nests within a host population to match the egg appearance of a particular host clutch. To achieve this goal, we quantified the degree of egg matching using the avian vision modelling approach. Randomization tests revealed that cuckoo eggs in naturally parasitized nests showed lower chromatic contrast to host eggs than those assigned randomly to other nests with egg-laying date similar to naturally parasitized clutches. Moreover, egg matching in terms of chromaticity was better in naturally parasitized nests than it would be in the nests of the nearest active non-parasitized neighbour. However, there was no indication of matching in achromatic spectral characteristics whatsoever. Thus, our results clearly indicate that cuckoos select certain host nests to increase matching of their own eggs with host clutches, but only in chromatic characteristics. Our results suggest that the ability of cuckoos to actively choose host nests based on the eggshell appearance imposes a strong selection pressure on host egg recognition. PMID:24258721

  5. Differences in shell shape of naturally infected Lymnaea stagnalis (L.) individuals as the effect of the activity of digenetic trematode larvae.

    PubMed

    Zbikowska, Elzbieta; Zbikowski, Janusz

    2005-10-01

    The shells of Lymnaea stagnalis show great morphological variability. This phenomenon has been described as the result of an environmental influence. The main object of the present study was to compare some biometric data from shells of naturally infected and uninfected snails from 25 different lakes in the central part of Poland. The height of the shell, the height of the spiral, and the width of the shell were measured. Some inter- and intrapopulation differences among individuals were found. Greater variability of shell shape was observed among snails parasitized with digenean larvae than in nonparasitized ones. Snails infected with Echinoparyphium aconiatum, Echinostoma revolutum, Diplostomum pseudospathaceum, and Opisthioglyphe ranae differed in shell shape compared with uninfected individuals. Snails infected with Plagiorchis elegans did not differ from uninfected individuals. The same was true of snails in which the commensal oligochaete, Chaetogaster limnei, was found. The results of the present study support the assumption that the deformation of shells of the snails under study was in some way influenced by the presence of certain species of digenetic trematodes. PMID:16419747

  6. Acadian flycatcher nest placement: Does placement influence reproductive success?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, R.R.; Cooper, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    We located 511 Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) nests in bottomland hardwood forest of eastern Arkansas. Microhabitat characteristics were measured and their relationship with nest success evaluated. Fifty-two percent of all nesting attempts resulted in predation. Attributes of nest placement were similar between successful and unsuccessful nests, although successful nests were placed higher. Similarly, nonparasitized nests were typically higher than parasitized nests. Nests initiated late in the breeding season were placed in larger trees with higher canopy bases resulting in increased vegetation around the nest. Fifteen different tree species were used for nesting. Acadian Flycatchers chose nest trees in a nonrandom fashion, selecting Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii) and possumhaw (Ilex decidua) in greater proportions than their availability. However, there was no relationship between tree species used for nesting and nest success. Nest height was positively correlated with concealment at the nest site, supporting the predator-avoidance theory. No other attribute of nest placement differentiated successful nest sites, suggesting that nest predation is likely a function of random events in space and time.

  7. Prevalence of parasitism and adult survival time of Aedes albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) parasitized by Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nematoda: Mermithidae).

    PubMed

    Di Battista, Cristian M; Fischer, Sylvia; Campos, Raúl E

    2015-12-01

    We described the carryover of Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Poinar and Camino) (Nematoda: Mermithidae) from mosquito larvae, the primary site of maturation, to adults. We analyzed the survival time of male and female Aedes albifasciatus (Macquart) (Diptera: Culicidae) parasitized by S. spiculatus, the time of emergence of nematodes from adult mosquitoes, and the state of parasitism in the same mosquito cohorts during the immature stages. Mosquito larvae with single and multiple parasitism (up to 11 parasites) were observed. The mortality of mosquito larvae and adults was produced in all cases where at least one mermithid emerged. The mortality of S. spiculatus showed an increasing trend in mosquito larvae with larger numbers of nematodes and was higher in larvae parasitized by eight or more nematodes. Maximum survival of parasitized adult females of Ae. albifasciatus was 38 days, while non-parasitized adult males and females survived 39 and 41 days, respectively. Strelkovimermis spiculatus mortality was observed in Ae. albifasciatus larvae with single or multiple parasitisms. The spread of mermithid parasitism in adult mosquito populations is discussed. PMID:26611976

