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1

NON-TOXIGENIC ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS ISOLATES FOR REDUCING AFLATOXIN IN MISSISSIPPI DELTA CORN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potential for two non-toxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus CT3 and K49 isolated from the Mississippi Delta to reduce aflatoxin contamination of corn was assessed in a field study. These two isolates exhibited comparable growth and aggressiveness as the toxigenic A. flavus isolate F3W4. The...

2

Microbiological changes and diversity in autochthonous non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolated in France.  

PubMed

Autochtonous toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae have disappeared in mainland France, but non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae are still circulating. Using phenotypic and molecular tools, we retrospectively characterized 103 non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae collected in mainland France and highlight several changes. The proportion of C. diphtheriae belfanti increased between 1977 and 2011 and it is the most frequent biotype recovered in recent years. Resistance to ciprofloxacin has increased and most isolates with decreased sensitivity belong to the belfanti biotype. Using multilocus sequence typing, we demonstrate that French isolates are distributed in a large number of sequence types and identify three distinct lineages. C. diphtheriae mitis and gravis form lineage I while C. diphtheriae belfanti forms lineages II and III. Almost all isolates of lineage II are part of a unique clonal complex or are very close to it. Most French isolates have a dtxR sequence homologous to that of toxigenic isolates, suggesting that if lyzogenised by a corynephage, they can express diphtheria toxin. PMID:23320433

Farfour, E; Badell, E; Dinu, S; Guillot, S; Guiso, N

2013-10-01

3

Two cases of bacteriemia caused by nontoxigenic, non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae isolates in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.  

PubMed

The toxigenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae belonging to the O1 and O139 serogroups is commonly associated with epidemic diarrhea in tropical settings; other diseases caused by this environmental pathogen are seldom identified. Here we report two unassociated cases of nonfatal, nontoxigenic V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 bacteremia in patients with comorbidities in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, that occurred within a 4-week period. PMID:25122858

Lan, Nguyen Phu Huong; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Yen, Nguyen Thi Thu; Dung, Le Thi; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Campbell, James I; Whitehorn, Jamie; Thwaites, Guy; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Baker, Stephen

2014-10-01

4

Two Cases of Bacteriemia Caused by Nontoxigenic, Non-O1, Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae Isolates in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

The toxigenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae belonging to the O1 and O139 serogroups is commonly associated with epidemic diarrhea in tropical settings; other diseases caused by this environmental pathogen are seldom identified. Here we report two unassociated cases of nonfatal, nontoxigenic V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 bacteremia in patients with comorbidities in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, that occurred within a 4-week period. PMID:25122858

Lan, Nguyen Phu Huong; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Yen, Nguyen Thi Thu; Dung, Le Thi; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Campbell, James I.; Whitehorn, Jamie; Thwaites, Guy; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh

2014-01-01

5

Culture-negative prosthetic valve endocarditis with concomitant septicemia due to a nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae biotype gravis isolate in a patient with multiple risk factors.  

PubMed

A 54-year-old female with a prosthetic mitral valve presented with a 3-day history of dizziness, subjective fever, and chills. Blood cultures were positive for a pleomorphic Gram-positive rod. Initial phenotypic testing could only support the identification of a Corynebacterium species. Nucleic acid sequencing (16S rRNA) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) were conclusive for Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Definitive phenotypic testing classified the strain as nontoxigenic C. diphtheriae biotype Gravis. PMID:24006007

Clinton, Lani Kai; Bankowski, Matthew J; Shimasaki, Teppei; Sae-Ow, Wichit; Whelen, A Christian; O'Connor, Norman; Kim, Wesley; Young, Royden

2013-11-01

6

Isolation and characterization of human rhinovirus antigenic variants  

SciTech Connect

Isolation of antigenic variants of human rhinovirus types 2, 14, and 17 was attempted by plaquing untreated virus (P-isolates), selecting variants in the presence of homologous antiserum (C-isolates), and by selecting variants in the presence of antibody following 5-fluorouracil mutagenesis (M-isolates). All viruses were triple-plaque purified and purity neutralization tested prior to isolate selection. Based on a fourfold reduction in neutralizing antibody titer to homologous antiserum, no antigenic variation was found in P-isolates from the three serotypes examined. Antigenic variants of all three serotypes could be isolated by the antiserum selection method (C-isolates). However, antigenic variants of RV17 were isolated at a much higher frequency and showed a larger degree of variation than those of RV2 and RV14. At least two of the variants selected, RV17 (C301) and RV2 (M803), failed to be neutralized by the known 89 rhinovirus antiserum. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of (/sup 35/S) methionine-labelled virion polypeptides revealed that each serotype had a characteristic pattern and that selected RV2 and RV17 isolates had patterns identical to those of the prototype strains. By isoelectric focusing an antigenic variant of RV2 was shown to contain altered virion polypeptides VP1 and VP2 whereas two RV17 antigenic variants demonstrated alterations only in the VP1 polypeptide.

Watson, D.G.

1985-01-01

7

Characterization of Colony Morphology Variants Isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report the isolation of small, rough, strongly cohesive colony morphology variants from aging Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms. Similar to many of the P. aeruginosa colony morphology variants previously described in the literature, these variants autoaggregate in liquid culture and hyperadhere to solid surfaces. They also exhibit increased hydrophobicity and reduced motility compared to the wild-type parent strain. Despite the similarities in appearance of our colony morphology variant isolates on solid medium, the isolates showed a range of responses in various phenotypic assays. These variants form biofilms with significant three-dimensional structure and more biomass than the wild-type parent. To further explore the nature of the variants, their transcriptional profiles were evaluated. The variants generally showed increased expression of the psl and pel loci, which have been previously implicated in the adherence of P. aeruginosa to solid surfaces. When a mutation in the psl locus was introduced into a colony morphology variant, the colony morphology was only partially affected, but hyperadherence and autoaggregation were lost. Finally, similar colony morphology variants were found in isolates from cystic fibrosis patients. These variants displayed many of the same characteristics as the laboratory variants, suggesting a link between laboratory and cystic fibrosis biofilms. PMID:16085879

Kirisits, Mary Jo; Prost, Lynne; Starkey, Melissa; Parsek, Matthew R.

2005-01-01

8

Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans in human and non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae in cat.  

PubMed

Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans are rarely isolated from clinical samples in Belgium. A case of toxigenic C. ulcerans in a woman is described, which confirms that this pathogen is still present. During investigation of the patient's cats, only a non-toxigenic toxin-bearing C. diphtheriae strain was detected. PMID:25356320

Detemmerman, L; Rousseaux, D; Efstratiou, A; Schirvel, C; Emmerechts, K; Wybo, I; Soetens, O; Piérard, D

2013-10-01

9

Nontoxigenic tox-bearing Corynebacterium ulcerans Infection among Game Animals, Germany  

PubMed Central

Corynebacterium ulcerans may cause diphtheria in humans and caseous lymphadenitis in animals. We isolated nontoxigenic tox-bearing C. ulcerans from 13 game animals in Germany. Our results indicate a role for game animals as reservoirs for zoonotic C. ulcerans. PMID:24572455

Kutzer, Peter; Peters, Martin; Sing, Andreas; Contzen, Matthias; Rau, Jörg

2014-01-01

10

Isolating potentiated Hsp104 variants using yeast proteinopathy models.  

PubMed

Many protein-misfolding disorders can be modeled in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proteins such as TDP-43 and FUS, implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and ?-synuclein, implicated in Parkinson's disease, are toxic and form cytoplasmic aggregates in yeast. These features recapitulate protein pathologies observed in patients with these disorders. Thus, yeast are an ideal platform for isolating toxicity suppressors from libraries of protein variants. We are interested in applying protein disaggregases to eliminate misfolded toxic protein conformers. Specifically, we are engineering Hsp104, a hexameric AAA+ protein from yeast that is uniquely capable of solubilizing both disordered aggregates and amyloid and returning the proteins to their native conformations. While Hsp104 is highly conserved in eukaryotes and eubacteria, it has no known metazoan homologue. Hsp104 has only limited ability to eliminate disordered aggregates and amyloid fibers implicated in human disease. Thus, we aim to engineer Hsp104 variants to reverse the protein misfolding implicated in neurodegenerative disorders. We have developed methods to screen large libraries of Hsp104 variants for suppression of proteotoxicity in yeast. As yeast are prone to spontaneous nonspecific suppression of toxicity, a two-step screening process has been developed to eliminate false positives. Using these methods, we have identified a series of potentiated Hsp104 variants that potently suppress the toxicity and aggregation of TDP-43, FUS, and ?-synuclein. Here, we describe this optimized protocol, which could be adapted to screen libraries constructed using any protein backbone for suppression of toxicity of any protein that is toxic in yeast. PMID:25407485

Jackrel, Meredith E; Tariq, Amber; Yee, Keolamau; Weitzman, Rachel; Shorter, James

2014-01-01

11

Emergence and molecular characterisation of non-toxigenic tox gene-bearing Corynebacterium diphtheriae biovar mitis in the United Kingdom, 2003-2012.  

PubMed

Non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae have become increasingly recognised as emerging pathogens across Europe causing severe invasive disease. A subset of non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae are ‘non-toxigenic tox gene-bearing’ (NTTB) strains; these strains are genotypically toxpositive, but do not express the protein. The circulation of NTTB strains was first observed during the 1990s upsurge of diphtheria in Eastern Europe but has not been reported in other European countries. Circulation of NTTB strains could be considered an increased risk for diphtheria and other related diseases, given their possible role as a tox gene reservoir with the theoretical risk of re-emerging toxin expression. Here we report the characterisation of 108 non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae biovar mitis isolates submitted to the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Reference Centre for Diphtheria at Public Health England, London, between 2003 and 2012, in order to determine the presence of NTTB strains. Using molecular methods, five NTTB isolates were identified; four human isolates (MLST type 212) and one isolate from a companion cat (MLST type 40). The emergence of these strains could indicate continuation of the circulation of potentially toxigenic strains and appropriate laboratory diagnostic methods should be used for detection. Given the complacency that currently exists in Europe awareness with regards to diphtheria diagnostics must be enhanced. PMID:24925458

Zakikhany, K; Neal, S; Efstratiou, A

2014-01-01

12

Aspergillus flavus genetic diversity of corn fields treated with non-toxigenic strain afla-guard in the southern U.S  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus genetic diversity of corn fields treated with the non-toxigenic strain Afla-Guard (NRRL 21882) was determined for 384 A. flavus isolates from 14 locations within 6 states in the southern U.S. ELISA test has determined low levels of toxigenic strains (only 91 positive). Nearly hal...

13

Identification and molecular discrimination of toxigenic and nontoxigenic diphtheria Corynebacterium strains by combined real-time polymerase chain reaction assays.  

PubMed

With the recognition of several diphtheria outbreaks and the emergence of nontoxigenic corynebacteria strains, there has been renewed interest in the development of laboratory diagnostic methods. Previously reported polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays can have low diagnostic sensitivity or give species misidentifications among clinical isolates. The aim of the present study was the development of combined real-time PCR assays, based on the tox and rpoB genes, for the detection and differentiation of toxigenic and nontoxigenic corynebacteria. By the PCR tox assay, it was possible to perform the direct identification of DT tox gene of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans, while the PCR rpoB assay differentiated C. diphtheriae from C. ulcerans, irrespective of their toxigenic status. In addition, we detected the DT toxin of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis for the first time. These assays revealed high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, and the availability of plasmid controls will facilitate further research into the diagnostics of diphtheria corynebacteria. PMID:22494559

Mancini, Fabiola; Monaco, Monica; Pataracchia, Marco; von Hunolstein, Christina; Pantosti, Annalisa; Ciervo, Alessandra

2012-06-01

14

Temperature-Sensitive Variants of NICOTIANA TABACUM Isolated from Somatic Cell Culture  

PubMed Central

Temperature-sensitive variants of Nicotiana tabacum were isolated from a liquid suspension culture of somatic cells by a negative selection procedure, using bromodeoxyuridine and light. A total of nine such variants have been recovered, with an estimated rate of 2 x 10-7 per cell division. The appearance of the variants at the permissive temperature varied from nearly wild type, white and friable, to brown, compact and slow growing. Two of the variants adapted from growth on solid medium to growth in a liquid suspension culture; these were further characterized for chromosome number, growth rate, cell death rate at the restrictive temperature, growth on nutritionally modified media, and RNA and protein synthesis. The variants have been placed on regeneration media, and one of them has produced plantlets. Leaves from a plantlet have been placed on callus-inducing media, and the resulting callus displayed the temperature-sensitive phenotype. PMID:17248915

Malmberg, Russell L.

1979-01-01

15

Variants of Triticum mosaic virus isolated from wheat in Colorado  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a recently discovered virus infecting wheat. We compared the Colorado isolates C10-492 and C11-775 with the 06-123 isolate of TriMV from Kansas (TriMV-K). Comparisons were made using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), infectivity assay, host range, dry weig...

16

Streptokinase variants from Streptococcus pyogenes isolates display altered plasminogen activation characteristics - implications for pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus, GAS) secretes streptokinase, a potent plasminogen activating protein. Among GAS isolates, streptokinase gene sequences (ska) are polymorphic and can be grouped into two distinct sequence clusters (termed cluster type-1 and cluster type-2) with cluster type-2 being further divided into sub-clusters type-2a and type-2b. In this study, far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that purified streptokinase variants of each type displayed similar secondary structure. Type-2b streptokinase variants could not generate an active site in Glu-plasminogen through non-proteolytic mechanisms while all other variants had this capability. Furthermore, when compared with other streptokinase variants, type-2b variants displayed a 29- to 35-fold reduction in affinity for Glu-plasminogen. All SK variants could activate Glu-plasminogen when an activator complex was preformed with plasmin; however, type-2b and type-1 complexes were inhibited by ?(2) -antiplasmin. Exchanging ska(type-2a) in the M1T1 GAS strain 5448 with ska(type-2b) caused a reduction in virulence while exchanging ska(type-2a) with ska(type-1) into 5448 produced an increase in virulence when using a mouse model of invasive disease. These findings suggest that streptokinase variants produced by GAS isolates utilize distinct plasminogen activation pathways, which directly affects the pathogenesis of this organism. PMID:23106864

Cook, Simon M; Skora, Amanda; Gillen, Christine M; Walker, Mark J; McArthur, Jason D

2012-12-01

17

A clinical and epidemiological review of non-toxigenic Clostridium difficile.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile is a significant nosocomial threat to human health and is the most commonly identified cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The development of C. difficile colitis requires production of toxins A and/or B, but some strains do not express these proteins. These non-toxigenic C. difficile (NTCD) have garnered attention for their capacity to colonize humans and potentially reduce the risk for symptomatic colitis caused by toxigenic strains. Isolates of NTCD have been obtained from the environment as well as from animal and human sources. Studies in a hamster CDI model have demonstrated a protective effect of NTCD against toxigenic infection. The extent to which this protective effect of NTCD occurs in humans remains to be defined. Evidence for a therapeutic or preventive role for NTCD is limited but clinical prophylaxis studies are ongoing. NTCD potentially represents an exciting new tool in preventing CDI and its recurrences. PMID:23727391

Natarajan, Mukil; Walk, Seth T; Young, Vincent B; Aronoff, David M

2013-08-01

18

Highly resistant Burkholderia pseudomallei small colony variants isolated in vitro and in experimental melioidosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a disease in which treatment failures and relapses are common. This study reports\\u000a on slow growing B. pseudomallei `small colony variants' (SCVs), isolated either in vitro after exposure to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin or gentamicin or from\\u000a the spleen and liver in a mouse model of melioidosis after treatment with ceftazidime. Interestingly, SCVs isolated

Susanne Häußler; Manfred Rohde; Ivo Steinmetz

1999-01-01

19

Novel VIM Metallo-?-Lactamase Variant, VIM-24, from a Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate from Colombia?  

PubMed Central

We report the emergence of a novel VIM variant (VIM-24) in a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate in Colombia. The isolate displays MICs for carbapenems below the resistance breakpoints, posing a real challenge for its detection. The blaVIM-24 gene was located within a class 1 integron carried on a large plasmid. Further studies are needed to clarify its epidemiological and clinical impact. PMID:21282438

Montealegre, Maria Camila; Correa, Adriana; Briceño, David F.; Rosas, Natalia C.; De La Cadena, Elsa; Ruiz, Sory J.; Mojica, Maria F.; Camargo, Ruben Dario; Zuluaga, Ivan; Marin, Adriana; Quinn, John P.; Villegas, Maria Virginia

2011-01-01

20

Virulence Attenuation of Candida albicans Genetic Variants Isolated from a Patient with a Recurrent Bloodstream Infection  

PubMed Central

The incidence of Candida albicans infections and the relapse episodes after antifungal treatment have increased in recent decades. Recurrences are mainly due to the persistence of the original infecting strain that may present genetic and genomic rearrangements during interaction with the host, reflecting strain adaptation. In this study, four isolates recovered from a patient during recurrent candidemia episodes were genotyped by microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) and by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and found to be genetic variants of the same strain. Using experimental mouse infections, a progressive reduction in the virulence of the four isolates was observed, with the first two isolates more virulent than the third and fourth. Additionally, in the mouse model, the first isolate resisted host control more efficiently, resulting in higher kidney fungal burdens and necrosis as compared to the third isolate. The resolution of inflammation was delayed in mice challenged with the first isolate and the message for IFN-? and TNF-? in the spleen was lower within the first few hours post-infection. Original and recurrent isolates also displayed different phenotypes regarding activity of secreted enzymes and response to stress agents. Overall, the comparative analysis indicated that the virulence decrease of these isolates was related to a lower ability to resist to the host anticandida effector mechanisms. We showed for the first time that C. albicans genetic variants of the same strain, sequentially isolated from an immunocompromised patient, underwent adaptations in the human host that resulted in virulence attenuation when tested in mice. PMID:20405013

Sampaio, Paula; Santos, Marlene; Correia, Alexandra; Amaral, Fábio E.; Chavéz-Galarza, Julio; Costa-de-Oliveira, Sofia; Castro, António G.; Pedrosa, Jorge; Pais, Célia

2010-01-01

21

The sixth and seventh cholera pandemics are due to independent clones separately derived from environmental, nontoxigenic, non-O1 Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed Central

The DNA sequences of the asd genes from 45 isolates of Vibrio cholerae (19 clinical O1 isolates, 2 environmental nontoxigenic O1 isolates, and 24 isolates with different non-O1 antigens) were determined. No differences were found within either sixth- or seventh-pandemic isolates; however, variation was found between the two forms and among the non-O1 isolates. O139 isolates had sequences identical to those of seventh-pandemic isolates. Phylogenetic trees with Vibrio mimicus as the outgroup suggest that the sixth-pandemic, seventh-pandemic, and U.S. Gulf isolates are three clones that have evolved independently from different lineages of environmental, nontoxigenic, non-O1 V. cholerae isolates. There is evidence for horizontal transfer of O antigen, since isolates with nearly identical asd sequences had different O antigens, and isolates with the O1 antigen did not cluster together but were found in different lineages. We also found evidence for recombination events within the asd gene of V. cholerae. V. cholerae may have a higher level of genetic exchange and a lower level of clonality than species such as Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli. PMID:7768818

Karaolis, D K; Lan, R; Reeves, P R

1995-01-01

22

Classification and nomenclature system for Human Alphapapillomavirus variants: general features, nucleotide landmarks and assignment of HPV6 and HPV11 isolates to variant lineages  

PubMed Central

Background Papillomaviruses constitute a family of viruses that can be classified into genera, species and types based on their viral genome heterogeneity. Currently circulating infectious human Alphapapillomaviruses (alpha-PVs) constitute a set of viral genomes that have evolved from archaic times and display features of host co-speciation. Viral variants are more recently evolved genomes that require a standardized classification and nomenclature. Objectives To describe a system for the classification and nomenclature of HPV viral variants and provide landmarks for the numbering of nucleotide positions. Methods The complete 8 kb genomes of the alpha-9 species group and HPV6 and 11 types, collected from isolates throughout the world were obtained from published reports and GenBank. Complete genomes for each HPV type were aligned using the E1 start codon and sequence divergence was calculated by global and pairwise alignments using the MUSCLE program. Phylogenetic trees were constructed from the aligned sequences using a maximum likelihood method (RAxML). Results Pairwise comparisons of nucleotide differences between complete genomes of each type from alpha-9 HPV isolates (HPV16, 31, 33, 35, 52, 58 and 67) revealed a trimodal distribution. Maximum heterogeneity for variants within a type varied from 0.6%-2.3%. Nucleotide differences of approximately 1.0%-10.0% and 0.5%-1.0% of the complete genomes were used to define variant lineages and sublineages, respectively. Analysis of 43 HPV6 complete genomes indicated the presence of 2 variant lineages, whereas 32 HPV11 isolates were highly similar and clustered into 2 sublineages. A table was constructed of the human alpha-PV landmark nucleotide sequences for future reference and alignments. Conclusions A proposed nomenclature system for viral variants and coordination of nucleotide positions will facilitate the comparison of variants across geographic regions and amongst different populations. In addition, this system will facilitate study of pathogenic, tissue tropism and functional differences amongst variant lineages of and polymorphisms within HPV variants. PMID:22131111

Burk, R. D.; Chen, Z.; Harari, A.; Smith, B. C.; Kocjan, B. J.; Maver, P. J.; Poljak, M.

2013-01-01

23

Isolated congenital megacystis without intestinal obstruction: a mild variant of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome?  

PubMed

Megacystis is frequently involved with chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome; however, isolated megacystis without intestinal obstruction is extremely rare. We present the case of a female patient with isolated congenital megacystis without severe intestinal obstruction. In this case, barium enema did not reveal any significant findings; however, histologic evaluation of her rectum showed hypoganglionosis of the submucous and myenteric plexuses. These findings indicate that this case may be a mild variant of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome. The presence of megacystis should alert the physician to the possibility of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome. PMID:22075369

Shimizu, Masaki; Nishio, Sayaka; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Yokoyama, Tadafumi; Sakai, Seisho; Nagaoki, Shuya; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Ohta, Kazuhide; Miyamoto, Masatoshi; Yachie, Akihiro

2011-11-01

24

High Risk Population Isolate Reveals Low Frequency Variants Predisposing to Intracranial Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

3% of the population develops saccular intracranial aneurysms (sIAs), a complex trait, with a sporadic and a familial form. Subarachnoid hemorrhage from sIA (sIA-SAH) is a devastating form of stroke. Certain rare genetic variants are enriched in the Finns, a population isolate with a small founder population and bottleneck events. As the sIA-SAH incidence in Finland is >2× increased, such variants may associate with sIA in the Finnish population. We tested 9.4 million variants for association in 760 Finnish sIA patients (enriched for familial sIA), and in 2,513 matched controls with case-control status and with the number of sIAs. The most promising loci (p<5E-6) were replicated in 858 Finnish sIA patients and 4,048 controls. The frequencies and effect sizes of the replicated variants were compared to a continental European population using 717 Dutch cases and 3,004 controls. We discovered four new high-risk loci with low frequency lead variants. Three were associated with the case-control status: 2q23.3 (MAF 2.1%, OR 1.89, p 1.42×10-9); 5q31.3 (MAF 2.7%, OR 1.66, p 3.17×10-8); 6q24.2 (MAF 2.6%, OR 1.87, p 1.87×10-11) and one with the number of sIAs: 7p22.1 (MAF 3.3%, RR 1.59, p 6.08×-9). Two of the associations (5q31.3, 6q24.2) replicated in the Dutch sample. The 7p22.1 locus was strongly differentiated; the lead variant was more frequent in Finland (4.6%) than in the Netherlands (0.3%). Additionally, we replicated a previously inconclusive locus on 2q33.1 in all samples tested (OR 1.27, p 1.87×10-12). The five loci explain 2.1% of the sIA heritability in Finland, and may relate to, but not explain, the increased incidence of sIA-SAH in Finland. This study illustrates the utility of population isolates, familial enrichment, dense genotype imputation and alternate phenotyping in search for variants associated with complex diseases. PMID:24497844

Kurki, Mitja I.; Gaál, Emília Ilona; Kettunen, Johannes; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Menelaou, Androniki; Anttila, Verneri; van 't Hof, Femke N. G.; von und zu Fraunberg, Mikael; Helisalmi, Seppo; Hiltunen, Mikko; Lehto, Hanna; Laakso, Aki; Kivisaari, Riku; Koivisto, Timo; Ronkainen, Antti; Rinne, Jaakko; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Kaunisto, Mari A.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Aromaa, Arpo; Perola, Markus; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T.; Salomaa, Veikko; Gunel, Murat; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Ruigrok, Ynte M.; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Niemelä, Mika; Hernesniemi, Juha; Ripatti, Samuli; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Palotie, Aarno; Jääskeläinen, Juha E.

2014-01-01

25

Isolation and characterization of a variant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in China  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of diarrhea in pigs started in Guangdong, South China in January 2011. Cases were characterized by watery diarrhea, dehydration and vomiting, with 80–100% morbidity and 50–90% mortality in suckling piglets. The causative agent of the diarrhea was ultimately identified as porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). In this study, we isolated a PEDV strain designated CHGD-01 from piglet intestines using Vero cell cultures, and its specific cytopathic effects were confirmed in susceptible cells by direct immunofluorescence testing and electron microscopy. The complete genome of CHGD-01 was shown to be 28,035 nucleotides in length, with a similar structure to that of PEDV reference strains. Phylogenetic analyses based on the whole genome revealed that CHGD-01 shared nucleotide sequence identities of 98.2–98.4% with two other Chinese isolates reported in the same year, thus constituting a new cluster. Amino acid sequence analysis based on individual virus genes indicated a close relationship between the spike protein gene of CHGD-01 and the field strain KNU0802 in Korea. Its ORF3 and nucleoprotein genes, however, were divergent from all other sequenced PEDV isolate clusters and therefore formed a new group, suggesting a new variant PEDV isolate in China. Further studies will be required to determine the immunogenicity and pathogenicity of this new variant. PMID:22967434

2012-01-01

26

New variant of TEM-10 beta-lactamase gene produced by a clinical isolate of proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed Central

A clinical isolate of Proteus mirabilis was found to produce a new variant of the TEM-10 beta-lactamase gene. This is the first report of TEM-10 production by P. mirabilis and the first report of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production by an isolate of this species recovered in the United States. PMID:7625817

Palzkill, T; Thomson, K S; Sanders, C C; Moland, E S; Huang, W; Milligan, T W

1995-01-01

27

Fluorescent Detection and Isolation of DNA Variants Using Stabilized RecA-Coated Oligonucleotides  

PubMed Central

Several genome resequencing strategies have been developed to detect genetic variation in populations and correlate diversity with phenotypic consequences. Commonly used methods of detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) use PCR amplification and indirect analysis, which can create template biases and enable user contamination. Here we present a novel assay to detect and isolate DNA variants using stabile nanostructures formed directly on duplex DNA. The assay incorporates the well-established RecA-catalyzed strand invasion process witha novel stabilizing hybridization step. First, short RecA-coated oligonucleotide filaments invade duplex DNA to form a synaptic intermediate or “D-loop.” Sequentially, chemically modified oligonucleotide probes anneal to the displaced DNA strand of the complex to form a stable “double D-loop.” These joint molecules resist dissociation when both oligonucleotides are completely complementary to the target duplex; however, if the probes are mismatched, the complex is inherently instable and rapidly dissociates. SNPs are identified by detecting the fluorophore assimilated into stable complexes produced by homologous probes compared to unstable differentially labeled mismatched probes. Furthermore, this strategy can be used to isolate specific allelic variants by affinity purification from complex populations. Stabilized double D-Loop intermediates accordingly offer the promise of haplotyping and pharmacogenomic analysis directly in double-stranded DNA samples. PMID:14672976

Rice, Michael C.; Heckman, Brandy M.; Liu, Yi; Kmiec, Eric B.

2004-01-01

28

Isolation and characterization of a variant myoblast cell line that is temperature sensitive for differentiation.  

PubMed Central

A new variant rat myogenic cell line, ts485, was isolated by subcloning the cell line ts3b2 (H. T. Nguyen, R. M. Medford, and B. Nadal-Ginard, Cell 34:281-293, 1983). Unlike the progenitor cell line, ts485 was thermosensitive for differentiation. Experiments with conditioned medium suggested that diffusible extracellular factors were not involved in dictating the differential phenotypes of ts485 cells cultured at the permissive and nonpermissive temperatures. Temperature shift experiments performed on cultures of ts485 cells indicated that the temperature-sensitive lesion was in a factor active during the growth phase and required to trigger a cascade of events leading to terminal differentiation. Images PMID:3043175

Akhurst, R J; Flavin, N B; Worden, J

1988-01-01

29

Novel Allelic Variants of Mycobacteria Isolated in Brazil as Determined by PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis of hsp65  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human isolates of Mycobacterium collected in 16 different states of Brazil were submitted to PCR-restriction analysis (PRA) of a 439-bp fragment of the hsp65 gene with HaeIII and BstEII. Fourteen allelic variants not described in clinical isolates so far were observed among 36 (10%) of 356 Brazilian strains, including a new pattern for Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, M. intracellulare, and M. flavescens,

A. da Silva Rocha; A. M. Werneck Barreto; C. E. Dias Campos; M. Villas-Boas da Silva; L. Fonseca; M. H. Saad; W. M. Degrave; P. N. Suffys

2002-01-01

30

Genetic characterization of Greek population isolates reveals strong genetic drift at missense and trait-associated variants  

PubMed Central

Isolated populations are emerging as a powerful study design in the search for low-frequency and rare variant associations with complex phenotypes. Here we genotype 2,296 samples from two isolated Greek populations, the Pomak villages (HELIC-Pomak) in the North of Greece and the Mylopotamos villages (HELIC-MANOLIS) in Crete. We compare their genomic characteristics to the general Greek population and establish them as genetic isolates. In the MANOLIS cohort, we observe an enrichment of missense variants among the variants that have drifted up in frequency by more than fivefold. In the Pomak cohort, we find novel associations at variants on chr11p15.4 showing large allele frequency increases (from 0.2% in the general Greek population to 4.6% in the isolate) with haematological traits, for example, with mean corpuscular volume (rs7116019, P=2.3 × 10?26). We replicate this association in a second set of Pomak samples (combined P=2.0 × 10?36). We demonstrate significant power gains in detecting medical trait associations. PMID:25373335

Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Hatzikotoulas, Konstantinos; Xifara, Dionysia Kiara; Colonna, Vincenza; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Ritchie, Graham R. S.; Southam, Lorraine; Gilly, Arthur; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Fatumo, Segun; Matchan, Angela; Rayner, Nigel W.; Ntalla, Ioanna; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Chen, Yuan; Kiagiadaki, Chrysoula; Zengini, Eleni; Mamakou, Vasiliki; Athanasiadis, Antonis; Giannakopoulou, Margarita; Kariakli, Vassiliki-Eirini; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Karabarinde, Alex; Sandhu, Manjinder; McVean, Gil; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; Karaleftheri, Maria; Xue, Yali; Dedoussis, George; Zeggini, Eleftheria

2014-01-01

31

Genetic characterization of Greek population isolates reveals strong genetic drift at missense and trait-associated variants.  

PubMed

Isolated populations are emerging as a powerful study design in the search for low-frequency and rare variant associations with complex phenotypes. Here we genotype 2,296 samples from two isolated Greek populations, the Pomak villages (HELIC-Pomak) in the North of Greece and the Mylopotamos villages (HELIC-MANOLIS) in Crete. We compare their genomic characteristics to the general Greek population and establish them as genetic isolates. In the MANOLIS cohort, we observe an enrichment of missense variants among the variants that have drifted up in frequency by more than fivefold. In the Pomak cohort, we find novel associations at variants on chr11p15.4 showing large allele frequency increases (from 0.2% in the general Greek population to 4.6% in the isolate) with haematological traits, for example, with mean corpuscular volume (rs7116019, P=2.3 × 10(-26)). We replicate this association in a second set of Pomak samples (combined P=2.0 × 10(-36)). We demonstrate significant power gains in detecting medical trait associations. PMID:25373335

Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Hatzikotoulas, Konstantinos; Xifara, Dionysia Kiara; Colonna, Vincenza; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Ritchie, Graham R S; Southam, Lorraine; Gilly, Arthur; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Fatumo, Segun; Matchan, Angela; Rayner, Nigel W; Ntalla, Ioanna; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Chen, Yuan; Kiagiadaki, Chrysoula; Zengini, Eleni; Mamakou, Vasiliki; Athanasiadis, Antonis; Giannakopoulou, Margarita; Kariakli, Vassiliki-Eirini; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Karabarinde, Alex; Sandhu, Manjinder; McVean, Gil; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; Karaleftheri, Maria; Xue, Yali; Dedoussis, George; Zeggini, Eleftheria

2014-01-01

32

Mechanistic variations among reverse transcriptases of simian immunodeficiency virus variants isolated from African green monkeys.  

PubMed

Here we report enzymatic variations among the reverse transcriptases (RTs) of five simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains, Sab-1, 155-4, Gri-1, 9063-2, and Tan-1, which were isolated from four different species of naturally infected African green monkeys living in different regions across Africa. First, Sab-1 RT exhibits the most efficient dNTP incorporation efficiency at low dNTP concentrations, whereas the other four SIVagm RT proteins display different levels of reduced polymerase activity at low dNTP concentrations. Tan-1 RT exhibited the most restricted dNTP incorporation efficiency. Indeed, the pre-steady state analysis revealed that Sab-1 RT displays tight dNTP binding affinity (K(d) approximately 1-5 microM), comparable to values observed for NL4-3 and HXB2 HIV-1 RTs, whereas the dNTP binding affinity of Tan-1 RT is 6.2, approximately 34.8-fold lower than that of Sab-1 RT. Second, Tan-1 RT fidelity was significantly higher than that of Sab-1 RT. Indeed, Tan-1 RT enzymatically mimics oncoretroviral murine leukemia virus RT which is characterized by its low dNTP binding affinity and high fidelity. This study reports that simultaneous changes in dNTP binding affinity and fidelity of RTs appear to occur among natural SIV variants isolated from African green monkeys. PMID:19408961

Skasko, Mark; Diamond, Tracy L; Kim, Baek

2009-06-16

33

Pseudomonas aeruginosa variants isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis are killed by a bactericidal protein from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

The susceptibility of paired mucoid and nonmucoid variants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from 13 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) to killing by a 55,000-Da bactericidal protein (BP55) from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes was studied. Mucoid and nonmucoid variants were equally sensitive to killing by BP55 at both pH 5.6 and pH 7.2. Eleven of the isolates were resistant to the bactericidal activity of 10% normal human serum but were as sensitive as the serum-sensitive isolates to BP55. Similarly, the 15 isolates with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) containing O-polysaccharide side chains (smooth LPS) were as sensitive to BP55 as those isolates with rough LPS.P. aeruginosa isolates from patients in poor clinical condition were more likely to have LPS of the smooth type and to be resistant to killing by 10% human serum than the isolates from patients in good clinical condition. We have concluded that the susceptibility of the P. aeruginosa isolates from patients with CF to killing by BP55 does not correlate with mucoid or nonmucoid variations, with the presence or absence of smooth LPS, or with the sensitivity or resistance to killing by normal human serum. Images PMID:1903774

Siefferman, C M; Regelmann, W E; Gray, B H

1991-01-01

34

Pseudomonas aeruginosa variants isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis are killed by a bactericidal protein from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed

The susceptibility of paired mucoid and nonmucoid variants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from 13 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) to killing by a 55,000-Da bactericidal protein (BP55) from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes was studied. Mucoid and nonmucoid variants were equally sensitive to killing by BP55 at both pH 5.6 and pH 7.2. Eleven of the isolates were resistant to the bactericidal activity of 10% normal human serum but were as sensitive as the serum-sensitive isolates to BP55. Similarly, the 15 isolates with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) containing O-polysaccharide side chains (smooth LPS) were as sensitive to BP55 as those isolates with rough LPS.P. aeruginosa isolates from patients in poor clinical condition were more likely to have LPS of the smooth type and to be resistant to killing by 10% human serum than the isolates from patients in good clinical condition. We have concluded that the susceptibility of the P. aeruginosa isolates from patients with CF to killing by BP55 does not correlate with mucoid or nonmucoid variations, with the presence or absence of smooth LPS, or with the sensitivity or resistance to killing by normal human serum. PMID:1903774

Siefferman, C M; Regelmann, W E; Gray, B H

1991-06-01

35

Bloodstream infection caused by nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae in an immunocompromised host in the United States.  

PubMed

Corynebacterium species are well-known causes of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae cause respiratory diphtheria. We report a bloodstream infection caused by a nontoxigenic strain of C. diphtheriae and discuss the epidemiology, possible sources of the infection, and the implications of rapid species identification of corynebacteria. PMID:22493337

Wojewoda, Christina M; Koval, Christine E; Wilson, Deborah A; Chakos, Mary H; Harrington, Susan M

2012-06-01

36

Nontoxigenic highly pathogenic clone of Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Poland, 2004-2012.  

PubMed

Twenty-five cases of nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection were recorded in Poland during 2004-2012, of which 18 were invasive. Alcoholism, homelessness, hepatic cirrhosis, and dental caries were predisposing factors for infection. However, for 17% of cases, no concomitant diseases or predisposing factors were found. PMID:24209492

Zasada, Aleksandra A

2013-11-01

37

Bloodstream Infection Caused by Nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae in an Immunocompromised Host in the United States  

PubMed Central

Corynebacterium species are well-known causes of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae cause respiratory diphtheria. We report a bloodstream infection caused by a nontoxigenic strain of C. diphtheriae and discuss the epidemiology, possible sources of the infection, and the implications of rapid species identification of corynebacteria. PMID:22493337

Wojewoda, Christina M.; Koval, Christine E.; Wilson, Deborah A.; Chakos, Mary H.

2012-01-01

38

Characterization of post-translational modifications of histone H2B-variants isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic DNA is structurally packed into chromatin by the basic histone proteins H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. There is increasing evidence that incorporation and post-translational modifications of histone variants have a fundamental role in gene regulation. While modifications of H3 and H4 histones are now well-established, considerably less is known about H2B modifications. Here, we present the first detailed characterization of H2B-variants isolated from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We combined reversed-phase chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry to identify post-translational modifications of the H2B-variants HTB1, HTB2, HTB4, HTB9, and HTB11, isolated from total chromatin and euchromatin-enriched fractions. The HTB9-variant has acetylation sites at lysines 6, 11, 27, 32, 38, and 39, while Lys-145 can be ubiquitinated. Analogous modifications and an additional methylation of Lys-3 were identified for HTB11. HTB2 shows similar acetylation and ubiquitination sites and an additional methylation at Lys-11. Furthermore, the N-terminal alanine residues of HTB9 and HTB11 were found to be mono-, di-, or trimethylated or unmodified. No methylation of arginine residues was detected. The data suggest that most of these modification sites are only partially occupied. Our study significantly expands the map of covalent Arabidopsis histone modifications and is the first step to unraveling the histone code in higher plants. PMID:17691833

Bergmüller, Eveline; Gehrig, Peter M; Gruissem, Wilhelm

2007-09-01

39

Changes in Availability of Oxygen Accentuate Differences in Capsular Polysaccharide Expression by Phenotypic Variants and Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Most isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae are mixed populations of transparent (T) and opaque (O) colony phenotypes. Differences in the production of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) between O and T variants were accentuated by changes in the environmental concentration of oxygen. O variants demonstrated a 5.2- to 10.6-fold increase in amounts of CPS under anaerobic compared to atmospheric growth conditions, while CPS production remained low under all conditions for T variants. Increased amounts of CPS in O compared to T pneumococci were associated with increased expression of cps-encoded proteins. The inhibitory effect of oxygen on expression of CPS in O variants correlated with decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of CpsD, a tyrosine kinase and regulator of CPS synthesis. Modulation of CpsD expression and its activity by tyrosine phosphorylation may allow the pneumococcus to adapt to the requirements of both colonization, where decreased CPS allows for adherence, and bacteremia, where increased CPS may be required to escape from opsonic clearance. In patients with invasive infection, paired isolates from the same patient were shown to have predominately a T colony phenotype without phosphotyrosine on CpsD when cultured from the nasopharynx, and an O phenotype that phosphorylates CpsD in response to oxygen when cultured from the blood. Differences in the availability of oxygen, therefore, may be a key factor in allowing for the selection of distinct phenotypes in these two host environments. PMID:11500414

Weiser, Jeffrey N.; Bae, Deborah; Epino, Henry; Gordon, Stephen B.; Kapoor, Miki; Zenewicz, Lauren A.; Shchepetov, Mikhail

2001-01-01

40

Isolation of a Variant Strain of Pleurotus eryngii and the Development of Specific DNA Markers to Identify the Variant Strain  

PubMed Central

A degenerated strain of Pleurotus eryngii KNR2312 was isolated from a commercial farm. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis performed on the genomic DNA of the normal and degenerated strains of this species revealed differences in the DNA banding pattern. A unique DNA fragment (1.7 kbp), which appeared only in the degenerated strain, was isolated and sequenced. Comparing this sequence with the KNR2312 genomic sequence showed that the sequence of the degenerated strain comprised three DNA regions that originated from nine distinct scaffolds of the genomic sequence, suggesting that chromosome-level changes had occurred in the degenerated strain. Using the unique sequence, three sets of PCR primers were designed that targeted the full length, the 5' half, and the 3' half of the DNA. The primer sets P2-1 and P2-2 yielded 1.76 and 0.97 kbp PCR products, respectively, only in the case of the degenerated strain, whereas P2-3 generated a 0.8 kbp product in both the normal and the degenerated strains because its target region was intact in the normal strain as well. In the case of the P2-1 and P2-2 sets, the priming regions of the forward and reverse primers were located at distinct genomic scaffolds in the normal strain. These two primer sets specifically detected the degenerate strain of KNR2312 isolated from various mushrooms including 10 different strains of P. eryngii, four strains of P. ostreatus, and 11 other wild mushrooms. PMID:24808734

Lee, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Sang-Woo; Ryu, Jae-San; Lee, Chang-Yun

2014-01-01

41

Novel Variant Serotype of Streptococcus suis Isolated from Piglets with Meningitis.  

PubMed

Streptococcus suis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen causing severe infections in pigs and humans. In previous studies, 33 serotypes of S. suis have been identified using serum agglutination. Here, we describe a novel S. suis strain, CZ130302, isolated from an outbreak of acute piglet meningitis in eastern China. Strong pathogenicity of meningitis caused by strain CZ130302 was reproduced in the BALB/c mouse model. The strain showed a high fatality rate (8/10), higher than those for known virulent serotype 2 strains P1/7 (1/10) and 9801 (2/10). Cell adhesion assay results with bEnd.3 and HEp2 cells showed that CZ130302 was significantly close to P1/7 and 9801. Both the agglutination test and its complementary test showed that strain CZ130302 had no strong cross-reaction with the other 33 S. suis serotypes. The multiplex PCR assays revealed no specified bands for all four sets used to detect the other 33 serotypes. In addition, genetic analysis of the whole cps gene clusters of all serotypes was performed in this study. The results of comparative genomics showed that the cps gene cluster of CZ130302, which was not previously reported, showed no homology to the gene sequences of the other strains. Especially, the wzy, wzx, and acetyltransferase genes of strain CZ130302 are phylogenetically distinct from strains of the other 33 serotypes. Therefore, this study suggested that strain CZ130302 represents a novel variant serotype of S. suis (designated serotype Chz) which has a high potential to be virulent and associated with meningitis in animals. PMID:25416757

Pan, Zihao; Ma, Jiale; Dong, Wenyang; Song, Wenchao; Wang, Kaicheng; Lu, Chengping; Yao, Huochun

2015-02-01

42

Genetic Variants Modulating CRIPTO Serum Levels Identified by Genome-Wide Association Study in Cilento Isolates  

PubMed Central

Cripto, the founding member of the EGF-CFC genes, plays an essential role in embryo development and is involved in cancer progression. Cripto is a GPI-anchored protein that can interact with various components of multiple signaling pathways, such as TGF-?, Wnt and MAPK, driving different processes, among them epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell proliferation, and stem cell renewal. Cripto protein can also be cleaved and released outside the cell in a soluble and still active form. Cripto is not significantly expressed in adult somatic tissues and its re-expression has been observed associated to pathological conditions, mainly cancer. Accordingly, CRIPTO has been detected at very low levels in the plasma of healthy volunteers, whereas its levels are significantly higher in patients with breast, colon or glioblastoma tumors. These data suggest that CRIPTO levels in human plasma or serum may have clinical significance. However, very little is known about the variability of serum levels of CRIPTO at a population level and the genetic contribution underlying this variability remains unknown. Here, we report the first genome-wide association study of CRIPTO serum levels in isolated populations (n = 1,054) from Cilento area in South Italy. The most associated SNPs (p-value<5*10-8) were all located on chromosome 3p22.1-3p21.3, in the CRIPTO gene region. Overall six CRIPTO associated loci were replicated in an independent sample (n = 535). Pathway analysis identified a main network including two other genes, besides CRIPTO, in the associated regions, involved in cell movement and proliferation. The replicated loci explain more than 87% of the CRIPTO variance, with 85% explained by the most associated SNP. Moreover, the functional analysis of the main associated locus identified a causal variant in the 5’UTR of CRIPTO gene which is able to strongly modulate CRIPTO expression through an AP-1-mediate transcriptional regulation. PMID:25629528

Ruggiero, Daniela; Nappo, Stefania; Nutile, Teresa; Sorice, Rossella; Talotta, Francesco; Giorgio, Emilia; Bellenguez, Celine; Leutenegger, Anne-Louise; Liguori, Giovanna L.; Ciullo, Marina

2015-01-01

43

Isolation of a thermostable enzyme variant by cloning and selection in a thermophile.  

PubMed Central

We developed a method for rapidly generating thermostable enzyme variants. Our strategy is to introduce the gene coding for a given enzyme from a mesophilic organism into a thermophile, Bacillus stearothermophilus. Variants that retain the enzymatic activity at the higher growth temperatures of the thermophile are then selected. This strategy was applied to kanamycin nucleotidyltransferase, which confers resistance to the antibiotic kanamycin. B. stearothermophilus carrying the wild-type enzyme is resistant to the antibiotic at 47 degrees C but not at 55 degrees C and above. Variants that were kanamycin resistant at 63 degrees C were obtained by selection of spontaneous mutants, by passage of a shuttle plasmid through the Escherichia coli mutD5 mutator strain and introduction into B. stearothermophilus by transformation, and by growing the thermophile in a chemostat. The kanamycin nucleotidyltransferases purified from these variants were all more resistant to irreversible thermal inactivation than is the wild-type enzyme, and all have the same single amino acid replacement, aspartate to tyrosine at position 80. Mutants that are even more heat stable were derived from the first variant by selecting for kanamycin resistance at 70 degrees C, and these carry the additional change of threonine to lysine at position 130. This strategy is applicable to other enzymatic activities that are selectable in thermophiles or that can be screened for by plate assays. PMID:3003740

Liao, H; McKenzie, T; Hageman, R

1986-01-01

44

Complete genome sequence of invertebrate iridovirus IIV22A, a variant of IIV22, isolated originally from a blackfly larva  

PubMed Central

Members of the family Iridoviridae are animal viruses that infect only invertebrates and poikilothermic vertebrates. The invertebrate iridoviruses 22 (IIV22) and 25 (IIV25) were originally isolated from a single sample of blackfly larva (Simulium spp., order Diptera) collected from the Ystwyth river near Aberystwyth, Wales. Recently, the genomes of IIV22 (197.7 kbp) and IIV25 (204.8 kbp) were sequenced and reported. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence of IIV22A, a variant that was isolated from the same pool of virions collected from the blackfly larva from which the IIV22 virion genome originated. The IIV22A genome, 196.5 kbp, is smaller than IIV22. Nevertheless, it contains 7 supplementary putative ORFs. Its analysis enables evaluation of the degree of genomic polymorphisms within an IIV isolate. Despite the occurrence of this IIV variant with IIV22 and IIV25 in a single blackfly larva and the features of their DNA polymerase, we found no evidence of lateral genetic transfers between the genomes of these two IIV species. PMID:25197475

Piégu, Benoît; Guizard, Sébastien; Yeping, Tan; Cruaud, Corinne; Couloux, Arnault; Bideshi, Dennis K.; Federici, Brian A.; Bigot, Yves

2014-01-01

45

Antagonistic lactic acid bacteria isolated from goat milk and identification of a novel nisin variant Lactococcus lactis  

PubMed Central

Background The raw goat milk microbiota is considered a good source of novel bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains that can be exploited as an alternative for use as biopreservatives in foods. The constant demand for such alternative tools justifies studies that investigate the antimicrobial potential of such strains. Results The obtained data identified a predominance of Lactococcus and Enterococcus strains in raw goat milk microbiota with antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644. Enzymatic assays confirmed the bacteriocinogenic nature of the antimicrobial substances produced by the isolated strains, and PCR reactions detected a variety of bacteriocin-related genes in their genomes. Rep-PCR identified broad genetic variability among the Enterococcus isolates, and close relations between the Lactococcus strains. The sequencing of PCR products from nis-positive Lactococcus allowed the identification of a predicted nisin variant not previously described and possessing a wide inhibitory spectrum. Conclusions Raw goat milk was confirmed as a good source of novel bacteriocinogenic LAB strains, having identified Lactococcus isolates possessing variations in their genomes that suggest the production of a nisin variant not yet described and with potential for use as biopreservatives in food due to its broad spectrum of action. PMID:24521354

2014-01-01

46

Characterisation of non-toxigenic Clostridium spp. strains, to use as surrogates for non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum in chilled food challenge testing.  

PubMed

Under many of the conditions studied, a two-strain cocktail of non-toxigenic Clostridium spp. was found to be suitable as a surrogate for non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum, and has the potential for use in chilled food challenge tests measuring growth. Non-toxigenic surrogates could also be used in thermal process screening studies. PMID:25433276

Parker, M D; Barrett, P I; Shepherd, J; Price, L J; Bull, S D

2015-01-01

47

Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli phase variants and mutants deficient in type 1 pilus production.  

PubMed Central

Type 1 pili of Escherichia coli are the prototype of the somatic class of pili found on many strains of bacteria. As a first step in the genetic analysis of type 1 piliation, an extensive series of nonpiliated derivatives of E. coli K-12 strain AW405, was characterized to produce attached or free pili when examined in the antiserum or appeared to produce attached or free pili when examined in the electron microscope. The derivatives fell into two classes; phase variants and mutants. Phase variants that formed colonies of two distinctive types, one associated with a predominantly piliated (P+), and the other associated with a nonpiliated (P-) phase, were obtained. Each phase could give rise to the other at a relatively high rate, which was greater in the P- to P+ direction during culture in unshaken liquid medium. In addition, 77 Pil- mutants were selected on the basis of a subtle difference in colonial morphology. The mutants reverted, if at all, at a much lower rate than that of the P- to P+ change. The stability of Pil- derivatives grown in unshaken liquid medium was used as a criterion for distinguishing between phase variants and mutants, Phase variation also effected colonial morphology and chemotactic swarming. These properties did not directly depend upon piliation since Pil- mutants were only slightly altered in colonial form and unaltered in chemotactic swarming. Piliation of Pil+ bacteria was quantitatively affected by growth conditions. Images PMID:323240

Swaney, L M; Liu, Y P; To, C M; To, C C; Ippen-Ihler, K; Brinton, C C

1977-01-01

48

Isolation of a variant Porphyromonas sp. from polymicrobial infections in central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).  