  8. Towards identifying novel anti-Eimeria agents: trace elements, vitamins, and plant-based natural products.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Frank; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Steinbrenner, Holger; Sies, Helmut; Dkhil, Mohamed A

    2014-10-01

    Eimeriosis, a widespread infectious disease of livestock, is caused by coccidian protozoans of the genus Eimeria. These obligate intracellular parasites strike the digestive tract of their hosts and give rise to enormous economic losses, particularly in poultry, ruminants including cattle, and rabbit farming. Vaccination, though a rational prophylactic measure, has not yet been as successful as initially thought. Numerous broad-spectrum anti-coccidial drugs are currently in use for treatment and prophylactic control of eimeriosis. However, increasing concerns about parasite resistance, consumer health, and environmental safety of the commercial drugs warrant efforts to search for novel agents with anti-Eimeria activity. This review summarizes current approaches to prevent and treat eimeriosis such as vaccination and commercial drugs, as well as recent attempts to use dietary antioxidants as novel anti-Eimeria agents. In particular, the trace elements selenium and zinc, the vitamins A and E, and natural products extracted from garlic, barberry, pomegranate, sweet wormwood, and other plants are discussed. Several of these novel anti-Eimeria agents exhibit a protective role against oxidative stress that occurs not only in the intestine of Eimeria-infected animals, but also in their non-parasitized tissues, in particular, in the first-pass organ liver. Currently, it appears to be promising to identify safe combinations of low-cost natural products with high anti-Eimeria efficacy for a potential use as feed supplementation in animal farming. PMID:25185667

  9. Parasitization by Scleroderma guani influences protein expression in Tenebrio molitor pupae.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Wu, Guo-Xing; Ze, Sang-Zi; Stanley, David W; Yang, Bin

    2014-07-01

    Ectoparasitoid wasps deposit their eggs onto the surface and inject venom into their hosts. Venoms are chemically complex and they exert substantial impact on hosts, including permanent or temporary paralysis and developmental arrest. These visible venom effects are due to changes in expression of genes encoding physiologically relevant proteins. While the influence of parasitization on gene expression in several lepidopterans has been reported, the molecular details of parasitoid/beetle relationships remain mostly unknown. This shortcoming led us to pose the hypothesis that envenomation by the ectoparasitic ant-like bethylid wasp Scleroderma guani leads to changes in protein expression in the yellow mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor. We tested our hypothesis by comparing the proteomes of non-parasitized and parasitized host pupae using iTRAQ-based proteomics. We identified 41 proteins that were differentially expressed (32↑- and 9↓-regulated) in parasitized pupae. We assigned these proteins to functional categories, including immunity, stress and detoxification, energy metabolism, development, cytoskeleton, signaling and others. We recorded parallel changes in mRNA levels and protein abundance in 14 selected proteins following parasitization. Our findings support our hypothesis by documenting changes in protein expression in parasitized hosts. PMID:24852673

  10. Genetic diversity of Mexican brook lamprey Lampetra (Tetrapleurodon) geminis (Alvarez del Villar, 1966).

    PubMed

    Mejía, Omar; Polaco, Oscar J; Zúñiga, Gerardo

    2004-11-01

    Lampreys are the only surviving representatives of the oldest known vertebrates. The Mexican lamprey L. geminis (nonparasitic), is particularly interesting, because it is an endemic, biogeographical relict, and a threatened species. RAPD markers were used to describe genetic diversity in L. geminis. A total of 77 specimens were collected from five populations, three in the Río Grande de Morelia-Cuitzeo basin and two in the Río Duero-Lerma-Chapala basin, México. Eighty-eight RAPD markers were obtained from eight primers. Genetic diversity within each population was estimated using Shannon's index (S), heterozygosity (H) and gene diversity (h). These estimates revealed significant variation within populations, although a variance homogeneity test (HOMOVA) showed no significant differences among populations or between basins. Nei genetic distance values indicate a low genetic differentiation among populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicates that most of the genetic diversity occurs within populations (91.4%), but that a statistically significant amount is found among populations (P < 0.001). Principal coordinates and cluster analyses of RAPD phenotypes show that specimens are not grouped by geographical origin. The genetic diversity found within L. geminis populations may be explained by its breeding system and an overlapping of generations. The scarce genetic differentiation among populations is likely to the low rate of DNA change that characterizes the lamprey group. PMID:15609555

  11. Oxidative stress and protective mechanisms in erythrocytes in relation to Plasmodium vinckei load.

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, R; Hunt, N H; Buffinton, G D; Weidemann, M J; Lewis-Hughes, P H; Clark, I A

    1985-01-01

    The protection of mouse erythrocytes (RBC) parasitized with Plasmodium vinckei vinckei against activated oxygen species was examined in relation to the intraerythrocytic parasite load. RBC from highly infected animals were separated by density gradient centrifugation into six bands with increasing parasite content and with parasitemias ranging from 17% to 100%. Increase in parasite load was accompanied by a decrease in the activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9), glutathione reductase [NAD(P)H] (EC 1.6.4.2), and NADH-methemoglobin reductase (EC 1.6.2.2; NADH:ferricytochrome b5 oxidoreductase) in the RBC lysates. In contrast, the total amount of reduced glutathione increased in the highly parasitized bands. Furthermore, the vitamin E content of all RBC bands, including the one that contained mainly nonparasitized erythrocytes, was 3- to 5-fold higher than that of control noninfected RBC. Increasing parasite load was accompanied by an increase in the production of malonyldialdehyde, indicating enhanced lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that oxidative stress is experienced by all RBC during a malarial infection and is accompanied by a variety of changes in the antioxidant defense mechanisms of the host and the parasite. Furthermore, it appears that the plasma membrane of the host cell is better protected against oxidative injury than are the membranes surrounding the parasite. PMID:3855565

  12. Increased parasitism of limpets by a trematode metacercaria in fisheries management areas of central Chile: effects on host growth and reproduction : management areas and parasitism.

    PubMed

    Aldana, Marcela; Pulgar, José M; Orellana, Nathalie; Patricio Ojeda, F; García-Huidobro, M Roberto

    2014-06-01

    The rapid increase in body size and abundance of most species inside Management and Exploitations Areas for Benthic Resources (MEABRs) has led to the proposal of these areas as a good complement for achieving the conservation objectives of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). However, when evaluating MEABRs and MPAs as conservation and/or management tools, their impact upon parasite populations has rarely been considered, despite the fact that epidemiological theory suggests an increased susceptibility to parasitism under high population abundance. We evaluated the effects of MEABRs on the parasite abundance of Proctoeces lintoni and its impact on the growth of the host limpet Fissurella crassa in central Chile. Parasitic magnitude was higher inside MEABRs than in Open-Access Areas, and parasitized limpets showed a greater shell length, muscular foot biomass, and gonadosomatic index compared to non-parasitized limpets of the same age. Our results suggest that the life cycle of P. lintoni and, consequently, its trophic links have been strengthened inside MEABRs. The increased growth rate could reduce the time required to reach the minimum catch size and increase the reproductive and muscular output of the host population. Thus, parasitism should be considered in the conservation and management of economically important mollusk hosts. PMID:24142461

  13. Reconstructing the demographic history of divergence between European river and brook lampreys using approximate Bayesian computations

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Camille; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Goudet, Jérôme; Launey, Sophie; Evanno, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Inferring the history of isolation and gene flow during species divergence is a central question in evolutionary biology. The European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) and brook lamprey (L. planeri) show a low reproductive isolation but have highly distinct life histories, the former being parasitic-anadromous and the latter non-parasitic and freshwater resident. Here we used microsatellite data from six replicated population pairs to reconstruct their history of divergence using an approximate Bayesian computation framework combined with a random forest model. In most population pairs, scenarios of divergence with recent isolation were outcompeted by scenarios proposing ongoing gene flow, namely the Secondary Contact (SC) and Isolation with Migration (IM) models. The estimation of demographic parameters under the SC model indicated a time of secondary contact close to the time of speciation, explaining why SC and IM models could not be discriminated. In case of an ancient secondary contact, the historical signal of divergence is lost and neutral markers converge to the same equilibrium as under the less parameterized model allowing ongoing gene flow. Our results imply that models of secondary contacts should be systematically compared to models of divergence with gene flow; given the difficulty to discriminate among these models, we suggest that genome-wide data are needed to adequately reconstruct divergence history. PMID:27077007

  14. Mixed release of two parasitoids and a polyphagous ladybird as a potential strategy to control the tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaoling; Hu, Nana; Zhang, Fan; Ramirez-Romero, Ricardo; Desneux, Nicolas; Wang, Su; Ge, Feng