PubMed

Isolates of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria from reptiles have only occasionally been identified to the genus and species level in the veterinary medical literature. In particular, reports identifying Porphyromonas spp. from infections in reptiles are scarce. The present report describes unique Porphyromonas isolates obtained from necrosuppurative infections in central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). The isolates grew in the presence of oxygen, were strongly hemolytic, and did not produce detectable black, iron porphyrin pigment. Biochemical identification kit numeric biocodes gave high but unreliable probabilities (>99.9%) for identification as Porphyromonas gingivalis. Partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of the isolates were identical to each other and shared 91% identity with those of Porphyromonas gulae. The isolates may represent a new reptile-associated Porphyromonas species. PMID:21217036

Bemis, David A; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Bryant, Mary Jean; Jones, Rebekah D; Kania, Stephen A

2011-01-01

49

Phenotypic and genotypic variant of MDR-Mycobacterium tuberculosis multiple isolates in the same tuberculosis episode, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Assuming that the IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) changes at a constant rate of 3.2 years, this methodology was applied to demonstrate, for the first time, variant patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in multiple isolates obtained at short time intervals from sputum and blood of an HIV+ patient with multiple admissions to the Emergency Room and to the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) Reference Center of a secondary-care hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In sputum, the IS6110-RFLP appeared in isolates with two variant patterns with 10 and 13 IS6110 copies. However, blood presented only the pattern corresponding to 10 copies, suggesting compartmentalization. With regard to the exact match of 10 of 13 bands, this may be a subpopulation with the same clonal origin and this may be related to the IS6110 transposition. A susceptibility test demonstrated an MDR profile (INH(R), RIF(R), SM(R), and EMB(R), with the sputum isolate also exhibiting EMB(S) (R = resistant; S = sensitive). A gene mutation confirmed resistance only to streptomycin. There was agreement between the results of the phenotypic test and the clinical response to MDR-TB treatment, suggesting serious implications with regard to treatment administration based exclusively on molecular methods, and calling attention to the fact that more effective control strategies against the emergence of MDR strains must be implemented by the TB control program to prevent transmission of MDR-MTB strains at health facilities in areas highly endemic for TB. PMID:19377792

Andrade, M K N; Machado, S M A; Leite, M L; Saad, M H F

2009-05-01

50

Triclosan-Induced Aminoglycoside-Tolerant Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Can Appear as Small-Colony Variants  

PubMed Central

Exposure of the human food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to sublethal concentrations of triclosan can cause resistance to several aminoglycosides. Aminoglycoside-resistant isolates exhibit two colony morphologies: normal-size and pinpoint colonies. The purposes of the present study were to characterize the small colonies of L. monocytogenes and to determine if specific genetic changes could explain the triclosan-induced aminoglycoside resistance in both pinpoint and normal-size isolates. Isolates from the pinpoint colonies grew poorly under aerated conditions, but growth was restored by addition of antibiotics. Pinpoint isolates had decreased hemolytic activity under stagnant conditions and a changed spectrum of carbohydrate utilization compared to the wild type and isolates from normal-size colonies. Genome sequence comparison revealed that all seven pinpoint isolates had a mutation in a heme gene, and addition of heme caused the pinpoint isolates to revert to normal colony size. Triclosan-induced gentamicin-resistant isolates had mutations in several different genes, and it cannot be directly concluded how the different mutations caused gentamicin resistance. However, since many of the mutations affected proteins involved in respiration, it seems likely that the mutations affected the active transport of the antibiotic and thereby caused resistance by decreasing the amount of aminoglycoside that enters the bacterial cell. Our study emphasizes that triclosan likely has more targets than just fabI and that exposure to triclosan can cause resistance to antibiotics that enters the cell via active transport. Further studies are needed to elucidate if L. monocytogenes pinpoint isolates could have any clinical impact, e.g., in persistent infections. PMID:24637686

Kastbjerg, Vicky G.; Hein-Kristensen, Line

2014-01-01

51

Molecular and biological properties of BK virus-IR, a BK virus variant isolated from a human tumor.  

PubMed Central

We describe the molecular and biological properties of BK virus (BKV)-IR, a new BKV variant isolated from a human tumor of pancreatic islets. BKV-IR bears a 253-base-pair (bp) deletion and an 80-bp insertion in the early region of the genome. The deletion abolishes the expression of small-t antigen. The inserted sequences, grouped in four clusters, produce rearrangements in the first and second enhancer elements. They are bound by 12-bp direct repeats and could form a 217-base stem-loop structure suggestive of an insertion sequence. As compared with wild-type BKV, BKV-IR transformed hamster cells with a reduced efficiency and induced ependymomas in hamsters at a lower frequency and with a longer latency period. Tumors induced by BKV-IR, however, showed features of higher malignancy. The possible role of the insertion sequence-like element in transformation by BKV-IR is discussed. Images PMID:3016311

Pagnani, M; Negrini, M; Reschiglian, P; Corallini, A; Balboni, P G; Scherneck, S; Macino, G; Milanesi, G; Barbanti-Brodano, G

1986-01-01

52

Genetic Diversity of Tropical Isolates and Color Variants of Aureobasidium pullulans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The polymorphic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was isolated from many provinces in tropical Thailand and cultured in pullulan production medium (PM) containing sucrose and peptone as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Liquid PM cultures varied in color from cream to pale pink, light burgund...

53

[Isolation of natural cold variants from influenza virus strains similar to A/Bangkok/1/79 (H3N2)].  

PubMed

Two natural cold variants were isolated from influenza virus strains similar to A/Bangkok/1/79 (H3N2) and their antigenic and some biological properties were studied in comparison with the original strains. No correlation between the temperature sensitivity of the strains and other properties was found. PMID:6710976

Shenderovich, S F; Zakstel'skaia, L Ia; Pushkarskaia, N L

1984-01-01

54

Subtyping of Shiga toxin 2 variants in human-derived Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) variants have been found to exhibit not only antigenic divergence, but also differences in toxicity for tissue culture cells and animals. To clarify whether all or just a subset of Stx2 variants are important for the virulence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, we designed PCR primers to detect and type all reported variants. We classified them

Hiroshi Nakao; Kouichi Kimura; Hiroyuki Murakami; Tsutomu Maruyama; Tae Takeda

2002-01-01

55

Isolation and functional analysis of yeast ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 variants that alleviate the toxicity of human ?-synuclein.  

PubMed

The essential ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 is a key enzyme involved in the degradation of abnormal or unfavourable proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Overexpression of human ?-synuclein (?-syn), a small lipid-binding protein implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases, in S. cerevisiae leads to growth inhibition due to many intracellular defects, including accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, to understand the mechanism of Rsp5-mediated detoxification of ?-syn, we isolated novel Rsp5 variants (T255A, D295G, P343S and N427D), which conferred ?-syn tolerance to yeast cells. Interestingly, these mutants were phenotypically distinguished from our previously identified RSP5(T357A) mutation, which increases ubiquitination of the general amino acid permease Gap1. Among them, the RSP5(P343S) substitution accelerated the degradation of ?-syn, suppressed the accumulation of intracellular ROS and enhanced the interaction with ?-syn and its ubiquitination. In contrast, the RSP5(T255A) mutation did not contribute to degradation of ?-syn, but improved cell growth under acetate stress conditions, possibly leading to alleviation of the ?-syn toxicity. Thus, these novel mutations might be useful not only in elucidating the molecular basis by which disused proteins are specifically recognized and effectively removed but also in screening drug candidates for neurodegenerative diseases or in improving ethanol production under acidic fermentation conditions. PMID:25398992

Wijayanti, Indah; Watanabe, Daisuke; Oshiro, Satoshi; Takagi, Hiroshi

2014-11-14

56

Non-toxigenic penicillin-resistant cutaneous C. diphtheriae infection: A case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Here, we report a case of non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae in a previously healthy 14-year-old girl that was acquired in Ethiopia and presented locally. This is the first clinical case of penicillin-resistant C. diphtheriae in the UK. This is significant finding because penicillin is the recommended first-line agent for the prophylaxis against and treatment of C. diphtheriae in patients who are not allergic to penicillin. PMID:25027172

FitzGerald, Rosemarie Philippa; Rosser, Andrew J; Perera, Dona Nelun

2015-01-01

57

Rapid Enzyme Immunoassay for Determination of Toxigenicity among Clinical Isolates of Corynebacteria  

PubMed Central

A rapid enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was developed for the phenotypic detection of diphtheria toxin among clinical isolates of corynebacteria. The assay uses equine polyclonal antitoxin as the capture antibody and an alkaline phosphatase-labeled monoclonal antibody, specific for fragment A of the toxin molecule, as the detecting antibody. The assay is rapid, sensitive, and specific: a final result is available within 3 h of colony selection, and the limits of detection are 0.1 ng of pure diphtheria toxin/ml. Toxigenicity could be detected with isolates grown on a diverse range of culture media, including selective agars. Toxin detection using the EIA was compared to that with the Elek test and PCR detection of fragment A of the diphtheria toxin (tox) gene, using 245 isolates of corynebacteria. The results for the EIA were in complete concordance with those of the Elek test: 87 toxigenic and 158 nontoxigenic isolates. Ten of the phenotypically nontoxigenic strains were found to contain fragment A of the tox gene but did not express the toxin protein. These isolates were found to be nontoxigenic in the Vero cell tissue culture cytotoxicity assay and were therefore nontoxigenic for diagnostic purposes. The EIA is a simple rapid phenotypic test which provides a definitive result on toxigenicity within one working day. PMID:10747112

Engler, Kathryn H.; Efstratiou, Androulla

2000-01-01

58

Quinolone Resistance Mechanisms in Salmonella enterica Serovars Hadar, Kentucky, Virchow, Schwarzengrund, and 4,5,12:i:?, Isolated from Humans in Switzerland, and Identification of a Novel qnrD Variant, qnrD2, in S. Hadar  

PubMed Central

Human isolates of Salmonella enterica serovars Hadar, Kentucky, Virchow, Schwarzengrund, and the monophasic variant of S. Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 4,5,12:i:? were examined for mutations within the quinolone resistance target genes gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE and for plasmid-mediated resistance genes. Differences were observed among the serovars. A novel variant of qnrD, qnrD2, was detected in an S. Hadar isolate. PMID:24733466

Abgottspon, Helga; Zurfluh, Katrin; Nüesch-Inderbinen, Magdalena; Hächler, Herbert

2014-01-01

59

In vitro Isolation and Identification of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Variants with Reduced Sensitivity to C-2 Symmetrical Inhibitors of HIV Type 1 Protease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protease inhibitors are another class of compounds for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-caused disease. The emergence of resistance to the current anti-HIV drugs makes the determination of potential resistance to protease inhibitors imperative. Here we describe the isolation of an HIV type 1 (HIV-1) resistant to an HIV-protease inhibitor. Serial passage of HIV-1 (strain RF) in the presence of the inhibitor, [2-pyridylacetylisoleucylphenylalanyl-psi(CHOH)]_2 (P9941), failed to yield a stock of virus with a resistance phenotype. However, variants of the virus with 6- to 8-fold reduced sensitivity to P9941 were selected by using a combination of plaque assay and endpoint titration. Genetic analysis and computer modeling of the variant proteases revealed a single change in the codon for amino acid 82 (Val -> Ala), which resulted in a protease with lower affinity and reduced sensitivity to this inhibitor and certain, but not all, related inhibitors.

Otto, M. J.; Garber, S.; Winslow, D. L.; Reid, C. D.; Aldrich, P.; Jadhav, P. K.; Patterson, C. E.; Hodge, C. N.; Cheng, Y.-S. E.

1993-08-01

60

Engineering of the yeast ubiquitin ligase Rsp5: isolation of a new variant that induces constitutive inactivation of the general amino acid permease Gap1.  

PubMed

Rsp5 is an essential ubiquitin-protein ligase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found previously that the Ala401Glu rsp5 mutant is hypersensitive to various stresses that induce protein misfolding, suggesting that Rsp5 is a key enzyme for yeast cell growth under stress conditions. To isolate new Rsp5 variants as suppressors of the A401E mutant, PCR random mutagenesis was used in the rsp5(A401E) gene, and the mutagenized plasmid library was introduced into rsp5(A401E) cells. As a phenotypic suppressor of rsp5(A401E) cells, we isolated a quadruple variant (Thr357Ala/Glu401Gly/Lys764Glu/Glu767Gly) on a minimal medium containing the toxic proline analogue azetidine-2-carboxylate (AZC). Site-directed mutagenesis experiments showed that the rsp5(T357A/K764E) cells were much more tolerant to AZC than the wild-type cells, due to the smaller amounts of intracellular AZC. However, the T357A/K764E variant Rsp5 did not reverse the hypersensitivity of rsp5(A401E) cells to other stresses such as high growth temperature, ethanol, and freezing treatment. Interestingly, immunoblot and localization analyses indicated that the general amino acid permease Gap1, which is involved in AZC uptake, was absent on the plasma membrane and degraded in the vacuole of rsp5(T357A/K764E) cells before the addition of ammonium ions. These results suggest that the T357A/K764E variant Rsp5 induces constitutive inactivation of Gap1. PMID:19054125

Haitani, Yutaka; Nakata, Maiko; Sasaki, Toshiya; Uchida, Akiko; Takagi, Hiroshi

2009-02-01

61

Characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Biotype Variant Clinical Isolates from Bangladesh and Haiti, Including a Molecular Genetic Analysis of Virulence Genes ?  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera, is divided into two biotypes: classical and El Tor. Both biotypes produce the major virulence factors toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT). Although possessing genotypic and phenotypic differences, El Tor biotype strains displaying classical biotype traits have been reported and subsequently were dubbed El Tor variants. Of particular interest are reports of El Tor variants that produce various levels of CT, including levels typical of classical biotype strains. Here, we report the characterization of 10 clinical isolates from the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, and a representative strain from the 2010 Haiti cholera outbreak. We observed that all 11 strains produced increased CT (2- to 10-fold) compared to that of wild-type El Tor strains under in vitro inducing conditions, but they possessed various TcpA and ToxT expression profiles. Particularly, El Tor variant MQ1795, which produced the highest level of CT and very high levels of TcpA and ToxT, demonstrated hypervirulence compared to the virulence of El Tor wild-type strains in the infant mouse cholera model. Additional genotypic and phenotypic tests were conducted to characterize the variants, including an assessment of biotype-distinguishing characteristics. Notably, the sequencing of ctxB in some El Tor variants revealed two copies of classical ctxB, one per chromosome, contrary to previous reports that located ctxAB only on the large chromosome of El Tor biotype strains. PMID:21880975

Son, Mike S.; Megli, Christina J.; Kovacikova, Gabriela; Qadri, Firdausi; Taylor, Ronald K.

2011-01-01

62

Identification of novel subgroup A variants with enhanced receptor binding and replicative capacity in primary isolates of anaemogenic strains of feline leukaemia virus  

PubMed Central

Background The development of anaemia in feline leukaemia virus (FeLV)-infected cats is associated with the emergence of a novel viral subgroup, FeLV-C. FeLV-C arises from the subgroup that is transmitted, FeLV-A, through alterations in the amino acid sequence of the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the envelope glycoprotein that result in a shift in the receptor usage and the cell tropism of the virus. The factors that influence the transition from subgroup A to subgroup C remain unclear, one possibility is that a selective pressure in the host drives the acquisition of mutations in the RBD, creating A/C intermediates with enhanced abilities to interact with the FeLV-C receptor, FLVCR. In order to understand further the emergence of FeLV-C in the infected cat, we examined primary isolates of FeLV-C for evidence of FeLV-A variants that bore mutations consistent with a gradual evolution from FeLV-A to FeLV-C. Results Within each isolate of FeLV-C, we identified variants that were ostensibly subgroup A by nucleic acid sequence comparisons, but which bore mutations in the RBD. One such mutation, N91D, was present in multiple isolates and when engineered into a molecular clone of the prototypic FeLV-A (Glasgow-1), enhanced replication was noted in feline cells. Expression of the N91D Env on murine leukaemia virus (MLV) pseudotypes enhanced viral entry mediated by the FeLV-A receptor THTR1 while soluble FeLV-A Env bearing the N91D mutation bound more efficiently to mouse or guinea pig cells bearing the FeLV-A and -C receptors. Long-term in vitro culture of variants bearing the N91D substitution in the presence of anti-FeLV gp70 antibodies did not result in the emergence of FeLV-C variants, suggesting that additional selective pressures in the infected cat may drive the subsequent evolution from subgroup A to subgroup C. Conclusions Our data support a model in which variants of FeLV-A, bearing subtle differences in the RBD of Env, may be predisposed towards enhanced replication in vivo and subsequent conversion to FeLV-C. The selection pressures in vivo that drive the emergence of FeLV-C in a proportion of infected cats remain to be established. PMID:22650160

2012-01-01

63

Presence of pap-, sfa-, and afa-related sequences in necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates from cattle: evidence for new variants of the AFA family.  

PubMed Central

Necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli (NTEC) are associated with intestinal and extraintestinal diseases in animals and human beings and produce Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1) or 2 (CNF2). Fourty-three NTEC1, 42 NTEC2, and 32 CNF-negative isolates from cattle were tested by colony DNA hybridization, by plasmid DNA hybridization and by PCR assays for the presence of DNA sequences homologous to the operons coding for fimbrial (PAP/PRS, SFA/FIC, and F17) and afimbrial (AFA/Dr) adhesins of extraintestinal E. coli. Most NTEC1 isolates hybridized with the PAP probes and either the SFA probe (37%) or the AFA probes (49%). Most NTEC2 isolates, in contrast, hybridized with the F17 probe (45%), the AFA probes (19%), or the F17 and AFA probes (22%). A probe-positive plasmid was identified in each of the 19 NTEC2 isolates studied. They all hybridized with the CNF2 toxin probe (Vir plasmids) and most of them with the F17 (6 plasmids) or AFA (7 plasmids) probes. PCR amplification was obtained with 6 of the 11 NTEC isolates tested for the papGII/prsG genes; with all 5 NTEC isolates tested for the sfa and related operons; but with none of the 18 NTEC isolates tested for the afa and related operons. pap-, sfa-, and afa-related sequences are thus present in NTEC isolates from cattle in addition to f17-related operons and may code for adhesins corresponding to specific colonization factors. f17- and afa-related sequences can be located on the Vir plasmids along with the cnf2 gene. Existence of new variants of the AFA/Dr family is evident from the negative results of this family-specific PCR assay. Images Figure 1. PMID:9242999

Mainil, J G; Jacquemin, E; Hérault, F; Oswald, E

1997-01-01

64

Characterization of a variant of human T-lymphotropic virus type I isolated from a healthy member of a remote, recently contacted group in Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed Central

We report the characterization of a variant of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) isolated from an interleukin 2-dependent, CD8+ T-cell line derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy member of a remote, recently contacted hunter-horticulturalist group (Hagahai) in Madang province of Papua New Guinea. Antigenic characterization of this variant, designated PNG-1, by immunofluorescence, indicated no expression of gag-encoded proteins p19 and p24 (even after incubation with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine), using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against HTLV-I gag gene products. Virus-specific proteins of 15, 19, 46, 53, and 61/68 kDa were demonstrated by Western blot analysis, using sera from patients with serologically and/or virologically confirmed HTLV-I myeloneuropathy, sera from HTLV-I-infected rabbits, and antibodies prepared against the C terminus of the major envelope glycoprotein gp46. Restriction endonuclease maps of PNG-1 proviral DNA differed from that of a prototype strain of HTLV-I (MT-2), but, as verified by polymerase chain reaction, PNG-1 was definitely HTLV-I, not HTLV-II. Nucleotide sequencing and further molecular genetic studies of this variant may provide insights into the origin and evolution of HTLV-I. Images PMID:1996344

Yanagihara, R; Nerurkar, V R; Garruto, R M; Miller, M A; Leon-Monzon, M E; Jenkins, C L; Sanders, R C; Liberski, P P; Alpers, M P; Gajdusek, D C

1991-01-01

65

An Atypical Clostridium Strain Related to the Clostridium botulinum Group III Strain Isolated from a Human Blood Culture  

PubMed Central

A nontoxigenic strain isolated from a fatal human case of bacterial sepsis was identified as a Clostridium strain from Clostridium botulinum group III, based on the phenotypic characters and 16S rRNA gene sequence, and was found to be related to the mosaic C. botulinum D/C strain according to a multilocus sequence analysis of 5 housekeeping genes. PMID:24088855

Ruimy, Raymond; Bouchier, Christiane; Faucher, Nathalie; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel R.

2014-01-01

66

Genome Sequences of Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Variant NIH LVR42-0/M6941 Isolates (Arteriviridae: Arterivirus)  

PubMed Central

Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) variant NIH LVR42-0/M6941 is the only remaining SHFV in culture, and only a single genome sequence record exists in GenBank/RefSeq. We compared the genomic sequence of NIH LVR42-0/M6941 acquired from the ATCC in 2011 to NIH LVR42-0/M6941 genomes sequenced directly from nonhuman primates experimentally infected in 1989. PMID:25301647

Lauck, Michael; Palacios, Gustavo; Wiley, Michael R.; L?, Yànhuá; F?ng, Y?ng; Lackemeyer, Matthew G.; Caì, Yíngyún; Bailey, Adam L.; Postnikova, Elena; Radoshitzky, Sheli R.; Johnson, Reed F.; Alkhovsky, Sergey V.; Deriabin, Petr G.; Friedrich, Thomas C.; Goldberg, Tony L.; Jahrling, Peter B.; O’Connor, David H.

2014-01-01

67

Isolated Cerebellar Variant of Adrenoleukodystrophy with a de novo Adenosine Triphosphate-Binding Cassette D1 (ABCD1) Gene Mutation  

PubMed Central

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) shows a wide range of phenotypic expression, but clinical presentation as an isolated lesion of the cerebellar white matter and dentate nuclei has not been reported. We report an unusual presentation of X-ALD only with an isolated lesion of the cerebellar white matter and dentate nuclei. The proband, a 37-year-old man presented with bladder incontinence, slurred speech, dysmetria in all limbs, difficulties in balancing, and gait ataxia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed an isolated signal change of white matter around the dentate nucleus in cerebellum. With high level of very long chain fatty acid, gene study showed a de novo mutation in exon 1 at nucleotide position c.277_296dup20 (p.Ala100Cysfs*10) of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette D1 gene. It is advised to consider X-ALD as a differential diagnosis in patients with isolated cerebellar degeneration symptoms. PMID:24954351

Kang, Joon Won; Lee, Sang Mi; Koo, Kyo Yeon; Lee, Young-Mock; Nam, Hyo Suk; Quan, Zhejiu

2014-01-01

68

Identification of OXA-23 carbapenemases: novel variant OXA-239 in Acinetobacter baumannii ST758 clinical isolates in Mexico  

PubMed Central

A collection of 15 carbapenem-resistance Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates was analysed on two tertiary hospitals in Mexico. The OXA-51 was identified in all isolates, followed by OXA-239 and OXA-58; OXA-239 is described as a new OXA-23-like allele. These carbapenemases were identified on four clonal groups, distributed between two neighbouring hospitals. Acinetobacter baumannii is poorly studied in Mexico; this situation urges the implementation of strategies to prevent its dissemination.

Tamayo-Legorreta, E M; Garza-Ramos, U; Barrios-Camacho, H; Sanchez-Perez, A; Galicia-Paredes, A; Meza-Chavez, A; Silva-Sanchez, J

2014-01-01

69

Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated from a university teaching hospital in Japan.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile infection control strategies require an understanding of its epidemiology. In this study, we analysed the toxin genotypes of 130 non-duplicate clinical isolates of C. difficile from a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and eBURST analysis were performed for these isolates and nine strains previously analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotyping. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for six antibiotics, and the bacterial resistance mechanisms were investigated. Ninety-five toxigenic strains (73 %), including seven tcdA-negative, tcdB-positive and cdtA/cdtB-negative strains (A(-)B(+)CDT(-)) and three A(+)B(+)CDT(+) strains, and 35 (27 %) non-toxigenic strains, were classified into 23 and 12 sequence types, respectively. Of these, sequence type (ST)17 (21.8 %) was the most predominant. MLST and eBURST analysis showed that 139 strains belonged to seven groups and singletons, and most A(+)B(+)CDT(-) strains (98 %, 89/91) were classified into group 1. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole, vancomycin and meropenem; the ceftriaxone, clindamycin and ciprofloxacin resistance rates were 49, 59 and 99 %, respectively. Resistance rates to ceftriaxone and clindamycin were higher in toxigenic strains than in non-toxigenic strains (P?non-toxigenic strains in Japan, providing evidence that non-toxigenic and toxigenic strains exhibit high genetic diversity and that toxigenic strains are more likely than non-toxigenic strains to exhibit multidrug resistance. PMID:25471195

Kuwata, Y; Tanimoto, S; Sawabe, E; Shima, M; Takahashi, Y; Ushizawa, H; Fujie, T; Koike, R; Tojo, N; Kubota, T; Saito, R

2014-12-01

70

Expression Analysis of a Highly Adherent and Cytotoxic Small Colony Variant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from a Lung of a Patient with Cystic Fibrosis†  

PubMed Central

The heterogeneous environment of the lung of the cystic fibrosis (CF) patient gives rise to Pseudomonas aeruginosa small colony variants (SCVs) with increased antibiotic resistance, autoaggregative growth behavior, and an enhanced ability to form biofilms. In this study, oligonucleotide DNA microarrays were used to perform a genome-wide expression study of autoaggregative and highly adherent P. aeruginosa SCV 20265 isolated from a CF patient's lung in comparison with its clonal wild type and a revertant generated in vitro from the SCV population. Most strikingly, SCV 20265 showed a pronounced upregulation of the type III protein secretion system (TTSS) and the respective effector proteins. This differential expression was shown to be biologically meaningful, as SCV 20265 and other hyperpiliated and autoaggregative SCVs with increased TTSS expression were significantly more cytotoxic for macrophages in vitro and were more virulent in a mouse model of respiratory tract infection than the wild type. The observed cytotoxicity and virulence of SCV 20265 required exsA, an important transcriptional activator of the TTSS. Thus, the prevailing assumption that P. aeruginosa is subject to selection towards reduced cytotoxicity and attenuated virulence during chronic CF lung infection might not apply to all clonal variants. PMID:15175297

von Götz, Franz; Häussler, Susanne; Jordan, Doris; Saravanamuthu, Senthil Selvan; Wehmhöner, Dirk; Strüßmann, André; Lauber, Joerg; Attree, Ina; Buer, Jan; Tümmler, Burkhard; Steinmetz, Ivo

2004-01-01

71

Novel plasmid and its variant harboring both a bla(NDM-1) gene and type IV secretion system in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter lwoffii.  

PubMed

The spread of the bla(NDM-1) gene is gaining worldwide attentions. This gene is usually carried by large plasmids and has been discovered in diverse bacteria since it was originally found in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Here we report the complete sequences of a bla(NDM-1)-bearing plasmid, pNDM-BJ01, and its variant, pNDM-BJ02, isolated from clinical Acinetobacter lwoffii strains. The plasmid pNDM-BJ01 is 47.3 kb in size and cannot be classified into any known plasmid incompatibility group, thus representing a novel plasmid with an unknown maintenance mechanism. This plasmid contains both a bla(NDM-1) gene and a type IV secretion system (T4SS) gene cluster. The T4SS is assigned to the P-type T4SS group, which usually encode a short, rigid pilus, and the bla(NDM-1) gene is located within a composite transposon flanked by two insertion elements of ISAba125. Plasmid pNDM-BJ02 is nearly identical to pNDM-BJ01 except that one copy of the ISAba125 element is missing, and it is therefore regarded as a variant of pNDM-BJ01. Sequence alignment indicated that this bla(NDM-1)-containing composite transposon, which can also be captured by other mobile elements, was probably a product of multiple recombination events and can move as a whole by transposition. PMID:22290961

Hu, Hongyan; Hu, Yongfei; Pan, Yuanlong; Liang, Hui; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Xiumei; Hao, Qinfang; Yang, Xiaoli; Yang, Xi; Xiao, Xue; Luan, Chunguang; Yang, Yi; Cui, Yujun; Yang, Ruifu; Gao, George F; Song, Yajun; Zhu, Baoli

2012-04-01

72

Isolation and characterization of the human D-glyceric acidemia related glycerate kinase gene GLYCTK1 and its alternatively splicing variant GLYCTK2.  

PubMed

Deficiency of human glycerate kinase leads to D-glycerate acidemia/D-glyceric aciduria. Through PCR cloning assisted by in silico approach, we isolated the human glycerate kinase genes--Glycerate Kinase 1 (GLYCTK1) and its alternatively splicing variant--Glycerate Kinase 2 (GLYCTK2), which might be associated with D-glycerate acidemia/D-glyceric aciduria. The locus of GLYCTK gene is mapped to 3p21. PCR amplification in seventeen human tissue cDNAs revealed that both GLYCTK1 and GLYCTK2 are expressed widely almost in all these tissues. The expression of mouse Glyctk in various tissues was demonstrated by in situ hybridization. Both GLYCTK1 and GLYCTK2 proteins are localized in cytosol, and GLYCTK2 proteins are specifically localized in mitochondria. Present results revealed the characteristic expression pattern of murine Glyctk in neural system, skeleton muscle, supporting that glycerate kinase is implicated in D-glycerate acidemia/D-glyceric aciduria. PMID:16753811

Guo, Jin-Hu; Hexige, Saiyin; Chen, Li; Zhou, Guang-Jin; Wang, Xiang; Jiang, Jian-Min; Kong, Ya-Hui; Ji, Guo-Qing; Wu, Chao-Qun; Zhao, Shou-Yuan; Yu, Long

2006-02-01

73

Draft Genome Sequences of Vibrio cholerae O1 ElTor Strains 2011EL-301 and P-18785, Isolated in Russia  

PubMed Central

We report the draft whole-genome sequences of two Vibrio cholerae O1 strains, the environmental toxigenic strain 2011EL-301 and the clinical nontoxigenic strain P-18785, both isolated in Russia. Some basic data comparing the two against the GenBank repository are provided. PMID:23969060

Vodop’ianov, Sergey O.; Markelov, Mikhail L.; Dedkov, Vladimir G.; Kermanov, Anton V.; Kruglikov, Vladimir D.; Vodop’ianov, Alexey S.; Pisanov, Ruslan V.; Mazrukho, Alexey B.; Shipulin, German A.

2013-01-01

74

Coagulase-negative variants of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus strains isolated from hospital specimens.  

PubMed

At the Department of Clinical Bacteriology of Medical University of Warsaw, S. aureus strains displaying negative reactions in the coagulase tube-test were isolated with a relatively high frequency from clinical specimens. As many as seventeen of such strains all from different patients were isolated during 1994 among MRSA strains. Despite coagulase negativity all strains were positive in tests for clumping factor (CF), protein A and thermonuclease. Biochemical characteristics, phage patterns and antibiotic resistance characteristics of these strains were tested. Most of the coagulase-negative strains possessed a heterogenous type of methicillin resistance. Apart from methicillin most of them were resistant to many other antimicrobials. All were resistant to gentamicin, tetracyclines and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramine B. An occurrence of coagulase-negative S. aureus strains may lead to problems in their identification and the necessity of an application of other methods like CF, protein A or biochemical reactions. PMID:9861681

M?ynarczyk, G; Kochman, M; Lawrynowicz, M; Fordymacki, P; M?ynarczyk, A; Jeljaszewicz, J

1998-11-01

75

Familial Isolated Hyperparathyroidism as a Variant of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 in a Large Danish Pedigree  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here our genetic findings of a family in which 14 mem- bers were affected with isolated primary hyperparathyroidism. Hy- perparathyroidism is the main feature of multiple endocrine neopla- sia type 1 (MEN1), making the recently cloned MEN1 gene a prime candidate gene in this family. Significantly positive lod scores were achieved with D11S4946 (3.36) and D11S4940 (3.53), and

MUSTAPHA KASSEM; TORBEN A. KRUSE; FUNG KI WONG; CATHARINA LARSSON; BIN TEAN TEH

2010-01-01

76

Emergence of related nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae biotype mitis strains in Western Europe.  

PubMed Central

We report on 17 isolates of Corynebacterium diphtheriae biotype mitis with related ribotypes from Switzerland, Germany, and France. Isolates came from skin and subcutaneous infections of injecting drug users, homeless persons, prisoners, and elderly orthopedic patients with joint prostheses or primary joint infections. Such isolates had only been observed in Switzerland. PMID:10341192

Funke, G.; Altwegg, M.; Frommelt, L.; von Graevenitz, A.

1999-01-01

77

Rough and smooth morphotypes isolated from Lactobacillus farciminis CNCM I-3699 are two closely-related variants.  

PubMed

This study focused on a pleomorphic strain Lactobacillus farciminis CNCM I-3699 known as probiotic for animal applications. On plating, this strain was characterized by the presence of rough and smooth morphotypes depending on experimental conditions. Dominant smooth (S) form, bright white, having smooth edges with moist, ropy, and creamy along with rough (R) form, pale white, having irregular edges and a dry and granular aspect were always obtained from the parent strain under aerobic culture conditions. In anaerobic conditions, only S form growth was observed. Biochemical dosage of capsular exopolysaccharides showed a significant difference between S and R forms (p<0.01), in agreement with a ropy or non ropy phenotype for the S or R form, respectively. These differences were confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy. The auto-aggregation profile revealed major differences in cultural behaviors. The R morphotype presented a highly auto-aggregative ability contrary to the S morphotype. However, biochemical and molecular analyses revealed that R and S morphotypes: 1) shared the same sugar fermentation pattern; 2) belonged to L. farciminis species using 16S rDNA sequencing; 3) had identical PFGE patterns using NotI and ApaI endonucleases; and 4) had identical CRISPR loci but different from those of other L. farciminis strains. Furthermore, the novelty and uniqueness of CRISPR spacer sequences in CNCM I-3699 provides a genetic support for the development of a molecular tracking tool for CNCM I-3699 and its variants. In conclusion, L. farciminis CNCM I-3699 is a pleomorphic strain giving reproducibly rise to two phenotypically distinct morphotypes R and S. This phenomenon may explain survival and growth abilities in in vitro fluctuating aerobic-anaerobic conditions along with modulation of exopolysaccharide synthesis and autoaggregation profile. PMID:25462927

Tareb, Raouf; Bernardeau, Marion; Horvath, Philippe; Vernoux, Jean-Paul

2015-01-16

78

Isolation of Intrinsically Active (MEK-independent) Variants of the ERK Family of Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinases*S??  

PubMed Central

MAPKs are key components of cell signaling pathways with a unique activation mechanism: i.e. dual phosphorylation of neighboring threonine and tyrosine residues. The ERK enzymes form a subfamily of MAPKs involved in proliferation, differentiation, development, learning, and memory. The exact role of each Erk molecule in these processes is not clear. An efficient strategy for addressing this question is to activate individually each molecule, for example, by expressing intrinsically active variants of them. However, such molecules were not produced so far. Here, we report on the isolation, via a specifically designed genetic screen, of six variants (each carries a point mutation) of the yeast MAPK Mpk1/Erk that are active, independent of upstream phosphorylation. One of the activating mutations, R68S, occurred in a residue conserved in the mammalian Erk1 (Arg-84) and Erk2 (Arg-65) and in the Drosophila ERK Rolled (Arg-80). Replacing this conserved Arg with Ser rendered these MAPKs intrinsically active to very high levels when tested in vitro as recombinant proteins. Combination of the Arg to Ser mutation with the sevenmaker mutation (producing Erk2R65S+D319N and RolledR80S+D334N) resulted in even higher activity (45 and 70%, respectively, in reference to fully active dually phosphorylated Erk2 or Rolled). Erk2R65S and Erk2R65S+D319N were found to be spontaneously active also when expressed in human HEK293 cells. We further revealed the mechanism of action of the mutants and show that it involves acquisition of autophosphorylation activity. Thus, a first generation of Erk molecules that are spontaneously active in vitro and in vivo has been obtained. PMID:18829462

Levin-Salomon, Vered; Kogan, Konstantin; Ahn, Natalie G.; Livnah, Oded; Engelberg, David

2008-01-01

79

MRSA Variant in Companion Animals  

PubMed Central

Methicillin-resistant Staphylocoocus aureus (MRSA) harboring mecALGA251 has been isolated from humans and ruminants. Database screening identified this MRSA variant in cats, dogs, and a guinea pig in Germany during 2008–2011. The novel MRSA variant is not restricted to ruminants or humans, and contact with companion animals might pose a zoonotic risk. PMID:23171478

Wieler, Lothar H.; Vincze, Szilvia; Antão, Esther-Maria; Brandenburg, Anja; Stamm, Ivonne; Kopp, Peter A.; Kohn, Barbara; Semmler, Torsten; Lübke-Becker, Antina

2012-01-01

80

Isolation and characterization of a variant dihydrofolate reductase cDNA from methotrexate-resistant murine L5178Y cells.  

PubMed Central

Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) cDNA sequences were isolated from a methotrexate-resistant mouse L5178Y cell line previously shown to contain methotrexate-resistant dihydrofolate reductase enzyme activity. Specifically-primed reverse transcription products were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and then cloned into a mammalian expression plasmid. Candidate clones were identified by restriction analysis and then functionally tested by transfection into mouse 3T3 fibroblasts, selecting for methotrexate-resistant colonies. Sequence analysis of the cDNA clones demonstrated the substitution of tryptophan (TGG) in place of the wild-type phenylalanine (TTC) at codon 31. Sequencing of PCR-amplified genomic DNA extracted from the drug-resistant L5178Y cells confirmed the tryptophan codon at position 31. Transfection of mammalian tissue culture cells with expression plasmids containing the trp31 DHFR sequence resulted in substantial methotrexate-resistant colony formation. Recombinant trp31 DHFR enzyme activity expressed in stably-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells was approximately 20-fold less sensitive to methotrexate inhibition than wild-type mouse DHFR enzyme activity. We conclude that the cloned Trp31 DHFR sequence encodes an enzyme substantially resistant to methotrexate which confers a drug-resistance phenotype to cells in which it is expressed. Images PMID:2263462

McIvor, R S; Simonsen, C C

1990-01-01

81

Hepatitis C virus genotype distribution in China: predominance of closely related subtype 1b isolates and existence of new genotype 6 variants.  

PubMed

To determine hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype distribution in China, a total of 148 HCV RNA positive serum samples were collected from nine geographic areas and subjected to RT-PCR followed by direct DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the core, E1, and NS5B regions. HCV was genotyped in 139 (93.9%) samples. Among them subtype 1b was the most predominant [66% (92/139)] followed by 2a [14% (19/139)]. Of 92 subtype 1b isolates, 35 (38%) and 30 (33%) formed two clusters, designated groups A and B. Group A was prevalent throughout China, while group B was predominant in the central and southern regions. In three cities in the Pearl River Delta, subtype 6a replaced 2a as the second most predominant subtype, and in Kunming (southwest) multiple HCV genotypes/subtypes were present. New variants of HCV genotype 6 were discovered in three samples from Kunming and one in Guangzhou in the Pearl River Delta. PMID:15714489

Lu, Ling; Nakano, Tatsunori; He, Yunshao; Fu, Yongshui; Hagedorn, Curt H; Robertson, Betty H

2005-04-01

82

Characterization of a genetic and antigenic variant of avian paramyxovirus 6 isolated from a migratory wild bird, the red-necked stint (Calidris ruficollis).  

PubMed

A hemagglutinating virus (8KS0813) was isolated from a red-necked stint. Hemagglutination inhibition and neutralization tests indicated that 8KS0813 was antigenically related to a prototype strain, APMV-6/duck/Hong Kong/18/199/77, but with an 8- and 16-fold difference, respectively, in their titers. The full genome sequence of 8KS0813 showed 98.6 % nucleotide sequence identity to that of APMV-6/duck/Italy/4524-2/07, which has been reported to belong to an APMV-6 subgroup, and showed less similarity to that of the prototype strain (70.6 % similarity). The growth of 8KS0813 and the prototype strain in four different cell cultures was greatly enhanced by adding trypsin. Interestingly, this virus induced syncytia only in Vero cells. 8KS0813 was identified as APMV-6/red-necked stint/Japan/8KS0813/08, but it is antigenically and genetically distinguishable from the prototype strain, suggesting that variant APMV-6 is circulating in migratory birds. PMID:25000900

Bui, Vuong Nghia; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Nguyen, Tung Hoang; Trinh, Dai Quang; Awad, Sanaa S A; Minoungou, Germaine L; Yamamoto, Yu; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Saito, Keisuke; Watanabe, Yukiko; Runstadler, Jonathan; Huettmann, Falk; Ogawa, Haruko; Imai, Kunitoshi

2014-11-01

83

Variant surface glycoproteins from Venezuelan trypanosome isolates are recognized by sera from animals infected with either Trypanosoma evansi or Trypanosoma vivax  

PubMed Central

Salivarian trypanosomes sequentially express only one variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) on their cell surface from a large repertoire of VSG genes. Seven cryopreserved animal trypanosome isolates known as TeAp-ElFrio01, TEVA1 (or TeAp-N/D1), TeGu-N/D1, TeAp-Mantecal01, TeGu-TerecayTrino, TeGu-Terecay03 and TeGu-Terecay323, which had been isolated from different hosts identified in several geographical areas of Venezuela were expanded using adult albino rats. Soluble forms of predominant VSGs expressed during the early infection stages were purified and corresponded to concanavalin A-binding proteins with molecular masses of 48–67 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electropohoresis, and pI values between 6.1 and 7.5. The biochemical characterization of all purified soluble VSGs revealed that they were dimers in their native form and represented different gene products. Sequencing of some of these proteins yielded peptides homologous to VSGs from Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei and Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi and established that they most likely are mosaics generated by homologous recombination. Western blot analysis showed that all purified VSGs were cross-reacting antigens that were recognized by sera from animals infected with either T. evansi or Trypanosoma (Dutonella) vivax. The VSG glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol cross-reacting determinant epitope was only partially responsible for the cross-reactivity of the purified proteins, and antibodies appeared to recognize cross-reacting conformational epitopes from the various soluble VSGs. ELISA experiments were performed using infected bovine sera collected from cattle in a Venezuelan trypanosome-endemic area. In particular, soluble VSGs from two trypanosome isolates, TeGu-N/D1 and TeGu-TeracayTrino, were recognized by 93.38% and 73.55% of naturally T. vivax-infected bovine sera, respectively. However, approximately 70% of the sera samples did not recognize all seven purified proteins. Hence, the use of a combination of various VSGs for the diagnosis of animal trypanosomosis is recommended. PMID:25468674

Camargo, Rocío; Izquier, Adriana; Uzcanga, Graciela L.; Perrone, Trina; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Carrasquel, Liomary; Arias, Laura P.; Escalona, José L.; Cardozo, Vanessa; Bubis, José

2015-01-01

84

Antiviral susceptibility of variant influenza A(H3N2)v viruses isolated in the United States from 2011 to 2013.  

PubMed

Since 2011, outbreaks caused by influenza A(H3N2) variant [A(H3N2)v] viruses have become a public health concern in the United States. The A(H3N2)v viruses share the A(H1N1)pdm09 M gene containing the marker of M2 blocker resistance, S31N, but do not contain any known molecular markers associated with resistance to neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs). Using a fluorescent NA inhibition (NI) assay, the susceptibilities of recovered A(H3N2)v viruses (n=168) to FDA-approved (oseltamivir and zanamivir) and other (peramivir, laninamivir, and A-315675) NAIs were assessed. All A(H3N2)v viruses tested, with the exception of a single virus strain, A/Ohio/88/2012, isolated from an untreated patient, were susceptible to the NAIs tested. The A/Ohio/88/2012 virus contained two rare substitutions, S245N and S247P, in the NA and demonstrated reduced inhibition by oseltamivir (31-fold) and zanamivir (66-fold) in the NI assay. Using recombinant NA (recNA) proteins, S247P was shown to be responsible for the observed altered NAI susceptibility, in addition to an approximately 60% reduction in NA enzymatic activity. The S247P substitution has not been previously reported as a molecular marker of reduced susceptibility to the NAIs. Using cell culture assays, the investigational antiviral drugs nitazoxanide, favipiravir, and fludase were shown to inhibit the replication of A(H3N2)v viruses, including the virus with the S247P substitution in the NA. This report demonstrates the importance of continuous monitoring of susceptibility of zoonotic influenza viruses to available and investigational antiviral drugs. PMID:24449767

Sleeman, K; Mishin, V P; Guo, Z; Garten, R J; Balish, A; Fry, A M; Villanueva, J; Stevens, J; Gubareva, L V

2014-01-01

85

Subtypes of intimin among non-toxigenic Escherichia coli from diarrheic calves in Brazil.  

PubMed Central

One hundred and five strains of Escherichia coli that were isolated from calves with diarrhea in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and were negative for enterotoxins and cytotoxins, were examined for the eae gene. Four (3.8%) strains were positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were shown to produce intimin by using Western blot with specific antiserum against the conserved N-terminal region of intimin. Subtyping of the intimins was done by PCR with specific primers and by Western blot with specific antisera against the C-terminal variable region of the protein. Three of these isolates (O?:H11, O26:H-, O123:H1) produced the beta subtype of intimin, and the 4th (0103:H2) produced intimin that was not typable. The 0103:H2 and the O26:H-isolates adhered to HEp-2 cells with diffuse adherence and localized-like adherence patterns, respectively. The other strains did not adhere to HEp-2 cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the occurrence of a subtype of intimin described for human enteropathogenic E. coli among bovine diarrheogenic E. coli. It is also the first report from Brazil demonstrating the presence of bovine E. coli harboring the eae gene. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:10680651

Aidar, L; Penteado, A S; Trabulsi, L R; Blanco, J E; Blanco, M; Blanco, J; Pestana de Castro, A F

2000-01-01

86

Isolation of Clostridium botulinum type G from Swiss soil specimens by using sequential steps in an identification scheme.  

PubMed Central

After Clostridium botulinum type G organisms and toxin were identified in necropsy specimens in cases of unexplained death in adults and infants (O. Sonnabend, W. Sonnabend, R. Heinzle, T. Sigrist, R Dirnhofer, and U. Krech, J. Infect. Dis. 143:22-27, 1981), extensive research to detect C. botulinum type G in soil samples from Switzerland was done. A total of 41 specimens from virgin soil and from cultivated land were examined for the presence of C. botulinum type G and other toxin types. Because of the lack of the lipase marker in type G, the detection of C. botulinum type G was based on the demonstration of type G organisms in enrichment cultures by a type G-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect both the type G toxin and antigen; enrichment cultures in which type G toxin or antigen was identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were then tested by a type G-specific gel immunodiffusion agar procedure. This method not only isolated strains of type G but also strains of Clostridium subterminale, a nontoxigenic variant of C. botulinum type G. As a consequence of the observed cross-reactions caused by strains of C. subterminale within this test system, all isolates of type G had to be definitively confirmed by mouse bioassay. The sequential steps of these methods seem to be very useful for detecting C. botulinum type G organisms. C. botulinum type G strains were isolated in five soil samples from different locations in close association with cultivated land.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:3116935

Sonnabend, W F; Sonnabend, U P; Krech, T

1987-01-01

87

Comparative studies on the pathogenicity and tissue distribution of three virulence variants of classical swine fever virus, two field isolates and one vaccine strain, with special regard to immunohistochemical investigations  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to compare the tissue distribution and pathogenicity of three virulence variants of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and to investigate the applicability of various conventional diagnostic procedures. Methods 64 pigs were divided into three groups and infected with the highly virulent isolate ISS/60, the moderately virulent isolate Wingene'93 and the live attenuated vaccine strain Riems, respectively. Clinical signs, gross and histopathological changes were compared in relation to time elapsed post infection. Virus spread in various organs was followed by virus isolation, by immunohistochemistry, applying monoclonal antibodies in a two-step method and by in situ hybridisation using a digoxigenin-labelled riboprobe. Results The tissue distribution data are discussed in details, analyzing the results of the various diagnostic approaches. The comparative studies revealed remarkable differences in the onset of clinical signs as well as in the development of the macro- and microscopical changes, and in the tissue distribution of CSFV in the three experimental groups. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that in the case of highly and moderately virulent virus variants the virulence does not affect the pattern of the viral spread, however, it influences the outcome, the duration and the intensity of the disease. Immunohistochemistry has the advantage to allow the rapid detection and localisation of the virus, especially in cases of early infection, when clinical signs are still absent. Compared to virus isolation, the advantage of this method is that no cell culture facilities are required. Thus, immunohistochemistry provides simple and sensitive tools for the prompt detection of newly emerging variants of CSFV, including the viruses of very mild virulence. PMID:18775072

Belák, Katinka; Koenen, Frank; Vanderhallen, Hans; Mittelholzer, Christian; Feliziani, Francesco; De Mia, Gian Mario; Belák, Sándor

2008-01-01

88

A Molecular Surveillance Reveals the Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae O139 Isolates in China from 1993 to 2012  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 was first identified in 1992 in India and Bangladesh, in association with major epidemics of cholera in both countries; cases were noted shortly thereafter in China. We characterized 211 V. cholerae O139 isolates that were isolated at multiple sites in China between 1993 and 2012 from patients (n = 92) and the environment (n = 119). Among clinical isolates, 88 (95.7%) of 92 were toxigenic, compared with 47 (39.5%) of 119 environmental isolates. Toxigenic isolates carried the El Tor CTX prophage and toxin-coregulated pilus A gene (tcpA), as well as the Vibrio seventh pandemic island I (VSP-I) and VSP-II. Among a subset of 42 toxigenic isolates screened by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), all were in the same sequence type as a clinical isolate (MO45) from the original Indian outbreak. Nontoxigenic isolates, in contrast, generally lacked VSP-I and -II, and fell within13 additional sequence types in two clonal complexes distinct from the toxigenic isolates. In further pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (with NotI digestion) studies, toxigenic isolates formed 60 pulsotypes clustered in one group, while the nontoxigenic isolates formed 43 pulsotypes which clustered into 3 different groups. Our data suggest that toxigenic O139 isolates from widely divergent geographic locations, while showing some diversity, have maintained a relatively tight clonal structure across a 20-year time span. Nontoxigenic isolates, in contrast, exhibited greater diversity, with multiple clonal lineages, than did their toxigenic counterparts. PMID:24452176

Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Haijian; Diao, Baowei; Li, Fengjuan; Du, Pengcheng; Li, Jie; Morris, J. Glenn

2014-01-01

89

Efflux-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance in the multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate PA7: identification of a novel MexS variant involved in upregulation of the mexEF-oprN multidrug efflux operon  

PubMed Central

The emergence of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa has become a serious problem in medical settings. P. aeruginosa clinical isolate PA7 is resistant to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and most ?-lactams but not imipenem. In this study, enhanced efflux-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance of PA7 was shown to reflect increased expression of two resistance nodulation cell division (RND) -type multidrug efflux operons, mexEF-oprN and mexXY-oprA. Such a clinical isolate has rarely been reported because MexEF-OprN-overproducing mutants often increase susceptibility to aminoglycosides apparently owing to impairment of the MexXY system. A mutant of PA7 lacking three RND-type multidrug efflux operons (mexAB-oprM, mexEF-oprN, and mexXY-oprA) was susceptible to all anti-pseudomonas agents we tested, supporting an idea that these RND-type multidrug efflux transporters are molecular targets to overcome multidrug resistance in P. aeruginosa. mexEF-oprN-upregulation in P. aeruginosa PA7 was shown due to a MexS variant harboring the Valine-155 amino acid residue. This is the first genetic evidence shown that a MexS variant causes mexEF-oprN-upregulation in P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. PMID:25653649

Morita, Yuji; Tomida, Junko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki

2014-01-01

90

Characterization of form variants of Xenorhabdus luminescens.  