    2016-01-01

    A mixed species release of parasitoids is used to suppress outbreaks of tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); however, this biocontrol may be inhibited by interspecific interactions. We investigated the effects of mixed releases of natural enemies of B. tabaci on predation rates, parasite performance and adult parasitoid emergence under greenhouse conditions. We tested the polyphagous predatory ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and two whitefly-specific parasitoids, namely Encarsia formosa and Encarsia sophia (both, Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Harmonia axyridis exhibited the lowest rates of predation when released with each parasitoid than with both parasitoid species together and showed a significant preference for non-parasitized nymphs as prey. Both E. formosa and E. sophia parasitized more B. tabaci when released with the ladybird than when the wasps were released either alone or mixed with the other parasitoid. We also found that the presence of H. axyridis significantly reduced adult parasitoid emergence; the highest rate of adult emergence was obtained with parasitoids released alone. Our results indicate that different combinations of natural enemies can influence observed rates of predation, parasitism, and parasitoid emergence. Therefore, the combination of natural enemies to be used for a particular biological control program should depend on the specific objectives. PMID:27312174

  15. Mixed release of two parasitoids and a polyphagous ladybird as a potential strategy to control the tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaoling; Hu, Nana; Zhang, Fan; Ramirez-Romero, Ricardo; Desneux, Nicolas; Wang, Su; Ge, Feng

    2016-01-01

    A mixed species release of parasitoids is used to suppress outbreaks of tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); however, this biocontrol may be inhibited by interspecific interactions. We investigated the effects of mixed releases of natural enemies of B. tabaci on predation rates, parasite performance and adult parasitoid emergence under greenhouse conditions. We tested the polyphagous predatory ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and two whitefly-specific parasitoids, namely Encarsia formosa and Encarsia sophia (both, Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Harmonia axyridis exhibited the lowest rates of predation when released with each parasitoid than with both parasitoid species together and showed a significant preference for non-parasitized nymphs as prey. Both E. formosa and E. sophia parasitized more B. tabaci when released with the ladybird than when the wasps were released either alone or mixed with the other parasitoid. We also found that the presence of H. axyridis significantly reduced adult parasitoid emergence; the highest rate of adult emergence was obtained with parasitoids released alone. Our results indicate that different combinations of natural enemies can influence observed rates of predation, parasitism, and parasitoid emergence. Therefore, the combination of natural enemies to be used for a particular biological control program should depend on the specific objectives. PMID:27312174

  16. Shared neural substrates for song discrimination in parental and parasitic songbirds.

    PubMed

    Louder, Matthew I M; Voss, Henning U; Manna, Thomas J; Carryl, Sophia S; London, Sarah E; Balakrishnan, Christopher N; Hauber, Mark E

    2016-05-27

    In many social animals, early exposure to conspecific stimuli is critical for the development of accurate species recognition. Obligate brood parasitic songbirds, however, forego parental care and young are raised by heterospecific hosts in the absence of conspecific stimuli. Having evolved from non-parasitic, parental ancestors, how brood parasites recognize their own species remains unclear. In parental songbirds (e.g. zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata), the primary and secondary auditory forebrain areas are known to be critical in the differential processing of conspecific vs. heterospecific songs. Here we demonstrate that the same auditory brain regions underlie song discrimination in adult brood parasitic pin-tailed whydahs (Vidua macroura), a close relative of the zebra finch lineage. Similar to zebra finches, whydahs showed stronger behavioral responses during conspecific vs. heterospecific song and tone pips as well as increased neural responses within the auditory forebrain, as measured by both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and immediate early gene (IEG) expression. Given parallel behavioral and neuroanatomical patterns of song discrimination, our results suggest that the evolutionary transition to brood parasitism from parental songbirds likely involved an "evolutionary tinkering" of existing proximate mechanisms, rather than the wholesale reworking of the neural substrates of species recognition. PMID:27095589

  17. Brown-headed Cowbird parasitism of the Black-throated Sparrow in central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.J.; van Riper, Charles, III

    2004-01-01

    From 1994-1996 we investigated effects of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism on Black-throated Sparrow (Amphispiza bilineata) nesting success in the Verde Valley of central Arizona. Of 56 Black-throated Sparrow nests, 52% were parasitized. Black-throated Sparrows appear to respond to natural parasitism by accepting the cowbird egg, deserting the nest, or burying the cowbird egg. Removal and damage of host eggs by female cowbirds effectively reduced clutch size from an average of 3.4 to 1.9 eggs. Because of this reduced clutch size, Black-throated Sparrow reproductive success was significantly lower in parasitized nests (0.2 young fledged/ nest) as compared to nonparasitized nests (1.6 young fledged/nest). When comparing cowbird parasitism between two habitat types, we found significantly higher parasitism frequencies in crucifixion-thorn (Canotia holacantha) versus creosote-bush (Larrea divaricata) habitat. We argue that this difference in parasitism is due to the greater number of tall perches (e.g., shrubs >4 m) available in crucifixion-thorn habitat, providing vantage points for female cowbirds to better find Black-throated Sparrow nests.

  18. Effects of Scleroderma sichuanensis Xiao (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) venom and parasitism on nutritional content regulation in host Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Zhi-Hang; Yang, Wei; Xu, Dan-Ping; Yang, Chun-Ping; Yang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    To explore the mechanisms by which the wasp Scleroderma sichuanensis Xiao regulates the physiology and biochemistry of its host, effects of S. sichuanensis venom and parasitism on host the Tenebrio molitor L. pupae were examined. Significant differences in nutritional content were noted between parasitized and non-parasitized pupae and between venom- and phosphate buffered saline-injected pupae. When pupae were injected with venom, the fat body could not be disintegrated into granules; however, when pupae were parasitized, fat-body disintegration occurred. Electrophoresis showed no differences in hemolymph protein content between parasitized pupae and those injected with venom, indicating that the wasp did not have narrow-spectrum peptides. These findings confirmed that S. sichuanensis was a typical idiobiont ectoparasitoid wasp, and that nutrient regulation was similar between idiobiont and koinobiont wasps. The strong similarities between the two treatments suggest that venom injection is a major factor responsible for changes in host nutrient content. The wasp fed mainly on reducing sugars, free amino acids, and fat-body tissues; larval fat bodies were derived from hemolymph and from host tissue. Our findings suggest that lipid catabolism might be accelerated, and that lipid biosynthesis might be inhibited, when host pupae are parasitized or injected with venom. In addition to venom, physiological and biochemical changes that occur during the parasitic process might be caused by venom, ovarian proteins, saliva, or secretions. PMID:27441136

  19. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marta; Patinha, Fabia; Marinho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer. PMID:27407276

  20. Retaliatory mafia behavior by a parasitic cowbird favors host acceptance of parasitic eggs.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Jeffrey P; Robinson, Scott K

    2007-03-13

    Why do many hosts accept costly avian brood parasitism even when parasitic eggs and nestlings differ dramatically in appearance from their own? Scientists argue that evolutionary lag or equilibrium can explain this evolutionary enigma. Few, however, consider the potential of parasitic birds to enforce acceptance by destroying eggs or nestlings of hosts that eject parasitic eggs and thereby reject parasitism. This retaliatory "mafia" behavior has been reported in one species of parasitic cuckoo but never in parasitic cowbirds. Here we present experimental evidence of mafia behavior in the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), a widely distributed North American brood parasite. We manipulated ejection of cowbird eggs and cowbird access to predator-proof nests in a common host to test experimentally for mafia behavior. When cowbird access was allowed, 56% of "ejector" nests were depredated compared with only 6% of "accepter" nests. No nests were destroyed when cowbird access was always denied or when access was denied after we removed cowbird eggs, indicating that cowbirds were responsible. Nonparasitized nests were depredated at an intermediate rate (20%) when cowbirds were allowed access, suggesting that cowbirds may occasionally "farm" hosts to create additional opportunities for parasitism. Cowbirds parasitized most (85%) renests of the hosts whose nests were depredated. Ejector nests produced 60% fewer host offspring than accepter nests because of the predatory behavior attributed to cowbirds. Widespread predatory behaviors in cowbirds could slow the evolution of rejection behaviors and further threaten populations of some of the >100 species of regular cowbird hosts. PMID:17360549

  1. An integrated modeling approach for temperature driven water transport in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack after shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Manish; Mench, M. M.