PubMed Central

From Xenorhabdus luminescens XE-87.3 four variants were isolated. One, which produced a red pigment and antibiotics, was luminescent, and could take up dye from culture media, was considered the primary form (XE-red). A pink-pigmented variant (XE-pink) differed from the primary form only in pigmentation and uptake of dye. Of the two other variants, one produced a yellow pigment and fewer antibiotics (XE-yellow), while the other did not produce a pigment or antibiotics (XE-white). Both were less luminescent, did not take up dye, and had small cell and colony sizes. These two variants were very unstable and shifted to the primary form after 3 to 5 days. It was not possible to separate the primary form and the white variant completely; subcultures of one colony always contained a few colonies of the other variant. The white variant was also found in several other X. luminescens strains. DNA fingerprints showed that all four variants are genetically identical and are therefore derivatives of the same parent. Protein patterns revealed a few differences among the four variants. None of the variants could be considered the secondary form. The pathogenicity of the variants decreased in the following order: XE-red, XE-pink, XE-yellow, and XE-white. The mechanism and function of this variability are discussed. Images PMID:1622273

Gerritsen, L J; de Raay, G; Smits, P H

1992-01-01

91

Evaluation of resistance development and viability recovery by toxigenic and non-toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains after repeated cycles of high hydrostatic pressure.  

PubMed

In this work, the development of resistance and the recovery of growth after several consecutive cycles of high hydrostatic pressure (HPP) were for the first time evaluated in different strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Three strains of this important and highly resilient to HPP foodborne pathogen were used: a non-enterotoxigenic ATCC 6538 strain, treated with 600 MPa for 30 min at 20 °C, and the toxigenic strains 2153 MA (with enterotoxin A) and 2065 MA (with the enterotoxins A, G and I), treated with 600 MPa for 15 min at 20 °C. After the first treatment, surviving colonies were used to produce new bacterial cultures. This procedure was repeated nine times more for each bacterium or until total inactivation occurred. The inactivation profile of non-enterotoxic strain and the two enterotoxic strains did not change after consecutive cycles, but the toxic strain with three enterotoxins was completely inactivated after the fourth cycle. The three strains did not recover their viability after 14 days. The results indicate that HPP effectively inactivates non-toxigenic and toxigenic strains of S. aureus after a single treatment. The surviving bacteria did not develop resistance after 10 cycles of pressurization and did not recover their viability after 14 days of incubation. PMID:25475323

Baptista, Inês; Queirós, Rui P; Cunha, Angela; Rocha, Sílvia M; Saraiva, Jorge A; Almeida, Adelaide

2015-04-01

92

The intergenic-junction variant (genotype 2 isolate) of hepatitis E virus restores the CREX 'stem-loop' structural integrity, essential for viral life cycle.  

PubMed

Among the known human HEV strains (genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4), the genotype 2 Mexican isolate has two 'double-base' substitutions (5'U5100G5101?CU/3'C5117U5118?GG) flanking the conserved cis-reactive element (CRE) in the intergenic-junction sequences. While the 'C5100U5101' natural mutations in the upstream ORF1 coding region replace 'alanine' for the conserved 'valine', the 'G5117G5118' doublet resides in the downstream non-coding/promoter region of ORF3 gene. Though a stable 'stem-loop' structure containing CRE, critical for virus replication had been reported, the phenotypic effect of genotype 2 'CU/GG' variations were neither mentioned nor explored. In this study, the evolutionary significance of such tolerable mutations in the conserved regulatory-sequences was investigated. Multiple sequence alignment of intergenic-junction of human HEV strains showed further base conservations flanking the CRE sequences. In silico analysis of the conserved sequences (nts. 5099-5121) of the representative genotypes revealed a stable RNA 'stem-loop' structure (CREX). Of the four genotype-specific CREX, the Mexican mutant bases 'CU/GG' very interestingly, compensated and complemented themselves (5'C5100:3'G5118 and 5'U5101:3'G5117) in the 'lower-stem'. The substitution of 'GG' bases in the ORF3 promoter-region did not affect its 'optimal-context' and therefore, negated its regulatory role at 'nucleotide' level. Virtual mutations introduced to break the two base-pairings in the CREX 'lower-stem', completely destabilized the secondary structure. Further molecular characterization of the CREX mutants in HEV-SAR55 replicon background showed a drastic downregulation of viral RNA replication in S10-3 cells. Though the CREX-mutant RNA were encapsidated into trans-complemented viral capsids (ORF2), and produced virions, they were poorly infectious to naïve HepG2/C3A cells. In conclusion, the compensatory mutations in the intergenic-junction of Mexican isolate suggest strict conservation of the CREX 'stem-loop' structure, essential for HEV genome replication. This could have a greater regulatory role in viral life cycle, including RNA packaging. PMID:25597766

Parvez, Mohammad Khalid

2015-04-01

93

Aspergillus oryzae NRRL 35191 from coffee, a non-toxigenic endophyte with the ability to synthesize kojic acid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus oryzae was isolated as an endophyte from coffee leaves and found to produce kojic acid in culture. When inoculated in cacao seedlings (Theobroma cacao L.), A. oryzae grew endophytically and synthesize kojic acid in planta. Cacao seedlings inoculated with A. oryzae produced higher levels...

94

Intracellular activity of antibiotics in a model of human THP-1 macrophages infected by a Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variant strain isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient: study of antibiotic combinations.  

PubMed

In a companion paper (H. A. Nguyen et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:1434-1442, 2009), we showed that vancomycin, oxacillin, fusidic acid, clindamycin, linezolid, and daptomycin are poorly active against the intracellular form of a thymidine-dependent small-colony variant (SCV) strain isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient and that the activity of quinupristin-dalfopristin, moxifloxacin, rifampin, and oritavancin remains limited (2- to 3-log CFU reduction) compared to their extracellular activity. Antibiotic combination is a well-known strategy to improve antibacterial activity, which was examined here against an intracellular SCV strain using combinations with either rifampin or oritavancin. Time-kill curve analysis using either concentrations that caused a static effect for each antibiotic individually or concentrations corresponding to the maximum concentration in human serum showed largely divergent effects that were favorable when antibiotics were combined with rifampin at low concentrations only and with oritavancin at both low and high concentrations. The nature of the interaction between rifampin, oritavancin, and moxifloxacin was further examined using the fractional maximal effect method, which allows categorization of the effects of combinations when dose-effect relationships are not linear. Rifampin and oritavancin were synergistic at all concentration ratios investigated. Oritavancin and moxifloxacin were also synergistic but at high oritavancin concentrations only. Rifampin and moxifloxacin were additive. This approach may help in better assessing and improving the activity of antibiotics against intracellular SCV strains. PMID:19188397

Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Denis, Olivier; Vergison, Anne; Tulkens, Paul M; Struelens, Marc J; Van Bambeke, Françoise

2009-04-01

95

Intracellular Activity of Antibiotics in a Model of Human THP-1 Macrophages Infected by a Staphylococcus aureus Small-Colony Variant Strain Isolated from a Cystic Fibrosis Patient: Study of Antibiotic Combinations? †  

PubMed Central

In a companion paper (H. A. Nguyen et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:1434-1442, 2009), we showed that vancomycin, oxacillin, fusidic acid, clindamycin, linezolid, and daptomycin are poorly active against the intracellular form of a thymidine-dependent small-colony variant (SCV) strain isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient and that the activity of quinupristin-dalfopristin, moxifloxacin, rifampin, and oritavancin remains limited (2- to 3-log CFU reduction) compared to their extracellular activity. Antibiotic combination is a well-known strategy to improve antibacterial activity, which was examined here against an intracellular SCV strain using combinations with either rifampin or oritavancin. Time-kill curve analysis using either concentrations that caused a static effect for each antibiotic individually or concentrations corresponding to the maximum concentration in human serum showed largely divergent effects that were favorable when antibiotics were combined with rifampin at low concentrations only and with oritavancin at both low and high concentrations. The nature of the interaction between rifampin, oritavancin, and moxifloxacin was further examined using the fractional maximal effect method, which allows categorization of the effects of combinations when dose-effect relationships are not linear. Rifampin and oritavancin were synergistic at all concentration ratios investigated. Oritavancin and moxifloxacin were also synergistic but at high oritavancin concentrations only. Rifampin and moxifloxacin were additive. This approach may help in better assessing and improving the activity of antibiotics against intracellular SCV strains. PMID:19188397

Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Denis, Olivier; Vergison, Anne; Tulkens, Paul M.; Struelens, Marc J.; Van Bambeke, Françoise

2009-01-01

96

Characterization of the amantadine-resistant H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza variants isolated from quails in Southern China.  

PubMed

Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have spread in poultry and wild birds in Asia, Europe, and Africa since 2003. To evaluate the role of quails in the evolution of influenza A virus, we characterized three H5N1 viruses isolated from quails (QA viruses) in southern China. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that three QA viruses derived from the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96-like lineage and most closely related to HA clade 4 A/chicken/Hong Kong/31.4/02-like viruses. Molecular analysis suggested that QA viruses and clade 4 H5N1 viruses carried consistent residue signatures, such as the characteristic M2 Ser31Asn amantadine-resistance mutation, implying a common origin of these viruses. As revealed by viral pathogenicity tests, these QA viruses could replicate in intranasally infected mice, but were not lethal to them, showing low pathogenicity in mammals. However, they killed all intravenously inoculated chickens, showing high pathogenicity in poultry. Results from amantadine sensitivity tests of wild-type QA viruses and their reverse genetic viruses demonstrated that all QA viruses were resistant to amantadine, and the M2 Ser31Asn mutation was determined as the most likely cause of the increased amantadine-resistance of H5N1 QA viruses. Our study confirmed experimentally that the amino acid at residue 31 in the M2 protein plays a major role in determining the amantadine-resistance phenotype of H5N1 influenza viruses. Our findings provide further evidence that quails may play important roles in the evolution of influenza A viruses, which raises concerns over possible transmissions of H5N1 viruses among poultry, wild birds, and humans. PMID:24993865

Dong, Guoying; Luo, Jing; Zhou, Kai; Wu, Bin; Peng, Chao; Ji, Guangju; He, Hongxuan

2014-10-01

97

Intracellular Activity of Antibiotics in a Model of Human THP-1 Macrophages Infected by a Staphylococcus aureus Small-Colony Variant Strain Isolated from a Cystic Fibrosis Patient: Pharmacodynamic Evaluation and Comparison with Isogenic Normal-Phenotype and Revertant Strains? †  

PubMed Central

Small-colony variant (SCV) strains of Staphylococcus aureus show reduced antibiotic susceptibility and intracellular persistence, potentially explaining therapeutic failures. The activities of oxacillin, fusidic acid, clindamycin, gentamicin, rifampin, vancomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, daptomycin, tigecycline, moxifloxacin, telavancin, and oritavancin have been examined in THP-1 macrophages infected by a stable thymidine-dependent SCV strain in comparison with normal-phenotype and revertant isogenic strains isolated from the same cystic fibrosis patient. The SCV strain grew slowly extracellularly and intracellularly (1- and 0.2-log CFU increase in 24 h, respectively). In confocal and electron microscopy, SCV and the normal-phenotype bacteria remain confined in acid vacuoles. All antibiotics tested, except tigecycline, caused a net reduction in bacterial counts that was both time and concentration dependent. At an extracellular concentration corresponding to the maximum concentration in human serum (total drug), oritavancin caused a 2-log CFU reduction at 24 h; rifampin, moxifloxacin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin caused a similar reduction at 72 h; and all other antibiotics had only a static effect at 24 h and a 1-log CFU reduction at 72 h. In concentration dependence experiments, response to oritavancin was bimodal (two successive plateaus of ?0.4 and ?3.1 log CFU); tigecycline, moxifloxacin, and rifampin showed maximal effects of ?1.1 to ?1.7 log CFU; and the other antibiotics produced results of ?0.6 log CFU or less. Addition of thymidine restored intracellular growth of the SCV strain but did not modify the activity of antibiotics (except quinupristin-dalfopristin). All drugs (except tigecycline and oritavancin) showed higher intracellular activity against normal or revertant phenotypes than against SCV strains. The data may help rationalizing the design of further studies with intracellular SCV strains. PMID:19188393

Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Denis, Olivier; Vergison, Anne; Theunis, Anne; Tulkens, Paul M.; Struelens, Marc J.; Van Bambeke, Françoise

2009-01-01

98

Intracellular activity of antibiotics in a model of human THP-1 macrophages infected by a Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variant strain isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient: pharmacodynamic evaluation and comparison with isogenic normal-phenotype and revertant strains.  

PubMed

Small-colony variant (SCV) strains of Staphylococcus aureus show reduced antibiotic susceptibility and intracellular persistence, potentially explaining therapeutic failures. The activities of oxacillin, fusidic acid, clindamycin, gentamicin, rifampin, vancomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, daptomycin, tigecycline, moxifloxacin, telavancin, and oritavancin have been examined in THP-1 macrophages infected by a stable thymidine-dependent SCV strain in comparison with normal-phenotype and revertant isogenic strains isolated from the same cystic fibrosis patient. The SCV strain grew slowly extracellularly and intracellularly (1- and 0.2-log CFU increase in 24 h, respectively). In confocal and electron microscopy, SCV and the normal-phenotype bacteria remain confined in acid vacuoles. All antibiotics tested, except tigecycline, caused a net reduction in bacterial counts that was both time and concentration dependent. At an extracellular concentration corresponding to the maximum concentration in human serum (total drug), oritavancin caused a 2-log CFU reduction at 24 h; rifampin, moxifloxacin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin caused a similar reduction at 72 h; and all other antibiotics had only a static effect at 24 h and a 1-log CFU reduction at 72 h. In concentration dependence experiments, response to oritavancin was bimodal (two successive plateaus of -0.4 and -3.1 log CFU); tigecycline, moxifloxacin, and rifampin showed maximal effects of -1.1 to -1.7 log CFU; and the other antibiotics produced results of -0.6 log CFU or less. Addition of thymidine restored intracellular growth of the SCV strain but did not modify the activity of antibiotics (except quinupristin-dalfopristin). All drugs (except tigecycline and oritavancin) showed higher intracellular activity against normal or revertant phenotypes than against SCV strains. The data may help rationalizing the design of further studies with intracellular SCV strains. PMID:19188393

Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Denis, Olivier; Vergison, Anne; Theunis, Anne; Tulkens, Paul M; Struelens, Marc J; Van Bambeke, Françoise

2009-04-01

99

Reversion of CTL escape–variant immunodeficiency viruses in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engendering cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses is likely to be an important goal of HIV vaccines. However, CTLs select for viral variants that escape immune detection. Maintenance of such escape variants in human populations could pose an obstacle to HIV vaccine development. We first observed that escape mutations in a heterogeneous simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolate were lost upon passage to

Thomas C Friedrich; Elizabeth J Dodds; Levi J Yant; Lara Vojnov; Richard Rudersdorf; Candice Cullen; David T Evans; Ronald C Desrosiers; Bianca R Mothé; John Sidney; Alessandro Sette; Kevin Kunstman; Steven Wolinsky; Michael Piatak; Jeffrey Lifson; Austin L Hughes; Nancy Wilson; David H O'Connor; David I Watkins

2004-01-01

100

In Vitro Activities of Cephalosporins and Quinolones against Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Diarrheic Dairy Calves  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activities of several cephalosporins and quinolones against 195 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from dairy calves affected by neonatal diarrhea were determined. One hundred thirty-seven of these strains produced one or more potential virulence factors (F5, F41, F17, cytotoxic necrotizing factor, verotoxin, and the eae gene), but the remaining 58 strains did not produce any of these factors. From 11 to 18% of the E. coli strains were resistant to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin. However, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and cefquinome were highly effective against the E. coli isolates tested. Some significant differences (P < 0.05) in resistance to quinolones between the strains producing potential virulence factors and nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains were found. Thus, eae-positive, necrotoxigenic, and verotoxigenic (except for nalidixic acid) E. coli strains were significantly more sensitive to nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin than nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains. Moreover, eae-positive strains were significantly more sensitive to enoxacin and enrofloxacin than F5-positive strains. Thus, the results of this study suggest that the bovine E. coli strains that produce some potential virulence factors are more sensitive to quinolones than those that do not express these factors. PMID:10049259

Orden, José Antonio; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, José Antonio; García, Silvia; Cid, Dolores; de la Fuente, Ricardo

1999-01-01

101

In vitro activities of cephalosporins and quinolones against Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic dairy calves.  

PubMed

The in vitro activities of several cephalosporins and quinolones against 195 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from diary calves affected by neonatal diarrhea were determined. One hundred thirty-seven of these strains produced one or more potential virulence factors (F5, F41, F17, cytotoxic necrotizing factor, verotoxin, and the eae gene), but the remaining 58 strains did not produce any of these factors. From 11 to 18% of the E. coli strains were resistant to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin. However, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and cefquinome were highly effective against the E. coli isolates tested. Some significant differences (P < 0.05) in resistance to quinolones between the strains producing potential virulence factors and nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains were found. Thus, eae-positive, necrotoxigenic, and verotoxigenic (except for nalidixic acid) E. coli strains were significantly more sensitive to nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin than nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains. Moreover, eae-positive strains were significantly more sensitive to enoxacin and enrofloxacin than F5-positive strains. Thus, the result of this study suggest that the bovine E. coli strains that produce some potential virulence factors are more sensitive to quinolones than those that do not express these factors. PMID:10049259

Orden, J A; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, J A; García, S; Cid, D; De La Fuente, R

1999-03-01

102

Charge variants in IgG1  

PubMed Central

Antibody charge variants have gained considerable attention in the biotechnology industry due to their potential influence on stability and biological activity. Subtle differences in the relative proportions of charge variants are often observed during routine biomanufacture or process changes and pose a challenge to demonstrating product comparability. To gain further insights into the impact on biological activity and pharmacokinetics (PK) of monoclonal antibody (mAb) charge heterogeneity, we isolated the major charge forms of a recombinant humanized IgG1 and compared their in vitro properties and in vivo PK. The mAb starting material had a pI range of 8.7–9.1 and was composed of about 20% acidic variants, 12% basic variants and 68% main peak. Cation exchange displacement chromatography was used to isolate the acidic, basic and main peak fractions for animal studies. Detailed analyses were performed on the isolated fractions to identify specific chemical modification contributing to the charge differences and were also characterized for purity and in vitro potency prior to being administered either subcutaneously (SC) or intravenously (IV) in rats. All isolated materials had similar potency and rat FcRn binding relative to the starting material. Following IV or SC administration (10 mg/kg) in rats, no difference in serum PK was observed, indicating that physiochemical modifications and pI differences among charge variants were not sufficient to result in PK changes. Thus, these results provided meaningful information for the comparative evaluation of charge-related heterogeneity of mAbs and suggested that charge variants of IgGs do not affect the in vitro potency, FcRn binding affinity or the PK properties in rats. PMID:20818176

Goswami, Sirj; Hutchinson, Ryan; Kwong, Zephania W; Yang, Jihong; Wang, Xiangdan; Yao, Zhenling; Sreedhara, Alavattam; Cano, Tony; Tesar, Devin; Nijem, Ihsan; Allison, David E; Wong, Pin Yee; Kao, Yung-Hsiang; Quan, Cynthia; Joshi, Amita; Harris, Reed J; Motchnik, Paul

2010-01-01

103

Infectious bursal disease virus variant from commercial Leghorn pullets.  

PubMed

An infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was isolated from 39-to-43-day-old commercial leghorn pullets suspected of having infectious bursal disease (IBD). These chickens had been vaccinated with a commercial live IBDV vaccine at 28 and 35 days of age. An isolate designated IN was recovered using specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and the BGM-70 established cell line. Experimental studies using SPF chickens vaccinated with either inactivated vaccines made from the vaccine strain used in the problem flock or a standard-type vaccine indicated no protection against the IN isolate. However, two variants and another standard-type vaccine induced protection against the IN isolate. Cross-neutralization tests indicated that the IN isolate differed antigenically from commercial vaccine strains and was related to the variant IBDV strains recently isolated from broilers. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a variant IBDV recovered from commercial layer chickens in the United States. PMID:2157389

Ismail, N M; Saif, Y M; Wigle, W L; Havenstein, G B; Jackson, C

1990-01-01

104

Efficacy of commercial produce sanitizers against nontoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 during processing of iceberg lettuce in a pilot-scale leafy green processing line.  

PubMed

Chemical sanitizers are routinely used during commercial flume washing of fresh-cut leafy greens to minimize cross-contamination from the water. This study assessed the efficacy of five commercial sanitizer treatments against Escherichia coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce, in wash water, and on equipment during simulated commercial production in a pilot-scale processing line. Iceberg lettuce (5.4 kg) was inoculated to contain 10(6) CFU/g of a four-strain cocktail of nontoxigenic, green fluorescent protein-labeled, ampicillin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 and processed after 1 h of draining at ~22 °C. Lettuce was shredded using a commercial slicer, step-conveyed to a flume tank, washed for 90 s using six different treatments (water alone, 50 ppm of peroxyacetic acid, 50 ppm of mixed peracid, or 50 ppm of available chlorine either alone or acidified to pH 6.5 with citric acid [CA] or T-128), and then dried using a shaker table and centrifugal dryer. Various product (25-g) and water (50-ml) samples collected during processing along with equipment surface samples (100 cm(2)) from the flume tank, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer were homogenized in neutralizing buffer and plated on tryptic soy agar. During and after iceberg lettuce processing, none of the sanitizers were significantly more effective (P ? 0.05) than water alone at reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations on lettuce, with reductions ranging from 0.75 to 1.4 log CFU/g. Regardless of the sanitizer treatment used, the centrifugal dryer surfaces yielded E. coli O157:H7 populations of 3.49 to 4.98 log CFU/100 cm(2). Chlorine, chlorine plus CA, and chlorine plus T-128 were generally more effective (P ? 0.05) than the other treatments, with reductions of 3.79, 5.47, and 5.37 log CFU/ml after 90 s of processing, respectively. This indicates that chlorine-based sanitizers will likely prevent wash water containing low organic loads from becoming a vehicle for cross-contamination. PMID:24215685

Davidson, Gordon R; Buchholz, Annemarie L; Ryser, Elliot T

2013-11-01

105

Hemoglobin variants in Cyprus.  

PubMed

Cyprus, located at the eastern end of the Mediterranean region, has been a place of eastern and western civilizations, and the presence of various hemoglobin (Hb) variants can be considered a testimony to past colonizations of the island. In this study, we report the structural Hb variants identified in the Cypriot population (Greek Cypriots, Maronites, Armenians, and Latinos) during the thalassemia screening of 248,000 subjects carried out at the Thalassaemia Centre, Nicosia, Cyprus, over a period of 26 years. A sample population of 65,668 people was used to determine the frequency and localization of several of the variants identified in Cyprus. The localization of some of the variants in regions where the presence of foreign people was most prevalent provides important clues to the origin of the variants. Twelve structural variants have been identified by DNA sequencing, nine concerning the beta-globin gene and three concerning the alpha-globin gene. The most common beta-globin variants identified were Hb S (0.2%), Hb D-Punjab (0.02%), and Hb Lepore-Washington-Boston (Hb Lepore-WB) (0.03%); the most common alpha-globin variant was Hb Setif (0.1%). The presence of some of these variants is likely to be directly linked to the history of Cyprus, as archeological monuments have been found throughout the island which signify the presence for many years of the Greeks, Syrians, Persians, Arabs, Byzantines, Franks, Venetians, and Turks. PMID:19373583

Kyrri, Andreani R; Felekis, Xenia; Kalogerou, Eleni; Wild, Barbara J; Kythreotis, Loukas; Phylactides, Marios; Kleanthous, Marina

2009-01-01

106

Characterizations of clinical isolates of clostridium difficile by toxin genotypes and by susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial agents, including fidaxomicin (OPT-80) and rifaximin: a multicenter study in Taiwan.  

PubMed

A total of 403 nonduplicate isolates of Clostridium difficile were collected at three major teaching hospitals representing northern, central, and southern Taiwan from January 2005 to December 2010. Of these 403 isolates, 170 (42.2%) were presumed to be nontoxigenic due to the absence of genes for toxins A or B or binary toxin. The remaining 233 (57.8%) isolates carried toxin A and B genes, and 39 (16.7%) of these also had binary toxin genes. The MIC(90) of all isolates for fidaxomicin and rifaximin was 0.5 ?g/ml (range, ? 0.015 to 0.5 ?g/ml) and >128 ?g/ml (range, ? 0.015 to >128 ?g/ml), respectively. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole (MIC(90) of 0.5 ?g/ml; range, ? 0.03 to 4 ?g/ml). Two isolates had reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (MICs, 4 ?g/ml). Only 13.6% of isolates were susceptible to clindamycin (MIC of ? 2 ?g/ml). Nonsusceptibility to moxifloxacin (n = 81, 20.1%) was accompanied by single or multiple mutations in gyrA and gyrB genes in all but eight moxifloxacin-nonsusceptible isolates. Two previously unreported gyrB mutations might independently confer resistance (MIC, 16 ?g/ml), Ser416 to Ala and Glu466 to Lys. Moxifloxacin-resistant isolates were cross-resistant to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, but some moxifloxacin-nonsusceptible isolates remained susceptible to gemifloxacin or nemonoxacin at 0.5 ?g/ml. This study found the diversity of toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains of C. difficile in the health care setting in Taiwan. All isolates tested were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. Fidaxomicin exhibited potent in vitro activity against all isolates tested, while the more than 10% of Taiwanese isolates with rifaximin MICs of ? 128 ?g/ml raises concerns. PMID:22508299

Liao, Chun-Hsing; Ko, Wen-Chien; Lu, Jang-Jih; Hsueh, Po-Ren

2012-07-01

107

Evolution of Mouse Hepatitis Virus: Detection and Characterization of Spike Deletion Variants during Persistent Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-frequency RNA recombination has been proposed as an important mechanism for generating viral deletion variants of murine coronavirus. Indeed, a number of variants with deletions in the spike glycoprotein have been isolated from persistently infected animals. However, the significance of generating and potentially accumulating deletion variants in the persisting viral RNA population is unclear. To study this issue, we evaluated

CYNTHIA L. ROWE; SUSAN C. BAKER; MEERA J. NATHAN

1997-01-01

108

Studies on Variants of Bacillus stearothermophilus Strain NCA 15181  

PubMed Central

The heat resistance, fermentation reactions, nutritional requirements, and phage sensitivity of 18 selected morphological variants of Bacillus stearothermophilus NCA 1518 were studied. It was found that when smooth variants mutated to rough colonial morphology, there was no concurrent change in fermentation reactions, nutritional requirements, or heat resistance. The smooth variant, and the rough mutants derived directly from it, presented a uniform pattern of biochemical capabilities which differed from the pattern presented by the rough variants isolated from the same stock culture. This led to the conclusion that the smooth and rough types previously observed in stocks of B. stearothermophilus NCA 1518 either were carried in the stock since the original isolation or represent a very profound and uncommon mutation, or that one of the variants has been introduced into the stock culture from an extraneous source sometime in the past. PMID:4553138

Humbert, R. D.; DeGuzman, Anselma; Fields, M. L.

1972-01-01

109

Human papillomavirus genome variants  

PubMed Central

Amongst the human papillomaviruses (HPVs), the genus Alphapapillomavirus contains HPV types that are uniquely pathogenic. They can be classified into species and types based on genetic distances between viral genomes. Current circulating infectious HPVs constitute a set of viral genomes that have evolved with the rapid expansion of the human population. Viral variants were initially identified through restriction enzyme polymorphisms and more recently through sequence determination of viral fragments. Using partial sequence information, the history of variants, and the association of HPV variants with disease will be discussed with the main focus on the recent utilization of full genome sequence information for variant analyses. The use of multiple sequence alignments of complete viral genomes and phylogenetic analyses have begun to define variant lineages and sublineages using empirically defined differences of 1.0–10.0% and 0.5–1.0%, respectively. These studies provide the basis to define the genetics of HPV pathogenesis. PMID:23998342

Burk, Robert D.; Harari, Ariana; Chen, Zigui

2014-01-01

110

Interpretation of genetic variants.  

PubMed

Sequencing of the human genome and introduction of clinical next-generation sequencing enable discovery of all DNA variants carried by an individual. Variants may be solely responsible for disease, may contribute to disease, or may have no influence on the development of disease. Interpreting the effect of these variants upon disease is a major challenge for medicine. Although the process is still evolving, certain methods are useful in discriminating the effect of variants upon phenotype. These methods have been employed to the greatest extent in Mendelian disorders where deleterious changes in one gene can cause disease. Here, we briefly review the relative merits of these methods, with emphasis on using a comprehensive approach modelled after the analysis of variants that causes cystic fibrosis. PMID:24343785

Sosnay, Patrick R; Cutting, Garry R

2014-03-01

111

[Selection of antigenic variants of the influenza virus on the cells of different hosts].  

PubMed

Antigenic differences were found in influenza B virus variants isolated and propagated in different systems: chick embryos (E variants) and MDCK cell culture (M variants). The antigenic differences in M and E variants were detected in HI tests with polyclonal mouse sera and monoclonal antibodies as well as in biological neutralization tests in chick embryos and MDCK cell culture, and confirmed when M and E variants were used as antigens for antibody detection in human sera. By protein mobility in PAGE, M and E variants did not differ from each other and were also identical with the reference B/Victoria/87 strain. PMID:1707196

Shenderovich, S F; Feklisova, L V; Smirnov, Iu A; Kuznetsova, M A

1990-01-01

112

Variation of DNA sequence in immediate-early gene of human herpesvirus 6 and variant identification by PCR.  

PubMed Central

The complete nucleotide sequence of one of the immediate-early genes of human herpesvirus 6 variant B was determined and compared with that of variant A reported by Martin et al. (M.D. Martin, J. Nicholas, B. J. Thomson, C. Newman, and R. W. Honess, J. Virol. 65:5381-5390, 1991). While it was reported that two open reading frames exist in this region of variant A, only one open reading frame was found in variant B and the putative coding region of variant B was 2,679 nucleotides long. Furthermore, two additive regions of 108 and 228 bp were found in variant B. Primers covering one of these regions deleted in variant A were synthesized and used for PCR amplification. Twelve isolates from patients were clearly classified into variants A and B by PCR amplification with these primers. All isolates from patients with exanthem subitum were variant B. Images PMID:8150960

Yamamoto, T; Mukai, T; Kondo, K; Yamanishi, K

1994-01-01

113

Biotic and abiotic variables affecting internalization and fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates in leafy green roots.  

PubMed

Preharvest internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into the roots of leafy greens is a food safety risk because the pathogen may be systemically transported to edible portions of the plant. In this study, both abiotic (degree of soil moisture) and biotic (E. coli O157:H7 exposure, presence of Shiga toxin genes, and type of leafy green) factors were examined to determine their potential effects on pathogen internalization into roots of leafy greens. Using field soil that should have an active indigenous microbial community, internalized populations in lettuce roots were 0.8 to 1.6 log CFU/g after exposure to soil containing E. coli O157:H7 at 5.6 to 6.1 log CFU/g. Internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into leafy green plant roots was higher when E. coli O157:H7 populations in soil were increased to 7 or 8 log CFU/g or when the soil was saturated with water. No differences were noted in the extent to which internalization of E. coli O157:H7 occurred in spinach, lettuce, or parsley roots; however, in saturated soil, maximum levels in parsley occurred later than did those in spinach or lettuce. Translocation of E. coli O157:H7 from roots to leaves was rare; therefore, decreases observed in root populations over time were likely the result of inactivation within the plant tissue. Shiga toxin-negative (nontoxigenic) E. coli O157:H7 isolates were more stable than were virulent isolates in soil, but the degree of internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into roots did not differ between isolate type. Therefore, these nontoxigenic isolates could be used as surrogates for virulent isolates in field trials involving internalization. PMID:24853507

Erickson, Marilyn C; Webb, Cathy C; Davey, Lindsey E; Payton, Alison S; Flitcroft, Ian D; Doyle, Michael P

2014-06-01

114

Prevalence of subtilase cytotoxin-encoding subAB variants among Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from wild ruminants and sheep differs from that of cattle and pigs and is predominated by the new allelic variant subAB2-2.  

PubMed

Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is an AB5 toxin produced by Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains usually lacking the eae gene product intimin. Three allelic variants of SubAB encoding genes have been described: subAB1, located on a plasmid, subAB2-1, located on the pathogenicity island SE-PAI and subAB2-2 located in an outer membrane efflux protein (OEP) region. SubAB is becoming increasingly recognized as a toxin potentially involved in human pathogenesis. Ruminants and cattle have been identified as reservoirs of subAB-positive STEC. The presence of the three subAB allelic variants was investigated by PCR for 152 STEC strains originating from chamois, ibex, red deer, roe deer, cattle, sheep and pigs. Overall, subAB genes were detected in 45.5% of the strains. Prevalence was highest for STEC originating from ibex (100%), chamois (92%) and sheep (65%). None of the STEC of bovine or of porcine origin tested positive for subAB. None of the strains tested positive for subAB1. The allelic variant subAB2-2 was detected the most commonly, with 51.4% possessing subAb2-1 together with subAB2-2. STEC of ovine origin, serotypes O91:H- and O128:H2, the saa gene, which encodes for the autoagglutinating adhesin and stx2b were significantly associated with subAB-positive STEC. Our results suggest that subAB2-1 and subAB2-2 is widespread among STEC from wild ruminants and sheep and may be important as virulence markers in STEC pathogenic to humans. PMID:25488108

Nüesch-Inderbinen, Magdalena T; Funk, Joschua; Cernela, Nicole; Tasara, Taurai; Klumpp, Jochen; Schmidt, Herbert; Stephan, Roger

2015-01-01

115

Molecular characterization of a Chinese isolate of potato virus A (PVA) and evidence of a genome recombination event between PVA variants at the 3'-proximal end of the genome.  

PubMed

Potato plants that exhibited mosaic symptoms were collected in Xiangxi, Hunan province, China. Multiplex RT-PCR screening for common viruses revealed the presence of potato virus A (PVA) in these samples. ELISA with virus-specific antibodies confirmed infection by PVA in the plants. Rod-shaped virions of ~750 nm in length and ~13 nm in width were observed by transmission electron microscopy. One virus isolate (designated PVA-Hunan) was subjected to molecular characterization. The viral genome consisted of 9,567 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) tail, and encoded a polyprotein of 3,059 amino acids. A second characteristic potyvirus open reading frame (ORF), pretty interesting Potyviridae ORF (pipo), was located at nucleotides 2,834-3,139. The isolate shared 84% to 98% and 93% to 99% sequence identity with other PVA isolates at the nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that, within the PVA group, PVA-Hunan clustered most closely with the Finnish isolate Her, then with isolates 143, U, Ali, M and B11. The isolate TamMV stood alone at a separate branch. However, scanning of complete genome sequences using SimPlot revealed 99%-sequence identity between PVA-Hunan and TamMV in the 3'-proximal end of the genome (~nt 9,160 to the 3'end) and a 50%-94% (average~83%) identity upstream of nt 9,160. In contrast, 98% identity between PVA-Hunan and isolates M and B11 was detected for nucleotides 1 to ~9,160, but only ~94% for the 3'-proximal region, suggesting a genome recombination event (RE) at nt 9,133. The recombination breakpoint also was identified by the Recombination Detection Program (RDP). The RE was further confirmed by analysis of the CP gene, where the apparent RE was located. PMID:24722969

He, Changzheng; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Xinxi; Singh, Mathuresh; Xiong, Xingyao; Nie, Xianzhou

2014-09-01

116

Variants of glycoside hydrolases  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

Teter, Sarah (Davis, CA); Ward, Connie (Hamilton, MT); Cherry, Joel (Davis, CA); Jones, Aubrey (Davis, CA); Harris, Paul (Carnation, WA); Yi, Jung (Sacramento, CA)

2011-04-26

117

Variants of glycoside hydrolases  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung

2013-02-26

118

HLA Variants of Cultured Human Lymphoid Cells: Evidence for Mutational Origin and Estimation of Mutation Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variants of a diploid lymphoid cell line that show a loss of HLA-B27 antigen occur randomly in time and independently of exposure to the alloantiserum used for their isolation. From these and previous findings of variant stability, inducibility by mutagens, and the absence of linked variation, we conclude that most HLA variants arise by mutation. The mutation rate for HLA-B27

Donald Pious; Carl Soderland

1977-01-01

119

Variants of Aspergillus alutaceus var. alutaceus (formerly Aspergillus ochraceus) with altered ochratoxin a production  

SciTech Connect

The present studies, using Asperigillus alutaceus var. alutaceus Berkeley et Curtis (formerly A. ochraceus Wilhelm) NRRL 3174 along with three other wild-type strains, were undertaken in an attempt to understand the effects of irradiation and other treatments on mycotoxin production in grain. Bedford barley was inoculated with spores of NRRL 3174, gamma irradiated, and incubated at 28C and 25% moisture. After 10 days of incubation, two colony types, ocher (parental) and yellow (variant), were isolated from the grain. Further culturing of the yellow variant resulted in the spontaneous appearance of a white variant that exhibited greatly enhanced fluorescence under UV light. In subsequent work, we have also isolated variants producing a soluble red pigment. In addition, in model experiments involving irradiation (1 kGy) of pure cultures, induction frequencies ranging between 2 and 4% (survival basis) were observed for the yellow and red variants. Inoculation of these variants into wheat and incubation for 14 days at 28C and 32% moisture resulted in ochratoxin A production in the relative amounts of 0.09:1:4.6:9.3 for the red, ocher (parental), yellow, and white variants, respectively. Additional characteristics of these isolates are described. Confirmation that the white high-ochratoxin-A-producing variants were derived from the parental strain was demonstrated by obtaining revertant sectors in monoclonal cultures of the variants.

Chelack, W.S.; Borsa, J.; Szekely, J.G. (Whiteshell Labs., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)); Marquardt, R.R.; Frohlich, A.A. (Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada))

1991-09-01

120

Variants of Aspergillus alutaceus var. alutaceus (formerly Aspergillus ochraceus) with altered ochratoxin A production.  

PubMed

The present studies, using Aspergillus alutaceus var. alutaceus Berkeley et Curtis (formerly A. ochraceus Wilhelm) NRRL 3174 along with three other wild-type strains, were undertaken in an attempt to understand the effects of irradiation and other treatments on mycotoxin production in grain. Bedford barley was inoculated with spores of NRRL 3174, gamma irradiated, and incubated at 28 degrees C and 25% moisture. After 10 days of incubation, two colony types, ochre (parental) and yellow (variant), were isolated from the grain. Further culturing of the yellow variant resulted in the spontaneous appearance of a white variant that exhibited greatly enhanced fluorescence under UV light. In subsequent work, we have also isolated variants producing a soluble red pigment. In addition, in model experiments involving irradiation (1 kGy) of pure cultures, induction frequencies ranging between 2 and 4% (survival basis) were observed for the yellow and red variants. Inoculation of these variants into wheat and incubation for 14 days at 28 degrees C and 32% moisture resulted in ochratoxin A production in the relative amounts of 0.09:1:4.6:9.3 for the red, ochre (parental), yellow, and white variants, respectively. Additional characteristics of these isolates are described. Confirmation that the white high-ochratoxin-A-producing variants were derived from the parental strain was demonstrated by obtaining revertant sectors in monoclonal cultures of the variants. PMID:1768122

Chelack, W S; Borsa, J; Szekely, J G; Marquardt, R R; Frohlich, A A

1991-09-01

121

The Phylloplane as a Source of Bacillus thuringiensis Variants  

PubMed Central

Novel variants of Bacillus thuringiensis were isolated from the phylloplane of deciduous and conifer trees as well as of other plants. These isolates displayed a range of toxicity towards Trichoplusia ni. Immunoblot and toxin protein analysis indicate that these strains included representatives of the three principal B. thuringiensis pathotypes active against larvae of the orders Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Coleoptera. We propose that B. thuringiensis be considered part of the common leaf microflora of many plants. Images PMID:16348400

Smith, Robert A.; Couche, Graham A.

1991-01-01

122

The variant course of the suprascapular artery.  

PubMed

The suprascapular artery (SSA) has been identified to be of clinical relevance in surgical intervention and fracture healing of the shoulder. Despite the classic description of its course and relation to the superior transverse scapular ligament, it is subject to much variation. The aims of this study were: (i) to describe the course of the SSA in relation to the superior transverse scapular ligament, (ii) tob determine the prevalence of the course of the SSA in relation to the superior transverse scapular ligament, (iii) to determine the prevalence of the variant origin of the SSA in cases presenting with variant course of the latter, and (iv) to establish a difference in laterality and that between adults and foetuses. The course of the SSA was investigated through the macro- and micro dissection of the antero-andpostero-superior shoulder regions of 31 adult and 19 foetal cadaveric specimens (n = 100). The SSA was observed to pass inferior to the superior transverse scapular ligament accompanied by the suprascapular nerve (20%), which corroborated the findings of previous studies. Subsequently, this variant course of the SSA also appeared to present with the variant origin of it in many instances (13%): from the 3rd part of the subclavian artery (4%), 1st part of the axillary artery (2%), 2nd part of the axillary artery (5%) and SSA (2%). Injury to the SSA may cause more serious trauma than that of arteries which are isolated from the great vessels, therefore the recognition and knowledge of variation in the origin and course of the SSA is significant in the treatment of diseases in the shoulder and cervical regions. Furthermore, the accompaniment of the suprascapular nerve with the SSA at the suprascapular notch inferior to the superior transverse scapular ligament may lead to neuropathy syndromes due to the pulsation of the artery against the nerve within the confined notch. PMID:24902100

Naidoo, N; Lazarus, L; De Gama, B Z; Satyapal, K S

2014-05-01

123

Characterization of a phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency variants not associated with hemolytic anemia.  

PubMed Central

The properties of a variant phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) found in a large German clan were examined. The normal and variant enzymes, isolated by affinity chromatography, have the same molecular weight, specific activity, substrate affinity, and nearly identical pH-optima. Using immunoinactivation and immunodiffusion, the same specific activity for both forms was again determined. Since the enzymatic activity in older and younger erythrocytes varied only slightly, and since the specific activity of the variant was normal, the variant seems to be stable in vivo. This suggests that the decreased enzyme content is due to a decreased synthesis rate. The variant PGK described here is distinctly different from the known PGK variants and has been designated as "PGK München." PMID:6770677

Krietsch, W K; Eber, S W; Haas, B; Ruppelt, W; Kuntz, G W

1980-01-01

124

Cellobiohydrolase variants and polynucleotides encoding same  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to variants of a parent cellobiohydrolase II. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the variants.

Wogulis, Mark

2014-10-14

125

Cellobiohydrolase variants and polynucleotides encoding the same  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to variants of a parent cellobiohydrolase. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the cellobiohydrolase variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the cellobiohydrolase variants.

Wogulis, Mark

2014-09-09

126

Cellobiohydrolase variants and polynucleotides encoding same  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to variants of a parent cellobiohydrolase II. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the variants.

Wogulis, Mark

2013-09-24

127

Variants of beta-glucosidase  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

Fidantsef, Ana (Davis, CA); Lamsa, Michael (Davis, CA); Gorre-Clancy, Brian (Elk Grove, CA)

2009-12-29

128

Variants of beta-glucosidases  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

Fidantsef, Ana (Davis, CA); Lamsa, Michael (Davis, CA); Clancy, Brian Gorre (Elk Grove, CA)

2008-08-19

129

Variants of beta-glucosidases  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

2014-10-07

130

Gene Variants Reduce Opioid Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... the goal of personalized therapy for pain and addiction based on patients’ genetic makeup. One study associated ... opioid receptor (OPRM1) with a decreased risk for addiction to heroin or cocaine. The other linked variants ...

131

New diphtheria toxin repressor types depicted in a Romanian collection of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates.  

PubMed

Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the etiological agent of diphtheria, a potential fatal disease caused by a corynephage toxin. The expression of this diphtheria toxin is controlled via an iron-dependent repressor with various functions (DtxR). Some mutations in the dtxR gene are associated with diminished activity or even with total loss of DtxR function. We conducted a molecular study to characterize the dtxR alleles harbored by 34 isolates of C. diphtheriae recovered from Romanian patients between 1961 and 2007. Three of the seven alleles identified in this study have not previously been described. Two new DtxR types were identified, one of which has an unusual polypeptide length. All the new DtxR types were found in toxigenic isolates, suggesting that they effectively regulate the expression of diphtheria toxin. Furthermore, one of the new DtxR identified was also found in a non-toxigenic isolate, making it a potential source of toxigenic isolates after lysogenic conversion. PMID:24293345

Dinu, Sorin; Damian, Maria; Badell, Edgar; Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Guiso, Nicole

2014-10-01

132

Temperature-Sensitive Variants of an Established Myoblast Line  

PubMed Central

Upon reaching confluency, mononucleated myoblasts fuse into multinucleated myotubes and concomitantly accumulate various characteristic muscle proteins, including myosin, actin, and several enzymes. We have approached the problem of determining the relationship between morphological and biochemical differentiation of muscle cells by isolating a series of temperature-sensitive clones from the established myoblast line, L6. Twelve phenotypically variant clones were isolated from mutagenized populations of myoblasts. These fell into five classes, distinguishing conditional growth variants from conditional developmental variants. The phenotype of these strains, at least for the more extensively studied ones, was stable for more than 80 generations. Synthesis of characteristic proteins such as myosin, glycogen phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.1), and phosphocreatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2) has been studied in two conditional developmental mutants. One mutant, E3, fuses into myotubes at 37° but not at 40°; the other, H6, does not fuse into myotubes at 37° but does so at 40°. At permissive temperatures the enzymes accumulated in mutant cells with the same time course as in the parent cell line. Myosin accumulated in strain E3 but not in strain H6. At nonpermissive temperatures neither fusion into myotubes nor accumulation of any of the proteins occured in the cells of these two variant lines. PMID:4510285

Loomis, W. F.; Wahrmann, J. P.; Luzzati, D.

1973-01-01

133

Multiplanar imaging of inferior vena cava variants.  

PubMed

Inferior vena cava (IVC) variants are rare and are usually detected incidentally. Even though, these variants are by themselves asymptomatic, they can have important clinical, radiological, and surgical implications. In this pictorial essay, we sensitize the reader to various IVC variants by presenting reports of actual patients. A succinct description of the embryological development of these anatomic variants is also provided. PMID:24981147

Awais, Muhammad; Rehman, Abdul; Baloch, Noor Ul-Ain; Salam, Basit

2015-01-01

134

Xanthan gum production by altered pathogenicity variants of Xanthomonas campestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several morphologically different isolates of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris were obtained by treatment with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. These variants were used to infect Brassica plants where several degrees of virulence were found. The strains were cultured in order to produce polysaccharide, which was recovered by precipitation and subjected to physical and chemical characterization. A relationship was noted between virulence and parameters such

Maria Eugenia Ramírez; Leopoldo Fucikovsky; Federico García-Jiménez; Rodolfo Quintero; Enrique Galindo

1988-01-01

135

Piezotolerant Small-Colony Variants with Increased Thermotolerance, Antibiotic Susceptibility, and Low Invasiveness in a Clonal Staphylococcus aureus Population?  

PubMed Central

Following a pressure treatment of a clonal Staphylococcus aureus culture with 400 MPa for 30 min, piezotolerant variants were isolated. Among 21 randomly selected survivors, 9 were piezotolerant and all formed small colonies on several agar media. The majority of the isolates showed increased thermotolerance, impaired growth, and reduced antibiotic resistance compared to the wild type. However, several nonpiezotolerant isolates also demonstrated impaired growth and the small-colony phenotype. In agglutination tests for the detection of protein A and fibrinogen, the piezotolerant variants showed weaker agglutination reactions than the wild type and the other isolates. All variants also showed defective production of the typical S. aureus golden color, a characteristic which has previously been linked with virulence. They were also less able to invade intestinal epithelial cells than the wild type. These S. aureus variants showed phenotypic similarities to previously isolated Listeria monocytogenes piezotolerant mutants that contained mutations in ctsR. Because of these similarities, possible alterations in the ctsR hypermutable regions of the S. aureus variants were investigated through amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. No mutations were identified, and subsequently we sequenced the ctsR and hrcA genes of three representative variants, finding no mutations. This work demonstrates that S. aureus probably possesses a strategy resulting in an abundance of multiple-stress-resistant variants within clonal populations. This strategy, however, seems to involve genes and regulatory mechanisms different from those previously reported for L. monocytogenes. We are in the process of identifying these mechanisms. PMID:17259364

Karatzas, Kimon A. G.; Zervos, Angelos; Tassou, Chrysoula C.; Mallidis, Costas G.; Humphrey, Tom J.

2007-01-01

136

Phylodynamic Analysis of Clinical and Environmental Vibrio cholerae Isolates from Haiti Reveals Diversification Driven by Positive Selection  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Phylodynamic analysis of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data is a powerful tool to investigate underlying evolutionary processes of bacterial epidemics. The method was applied to investigate a collection of 65 clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae from Haiti collected between 2010 and 2012. Characterization of isolates recovered from environmental samples identified a total of four toxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolates, four non-O1/O139 isolates, and a novel nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolate with the classical tcpA gene. Phylogenies of strains were inferred from genome-wide SNPs using coalescent-based demographic models within a Bayesian framework. A close phylogenetic relationship between clinical and environmental toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains was observed. As cholera spread throughout Haiti between October 2010 and August 2012, the population size initially increased and then fluctuated over time. Selection analysis along internal branches of the phylogeny showed a steady accumulation of synonymous substitutions and a progressive increase of nonsynonymous substitutions over time, suggesting diversification likely was driven by positive selection. Short-term accumulation of nonsynonymous substitutions driven by selection may have significant implications for virulence, transmission dynamics, and even vaccine efficacy. PMID:25538191

Azarian, Taj; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A.; Mohr, David; Prosperi, Mattia; Veras, Nazle M.; Jubair, Mohammed; Strickland, Samantha L.; Rashid, Mohammad H.; Alam, Meer T.; Weppelmann, Thomas A.; Katz, Lee S.; Tarr, Cheryl L.; Colwell, Rita R.

2014-01-01

137

Different subcellular localizations and functions of human ARD1 variants.  

PubMed

ARD1 is present in various species and has several variants derived from alternative splicing of mRNA. Previously, we reported differential biological functions and cellular distributions of mouse ARD1 (mARD1) variants. However, in comparison to mARD1 variants, human ARD1 (hARD1) variants have been rarely studied. In this study, we characterized a hARD1 variant, hARD1131 and investigated its cellular activities. hARD1131 mRNA was isolated from HeLa cells and sequenced. Sequence alignment revealed that, compared to hARD1235, the most common form of hARD1, the mRNA sequence encoding hARD1131 possesses an altered reading frame due to a 46-bp deletion. Thus, hARD1131 and hARD1235 differ in their C-terminal regions with a partially deleted acetyltransferase domain at the C-terminus of hARD1131. Moreover, hARD1131 and hARD1235 showed different subcellular localizations and biological functions. hARD1131 was mostly localized in the cell nucleus, whereas hARD1235 was primarily localized in the cytoplasm. In addition, hARD1235 stimulated cell prolifer-ation by upregulation of cyclin D1, however hARD1131 had no influence on cyclin D1 expression and cell growth. Because hARD1235 enhances cell proliferation by its autoacetylation activity, we examined the autoacetylation activity of hARD1131 and observed that this function was absent in hARD1131. These results suggest that human ARD1 variants have different effects on cell prolifer-ation, which may result from distinct subcellular localizations and autoacetylation activities. PMID:25421966

Seo, Ji Hae; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Lee, Eun Ji; Kim, Kyu-Won

2015-02-01

138

Isolation of a Variant of Subtilosin A with Hemolytic Activity?  