    The concept of using controlled temperature gradients to non-parasitically remove excess water from porous media during PEFC stack shutdown has been numerically investigated. An integrated modeling approach focusing both at stack and single cell level is presented. The stack thermal model is developed to obtain detailed temperature distribution across the PEFC stack. The two-phase unit fuel cell model is developed to investigate the detailed water and thermal transport in the PEFC components after shutdown, which for the first time includes thermo-osmotic flow in the membrane. The model accounts for capillary and phase-change induced flow in the porous media, and thermo-osmotic and diffusive flow in the polymer membrane. The single cell model is used to estimate the local water distribution with land or channel boundary condition, and the experimentally validated stack thermal model provided the transient temperature boundary conditions. Two different stack designs are compared to quantify the residual water in the stack. Model results indicate that a favorable temperature gradient can be formed in the stack to enhance the water drainage rate, esp. at anode end cell locations, where freeze/thaw damage has been observed to occur.

  2. Physicochemical Aspects of the Plasmodium chabaudi-Infected Erythrocyte

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Eri H.; Kobayashi, Seiki; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Membrane electrochemical potential is a feature of the molecular profile of the cell membrane and the two-dimensional arrangement of its charge-bearing molecules. Plasmodium species, the causative agents of malaria, are intracellular parasites that remodel host erythrocytes by expressing their own proteins on erythrocyte membranes. Although various aspects of the modifications made to the host erythrocyte membrane have been extensively studied in some human Plasmodium species (such as Plasmodium falciparum), details of the structural and molecular biological modifications made to host erythrocytes by nonhuman Plasmodium parasites have not been studied. We employed zeta potential analysis of erythrocytes parasitized by P. chabaudi, a nonhuman Plasmodium parasite. From these measurements, we found that the surface potential shift was more negative for P. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes than for P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. However, electron microscopic analysis of the surface of P. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes did not reveal any modifications as compared with nonparasitized erythrocytes. These results suggest that differences in the membrane modifications found herein represent unique attributes related to the pathogenesis profiles of the two different malaria parasite species in different host animals and that these features have been acquired through parasite adaptations acquired over long evolutionary time periods. PMID:26557685

  3. Laparoscopic Management of Symptomatic Multiple Hepatic Cysts: a Combination of Deroofing and Radical Excision

    PubMed Central

    Palanivelu, Chinnusamy; Senthilkumar, Rangasamy; Madankumar, Madhupalayam Velusamy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Liver cysts have been estimated to occur in 5% of the population. Multiple liver cysts can also be part of the polycystic disease complex. Only symptomatic or complicated cysts need surgery. Traditionally, laparotomy is the procedure of choice. We present our experiences with laparoscopic management of both symptomatic multiple liver cysts and polycystic liver disease. Methods: Between 1995 and 2006, we treated 12 patients with large, multiple liver cysts, including 4 cases of polycystic liver disease. Most of the patients were elderly males. The lung and other organs were not involved in any case. Laparoscopic deroofing or radical excision with omentoplasty was successfully performed in these patients. Results: Postoperatively, 4 patients had fluid draining through the drainage tube for an average of 10 days. One patient had ascites that resolved spontaneously. Cysts recurred in 5 patients. Discussion: There are not many reports in the literature regarding large series of patients, further confirming the rarity of the disease. Liver cysts can occur as a part of polycystic renal and lung disease or isolated to the liver alone. Laparoscopic deroofing is the ideal treatment for nonpolycystic liver disease, and laparoscopic radical excision is ideal for polycystic liver disease. Simple needle aspiration or sclerotherapy is inadequate as recurrence is almost 100%. Conclusion: Currently, laparoscopy scores over laparotomy for the treatment of nonparasitic liver cysts as evidenced by this and other studies. PMID:18237512

  4. THE ENDOPARASITOID Pteromalus puparum INFLUENCES HOST GENE EXPRESSION WITHIN FIRST HOUR OF PARASITIZATION.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu; Fang, Qi; Liu, Yang; Gao, Ling-Feng; Yan, Zhi-Chao; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2015-11-01

    The small cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, is an important pest of cruciferous corps, and Pteromalus puparum is a predominant pupal endoparasitoid wasp of this butterfly. For successful development of parasitoid offspring, female parasitoids usually introduce one or several kinds of maternal factors into the hemocoels during oviposition to suppress host immunity. To investigate the early changes in host immune-related genes following parasitization, we analyzed transcriptomes of parasitized and unparasitized, control, host pupae. Approximately 17.7 and 19.3 million paired-end reads were generated from nonparasitized and parasitized host pupae, and assembled de novo into 45,639 transcripts and 27,659 nonredundant unigenes. The average unigene length was 790 bp. A total 18,377 of 27,659 unigenes were annotated and we identified 557 differentially expressed unigenes in host pupae at 1 h after parasitization, of which 21 were immune-related. Parasitization led to downregulation of most pattern recognition receptors and upregulation of all serine protease inhibitors. The transcirptomic profile of P. rapae is considerably affected by parasitization. This study provides valuable sources for future investigations of the molecular interaction between P. puparum and its host P. rapae. PMID:26241821

  5. OaMAX2 of Orobanche aegyptiaca and Arabidopsis AtMAX2 share conserved functions in both development and drought responses.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqiang; Nguyen, Kien Huu; Watanabe, Yasuko; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-09-16

    Previous studies in Arabidopsis reported that the MAX2 (more axillary growth 2) gene is a component of the strigolactone (SL) signaling pathway, which regulates a wide range of biological processes, from plant growth and development to environmental stress responses. Orobanche aegyptiaca is a harmful parasitic plant for many economically important crops. Seed germination of O. aegyptiaca is very sensitive to SLs, suggesting that O. aegyptiaca may contain components of the SL signaling pathway. To investigate this hypothesis, we identified and cloned a MAX2 ortholog from O. aegyptiaca for complementation analyses using the Arabidopsis Atmax2 mutant. The so-called OaMAX2 gene could rescue phenotypes of the Atmax2 mutant in various tested developmental aspects, including seed germination, shoot branching, leaf senescence and growth and development of hypocotyl, root hair, primary root and lateral root. More importantly, OaMAX2 could enhance the drought tolerance of Atmax2 mutant, suggesting its ability to restore the drought-tolerant phenotype of mutant plants defected in AtMAX2 function. Thus, this study provides genetic evidence that the functions of the MAX2 orthologs, and perhaps the MAX2 signaling pathways, are conserved in parasitic and non-parasitic plants. Furthermore, the results of our study enable us to develop a strategy to fight against parasitic plants by suppressing the MAX signaling, which ultimately leads to enhanced productivity of crop plants. PMID:27425246

  6. Effect of Donepezil, Tacrine, Galantamine and Rivastigmine on Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition in Dugesia tigrina.

    PubMed

    Bezerra da Silva, Cristiane; Pott, Arnildo; Elifio-Esposito, Selene; Dalarmi, Luciane; Fialho do Nascimento, Kátia; Moura Burci, Ligia; de Oliveira, Maislian; de Fátima Gaspari Dias, Josiane; Warumby Zanin, Sandra Maria; Gomes Miguel, Obdulio; Dallarmi Miguel, Marilis

    2016-01-01

    Dugesia tigrina is a non-parasitic platyhelminth, which has been recently utilized in pharmacological models, regarding the nervous system, as it presents a wide sensitivity to drugs. Our trials aimed to propose a model for an in vivo screening of substances with inhibitory activity of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Trials were performed with four drugs commercialized in Brazil: donepezil, tacrine, galantamine and rivastigmine, utilized in the control of Alzheimer's disease, to inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase. We tested five concentrations of the drugs, with an exposure of 24 h, and the mortality and the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase planarian seizure-like activity (pSLA) and planarian locomotor velocity (pLMV) were measured. Galantamine showed high anticholinesterasic activity when compared to the other drugs, with a reduction of 0.05 μmol·min(-1) and 63% of convulsant activity, presenting screw-like movement and hypokinesia, with pLMV of 65 crossed lines during 5 min. Our results showed for the first time the anticholinesterasic and convulsant effect, in addition to the decrease in locomotion induced by those drugs in a model of invertebrates. The experimental model proposed is simple and low cost and could be utilized in the screening of substances with anticholinesterasic action. PMID:26760993

  7. Hematological alterations in Astyanax altiparanae (Characidade) caused by Lernaea cyprinacea (Copepoda: Lernaeidae).

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Lincoln L; Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Ceccarelli, Paulo S; Adriano, Edson A