PubMed Central

Bacillus subtilis produces an anionic bacteriocin called subtilosin A that possesses antibacterial activity against certain gram-positive bacteria. In this study, we uncovered a hemolytic mutant of B. subtilis that produces an altered form of subtilosin A. The mutant bacteriocin, named subtilosin A1, has a replacement of threonine at position 6 with isoleucine. In addition to the hemolytic activity, subtilosin A1 was found to exhibit enhanced antimicrobial activity against specific bacterial strains. The B. subtilis albB mutant that does not produce a putative immunity peptide was more sensitive to both subtilosin A and subtilosin A1. A spontaneous suppressor mutation of albB that restored resistance to subtilosin A and subtilosin A1 was obtained. The sbr (subtilosin resistance) mutation conferring the resistance is not linked to the sboA-alb locus. The sbr mutation does not increase the resistance of B. subtilis to other cell envelope-targeted antimicrobial agents, indicating that the mutation specifically confers the resistance to subtilosins. The findings suggest possible bioengineering approaches for obtaining anionic bacteriocins with enhanced and/or altered bactericidal activity. Furthermore, future identification of the subtilosin-resistant mutation could provide insights into the mechanism of subtilosin A activity. PMID:19633086

Huang, Tai; Geng, Hao; Miyyapuram, Venugopal R.; Sit, Clarissa S.; Vederas, John C.; Nakano, Michiko M.

2009-01-01

139

WNT10A variants are associated with non-syndromic tooth agenesis in the general population.  

PubMed

Tooth agenesis is the most common developmental dental anomaly. Absence of one or two permanent teeth is found in the majority of affected subjects. Very few patients suffer severe tooth agenesis. Recent studies revealed that WNT10A gene mutations caused syndromic and isolated severe tooth agenesis. In this study, to determine the contribution of WNT10A variants in different severities of tooth agenesis, we investigated the association between WNT10A variants and non-syndromic tooth agenesis in a Chinese population consisting of 505 tooth agenesis patients and 451 normal controls. Twenty-three novel non-synonymous variants were identified. WNT10A variants were detected in 15.8 % (75/474) of patients with 1-3 missing teeth and 51.6 % (16/31) of patients with 4 or more missing teeth. As compared with a frequency of 3.1 % in individuals with full dentition, variant allele frequencies were significantly elevated in both groups with tooth agenesis (p values of 1.00 × 10(-6) and 3.89 × 10(-23), respectively). Our findings showed that WNT10A variants were associated with non-syndromic tooth agenesis from mild to severe tooth agenesis, and the more severe tooth agenesis, the stronger association. Biallelic genotypes of WNT10A variants may have a pathogenic effect on tooth development. Presence of a single variant allele would be predisposing for causation with low penetrance. Together with WNT10A variant, there should be other genetic or environmental factors leading to biallelic variant-related variable clinical manifestations and single allele variant-related low penetrance. The frequent missing tooth positions in the WNT10A-related cases were consistent with that in the general population, suggesting WNT10A plays a critically important role in the etiology of general tooth agenesis. PMID:24043634

Song, Shujuan; Zhao, Ruiying; He, Huiying; Zhang, Jin; Feng, Hailan; Lin, Liyun

2014-01-01

140

Prevalence of benign epileptiform variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThere are numerous distinctive benign electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns which are morphologically epileptiform but are non-epileptic. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different benign epileptiform variants (BEVs) among subjects who underwent routine EEG recordings in a large EEG laboratory over 35years.

Balagopal Santoshkumar; Jaron J. R. Chong; Warren T. Blume; Richard S. McLachlan; G. Bryan Young; David C. Diosy; Jorge G. Burneo; Seyed M. Mirsattari

2009-01-01

141

Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit Button Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans Language: English Español Share Compartir On this Page Background Reporting Additional Information Key Facts about Human Infections with Variant Viruses (Swine Origin Influenza Viruses ...

142

Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses Language: English Español ... pigs and variant influenza virus infections in humans. Swine Flu in Swine (pigs) Swine Flu in Swine ( ...

143

Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Larenas, Edmund

2014-03-18

144

Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

Goedegeburr, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Larenas, Edmund

2013-02-19

145

Variant humicola grisea CBH1.1  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Edmund, Larenas

2014-09-09

146

Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Gualfetti, Peter (San Francisco, CA); Mitchinson, Colin (Half Moon Bay, CA); Larenas, Edmund (Moss Beach, CA)

2011-05-31

147

Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Gualfetti, Peter (San Francisco, CA); Mitchinson, Colin (Half Moon Bay, CA); Larenas, Edmund (Moss Beach, CA)

2011-08-16

148

Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Gualfetti, Peter (San Francisco, CA); Mitchinson, Colin (Half Moon Bay, CA); Larenas, Edmund (Moss Beach, CA)

2008-12-02

149

Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Gualfetti, Peter (San Francisco, CA); Mitchinson, Colin (Half Moon Bay, CA); Larenas, Edmund (Moss Beach, CA)

2012-08-07

150

Eosinophilic variant of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma is a distinct subtype of renal cell carcinoma that accounts for 5% of all renal tumors. This subtype is further subdivided into two variants, classic and eosinophilic, with the latter variant being less frequent. We report two cases of the eosinophilic variant of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma diagnosed at our institution between January 2008 and December 2012. PMID:25552800

Yourshaw, Charles J.; Zhang, Haiying

2015-01-01

151

Complex Assembly Variant Design in Agile Manufacturing. Part II: Assembly Variant Design Methodology  

E-print Network

Complex Assembly Variant Design in Agile Manufacturing. Part II: Assembly Variant Design to facilitate the variant design of complex assembly products in the agile manufacturing environment. Finally, a prototype system is developed and examples are presented. Keywords: Variant Design, Agile Manufacturing

Nagi, Rakesh

152

Serogroups, toxins and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli strains isolated form diarrhoeic goat kids in Spain.  

PubMed

Fifty-five Escherichia coli strains isolated from 55 diarrhoeic goat kids from 13 flocks in Spain were serotyped and investigated for production of enterotoxins (LT and STa), verotoxins (VT1 and VT2), cytotoxic necrotizing factors (CNF1 and CNF2), alpha-hemolysin (Hly) and enterohemolysin (EntHly), and for antibiotic resistance. Only 3 (5%) strains were toxigenic: 1 VT1+EntHly+ (serogroup O8) and 2 CNF2+ (both of serogroup O153). The strains serotyped belonged to 19 serogroups. However, 31 (56%) were of one nine serogroups (O3, O8, O9, O10, O11, O21, O44, O103 and O153) and only three of them (O8, O9 and O11) accounted for 29% of the strains. The highest percentages of antibiotic resistance in order of frequency were: streptomycin (93%), sulfadiazine (89%), tetracyline (84%), kanamycin (82%), neomycin (82%) and ampicillin (69%). We conclude that E. coli strains isolated from diarrhoeic goat kids are usually non-toxigenic and belong to a large number of serogroups. PMID:9008345

Cid, D; Blanco, M; Blanco, J E; Ruíz Santa Quiteira, J A; de la Fuente, R; Blanco, J

1996-12-01

153

Re-sequencing Expands Our Understanding of the Phenotypic Impact of Variants at GWAS Loci  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >500 common variants associated with quantitative metabolic traits, but in aggregate such variants explain at most 20–30% of the heritable component of population variation in these traits. To further investigate the impact of genotypic variation on metabolic traits, we conducted re-sequencing studies in >6,000 members of a Finnish population cohort (The Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1966 [NFBC]) and a type 2 diabetes case-control sample (The Finland-United States Investigation of NIDDM Genetics [FUSION] study). By sequencing the coding sequence and 5? and 3? untranslated regions of 78 genes at 17 GWAS loci associated with one or more of six metabolic traits (serum levels of fasting HDL-C, LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglycerides, plasma glucose, and insulin), and conducting both single-variant and gene-level association tests, we obtained a more complete understanding of phenotype-genotype associations at eight of these loci. At all eight of these loci, the identification of new associations provides significant evidence for multiple genetic signals to one or more phenotypes, and at two loci, in the genes ABCA1 and CETP, we found significant gene-level evidence of association to non-synonymous variants with MAF<1%. Additionally, two potentially deleterious variants that demonstrated significant associations (rs138726309, a missense variant in G6PC2, and rs28933094, a missense variant in LIPC) were considerably more common in these Finnish samples than in European reference populations, supporting our prior hypothesis that deleterious variants could attain high frequencies in this isolated population, likely due to the effects of population bottlenecks. Our results highlight the value of large, well-phenotyped samples for rare-variant association analysis, and the challenge of evaluating the phenotypic impact of such variants. PMID:24497850

Ramensky, Vasily; Yajnik, Pranav; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Larson, David E.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Lin, Ling; Welch, Ryan; Ding, Li; McLellan, Michael D.; O'Laughlin, Michele; Fronick, Catrina; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Magrini, Vincent; Swift, Amy; Elliott, Paul; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kaakinen, Marika; McCarthy, Mark I.; Pouta, Anneli; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Collins, Francis S.; Narisu, Narisu; Stringham, Heather M.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Fulton, Robert S.; Sabatti, Chiara; Wilson, Richard K.; Boehnke, Michael; Freimer, Nelson B.

2014-01-01

154

Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveillance of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) was re-established in 1990 in the UK in order to identify any changes in the incidence or characteristics of human prion diseases that might be the consequence of human exposure to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent. The subsequent identification of a novel human prion disease in the UK, variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD) in 1996

J. W. Ironside

2003-01-01

155

Turner syndrome and its variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case records of female patients with karyotype proven turner syndrome were analyzed. 11 patients had classic Turner karyotype\\u000a (Group 1) and 13 patients had karyotype suggestive of one of the variants of Turner syndrome (Group 2). There was a median\\u000a difference of 3 years between the age of presentation and the age of diagnosis in Group 2. Out of the

R. Bharath; A. G. Unnikrishnan; M. V. Thampy; Alka Anilkumar; B. Nisha; V. P. Praveen; Vasantha Nair; R. V. Jayakumar; Harish Kumar

2010-01-01

156

Microcystic Variant of Urothelial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background. Microcystic variant of urothelial carcinoma is one of the new variants of urothelial carcinoma that was added to the WHO classification in 2004. Aims. To review the literature on microcystic variant of urothelial carcinoma. Methods. Various internet search engines were used to identify reported cases of the tumour. Results. Microscopic features of the tumour include: (i) Conspicuous intracellular and intercellular lumina/microcysts encompassed by malignant urothelial or squamous cells. (ii) The lumina are usually empty; may contain granular eosinophilic debris, mucin, or necrotic cells. (iii) The cysts may be variable in size; round, or oval, up to 2?mm; lined by urothelium which are either flattened cells or low columnar cells however, they do not contain colonic epithelium or goblet cells; are infiltrative; invade the muscularis propria; mimic cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis; occasionally exhibit neuroendocrine differentiation. (iv) Elongated and irregular branching spaces are usually seen. About 17 cases of the tumour have been reported with only 2 patients who have survived. The tumour tends to be of high-grade and high-stage. There is no consensus opinion on the best option of treatment of the tumour. Conclusions. It would prove difficult at the moment to be dogmatic regarding its prognosis but it is a highly aggressive tumour. New cases of the tumour should be reported in order to document its biological behaviour. PMID:24363668

Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

2013-01-01

157

Microcystic variant of urothelial carcinoma.  

PubMed

Background. Microcystic variant of urothelial carcinoma is one of the new variants of urothelial carcinoma that was added to the WHO classification in 2004. Aims. To review the literature on microcystic variant of urothelial carcinoma. Methods. Various internet search engines were used to identify reported cases of the tumour. Results. Microscopic features of the tumour include: (i) Conspicuous intracellular and intercellular lumina/microcysts encompassed by malignant urothelial or squamous cells. (ii) The lumina are usually empty; may contain granular eosinophilic debris, mucin, or necrotic cells. (iii) The cysts may be variable in size; round, or oval, up to 2?mm; lined by urothelium which are either flattened cells or low columnar cells however, they do not contain colonic epithelium or goblet cells; are infiltrative; invade the muscularis propria; mimic cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis; occasionally exhibit neuroendocrine differentiation. (iv) Elongated and irregular branching spaces are usually seen. About 17 cases of the tumour have been reported with only 2 patients who have survived. The tumour tends to be of high-grade and high-stage. There is no consensus opinion on the best option of treatment of the tumour. Conclusions. It would prove difficult at the moment to be dogmatic regarding its prognosis but it is a highly aggressive tumour. New cases of the tumour should be reported in order to document its biological behaviour. PMID:24363668

Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

2013-01-01

158

Overexpression, purification, and generation of a thermostable variant of Zymomonas mobilis fructokinase.  

PubMed

The gene encoding fructokinase (EC 2.7.1.4) from Zymomonas mobilis has been expressed at high level in Escherichia coli by modifying the ribosome binding site using the polymerase chain reaction. A simple two-step purification from extracts of the recombinant cells results in highly purified enzyme suitable for use in fructose determination. Using the polymerase chain reaction in mutagenic conditions, a variant of fructokinase was isolated which was more thermostable than the wild type, taking the 30 min half-life from 70.1 to 72.4 degrees C. The purified thermostable variant had the same specific activity as the wild type. Sequencing of the variant indicated that only one amino acid was changed, with Ser 69 becoming Ala. Searches of the mutant libraries for variants that were (a) active with glucose or (b) had reduced inhibition by glucose were unsuccessful. PMID:8776754

King, K; Phan, P; Rellos, P; Scopes, R K

1996-06-01

159

PBHoney: identifying genomic variants via long-read discordance and interrupted mapping  

PubMed Central

Background As resequencing projects become more prevalent across a larger number of species, accurate variant identification will further elucidate the nature of genetic diversity and become increasingly relevant in genomic studies. However, the identification of larger genomic variants via DNA sequencing is limited by both the incomplete information provided by sequencing reads and the nature of the genome itself. Long-read sequencing technologies provide high-resolution access to structural variants often inaccessible to shorter reads. Results We present PBHoney, software that considers both intra-read discordance and soft-clipped tails of long reads (>10,000 bp) to identify structural variants. As a proof of concept, we identify four structural variants and two genomic features in a strain of Escherichia coli with PBHoney and validate them via de novo assembly. PBHoney is available for download at http://sourceforge.net/projects/pb-jelly/. Conclusions Implementing two variant-identification approaches that exploit the high mappability of long reads, PBHoney is demonstrated as being effective at detecting larger structural variants using whole-genome Pacific Biosciences RS II Continuous Long Reads. Furthermore, PBHoney is able to discover two genomic features: the existence of Rac-Phage in isolate; evidence of E. coli’s circular genome. PMID:24915764

2014-01-01

160

Pilus gene pool variation and the virulence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae clinical isolates during infection of a nematode.  

PubMed

Toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains cause diphtheria in humans. The toxigenic C. diphtheriae isolate NCTC13129 produces three distinct heterotrimeric pili that contain SpaA, SpaD, and SpaH, making up the shaft structure. The SpaA pili are known to mediate bacterial adherence to pharyngeal epithelial cells. However, to date little is known about the expression of different pili in various clinical isolates and their importance in bacterial pathogenesis. Here, we characterized a large collection of C. diphtheriae clinical isolates for their pilin gene pool by PCR and for the expression of the respective pilins by immunoblotting with antibodies against Spa pilins. Consistent with the role of a virulence factor, the SpaA-type pili were found to be prevalent among the isolates, and most significantly, corynebacterial adherence to pharyngeal epithelial cells was strictly correlated with isolates that were positive for the SpaA pili. By comparison, the isolates were heterogeneous for the presence of SpaD- and SpaH-type pili. Importantly, using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model host for infection, we show here that strain NCTC13129 rapidly killed the nematodes, the phenotype similar to isolates that were positive for toxin and all pilus types. In contrast, isogenic mutants of NCTC13129 lacking SpaA-type pili or devoid of toxin and SpaA pili exhibited delayed killing of nematodes with similar kinetics. Consistently, nontoxigenic or toxigenic isolates that lack one, two, or all three pilus types were also attenuated in virulence. This work signifies the important role of pili in corynebacterial pathogenesis and provides a simple host model to identify additional virulence factors. PMID:23772071

Broadway, Melissa M; Rogers, Elizabeth A; Chang, Chungyu; Huang, I-Hsiu; Dwivedi, Prabhat; Yildirim, Suleyman; Schmitt, Michael P; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

2013-08-01

161

An unusual variant of Trichophyton tonsurans var. sulfureum.  

PubMed

A fungus, recovered from a skin lesion of a patient, produced velvety to powdery, white to deep yellow colonies on Sabouraud glucose agar. Microscopically, it produced a large number of cylindric, smooth-walled, three- to eight-celled macroconidia but failed to produce microconidia on a variety of nutritional media such as rice grains, cornmeal dextrose, potato dextrose, Sabouraud glucose, oatmeal and lactrimel agars. It hydrolysed urea in 7 days, perforated hair in vitro and required thiamine for growth. This isolate represents an atypical variant of Trichophyton tonsurans var. sufureum subvar. perforans. PMID:8064546

Padhye, A A; Weitzman, I; Domenech, E

1994-01-01

162

Small Colony Variant of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ST71 Presenting as a Sticky Phenotype  

PubMed Central

We first observed the phenomenon of small colony variants (SCVs) in a Staphylococcus pseudintermedius sequence type 71 (ST71) strain, isolated from a non-pet owner. Although we found that small-sized colonies share main features with Staphylococcus aureus SCVs, they nevertheless show a novel, particular, and sticky phenotype, whose expression was extremely stable, even after subcultivation. PMID:24452163

Carretto, Edoardo; Polilli, Ennio; Marrollo, Roberta; Santarone, Stella; Fazii, Paolo; D'Antonio, Domenico; Rossano, Alexandra; Perreten, Vincent

2014-01-01

163

Versican splice variant messenger RNA expression in normal human Achilles tendon and tendinopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Versican is the principal large proteoglycan expressed in mid-tendon, but its role in tendon pathology is unknown. Our objective was to define the expression of versican isoform splice variant messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in normal Achilles tendons, in chronic painful tendinopathy and in ruptured tendons. Methods. Total RNA isolated from frozen tendon samples (normal n ¼ 14; chronic painful

A. N. Corps; A. H. N. Robinson; T. Movin; M. L. Costa; D. C. Ireland; B. L. Hazleman; G. P. Riley

2004-01-01

164

Outbreak of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strain in Bihar, India.  

PubMed

An outbreak of cholera struck Bihar, an Indian state, in August 2008 following a massive flood. Here we report the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from patients with diarrhea. Rectal swabs were obtained from patients with diarrhea who were admitted to medical camps or the hospital, and the strains were biochemically and serologically characterized. V. cholerae was isolated from 21 (65.6%) of 32 rectal swabs. Serological studies revealed that all the 21 isolates belonged to V. cholerae O1 Ogawa. Mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA)-PCR showed that the isolates belonged to El Tor variant group, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) proved that these isolates were of a different lineage than the conventional El Tor variant strains. These isolates were resistant to several drugs, including ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, and furazolidone. The uniqueness of the current report arises from the fact that records of cholera in Bihar are availiable for the early 1960s but not for the next 4 decades. Moreover, the present study is the first to report a cholera outbreak in Bihar that was caused by an El Tor variant strain. PMID:24858614

Koley, Hemanta; Ray, Nivedita; Chowdhury, Goutam; Barman, Soumik; Mitra, Soma; Ramamurthy, T; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Sarkar, B L; Katyal, Rakesh; Das, Pradeep; Panda, Samiran; Ghosh, Subrata

2014-01-01

165

Electroweak Baryogenesis in Supersymmetric Variants  

E-print Network

We argue that the creation of a baryon asymmetry in the early universe is an intriguing case where several aspects of ``Beyond'' physics are needed. We then concentrate on baryogenesis in a strong first-order phase transition and discuss that supersymmetric variants of the electroweak theory (MSSM and some version of NMSSM) rather naturally provide the necessary ingredients. The charginos and the stops play a prominent role. We present CP-violating dispersion relations in the chargino sector and show results of a concrete model calculation for the asymmetry production based on quasi-classical Boltzmann transport equations and sphaleron transitions in the hot electroweak phase.

Michael G. Schmidt

2001-02-05

166

Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces pigment production and enhances virulence in a white phenotypic variant of Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Staphyloxanthin is a virulence factor which protects Staphylococcus aureus in stress conditions. We isolated two pigment variants of S. aureus and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a single wound infection. S. aureus variants displayed white and yellow colony phenotypes. The sequence of the operons for staphyloxanthin synthesis indicated that coding and promoter regions were identical between the two pigment variants. Quorum sensing controls pigment synthesis in some bacteria. It is also shown that P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing molecules affect S. aureus transcription. We explored whether the co-infecting P. aeruginosa can affect pigment production in the white S. aureus variant. In co-culture experiments between the white variants and a selected number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, only P. aeruginosa induced pigment production in the white variant. Gene expression analysis of the white variant did not indicate upregulation of the crtM and other genes known to be involved in pigment production (sigB, sarA, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase gene [FPP-synthase], hfq). In contrast, transcription of the catalase gene was significantly upregulated after co-culture. P. aeruginosa-induced pigment synthesis and catalase upregulation correlated with increased resistance to polymyxin B, hydrogen peroxide, and the intracellular environment of macrophages. Our data indicate the presence of silent but functional staphyloxanthin synthesis machinery in a white phenotypic variant of S. aureus which is activated by a co-infecting P. aeruginosa via inter-species communication. Another S. aureus virulence factor, catalase is also induced by this co-infecting bacterium. The resulting phenotypic changes are directly correlated with resistance of the white variant to stressful conditions. PMID:24232573

Antonic, Vlado; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Zhang, Binxue; Izadjoo, Mina J; Alavi, Mohammad

2013-01-01

167

Distribution and Medical Impact of Loss-of-Function Variants in the Finnish Founder Population  

PubMed Central

Exome sequencing studies in complex diseases are challenged by the allelic heterogeneity, large number and modest effect sizes of associated variants on disease risk and the presence of large numbers of neutral variants, even in phenotypically relevant genes. Isolated populations with recent bottlenecks offer advantages for studying rare variants in complex diseases as they have deleterious variants that are present at higher frequencies as well as a substantial reduction in rare neutral variation. To explore the potential of the Finnish founder population for studying low-frequency (0.5–5%) variants in complex diseases, we compared exome sequence data on 3,000 Finns to the same number of non-Finnish Europeans and discovered that, despite having fewer variable sites overall, the average Finn has more low-frequency loss-of-function variants and complete gene knockouts. We then used several well-characterized Finnish population cohorts to study the phenotypic effects of 83 enriched loss-of-function variants across 60 phenotypes in 36,262 Finns. Using a deep set of quantitative traits collected on these cohorts, we show 5 associations (p<5×10?8) including splice variants in LPA that lowered plasma lipoprotein(a) levels (P?=?1.5×10?117). Through accessing the national medical records of these participants, we evaluate the LPA finding via Mendelian randomization and confirm that these splice variants confer protection from cardiovascular disease (OR?=?0.84, P?=?3×10?4), demonstrating for the first time the correlation between very low levels of LPA in humans with potential therapeutic implications for cardiovascular diseases. More generally, this study articulates substantial advantages for studying the role of rare variation in complex phenotypes in founder populations like the Finns and by combining a unique population genetic history with data from large population cohorts and centralized research access to National Health Registers. PMID:25078778

Lim, Elaine T.; Würtz, Peter; Havulinna, Aki S.; Palta, Priit; Tukiainen, Taru; Rehnström, Karola; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Inouye, Michael; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Chan, Yingleong; Salem, Rany M.; Lek, Monkol; Flannick, Jason; Sim, Xueling; Manning, Alisa; Ladenvall, Claes; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Hämäläinen, Eija; Aalto, Kristiina; Maksimow, Mikael; Salmi, Marko; Blankenberg, Stefan; Ardissino, Diego; Shah, Svati; Horne, Benjamin; McPherson, Ruth; Hovingh, Gerald K.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Watkins, Hugh; Goel, Anuj; Farrall, Martin; Girelli, Domenico; Reiner, Alex P.; Stitziel, Nathan O.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Gabriel, Stacey; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Laakso, Markku; Groop, Leif; Kaprio, Jaakko; Perola, Markus; McCarthy, Mark I.; Boehnke, Michael; Altshuler, David M.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Metspalu, Andres; Freimer, Nelson B.; Zeller, Tanja; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Koskinen, Seppo; Raitakari, Olli; Durbin, Richard; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli

2014-01-01

168

Distribution and medical impact of loss-of-function variants in the Finnish founder population.  

PubMed

Exome sequencing studies in complex diseases are challenged by the allelic heterogeneity, large number and modest effect sizes of associated variants on disease risk and the presence of large numbers of neutral variants, even in phenotypically relevant genes. Isolated populations with recent bottlenecks offer advantages for studying rare variants in complex diseases as they have deleterious variants that are present at higher frequencies as well as a substantial reduction in rare neutral variation. To explore the potential of the Finnish founder population for studying low-frequency (0.5-5%) variants in complex diseases, we compared exome sequence data on 3,000 Finns to the same number of non-Finnish Europeans and discovered that, despite having fewer variable sites overall, the average Finn has more low-frequency loss-of-function variants and complete gene knockouts. We then used several well-characterized Finnish population cohorts to study the phenotypic effects of 83 enriched loss-of-function variants across 60 phenotypes in 36,262 Finns. Using a deep set of quantitative traits collected on these cohorts, we show 5 associations (p<5×10??) including splice variants in LPA that lowered plasma lipoprotein(a) levels (P?=?1.5×10?¹¹?). Through accessing the national medical records of these participants, we evaluate the LPA finding via Mendelian randomization and confirm that these splice variants confer protection from cardiovascular disease (OR?=?0.84, P?=?3×10??), demonstrating for the first time the correlation between very low levels of LPA in humans with potential therapeutic implications for cardiovascular diseases. More generally, this study articulates substantial advantages for studying the role of rare variation in complex phenotypes in founder populations like the Finns and by combining a unique population genetic history with data from large population cohorts and centralized research access to National Health Registers. PMID:25078778

Lim, Elaine T; Würtz, Peter; Havulinna, Aki S; Palta, Priit; Tukiainen, Taru; Rehnström, Karola; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Inouye, Michael; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Chan, Yingleong; Salem, Rany M; Lek, Monkol; Flannick, Jason; Sim, Xueling; Manning, Alisa; Ladenvall, Claes; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Hämäläinen, Eija; Aalto, Kristiina; Maksimow, Mikael; Salmi, Marko; Blankenberg, Stefan; Ardissino, Diego; Shah, Svati; Horne, Benjamin; McPherson, Ruth; Hovingh, Gerald K; Reilly, Muredach P; Watkins, Hugh; Goel, Anuj; Farrall, Martin; Girelli, Domenico; Reiner, Alex P; Stitziel, Nathan O; Kathiresan, Sekar; Gabriel, Stacey; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Lehtimäki, Terho; Laakso, Markku; Groop, Leif; Kaprio, Jaakko; Perola, Markus; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Altshuler, David M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Metspalu, Andres; Freimer, Nelson B; Zeller, Tanja; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Koskinen, Seppo; Raitakari, Olli; Durbin, Richard; MacArthur, Daniel G; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Daly, Mark J; Palotie, Aarno

2014-07-01

169

Histone variants: emerging players in cancer biology.  

PubMed

Histone variants are key players in shaping chromatin structure, and, thus, in regulating fundamental cellular processes such as chromosome segregation and gene expression. Emerging evidence points towards a role for histone variants in contributing to tumor progression, and, recently, the first cancer-associated mutation in a histone variant-encoding gene was reported. In addition, genetic alterations of the histone chaperones that specifically regulate chromatin incorporation of histone variants are rapidly being uncovered in numerous cancers. Collectively, these findings implicate histone variants as potential drivers of cancer initiation and/or progression, and, therefore, targeting histone deposition or the chromatin remodeling machinery may be of therapeutic value. Here, we review the mammalian histone variants of the H2A and H3 families in their respective cellular functions, and their involvement in tumor biology. PMID:23652611

Vardabasso, Chiara; Hasson, Dan; Ratnakumar, Kajan; Chung, Chi-Yeh; Duarte, Luis F; Bernstein, Emily

2014-02-01

170

Histone variants: emerging players in cancer biology  

PubMed Central

Histone variants are key players in shaping chromatin structure, and, thus, in regulating fundamental cellular processes such as chromosome segregation and gene expression. Emerging evidence points towards a role for histone variants in contributing to tumor progression, and, recently, the first cancer-associated mutation in a histone variant-encoding gene was reported. In addition, genetic alterations of the histone chaperones that specifically regulate chromatin incorporation of histone variants are rapidly being uncovered in numerous cancers. Collectively, these findings implicate histone variants as potential drivers of cancer initiation and/or progression, and, therefore, targeting histone deposition or the chromatin remodeling machinery may be of therapeutic value. Here, we review the mammalian histone variants of the H2A and H3 families in their respective cellular functions, and their involvement in tumor biology. PMID:23652611

Vardabasso, Chiara; Hasson, Dan; Ratnakumar, Kajan; Chung, Chi-Yeh; Duarte, Luis F.

2014-01-01

171

Nested Variant of Urothelial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background. Nested variant of urothelial carcinoma was added to the WHO's classification in 2004. Aims. To review the literature on nested variant of urothelial carcinoma. Results. About 200 cases of the tumour have been reported so far and it has the ensuing morphological features: large numbers of small confluent irregular nests of bland-appearing, closely packed, haphazardly arranged, and poorly defined urothelial cells infiltrating the lamina propria and the muscularis propria. The tumour has a bland histomorphologic appearance, has an aggressive biological behaviour, and has at times been misdiagnosed as a benign lesion which had led to a significant delay in the establishment of the correct diagnosis and contributing to the advanced stage of the disease. Immunohistochemically, the tumour shares some characteristic features with high-risk conventional urothelial carcinomas such as high proliferation index and loss of p27 expression. However, p53, bcl-2, or EGF-r immunoreactivity is not frequently seen. The tumour must be differentiated from a number of proliferative lesions of the urothelium. Conclusions. Correct and early diagnosis of this tumour is essential to provide early curative treatment to avoid diagnosis at an advanced stage. A multicentre trial is required to identify treatment options that would improve the outcome of this tumour. PMID:24587796

Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

2014-01-01

172

Spontaneous resolution of isolated congenital megacystis: the incredible shrinking bladder  

PubMed Central

Isolated congenital megacystis represents a rare variant of fetal megacystis without other associated anomalies. The etiology is unclear, and various management strategies have been proposed. We report a case of isolated congenital megacystis that resolved over the first year of life with observation alone. Considerations for the evaluation and management of this rare entity are discussed. PMID:22910450

Johnson, Emilie K.; Nelson, Caleb P.

2014-01-01

173

Genetic diversity among isolates of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our knowledge of genetic variation at the nucleotide sequence level of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV; Baculoviridae: Alphabaculovirus) derives from complete genome sequences of the C6 clonal isolate of AcMNPV and the R1 and CL3 clonal isolates of AcMNPV variants Rachip...

174

PCR/RFLP-based allelic variants of streptokinase and their plasminogen activation potencies.  

PubMed

PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP)-based analysis of ?-domain variable region of streptokinase genes (sk) has previously identified 14 sk alleles (sk1-sk14) in group A (GAS), C (GCS) and G (GGS) streptococci isolates from a few geographically distinct regions. However, the relation of sk allelic variants to their plasminogen activation potencies remained as a matter of debate. Herein, employing the same PCR/RFLP assay, we analysed sk allelic variants of GAS and GCS/GGS isolates from Iranian patients. In total, 21 sk allelic variants including 14 new alleles (sk14-sk28) were identified. Results implied the horizontal gene transfer of sk fragments between GAS and GCS/GGS strains and did not prove the specificity of particular sk alleles to GCS/GGS or GAS groups. Measurement of streptokinase (SK) activity in streptococcal culture supernatants by colorimetric assay (S2251 substrate) ranged from 9 to 182 IU mL(-1). Although some strains with the highest SK activity were detected in definite variants, no significant correlation between sk alleles and plasminogen activation was detected (P value > 0.05). Analysis of DNA sequences and restriction site mapping of selective sk variants with similar SK activity pointed to the inadequacy of the currently available PCR/RFLP method for differentiation of critical/silent nucleotides to precisely categorize sk alleles for their functional properties. PMID:22812485

Keramati, Malihe; Roohvand, Farzin; Eslaminejad, Zahra; Mirzaie, Amir; Nikbin, Vajihe Sadat; Aslani, Mohammad Mehdi

2012-10-01

175

Mitochondrial DNA Variants in Obesity  

PubMed Central

Heritability estimates for body mass index (BMI) variation are high. For mothers and their offspring higher BMI correlations have been described than for fathers. Variation(s) in the exclusively maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) might contribute to this parental effect. Thirty-two to 40 mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were available from genome-wide association study SNP arrays (Affymetrix 6.0). For discovery, we analyzed association in a case-control (CC) sample of 1,158 extremely obese children and adolescents and 435 lean adult controls. For independent confirmation, 7,014 population-based adults were analyzed as CC sample of n?=?1,697 obese cases (BMI?30 kg/m2) and n?=?2,373 normal weight and lean controls (BMI<25 kg/m2). SNPs were analyzed as single SNPs and haplogroups determined by HaploGrep. Fisher's two-sided exact test was used for association testing. Moreover, the D-loop was re-sequenced (Sanger) in 192 extremely obese children and adolescents and 192 lean adult controls. Association testing of detected variants was performed using Fisher's two-sided exact test. For discovery, nominal association with obesity was found for the frequent allele G of m.8994G/A (rs28358887, p?=?0.002) located in ATP6. Haplogroup W was nominally overrepresented in the controls (p?=?0.039). These findings could not be confirmed independently. For two of the 252 identified D-loop variants nominal association was detected (m.16292C/T, p?=?0.007, m.16189T/C, p?=?0.048). Only eight controls carried the m.16292T allele, five of whom belonged to haplogroup W that was initially enriched among these controls. m.16189T/C might create an uninterrupted poly-C tract located near a regulatory element involved in replication of mtDNA. Though follow-up of some D-loop variants still is conceivable, our hypothesis of a contribution of variation in the exclusively maternally inherited mtDNA to the observed larger correlations for BMI between mothers and their offspring could not be substantiated by the findings of the present study. PMID:24788344

Knoll, Nadja; Jarick, Ivonne; Volckmar, Anna-Lena; Klingenspor, Martin; Illig, Thomas; Grallert, Harald; Gieger, Christian; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Peters, Annette; Wiegand, Susanna; Biebermann, Heike; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Wabitsch, Martin; Völzke, Henry; Nauck, Matthias; Teumer, Alexander; Rosskopf, Dieter; Rimmbach, Christian; Schreiber, Stefan; Jacobs, Gunnar; Lieb, Wolfgang; Franke, Andre; Hebebrand, Johannes; Hinney, Anke

2014-01-01

176

Haemolytic Escherichia coli strains isolated from stools of healthy cats produce cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (CNF1).  

PubMed

A total of 159 Escherichia coli colonies isolated from the stools of 23 healthy cats were studied for production of alpha-haemolysin (Hly), enterohaemolysin (EntHly), cytotoxic necrotizing factors (CNF1 and CNF2), verotoxins (VT) and heat-labile enterotoxin (LT). Hly+CNF1+, Hly+CNF2+, Hly+VT+ and Hly+ E. coli colonies were isolated from 12 (48%), 1 (4%), 1 (4%) and 2 (8%) respectively of the cats sampled. None of the 159 E. coli colonies produced LT or EntHly. Nine of 12 Hly+CNF1+ strains from the cats belonged to serogroup O6 and eleven to serotypes (O4:K?:H5 or H-, O6:K13:H1, O6:K53:H-, O6:K53:H1, O6:K53:H7 and O6:K14:H31) found among Hly+CNF1+ E. coli that cause urinary tract infections and sepsis in humans. Furthermore, 10 Hly+CNF1+ strains from the cats expressed the mannose-resistant haemagglutination (MRHA) type III. By contrast, the majority of nontoxigenic E. coli strains were MRHA negative and belonged to different O groups. We conclude that cats are a important reservoir of Hly+CNF1+ E. coli strains that possess similar characteristics to strains that can cause extraintestinal infections in humans and that Hly+ E. coli from cats usually do not produce shiga-like toxins with cytotoxic activity on Vero cells. PMID:8128597

Blanco, J; Blanco, M; Wong, I; Blanco, J E

1993-12-01

177

Spread of new variant RHDV in domestic rabbits on the Iberian Peninsula.  

PubMed

Rabbit hemorrhagic disease outbreaks in young rabbits have been recently observed in Spain. In this study we have tracked the spread of variant RHDV in samples collected from rabbit farms over a period of more than one year using RT-PCR and antigen-capture ELISA. The isolates were sequenced and compared to classic and variant RHDV strains and phylogenetic analyses were conducted. Mortalities have been observed in kits as young as 11 days. More than 50% of the dead rabbits had been previously vaccinated against RHDV using commercially available inactivated vaccines indicating a putative lack of protection against the variant RHDV. The large majority of the studied outbreaks (94.5%) in Spanish farms during 2012 were due to variant RHDV and only 3 out of the 55 farms were affected by classic RHDV. The data demonstrates that the variant RHDV has spread through a large number of Spanish provinces in a relatively short period of time, largely replacing the previously predominant G1 RHDV genotypes. Considering the lack of efficient vaccines against the variant RHDV strains strict disease control and greater vigilance measures should be put in place. PMID:24461551

Dalton, Kevin P; Nicieza, Inés; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J; Parra, Francisco

2014-02-21

178

Primary pleural liposarcoma, pleomorphic variant.  

PubMed

Primary pleural liposarcoma (PPL) is a rare tumor derived from primitive mesenchymal tissue. We report a case of a 49-year-old female patient complaining of thoracic pain and dyspnea for 3 months. The chest X-ray showed a left basal opacity of lobulated contours and the thoracic computer tomography (CT) scan revealed a left pleural collection/mass, of 18 HU density and passive pulmonary atelectasis. The patient was taken to surgery and the cytologic examination of the gelatinous mass found in the procedure confirmed the diagnosis of a pleomorphic variant of pleural liposarcoma. We emphasise in the importance of careful inspection of the origin of the tumor in the diagnostic images to allow accurate diagnosis. PMID:25276389

Carrillo B, Jorge Alberto; Navarrete, Constanza; López Arias, María Alejandra; Peláez, Mauricio

2014-09-01

179

Detection of toxins A/B and isolation of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens from dogs in Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to detect C. difficile A/B toxins and to isolate strains of C. perfringens and C. difficile from diarrheic and non-diarrheic dogs in Brazil. Stool samples were collected from 57 dogs, 35 of which were apparently healthy, and 22 of which were diarrheic. C. difficile A/B toxins were detected by ELISA, and C. perfringens and C. difficile were identified by multiplex PCR. C. difficile A/B toxins were detected in 21 samples (36.8%). Of these, 16 (76.2%) were from diarrheic dogs, and five (23.8%) were from non-diarrheic dogs. Twelve C. difficile strains (21.1%) were isolated, of which ten were A(+)B(+) and two were A(-)B(-). All non-toxigenic strains were isolated from non-diarrheic animals. The binary toxin gene cdtB was found in one strain, which was A(+)B(+) and was derived from a non-diarrheic dog. C. perfringens strains were isolated from 40 samples (70.2%). Of these, 18 (45%) were from the diarrheic group, and 22 (55%) belonged to the non-diarrheic group. All isolates were classified as C. perfringens type A and there was an association between the detection of the cpe gene and the presence of diarrhea. Interestingly, ten strains (25%) were positive for the presence of the cpb2 gene. The high rate of detection of the A/B toxins in non-diarrheic dogs suggests the occurrence of subclinical disease in dogs or carriage of its toxins without disease. More studies are needed to elucidate the epidemiology of C. difficile and C. perfringens in dogs and to better our understanding of C. difficile as a zoonotic agent. This is the first study to report the binary toxin gene in C. difficile strains isolated from dogs in Brazil. PMID:24159295

Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; Santos, Renata Lara Resende; Pires, Prhiscylla Sadanã; Pereira, Luiz Carlos; Pereira, Silvia Trindade; Duarte, Marina Carvalho; de Assis, Ronnie Antunes; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

2013-01-01

180

Phenotypic and Enzymatic Comparative Analysis of the KPC Variants, KPC-2 and Its Recently Discovered Variant KPC-15  

PubMed Central

Sixteen different variants (KPC-2 to KPC-17) in the KPC family have been reported, and most current studies are focusing on KPC-2 and KPC-3. The KPC-15 variant, which isolated from Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Chinese hospital, was a recently discovered KPC enzyme. To compare the characteristics of KPC-15 and KPC-2, the variants were determined by susceptibility testing, PCR amplification and sequencing, and study of kinetic parameters. The strain harboring the KPC-15 showed resistance to 18 conventional antimicrobial agents, especially to cabapenem antibiotics, and the strain involving the KPC-2 also indicated resistance to cabapenem antibiotics, but both strains were susceptible to polymyxin B and colistin. The conjugation experiments showed that the changes of MIC values to the antibiotics were due to the transferred plasmids. The differences of amino acids were characterised at sites of 119 leucine and 146 lysine with KPC-15 and KPC-2. The minimum evolution tree indicated the KPC alleles evolution, and showed that the KPC-15 appeared to be homogenous with KPC-4 closely. Steady-state kinetic parameters showed the catalytic efficiency of KPC-15 was higher than that of KPC-2 for all tested antibiotics in this study. The catalytic efficiency of KPC-15 caused resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics was higher than that of KPC-2. Meanwhile, an evolutionary transformation changed KPC from an efficient carbapenemase to its variants (KPC-15) with better ceftazidimase catalytic efficiency, and the old antibiotics polymyxin B and colistin might play a role in the therapy for multi-resistant strains. PMID:25360633

Yang, Yijun

2014-01-01

181

Rare hemoglobin variants in Tunisian population.  

PubMed

During the last 30 years, many studies concerning hemoglobinopathies were realized among Tunisians. More than twenty different thalassemic alleles were detected on the ?-globin gene, and less are affecting the ?-globin genes. Unusual hemoglobin (Hb) variants other than Hb S, Hb C, and Hb O-arab, which are the most frequent variants in Tunisia, were also detected. Eight Tunisian subjects were studied at phenotypic and molecular levels. Hematological indices and hemoglobin (Hb) pattern were performed by alkaline electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing (IEF),and the Hb fractions were quantitated by cation exchange HPLC. On genomic level, coding regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by a sequencing of the purified PCR products using the dye terminator method. Seven uncommon Hb variants were detected and described for the first time among Tunisians. HbA2-Tunis [?46(CD5), Gly ? Glu, GGG ? GAG] is the newly described ?-chain variant in our laboratory, and some other variants (Hb Constant Spring, G San Jose, and Hb J-Bangkok) are very uncommon in the Mediterranean region. We present here an updated review of the Hb variants detected among Tunisians. Twenty-one rare Hb variants were detected affecting the ?1-, ?2-, ?-, ?-, and ?-globin genes, leading in some cases to a severe phenotype especially when the stability is completely altered. The ethnical history of Tunisia could explain this important variability of the observed rare Hb variants. PMID:24905386

Zorai, A; Moumni, I; Mosbahi, I; Douzi, K; Chaouachi, D; Guemira, F; Abbes, S

2014-06-01

182

Antigenic variants of rabies virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabies viruses isolated from different animal species in various parts of the world were in the past considered to be antigenically closely related. Only when the antibodies produced in animals immunized with whole virions or viral components were assayed by the plaque reduction method, were some minor differences detected in the antigenic composition of various rabies strains (1). On the

T. J. WIKTOR; H. KOPROWSKI

1980-01-01

183

Disease variants in genomes of 44 centenarians  

PubMed Central

To identify previously reported disease mutations that are compatible with extraordinary longevity, we screened the coding regions of the genomes of 44 Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians. Individual genome sequences were generated with 30× coverage on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 and single-nucleotide variants were called with the genome analysis toolkit (GATK). We identified 130 coding variants that were annotated as “pathogenic” or “likely pathogenic” based on the ClinVar database and that are infrequent in the general population. These variants were previously reported to cause a wide range of degenerative, neoplastic, and cardiac diseases with autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked inheritance. Several of these variants are located in genes that harbor actionable incidental findings, according to the recommendations of the American College of Medical Genetics. In addition, we found risk variants for late-onset neurodegenerative diseases, such as the APOE ?4 allele that was even present in a homozygous state in one centenarian who did not develop Alzheimer's disease. Our data demonstrate that the incidental finding of certain reported disease variants in an individual genome may not preclude an extraordinarily long life. When the observed variants are encountered in the context of clinical sequencing, it is thus important to exercise caution in justifying clinical decisions. In genome sequences of 44 Ashkenazi centenarians, we identified many coding variants that were annotated as “pathogenic” or “likely pathogenic” based on the ClinVar database. Our data demonstrate that the incidental finding of certain reported disease variants in an individual genome may not preclude an extraordinarily long life. When the observed variants are encountered in the context of clinical sequencing, it is thus important to exercise caution in justifying clinical decisions. PMID:25333069

Freudenberg-Hua, Yun; Freudenberg, Jan; Vacic, Vladimir; Abhyankar, Avinash; Emde, Anne-Katrin; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Barzilai, Nir; Oschwald, Dayna; Christen, Erika; Koppel, Jeremy; Greenwald, Blaine; Darnell, Robert B; Germer, Soren; Atzmon, Gil; Davies, Peter

2014-01-01

184

Rapid Detection of New Delhi Metallo-?-Lactamase Gene and Variants Coding for Carbapenemases with Different Activities by Use of a PCR-Based In Vitro Protein Expression Method  

PubMed Central

New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase (NDM)-producing bacteria are considered potential global health threats. It is necessary to monitor NDM-1 and its variants in clinical isolates in order to understand the NDM-1 epidemic and the impact of its variants on ?-lactam resistance. To reduce the lengthy time needed for cloning and expression of NDM-1 variants, a novel PCR-based in vitro protein expression (PCR-P) method was used to detect blaNDM-1 and its variants coding for carbapenemases with different activities (functional variants). The PCR-P method combined a long-fragment real-time quantitative PCR (LF-qPCR) with in vitro cell-free expression to convert the blaNDM-1 amplicons into NDM for carbapenemase assay. The method could screen for blaNDM-1 within 3 h with a detection limit of 5 copies and identify functional variants within 1 day. Using the PCR-P to analyze 5 recent blaNDM-1 variants, 2 functional variants, blaNDM-4 and blaNDM-5, were revealed. In the initial testing of 23 clinical isolates, the PCR-P assay correctly found 8 isolates containing blaNDM-1. This novel method provides the first integrated approach for rapidly detecting the full-length blaNDM-1 and revealing its functional variants in clinical isolates. PMID:24671780

Huang, Li; Hu, Xiumei; Zhou, Man; Yang, Yinmei; Qiao, Jinjuan; Wang, Dianbing; Yu, Junping; Cui, Zongqiang; Zhang, Zhiping; Zhang, Xian-En

2014-01-01

185

Tissue-specific splice variants of HARE/Stabilin-2 are expressed in bone marrow, lymph node, and spleen.  

PubMed

The hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis (HARE), or Stabilin-2, is the mammalian endocytic clearance receptor for HA, heparin, advanced glycation end-products, acetylated and oxidized low-density lipoproteins and collagen N-terminal propeptides. This large 2551 amino acid receptor is encoded by a gene that covers over 180kbp on human chromosome 12 and is predicted to be composed of 69 exons. Due to the expression profile of this gene and the number of exons it contains, we hypothesized that splice variants of stab2 are encoded in these tissues. In addition, a correlation between alternative splice variants and cancer progression has been shown in other HA receptors such as RHAMM and CD42. In this study, two methods were utilized in identifying and/or isolating the HARE splice variants. The first method used primer sets to amplify the 190-HARE encoding region that could contain splice junctions; therefore, they were purified from agarose gels and sequenced. Five splice variants were detected in that manner. In the second approach, the entire open reading frame of HARE was amplified. This allowed four splice variants with extensive exon splicing to be isolated. After the splice variants were sequenced, three were cloned into a mammalian expression vector. Next, stable cell lines expressing the variants were created in order to determine stable protein expression. In this study, the splice variants were found to be tissue specific in most cases. This suggests that tissue specific regulatory splicing mechanisms may lead to differences in functionality between the splice variants. PMID:25446080

Hare, Amanda K; Harris, Edward N

2015-01-01

186

Genetic diversity of parvovirus isolates from dogs and wild animals in China.  

PubMed

We isolated three new parvovirus variants in China. The isolate from a blue fox was related to feline parvovirus, but possessed a mutation of VP2 residue A300P. Isolates from a raccoon dog and a masked civet were antigenically similar to canine parvovirus-2a but had a substitution of VP2 residue G300S. PMID:22102680

Chen, Xiao-ying; Xie, Zhi-jing; Zhao, Zhong-peng; Jiang, Shi-jin; Zhao, Hong-kun; Zhu, Yan-li; Zhang, Xing-xiao

2011-10-01

187

Filovirus RefSeq entries: evaluation and selection of filovirus type variants, type sequences, and names.  

PubMed

Sequence determination of complete or coding-complete genomes of viruses is becoming common practice for supporting the work of epidemiologists, ecologists, virologists, and taxonomists. Sequencing duration and costs are rapidly decreasing, sequencing hardware is under modification for use by non-experts, and software is constantly being improved to simplify sequence data management and analysis. Thus, analysis of virus disease outbreaks on the molecular level is now feasible, including characterization of the evolution of individual virus populations in single patients over time. The increasing accumulation of sequencing data creates a management problem for the curators of commonly used sequence databases and an entry retrieval problem for end users. Therefore, utilizing the data to their fullest potential will require setting nomenclature and annotation standards for virus isolates and associated genomic sequences. The National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI's) RefSeq is a non-redundant, curated database for reference (or type) nucleotide sequence records that supplies source data to numerous other databases. Building on recently proposed templates for filovirus variant naming [ ()/<isolation host-suffix>///variant designation>-<isolate designation>], we report consensus decisions from a majority of past and currently active filovirus experts on the eight filovirus type variants and isolates to be represented in RefSeq, their final designations, and their associated sequences. PMID:25256396

Kuhn, Jens H; Andersen, Kristian G; Bào, Y?míng; Bavari, Sina; Becker, Stephan; Bennett, Richard S; Bergman, Nicholas H; Blinkova, Olga; Bradfute, Steven; Brister, J Rodney; Bukreyev, Alexander; Chandran, Kartik; Chepurnov, Alexander A; Davey, Robert A; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Doggett, Norman A; Dolnik, Olga; Dye, John M; Enterlein, Sven; Fenimore, Paul W; Formenty, Pierre; Freiberg, Alexander N; Garry, Robert F; Garza, Nicole L; Gire, Stephen K; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Griffiths, Anthony; Happi, Christian T; Hensley, Lisa E; Herbert, Andrew S; Hevey, Michael C; Hoenen, Thomas; Honko, Anna N; Ignatyev, Georgy M; Jahrling, Peter B; Johnson, Joshua C; Johnson, Karl M; Kindrachuk, Jason; Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Kobinger, Gary; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Lackemeyer, Matthew G; Lackner, Daniel F; Leroy, Eric M; Lever, Mark S; Mühlberger, Elke; Netesov, Sergey V; Olinger, Gene G; Omilabu, Sunday A; Palacios, Gustavo; Panchal, Rekha G; Park, Daniel J; Patterson, Jean L; Paweska, Janusz T; Peters, Clarence J; Pettitt, James; Pitt, Louise; Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Ryabchikova, Elena I; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Sabeti, Pardis C; Sealfon, Rachel; Shestopalov, Aleksandr M; Smither, Sophie J; Sullivan, Nancy J; Swanepoel, Robert; Takada, Ayato; Towner, Jonathan S; van der Groen, Guido; Volchkov, Viktor E; Volchkova, Valentina A; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Warren, Travis K; Warfield, Kelly L; Weidmann, Manfred; Nichol, Stuart T

2014-09-01

188

Filovirus RefSeq Entries: Evaluation and Selection of Filovirus Type Variants, Type Sequences, and Names  

PubMed Central

Sequence determination of complete or coding-complete genomes of viruses is becoming common practice for supporting the work of epidemiologists, ecologists, virologists, and taxonomists. Sequencing duration and costs are rapidly decreasing, sequencing hardware is under modification for use by non-experts, and software is constantly being improved to simplify sequence data management and analysis. Thus, analysis of virus disease outbreaks on the molecular level is now feasible, including characterization of the evolution of individual virus populations in single patients over time. The increasing accumulation of sequencing data creates a management problem for the curators of commonly used sequence databases and an entry retrieval problem for end users. Therefore, utilizing the data to their fullest potential will require setting nomenclature and annotation standards for virus isolates and associated genomic sequences. The National Center for Biotechnology Information’s (NCBI’s) RefSeq is a non-redundant, curated database for reference (or type) nucleotide sequence records that supplies source data to numerous other databases. Building on recently proposed templates for filovirus variant naming [ ()/<isolation host-suffix>///variant designation>-<isolate designation>], we report consensus decisions from a majority of past and currently active filovirus experts on the eight filovirus type variants and isolates to be represented in RefSeq, their final designations, and their associated sequences. PMID:25256396

Kuhn, Jens H.; Andersen, Kristian G.; Bào, Y?míng; Bavari, Sina; Becker, Stephan; Bennett, Richard S.; Bergman, Nicholas H.; Blinkova, Olga; Bradfute, Steven; Brister, J. Rodney; Bukreyev, Alexander; Chandran, Kartik; Chepurnov, Alexander A.; Davey, Robert A.; Dietzgen, Ralf G.; Doggett, Norman A.; Dolnik, Olga; Dye, John M.; Enterlein, Sven; Fenimore, Paul W.; Formenty, Pierre; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Garry, Robert F.; Garza, Nicole L.; Gire, Stephen K.; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Griffiths, Anthony; Happi, Christian T.; Hensley, Lisa E.; Herbert, Andrew S.; Hevey, Michael C.; Hoenen, Thomas; Honko, Anna N.; Ignatyev, Georgy M.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Johnson, Joshua C.; Johnson, Karl M.; Kindrachuk, Jason; Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Kobinger, Gary; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Lackemeyer, Matthew G.; Lackner, Daniel F.; Leroy, Eric M.; Lever, Mark S.; Mühlberger, Elke; Netesov, Sergey V.; Olinger, Gene G.; Omilabu, Sunday A.; Palacios, Gustavo; Panchal, Rekha G.; Park, Daniel J.; Patterson, Jean L.; Paweska, Janusz T.; Peters, Clarence J.; Pettitt, James; Pitt, Louise; Radoshitzky, Sheli R.; Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Sealfon, Rachel; Shestopalov, Aleksandr M.; Smither, Sophie J.; Sullivan, Nancy J.; Swanepoel, Robert; Takada, Ayato; Towner, Jonathan S.; van der Groen, Guido; Volchkov, Viktor E.; Volchkova, Valentina A.; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Warren, Travis K.; Warfield, Kelly L.; Weidmann, Manfred; Nichol, Stuart T.

2014-01-01

189

Syringometaplasia: mucinous and squamous variants.  

PubMed

The eccrine sweat ducts are normally lined by cuboidal epithelial cells which may rarely undergo metaplasia, i.e. syringometaplasia. Two lesions were observed in which eccrine sweat ducts displayed the mucinous and squamous variants of syringometaplasia. The first lesion clinically and histologically appeared to be a plantar wart. Microscopically, it consisted of a central invagination surrounded by marked epidermal acanthosis and hyperkeratosis. The invagination was lined by keratinocytes admixed with mucin-filled goblet cells. The mucin was positive by the Alcian blue (pH 2.5) and mucicarmine stains. Numerous eccrine sweat ducts led into the invagination and were focally lined by the mucin-laden cells. Recognition of mucinous syringometaplasia is important since it may be confused with primary or metastatic adenocarcinoma of the skin. The second lesion occurred on the outer ear and was clinically believed to be chondrodermatitis nodularis helicis. Microscopically, there were many islands of atypical squamous cells within the papillary and reticular dermis. These epithelial islands represented squamous syringometaplasia since many contained central lumina with eosinophilic cuticles and blended with normal ductal structures. It is important not to confuse this metaplastic change with invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous syringometaplasia may be analogous to necrotizing sialometaplasia, a recently described phenomenon which occurs in minor salivary glands. PMID:500875

King, D T; Barr, R J

1979-08-01

190

Identification of a Chicken Anemia Virus Variant-Related Gyrovirus in Stray Cats in China, 2012  

PubMed Central

The chicken anemia virus (CAV), is a known member of the genus Gyrovirus and was first isolated from chickens in Japan in 1979. Some reports have also demonstrated that CAV can be identified in human stool specimens. In this study, a variant of CAV was detected using PCR with CAV-based primers in fecal samples of stray cats. The genome of CAV variant was sequenced and the results suggest that it could be a recombinant viral strain from parental CAV strains JQ690762 and AF311900. Recombination is an important evolutionary mechanism that contributes to genetic diversification. These findings indicate that CAV variant might have originated from CAV-infected chickens. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of this novel virus remains to be elucidated. This study underscores the importance of CAV surveillance and it presents the first evidence suggesting the possibility of CAV homologous recombination in cat. PMID:24689034

Liu, Yuanjia; Ji, Jun; Chen, Feng; Sun, Baoli; Xue, Chunyi; Ma, Jingyun; Bi, Yingzuo; Xie, Qingmei

2014-01-01

191

Histological variants of cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma  

PubMed Central

This review provides a comprehensive overview of the broad clinicopathologic spectrum of cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma (KS) lesions. Variants discussed include: usual KS lesions associated with disease progression (i.e. patch, plaque and nodular stage); morphologic subtypes alluded to in the older literature such as anaplastic and telangiectatic KS, as well as several lymphedematous variants; and numerous recently described variants including hyperkeratotic, keloidal, micronodular, pyogenic granuloma-like, ecchymotic, and intravascular KS. Involuting lesions as a result of treatment related regression are also presented. PMID:18655700

Grayson, Wayne; Pantanowitz, Liron

2008-01-01

192

Variants of cerebral arteries – anterior circulation  

PubMed Central

Summary Advances in imaging techniques allow for in vivo identification of abnormalities and normal variants of cerebral arteries. These arterial variations can be asymptomatic and uncomplicated although, some of them increase the risk of aneurysm formation, acute intracranial hemorrhage, play a vital role in neurosurgical planning or can be misidentified as serious pathology and medical errors. The goal of this publication is to discuss arterial anomalies of anterior cerebral circulation, their prevalence and demonstrate radiological images of some of those variants. In this article we will discuss variants of internal carotid artery, anterior cerebral artery, anterior communicating artery, middle cerebral artery, persistent stapedial artery and fenestration. PMID:24115959

Makowicz, Grzegorz; Poniatowska, Renata; Lusawa, Ma?gorzata

2013-01-01

193

Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Variants  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is characterized by rapidly evolving ascending weakness, mild sensory loss and hypo- or areflexia, progressing to a nadir over up to four weeks. Cerebrospinal fluid evaluation demonstrates albuminocytologic dissociation in 90% of cases. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) was the first to be recognized over a century ago and is the most common form of GBS. In AIDP, the immune attack is directed at peripheral nerve myelin with secondary by-stander axon loss. Axonal motor and sensorimotor variants have been described in the last 3 decades and are mediated by molecular mimicry targeting peripheral nerve motor axons. Besides the Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS) and descending weakness, other rare phenotypic variants have been recently described with pure sensory variant, restricted autonomic manifestations and the pharyngeal-cervical-brachial pattern. It is important to recognize GBS and its variants due to the availability of equally effective therapies in the form of plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulins. PMID:23642721

Barohn, Richard J.

2014-01-01

194

Directed Evolution of Streptavidin Variants Using IVC  

PubMed Central

Summary We have developed and implemented an in vitro compartmentalization (IVC) selection scheme for the identification of streptavidin (SA) variants with altered specificities for the biotin analog desthiobiotin. Wild-type SA and selected variants bind desthiobiotin with similar affinities (~10?13 M), but the variants have off-rates almost 50 times slower and a half-life for dissociation of 24 hours at 25°C. The utility of streptavidin variants with altered specificities and kinetic properties was demonstrated by constructing protein microarrays that could be used to differentially organize and immobilize DNAs bearing these ligands. The methods we have developed should prove to be generally useful for generating a variety of novel SA reagents, and for evolving other extremely high affinity protein:ligand couples. PMID:18804035

Levy, M.; Ellington, A.D.

2008-01-01

195

Exposed epitopes on a Trypanosoma equiperdum variant surface glycoprotein altered by point mutations.  

PubMed Central

African trypanosomes are covered by a dense protein layer that is immunologically distinct on different trypanosome isolates and is termed the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). The different VSGs are expressed in a general order, where some VSGs appear preferentially early in infection and others only later. The exposed epitopes on a late antigen, VSG 78, of T.equiperdum were studied by the technique of monoclonal antibody (MAb) escape selection. MAbs that neutralize trypanosomes bearing VSG 78 reacted with the VSG only when it was attached to the trypanosome surface, suggesting that the most immunogenic surface epitopes are conformational. Trypanosome clones resistant to one of the MAbs yet still expressing VSG 78 or 78(20) were isolated in vitro. Two independent variants resistant to MAb H3 changed Ser192 to Arg by a single base change in the VSG gene and a variant resistant to MAb H21 had a single base change that converted Gln172 to Glu. A variant resistant to MAb H7 had several changes in the VSG gene, a gene conversion in the 5' region and an isolated mutation in codon 220 that is proposed to be responsible for the resistance phenotype. The isotypic bias of the MAbs against VSG 78 and an analysis of the natural variants that are resistant to MAb 78H21 suggest that glycosylation plays a role in the immunogenicity of these proteins. The analysis defines some of the exposed amino acid residues and demonstrates that VSG genes are altered by mutations and small gene conversions as well as replaced by large gene conversion-like events. The results provide biological data supporting the model of VSG structure obtained by crystallographic studies. Images PMID:1710978

Baltz, T; Giroud, C; Bringaud, F; Eisen, H; Jacquemot, C; Roth, C W

1991-01-01

196

A Computationally Designed Water-Soluble Variant of a G-Protein-Coupled Receptor: The Human Mu Opioid Receptor  

PubMed Central

G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play essential roles in various physiological processes, and are widely targeted by pharmaceutical drugs. Despite their importance, studying GPCRs has been problematic due to difficulties in isolating large quantities of these membrane proteins in forms that retain their ligand binding capabilities. Creating water-soluble variants of GPCRs by mutating the exterior, transmembrane residues provides a potential method to overcome these difficulties. Here we present the first study involving the computational design, expression and characterization of water-soluble variant of a human GPCR, the human mu opioid receptor (MUR), which is involved in pain and addiction. An atomistic structure of the transmembrane domain was built using comparative (homology) modeling and known GPCR structures. This structure was highly similar to the subsequently determined structure of the murine receptor and was used to computationally design 53 mutations of exterior residues in the transmembrane region, yielding a variant intended to be soluble in aqueous media. The designed variant expressed in high yield in Escherichia coli and was water soluble. The variant shared structural and functionally related features with the native human MUR, including helical secondary structure and comparable affinity for the antagonist naltrexone (Kd ?=?65 nM). The roles of cholesterol and disulfide bonds on the stability of the receptor variant were also investigated. This study exemplifies the potential of the computational approach to produce water-soluble variants of GPCRs amenable for structural and functionally related characterization in aqueous solution. PMID:23799068

Matsunaga, Felipe; Cui, Xu; Selling, Bernard; Saven, Jeffery G.; Liu, Renyu

2013-01-01

197

Common variants in UMOD associate with urinary uromodulin levels: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Uromodulin is expressed exclusively in the thick ascending limb and is the most abundant protein excreted in normal urine. Variants in UMOD, which encodes uromodulin, are associated with renal function, and urinary uromodulin levels may be a biomarker for kidney disease. However, the genetic factors regulating uromodulin excretion are unknown. We conducted a meta-analysis of urinary uromodulin levels to identify associated common genetic variants in the general population. We included 10,884 individuals of European descent from three genetic isolates and three urban cohorts. Each study measured uromodulin indexed to creatinine and conducted linear regression analysis of approximately 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms using an additive model. We also tested whether variants in genes expressed in the thick ascending limb associate with uromodulin levels. rs12917707, located near UMOD and previously associated with renal function and CKD, had the strongest association with urinary uromodulin levels (P<0.001). In all cohorts, carriers of a G allele of this variant had higher uromodulin levels than noncarriers did (geometric means 10.24, 14.05, and 17.67 ?g/g creatinine for zero, one, or two copies of the G allele). rs12446492 in the adjacent gene PDILT (protein disulfide isomerase-like, testis expressed) also reached genome-wide significance (P<0.001). Regarding genes expressed in the thick ascending limb, variants in KCNJ1, SORL1, and CAB39 associated with urinary uromodulin levels. These data indicate that common variants in the UMOD promoter region may influence urinary uromodulin levels. They also provide insights into uromodulin biology and the association of UMOD variants with renal function. PMID:24578125

Olden, Matthias; Corre, Tanguy; Hayward, Caroline; Toniolo, Daniela; Ulivi, Sheila; Gasparini, Paolo; Pistis, Giorgio; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Bergmann, Sven; Campbell, Harry; Cocca, Massimiliano; Gandin, Ilaria; Girotto, Giorgia; Glaudemans, Bob; Hastie, Nicholas D; Loffing, Johannes; Polasek, Ozren; Rampoldi, Luca; Rudan, Igor; Sala, Cinzia; Traglia, Michela; Vollenweider, Peter; Vuckovic, Dragana; Youhanna, Sonia; Weber, Julien; Wright, Alan F; Kutalik, Zoltán; Bochud, Murielle; Fox, Caroline S; Devuyst, Olivier

2014-08-01

198

Demography and the Age of Rare Variants  

PubMed Central

Large whole-genome sequencing projects have provided access to much rare variation in human populations, which is highly informative about population structure and recent demography. Here, we show how the age of rare variants can be estimated from patterns of haplotype sharing and how these ages can be related to historical relationships between populations. We investigate the distribution of the age of variants occurring exactly twice ( variants) in a worldwide sample sequenced by the 1000 Genomes Project, revealing enormous variation across populations. The median age of haplotypes carrying variants is 50 to 160 generations across populations within Europe or Asia, and 170 to 320 generations within Africa. Haplotypes shared between continents are much older with median ages for haplotypes shared between Europe and Asia ranging from 320 to 670 generations. The distribution of the ages of haplotypes is informative about their demography, revealing recent bottlenecks, ancient splits, and more modern connections between populations. We see the effect of selection in the observation that functional variants are significantly younger than nonfunctional variants of the same frequency. This approach is relatively insensitive to mutation rate and complements other nonparametric methods for demographic inference. PMID:25101869

Mathieson, Iain; McVean, Gil

2014-01-01

199

EIF4G1 in familial Parkinson's disease: pathogenic mutations or rare benign variants?  

PubMed

Mutations in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4-gamma (EIF4G1) gene, encoding a component of the eIF4F translation initiation complex, were recently reported as a possible cause for the autosomal dominant form of Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we describe the screening of all 31 EIF4G1 coding exons in a series of 251 index cases with autosomal dominant PD, mostly of French origin and in 236 European control subjects. We identified 12 rare coding variants (either nonsynonymous amino acid substitutions or in frame deletions/insertions), including 6 variants present only in cases and 3 in controls. Segregation was possible only for 1 variant (p.E462delInsGK) that was found in 2 affected siblings. In addition, we found 2 previously reported pathogenic variants in 2 isolated patients (p.G686C) and in a control subject (p.R1197W). These data do not support the pathogenicity of several EIF4G1 variants in PD, at least in the French population. PMID:22658323

Lesage, Suzanne; Condroyer, Christel; Klebe, Stephan; Lohmann, Ebba; Durif, Franck; Damier, Philippe; Tison, François; Anheim, Mathieu; Honoré, Aurélie; Viallet, François; Bonnet, Anne-Marie; Ouvrard-Hernandez, Anne-Marie; Vidailhet, Marie; Durr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis

2012-09-01

200

Genetic and functional analyses of ZIC3 variants in congenital heart disease.  

PubMed

Mutations in zinc-finger in cerebellum 3 (ZIC3) result in heterotaxy or isolated congenital heart disease (CHD). The majority of reported mutations cluster in zinc-finger domains. We previously demonstrated that many of these lead to aberrant ZIC3 subcellular trafficking. A relative paucity of N- and C-terminal mutations has, however, prevented similar analyses in these regions. Notably, an N-terminal polyalanine expansion was recently identified in a patient with VACTERL, suggesting a potentially distinct function for this domain. Here we report ZIC3 sequencing results from 440 unrelated patients with heterotaxy and CHD, the largest cohort yet examined. Variants were identified in 5.2% of sporadic male cases. This rate exceeds previous estimates of 1% and has important clinical implications for genetic testing and risk-based counseling. Eight of 11 were novel, including 5 N-terminal variants. Subsequent functional analyses included four additional reported but untested variants. Aberrant cytoplasmic localization and decreased luciferase transactivation were observed for all zinc-finger variants, but not for downstream or in-frame upstream variants, including both analyzed polyalanine expansions. Collectively, these results expand the ZIC3 mutational spectrum, support a higher than expected prevalence in sporadic cases, and suggest alternative functions for terminal mutations, highlighting a need for further study of these domains. PMID:24123890

Cowan, Jason; Tariq, Muhammad; Ware, Stephanie M

2014-01-01

201

Identical human papillomavirus (HPV) genomic variants persist in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis for up to 22 years.  

PubMed

Seventy initial and 125 follow-up tissue specimens of laryngeal papillomas, obtained from 70 patients who had had recurrent respiratory papillomatosis for from 1-22 years, were investigated for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and HPV E5a, LCR and/or full-length genomic variants. HPV-6 was found in 130/195, HPV-11 in 63/195, and HPV-6/HPV-11 in 2/195 samples. Within 67/70 (95.7%) patients, all follow-up HPV isolates genetically matched completely initial HPV isolate over the highly variable parts of the genome or over the entire genome. Frequent recurrence of laryngeal papillomas is a consequence of long-term persistence of the identical initial HPV genomic variant. PMID:23204170

Kocjan, Boštjan J; Gale, Nina; Ho?evar Boltežar, Irena; Seme, Katja; Fujs Komloš, Kristina; Hošnjak, Lea; Maver, Polona J; Jelen, Mateja M; Zupani? Pajni?, Irena; Balažic, Jože; Poljak, Mario

2013-02-15

202

Characterization of susceptibility variants of influenza virus grown in the presence of T-705.  

PubMed

T-705 (favipiravir) is a potent inhibitor of RNA polymerases of influenza viruses. Susceptibility variants were isolated during passages in the presence of T-705. Nine variants with 0.4 to 2.1 times the 50% inhibitory concentration for plaque formation of the parent A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) strain had amino acid variations in the PB1, PB2, and PA genes of the RNA polymerase complex. However, the variation patterns in the RNA polymerase complex indicated that T-705 does not work as a mutagen, and resistant mutants were not isolated, possibly because a mutation leading to resistance would be lethal to the RNA polymerase function. PMID:25296868

Daikoku, Tohru; Yoshida, Yoshihiro; Okuda, Tomoko; Shiraki, Kimiyasu

2014-01-01

203

Full-Length Genome Sequence of a Variant Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strain, CH/GDZQ/2014, Responsible for a Severe Outbreak of Diarrhea in Piglets in Guangdong, China, 2014  

PubMed Central

The full-length genome sequence of a variant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strain, CH/GDZQ/2014, was determined. The isolate was a variant strain with a relatively far relationship with the PEDV strains previously identified in the same area between 2011 and 2012 and was genetically distinct from the CV777-based vaccine strain currently being used in China. PMID:25477403

Song, Deping; Chen, Yanjun; Peng, Qi; Huang, Dongyan; Zhang, Tiansheng; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Fanfan; Zhou, Xinrong

2014-01-01

204

Gelsolin variant (Asn-187) in familial amyloidosis, Finnish type.  

PubMed Central

Familial amyloidosis, Finnish type (FAF), is an inherited form of systemic amyloidosis clinically characterized by cranial neuropathy and lattice corneal dystrophy. We have demonstrated that the protein subunit isolated from amyloid fibrils shows considerable sequence identity with gelsolin, an actin-binding protein. We have purified the amyloid subunit from a second case and further analysed different fractions from the previous one. Sequence analysis shows that, in both cases, the amyloid subunit starts at position 173 of the mature molecule; it has a heterogeneous N-terminus and contains one amino acid substitution, namely asparagine for aspartic acid, at position 15 (gelsolin residue 187), that is due to a guanine-to-adenine transversion corresponding to nucleotide-654 of human plasma gelsolin cDNA. The substitution maps in a fragment with actin-binding activity and is located in a repetitive motif highly conserved among species. Thus FAF is the first human disease known to be caused by an internal abnormal degradation of a gelsolin variant. We designate this variant of gelsolin-associated amyloidosis 'Agel Asn-187'. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:2176481

Ghiso, J; Haltia, M; Prelli, F; Novello, J; Frangione, B

1990-01-01

205

Super Spy variants implicate flexibility in chaperone action  

PubMed Central

Experimental study of the role of disorder in protein function is challenging. It has been proposed that proteins utilize disordered regions in the adaptive recognition of their various binding partners. However apart from a few exceptions, defining the importance of disorder in promiscuous binding interactions has proven to be difficult. In this paper, we have utilized a genetic selection that links protein stability to antibiotic resistance to isolate variants of the newly discovered chaperone Spy that show an up to 7 fold improved chaperone activity against a variety of substrates. These “Super Spy” variants show tighter binding to client proteins and are generally more unstable than is wild type Spy and show increases in apparent flexibility. We establish a good relationship between the degree of their instability and the improvement they show in their chaperone activity. Our results provide evidence for the importance of disorder and flexibility in chaperone function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01584.001 PMID:24497545

Quan, Shu; Wang, Lili; Petrotchenko, Evgeniy V; Makepeace, Karl AT; Horowitz, Scott; Yang, Jianyi; Zhang, Yang; Borchers, Christoph H; Bardwell, James CA

2014-01-01

206

HIV colonizing peripheral blood monocytes follows lymphocytic isolates in shifting from NSI to SI genotype.  

PubMed

Non-syncytium inducing (NSI) and syncytium inducing (SI) variants of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) could be definitely typed by sequence analysis of the env-gene V3 region. It was thus possible to compare the genotypes of viral variants isolated from PBMC and accompanying monocyte cultures and those derived directly from the patients' blood cells prior to cultivation. Within the investigated group of patients it was shown that HIV variants colonizing monocytes displayed a similar shift from NSI to SI as observed previously for PBMC, i.e. lymphocyte derived isolates. Lymphocytic SI variants could be isolated from the blood of patients, while simultaneously the predominant provirus in both blood and monocytic isolate was NSI. Consequently, we observed a delayed switch in the predominant provirus genotype found in blood which was associated with a synchronous change in the genotype of the corresponding monocytic isolate. The results show that monocytes/macrophages can be colonized by heterogeneous HIV variants in vivo and can therefore also function as carriers for the spread of highly virulent SI variants into the tissues. PMID:8920819

Witt, A; Kaiser, R; Mayer, A; Rolf, R; Matz, B; Schneweis, K E

1996-01-01

207

Essential Oil Composition of a Citronella-like Variant of Lemongrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

A natural variant of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus), with a citronella-like odor which was isolated from cycle-4 population of a recurrent selection program in lemongrass, was studied for its essential oil composition by GC and GC\\/MS. The main components of the oil were geraniol (13.1%), citronellyl acetate (11.2%) and geranyl acetate (25.9%), while neral (3.7%) and geranial (5.8%) were minor constituents.

R. N. Kulkarni; G. R. Mallavarapu; K. Baskaran; S. Ramesh; Sushil Kumar

1997-01-01

208

Early learning of discrete call variants in red crossbills: implications for reliable signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of appropriate companions and mates is essential to both speciation and the maintenance of species through\\u000a prezygotic isolation. In many birds, social assortment is mediated by vocalizations learned through imitation. When imitative\\u000a vocal learning occurs throughout life, emergent shared signals reflect current social associations. However, when vocal and\\u000a genetic variation arises among populations, shared learned signal variants have

Kendra B. Sewall

2011-01-01

209

Genetic background effects on age-related hearing loss associated with Cdh23 variants in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inbred strain variants of the Cdh23 gene have been shown to influence the onset and progression of age-related hearing loss (AHL) in mice. In linkage backcrosses, the recessive Cdh23 allele (ahl) of the C57BL\\/6J strain, when homozygous, confers increased susceptibility to AHL, while the dominant allele (Ahl+) of the CBA\\/CaJ strain confers resistance. To determine the isolated effects of these

Kelly L Kane; Chantal M Longo-Guess; Leona H Gagnon; Dalian Ding; Richard J Salvi; Kenneth R Johnson

2012-01-01

210

Different splice variants of filamin-B affect myogenesis, subcellular distribution, and determine binding to integrinsubunits  

Microsoft Academic Search

ntegrins connect the extracellular matrix with the cell interior, and transduce signals through interactions of their cytoplasmic tails with cytoskeletal and signaling proteins. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we isolated a novel splice variant (filamin-B var-1 ) of the filamentous actin cross-linking protein, filamin-B, that interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of the integrin ? 1A and ? 1D subunits. RT-PCR

Arjan van der Flier; Ingrid Kuikman; Duco Kramer; Dirk Geerts; Maaike Kreft; Toshiro Takafuta; Sandor S. Shapiro; Arnoud Sonnenberg

2002-01-01

211

Complete genome sequence of the porcine kobuvirus variant CH/HNXX-4/2012.  

PubMed

Porcine kobuvirus, an emerging virus, may be the underlying etiological cause of a large-scale outbreak of diarrhea in suckling piglets in China that started in 2010. We report the complete genome sequence of the porcine kobuvirus variant CH/HNXX-4/2012 with a 30-amino-acid deletion in its 2B-coding region that was isolated in this outbreak. This will help the phenotypic variation and evolutionary characteristics of porcine kobuvirus to be understood. PMID:23043177

Cao, Weijun; Zheng, Haixue; Zhang, Keshan; Jin, Ye; Lv, Lv; Yang, Fan; Liu, Xiangtao

2012-11-01

212

Molecular Insights into the Phenotypic Divergence in Natural Curli Variants of Escherichia coli O157:H7  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) causes severe disease including hemolytic uremic syndrome and contributes significantly to human infections and outbreaks. We previously reported that natural curli variants isolated from the same strain display distinct phenotypic differences: curli-deficient varia...

213

Characterization of a Unique Variant of Bat Rabies Virus Responsible for Newly Emerging Human Cases in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silver-haired bat variant of rabies virus (SHBRV) has been identified as the etiological agent of a number of recent human rabies cases in the United States that are unusual in not having been associated with any known history of conventional exposure. Comparison of the different biological and biochemical properties of isolates of this virus with those of a coyote

Kinjiro Morimoto; Menal Patel; Susanne Corisdeo; D. Craig Hooper; Zhen Fang Fu; Charles E. Rupprecht; Hilary Koprowski; Bernhard Dietzschold

1996-01-01

214

Determination of a novel integron-located variant (blaOXA -320 ) of Class D ?-lactamase in Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) is one of Gram-negative pathogens encountered in clinical specimens. A clinical isolate (TRP41) of P. mirabilis was isolated from a Turkish patient in Turkey. The isolate was identified using the API 32GN system and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and it was found resistant to ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. This isolate was harboring a Class 1 integron gene cassette and its DNA sequence analysis revealed a novel blaOXA variant exhibiting one amino acid substitution (Asn266Ile) from blaOXA-1 . This new variant of OXA was located on Class 1 integron together with aadA1 gene encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. According to sequence records, the new variant was named as blaOXA-320 . Cassette array and size of integron were found as blaOXA-320 -aadA1 and 2086?bp, respectively. The blaOXA-320 gene is not transferable according to conjugation experiment. In this study, we report the first identification of blaOXA-320 -aadA1 gene cassette, a novel variant of Class D ?-lactamase, in P. mirabilis from Turkey. PMID:24027220

Cicek, Aysegul Copur; Duzgun, Azer Ozad; Saral, Aysegul; Sandalli, Cemal

2014-10-01

215

Generation of the mu opioid receptor (MOR1) protein by three new splice variants of the Oprm gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 5' RACE, we have isolated four additional exons of the mu opioid receptor gene (Oprm), resulting in a gene spanning over 250 kb. The four new exons are contained within eight additional splice variants containing exon 11 at the 5' terminus. Exon 11, which is under the control of a previously unknown upstream promoter, and exon 12 are located

Ying-Xian Pan; Jin Xu; Loriann Mahurter; Elizabeth Bolan; Mingming Xu; Gavril W. Pasternak

2001-01-01

216

Social isolation  

PubMed Central

Social species, by definition, form organizations that extend beyond the individual. These structures evolved hand in hand with behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social isolation represents a lens through which to investigate these behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms. Evidence from human and nonhuman animal studies indicates that isolation heightens sensitivity to social threats (predator evasion) and motivates the renewal of social connections. The effects of perceived isolation in humans share much in common with the effects of experimental manipulations of isolation in nonhuman social species: increased tonic sympathetic tonus and HPA activation, and decreased inflammatory control, immunity, sleep salubrity, and expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid responses. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in older adults. PMID:21651565

Cacioppo, John T.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Norman, Greg J.; Berntson, Gary G.

2011-01-01

217

A first case of New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase-7 in an Escherichia coli ST648 isolate in Japan.  

PubMed

We report a first identification case of an Escherichia coli ST648 isolate producing a variant New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase (NDM) -7 in Japan, which was recovered from a patient hospitalized in India. Although the first isolate, NDM-1, was identified in Japan in 2010, NDM-producing bacteria have only been isolated from seven patients to date, and no other variant of NDM producing organism has been reported yet. The emergence of NDM variants in Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern, and the use of rigorous screening tests and preventive measures against infection is imperative. PMID:25193039

Mizuno, Yasutaka; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

2014-12-01

218

Novel compound heterozygous NMNAT1 variants associated with Leber congenital amaurosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose The gene encoding nicotinamide nucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 (NMNAT1) was recently found to be mutated in a subset of patients with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) with macular atrophy. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and frequency of NMNAT1 mutations and associated phenotypes in different types of inherited retinal dystrophies. Methods DNA samples of 161 patients with LCA without genetic diagnosis were analyzed for variants in NMNAT1 using Sanger sequencing. Variants in exon 5 of NMNAT1, which harbors the majority of the previously identified mutations, were screened in 532 additional patients with retinal dystrophies. This cohort encompassed 108 persons with isolated or autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy (CRD), 271 with isolated or autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and 49 with autosomal dominant RP, as well as 104 persons with LCA in whom the causative mutation was previously identified. Results Compound heterozygous alterations were found in six patients with LCA and in one person with early-onset RP. All except one carried the common p.E257K variant on one allele. Macular atrophy was absent in one patient, who carried this variant in combination with a truncating mutation on the other allele. The p.E257K alteration was also found in a heterozygous state in five individuals with LCA and one with RP while no mutation was detected on the other allele. Two individuals with LCA carried other NMNAT1 variants in a heterozygous state, whereas no NMNAT1 variants in exon 5 were identified in individuals with CRD. The p.E257K variant was found to be enriched in a heterozygous state in individuals with LCA (0.94%) compared to Caucasian controls (0.18%), although the difference was statistically insignificant (p=0.12). Conclusions Although macular atrophy can occur in LCA and CRD, no NMNAT1 mutations were found in the latter cohort. NMNAT1 variants were also not found in a large group of patients with sporadic or autosomal recessive RP. The enrichment of p.E257K in a heterozygous state in patients with LCA versus controls suggests that this allele could act as a modifier in other genetic subtypes of LCA. PMID:24940029

Siemiatkowska, Anna M.; van den Born, L. Ingeborgh; van Genderen, Maria M.; Bertelsen, Mette; Zobor, Ditta; Rohrschneider, Klaus; van Huet, Ramon A.C.; Nurohmah, Siska; Klevering, B. Jeroen; Kohl, Susanne; Faradz, Sultana M.H.; Rosenberg, Thomas; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Collin, Rob W.J.

2014-01-01

219

Allele Variants of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin Are Globally Transmitted and Associated with Colonization Factors.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. ETEC-mediated diarrhea is orchestrated by heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxins (STp and STh), acting in concert with a repertoire of more than 25 colonization factors (CFs). LT, the major virulence factor, induces fluid secretion after delivery of a monomeric ADP-ribosylase (LTA) and its pentameric carrier B subunit (LTB). A study of ETEC isolates from humans in Brazil reported the existence of natural LT variants. In the present study, analysis of predicted amino acid sequences showed that the LT amino acid polymorphisms are associated with a geographically and temporally diverse set of 192 clinical ETEC strains and identified 12 novel LT variants. Twenty distinct LT amino acid variants were observed in the globally distributed strains, and phylogenetic analysis showed these to be associated with different CF profiles. Notably, the most prevalent LT1 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS1 + CS3 or CS2 + CS3, and the most prevalent LT2 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS5 + CS6 or CFA/I. LTB allele variants generally exhibited more-stringent amino acid sequence conservation (2 substitutions identified) than LTA allele variants (22 substitutions identified). The functional impact of LT1 and LT2 polymorphisms on virulence was investigated by measuring total-toxin production, secretion, and stability using GM1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (GM1-ELISA) and in silico protein modeling. Our data show that LT2 strains produce 5-fold more toxin than LT1 strains (P < 0.001), which may suggest greater virulence potential for this genetic variant. Our data suggest that functionally distinct LT-CF variants with increased fitness have persisted during the evolution of ETEC and have spread globally. PMID:25404692

Joffré, Enrique; von Mentzer, Astrid; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Oezguen, Numan; Savidge, Tor; Dougan, Gordon; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Sjöling, Åsa

2015-01-15

220

Molecular genetics of glycophorin MNS variants.  

PubMed

The antigens for the MNS blood group system are Glycophorins A and B (GPA,GPB), products of the GPA gene family. The existence of close to 40 variant phenotypes of this blood group system has been documented by serological analyses. Here is summarized the molecular basis for a large number of variants, including all the variants of the Miltenberger complex and several isoforms of Sta; also, Dantu, Sat, He, Mg, and deletion variants Ena, S-s-U- and Mk. The diversity is based predominantly on gene recombinations, namely unequal homologous recombinations and/or gene conversions, often coupled to pre-mRNA splicing. Most rearrangements occurred between GPA and GPB alleles, and were confined to hot-spots within the 4 kb region coding for the extracellular domain. The homologous region in GPE, the third member of the gene family, was involved only rarely. Sites of the variant epitopes are mapped to new intra- and inter-exon junctions or to patches of previously silenced sequences that become expressed following recombination. PMID:9269716

Blumenfeld, O O; Huang, C H

1997-07-01

221

Enhancer variants: evaluating functions in common disease.  

PubMed

Gene enhancer elements are noncoding segments of DNA that play a central role in regulating transcriptional programs that control development, cell identity, and evolutionary processes. Recent studies have shown that noncoding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been associated with risk for numerous common diseases through genome-wide association studies frequently lie in cell-type-specific enhancer elements. These enhancer variants probably influence transcriptional output, thereby offering a mechanistic basis to explain their association with risk for many common diseases. This review focuses on the identification and interpretation of disease-susceptibility variants that influence enhancer function. We discuss strategies for prioritizing the study of functional enhancer SNPs over those likely to be benign, review experimental and computational approaches to identifying the gene targets of enhancer variants, and highlight efforts to quantify the impact of enhancer variants on target transcript levels and cellular phenotypes. These studies are beginning to provide insights into the mechanistic basis of many common diseases, as well as into how we might translate this knowledge for improved disease diagnosis, prevention and treatments. Finally, we highlight five major challenges often associated with interpreting enhancer variants, and discuss recent technical advances that may help to surmount these challenges. PMID:25473424

Corradin, Olivia; Scacheri, Peter C

2014-01-01

222

Rare Variants and Transcriptomics in Alzheimer disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common dementia in the elderly, still without effective treatment. Early-onset AD (EOAD) is caused by mutations in the genes APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2. Genome-wide association studies have identified >20 late-onset AD (LOAD) susceptibility genes with common variants of small risk, with the exception of APOE. We review rare susceptibility variants in LOAD with larger effects that have been recently identified in the EOAD gene APP and the newly discovered AD genes TREM2 and PLD3. Human genetic studies now consistently support the amyloid hypothesis of AD for both EOAD and LOAD. Moreover, they identified biological processes that overlap with human transcriptomics studies in AD across different tissues, such as inflammation, cytoskeletal organization, synaptic functions, etc. Transcriptomic profiles of pre-symptomatic AD-associated variant carriers already reflect specific molecular mechanisms reminiscent to those of AD patients. This might provide an avenue for personalized medicine. PMID:25045597

Humphries, Crystal; Kohli, Martin A

2014-06-01

223

Hemoglobin variants: biochemical properties and clinical correlates.  

PubMed

Diseases affecting hemoglobin synthesis and function are extremely common worldwide. More than 1000 naturally occurring human hemoglobin variants with single amino acid substitutions throughout the molecule have been discovered, mainly through their clinical and/or laboratory manifestations. These variants alter hemoglobin structure and biochemical properties with physiological effects ranging from insignificant to severe. Studies of these mutations in patients and in the laboratory have produced a wealth of information on hemoglobin biochemistry and biology with significant implications for hematology practice. More generally, landmark studies of hemoglobin performed over the past 60 years have established important paradigms for the disciplines of structural biology, genetics, biochemistry, and medicine. Here we review the major classes of hemoglobin variants, emphasizing general concepts and illustrative examples. PMID:23388674

Thom, Christopher S; Dickson, Claire F; Gell, David A; Weiss, Mitchell J

2013-03-01

224

Novel human butyrylcholinesterase variants: toward organophosphonate detoxication.  

PubMed

Human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE) is currently being developed as a detoxication enzyme for stoichiometric binding and/or catalytic hydrolysis of organophosphates. Herein, we describe the use of a molecular evolution method to develop novel hBChE variants with increased resistance to stereochemically defined nerve agent model compounds of soman, sarin, and cyclosarin. Novel hBChE variants (Y332S, D340H, and Y332S/D340H) were identified with an increased resistance to nerve agent model compounds that retained robust intrinsic catalytic efficiency. Molecular dynamics simulations of these variants revealed insights into the mechanism by which these structural changes conferred nerve agent model compound resistance. PMID:24902043

Dwyer, Mary; Javor, Sacha; Ryan, Daniel A; Smith, Emily M; Wang, Beilin; Zhang, Jun; Cashman, John R

2014-07-15

225

The curation of genetic variants: difficulties and possible solutions.  

PubMed

The curation of genetic variants from biomedical articles is required for various clinical and research purposes. Nowadays, establishment of variant databases that include overall information about variants is becoming quite popular. These databases have immense utility, serving as a user-friendly information storehouse of variants for information seekers. While manual curation is the gold standard method for curation of variants, it can turn out to be time-consuming on a large scale thus necessitating the need for automation. Curation of variants described in biomedical literature may not be straightforward mainly due to various nomenclature and expression issues. Though current trends in paper writing on variants is inclined to the standard nomenclature such that variants can easily be retrieved, we have a massive store of variants in the literature that are present as non-standard names and the online search engines that are predominantly used may not be capable of finding them. For effective curation of variants, knowledge about the overall process of curation, nature and types of difficulties in curation, and ways to tackle the difficulties during the task are crucial. Only by effective curation, can variants be correctly interpreted. This paper presents the process and difficulties of curation of genetic variants with possible solutions and suggestions from our work experience in the field including literature support. The paper also highlights aspects of interpretation of genetic variants and the importance of writing papers on variants following standard and retrievable methods. PMID:23317699

Pandey, Kapil Raj; Maden, Narendra; Poudel, Barsha; Pradhananga, Sailendra; Sharma, Amit Kumar

2012-12-01

226

Postnatally-transmitted HIV-1 Envelope variants have similar neutralization-sensitivity and function to that of nontransmitted breast milk variants  

PubMed Central

Background Breastfeeding is a leading cause of infant HIV-1 infection in the developing world, yet only a minority of infants exposed to HIV-1 via breastfeeding become infected. As a genetic bottleneck severely restricts the number of postnatally-transmitted variants, genetic or phenotypic properties of the virus Envelope (Env) could be important for the establishment of infant infection. We examined the efficiency of virologic functions required for initiation of infection in the gastrointestinal tract and the neutralization sensitivity of HIV-1 Env variants isolated from milk of three postnatally-transmitting mothers (n=13 viruses), five clinically-matched nontransmitting mothers (n=16 viruses), and seven postnatally-infected infants (n = 7 postnatally-transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses). Results There was no difference in the efficiency of epithelial cell interactions between Env virus variants from the breast milk of transmitting and nontransmitting mothers. Moreover, there was similar efficiency of DC-mediated trans-infection, CCR5-usage, target cell fusion, and infectivity between HIV-1 Env-pseudoviruses from nontransmitting mothers and postnatal T/F viruses. Milk Env-pseudoviruses were generally sensitive to neutralization by autologous maternal plasma and resistant to breast milk neutralization. Infant T/F Env-pseudoviruses were equally sensitive to neutralization by broadly-neutralizing monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies as compared to nontransmitted breast milk Env variants. Conclusion Postnatally-T/F Env variants do not appear to possess a superior ability to interact with and cross a mucosal barrier or an exceptional resistance to neutralization that define their capability to initiate infection across the infant gastrointestinal tract in the setting of preexisting maternal antibodies. PMID:23305422

2013-01-01

227

Histone variants: dynamic punctuation in transcription  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic gene regulation involves a balance between packaging of the genome into nucleosomes and enabling access to regulatory proteins and RNA polymerase. Nucleosomes are integral components of gene regulation that restrict access to both regulatory sequences and the underlying template. Whereas canonical histones package the newly replicated genome, they can be replaced with histone variants that alter nucleosome structure, stability, dynamics, and, ultimately, DNA accessibility. Here we consider how histone variants and their interacting partners are involved in transcriptional regulation through the creation of unique chromatin states. PMID:24696452

Weber, Christopher M.; Henikoff, Steven

2014-01-01

228

Anatomical variants and pathologies of the vermix  

PubMed Central

The appendix may demonstrate a perplexing range of normal and abnormal appearances on imaging exams. Familiarity with the anatomy and anatomical variants of the appendix is helpful in identifying the appendix on ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Knowledge of the variety of pathologies afflicting the appendix and of the spectrum of imaging findings may be particularly useful to the emergency radiologist for accurate diagnosis and appropriate guidance regarding clinical and surgical management. In this pictorial essay, we review appendiceal embryology, anatomical variants such as Amyand hernias, and pathologies from appendicitis to carcinoid, mucinous, and nonmucinous epithelial neoplasms. PMID:24570122

Deshmukh, Swati; Verde, Franco; Johnson, Pamela T.; Fishman, Elliot K.

2015-01-01

229

Lack of mecA transcription in slime-negative phase variants of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis.  

PubMed Central

Five phase variants (PV1 to PV5) of the well-characterized, slime-producing, methicillin-resistant, pathogenic strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis sensu strictu RP62A (ATCC 35984) were isolated by the Congo red agar method. In comparison with the parent strain, the phase variants showed a different colonial morphology on Congo red agar, a strongly reduced adherence capacity, and decreased levels of resistance to methicillin, oxacillin, and penicillin. All phase variants yielded biochemical reaction patterns and profiles in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identical to those of parent strain RP62A, indicating a common origin. All phase variants proved to have the capacity to shift back to the original phenotype of parent strain RP62A. A search for the resistance mechanisms of strain RP62A revealed beta-lactamase production and the presence of mecA in PV1 to PV5 as well as parent strain RP62A. In Northern blots of total staphylococcal RNA, the phase variants showed no detectable mecA-specific transcription product, whereas parent strain RP62A revealed a strong signal, indicating that mecA transcription is not the mechanism responsible for the decreased methicillin resistance phenotype of phase variants PV1 to PV5. Images PMID:8092822

Mempel, M; Feucht, H; Ziebuhr, W; Endres, M; Laufs, R; Grüter, L

1994-01-01

230

Guidelines for investigating causality of sequence variants in human disease  

PubMed Central

The discovery of rare genetic variants is accelerating, and clear guidelines for distinguishing disease-causing sequence variants from the many potentially functional variants present in any human genome are urgently needed. Without rigorous standards we risk an acceleration of false-positive reports of causality, which would impede the translation of genomic research findings into the clinical diagnostic setting and hinder biological understanding of disease. Here we discuss the key challenges of assessing sequence variants in human disease, integrating both gene-level and variant-level support for causality. We propose guidelines for summarizing confidence in variant pathogenicity and highlight several areas that require further resource development. PMID:24759409

MacArthur, D. G.; Manolio, T. A.; Dimmock, D. P.; Rehm, H. L.; Shendure, J.; Abecasis, G. R.; Adams, D. R.; Altman, R. B.; Antonarakis, S. E.; Ashley, E. A.; Barrett, J. C.; Biesecker, L. G.; Conrad, D. F.; Cooper, G. M.; Cox, N. J.; Daly, M. J.; Gerstein, M. B.; Goldstein, D. B.; Hirschhorn, J. N.; Leal, S. M.; Pennacchio, L. A.; Stamatoyannopoulos, J. A.; Sunyaev, S. R.; Valle, D.; Voight, B. F.; Winckler, W.; Gunter, C.

2014-01-01

231

Isolated lichen planus of lower lip: a case report.  

PubMed

Lichen planus is an idiopathic inflammatory condition, which may involve mucosa of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, larynx or the cutaneous surface either in isolation or in combinations. Mucosal lichen planus is more common than the cutaneous variant. Isolated lip involvement is very rare and should be differentiated from other similar leukoplakic lesions. We are reporting a rare case of oral lichen planus in an elderly male that was exclusively localised to the lower lip. PMID:25621274

Samal, Dillip Kumar; Behera, Ganakalyan; Gupta, Vikas; Majumdar, Kaushik; Khurana, Ujjawal

2015-03-01

232

New Lymphogranuloma Venereum Chlamydia trachomatis Variant, Amsterdam  

PubMed Central

We retrospectively conducted a study of men who have sex with men who visited the Amsterdam, the Netherlands, sexually transmitted diseases clinic from January 2002 to December 2003 and had rectal Chlamydia trachomatis infections. We found that symptomatic (73%) as well as asymptomatic (43%) patients were infected with a new C. trachomatis LGV variant. PMID:16022786

Fennema, Han S.A.; Morré, Servaas A.; de Vries, Henry J.C.; Coutinho, Roel A.

2005-01-01

233

Cellobiohydrolase I gene and improved variants  

DOEpatents

The disclosure provides a method for preparing an active exoglucanase in a heterologous host of eukaryotic origin. The method includes mutagenesis to reduce glycosylation of the exoglucanase when expressed in a heterologous host. It is further disclosed a method to produce variant cellobiohydrolase that is stable at high temperature through mutagenesis.

Adney, William S. (Golden, CO); Decker, Stephen R. (Berthoud, CO); Mc Carter, Suzanne (San Carlos, CA); Baker, John O. (Golden, CO); Nieves, Raphael (Lakewood, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO); Vinzant, Todd B. (Golden, CO)

2008-05-20

234

Regional Phonological Variants in Louisiana Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on tape recorded conversations of 28 informants in 18 Louisiana communities, this study investigated regional phonological variants in Louisiana speech. On the basis of settlement history and previous dialect studies, four regions are defined: northern Louisiana, the Florida Parishes, French Louisiana, and New Orleans. The informants are all…

Rubrecht, August Weston

235

Programming with Polymorphic Variants Jacques Garrigue  

E-print Network

­ scribe how variant polymorphism can be integrated in a program­ ming language, and what are the benefits. However we will omit unit in examples, and just write `apple for `apple(). Here are basic examples for these new constructs. Types are those given by the Objective Label compiler. let a = `apple a : [? apple

Garrigue, Jacques

236

Programming with Polymorphic Variants Jacques Garrigue  

E-print Network

- scribe how variant polymorphism can be integrated in a program- ming language, and what are the benefits will omit unit in examples, and just write `apple for `apple(). Here are basic examples for these new constructs. Types are those given by the Objective Label compiler. let a = `apple a : [> apple] let b

Garrigue, Jacques

237

Protocol Variants and Electronic Identification Kristian Gjsteen  

E-print Network

to frustrate that goal. Even though many crypto- graphic textbooks talk about Alice and Bob, humans are usuallyProtocol Variants and Electronic Identification Kristian Gjøsteen May 29, 2013 Abstract in which we consider the system as a cryptographic protocol, and users are modeled as ordinary players

238

Variants of dermatofibroma--a histopathological study.  

PubMed

Several variants of dermatofibroma have been described. They are essentially distinguished by their clinical and histopathological features. To review the mainfeaturesof these variants, a retrospective study of skin biopsies and tissue excisions of dermatofibromasperformed in the dermatology and venereology service at the Hospital Garcia de Orta between May 2007 and April 2012 was carried out. During that period, 192 dermatofibromas were diagnosed in 181 patients, the lesions being more common in women. Median age of the study population was 48 years. The most common lesion site was the limbs (74% of patients). The histopathological types found were common fibrous histiocytoma (80%) and the aneurysmal (5.7%),hemosiderotic (5.7%), epithelioid (2.6%), cellular (2.1%), lipidized (2.1%), atrophic (1.0) and clear cell (0.5%) variants. Based on these findings, this review focuses on the clinical and histological features of the various variants of dermatofibroma in terms of their clinical presentation, distinct histopathological features, differential diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:24937822

Alves, João Vítor Pina; Matos, Diogo Miguel; Barreiros, Hugo Frederico; Bártolo, Elvira Augusta Felgueira Leonardo Fernandes

2014-01-01

239

Variants of dermatofibroma - a histopathological study*  

PubMed Central

Several variants of dermatofibroma have been described. They are essentially distinguished by their clinical and histopathological features. To review the mainfeaturesof these variants, a retrospective study of skin biopsies and tissue excisions of dermatofibromasperformed in the dermatology and venereology service at the Hospital Garcia de Orta between May 2007 and April 2012 was carried out. During that period, 192 dermatofibromas were diagnosed in 181 patients, the lesions being more common in women. Median age of the study population was 48 years. The most common lesion site was the limbs (74% of patients). The histopathological types found were common fibrous histiocytoma (80%) and the aneurysmal (5.7%),hemosiderotic (5.7%), epithelioid (2.6%), cellular (2.1%), lipidized (2.1%), atrophic (1.0) and clear cell (0.5%) variants. Based on these findings, this review focuses on the clinical and histological features of the various variants of dermatofibroma in terms of their clinical presentation, distinct histopathological features, differential diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:24937822

Alves, João Vítor Pina; Matos, Diogo Miguel; Barreiros, Hugo Frederico; Bártolo, Elvira Augusta Felgueira Leonardo Fernandes

2014-01-01

240

A coagulase-negative variant of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis milk.  