    2016-06-15

    This study describes the hematological alterations in Astyanax altiparanae associated with infestation with Lernaea cyprinacea. The study was carried out in a lagoon of the Mogi-Guaçu River, in the municipality of Pirassununga, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Of 46 fish examined, 45.6% had their integument infested by L. cyprinacea, with a mean intensity of 4.9 parasites per fish and a mean abundance of 2.2, giving a total of 139 recovered crustaceans. The abundance of L. cyprinacea correlated positively with the length and weight of the hosts, and the intensity of infestation was higher in female hosts. Macroscopic observation of lesions associated with the parasite showed a severe inflammatory reaction around the site of attachment of L. cyprinacea, associated with a lower relative condition factor and blood parameters. The hematocrit, number of red blood cells and thrombocytes were higher in non-parasitized than in parasitized fish. However, the hemoglobin concentration, hematimetric indices and the number of white blood cells were not influenced by infestation. PMID:27304872

  8. Breeding biology of Acadian flycatchers in a bottomland hardwood forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, R.R.; Cooper, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    From 1993-1995, we located and monitored 601 Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) nests in a large contiguous tract of bottomland hardwood forest on the White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas. Annual reproductive success was significantly different among years; ranging from 10-25% (Mayfield estimate) over the three years of the study. There was no significant difference in nest success among study plots, with nesting success showing a trend of increasing late in the breeding season. Clutch size for non-parasitized nests averaged 2.9 ? 0.02 (SE) eggs with a mode of 3. Rates of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism were low (21%), accounting for 7% of all nest failures. However, parasitism by cowbirds resulted in a reduction of clutch size for nests initiated early (i.e., first nests and replacements) in the breeding season. Predation was the leading cause of nest failures, accounting for 75% of all failures. Snakes and avian predators were thought to be the leading cause of nest failures. Although additional factors must be investigated, preliminary results indicate that nest predation is a major influence on this population, despite the size of the forest tract.

  9. Superparasitism in the Fruit Fly Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Implications for Mass Rearing and Augmentative Release

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Pablo; Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Liedo, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Superparasitism, a strategy in which a female lays eggs in/on a previously parasitized host, was attributed in the past to the inability of females to discriminate between parasitized and non-parasitized hosts. However, superparasitism is now accepted as an adaptive strategy under specific conditions. In fruit fly parasitoids, superparasitism has mainly been studied as concerns the new association between Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), wherein this phenomenon is a common occurrence in both mass rearing and field conditions. Studies of this species have shown that moderate levels of superparasitism result in a female-biased sex ratio and that both massreared and wild females superparasitize their hosts without detrimental effects on offspring demographic parameters, including longevity and fecundity. These studies suggest that superparasitism in this species is advantageous. In this paper, we review superparasitism in D. longicaudata, discuss these findings in the context of mass rearing and field releases and address the possible implications of superparasitism in programs employing augmentative releases of parasitoids for the control of fruit fly pests. PMID:26466718

  10. Survival, dispersal, and home-range establishment of reintroduced captive-bred puaiohi, Myadestes palmeri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tweed, E.J.; Foster, J.T.; Woodworth, B.L.; Oesterle, P.; Kuehler, C.; Lieberman, A.A.; Powers, A.T.; Whitaker, K.; Monahan, W.B.; Kellerman, J.; Telfer, T.

    2003-01-01

    We monitored the survival, dispersal, and home-range establishment of captive-bred, reintroduced puaiohi Myadestes palmeri, a critically endangered thrush endemic to the island of Kauai. Fourteen captive-bred, juvenile birds were released from hacktowers in January-February 1999 and monitored for 8-10 weeks using radiotelemetry. All 14 birds (100%) survived to 56 days post-release. Two birds (14.3%) dispersed greater than 3 km from release site within 1 day of release. The remaining birds settled within 1 week and established either temporary home-ranges (mean area = 7.9??12.0 ha, range 0.4-31.9) or breeding home-ranges (mean area 1.2??0.34 ha, range 0.8-1.6). Temporary home ranges were abandonded by the beginning of the breeding season, and ultimately 6 of the 14 birds (43%) established breeding home ranges in the release area. The high survival rate bodes well for establishing additional populations through captive breeding and release; however, the 57% dispersal rate out of the target area means that several releases of birds may be necessary in order to repopulate a given drainage. Furthermore, observed dispersal and gene flow between the reintroduced and wild populations have important implications for management of the captive flock. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.