PubMed

Bacteriological analysis of milk samples from quarters of a dairy cow suffering from subclinical mastitis yielded two isolates of Staphylococcus aureus which gave a negative reaction in the standard coagulase test. Both isolates were also clumping factor and thermonuclease negative, and gave a negative reaction in the Staphaurex® test. The isolates were identified by using commercial biochemical systems, and by PCR analysis of different staphylococcal cell surface protein and exoprotein genes. Further molecular identification of the isolates, which included sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and RT-PCR of coagulase (coa), clumping-factor (clfA) and thermonuclease (nuc) genes, was consistent with the diagnosis phenotypically 'coagulase-negative variant of Staph. aureus'. The fact that coagulase-negative Staph. aureus variants can occur in the context of intramammary infections in cattle may result in the incorrect diagnosis 'coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS)' in routine mastitis diagnostic, at least in rare cases. To fully ensure correct species diagnosis, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and amplification of specific genes such as coa is necessary in these cases. PMID:21118611

Akineden, Omer; Hassan, Abdulwahed Ahmed; Schneider, Elisabeth; Usleber, Ewald

2011-02-01

241

Characterisation of PCV2 isolates from Spain, Germany and France  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new isolated circovirus variant PCV-2 is discussed to be the etiological agent of a new emerging swine disease with a variable morbidity and high lethality, postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). PMWS has been diagnosed in North America and West Europe. Clinical signs include dyspnea, loss of weight, lymph node enlargement and lymphocyte depletion in lymphoid tissues. This report describes

Annette Mankertz; Mariano Domingo; Josep M Folch; Pierre LeCann; André Jestin; Joaquim Segalés; Barbara Chmielewicz; Juan Plana-Durán; Dirk Soike

2000-01-01

242

Evaluation of Intra-Host Variants of the Entire Hepatitis B Virus Genome  

PubMed Central

Genetic analysis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) frequently involves study of intra-host variants, identification of which is commonly achieved using short regions of the HBV genome. However, the use of short sequences significantly limits evaluation of genetic relatedness among HBV strains. Although analysis of HBV complete genomes using genetic cloning has been developed, its application is highly labor intensive and practiced only infrequently. We describe here a novel approach to whole genome (WG) HBV quasispecies analysis based on end-point, limiting-dilution real-time PCR (EPLD-PCR) for amplification of single HBV genome variants, and their subsequent sequencing. EPLD-PCR was used to analyze WG quasispecies from serum samples of patients (n?=?38) infected with HBV genotypes A, B, C, D, E and G. Phylogenetic analysis of the EPLD-isolated HBV-WG quasispecies showed the presence of mixed genotypes, recombinant variants and sub-populations of the virus. A critical observation was that HBV-WG consensus sequences obtained by direct sequencing of PCR fragments without EPLD are genetically close, but not always identical to the major HBV variants in the intra-host population, thus indicating that consensus sequences should be judiciously used in genetic analysis. Sequence-based studies of HBV WG quasispecies should afford a more accurate assessment of HBV evolution in various clinical and epidemiological settings. PMID:21949887

Ramachandran, Sumathi; Zhai, Xiangjun; Thai, Hong; Campo, Davis S.; Xia, Guoliang; Ganova-Raeva, Lilia M.; Drobeniuc, Jan; Khudyakov, Yury E.

2011-01-01

243

Examination of Candidate Exonic Variants for Association to Alzheimer Disease in the Amish  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. As with many complex diseases, the identified variants do not explain the total expected genetic risk that is based on heritability estimates for AD. Isolated founder populations, such as the Amish, are advantageous for genetic studies as they overcome heterogeneity limitations associated with complex population studies. We determined that Amish AD cases harbored a significantly higher burden of the known risk alleles compared to Amish cognitively normal controls, but a significantly lower burden when compared to cases from a dataset of unrelated individuals. Whole-exome sequencing of a selected subset of the overall study population was used as a screening tool to identify variants located in the regions of the genome that are most likely to contribute risk. By then genotyping the top candidate variants from the known AD genes and from linkage regions implicated previous studies in the full dataset, new associations could be confirmed. The most significant result (p = 0.0012) was for rs73938538, a synonymous variant in LAMA1 within the previously identified linkage peak on chromosome 18. However, this association is specific to the Amish and did not generalize when tested in a dataset of unrelated individuals. These results suggest that additional risk variation in the Amish remains to be identified and likely resides outside of the classical protein coding gene regions. PMID:25668194

D’Aoust, Laura N.; Cummings, Anna C.; Laux, Renee; Fuzzell, Denise; Caywood, Laura; Reinhart-Mercer, Lori; Scott, William K.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Haines, Jonathan L.

2015-01-01

244

Renal Hypodysplasia Associates with a Wnt4 Variant that Causes Aberrant Canonical Wnt Signaling  

PubMed Central

Abnormal differentiation of the renal stem/progenitor pool into kidney tissue can lead to renal hypodysplasia (RHD), but the underlying causes of RHD are not well understood. In this multicenter study, we identified 20 Israeli pedigrees with isolated familial, nonsyndromic RHD and screened for mutations in candidate genes involved in kidney development, including PAX2, HNF1B, EYA1, SIX1, SIX2, SALL1, GDNF, WNT4, and WT1. In addition to previously reported RHD-causing genes, we found that two affected brothers were heterozygous for a missense variant in the WNT4 gene. Functional analysis of this variant revealed both antagonistic and agonistic canonical WNT stimuli, dependent on cell type. In HEK293 cells, WNT4 inhibited WNT3A induced canonical activation, and the WNT4 variant significantly enhanced this inhibition of the canonical WNT pathway. In contrast, in primary cultures of human fetal kidney cells, which maintain WNT activation and more closely represent WNT signaling in renal progenitors during nephrogenesis, this mutation caused significant loss of function, resulting in diminished canonical WNT/?-catenin signaling. In conclusion, heterozygous WNT4 variants are likely to play a causative role in renal hypodysplasia. PMID:23520208

Vivante, Asaf; Mark-Danieli, Michal; Davidovits, Miriam; Harari-Steinberg, Orit; Omer, Dorit; Gnatek, Yehudit; Cleper, Roxana; Landau, Daniel; Kovalski, Yael; Weissman, Irit; Eisenstein, Israel; Soudack, Michalle; Wolf, Haike Reznik; Issler, Naomi; Lotan, Danny; Anikster, Yair

2013-01-01

245

WNT10A coding variants and maxillary lateral incisor agenesis with associated dental anomalies.  

PubMed

Congenital maxillary lateral incisor agenesis (MLIA) is one of the most common subtypes of dental agenesis. Because little is known with regard to the aetiology of this anomaly, the aim of the study was to determine the contribution of nucleotide variants in wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 10A (WNT10A), msh homeobox 1 (MSX1), and paired box 9 (PAX9) to the risk of MLIA in a Polish population. Coding regions of the selected genes were analysed by direct sequencing in a group of 20 individuals with unilateral and bilateral MLIA, associated or not with other dental anomalies. The frequencies of the identified nucleotide variants were assessed in an additional cohort of patients with isolated dental agenesis (n = 147) and in 178 controls. Mutation screening showed four non-synonymous substitutions located in the highly conserved coding sequence of WNT10A in five (25%) of the 20 patients. Analysis of genotyping results revealed that three of these variants - p.Arg113Cys, p.Phe228Ile, and the newly identified p.Arg171Leu - may represent aetiological mutations underlying MLIA with associated dental anomalies. No mutations that were potentially aetiologic were identified in MSX1 and PAX9. In conclusion, this is the first report implicating coding variants in the WNT10A gene in the aetiology of MLIA. These results will require further confirmation using larger-scale studies. PMID:25545742

Mostowska, Adrianna; Biedziak, Barbara; Zadurska, Ma?gorzata; Matuszewska-Trojan, Sylwia; Jagodzi?ski, Pawe? P

2015-02-01

246

Distribution of Bartonella henselae Variants in Patients, Reservoir Hosts and Vectors in Spain  

PubMed Central

We have studied the diversity of B. henselae circulating in patients, reservoir hosts and vectors in Spain. In total, we have fully characterized 53 clinical samples from 46 patients, as well as 78 B. henselae isolates obtained from 35 cats from La Rioja and Catalonia (northeastern Spain), four positive cat blood samples from which no isolates were obtained, and three positive fleas by Multiple Locus Sequence Typing and Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeats Analysis. This study represents the largest series of human cases characterized with these methods, with 10 different sequence types and 41 MLVA profiles. Two of the sequence types and 35 of the profiles were not described previously. Most of the B. henselae variants belonged to ST5. Also, we have identified a common profile (72) which is well distributed in Spain and was found to persist over time. Indeed, this profile seems to be the origin from which most of the variants identified in this study have been generated. In addition, ST5, ST6 and ST9 were found associated with felines, whereas ST1, ST5 and ST8 were the most frequent sequence types found infecting humans. Interestingly, some of the feline associated variants never found on patients were located in a separate clade, which could represent a group of strains less pathogenic for humans. PMID:23874563

Gil, Horacio; Escudero, Raquel; Pons, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Vargas, Manuela; García-Esteban, Coral; Rodríguez-Moreno, Isabel; García-Amil, Cristina; Lobo, Bruno; Valcárcel, Félix; Pérez, Azucena; Jiménez, Santos; Jado, Isabel; Juste, Ramón; Segura, Ferrán; Anda, Pedro

2013-01-01

247

Multilocus Phylogenetic Analyses, Pullulan Production and Xylanase Activity of Tropical Isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aureobasidium pullulans is the source of the commercial polysaccharide, pullulan, and the enzyme, xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8). Isolates are typically off-white to black on solid media, while some tropical isolates have been described as "color variants" with bright pigments of red, yellow, or purple. In...

248

Characterization of the Two Intra-Individual Sequence Variants in the 18S rRNA Gene in the Plant Parasitic Nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis  

PubMed Central

The 18S rRNA gene is fundamental to cellular and organismal protein synthesis and because of its stable persistence through generations it is also used in phylogenetic analysis among taxa. Sequence variation in this gene within a single species is rare, but it has been observed in few metazoan organisms. More frequently it has mostly been reported in the non-transcribed spacer region. Here, we have identified two sequence variants within the near full coding region of 18S rRNA gene from a single reniform nematode (RN) Rotylenchulus reniformis labeled as reniform nematode variant 1 (RN_VAR1) and variant 2 (RN_VAR2). All sequences from three of the four isolates had both RN variants in their sequences; however, isolate 13B had only RN variant 2 sequence. Specific variable base sites (96 or 5.5%) were found within the 18S rRNA gene that can clearly distinguish the two 18S rDNA variants of RN, in 11 (25.0%) and 33 (75.0%) of the 44 RN clones, for RN_VAR1 and RN_VAR2, respectively. Neighbor-joining trees show that the RN_VAR1 is very similar to the previously existing R. reniformis sequence in GenBank, while the RN_VAR2 sequence is more divergent. This is the first report of the identification of two major variants of the 18S rRNA gene in the same single RN, and documents the specific base variation between the two variants, and hypothesizes on simultaneous co-existence of these two variants for this gene. PMID:23593343

Nyaku, Seloame T.; Sripathi, Venkateswara R.; Kantety, Ramesh V.; Gu, Yong Q.; Lawrence, Kathy; Sharma, Govind C.

2013-01-01

249

Genomic Characterization of Novel Listeria monocytogenes Serotype 4b Variant Strains  

PubMed Central

Over 90% of the human listeriosis cases are caused by Listeria monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b strains. As an alternative to antigen-antibody based serotyping, a PCR-based method for serogrouping has been developed and validated. In this communication, we report an in-depth analysis of five 4b variant strains, four clinical isolates from Australia and one environmental isolate from USA. Although these five strains were serotype 4b by classical serotyping method, the serogrouping PCR profiles of these strains show the presence of a 1/2a-3a specific amplicon in addition to the standard 4b-4d-4e specific amplicons. These strains were further analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, binary gene typing, multi-locus variable-number-tandem-repeat analysis and a high density pan-genomic Listeria microarray. Using these sub-typing results, the clinical isolates were grouped into two distinct genomic groups- one of which could be part of an unidentified outbreak. The microarray results when compared with our database of other 4b outbreak isolates indicated that the serotype 4b variant strains represent very different genotypic profiles than the known reported 4b outbreak strains representing major epidemic clones. The acquisition of serotype 1/2a gene clusters by the 4b variant strains appears to be independent in origin, spanning large areas of geographical and temporal space and may indicate predisposition of some 4b strains towards accepting DNA from related organisms. PMID:24586485

Laksanalamai, Pongpan; Huang, Bixing; Sabo, Jonathan; Burall, Laurel S.; Zhao, Shaohua; Bates, John; Datta, Atin R.

2014-01-01

250

Genomic characterization of novel Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b variant strains.  

PubMed

Over 90% of the human listeriosis cases are caused by Listeria monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b strains. As an alternative to antigen-antibody based serotyping, a PCR-based method for serogrouping has been developed and validated. In this communication, we report an in-depth analysis of five 4b variant strains, four clinical isolates from Australia and one environmental isolate from USA. Although these five strains were serotype 4b by classical serotyping method, the serogrouping PCR profiles of these strains show the presence of a 1/2a-3a specific amplicon in addition to the standard 4b-4d-4e specific amplicons. These strains were further analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, binary gene typing, multi-locus variable-number-tandem-repeat analysis and a high density pan-genomic Listeria microarray. Using these sub-typing results, the clinical isolates were grouped into two distinct genomic groups- one of which could be part of an unidentified outbreak. The microarray results when compared with our database of other 4b outbreak isolates indicated that the serotype 4b variant strains represent very different genotypic profiles than the known reported 4b outbreak strains representing major epidemic clones. The acquisition of serotype 1/2a gene clusters by the 4b variant strains appears to be independent in origin, spanning large areas of geographical and temporal space and may indicate predisposition of some 4b strains towards accepting DNA from related organisms. PMID:24586485

Laksanalamai, Pongpan; Huang, Bixing; Sabo, Jonathan; Burall, Laurel S; Zhao, Shaohua; Bates, John; Datta, Atin R

2014-01-01

251

Enterotoxigenicity of Enteropathogenic Serotypes of Escherichia coli Isolated from Infants with Epidemic Diarrhea  

PubMed Central

Enteropathogenic serotypes of Escherichia coli which have been incriminated by epidemiological evidence as responsible for epidemics of acute diarrhea in infants are often found to be nontoxigenic when tested by conventional systems such as Y1-adrenal, Chinese hamster ovary, and suckling mouse assays. Twelve such strains, representing four different enteropathogenic serotypes, were examined for their capacity to elaborate toxic materials which alter water transport. Ultrafiltration fractions prepared to contain either a high-molecular-weight, heatlabile or a low-molecular-weight, heat-stable form of toxin from each strain were perfused through rat jejuna in graded concentrations ranging from 100 ?g to 0.1 ng/ml. Ten of the twelve enteropathogenic strains produced one or both toxin forms that induced water secretion at concentrations of 1 to 10 ng/ml. Values in this range are considered indicative of clinically significant enterotoxigenicity in this assay system, and toxins from well-documented toxigenic strains examined in this study were active at these same concentrations. Similar preparations from ten control strains from healthy persons were either inactive or evoked water secretion only at concentrations of 10 to 100 ?g/ml. These observations suggest that enteropathogenic serotypes of E. coli isolated from epidemics of infantile diarrhea produce diarrhea by elaborating potent heat-labile and heat-stable toxin forms which alter water transport but which are inactive in conventional assay systems. The manner in which these toxins differ either quantitatively or qualitatively from those which stimulate the conventional test systems is unknown. PMID:361562

Klipstein, Frederick A.; Rowe, Bernard; Engert, Richard F.; Short, Helen B.; Gross, Roger J.

1978-01-01

252

Processing of No-Release Variants in Connected Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cross modal repetition priming paradigm was used to investigate how potential lexically ambiguous no-release variants are processed. In particular we focus on segmental regularities that affect the variant's frequency of occurrence (voicing of the critical segment) and phonological context in which the variant occurs (status of the following…

LoCasto, Paul C.; Connine, Cynthia M.

2011-01-01

253

Selective Variant Growth of Coherent Precipitate under External Constraints  

E-print Network

Selective Variant Growth of Coherent Precipitate under External Constraints D.Y. Li* and L.Q. Chen precipitate variants may result in anisotropic behavior of a two-phase material. The distribution of the coherent precipitate variants can be controlled using constrained aging. This article reports our

Chen, Long-Qing

254

Modeling and analysis of product-line variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal verification of variant requirements has gained much interest in the software product line (SPL) community. Feature diagrams are widely used to model product line variants. However, there is a lack of precisely defined formal notation for representing and verifying such models. This paper presents an approach to modeling and analyzing SPL variant feature diagrams using first-order logic. It provides

Shamim Ripon; Keya Azad; Sk Jahir Hossain; Mehidee Hassan

2012-01-01

255

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease presenting with visual symptoms: a case of the 'Heidenhain variant'.  

PubMed

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) belongs to a group of prion diseases that may be caused by the abnormal folding of proteins called prion proteins. The 'Heidenhain variant' is a subclass of patients with CJD, who present with isolated visual symptoms at the onset without any cognitive decline. Here we report such a case of an elderly man presenting with progressive diminution of vision, forgetfulness, abnormal behaviour, myoclonic jerks and akinetic mutism since the last 5 months. On clinical examination, lead pipe rigidity was present in all four limbs, and plantars were bilateral extensors. In view of rapidly progressive dementia associated with myoclonus, a possibility of CJD was entertained. As visual symptoms preceded dementia, hence the Heidenhain variant was strongly suspected. MRI of the brain revealed cortical ribboning, and EEG showed periodic triphasic waveforms with background slowing. The patient succumbed to the illness within 1 month of hospitalisation. PMID:23365167

Verma, Rajesh; Junewar, Vivek; Sahu, Ritesh

2013-01-01

256

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease presenting with visual symptoms: a case of the ‘Heidenhain variant  

PubMed Central

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) belongs to a group of prion diseases that may be caused by the abnormal folding of proteins called prion proteins. The ‘Heidenhain variant’ is a subclass of patients with CJD, who present with isolated visual symptoms at the onset without any cognitive decline. Here we report such a case of an elderly man presenting with progressive diminution of vision, forgetfulness, abnormal behaviour, myoclonic jerks and akinetic mutism since the last 5?months. On clinical examination, lead pipe rigidity was present in all four limbs, and plantars were bilateral extensors. In view of rapidly progressive dementia associated with myoclonus, a possibility of CJD was entertained. As visual symptoms preceded dementia, hence the Heidenhain variant was strongly suspected. MRI of the brain revealed cortical ribboning, and EEG showed periodic triphasic waveforms with background slowing. The patient succumbed to the illness within 1?month of hospitalisation. PMID:23365167

Verma, Rajesh; Junewar, Vivek; Sahu, Ritesh

2013-01-01

257

Nitrogenase reactivity with P-cluster variants  

PubMed Central

Nitrogenase is a multicomponent metalloenzyme that catalyzes the conversion of atmospheric dinitrogen to ammonia. For decades, it has been generally believed that the [8Fe-7S] P-cluster of nitrogenase component 1 is indispensable for nitrogenase activity. In this study, we identified two catalytically active P-cluster variants by activity assays, metal analysis, and EPR spectroscopic studies. Further, we showed that both P-cluster variants resemble [4Fe-4S]-like centers based on x-ray absorption spectroscopic experiments. We believe that our findings challenge the dogma that the standard P-cluster is the only cluster species capable of supporting substrate reduction at the FeMo cofactor and provide important insights into the general mechanism of nitrogenase catalysis and assembly. PMID:16166259

Hu, Yilin; Corbett, Mary C.; Fay, Aaron W.; Webber, Jerome A.; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O.; Ribbe, Markus W.

2005-01-01

258

Alphavirus Mutator Variants Present Host-Specific Defects and Attenuation in Mammalian and Insect Models  

PubMed Central

Arboviruses cycle through both vertebrates and invertebrates, which requires them to adapt to disparate hosts while maintaining genetic integrity during genome replication. To study the genetic mechanisms and determinants of these processes, we use chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a re-emerging human pathogen transmitted by the Aedes mosquito. We previously isolated a high fidelity (or antimutator) polymerase variant, C483Y, which had decreased fitness in both mammalian and mosquito hosts, suggesting this residue may be a key molecular determinant. To further investigate effects of position 483 on RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) fidelity, we substituted every amino acid at this position. We isolated novel mutators with decreased replication fidelity and higher mutation frequencies, allowing us to examine the fitness of error-prone arbovirus variants. Although CHIKV mutators displayed no major replication defects in mammalian cell culture, they had reduced specific infectivity and were attenuated in vivo. Unexpectedly, mutator phenotypes were suppressed in mosquito cells and the variants exhibited significant defects in RNA synthesis. Consequently, these replication defects resulted in strong selection for reversion during infection of mosquitoes. Since residue 483 is conserved among alphaviruses, we examined the analogous mutations in Sindbis virus (SINV), which also reduced polymerase fidelity and generated replication defects in mosquito cells. However, replication defects were mosquito cell-specific and were not observed in Drosophila S2 cells, allowing us to evaluate the potential attenuation of mutators in insect models where pressure for reversion was absent. Indeed, the SINV mutator variant was attenuated in fruit flies. These findings confirm that residue 483 is a determinant regulating alphavirus polymerase fidelity and demonstrate proof of principle that arboviruses can be attenuated in mammalian and insect hosts by reducing fidelity. PMID:24453971

Rozen-Gagnon, Kathryn; Stapleford, Kenneth A.; Mongelli, Vanesa; Blanc, Hervé; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Saleh, Maria-Carla; Vignuzzi, Marco

2014-01-01

259

Mapping common regulatory variants to human haplotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inter-individual variation in gene expression has proven to be in part governed by genetic determinants, which may be trans -o rcis-acting. The underlying cause of cis-acting regulatory variation has been identified in only a handful of the hundreds of genes shown to display differential allelic expression. In this report, we describe a systematic effort to map common cis-acting variants in

Tomi Pastinen; Bing Ge; Scott Gurd; Tiffany Gaudin; Carole Dore; Mathieu Lemire; Pierre Lepage; Eef Harmsen; Thomas J. Hudson

2005-01-01

260

Hfq variant with altered RNA binding functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between Hfq and RNA is central to multiple regulatory processes. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have found a missense mutation in Hfq (V43R) which strongly affects the RNA binding capacity of the Hfq protein and its ability to stimulate poly(A) tail elongation by poly(A)-polymerase in vitro. In vivo, overexpression of this Hfq variant fails to stimulate rpoS-lacZ expression and

Katarzyna Ziolkowska; Philippe Derreumaux; Marc Folichon; Olivier Pellegrini; Philippe Regnier; Irina V. Boni; Eliane Hajnsdorf

2006-01-01

261

Clock gene variants differentiate mood disorders.  

PubMed

Genetic variations in clock-related genes were hypothesized to be involved to in the susceptibility of mood disorders MD (both unipolar (UPD) and bipolar (BPD) disorders). In our work we investigated role of gene variants form four core period proteins: CLOCK, ARNTL, TIM and PER3. The total sample comprised from 744 mood disorders inpatients (UPD = 229, BPD = 515) and 635 healthy voluntary controls. The 42 SNPs from four genes of interest were genotyped. We used single polymorphisms, haplotypes, SNPs interactions and prediction analysis using classical statistical and machine learning methods. We observed association between two polymorphisms of CLOCK (rs1801260 and rs11932595) with BPDII and two polymorphisms of TIM (rs2291739, rs11171856) with UPD. We also detected ARNTL haplotype variant (rs1160996C/rs11022779G/rs1122780T) to be associated with increased risk of MD, BPD (both types). We established significant epistatic interaction between PER3 (rs2172563) and ARNTL (rs4146388 and rs7107287) in case of BPD. Additionally relation between PER3 (rs2172563) and CLOCK (rs1268271 and rs3805148) appeared in case of UPD. Classification and Regression Trees (C and RT) showed significant predictive value for 10 polymorphisms in all analyzed genes. However we failed to obtain model with sufficient predictive power. During analyses of sleep disturbances sample, we found carriers of homozygote variants (ARNTL: rs11022778 TT, rs1562438 TT, rs1982350 AA and PER3: rs836755 CC) showing more frequent falling asleep difficulties when compare to other genotypes carriers. Our study suggested a putative role of the CLOCK, TIM, ARNTL and PER3 and polymorphisms in MD susceptibility. In our analyses we showed association of specific gene variants with particular types of MD. We also confirmed necessity of performing separate analyzes for BPD and UPD patients. Comprehensive statistical approach is required even with individual symptoms analyses. PMID:25258123

Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika Paulina; Pawlak, Joanna Maria; Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Moczko, Jerzy; Wilkosc, Monika; Leszczynska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Zaremba, Dorota; Hauser, Joanna

2014-09-26

262

Thymofibrolipoma. A histologic variant of thymolipoma.  

PubMed

We report two cases of a thymic neoplasm showing abundant fibroconnective tissue with focal areas of fatty tissue. The two patients, a 9-year-old girl and a 32-year-old man, were found to have an anterior mediastinal mass on routine chest roentgenograms. Surgical resection was performed in both cases. Because of the histologic features shown by these neoplasms, we believe that these cases represent a variant of thymolipoma, and we have named it thymofibrolipoma. PMID:8135632

Moran, C A; Zeren, H; Koss, M N

1994-03-01

263

Optimal isolation strategies of emerging infectious diseases with limited resources.  

PubMed

A classical deterministic SIR model is modified to take into account of limited resources for diagnostic confirmation/medical isolation. We show that this modification leads to four different scenarios (instead of three scenarios in comparison with the SIR model) for optimal isolation strategies, and obtain analytic solutions for the optimal control problem that minimize the outbreak size under the assumption of limited resources for isolation. These solutions and their corresponding optimal control policies are derived explicitly in terms of initial conditions, model parameters and resources for isolation (such as the number of intensive care units). With sufficient resources, the optimal control strategy is the normal Bang-Bang control. However, with limited resources the optimal control strategy requires to switch to time-variant isolation at an optimal rate proportional to the ratio of isolated cases over the entire infected population once the maximum capacity is reached. PMID:24245629

Zhou, Yinggao; Wu, Jianhong; Wu, Min

2013-01-01

264

Real-time PCR for differentiation of F18 variants among enterotoxigenic and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from piglets with diarrhoea and oedema disease.  

PubMed

One-step real-time PCR using one set of primers and four probes was developed for differentiation of F18 variants (F18 common, F18ab, F18ac, F18new variant) of enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) Escherichia coli from piglets with diarrhoea and oedema disease. The limits of detection for F18common, F18ab, F18ac, and F18new variant were 10(7), 10(7), 10(5) and 10(7)colony forming units/g faeces, respectively. Of 94 Korean isolates of E. coli encoding F18, 70 were F18ac (43 STEC/ETEC, 4 STEC and 23 ETEC), 15 were F18ab (all STEC) and nine were F18new variant (1 STEC/ETEC, 7 STEC, 1 ETEC). PMID:23992871

Byun, Jae-Won; Jung, Byeong Yeal; Kim, Ha-Young; Fairbrother, John M; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Wan-Kyu

2013-11-01

265

Whole-Exome Sequencing Reveals a Rapid Change in the Frequency of Rare Functional Variants in a Founding Population of Humans  

PubMed Central

Whole-exome or gene targeted resequencing in hundreds to thousands of individuals has shown that the majority of genetic variants are at low frequency in human populations. Rare variants are enriched for functional mutations and are expected to explain an important fraction of the genetic etiology of human disease, therefore having a potential medical interest. In this work, we analyze the whole-exome sequences of French-Canadian individuals, a founder population with a unique demographic history that includes an original population bottleneck less than 20 generations ago, followed by a demographic explosion, and the whole exomes of French individuals sampled from France. We show that in less than 20 generations of genetic isolation from the French population, the genetic pool of French-Canadians shows reduced levels of diversity, higher homozygosity, and an excess of rare variants with low variant sharing with Europeans. Furthermore, the French-Canadian population contains a larger proportion of putatively damaging functional variants, which could partially explain the increased incidence of genetic disease in the province. Our results highlight the impact of population demography on genetic fitness and the contribution of rare variants to the human genetic variation landscape, emphasizing the need for deep cataloguing of genetic variants by resequencing worldwide human populations in order to truly assess disease risk. PMID:24086152

Hussin, Julie; Idaghdour, Youssef; Bruat, Vanessa; de Maillard, Thibault; Grenier, Jean-Cristophe; Gbeha, Elias; Hamdan, Fadi F.; Girard, Simon; Spinella, Jean-François; Larivière, Mathieu; Saillour, Virginie; Healy, Jasmine; Fernández, Isabel; Sinnett, Daniel; Michaud, Jacques L.; Rouleau, Guy A.; Haddad, Elie; Le Deist, Françoise; Awadalla, Philip

2013-01-01

266

Prevalence of genetic variants associated with cardiovascular disease risk and drug response in the Southern Indian population of Kerala  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND AIM: This study reports the prevalence of five clinically significant variants associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disorders, and variable responses of individuals to commonly prescribed cardiovascular drugs in a South Indian population from the state of Kerala. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genomic DNA isolated from 100 out-patient samples from Kerala were sequenced to examine the frequency of clinically relevant polymorphisms in the genes MYBPC3 (cardiomyopathy), SLCO1B1 (statin-induced myopathy), CYP2C9, VKORC1 (response to warfarin) and CYP2C19 (response to clopidogrel). RESULTS: Our analyses revealed the frequency of a 25 bp deletion variant of MYBPC3 associated with risk of cardiomyopathy was 7%, and the SLCO1B1 “C” allele associated with risk for statin-induced myopathy was 15% in this sample group. Among the other variants associated with dose-induced toxicity of warfarin, VKORC1 (c.1639G>A), was detected at 22%, while CYP2C9*3 and CYP2C9*2 alleles were present at a frequency of 15% and 3% respectively. Significantly, the tested sample population showed high prevalence (66%) of CYP2C19*2 variant, which determines response to clopidogrel therapy. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified that certain variants associated with cardiovascular disease and related drug response in the five genes, especially those in VKORC1, CYP2C19 and MYBPC3, are highly prevalent in the Kerala population, with almost 2 times higher prevalence of CYP2C19*2 variant compared with other regions in the country. Since the variants chosen in this study have relevance in disease phenotype and/or drug response, and are detected at a higher frequency, this study is likely to encourage clinicians to perform genetic testing before prescribing therapy. PMID:25400347

Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Yesudas, Ancy; Sajesh, P. K.; Revu, S.; Kumar, Prasanna; Santhosh, Devi; Santhosh, Sam; Sashikumar, J. M.; Gopalakrishnan, V. K.; Boben, Joji; Rajesh, Changanamkandath

2014-01-01

267

Detecting Novel Genetic Variants Associated with Isoniazid-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background Isoniazid (INH) is a highly effective antibiotic central for the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). INH-resistant MTB clinical isolates are frequently mutated in the katG gene and the inhA promoter region, but 10 to 37% of INH-resistant clinical isolates have no detectable alterations in currently known gene targets associated with INH-resistance. We aimed to identify novel genes associated with INH-resistance in these latter isolates. Methodology/Principal Findings INH-resistant clinical isolates of MTB were pre-screened for mutations in the katG, inhA, kasA and ndh genes and the regulatory regions of inhA and ahpC. Twelve INH-resistant isolates with no mutations, and 17 INH-susceptible MTB isolates were subjected to whole genome sequencing. Phylogenetically related variants and synonymous mutations were excluded and further analysis revealed mutations in 60 genes and 4 intergenic regions associated with INH-resistance. Sanger sequencing verification of 45 genes confirmed that mutations in 40 genes were observed only in INH-resistant isolates and not in INH-susceptible isolates. The ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous mutations (dN/dS ratio) for the INH-resistance associated mutations identified in this study were 1.234 for INH-resistant and 0.654 for INH-susceptible isolates, strongly suggesting that these mutations are indeed associated with INH-resistance. Conclusion The discovery of novel targets associated with INH-resistance described in this study may potentially be important for the development of improved molecular detection strategies. PMID:25025225

Chan, Maurice K. L.; Ong, Danny C. T.; Tongyoo, Pumipat; Wong, Sin-Yew; Lee, Ann S. G.

2014-01-01

268

Acquisition of Five High-M r Penicillin-Binding Protein Variants during Transfer of High-Level b-Lactam Resistance from Streptococcus mitis to Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penicillin-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae generally contain mosaic genes encoding the low- affinity penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) PBP2x, PBP2b, and PBP1a. We now present evidence that PBP2a and PBP1b also appear to be low-affinity variants and are encoded by distinct alleles in b-lactam-resistant trans- formants of S. pneumoniae obtained with chromosomal donor DNA from a Streptococcus mitis isolate. Different lineages of

REGINE HAKENBECK; ANDREA KONIG; IZABELLA KERN; MARK VAN DER LINDEN; WOLFGANG KECK; DANIELLE BILLOT-KLEIN; RAYMOND LEGRAND; BERNARD SCHOOT; LAURENT GUTMANN

1998-01-01

269

Isolation of Clostridium difficile from faecal specimens--a comparison of chromID C. difficile agar and cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar.  

PubMed

The culture of toxigenic Clostridium difficile from stool specimens is still seen as the gold standard for the laboratory diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI). bioMérieux have released ChromID Cdiff chromogenic agar (CDIF) for the isolation and identification of C. difficile in 24 h. In this study, we compared CDIF to pre-reduced cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar with sodium taurocholate (TCCFA) in the examination of glutamate dehydrogenase-positive faecal specimens that were either GeneOhm positive or negative, using direct culture or culture following alcohol shock. Direct culture on CDIF had a sensitivity of 100 % and recovery of 94 % while for TCCFA these were 87 % and 82 %, respectively. For GeneOhm-positive alcohol-shocked faecal samples, sensitivity and recovery on CDIF was similar to direct culture while on TCCFA they were about 10 % higher. For direct culture, there was a significant difference between growth on CDIF at 24 h and TCCFA at 48 h (P = 0.001) and between the two media at 48 h (P<0.001). A total of 142 strains of C. difficile were recovered in pure culture from all GeneOhm-positive samples used in this study and 11 (7.7 %) of these were A(-)B(-)CDT(-) and may represent mixed infections of toxigenic and non-toxigenic C. difficile. The most dominant ribotype was UK 014 (14.7 %) followed by 002 (11.9 %) and 020 (11.9 %), and 36 % of toxigenic isolates, including an A(-)B(+)CDT(-) strain, could not be assigned a UK ribotype. CDIF outperformed pre-reduced TCCFA by negating the need for alcohol shock treatment and by giving a time saving of 24 h in the isolation of C. difficile. CDIF plates were also more selective than TCCFA and C. difficile colonies were easy to identify and subculture prior to strain typing. PMID:23579394

Carson, Kerry C; Boseiwaqa, Lusiana V; Thean, Sara K; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

2013-09-01

270

Association of genetic variants of GRIN2B with autism.  

PubMed

Autism (MIM 209850) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social communication impairments and restricted repetitive behaviors. It has a high heritability, although much remains unclear. To evaluate genetic variants of GRIN2B in autism etiology, we performed a system association study of common and rare variants of GRIN2B and autism in cohorts from a Chinese population, involving a total sample of 1,945 subjects. Meta-analysis of a triad family cohort and a case-control cohort identified significant associations of multiple common variants and autism risk (Pmin = 1.73 × 10(-4)). Significantly, the haplotype involved with the top common variants also showed significant association (P = 1.78 × 10(-6)). Sanger sequencing of 275 probands from a triad cohort identified several variants in coding regions, including four common variants and seven rare variants. Two of the common coding variants were located in the autism-related linkage disequilibrium (LD) block, and both were significantly associated with autism (P < 9 × 10(-3)) using an independent control cohort. Burden analysis and case-only analysis of rare coding variants identified by Sanger sequencing did not find this association. Our study for the first time reveals that common variants and related haplotypes of GRIN2B are associated with autism risk. PMID:25656819

Pan, Yongcheng; Chen, Jingjing; Guo, Hui; Ou, Jianjun; Peng, Yu; Liu, Qiong; Shen, Yidong; Shi, Lijuan; Liu, Yalan; Xiong, Zhimin; Zhu, Tengfei; Luo, Sanchuan; Hu, Zhengmao; Zhao, Jingping; Xia, Kun

2015-01-01

271

Mutation Update: The Spectra of Nebulin Variants and Associated Myopathies  

PubMed Central

A mutation update on the nebulin gene (NEB) is necessary because of recent developments in analysis methodology, the identification of increasing numbers and novel types of variants, and a widening in the spectrum of clinical and histological phenotypes associated with this gigantic, 183 exons containing gene. Recessive pathogenic variants in NEB are the major cause of nemaline myopathy (NM), one of the most common congenital myopathies. Moreover, pathogenic NEB variants have been identified in core-rod myopathy and in distal myopathies. In this update, we present the disease-causing variants in NEB in 159 families, 143 families with NM, and 16 families with NM-related myopathies. Eighty-eight families are presented here for the first time. We summarize 86 previously published and 126 unpublished variants identified in NEB. Furthermore, we have analyzed the NEB variants deposited in the Exome Variant Server (http://evs.gs.washington.edu/EVS/), identifying that pathogenic variants are a minor fraction of all coding variants (~7%). This indicates that nebulin tolerates substantial changes in its amino acid sequence, providing an explanation as to why variants in such a large gene result in relatively rare disorders. Lastly, we discuss the difficulties of drawing reliable genotype–phenotype correlations in NEB-associated disease. PMID:25205138

Lehtokari, Vilma-Lotta; Kiiski, Kirsi; Sandaradura, Sarah A.; Laporte, Jocelyn; Repo, Pauliina; Frey, Jennifer A.; Donner, Kati; Marttila, Minttu; Saunders, Carol; Barth, Peter G.; den Dunnen, Johan T.; Beggs, Alan H.; Clarke, Nigel F.; North, Kathryn N.; Laing, Nigel G.; Romero, Norma B.; Winder, Thomas L.; Pelin, Katarina; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina

2015-01-01

272

Association of genetic variants of GRIN2B with autism  

PubMed Central

Autism (MIM 209850) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social communication impairments and restricted repetitive behaviors. It has a high heritability, although much remains unclear. To evaluate genetic variants of GRIN2B in autism etiology, we performed a system association study of common and rare variants of GRIN2B and autism in cohorts from a Chinese population, involving a total sample of 1,945 subjects. Meta-analysis of a triad family cohort and a case-control cohort identified significant associations of multiple common variants and autism risk (Pmin = 1.73 × 10?4). Significantly, the haplotype involved with the top common variants also showed significant association (P = 1.78 × 10?6). Sanger sequencing of 275 probands from a triad cohort identified several variants in coding regions, including four common variants and seven rare variants. Two of the common coding variants were located in the autism-related linkage disequilibrium (LD) block, and both were significantly associated with autism (P < 9 × 10?3) using an independent control cohort. Burden analysis and case-only analysis of rare coding variants identified by Sanger sequencing did not find this association. Our study for the first time reveals that common variants and related haplotypes of GRIN2B are associated with autism risk. PMID:25656819

Pan, Yongcheng; Chen, Jingjing; Guo, Hui; Ou, Jianjun; Peng, Yu; Liu, Qiong; Shen, Yidong; Shi, Lijuan; Liu, Yalan; Xiong, Zhimin; Zhu, Tengfei; Luo, Sanchuan; Hu, Zhengmao; Zhao, Jingping; Xia, Kun

2015-01-01

273

RVboost: RNA-seq variants prioritization using a boosting method  

PubMed Central

Motivation: RNA-seq has become the method of choice to quantify genes and exons, discover novel transcripts and detect fusion genes. However, reliable variant identification from RNA-seq data remains challenging because of the complexities of the transcriptome, the challenges of accurately mapping exon boundary spanning reads and the bias introduced during the sequencing library preparation. Method: We developed RVboost, a novel method specific for RNA variant prioritization. RVboost uses several attributes unique in the process of RNA library preparation, sequencing and RNA-seq data analyses. It uses a boosting method to train a model of ‘good quality’ variants using common variants from HapMap, and prioritizes and calls the RNA variants based on the trained model. We packaged RVboost in a comprehensive workflow, which integrates tools of variant calling, annotation and filtering. Results: RVboost consistently outperforms the variant quality score recalibration from the Genome Analysis Tool Kit and the RNA-seq variant-calling pipeline SNPiR in 12 RNA-seq samples using ground-truth variants from paired exome sequencing data. Several RNA-seq–specific attributes were identified as critical to differentiate true and false variants, including the distance of the variant positions to exon boundaries, and the percent of the reads supporting the variant in the first six base pairs. The latter identifies false variants introduced by the random hexamer priming during the library construction. Availability and implementation: The RVboost package is implemented to readily run in Mac or Linux environments. The software and user manual are available at http://bioinformaticstools.mayo.edu/research/rvboost/. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25170027

Wang, Chen; Davila, Jaime I.; Baheti, Saurabh; Bhagwate, Aditya V.; Wang, Xue; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A.; Slager, Susan L.; Feldman, Andrew L.; Novak, Anne J.; Cerhan, James R.; Thompson, E. Aubrey; Asmann, Yan W.

2014-01-01

274

Population structure of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from midwestern U.S. hospitals.  

PubMed

Genome sequencing of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from regional U.S. hospitals was used to characterize strain diversity and the bla(KPC) genetic context. A phylogeny based on core single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) supports a division of sequence type 258 (ST258) into two distinct groups. The primary differences between the groups are in the capsular polysaccharide locus (cps) and their plasmid contents. A strict association between clade and KPC variant was found. The bla(KPC) gene was found on variants of two plasmid backbones. This study indicates that highly similar K. pneumoniae subpopulations coexist within the same hospitals over time. PMID:24913165

Wright, Meredith S; Perez, Federico; Brinkac, Lauren; Jacobs, Michael R; Kaye, Keith; Cober, Eric; van Duin, David; Marshall, Steven H; Hujer, Andrea M; Rudin, Susan D; Hujer, Kristine M; Bonomo, Robert A; Adams, Mark D

2014-08-01

275

Pigment variant of neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis.  

PubMed

A 6-year-old girl had progressive ataxia, and visual disturbances resulting in blindness. She died in her sleep at age 22 years. She shared with her sister and paternal relatives bilateral pes cavus deformities and impaired deep-tendon reflexes which suggested Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Her sister, who also had both polyneuropathy and a progressive central nervous system (CNS) disease, did not have pigmentary retinopathy. At autopsy, the patient was found to have neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis (NCL) marked by intraneuronal accumulation of autofluorescent granular lipopigments in ballooned perikarya and conspicuous extraneuronal pigmentation of subcortical grey matter, but without axonal spheroids. These findings indicate a pigment variant of NCL and represent one of very few patients recorded. The ultrastructure of the intraneuronal pigments was uniformly granular, while that of the extraneuronal pigments found within processes of the neuropil and glial perikarya was more variegated. In addition to those patients with the pigment variant of NCL, described earlier by Jakob and Kolkmann [1973: Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 26:225-236], and Jervis and Pullarkat [1978: Neurology 28:500-503], our patient shared clinical symptoms with those described in a family afflicted with polyneuropathy and NCL by Wisniewski et al. [1987: J Child Neurol 2:33-41]. Currently, it is unclear whether they have similar atypical forms of juvenile NCL (JNCL). We conclude that the spectrum of pigment variants in lysosomal diseases is heterogeneous: only few and recently described patients have had NCL, while others most likely had other forms of lipidosis. PMID:7668321

Goebel, H H; Gullotta, F; Bajanowski, T; Hansen, F J; Braak, H

1995-06-01

276

[Necrobiosis lipoidica. Variants on a theme].  

PubMed

A 69-year-old patient presented with different skin lesions all of which belonged to group of necrobiosis lipoidica. The initial histologic diagnosis was actinic granuloma O'Brien. A subsequent biopsy was interpreted as granulomatous necrobiosis lipoidica. The history of these necrobiotic variants is reviewed and exemplarily depicted with this case. Necrobiosis lipoidica is part of the spectrum of granulomatous skin disorders. Although its etiology is unclear, an association with diabetes mellitus is often discussed. Multiple therapeutic options exist, but standardized guidelines for treatment are missing. PMID:21732163

Geissler, E; Laaff, H; Technau, K; Bruckner-Tuderman, L; Nashan, D

2011-08-01

277

Rare Variant of Lycanthropy and Ecstasy  

PubMed Central

Background: Lycanthropy is an unusual belief or delusion in which the patient thinks that he/she has been transformed into an animal. In rare cases, the patient believes that another person has been transformed into an animal. Case Report: We report a patient with an uncommon variant of lycanthropy is introduced. The symptoms appeared after consumption of ecstasy. This shows the occurrences of uncommon and rare psychosis after ecstasy drug use especially in patients susceptible to schizophrenia. Ecstasy drug can induce paranoid psychosis similar to schizophrenia. In the presented case, ecstasy seemed to have a role in patient's underlying susceptibility to schizophrenia. PMID:24494083

Nasirian, Mansoureh; Banazadeh, Nabi; Kheradmand, Ali

2009-01-01

278

Simultaneous identification and prioritization of variants in familial, de novo, and somatic genetic disorders with VariantMaster  

PubMed Central

There is increasing interest in clinical genetics pertaining to the utilization of high-throughput sequencing data for accurate diagnoses of monogenic diseases. Moreover, massive whole-exome sequencing of tumors has provided significant advances in the understanding of cancer development through the recognition of somatic driver variants. To improve the identification of the variants from HTS, we developed VariantMaster, an original program that accurately and efficiently extracts causative variants in familial and sporadic genetic diseases. The algorithm takes into account predicted variants (SNPs and indels) in affected individuals or tumor samples and utilizes the row (BAM) data to robustly estimate the conditional probability of segregation in a family, as well as the probability of it being de novo or somatic. In familial cases, various modes of inheritance are considered: X-linked, autosomal dominant, and recessive (homozygosity or compound heterozygosity). Moreover, VariantMaster integrates phenotypes and genotypes, and employs Annovar to produce additional information such as allelic frequencies in the general population and damaging scores to further reduce the number of putative variants. As a proof of concept, we successfully applied VariantMaster to identify (1) de novo mutations in a previously described data set, (2) causative variants in a rare Mendelian genetic disease, and (3) known and new “driver” mutations in previously reported cancer data sets. Our results demonstrate that VariantMaster is considerably more accurate in terms of precision and sensitivity compared with previously published algorithms. PMID:24389049

Santoni, Federico A.; Makrythanasis, Periklis; Nikolaev, Sergey; Guipponi, Michel; Robyr, Daniel; Bottani, Armand; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.

2014-01-01

279

Natural Variants of C. elegans Demonstrate Defects in Both Sperm Function and Oogenesis at Elevated Temperatures  

PubMed Central

The temperature sensitivity of the germ line is conserved from nematodes to mammals. Previous studies in C. briggsae and Drosophila showed that isolates originating from temperate latitudes lose fertility at a lower temperature than strains originating from tropical latitudes. In order to investigate these relationships in C. elegans, analysis of the fertility of 22 different wild-type isolates of C. elegans isolated from equatorial, tropical and temperate regions was undertaken. It was found that there are significant temperature, genotype and temperature × genotype effects on fertility but region of isolation showed no significant effect on differences in fertility. For most isolates 100% of the population maintained fertility from 20°C to 26°C, but there was a precipitous drop in the percentage of fertile hermaphrodites at 27°C. In contrast, all isolates show a progressive decrease in brood size as temperature increases from 20°C to 26°C, followed by a brood size near zero at 27°C. Temperature shift experiments were performed to better understand the causes of high temperature loss of fertility. Males up-shifted to high temperature maintained fertility, while males raised at high temperature lost fertility. Down-shifting males raised at high temperature generally did not restore fertility. This result differs from that observed in Drosophila and suggested that in C. elegans spermatogenesis or sperm function is irreversibly impaired in males that develop at high temperature. Mating and down-shifting experiments with hermaphrodites were performed to investigate the relative contributions of spermatogenic and oogenic defects to high temperature loss of fertility. It was found that the hermaphrodites of all isolates demonstrated loss in both spermatogenic and oogenic germ lines that differed in their relative contribution by isolate. These studies uncovered unexpectedly high variation in both the loss of fertility and problems with oocyte function in natural variants of C. elegans at high temperature. PMID:25380048

Petrella, Lisa N.

2014-01-01

280

RcsB Contributes to the Distinct Stress Fitness among Escherichia coli O157:H7 Curli Variants of the 1993 Hamburger-Associated Outbreak Strains  

PubMed Central

Curli are adhesive fimbriae of Enterobactericaeae and are involved in surface attachment, cell aggregation, and biofilm formation. We reported previously that curli-producing (C+) variants of E. coli O157:H7 (EcO157) were much more acid sensitive than their corresponding curli-deficient (C?) variants; however, this difference was not linked to the curli fimbriae per se. Here, we investigated the underlying molecular basis of this phenotypic divergence. We identified large deletions in the rcsB gene of C+ variants isolated from the 1993 U.S. hamburger-associated outbreak strains. rcsB encodes the response regulator of the RcsCDB two-component signal transduction system, which regulates curli biogenesis negatively but acid resistance positively. Further comparison of stress fitness revealed that C+ variants were also significantly more sensitive to heat shock but were resistant to osmotic stress and oxidative damage, similar to C? variants. Transcriptomics analysis uncovered a large number of differentially expressed genes between the curli variants, characterized by enhanced expression in C+ variants of genes related to biofilm formation, virulence, catabolic activity, and nutrient uptake but marked decreases in transcription of genes related to various types of stress resistance. Supplying C+ variants with a functional rcsB restored resistance to heat shock and acid challenge in cells but blocked curli production, confirming that inactivation of RcsB in C+ variants was the basis of fitness segregation within the EcO157 population. This study provides an example of how genome instability of EcO157 promotes intrapopulation diversification, generating subpopulations carrying an array of distinct phenotypes that may confer the pathogen with survival advantages in diverse environments. PMID:22923406

Parker, Craig T.; Louie, Jacqueline W.; Huynh, Steven; Fagerquist, Clifton K.; Mandrell, Robert E.

2012-01-01

281

Variants in CUL4B are Associated with Cerebral Malformations.  

PubMed

Variants in cullin 4B (CUL4B) are a known cause of syndromic X-linked intellectual disability. Here, we describe an additional 25 patients from 11 families with variants in CUL4B. We identified nine different novel variants in these families and confirmed the pathogenicity of all nontruncating variants. Neuroimaging data, available for 15 patients, showed the presence of cerebral malformations in ten patients. The cerebral anomalies comprised malformations of cortical development (MCD), ventriculomegaly, and diminished white matter volume. The phenotypic heterogeneity of the cerebral malformations might result from the involvement of CUL-4B in various cellular pathways essential for normal brain development. Accordingly, we show that CUL-4B interacts with WDR62, a protein in which variants were previously identified in patients with microcephaly and a wide range of MCD. This interaction might contribute to the development of cerebral malformations in patients with variants in CUL4B. PMID:25385192

Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T; Nakagawa, Tadashi; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Haas, Stefan A; Hu, Hao; Bienek, Melanie; Vissers, Lisenka E L M; Gilissen, Christian; Tzschach, Andreas; Busche, Andreas; Müsebeck, Jörg; Rump, Patrick; Mathijssen, Inge B; Avela, Kristiina; Somer, Mirja; Doagu, Fatma; Philips, Anju K; Rauch, Anita; Baumer, Alessandra; Voesenek, Krysta; Poirier, Karine; Vigneron, Jacqueline; Amram, Daniel; Odent, Sylvie; Nawara, Magdalena; Obersztyn, Ewa; Lenart, Jacek; Charzewska, Agnieszka; Lebrun, Nicolas; Fischer, Ute; Nillesen, Willy M; Yntema, Helger G; Järvelä, Irma; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; de Vries, Bert B A; Brunner, Han G; van Bokhoven, Hans; Raymond, F Lucy; Willemsen, Michèl A A P; Chelly, Jamel; Xiong, Yue; Barkovich, A James; Kalscheuer, Vera M; Kleefstra, Tjitske; de Brouwer, Arjan P M

2015-01-01

282

False discovery rates for rare variants from sequenced data.  

PubMed

The detection of rare deleterious variants is the preeminent current technical challenge in statistical genetics. Sorting the deleterious from neutral variants at a disease locus is challenging because of the sparseness of the evidence for each individual variant. Hierarchical modeling and Bayesian model uncertainty are two techniques that have been shown to be promising in pinpointing individual rare variants that may be driving the association. Interpreting the results from these techniques from the perspective of multiple testing is a challenge and the goal of this article is to better understand their false discovery properties. Using simulations, we conclude that accurate false discovery control cannot be achieved in this framework unless the magnitude of the variants' risk is large and the hierarchical characteristics have high accuracy in distinguishing deleterious from neutral variants. PMID:25556339

Capanu, Marinela; Seshan, Venkatraman E

2015-02-01

283

A rare variant association test based on combinations of single-variant tests.  

PubMed

Next generation sequencing technologies make direct testing rare variant associations possible. However, the development of powerful statistical methods for rare variant association studies is still underway. Most of existing methods are burden and quadratic tests. Recent studies show that the performance of each of burden and quadratic tests depends strongly upon the underlying assumption and no test demonstrates consistently acceptable power. Thus, combined tests by combining information from the burden and quadratic tests have been proposed recently. However, results from recent studies (including this study) show that there exist tests that can outperform both burden and quadratic tests. In this article, we propose three classes of tests that include tests outperforming both burden and quadratic tests. Then, we propose the optimal combination of single-variant tests (OCST) by combining information from tests of the three classes. We use extensive simulation studies to compare the performance of OCST with that of burden, quadratic and optimal single-variant tests. Our results show that OCST either is the most powerful test or has similar power with the most powerful test. We also compare the performance of OCST with that of the two existing combined tests. Our results show that OCST has better power than the two combined tests. PMID:25065727

Sha, Qiuying; Zhang, Shuanglin

2014-09-01

284

Variantes ortologicas de las vocales espanolas (Articulatory Variants of Spanish Vowels)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the difficulty students of Spanish have in learning the correct articulation of the various allophones of the Spanish vowels. The main problem is that they assume there are no distributional variants. Lists of the allophones are given with their respective conditioning environments. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

Prado, Eduardo

1975-01-01

285

Pharmacognostical studies on Cissus quadrangularis L. variant I & II  

PubMed Central

The aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis L.Variant I and II are being used therapeutically for various ailments in indigenous system of medicine. Detailed pharmacognostical studies on the aerial parts were made. Variant I and II were analysed for their physiochemical, microscopical, fluorescent, qualitative and quantitative phytochemical, TLC and HPTLC characteristics. Quantitative variations were noted among seasonal samples and between variants and the results are presented. PMID:22557140

Austin, Anoop; Kannan, R.; Jegadeesan, M.

2004-01-01

286

Linker histone subtypes and their allelic variants.  

PubMed

Members of histone H1 family bind to nucleosomal and linker DNA to assist in stabilization of higher-order chromatin structures. Moreover, histone H1 is involved in regulation of a variety of cellular processes by interactions with cytosolic and nuclear proteins. Histone H1, composed of a series of subtypes encoded by distinct genes, is usually differentially expressed in specialized cells and frequently non-randomly distributed in different chromatin regions. Moreover, a role of specific histone H1 subtype might be also modulated by post-translational modifications and/or presence of polymorphic isoforms. While the significance of covalently modified histone H1 subtypes has been partially recognized, much less is known about the importance of histone H1 polymorphic variants identified in various plant and animal species, and human cells as well. Recent progress in elucidating amino acid composition-dependent functioning and interactions of the histone H1 with a variety of molecular partners indicates a potential role of histone H1 polymorphic variation in adopting specific protein conformations essential for chromatin function. The histone H1 allelic variants might affect chromatin in order to modulate gene expression underlying some physiological traits and, therefore could modify the course of diverse histone H1-dependent biological processes. This review focuses on the histone H1 allelic variability, and biochemical and genetic aspects of linker histone allelic isoforms to emphasize their likely biological relevance. PMID:23075301

Kowalski, Andrzej; Pa?yga, Jan

2012-11-01

287

Improving coeliac disease risk prediction by testing non-HLA variants additional to HLA variants  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of coeliac disease (CD) patients are not being properly diagnosed and therefore remain untreated, leading to a greater risk of developing CD-associated complications. The major genetic risk heterodimer, HLA-DQ2 and DQ8, is already used clinically to help exclude disease. However, approximately 40% of the population carry these alleles and the majority never develop CD. Objective We explored whether CD risk prediction can be improved by adding non-HLA-susceptible variants to common HLA testing. Design We developed an average weighted genetic risk score with 10, 26 and 57 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 2675 cases and 2815 controls and assessed the improvement in risk prediction provided by the non-HLA SNP. Moreover, we assessed the transferability of the genetic risk model with 26 non-HLA variants to a nested case–control population (n=1709) and a prospective cohort (n=1245) and then tested how well this model predicted CD outcome for 985 independent individuals. Results Adding 57 non-HLA variants to HLA testing showed a statistically significant improvement compared to scores from models based on HLA only, HLA plus 10 SNP and HLA plus 26 SNP. With 57 non-HLA variants, the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve reached 0.854 compared to 0.823 for HLA only, and 11.1% of individuals were reclassified to a more accurate risk group. We show that the risk model with HLA plus 26 SNP is useful in independent populations. Conclusions Predicting risk with 57 additional non-HLA variants improved the identification of potential CD patients. This demonstrates a possible role for combined HLA and non-HLA genetic testing in diagnostic work for CD. PMID:23704318

Romanos, Jihane; Rosén, Anna; Kumar, Vinod; Trynka, Gosia; Franke, Lude; Szperl, Agata; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; van Diemen, Cleo C; Kanninga, Roan; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A; Steck, Andrea; Eisenbarth, Georges; van Heel, David A; Cukrowska, Bozena; Bruno, Valentina; Mazzilli, Maria Cristina; Núñez, Concepcion; Bilbao, Jose Ramon; Mearin, M Luisa; Barisani, Donatella; Rewers, Marian; Norris, Jill M; Ivarsson, Anneli; Boezen, H Marieke; Liu, Edwin; Wijmenga, Cisca

2014-01-01

288

Isolation of caliciviruses from skunks that are antigenically and genotypically related to San Miguel sea lion virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caliciviruses were isolated from feces of skunks imported from the north central United States to Canada. Virus isolation was accomplished using adenovirus-transformed human kidney (293) cells, swine testes and Vero cells. Plaque size variants were present, but there was no apparent difference in virus morphology by negative stain or immune electron microscopy. Pigs infected with skunk calicivirus had a slightly

Bruce S. Seal; Cyril Lutze-Wallace; Luiz C. Kreutz; Theresa Sapp; Gilles C. Dulac; John D. Neill

1995-01-01

289

Supplementary Information Identification of common variants associated with human hippocampal  

E-print Network

1 Supplementary Information Identification of common variants associated with human hippocampal, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, EPIGEN Consortium, IMAGEN Consortium, Saguenay Youth Study

Thompson, Paul

290

Histological variants of prostatic carcinoma and their significance.  

PubMed

The vast majority of prostatic cancers are acinar adenocarcinomas. Histological variants of prostatic carcinoma have been variably defined. One approach is to consider two groups of variants. The first group comprises histological variants of acinar adenocarcinoma and the second group non-acinar carcinoma variants or types. Variants of usual acinar adenocarcinoma defined in 2004 by the World Health Organization (WHO) include atrophic, pseudohyperplastic, foamy, colloid, signet ring, oncocytic and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas. The second group of non-acinar carcinoma histological variants or types of prostatic carcinoma accounts for about 5-10% of carcinomas that originate in the prostate. These include sarcomatoid carcinoma, ductal adenocarcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, squamous and adenosquamous carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and neuroendocrine tumours, specifically small-cell carcinoma. Recently characterized variants not present in the 2004 WHO classification, including microcystic adenocarcinoma, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia-like adenocarcinoma, large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma, are also described. The aims of this review are to present the essential histomorphological diagnostic attributes of these variants, and to emphasize the clinical signficance of the variants, when different from usual acinar adenocarcinoma, including clinical presentation and outcome. PMID:22212078

Humphrey, Peter A

2012-01-01

291

The spread of sequence variants in Rattus satellite DNAs.  

PubMed Central

The genus Rattus has two related families of satellite DNA: Satellite I consists of tandem arrays of a 370 base pair repeat unit which is a dimer of two 185 base pair portions (a, b) which are about 60% homologous. Satellite I' consists of tandem arrays of a 185 base pair repeat unit (a') which is about 85% homologous to a and 60% homologous to b. R. norvegicus contains only satellite I but R. rattus contains both satellites I and I'. We examined certain aspects of satellite DNA evolution by comparing the spacing at which variant repeat units of each satellite have spread among non-variant repeat units in these two species. With but one exception, in R. rattus, 15 different variant repeat units have spread among non-variant repeat units of satellite I, with a spacing equal to the length of the (a,b) dimer. Similarly, fourteen different variant repeat units of the monomeric satellite I' have mixed among non-variant repeat units with a spacing equal to the length of the (a') monomer. These results suggest that a mechanism involving homologous interaction among satellite sequences could account for the spread of variant family members. We also found that a sequence variant present in certain portions of the dimeric repeat unit of satellite I is more efficiently amplified (or less efficiently corrected) than variants occurring in other regions. This was not true for the monomeric repeat unit of satellite I'. Images PMID:6320128

Epstein, D A; Witney, F R; Furano, A V

1984-01-01

292

A unified phylogeny-based nomenclature for histone variants.  

PubMed

Histone variants are non-allelic protein isoforms that play key roles in diversifying chromatin structure. The known number of such variants has greatly increased in recent years, but the lack of naming conventions for them has led to a variety of naming styles, multiple synonyms and misleading homographs that obscure variant relationships and complicate database searches. We propose here a unified nomenclature for variants of all five classes of histones that uses consistent but flexible naming conventions to produce names that are informative and readily searchable. The nomenclature builds on historical usage and incorporates phylogenetic relationships, which are strong predictors of structure and function. A key feature is the consistent use of punctuation to represent phylogenetic divergence, making explicit the relationships among variant subtypes that have previously been implicit or unclear. We recommend that by default new histone variants be named with organism-specific paralog-number suffixes that lack phylogenetic implication, while letter suffixes be reserved for structurally distinct clades of variants. For clarity and searchability, we encourage the use of descriptors that are separate from the phylogeny-based variant name to indicate developmental and other properties of variants that may be independent of structure. PMID:22650316

Talbert, Paul B; Ahmad, Kami; Almouzni, Geneviève; Ausió, Juan; Berger, Frederic; Bhalla, Prem L; Bonner, William M; Cande, W Zacheus; Chadwick, Brian P; Chan, Simon W L; Cross, George A M; Cui, Liwang; Dimitrov, Stefan I; Doenecke, Detlef; Eirin-López, José M; Gorovsky, Martin A; Hake, Sandra B; Hamkalo, Barbara A; Holec, Sarah; Jacobsen, Steven E; Kamieniarz, Kinga; Khochbin, Saadi; Ladurner, Andreas G; Landsman, David; Latham, John A; Loppin, Benjamin; Malik, Harmit S; Marzluff, William F; Pehrson, John R; Postberg, Jan; Schneider, Robert; Singh, Mohan B; Smith, M Mitchell; Thompson, Eric; Torres-Padilla, Maria-Elena; Tremethick, David John; Turner, Bryan M; Waterborg, Jakob Harm; Wollmann, Heike; Yelagandula, Ramesh; Zhu, Bing; Henikoff, Steven

2012-01-01

293

A unified phylogeny-based nomenclature for histone variants  

PubMed Central

Histone variants are non-allelic protein isoforms that play key roles in diversifying chromatin structure. The known number of such variants has greatly increased in recent years, but the lack of naming conventions for them has led to a variety of naming styles, multiple synonyms and misleading homographs that obscure variant relationships and complicate database searches. We propose here a unified nomenclature for variants of all five classes of histones that uses consistent but flexible naming conventions to produce names that are informative and readily searchable. The nomenclature builds on historical usage and incorporates phylogenetic relationships, which are strong predictors of structure and function. A key feature is the consistent use of punctuation to represent phylogenetic divergence, making explicit the relationships among variant subtypes that have previously been implicit or unclear. We recommend that by default new histone variants be named with organism-specific paralog-number suffixes that lack phylogenetic implication, while letter suffixes be reserved for structurally distinct clades of variants. For clarity and searchability, we encourage the use of descriptors that are separate from the phylogeny-based variant name to indicate developmental and other properties of variants that may be independent of structure. PMID:22650316

2012-01-01

294

The Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: clinical, pathologic, and neuroimaging findings.  

PubMed

We report two patients who developed isolated visual symptoms and signs as initial manifestations of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Both patients had normal conventional T1- and T2-weighted brain magnetic resonance (MR) images; in one patient, early cortical abnormalities were detected by diffusion-weighted and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results from the cerebrospinal fluid assay for the 14-3-3 brain protein were also negative in one patient, despite pathologic confirmation of CJD at autopsy. The Heidenhain variant of CJD should be considered in all patients who present with isolated visual manifestations, including homonymous hemianopsia and normal conventional brain MRI. Diffusion-weighted and FLAIR MRI may demonstrate early cortical abnormalities in patients with CJD. The CSF assay for the 14-3-3 protein may be normal, even in pathologically confirmed cases. PMID:11450911

Jacobs, D A; Lesser, R L; Mourelatos, Z; Galetta, S L; Balcer, L J

2001-06-01

295

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Binding of GII.4 Norovirus Variants onto Human Blood Group Antigens?  

PubMed Central

Noroviruses (NoVs) are one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis in children and adults. For the last 2 decades, genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) NoVs have been circulating worldwide. GII.4 NoVs can be divided into variants, and since 2002 they have circulated in the population before being replaced every 2 or 3 years, which raises questions about the role of their histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) ligands in their evolution. To shed light on these questions, we performed an analysis of the interaction between representative GII.4 variants and HBGAs, and we determined the role of selected amino acids in the binding profiles. By mutagenesis, we showed that there was a strict structural requirement for the amino acids, directly implicated in interactions with HBGAs. However, the ablation of the threonine residue at position 395 (?T395), an epidemiological feature of the post-2002 variants, was not deleterious to the binding of the virus-like particle (VLP) to the H antigen, while binding to A and B antigens was severely hampered. Nevertheless, the ?T395 VLPs gained the capacity to bind to the Lewis x and sialyl-Lewis x antigens in comparison with the wild-type VLP, demonstrating that amino acid residues outside the HBGA binding site can modify the binding properties of NoVs. We also analyzed the attachment of baculovirus-expressed VLPs from six variants (Bristol, US95/96, Hunter, Yerseke, Den Haag, and Osaka) that were isolated from 1987 to 2007 to phenotyped saliva samples and synthetic HBGAs. We showed that the six variants could all attach to saliva of secretors irrespective of the ABO phenotype and to oligosaccharides characteristic of the secretor phenotype. Interestingly, Den Haag and Osaka variants additionally bound to carbohydrates present in the saliva of Lewis-positive nonsecretors. The carbohydrate binding profile and the genetic and mutagenesis analysis suggested that GII.4 binding to Lewis x and sialyl-Lewis x antigens might be a by-product of the genetic variation of the amino acids located in the vicinity of the binding site. Analysis of the binding properties for the six variants by surface plasmon resonance showed that only post-2002 variants (i.e., Hunter, Yerseke, Den Haag, and Osaka) presented strong binding to A and B antigens, suggesting that the GII.4 evolution could be related to an increased affinity for HBGAs for the post-2002 variants. The combination of increased affinity for ABH antigens and of a newly acquired ability to recognize glycans from Lewis-positive nonsecretors could have contributed to the epidemiological importance of strains such as the Den Haag GII.4 subtype. PMID:21345963

de Rougemont, A.; Ruvoen-Clouet, N.; Simon, B.; Estienney, M.; Elie-Caille, C.; Aho, S.; Pothier, P.; Le Pendu, J.; Boireau, W.; Belliot, G.

2011-01-01

296

Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection and Classification of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase Gene (blaKPC) Variants?  

PubMed Central

Carbapenem resistance mediated by plasmid-borne Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) is an emerging problem of significant clinical importance in Gram-negative bacteria. Multiple KPC gene variants (blaKPC) have been reported, with KPC-2 (blaKPC-2) and KPC-3 (blaKPC-3) associated with epidemic outbreaks in New York City and various international settings. Here, we describe the development of a multiplex real-time PCR assay using molecular beacons (MB-PCR) for rapid and accurate identification of blaKPC variants. The assay consists of six molecular beacons and two oligonucleotide primer pairs, allowing for detection and classification of all currently described blaKPC variants (blaKPC-2 to blaKPC-11). The MB-PCR detection limit was 5 to 40 DNA copies per reaction and 4 CFU per reaction using laboratory-prepared samples. The MB-PCR probes were highly specific for each blaKPC variant, and cross-reactivity was not observed using DNA isolated from several bacterial species. A total of 457 clinical Gram-negative isolates were successfully characterized by our MB-PCR assay, with blaKPC-3 and blaKPC-2 identified as the most common types in the New York/New Jersey metropolitan region. The MB-PCR assay described herein is rapid, sensitive, and specific and should be useful for understanding the ongoing evolution of carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. As novel blaKPC variants continue to emerge, the MB-PCR assay can be modified in response to epidemiologic developments. PMID:21123529

Chen, Liang; Mediavilla, José R.; Endimiani, Andrea; Rosenthal, Marnie E.; Zhao, Yanan; Bonomo, Robert A.; Kreiswirth, Barry N.

2011-01-01

297

Superantigen gene profile diversity among clinical group A streptococcal isolates.  

PubMed

This study examines the diversity of superantigen gene profiles between and within emm-genotypes of 92 clinical group A streptococcal isolates (30 STSS, 24 sepsis, 25 erysipelas, and 12 tonsillitis) collected in Sweden between 1986 and 2001. The emm-genotype and the distribution of smeZ, speG, speJ, speA, speC, speH, speI, speK/L, speL/M, speM, and ssa genes, and the smeZ allelic variant were determined using PCR and DNA sequencing. Forty-five emm1 isolates revealed 10 superantigen gene profiles. One profile dominated and was identified in 22 isolates collected over 14 years. The results indicate that a selective advantage maintained this genotype in circulation. The superantigen content among the emm1 isolates ranged from three to seven, with smeZ-1, speG, and speA present in all but one profile. The 47 isolates of 27 other emm-genotypes exhibited 29 superantigen gene profiles. Thus, the distribution of superantigen genes was highly variable within isolates regardless of emm-genotype. Two novel emm1 subtypes and 14 novel smeZ allelic variants were identified. The 22 smeZ alleles were generally linked to the emm-genotype. The results of the investigation show that superantigen gene profiling is useful for tracking spread of clones in the community. PMID:18754783

Maripuu, Linda; Eriksson, Anna; Norgren, Mari

2008-11-01

298

Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of tcdA-negative variant clostridium difficile infections  

PubMed Central

Background The tcdA-negative variant (A-B+) of Clostridium difficile is prevalent in East Asian countries. However, the risk factors and clinical characteristics of A-B+C. difficile infections (CDI) are not clearly documented. The objective of this study was to investigate these characteristics. Methods From September 2008 through January 2010, the clinical characteristics, medication history and treatment outcomes of CDI patients were recorded prospectively. Toxin characterization and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on stool isolates of C. difficile. Results During the study period, we identified 22 cases of CDI caused by tcdA-negative tcdB-positive (A-B+) strains and 105 cases caused by tcdA-positive tcdB-positive (A+B+) strains. There was no significant difference in disease severity or clinical characteristics between the two groups. Previous use of clindamycin and young age were identified as significant risk factors for the acquisition of A-B+ CDI (OR?=?4.738, 95% CI 1.48–15.157, p?=?0.009 and OR?=?0.966, 95% CI 0.935–0.998, p?=?0.038, respectively) in logistic regression. Rates of resistance to clindamycin were 100% and 69.6% in the A-B+ and A+B+ isolates, respectively (p?=?0.006), and the ermB gene was identified in 17 of 21 A-B+ isolates (81%). Resistance to moxifloxacin was also more frequent in the A-B+ than in the A+B+ isolates (95.2% vs. 63.7%, p?=?0.004). Conclusions The clinical course of A-B+ CDI is not different from that of A+B+ CDI. Clindamycin use is a significant risk factor for the acquisition of tcdA-negative variant strains. PMID:22571633

2012-01-01

299

Identification of Bartonella species in rodents, shrews and cats in Denmark: detection of two B. henselae variants, one in cats and the other in the long-tailed field mouse.  

PubMed

Small mammals and stray cats were trapped in two areas of North Zealand, Denmark, and their blood cultured for hemotrophic bacteria. Bacterial isolates were recovered in pure culture and subjected to 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Bartonella species were isolated from five mammalian species: B. grahamii from Microtus agrestis (field vole) and Apodemus flavicollis (yellow-necked field mouse); B. taylorii from M. agrestis, A. flavicollis and A. sylvaticus (long-tailed field mouse); B. tribocorum from A. flavicollis; B. vinsonii subsp. vinsonii from M. agrestis and A. sylvaticus; and B. birtlesii from Sorex vulgaris (common shrew). In addition, two variant types of B. henselae were identified: variant I was recovered from three specimens of A. sylvaticus, and B. henselae variant II from 11 cats; in each case this was the only B. henselae variant found. No Bartonella species was isolated from Clethrionomys glareolus (bank vole) or Micromys minutus (harvest mouse). These results suggest that B. henselae occurs in two animal reservoirs in this region, one of variant I in A. sylvaticus, which may be transmitted between mice by the tick Ixodes ricinus, and another of variant II in cats, which may be transmitted by the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the occurrence of B. henselae and B. tribocorum in Apodemus mice. PMID:15511270

Engbaek, Kraesten; Lawson, Paul A

2004-06-01

300

The IBO germination quantitative trait locus encodes a phosphatase 2C-related variant with a nonsynonymous amino acid change that interferes with abscisic acid signaling.  

PubMed

Natural genetic variation is crucial for adaptability of plants to different environments. Seed dormancy prevents precocious germination in unsuitable conditions and is an adaptation to a major macro-environmental parameter, the seasonal variation in temperature and day length. Here we report the isolation of IBO, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) that governs c. 30% of germination rate variance in an Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the parental accessions Eilenburg-0 (Eil-0) and Loch Ness-0 (Lc-0). IBO encodes an uncharacterized phosphatase 2C-related protein, but neither the Eil-0 nor the Lc-0 variant, which differ in a single amino acid, have any appreciable phosphatase activity in in vitro assays. However, we found that the amino acid change in the Lc-0 variant of the IBO protein confers reduced germination rate. Moreover, unlike the Eil-0 variant of the protein, the Lc-0 variant can interfere with the activity of the phosphatase 2C ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 1 in vitro. This suggests that the Lc-0 variant possibly interferes with abscisic acid signaling, a notion that is supported by physiological assays. Thus, we isolated an example of a QTL allele with a nonsynonymous amino acid change that might mediate local adaptation of seed germination timing. PMID:25490966

Amiguet-Vercher, Amélia; Santuari, Luca; Gonzalez-Guzman, Miguel; Depuydt, Stephen; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Hardtke, Christian S

2015-02-01

301

Six host range variants of the xenotropic/polytropic gammaretroviruses define determinants for entry in the XPR1 cell surface receptor  

PubMed Central

Background The evolutionary interactions between retroviruses and their receptors result in adaptive selection of restriction variants that can allow natural populations to evade retrovirus infection. The mouse xenotropic/polytropic (X/PMV) gammaretroviruses rely on the XPR1 cell surface receptor for entry into host cells, and polymorphic variants of this receptor have been identified in different rodent species. Results We screened a panel of X/PMVs for infectivity on rodent cells carrying 6 different XPR1 receptor variants. The X/PMVs included 5 well-characterized laboratory and wild mouse virus isolates as well as a novel cytopathic XMV-related virus, termed Cz524, isolated from an Eastern European wild mouse-derived strain, and XMRV, a xenotropic-like virus isolated from human prostate cancer. The 7 viruses define 6 distinct tropisms. Cz524 and another wild mouse isolate, CasE#1, have unique species tropisms. Among the PMVs, one Friend isolate is restricted by rat cells. Among the XMVs, two isolates, XMRV and AKR6, differ from other XMVs in their PMV-like restriction in hamster cells. We generated a set of Xpr1 mutants and chimeras, and identified critical amino acids in two extracellular loops (ECLs) that mediate entry of these different viruses, including 3 residues in ECL3 that are involved in PMV entry (E500, T507, and V508) and can also influence infectivity by AKR6 and Cz524. Conclusion We used a set of natural variants and mutants of Xpr1 to define 6 distinct host range variants among naturally occurring X/PMVs (2 XMV variants, 2 PMVs, 2 different wild mouse variants). We identified critical amino acids in XPR1 that mediate entry of these viruses. These gammaretroviruses and their XPR1 receptor are thus highly functionally polymorphic, a consequence of the evolutionary pressures that favor both host resistance and virus escape mutants. This variation accounts for multiple naturally occurring virus resistance phenotypes and perhaps contributes to the widespread distribution of these viruses in rodent and non-rodent species. PMID:19811656

Yan, Yuhe; Liu, Qingping; Kozak, Christine A

2009-01-01

302

Association of RGS4 variants with schizotypy and cognitive endophenotypes at the population level  

PubMed Central

Background While association studies on schizophrenia show conflicting results regarding the importance of the regulator of the G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4) gene, recent work suggests that RGS4 may impact on the structural and functional integrity of the prefrontal cortex. We aimed to study associations of common RGS4 variants with prefrontal dependent cognitive performance and schizotypy endophenotypes at the population level. Methods Four RGS4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP1 [rs10917670], SNP4 [rs951436], SNP7 [rs951439], and SNP18 [rs2661319]) and their haplotypes were selected. Their associations with self-rated schizotypy (SPQ), vigilance, verbal, spatial working memory and antisaccade eye performance were tested with regressions in a representative population of 2,243 young male military conscripts. Results SNP4 was associated with negative schizotypy (higher SPQ negative factor for common T allele, p = 0.009; p = 0.031 for differences across genotypes) and a similar trend was seen also for common A allele of SNP18 (p = 0.039 for allele-load model; but p = 0.12 for genotype differences). Haplotype analyses showed a similar pattern with a dose-response for the most common haplotype (GGGG) on the negative schizotypy score with or without adjustment for age, IQ and their interaction (p = 0.011 and p = 0.024, respectively). There was no clear evidence for any association of the RGS4 variants with cognitive endophenotypes, except for an isolated effect of SNP18 on antisaccade error rate (p = 0.028 for allele-load model). Conclusion Common RGS4 variants were associated with negative schizotypal personality traits amongst a large cohort of young healthy individuals. In accordance with recent findings, this may suggest that RGS4 variants impact on the functional integrity of the prefrontal cortex, thus increasing susceptibility for psychotic spectrum disorders. PMID:18834502

Stefanis, Nicholas C; Trikalinos, Thomas A; Avramopoulos, Dimitrios; Smyrnis, Nikos; Evdokimidis, Ioannis; Ntzani, Evangelia E; Hatzimanolis, Alex; Ioannidis, John PA; Stefanis, Costas N

2008-01-01

303

Rare Complement Factor H Variant Associated With Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Amish  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness among the adult population in the developed world. To further the understanding of this disease, we have studied the genetically isolated Amish population of Ohio and Indiana. Methods. Cumulative genetic risk scores were calculated using the 19 known allelic associations. Exome sequencing was performed in three members of a small Amish family with AMD who lacked the common risk alleles in complement factor H (CFH) and ARMS2/HTRA1. Follow-up genotyping and association analysis was performed in a cohort of 973 Amish individuals, including 95 with self-reported AMD. Results. The cumulative genetic risk score analysis generated a mean genetic risk score of 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10, 1.13) in the Amish controls and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.22) in the Amish cases. This mean difference in genetic risk scores is statistically significant (P = 0.0042). Exome sequencing identified a rare variant (P503A) in CFH. Association analysis in the remainder of the Amish sample revealed that the P503A variant is significantly associated with AMD (P = 9.27 × 10?13). Variant P503A was absent when evaluated in a cohort of 791 elderly non-Amish controls, and 1456 non-Amish cases. Conclusions. Data from the cumulative genetic risk score analysis suggests that the variants reported by the AMDGene consortium account for a smaller genetic burden of disease in the Amish compared with the non-Amish Caucasian population. Using exome sequencing data, we identified a novel missense mutation that is shared among a densely affected nuclear Amish family and located in a gene that has been previously implicated in AMD risk. PMID:24906858

Hoffman, Joshua D.; CookeBailey, Jessica N.; D'Aoust, Laura; Cade, William; Ayala-Haedo, Juan; Fuzzell, Denise; Laux, Renee; Adams, Larry D.; Reinhart-Mercer, Lori; Caywood, Laura; Whitehead-Gay, Patrice; Agarwal, Anita; Wang, Gaofeng; Scott, William K.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Haines, Jonathan L.

2014-01-01

304

Naturally Occurring Variants of Human ?9 Nicotinic Receptor Differentially Affect Bronchial Cell Proliferation and Transformation  

PubMed Central

Isolation of polyadenilated mRNA from human immortalized bronchial epithelial cell line BEP2D revealed the presence of multiple isoforms of RNA coded by the CHRNA9 gene for ?9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). BEP2D cells were homozygous for the rs10009228 polymorphism encoding for N442S amino acid substitution, and also contained mRNA coding for several truncated isoforms of ?9 protein. To elucidate the biologic significance of the naturally occurring variants of ?9 nAChR, we compared the biologic effects of overexpression of full-length ?9 N442 and S442 proteins, and the truncated ?9 variant occurring due to a loss of the exon 4 sequence that causes frame shift and early termination of the translation. These as well as control vector were overexpressed in the BEP2D cells that were used in the assays of proliferation rate, spontaneous vs. tobacco nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced cellular transformation, and tumorigenicity in cell culture and mice. Overexpression of the S442 variant significantly increased cellular proliferation, and spontaneous and NNK-induced transformation. The N442 variant significantly decreased cellular transformation, without affecting proliferation rate. Overexpression of the truncated ?9 significantly decreased proliferation and suppressed cellular transformation. These results suggested that ?9 nAChR plays important roles in regulation of bronchial cell growth by endogenous acetylcholine and exogenous nicotine, and susceptibility to NNK-induced carcinogenic transformation. The biologic activities of ?9 nAChR may be regulated at the splicing level, and genetic polymorphisms in CHRNA9 affecting protein levels, amino acid sequence and RNA splicing may influence the risk for lung cancer. PMID:22125646

Chikova, Anna; Grando, Sergei A.

2011-01-01

305

Production of synthetically created phospholipase A(2) variants with industrial impact.  

PubMed

Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) play an important role for the production of lysophospholipids. Presently they are mainly obtained from porcine or bovine pancreas but these mammalian sources are not accepted in several fields of application. To make accessible a non-mammalian PLA(2) to industrial application, synthetic genes encoding PLA(2) from honey bee (Apis mellifera) with modified N-termini were constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. While expression of the gene with an N-terminal leader sequence to direct the protein into the periplasm failed, four variants with slightly modified N-termini (I1A-PLA(2), I1V-PLA(2), His(6)-tagged PLA(2) and PLA(2) still containing the start methionine) were successfully expressed. In all cases, the PLA(2) variants were produced as inclusion bodies. Their protein content amounted to 26-35% of total cell protein. The optimized renaturation procedure and subsequent purification by cation-exchange chromatography yielded pure active enzymes in yields of 4-11 mg L(-1). The recombinant PLA(2) variants showed activities, far-UV CD and fluorescence spectra similar to the glycosylated PLA(2) isolated from the venom glands of honey bee (bv-PLA(2)). The thermodynamic stabilities of the recombinant enzymes calculated from the transition curves of guanidine hydrochloride induced unfolding were also nearly identical to the stability of bv-PLA(2). For the variant I1A-PLA(2) high-cell density fermentation in 10 L-scale using mineral salt medium was shown to increase the volumetric enzyme yield considerably. PMID:17318911

Markert, Yvonne; Mansfeld, Johanna; Schierhorn, Angelika; Rücknagel, Karl Peter; Ulbrich-Hofmann, Renate

2007-09-01

306

A polyadenylation site variant causes transcript-specific BMP1 deficiency and frequent fractures in children.  

PubMed

We had previously published the clinical characteristics of a bone fragility disorder in children that was characterized mainly by lower extremity fractures and a mineralization defect in bone tissue but not on the growth plate level. We have now performed whole-exome sequencing on four unrelated individuals with this phenotype. Three individuals were homozygous for a nucleotide change in BMP1, affecting the polyadenylation signal of the transcript that codes for the short isoform of BMP1 (BMP1-1) (c.*241T>C). In skin fibroblasts of these individuals, we found low levels of BMP1-1 transcript and protein. The fourth individual was compound heterozygous for the c.*241T>C variant in BMP1-1 and a variant in BMP1 exon 15 (c.2107G>C) that affected splicing in both BMP1-1 and the long isoform of BMP1 (BMP1-3). Both the homozygous 3'UTR variant and the compound heterozygous variants were associated with impaired procollagen type I C-propeptide cleavage, as the amount of free C-propeptide in the supernatant of skin fibroblasts was less than in controls. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography showed that all individuals had elevated volumetric cortical bone mineral density. Assessment of iliac bone samples by histomorphometry and quantitative backscattered electron imaging indicated that the onset of mineralization at bone formation sites was delayed, but that mineralized matrix was hypermineralized. These results show that isolated lack of BMP1-1 causes bone fragility in children. PMID:25214535

Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Al-Jallad, Hadil; Majewski, Jacek; Palomo, Telma; Moffatt, Pierre; Roschger, Paul; Klaushofer, Klaus; Glorieux, Francis H; Rauch, Frank

2015-01-15

307

Association of Low-Frequency and Rare Coding-Sequence Variants with Blood Lipids and Coronary Heart Disease in 56,000 Whites and Blacks  

PubMed Central

Low-frequency coding DNA sequence variants in the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 gene (PCSK9) lower plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), protect against risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), and have prompted the development of a new class of therapeutics. It is uncertain whether the PCSK9 example represents a paradigm or an isolated exception. We used the “Exome Array” to genotype >200,000 low-frequency and rare coding sequence variants across the genome in 56,538 individuals (42,208 European ancestry [EA] and 14,330 African ancestry [AA]) and tested these variants for association with LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides. Although we did not identify new genes associated with LDL-C, we did identify four low-frequency (frequencies between 0.1% and 2%) variants (ANGPTL8 rs145464906 [c.361C>T; p.Gln121?], PAFAH1B2 rs186808413 [c.482C>T; p.Ser161Leu], COL18A1 rs114139997 [c.331G>A; p.Gly111Arg], and PCSK7 rs142953140 [c.1511G>A; p.Arg504His]) with large effects on HDL-C and/or triglycerides. None of these four variants was associated with risk for CHD, suggesting that examples of low-frequency coding variants with robust effects on both lipids and CHD will be limited. PMID:24507774

Peloso, Gina M.; Auer, Paul L.; Bis, Joshua C.; Voorman, Arend; Morrison, Alanna C.; Stitziel, Nathan O.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Khetarpal, Sumeet A.; Crosby, Jacy R.; Fornage, Myriam; Isaacs, Aaron; Jakobsdottir, Johanna; Feitosa, Mary F.; Davies, Gail; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Manichaikul, Ani; Davis, Brian; Lohman, Kurt; Joon, Aron Y.; Smith, Albert V.; Grove, Megan L.; Zanoni, Paolo; Redon, Valeska; Demissie, Serkalem; Lawson, Kim; Peters, Ulrike; Carlson, Christopher; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Ryckman, Kelli K.; Mackey, Rachel H.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Siscovick, David S.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Pankow, James S.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Harris, Tamara B.; Taylor, Kent D.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Reynolds, Lindsay M.; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Dehghan, Abbas; Franco, Oscar H.; Patel, Aniruddh P.; Lu, Yingchang; Hindy, George; Gottesman, Omri; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Melander, Olle; Orho-Melander, Marju; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Duga, Stefano; Merlini, Piera Angelica; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Asselta, Rosanna; Girelli, Domenico; Martinelli, Nicola; Shah, Svati H.; Kraus, William E.; Li, Mingyao; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; McPherson, Ruth; Watkins, Hugh; Ardissino, Diego; Zhang, Qunyuan; Wang, Judy; Tsai, Michael Y.; Taylor, Herman A.; Correa, Adolfo; Griswold, Michael E.; Lange, Leslie A.; Starr, John M.; Rudan, Igor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Launer, Lenore J.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Levy, Daniel; Chen, Y.-D. Ida; Reiner, Alexander P.; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Deary, Ian J.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Liu, Yongmei; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Wilson, James G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Kooperberg, Charles; Rich, Stephen S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Rice, Kenneth; Boerwinkle, Eric; Kathiresan, Sekar; Cupples, L. Adrienne

2014-01-01

308

COMOC: Thermal analysis variant. User's manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thermal Analysis Variant of the COMOC (computational continuum mechanics) computer system solves problems involving transient heat conduction and convection in stationary continua spanning arbitrarily irregular two-dimensional and axisymmetric solution domains. COMOC is based upon a finite element solution algorithm for the energy equation, and solves for the transient nodal temperature distribution using a highly stable and automatic explicit integration procedure. COMOC is extensively user-oriented, requires minimal input, and no a priori knowledge concerning the stability character of the differential equation system. It can readily output computed data in user-specified format fields, that geometrically resemble the solution domain discretization (for rapid engineering evaluation). Complete information is provided for applying COMOC to a specific problem.

Bauer, A. M.; Baker, A. J.

1972-01-01

309

Gene variant raises risk for colorectal cancer  

Cancer.gov

A common genetic variant that affects one in three people significantly increases the risk of colorectal cancer from the consumption of red meat and processed meat, according to a study presented by researchers from the Keck School of Medicine of USC (home of the USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center) at the annual American Society of Human Genetics meeting. In addition to identifying a gene that raises risk for colorectal cancer from eating red or processed meat, the study — the first to identify the interactions of genes and diet on a genome-wide scale — also revealed another specific genetic variation that appears to modify whether eating more fruits, vegetables and fiber actually lowers your colorectal cancer risk.

310

Variant terminology. [for aerospace information systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system called Variant Terminology Switching (VTS) is set forth that is intended to provide computer-assisted spellings for terms that have American and British versions. VTS is based on the use of brackets, parentheses, and other symbols in conjunction with letters that distinguish American and British spellings. The symbols are used in the systems as indicators of actions such as deleting, adding, and replacing letters as well as replacing entire words and concepts. The system is shown to be useful for the intended purpose and also for the recognition of misspellings and for the standardization of computerized input/output. The VTS system is of interest to the development of international retrieval systems for aerospace and other technical databases that enhance the use by the global scientific community.

Buchan, Ronald L.

1991-01-01

311

Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of clinical isolates of Aspergillus flavus from Iran reveals the first cases of Aspergillus minisclerotigenes associated with human infection  

PubMed Central

Background Aspergillus flavus is intensively studied for its role in infecting crop plants and contaminating produce with aflatoxin, but its role as a human pathogen is less well understood. In parts of the Middle East and India, A. flavus surpasses A. fumigatus as a cause of invasive aspergillosis and is a significant cause of cutaneous, sinus, nasal and nail infections. Methods A collection of 45 clinical and 10 environmental A. flavus isolates from Iran were analysed using Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (VNTR) markers with MICROSAT and goeBURST to determine their genetic diversity and their relatedness to clinical and environmental A. flavus isolates from Australia. Phylogeny was assessed using partial ?-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequencing, and mating type was determined by PCR. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed on selected isolates using a reference microbroth dilution method. Results There was considerable diversity in the A. flavus collection, with no segregation on goeBURST networks according to source or geographic location. Three Iranian isolates, two from sinus infections and one from a paranasal infection grouped with Aspergillus minisclerotigenes, and all produced B and G aflatoxin. Phylogenic analysis using partial ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequencing confirmed two of these as A. minisclerotigenes, while the third could not be differentiated from A. flavus and related species within Aspergillus section flavi. Based on epidemiological cut-off values, the A. minisclerotigens and A. flavus isolates tested were susceptible to commonly used antifungal drugs. Conclusions This is the first report of human infection due to A. minisclerotigenes, and it raises the possiblity that other species within Aspergillus section flavi may also cause clinical disease. Clinical isolates of A. flavus from Iran are not distinct from Australian isolates, indicating local environmental, climatic or host features, rather than fungal features, govern the high incidence of A. flavus infection in this region. The results of this study have important implications for biological control strategies that aim to reduce aflatoxin by the introduction of non-toxigenic strains, as potentially any strain of A. flavus, and closely related species like A. minisclerotigenes, might be capable of human infection. PMID:24986045

2014-01-01

312

Glycolipid Binding Preferences of Shiga Toxin Variants  

PubMed Central

The major virulence factor of Shiga toxin producing E. coli, is Shiga toxin (Stx), an AB5 toxin that consists of a ribosomal RNA-cleaving A-subunit surrounded by a pentamer of receptor-binding B subunits. The two major isoforms, Stx1 and Stx2, and Stx2 variants (Stx2a-h) significantly differ in toxicity. The exact reason for this toxicity difference is unknown, however different receptor binding preferences are speculated to play a role. Previous studies used enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to study binding of Stx1 and Stx2a toxoids to glycolipid receptors. Here, we studied binding of holotoxin and B-subunits of Stx1, Stx2a, Stx2b, Stx2c and Stx2d to glycolipid receptors globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4) in the presence of cell membrane components such as phosphatidylcholine (PC), cholesterol (Ch) and other neutral glycolipids. In the absence of PC and Ch, holotoxins of Stx2 variants bound to mixtures of Gb3 with other glycolipids but not to Gb3 or Gb4 alone. Binding of all Stx holotoxins significantly increased in the presence of PC and Ch. Previously, Stx2a has been shown to form a less stable B-pentamer compared to Stx1. However, its effect on glycolipid receptor binding is unknown. In this study, we showed that even in the absence of the A-subunit, the B-subunits of both Stx1 and Stx2a were able to bind to the glycolipids and the more stable B-pentamer formed by Stx1 bound better than the less stable pentamer of Stx2a. B-subunit mutant of Stx1 L41Q, which shows similar stability as Stx2a B-subunits, lacked glycolipid binding, suggesting that pentamerization is more critical for binding of Stx1 than Stx2a. PMID:24983355

Karve, Sayali S.; Weiss, Alison A.

2014-01-01

313

Hepatitis E virus variant in farmed mink, Denmark.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic virus for which pigs are the primary animal reservoir. To investigate whether HEV occurs in mink in Denmark, we screened feces and tissues from domestic and wild mink. Our finding of a novel HEV variant supports previous findings of HEV variants in a variety of species. PMID:24274600

Krog, Jesper S; Breum, Solvej Ø; Jensen, Trine H; Larsen, Lars E

2013-12-01

314

Hepatitis E Virus Variant in Farmed Mink, Denmark  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic virus for which pigs are the primary animal reservoir. To investigate whether HEV occurs in mink in Denmark, we screened feces and tissues from domestic and wild mink. Our finding of a novel HEV variant supports previous findings of HEV variants in a variety of species. PMID:24274600

Breum, Solvej Ø.; Jensen, Trine H.; Larsen, Lars E.

2013-01-01

315

The personal genome browser: visualizing functions of genetic variants  

PubMed Central

Advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have brought us into the individual genome era. Projects such as the 1000 Genomes Project have led the individual genome sequencing to become more and more popular. How to visualize, analyse and annotate individual genomes with knowledge bases to support genome studies and personalized healthcare is still a big challenge. The Personal Genome Browser (PGB) is developed to provide comprehensive functional annotation and visualization for individual genomes based on the genetic–molecular–phenotypic model. Investigators can easily view individual genetic variants, such as single nucleotide variants (SNVs), INDELs and structural variations (SVs), as well as genomic features and phenotypes associated to the individual genetic variants. The PGB especially highlights potential functional variants using the PGB built-in method or SIFT/PolyPhen2 scores. Moreover, the functional risks of genes could be evaluated by scanning individual genetic variants on the whole genome, a chromosome, or a cytoband based on functional implications of the variants. Investigators can then navigate to high risk genes on the scanned individual genome. The PGB accepts Variant Call Format (VCF) and Genetic Variation Format (GVF) files as the input. The functional annotation of input individual genome variants can be visualized in real time by well-defined symbols and shapes. The PGB is available at http://www.pgbrowser.org/. PMID:24799434

Juan, Liran; Teng, Mingxiang; Zang, Tianyi; Hao, Yafeng; Wang, Zhenxing; Yan, Chengwu; Liu, Yongzhuang; Li, Jie; Zhang, Tianjiao; Wang, Yadong

2014-01-01

316

Winding quotients and some variants of Fermat's Last Theorem  

E-print Network

Winding quotients and some variants of Fermat's Last Theorem Henri Darmon at Montr´eal Lo¨ic Merel of the following variants of Fermat's equation xn + yn = zn : xn + yn = 2zn , (1) xn + yn = z2 , (2) xn + yn = z3 Fermat's Last Theorem to the Shimura-Taniyama conjecture (and the precise 1 #12;form of this conjecture

Darmon, Henri

317

Identification of a new splice variant of BDNF in chicken  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to be involved in the central regulation of energy homeostasis. BDNF splicing variants were discovered in vertebrates. Results from human, mouse and rat suggest that alternative BDNF splicing variants potentially play a role in fat deposition. Using t...

318

Beam manipulating by metallic nano-slits with variant widths  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method is proposed to manipulate beam by modulating light phase through a metallic film with arrayed nano-slits, which have constant depth but variant widths. The slits transport electro-magnetic energy in the form of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in nanometric waveguides and provide desired phase retardations of beam manipulating with variant phase propagation constant. Numerical simulation of an illustrative

Haofei Shi; Changtao Wang; Chunlei Du; Xiangang Luo; Xiaochun Dong; Hongtao Gao

2005-01-01

319

CBH1 homologs and variant CBH1 cellulases  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed are a number of homologs and variants of Hypocrea jecorina Cel7A (formerly Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I or CBH1), nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The homologs and variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted and/or deleted.

Goedegebuur, Frits (Rozenlaan, NL); Gualfetti, Peter (San Francisco, CA); Mitchinson, Colin (Half Moon Bay, CA); Neefe, Paulien (Zoetermeer, NL)

2011-05-31

320

CBH1 homologs and variant CBH1 cellulases  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are a number of homologs and variants of Hypocrea jecorina Cel7A (formerly Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I or CBH1), nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The homologs and variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted and/or deleted.

Goedegebuur, Frits (Rozenlaan, NL); Gualfetti, Peter (San Francisco, CA); Mitchinson, Colin (Half Moon Bay, CA); Neefe, Paulien (Zoetermeer, NL)

2008-11-18

321

A flow-based approach for variant parametric types  

Microsoft Academic Search

A promising approach for type-safe generic codes in the object-oriented paradigm is variant parametric type, which allows covariant and contravariant subtyping on fields where appropriate. Previous approaches formalise variant type as a special case of the existential type system. In this paper, we present a new framework based on flow analysis and modular type checking to provide a simple but

Wei-Ngan Chin; Florin Craciun; Siau-Cheng Khoo; Corneliu Popeea

2006-01-01

322

A flow-based approach for variant parametric types  

Microsoft Academic Search

A promising approach for type-safe generic codes in the object- oriented paradigm is variant parametric type, which allows covari- ant and contravariant subtyping on fields where appropriate. Pre- vious approaches formalise variant type as a special case of the existential type system. In this paper, we present a new framework based on flow analysis and modular type checkingto provide a

Wei-ngan Chin; Florin Craciun; Siau-cheng Khoo; Corneliu Popeea

2006-01-01

323

Hemimandibular Hypertrophy - Hybrid Variants: Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Hemimandibular hypertrophy and its variants result from unilateral excessive growth of the mandible and involve both the body and ramus of mandible. This causes facial asymmetry and in turn accompanying psychological problems. In this report we discuss use of imaging in diagnosis of these lesions and investigate the different variants. PMID:24516768

Mohan, Ravi Prakash Sasankoti; Verma, Sankalp; Singh, Udita; Agarwal, Neha

2013-01-01

324

The bisection point across variants of the task.  

PubMed

Bisection tasks are used in research on normal space and time perception and to assess the perceptual distortions accompanying neurological disorders. Several variants of the bisection task are used, which often yield inconsistent results, prompting the question of which variant is most dependable and which results are to be trusted. We addressed this question using theoretical and experimental approaches. Theoretical performance in bisection tasks is derived from a general model of psychophysical performance that includes sensory components and decisional processes. The model predicts how performance should differ across variants of the task, even when the sensory component is fixed. To test these predictions, data were collected in a within-subjects study with several variants of a spatial bisection task, including a two-response variant in which observers indicated whether a line was transected to the right or left of the midpoint, a three-response variant (which included the additional option to respond "midpoint"), and a paired-comparison variant of the three-response format. The data supported the model predictions, revealing that estimated bisection points were least dependable with the two-response variant, because this format confounds perceptual and decisional influences. Only the three-response paired-comparison format can separate out these influences. Implications for research in basic and clinical fields are discussed. PMID:24811039

García-Pérez, Miguel A; Peli, Eli

2014-08-01

325

Parental origin of sequence variants associated with complex diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of susceptibility variants may depend on from which parent they are inherited. Although many associations between sequence variants and human traits have been discovered through genome-wide associations, the impact of parental origin has largely been ignored. Here we show that for 38,167 Icelanders genotyped using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips, the parental origin of most alleles can be determined.

Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir; Gisli Masson; Gudmar Thorleifsson; Patrick Sulem; Soren Besenbacher; Aslaug Jonasdottir; Asgeir Sigurdsson; Kari Th. Kristinsson; Adalbjorg Jonasdottir; Michael L. Frigge; Arnaldur Gylfason; Pall I. Olason; Sigurjon A. Gudjonsson; Sverrir Sverrisson; Simon N. Stacey; Bardur Sigurgeirsson; Kristrun R. Benediktsdottir; Helgi Sigurdsson; Thorvaldur Jonsson; Rafn Benediktsson; Jon H. Olafsson; Oskar Th. Johannsson; Astradur B. Hreidarsson; Gunnar Sigurdsson; Benjamin F. Voight; Laura J. Scott; Christian Dina; Eleftheria Zeggini; Cornelia Huth; Yurii S. Aulchenko; Ryan P. Welch; Laura J. McCulloch; Teresa Ferreira; Harald Grallert; Najaf Amin; Guanming Wu; Cristen J. Willer; Soumya Raychaudhuri; Shaun Purcell; Steve A. McCarroll; Claudia Langenberg; Oliver M. Hoffmann; Josée Dupuis; Lu Qi; Ayellet V. Segrè; Mandy van Hoek; Pau Navarro; Kristin Ardlie; Beverley Balkau; Amanda J. Bennett; Roza Blagieva; Eric Boerwinkle; Lori L. Bonnycastle; Kristina Bengtsson Boström; Bert Bravenboer; Suzannah Bumpstead; Noël P. Burtt; Guillaume Charpentier; Peter S. Chines; Marilyn Cornelis; David J. Couper; Gabe Crawford; Alex S. F. Doney; Katherine S. Elliott; Amanda L. Elliott; Michael R. Erdos; Caroline S. Fox; Christopher S. Franklin; Martha Ganser; Christian Gieger; Niels Grarup; Todd Green; Simon Griffin; Christopher J. Groves; Candace Guiducci; Samy Hadjadj; Neelam Hassanali; Christian Herder; Bo Isomaa; Anne U. Jackson; Paul R. V. Johnson; Torben Jørgensen; Wen H. L. Kao; Norman Klopp; Peter Kraft; Johanna Kuusisto; Torsten Lauritzen; Man Li; Alouisius Lieverse; Cecilia M. Lindgren; Valeriya Lyssenko; Michel Marre; Thomas Meitinger; Kristian Midthjell; Mario A Morken; Narisu Narisu; Peter Nilsson; Katharine R. Owen; Felicity Payne; John R. B. Perry; Ann-Kristin Petersen; Carl Platou; Christine Proença; Inga Prokopenko; Wolfgang Rathmann; N. William Rayner; Neil R. Robertson; Ghislain Rocheleau; Michael Roden; Michael J. Sampson; Richa Saxena; Beverley M. Shields; Peter Shrader; Nicholas Smith; Thomas Sparsø; Klaus Strassburger; Heather M. Stringham; Qi Sun; Amy J. Swift; Barbara Thorand; Jean Tichet; Tiinamaija Tuomi; Rob van Dam; Thijs van Herpt; G. Bragi Walters; Michael N. Weedon; Jacqueline Witteman; Richard N. Bergman; Stephane Cauchi; Francis S. Collins; Anna L. Gloyn; Ulf Gyllensten; Torben Hansen; Winston A. Hide; Graham A. Hitman; Albert Hofman; David Hunter; Kristian Hveem; Markku Laakso; Karen L. Mohlke; Andrew D. Morris; Colin N. A. Palmer; Peter P. Pramstaller; Igor Rudan; Eric Sijbrands; Lincoln D. Stein; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Andre Uitterlinden; Mark Walker; Nicholas J. Wareham; Richard M. Watanabe; Goncalo R. Abecasis; Inês Barroso; Bernhard O. Boehm; Harry Campbell; Mark J. Daly; Jose C. Florez; Timothy M. Frayling; Leif Groop; Andrew T. Hattersley; Frank B. Hu; James B. Meigs; Andrew P. Morris; James S. Pankow; Oluf Pedersen; Rob Sladek; Unnur Thorsteinsdottir; H.-Erich Wichmann; James F. Wilson; Thomas Illig; Philippe Froguel; Cornelia M. van Duijn; David Altshuler; Michael Boehnke; Anne C. Ferguson-Smith; Daniel F. Gudbjartsson; Augustine Kong; Kari Stefansson

2009-01-01

326

Release of ?-casomorphin-7/5 during simulated gastrointestinal digestion of milk ?-casein variants from Indian crossbred cattle (Karan Fries).  

PubMed

Crossbred Karan Fries (KF) cows, among the best yielders of milk in India are carriers of A1 and A2 alleles. These genetic variants have been established as the source of ?-casomorphins (BCMs) bioactive peptides that are implicated with various physiological and health issues. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the release of BCM-7/5 from ?-casein variants of KF by simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) performed with proteolytic enzymes, in vitro. ?-Casein variants (A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2) were isolated from milk samples of genotyped Karan Fries animals and subjected to hydrolysis by SGID using proteolytic enzymes (pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin and pancreatin), in vitro. Detection of BCMs were carried out in two peptide fractions (A and B) of RP-HPLC collected at retention time (RT) 24 and 28min respectively corresponding to standard BCM-5 and BCM-7 by MS-MS and competitive ELISA. One of the RP-HPLC fractions (B) showed the presence of 14 amino acid peptide (VYPFPGPIHNSLPQ) having encrypted internal BCMs sequence while no such peptide or precursor was observed in fraction A by MS-MS analysis. Further hydrolysis of fraction B of A1A1 and A1A2 variants of ?-casein with elastase and leucine aminopeptidase revealed the release of BCM-7 by competitive ELISA. The yield of BCM-7 (0.20±0.02mg/g ?-casein) from A1A1 variant was observed to be almost 3.2 times more than A1A2 variant of ?-casein. However, release of BCM-7/5 could not be detected from A2A2 variant of ?-casein. The biological activity of released peptides on rat ileum by isolated organ bath from A1A1 (IC50=0.534-0.595?M) and A1A2 (IC50=0.410-0.420?M) hydrolysates further confirmed the presence of opioid peptide BCM-7. PMID:25172685

Ul Haq, Mohammad Raies; Kapila, Rajeev; Kapila, Suman

2015-02-01

327

Detection of rare functional variants using group ISIS.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies have been firmly established in investigations of the associations between common genetic variants and complex traits or diseases. However, a large portion of complex traits and diseases cannot be explained well by common variants. Detecting rare functional variants becomes a trend and a necessity. Because rare variants have such a small minor allele frequency (e.g., <0.05), detecting functional rare variants is challenging. Group iterative sure independence screening (ISIS), a fast group selection tool, was developed to select important genes and the single-nucleotide polymorphisms within. The performance of the group ISIS and group penalization methods is compared for detecting important genes in the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data. The results suggest that the group ISIS is an efficient tool to discover genes and single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated to phenotypes. PMID:22373055

Niu, Yue S; Hao, Ning; An, Lingling

2011-01-01

328

Detection of rare functional variants using group ISIS  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies have been firmly established in investigations of the associations between common genetic variants and complex traits or diseases. However, a large portion of complex traits and diseases cannot be explained well by common variants. Detecting rare functional variants becomes a trend and a necessity. Because rare variants have such a small minor allele frequency (e.g., <0.05), detecting functional rare variants is challenging. Group iterative sure independence screening (ISIS), a fast group selection tool, was developed to select important genes and the single-nucleotide polymorphisms within. The performance of the group ISIS and group penalization methods is compared for detecting important genes in the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data. The results suggest that the group ISIS is an efficient tool to discover genes and single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated to phenotypes. PMID:22373055

2011-01-01

329

Molecular and phenotypic characterization of infectious bursal disease virus isolates.  

PubMed

Two infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDVs 1174 and V1) were isolated from IBDV-vaccinated broiler flocks in California and Georgia. These flocks had a history of subclinical immunosuppression. These isolates are commonly used in IBDV progeny challenge studies at Auburn, AL, as well as vaccine manufacturer's vaccine efficacy studies, because they come from populated poultry-producing states, and are requested by poultry veterinarians from those states. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) generated viral genome products for sequencing. A 491-bp segment from the VP2 gene, covering the hypervariable region, from each isolate was analyzed and compared with previously sequenced isolates. Sequence analysis showed that they were more closely related to the Delaware (Del) E antigenic variant than they are to the Animal Health Plant Inspection Service (APHIS) standard, both at the nucleotide level (96%, 97%) and at the amino acid level (94%, 97%). Both isolates had the glutamine to lysine shift in amino acid 249 which has been reported to be critical in binding the virus neutralizing Mab B69. Phenotypic studies showed that both isolates produced rapid atrophy of the bursae and weight loss, without the edematous bursal phase, in 2-wk-old commercial broilers having antibody against IBDV. A progeny challenge study showed both isolates produced more atrophy of the bursae (less percentage of protection) than the Del E isolate. Molecular and phenotypic data of these important IBDV isolates help in the improved detection and control of this continually changing and important viral pathogen of chickens. PMID:17626491

Dormitorio, T V; Giambrone, J J; Guo, K; Jackwood, D J

2007-06-01

330

Characterization of nodularin variants in Nodularia spumigena from the Baltic Sea using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Nodularin is a potent hepatotoxic cyclic pentapeptide produced by planktonic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena. Bloom and culture samples of the cyanobacterium collected and isolated from the Gulf of Gda?sk, southern Baltic Sea, were analyzed. Hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (TOF-LC/MS/MS) with ionspray (ISP) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) were used to characterize nodularin and its analogues. The identification process was based on the comparison of recorded product ion spectra with the previously reported FAB-MS/CID (high-energy) mass spectra of the corresponding nodularin variants. Amino acid structures and sequences were derived from the fragmentation pattern of the [M+H](+) ions. Apart from unmodified nodularin with an arginine residue (NOD-R), three demethylated variants have been found. The sites of demethylation were located on aspartic acid [Asp(1)]NOD, the Adda residue [DMAdda(3)]NOD, and dehydrobutyric acid [dhb(5)]NOD. In two other nodularin variants an additional methyl group is located in the Adda [MeAdda]NOD and Glu [Glu(4)(OMe)]NOD residues. The linear NOD and the geometrical isomer of NOD-R, reported earlier in N. spumigena from New Zealand, have also been detected. Two of the total eight nodularin variants characterized in the present study, [dhb(5)]NOD and [MeAdda]NOD, have not been described earlier. PMID:16755614

Mazur-Marzec, Hanna; Meriluoto, Jussi; Pli?ski, Marcin; Szafranek, Janusz

2006-01-01

331

Cryogenic Faraday isolator  

SciTech Connect

A Faraday isolator is described in which thermal effects are suppressed by cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. The principal scheme, main characteristics and modifications of the isolator are presented. The isolation degree is studied experimentally for the subkilowatt average laser radiation power. It is shown that the isolator can be used at radiation powers up to tens of kilowatts. (quantum electronic devices)

Zheleznov, D S; Zelenogorskii, V V; Katin, E V; Mukhin, I B; Palashov, O V; Khazanov, Efim A [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2010-05-26

332

Asparagine-Requiring Tumor Cell Lines and Their Non-Requiring Variants: Cytogenetics, Biochemistry and Population Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Asparagine-requiring Jensen and Walker rat tumor cells and their asparagine-independent variants have been analyzed. The following results were obtained: (1) Both cell lines have very low levels of asparagine synthetase, and non-requiring revertants isolated from these lines have elevated levels of the enzyme. (2) No differences in chromosome number were detected between the parent Jensen line and five Jensen non-requiring revertants isolated from it. (3) Both Jensen and Walker cells undergo asparagineless death when deprived of this amino acid, although the Jensen cells do so at a more rapid rate. (4) Jensen requiring lines are at a selective advantage when grown in competition with non-requiring variants in complete medium, and their growth rate is more rapid when grown separately. The selective coefficients for the variant with respect to the asparagine-requiring parent ASN- line were 0.94 for the competition experiments and 0.83 for growth rate estimates. (5) A somatic cell hybrid between Chinese hamster cells (which require asparagine at low densities, and posses measurable synthetase activity) and the Walker line was found to be asparagine-independent, and it possessed enzyme levels equivalent to the hamster parent. The results of these investigations suggest a parallel with microbial auxotrophic mutants and can be understood in terms of alterations within nuclear structural genes. PMID:4798091

Colofiore, Joseph; Morrow, John; Patterson, Manford K.

1973-01-01

333

Detection of novel chromosome-SCCmec variants in Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and their inclusion in PCR based screening  

PubMed Central

Findings To facilitate automation, a novel DNA extraction method for MRSA was adopted. The MRSA specific chromosome-SCCmec PCR was adapted, additional primers were added, and the performance was validated. From various laboratories in The Netherlands we received a total of 86 MRSA clinical isolates, that were negative in commercially available tests. We identified 14 MRSA strains with new variant chromosome-SCCmec junctions by sequence analysis. These MRSA strains appeared to carry SCCmec sequences with a high degree of homology to SCC regions of S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus. All were included for detection in chromosome-SCCmec based PCR. Background Efficient management of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the hospital is needed to prevent dissemination. It is important that MRSA can be rapidly identified, and effective infection control measures can be initiated. Equally important is a rapid MRSA negative report, especially for patients in isolation. For negative screening we implemented fully automated high through-put molecular screening for MRSA. Conclusions Fourteen variant chromosome-SCCmec junctions in MRSA, that are not detected in commercially available MRSA detection kits were added to our PCR to detect all currently known variant SCC-mec types of MRSA. PMID:21615900

2011-01-01

334

Characterization of Bartonella strains isolated from black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).  

PubMed

Thirty bartonella strains were isolated from the blood of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) from Boulder County, Colorado, USA. The bacteria appeared as small, fastidious, aerobic, Gram-negative rods. The partial sequences of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) demonstrated five unique genetic variants. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of gltA, 16S rRNA, rpoB, ftsZ, and ribC showed that the black-tailed prairie dog-related Bartonella variants comprise a distinct monophyletic clade that is closely related to Bartonella washoensis, a species isolated from a human patient and subsequently from ground squirrels. These variants, however, are grouped together in 100% of the bootstrapped trees. These variants were not found in other small mammals trapped during the same study, showing some evidence of host specificity. We believe that the group being described here is typical of the black-tailed prairie dog. We propose to name the bacteria Candidatus Bartonella washoensis subsp. cynomysii. The type strain is CL8606co(T)(=ATCC BAA-1342(T) = CCUG 53213(T)), which is the representative isolate of the dominant variant of the characterized group. PMID:18237261

Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Martin, Andrew; Ray, Chris; Sheff, Kelly; Chalcraft, Linda; Collinge, Sharon K

2008-01-01

335

Small effective population size and genetic homogeneity in the Val Borbera isolate  

PubMed Central

Population isolates are a valuable resource for medical genetics because of their reduced genetic, phenotypic and environmental heterogeneity. Further, extended linkage disequilibrium (LD) allows accurate haplotyping and imputation. In this study, we use nuclear and mitochondrial DNA data to determine to what extent the geographically isolated population of the Val Borbera valley also presents features of genetic isolation. We performed a comparative analysis of population structure and estimated effective population size exploiting LD data. We also evaluated haplotype sharing through the analysis of segments of autozygosity. Our findings reveal that the valley has features characteristic of a genetic isolate, including reduced genetic heterogeneity and reduced effective population size. We show that this population has been subject to prolonged genetic drift and thus we expect many variants that are rare in the general population to reach significant frequency values in the valley, making this population suitable for the identification of rare variants underlying complex traits. PMID:22713810

Colonna, Vincenza; Pistis, Giorgio; Bomba, Lorenzo; Mona, Stefano; Matullo, Giuseppe; Boano, Rosa; Sala, Cinzia; Viganò, Fiammetta; Torroni, Antonio; Achilli, Alessandro; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Malerba, Giovanni; Gambaro, Giovanni; Soranzo, Nicole; Toniolo, Daniela

2013-01-01

336

Small effective population size and genetic homogeneity in the Val Borbera isolate.  

PubMed

Population isolates are a valuable resource for medical genetics because of their reduced genetic, phenotypic and environmental heterogeneity. Further, extended linkage disequilibrium (LD) allows accurate haplotyping and imputation. In this study, we use nuclear and mitochondrial DNA data to determine to what extent the geographically isolated population of the Val Borbera valley also presents features of genetic isolation. We performed a comparative analysis of population structure and estimated effective population size exploiting LD data. We also evaluated haplotype sharing through the analysis of segments of autozygosity. Our findings reveal that the valley has features characteristic of a genetic isolate, including reduced genetic heterogeneity and reduced effective population size. We show that this population has been subject to prolonged genetic drift and thus we expect many variants that are rare in the general population to reach significant frequency values in the valley, making this population suitable for the identification of rare variants underlying complex traits. PMID:22713810

Colonna, Vincenza; Pistis, Giorgio; Bomba, Lorenzo; Mona, Stefano; Matullo, Giuseppe; Boano, Rosa; Sala, Cinzia; Viganò, Fiammetta; Torroni, Antonio; Achilli, Alessandro; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Malerba, Giovanni; Gambaro, Giovanni; Soranzo, Nicole; Toniolo, Daniela

2013-01-01

337

Characteristics of Salmonella enterica Serovar 4,[5],12:i:- as a Monophasic Variant of Serovar Typhimurium  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (S. 4,[5]12:i:-) is believed to be a monophasic variant of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). This study was conducted to corroborate this hypothesis and to identify the molecular and phenotypic characteristics of the S. 4,[5]12:i:- isolates in Japan. A total of 51 S. 4,[5]12:i:- isolates derived from humans, cattle, swine, chickens, birds, meat (pork), and river water in 15 prefectures in Japan between 2000 and 2010 were analyzed. All the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates were identified as S. Typhimurium by two different polymerase chain reactions (PCR) for identification of S. Typhimurium. Of the 51 S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates, 39 (76.5%) harbored a 94-kb virulence plasmid, which is known to be specific for S. Typhimurium. These data suggest that the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates are monophasic variants of S. Typhimurium. The flagellar phase variation is induced by three adjacent genes (fljA, fljB, and hin) in the chromosome. The results of PCR mapping of this region and comparative genomic hybridization analysis suggested that the deletion of the fljAB operon and its flanking region was the major genetic basis of the monophasic phenotype of S. 4,[5],12:i:-. The fljAB operon and hin gene were detectable in eight of the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates with common amino acid substitutions of A46T in FljA and R140L in Hin. The introduction of these mutations into S. Typhimurium isolates led to the loss of selectability of isolates expressing the phase 2 H antigen. These data suggested that a point mutation was the genetic basis, at least in part, of the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates. The results of phenotypic analysis suggested that the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates in Japan consist of multiple distinct clones. This is the first detailed characterization of the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates derived from various sources across Japan. PMID:25093666

Ido, Noriko; Lee, Ken-ichi; Iwabuchi, Kaori; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Uchida, Ikuo; Kusumoto, Masahiro; Iwata, Taketoshi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Akiba, Masato

2014-01-01

338

Characterization and suppression of dysfunctional human alpha1-antitrypsin variants.  

PubMed

Human alpha1-antitrypsin-deficient variants may aggregate in the liver, with subsequent deficiency in the plasma, which can lead to emphysema. The structural and functional characteristics of 10 dysfunctional alpha1-antitrypsin variants (R39C, S53F, V55P, I92N, G115S, N158K, E264V, A336T, P369S, and P369L) were analyzed in detail. Most of them were unstable, as compared to the wild-type molecule, and many of the variants folded into an intermediate form. When five thermostable mutations (T68A, A70G, M374I, S381A, and K387R) were introduced into dysfunctional alpha1-antitrypsin variants, the stabilities and inhibitory activities of most of the variants were restored to levels comparable to those of the wild-type molecule. However, the extremely unstable S53F variant was not stabilized sufficiently by these mutations so as to exhibit function. N158K variant, which carries a mutation in the region critical for the reactive site loop insertion into beta-sheet A, exhibited a reduced level of inhibitory activity, despite conformational stabilization. These results show that aberrant folding caused by conformational destabilization due to mutations can be compensated for by increasing the overall stability of the alpha1-antitrypsin molecule, with exception of a mutation in the highly localized region critical for functional execution. PMID:16540089

Kim, Min-Jung; Jung, Chan-Hun; Im, Hana

2006-04-28

339

Generating thermal stable variants of protein domains through phage display.  

PubMed

Often in protein design research, one desires to generate thermally stable variants of a protein or domain. One route to identifying mutations that yield domains that remain folded and active at a higher temperature is through the use of directed evolution. A library of protein domain variants can be generated by mutagenic PCR, expressed on the surface of bacteriophage M13, and subjected to heat, such that the unfolded forms of the domain, showing reduced or no binding activity, are lost during subsequent affinity selection, whereas variants that still retain binding to their target are selected and enriched with each subsequent round of affinity selection. This approach takes advantage of the fact that bacteriophage M13 particles are heat stable and resistant to many proteases and protein denaturants. We present the application of this general approach to generating thermally stable variants of a eukaryotic peptide-binding domain. The benefits of producing such variants are that they typically express at high levels in Escherichia coli (30-60 mg/L shake flask) and remain soluble in solution at higher concentrations for longer periods of time than the wild-type form of the domain. The process of library generation and screening generally requires about one month of effort, and yields variants with >10 °C increase in thermal stability, as measured in a simple fluorescence-based thermal shift assay. It is anticipated that thermally stable variants will serve as excellent scaffolds for generating affinity reagents to a variety of targets of interest. PMID:23276752

Pershad, Kritika; Kay, Brian K

2013-03-15

340

Isolated laryngeal myasthenia gravis for 26 years.  

PubMed

Laryngeal myasthenia gravis is a relatively rare variant of myasthenia gravis. A vast portion of patients with initial laryngeal myasthenia gravis develop involvement of ocular and/or extra-ocular muscles during the years after symptom onset although a minority of laryngeal myasthenia gravis patients continues to have isolated laryngeal muscle involvement for several years. We present a 58-year-old woman with recurrent episodic isolated dysphonia (associated with diffuse bilateral vocal cord paresis on laryngoscopy) since the age of 32. Dysphonia became permanent since 6 months. A diagnosis of laryngeal myasthenia gravis was made based on abnormal single-fiber electromyography and spectacular response to pyridostigmine treatment. Repetitive nerve stimulation was normal and anti-acetylcholine receptor and anti-muscle specific tyrosine kinase antibodies were absent. This case shows that laryngeal myasthenia gravis can be isolated during 26 years of follow-up. We propose that even when myasthenia gravis seems unlikely as underlying mechanism of isolated dysphonia (because of lack of antibodies, normal repetitive nerve stimulation, and absence of extra-laryngeal involvement after years of follow-up), single-fiber electromyography should be performed and myasthenia gravis treatment should be tried. PMID:25454167

Renard, Dimitri; Hedayat, Amir; Gagnard, Corinne

2015-02-01

341

A variational Bayes discrete mixture test for rare variant association  

PubMed Central

Recently, many statistical methods have been proposed to test for associations between rare genetic variants and complex traits. Most of these methods test for association by aggregating genetic variations within a predefined region, such as a gene. Although there is evidence that “aggregate” tests are more powerful than the single marker test, these tests generally ignore neutral variants and therefore are unable to identify specific variants driving the association with phenotype. We propose a novel aggregate rare-variant test that explicitly models a fraction of variants as neutral, tests associations at the gene-level, and infers the rare-variants driving the association. Simulations show that in the practical scenario where there are many variants within a given region of the genome with only a fraction causal our approach has greater power compared to other popular tests such as the Sequence Kernel Association Test (SKAT), the Weighted Sum Statistic (WSS), and the collapsing method of Morris and Zeggini (MZ). Our algorithm leverages a fast variational Bayes approximate inference methodology to scale to exome-wide analyses, a significant computational advantage over exact inference model selection methodologies. To demonstrate the efficacy of our methodology we test for associations between von Willebrand Factor (VWF) levels and VWF missense rare-variants imputed from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s Exome Sequencing project into 2,487 African Americans within the VWF gene. Our method suggests that a relatively small fraction (~10%) of the imputed rare missense variants within VWF are strongly associated with lower VWF levels in African Americans. PMID:24482836

Logsdon, Benjamin A.; Dai, James Y.; Auer, Paul L.; Johnsen, Jill M.; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wilson, James G.; Tracy, Russell P.; Lange, Leslie A.; Jiao, Shuo; Rich, Stephen S.; Lettre, Guillaume; Carlson, Christopher S.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Wurfel, Mark M.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Tang, Hua; Reiner, Alexander P.; Kooperberg, Charles

2014-01-01

342

Rare ADH Variant Constellations are Specific for Alcohol Dependence  

PubMed Central

Aims: Some of the well-known functional alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene variants (e.g. ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3 and ADH1C*2) that significantly affect the risk of alcohol dependence are rare variants in most populations. In the present study, we comprehensively examined the associations between rare ADH variants [minor allele frequency (MAF) <0.05] and alcohol dependence, with several other neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders as reference. Methods: A total of 49,358 subjects in 22 independent cohorts with 11 different neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders were analyzed, including 3 cohorts with alcohol dependence. The entire ADH gene cluster (ADH7–ADH1C–ADH1B–ADH1A–ADH6–ADH4–ADH5 at Chr4) was imputed in all samples using the same reference panels that included whole-genome sequencing data. We stringently cleaned the phenotype and genotype data to obtain a total of 870 single nucleotide polymorphisms with 0< MAF <0.05 for association analysis. Results: We found that a rare variant constellation across the entire ADH gene cluster was significantly associated with alcohol dependence in European-Americans (Fp1: simulated global P = 0.045), European-Australians (Fp5: global P = 0.027; collapsing: P = 0.038) and African-Americans (Fp5: global P = 0.050; collapsing: P = 0.038), but not with any other neuropsychiatric disease. Association signals in this region came principally from ADH6, ADH7, ADH1B and ADH1C. In particular, a rare ADH6 variant constellation showed a replicable association with alcohol dependence across these three independent cohorts. No individual rare variants were statistically significantly associated with any disease examined after group- and region-wide correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusion: We conclude that rare ADH variants are specific for alcohol dependence. The ADH gene cluster may harbor a causal variant(s) for alcohol dependence. PMID:23019235

Zuo, Lingjun; Zhang, Heping; Malison, Robert T.; Li, Chiang-Shan R.; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Fei; Lu, Lingeng; Lu, Lin; Wang, Xiaoping; Krystal, John H.; Zhang, Fengyu; Deng, Hong-Wen; Luo, Xingguang

2013-01-01

343

Two ITS forms co-inhabiting a single genet of an isolate of Terfezia boudieri (Ascomycotina), a desert truffle.  

PubMed

Two fruit-bodies of Terfezia boudieri Chatin, each exhibiting a mixture of two ITS -RFLP profiles, were found in the Negev desert of Israel. A mycelial culture obtained from glebal out-growth maintained the double profile, as did proliferating cultures established using single hyphae isolated from the original cultures. The main difference between the two ITS variants lies in a 21 bp deletion in the smaller variant. The question whether both variants are contained within a single nucleus or occupy different nuclei sharing the same cytoplasm is discussed. PMID:15028875

Aviram, Sharon; Roth-Bejerano, Nurit; Kagan-Zur, Varda

2004-02-01

344

Biological and ecological investigations on thiamineless dwarf-colony variants of Staphylococcus aureus of bovine udder origin.  

PubMed

Thiamineless dwarf-colony variants of Staphylococcus aureus (D strains) were compared with their homologous normal-colony variants and with normal S aureus. The majority of D strains tested in vitro exhibited biological features typical of S aureus. D strains, however, produced lower titres of alpha-haemolysin and this toxin was also produced by a smaller proportion of these strains. D strains and S aureus strains were equally susceptible to disinfectants used in dairy farming and were isolated with similar frequency from the skin of the udders of infected cows. Attempts at inducing and selecting D strains from normal S aureus by exposing the latter to antibiotics in vitro and in vivo have so far failed. PMID:935663

Ziv, G; Sompolinsky, D

1976-05-01

345

New rabies virus variant found during an epizootic in white-nosed coatis from the Yucatan Peninsula.  

PubMed

In February 2008, three white-nosed coatis (Nasua narica) were found dead in a recreational park in Cancun, Mexico. The diagnosis of rabies virus (RABV) infection was confirmed by direct immunofluorescence test. The phylogenetic analysis performed with the complete RABV nucleoprotein gene positioned this isolate close to a sequence of a human rabies case reported during 2008 from Oaxaca, Mexico, sharing 93% similarity. In turn, these two variants are related to another variant found in rabid Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana bats across North America. Anti-RABV neutralizing activity (1.3 IU/ml) was found in the serum of one white-nosed coati captured with another five that cohabited with the dead animals. Enhanced rabies surveillance and pathogenesis studies should be conducted in coatis and insectivorous bats of the region to clarify the role of these species as potential emergent or long-term unidentified RABV reservoirs. PMID:20392303

Aréchiga-Ceballos, N; Velasco-Villa, A; Shi, M; Flores-Chávez, S; Barrón, B; Cuevas-Domínguez, E; González-Origel, A; Aguilar-Setién, A

2010-11-01

346

Analysis of canine parvovirus sequences from wolves and dogs isolated in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VP2 genes of Italian canine parvovirus (CPV) type 2 strains isolated from dogs and wolves were sequenced and a three-dimensional model of the VP2 capsid protein was constructed. Two mutations were detected in the VP2 sequences of the Italian strains: one at residue 297 and one at residue 265. Variant 297 is the predominant CPV isolate in Europe, whereas

Mara Battilani; Alessandra Scagliarini; Ernesto Tisato; Carlo Turilli; Irene Jacoboni; Rita Casadio; Santino Prosperi

347

Treatment of pediatric multiple sclerosis and variants.  

PubMed

Studies in adult patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) suggest significant benefit of early treatment initiation. However, there are no approved therapies for children and adolescents with MS. For adult MS, tolerability and efficacy of several immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive drugs have been demonstrated. Guidelines for the use of these MS therapies in children do not exist. Several small cohort studies of the safety and tolerability of disease-modifying therapies (DMT) in children and adolescents with MS have been recently reported. The side effects of interferon beta (IFNB) and glatiramer acetate (GA) appear to be similar to those reported by adults. The long-term tolerability and safety have yet to be established and efficacy data have yet to be studied. In view of the potential for significant long-term physical and cognitive disability in children with MS, and recent evidence that initiation of immunomodulatory therapy early in the course of MS improves long-term prognosis, an increasing number of children and adolescents with MS are being offered the DMT approved for adults. This review summarizes current knowledge of DMT in pediatric MS and experience in several centers treating pediatric MS and MS variants such as neuromyelitis optica or Devic disease, Balo concentric sclerosis, Marburg acute MS, and Schilder disease (myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis). Finally, an overview of symptomatic MS therapies and experiences with these treatments in pediatric patients is provided. PMID:17438239

Pohl, D; Waubant, E; Banwell, B; Chabas, D; Chitnis, T; Weinstock-Guttman, B; Tenembaum, S

2007-04-17

348

Identification of copy number variants in horses.  

PubMed

Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a substantial source of genetic variation in mammals. However, the occurrence of CNVs in horses and their subsequent impact on phenotypic variation is unknown. We performed a study to identify CNVs in 16 horses representing 15 distinct breeds (Equus caballus) and an individual gray donkey (Equus asinus) using a whole-exome tiling array and the array comparative genomic hybridization methodology. We identified 2368 CNVs ranging in size from 197 bp to 3.5 Mb. Merging identical CNVs from each animal yielded 775 CNV regions (CNVRs), involving 1707 protein- and RNA-coding genes. The number of CNVs per animal ranged from 55 to 347, with median and mean sizes of CNVs of 5.3 kb and 99.4 kb, respectively. Approximately 6% of the genes investigated were affected by a CNV. Biological process enrichment analysis indicated CNVs primarily affected genes involved in sensory perception, signal transduction, and metabolism. CNVs also were identified in genes regulating blood group antigens, coat color, fecundity, lactation, keratin formation, neuronal homeostasis, and height in other species. Collectively, these data are the first report of copy number variation in horses and suggest that CNVs are common in the horse genome and may modulate biological processes underlying different traits observed among horses and horse breeds. PMID:22383489

Doan, Ryan; Cohen, Noah; Harrington, Jessica; Veazey, Kylee; Veazy, Kylee; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, Gus; McCue, Molly E; Skow, Loren; Dindot, Scott V

2012-05-01

349

Variant selection and transformation texture in zirconium alloy Excel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystallographic texture and variant selection during phase transformations in zirconium alloy Excel (Zr-3.5% Sn-0.8% Mo-0.8% Nb) was investigated. It was shown that upon water-quenching from ?Zr + ?Zr or fully ?Zr regions, variant selection occurs during ?Zr ? ??Zr martensitic transformation. Also during air-cooling from the ?Zr + ?Zr region, only a partial memory effect and some transformation texture with variant selection was observed which is contrary to previous reports on zirconium alloys heat treated in the ?Zr + ?Zr region.

Sattari, M.; Holt, R. A.; Daymond, M. R.

2014-10-01

350

Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models for Multiple Groups of Rare and Common Variants: Jointly Estimating Group and Individual-Variant Effects  

PubMed Central

Complex diseases and traits are likely influenced by many common and rare genetic variants and environmental factors. Detecting disease susceptibility variants is a challenging task, especially when their frequencies are low and/or their effects are small or moderate. We propose here a comprehensive hierarchical generalized linear model framework for simultaneously analyzing multiple groups of rare and common variants and relevant covariates. The proposed hierarchical generalized linear models introduce a group effect and a genetic score (i.e., a linear combination of main-effect predictors for genetic variants) for each group of variants, and jointly they estimate the group effects and the weights of the genetic scores. This framework includes various previous methods as special cases, and it can effectively deal with both risk and protective variants in a group and can simultaneously estimate the cumulative contribution of multiple variants and their relative importance. Our computational strategy is based on extending the standard procedure for fitting generalized linear models in the statistical software R to the proposed hierarchical models, leading to the development of stable and flexible tools. The methods are illustrated with sequence data in gene ANGPTL4 from the Dallas Heart Study. The performance of the proposed procedures is further assessed via simulation studies. The methods are implemented in a freely available R package BhGLM (http://www.ssg.uab.edu/bhglm/). PMID:22144906

Yi, Nengjun; Liu, Nianjun; Zhi, Degui; Li, Jun

2011-01-01

351

Alternative splicing and exon duplication generates 10 unique porcine 5-HT 4 receptor splice variants including a functional homofusion variant.  

PubMed

5-HT(4) receptors are present in human and porcine atrial myocytes while they are absent from the hearts of small laboratory animals. The pig is therefore the only available nonprimate animal model in which to study cardiac 5-HT(4) receptor function under physiological conditions. While several human splice variants of the 5-HT(4) receptor have been described, the splicing behavior of this receptor in porcine tissue is currently unknown. Here we report on the identification of nine novel COOH-terminal splice variants of the porcine 5-HT(4) receptor, which were named 5-HT(4(b2, j, k, l, m, o, p, q, r)). The internal h-variant was found in combination with several COOH-terminal exons. In addition, splice variants were found that comprised duplicated exons fused to the common region of the 5-HT(4) receptor, thereby providing evidence for a duplication of the porcine HTR4 gene. One of these variants putatively encoded a nine transmembrane-spanning domain homofusion receptor, 5-HT(4(9TM)); also the other variants with a duplicated region might translate into functional, transcriptionally fused dimeric 5-HT(4) receptor variants. The elucidation of the genomic context confirmed that the variants were not genomic artefacts but originated from alternative splicing. This was further corroborated by a functional analysis of the variants 5-HT(4(a)), 5-HT(4(r)), and 5-HT(4(9TM)). To our knowledge, our data are the first to report on a functional GPCR with more than seven predicted transmembrane domains. These findings urge for caution when interpreting data on 5-HT(4) receptor-related pharmacology obtained in the pig; validation at the molecular level might be needed before extrapolating results to human. PMID:18430808

De Maeyer, Joris H; Aerssens, Jeroen; Verhasselt, Peter; Lefebvre, Romain A

2008-06-12

352

Meta-analysis of Gene-Level Associations for Rare Variants Based on Single-Variant Statistics  

PubMed Central

Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) has led to the discoveries of many common variants associated with complex human diseases. There is a growing recognition that identifying “causal” rare variants also requires large-scale meta-analysis. The fact that association tests with rare variants are performed at the gene level rather than at the variant level poses unprecedented challenges in the meta-analysis. First, different studies may adopt different gene-level tests, so the results are not compatible. Second, gene-level tests require multivariate statistics (i.e., components of the test statistic and their covariance matrix), which are difficult to obtain. To overcome these challenges, we propose to perform gene-level tests for rare variants by combining the results of single-variant analysis (i.e., p values of association tests and effect estimates) from participating studies. This simple strategy is possible because of an insight that multivariate statistics can be recovered from single-variant statistics, together with the correlation matrix of the single-variant test statistics, which can be estimated from one of the participating studies or from a publicly available database. We show both theoretically and numerically that the proposed meta-analysis approach provides accurate control of the type I error and is as powerful as joint analysis of individual participant data. This approach accommodates any disease phenotype and any study design and produces all commonly used gene-level tests. An application to the GWAS summary results of the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium reveals rare and low-frequency variants associated with human height. The relevant software is freely available. PMID:23891470

Hu, Yi-Juan; Berndt, Sonja I.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Ganna, Andrea; Berndt, Sonja I.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Mägi, Reedik; Ganna, Andrea; Wheeler, Eleanor; Feitosa, Mary F.; Justice, Anne E.; Monda, Keri L.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Day, Felix R.; Esko, Tõnu; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gentilini, Davide; Jackson, Anne U.; Luan, Jian’an; Randall, Joshua C.; Vedantam, Sailaja; Willer, Cristen J.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Wood, Andrew R.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Hu, Yi-Juan; Lee, Sang Hong; Liang, Liming; Lin, Dan-Yu; Min, Josine L.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Yang, Jian; Albrecht, Eva; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Cadby, Gemma; den Heijer, Martin; Eklund, Niina; Fischer, Krista; Goel, Anuj; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Jarick, Ivonne; Johansson, Åsa; Johnson, Toby; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E.; König, Inke R.; Kristiansson, Kati; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lamina, Claudia; Lecoeur, Cecile; Li, Guo; Mangino, Massimo; McArdle, Wendy L.; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Ngwa, Julius S.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Perola, Markus; Peters, Marjolein J.; Preuss, Michael; Rose, Lynda M.; Shi, Jianxin; Shungin, Dmitry; Smith, Albert Vernon; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Surakka, Ida; Teumer, Alexander; Trip, Mieke D.; Tyrer, Jonathan; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Waite, Lindsay L.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Absher, Devin; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Atalay, Mustafa; Attwood, Antony P.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Basart, Hanneke; Beilby, John; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Brambilla, Paolo; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Campbell, Harry; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chines, Peter S.; Collins, Francis S.; Connell, John M.; Cookson, William; de Faire, Ulf; de Vegt, Femmie; Dei, Mariano; Dimitriou, Maria; Edkins, Sarah; Estrada, Karol; Evans, David M.; Farrall, Martin; Ferrario, Marco M.; Ferrières, Jean; Franke, Lude; Frau, Francesca; Gejman, Pablo V.; Grallert, Harald; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hall, Alistair S.; Hall, Per; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hebebrand, Johannes; Homuth, Georg; Hu, Frank B.; Hunt, Sarah E.; Hyppönen, Elina; Iribarren, Carlos; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Jansson, John-Olov; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kee, Frank; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kivimaki, Mika; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana H.; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Launer, Lenore J.; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Liu, Jianjun; Liuzzi, Antonio; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lorentzon, Mattias; Madden, Pamela A.; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Manunta, Paolo; Marek, Diana; März, Winfried; Leach, Irene Mateo; McKnight, Barbara; Medland, Sarah E.; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mooser, Vincent; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Musk, Arthur W.; Narisu, Narisu; Navis, Gerjan; Nicholson, George; Nohr, Ellen A.; Ong, Ken K.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Palotie, Aarno; Peden, John F.; Pedersen, Nancy; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pouta, Anneli; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Prokopenko, Inga; Pütter, Carolin; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Raitakari, Olli; Rendon, Augusto; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Saaristo, Timo E.; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Sanders, Alan R.; Sanna, Serena; Saramies, Jouko; Schipf, Sabine; Schreiber, Stefan; Schunkert, Heribert; Shin, So-Youn; Signorini, Stefano; Sinisalo, Juha; Skrobek, Boris; Soranzo, Nicole; Stan?áková, Alena; Stark, Klaus; Stephens, Jonathan C.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P.; Stumvoll, Michael; Swift, Amy J.; Theodoraki, Eirini V.; Thorand, Barbara; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Tremoli, Elena; Van der Klauw, Melanie M.; van Meurs, Joyce B.J.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Viikari, Jorma; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vitart, Veronique; Waeber, Gérard; Wang, Zhaoming; Widén, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F.

2013-01-01

353

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF RABIES VIRUS ISOLATES FROM MEXICO: IMPLICATIONS FOR TRANSMISSION DYNAMICS AND HUMAN RISK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-eight samples from humans and domestic and wild animals collected in Mexico between 1990 and 1995 were characterized by using anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies and limited sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein gene. The variants of rabies viruses identified in these samples were compared with other isolates from Mexico and the rest of the Americas to establish epidemiologic links between cases and

CECILIA C. DE MATTOS; CARLOS A. DE MATTOS; ELIZABETH LOZA-RUBIO; ALVARO AGUILAR-SETIEN; LILLIAN A. ORCIARI; JEAN S. SMITH

1999-01-01

354

Multi-Locus Analysis of a Citreoviridin-Producing Isolate Previously Identified as Penicillium NRRL 13013  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cole et al (1981) reported a citreoviridin-producing isolate of Penicillium charlesii (NRRL 13013) from molded pecans. Wicklow later identified it as a variant of Penicillium citreoviride, noting that it produced sclerotia, although the species as a whole is not known to do so. We sequenced the IT...

355

Genomic sequence analysis of a nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The CL3 plaque isolate of Plutella xylostella multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (PlxyMNPV-CL3) is a variant of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) but exhibits a much higher degree of virulence against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. To identify genetic differences ...

356

Isolated corymbose collagenoma responding to intralesional triamcinolone acetonide and hyaluronidase injections.  

PubMed

Collagenomas are connective tissue nevi with circumscribed hamartomatous proliferation of collagen. Due to their benign nature and lack of any simple medical treatment, they are most often left untreated. We present a case of isolated corymbose collagenoma, a distinct morphological variant not described hitherto that was successfully treated with intralesional injections of combination of triamcinolone acetonide and hyaluronidase. PMID:24099074

Yadav, Savita; Khullar, Geeti; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Dogra, Sunil

2013-01-01

357

Molecular cloning and characterization of an immunosuppressive and weakly oncogenic variant of Friend murine leukemia virus, FIS-2.  

PubMed Central

The FIS variant is a weakly leukemogenic, relatively strong immunosuppressive murine retrovirus which was isolated from the T helper cells of adult NMRI mice infected with Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) complex (FV). Unlike FV, it does not induce acute erythroleukemia but retains the immunosuppressive property of FV and induces suppression of the primary antibody response rapidly and persistently in adult mice. A previous study showed that the FIS variant contains two viral components, a replication-competent virus and a defective virus. In this study, we have biologically purified the FIS variant by end point dilution and we show that the replication-competent virus FIS-2 alone can induce immunosuppression as the parental FIS variant. Most newborn mice infected with FIS-2 developed erythroleukemia, but with an increased latency period compared with that of F-MuLV clone 57. In contrast, FIS-2 induced suppression of the primary antibody response and disease more rapidly than F-MuLV clone 57 in immunocompetent, adult mice. FIS-2 was further molecularly cloned and characterized. Restriction mapping and nucleotide sequence analysis of FIS-2 showed a high degree of homology between FIS-2 and F-MuLV clone 57, suggesting that FIS-2 is a variant of F-MuLV. The striking difference is the deletion of one of the tandem repeats in the FIS-2 long terminal repeat and the single point mutation in the binding sites for core-binding protein and FVa compared with the long terminal repeat of F-MuLV clone 57. Two single point mutations led to the appearance of two extra potential N glycosylation sites in the FIS-2 gag-encoded glycoprotein. Together, the results suggest that FIS-2 represents an interesting murine model to study retrovirus-induced immunosuppression on the basis of its unique combined property of low leukemogenicity and relatively strong and persistent immunosuppressive activity in adult mice. PMID:7933079

Dai, H Y; Faxvaag, A; Troseth, G I; Aarset, H; Dalen, A

1994-01-01

358

A variant of human transferrin with abnormal properties.  

PubMed Central

Screening of human serum samples by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of 6 M-urea revealed an individual who is heterozygous for a variant transferrin. The variant transferrin is able to bind two atoms of iron, but the iron in the C-terminal binding site is bound abnormally, as judged by its spectral properties, and is dissociated from the protein on electrophoresis in the presence of 6 M-urea. The iron-free C-terminal domain of the variant protein is less stable than normal to thermal and urea denaturation. Structural changes in the variant protein have not yet been characterized. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 6. Fig. 9. PMID:7082283

Evans, R W; Williams, J; Moreton, K

1982-01-01

359

Leapfrog variants of iterative methods for linear algebra equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two iterative methods are considered, Richardson's method and a general second order method. For both methods, a variant of the method is derived for which only even numbered iterates are computed. The variant is called a leapfrog method. Comparisons between the conventional form of the methods and the leapfrog form are made under the assumption that the number of unknowns is large. In the case of Richardson's method, it is possible to express the final iterate in terms of only the initial approximation, a variant of the iteration called the grand-leap method. In the case of the grand-leap variant, a set of parameters is required. An algorithm is presented to compute these parameters that is related to algorithms to compute the weights and abscissas for Gaussian quadrature. General algorithms to implement the leapfrog and grand-leap methods are presented. Algorithms for the important special case of the Chebyshev method are also given.

Saylor, Paul E.

1988-01-01

360

Representing Numbers Using Fibonacci Variants Stephen K. Lucas  

E-print Network

Representing Numbers Using Fibonacci Variants Stephen K. Lucas Department of Mathematics & Statistics James Madison University Harrisonburg, VA 22807 September 2014 1 Introduction The Fibonacci a journal (The Fibonacci Quarterly) dedicated to them. Many books have been written about them, including

Lucas, Stephen

361

Variant of Usher Syndrome Gene Preserves Vision and Balance  

MedlinePLUS

... preserves vision and balance Variant of Usher Syndrome Gene Preserves Vision and Balance Usher syndrome, an inherited, ... mutant copy of any one of several different genes. But surprisingly, some mutations of the same genes ...

362

[Rare variants of formation of human brachial nerves and arteries].  

PubMed

In the course of preparing muscular and neurovascular specimen of human right arm a combination of several rare anatomic variants was discovered which, to the authors opinion, are worth attention. 1. Formation of the median nerve at the border between middle and inferior thirds of brachium. 2. Variant of n. musculocutaneus origination from the lateral fascicle of plexus brachialis by several branches. 3. Variant of n. antebrachii cutaneous lateralis origination from the lateral fascicle by two branches. 4. Radial artery branching from humeral artery at the level of middle third of the brachium. 5. Three heads were discovered in m. biceps brachii. The variants described are interesting from scientific and clinical interest: they contribute to general conception of human anatomy and clinical manifestations of injuries of brachial nerves and arteries. PMID:11558412

Vyshnepol'ski?, A Iu; Guzhov, D A

2001-01-01

363

Statistical Analysis Strategies for Association Studies Involving Rare Variants  

PubMed Central

The limitations of genome-wide association (GWA) studies that focus on the phenotypic influence of common genetic variants have motivated human geneticists to consider the contribution of rare variants to phenotypic expression. The increasing availability of high-throughput sequencing technology has enabled studies of rare variants, but will not be sufficient for their success since appropriate analytical methods are also needed. We consider data analysis approaches to testing associations between a phenotype and collections of rare variants in a defined genomic region or set of regions. Ultimately, although a wide variety of analytical approaches exist, more work is needed to refine them and determine their properties and power in different contexts. PMID:20940738

Bansal, Vikas; Libiger, Ondrej; Torkamani, Ali; Schork, Nicholas J.

2013-01-01

364

Genetics Home Reference: GM2-gangliosidosis, AB variant  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding GM2-gangliosidosis, AB variant? ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (4 links) ...

365

Co-circulation of two influenza A (H3N2) antigenic variants detected by virus surveillance in individual communities.  

PubMed

From March through June 1977 a total of 31 influenza A (H3N2) viruses were isolated from students with respiratory disease who were seen at the student health service on the Berkeley campus of the University of California, and 32 influenza A (H3N2) viruses were isolated from persons who participated in a city-wide febrile respiratory disease surveillance program in Seattle. The antigenic specificity of the hemagglutinin was determined for each isolate by hemagglutination inhibition testing with sera from ferrets infected with prototype strains A/Victoria/3/75 and A/Texas/1/77. In each of the three months, April, May and June, A/Victoria/3/75-like and A/Texas/1/77-like viruses were identified among isolates from both communities, and the numbers of isolates of the two antigenic variants from patients seen with influenza-like illnesses were similar. The findings emphasize the need to examine multiple isolates even from within single communities to determine the antigenic specificity of current strains of influenza virus. PMID:83107

Kendal, A P; Schieble, J; Cooney, M K; Chin, J; Foy, H M; Noble, G R

1978-10-01

366

Study on Variant Anatomy of Sciatic Nerve  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Sciatic Nerve (SN) is the nerve of the posterior compartment of thigh formed in the pelvis from the ventral rami of the L4 to S3 spinal nerves. It leaves the pelvis via the greater sciatic foramen below piriformis and divides into Common Peroneal Nerve (CPN) and Tibial Nerve (TN) at the level of the upper angle of the popliteal fossa. Higher division of the sciatic nerve is the most common variation where the TN and CPN may leave the pelvis through different routes. Such variation may lead to compression of the nerve and lead to Non-discogenic sciatica. Materials and Methods: Fifty lower limbs were used for the study from Department of Anatomy, J.J.M.M.C Davangere, Karnataka, India. Observation and Results: In our study on 25 cadavers (50 lower limbs), we have observed 4 (8 %) lower limbs high division of sciatic nerve was noted. High division of sciatic nerve in the back of thigh was noted in one specimen (2%), while high division within the pelvis was noted in 3 specimens (6%), while in 46 (92%) it occurred outside the pelvis. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding such variation and differences in the course of SN is important for the surgeons to plan for various surgical interventions pertaining to the gluteal region. The variant anatomy of SN may cause piriformis syndrome and failure of SN block. Hence present study is undertaken to know the level of division, exit, course, relationship to piriformis and variations in the branching pattern of SN. PMID:25302181

V, Sangeetha

2014-01-01

367

Measuring missing heritability: Inferring the contribution of common variants  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs), also called common variant association studies (CVASs), have uncovered thousands of genetic variants associated with hundreds of diseases. However, the variants that reach statistical significance typically explain only a small fraction of the heritability. One explanation for the “missing heritability” is that there are many additional disease-associated common variants whose effects are too small to detect with current sample sizes. It therefore is useful to have methods to quantify the heritability due to common variation, without having to identify all causal variants. Recent studies applied restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimation to case–control studies for diseases. Here, we show that REML considerably underestimates the fraction of heritability due to common variation in this setting. The degree of underestimation increases with the rarity of disease, the heritability of the disease, and the size of the sample. Instead, we develop a general framework for heritability estimation, called phenotype correlation–genotype correlation (PCGC) regression, which generalizes the well-known Haseman–Elston regression method. We show that PCGC regression yields unbiased estimates. Applying PCGC regression to six diseases, we estimate the proportion of the phenotypic variance due to common variants to range from 25% to 56% and the proportion of heritability due to common variants from 41% to 68% (mean 60%). These results suggest that common variants may explain at least half the heritability for many diseases. PCGC regression also is readily applicable to other settings, including analyzing extreme-phenotype studies and adjusting for covariates such as sex, age, and population structure. PMID:25422463

Golan, David; Lander, Eric S.; Rosset, Saharon

2014-01-01

368

Optical implementation of a spatial-variant fuzzy logic array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical shadow-casting system is proposed to implement a spatial-variant fuzzy logic array. In the system, different logical functions can be performed in parallel by programming a spatial-variant control mask. Therefore, the system can carry out fuzzy multiple-instruction-stream-multiple-data-stream processing. Moreover, a compact spatial encoding scheme is suggested to save half of the spatial bandwidth needed for the system. The experimental results are also given.

Lin, Senmao; Zhang, Shuqun; Chen, Caisheng; Kumazawa, Itsuo

1993-03-01

369

Functionally defective germline variants of sialic acid acetylesterase in autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sialic acid acetylesterase (SIAE) is an enzyme that negatively regulates B lymphocyte antigen receptor signalling and is required for the maintenance of immunological tolerance in mice. Heterozygous loss-of-function germline rare variants and a homozygous defective polymorphic variant of SIAE were identified in 24\\/923 subjects of European origin with relatively common autoimmune disorders and in 2\\/648 controls of European origin. All

Ira Surolia; Stephan P. Pirnie; Vasant Chellappa; Kendra N. Taylor; Annaiah Cariappa; Jesse Moya; Haoyuan Liu; Daphne W. Bell; David R. Driscoll; Sven Diederichs; Khaleda Haider; Ilka Netravali; Sheila Le; Roberto Elia; Ethan Dow; Annette Lee; Jan Freudenberg; Philip L. de Jager; Yves Chretien; Ajit Varki; Marcy E. MacDonald; Tammy Gillis; Timothy W. Behrens; Donald Bloch; Deborah Collier; Joshua Korzenik; Daniel K. Podolsky; David Hafler; Mandakolathur Murali; Bruce Sands; John H. Stone; Peter K. Gregersen; Shiv Pillai

2010-01-01

370

A new variant of cholecystohepatic duct: MR cholangiography demonstration.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance cholangiography used before laparoscopic cholecystectomy may reduce the incidence of post-operative complications related to the high anatomic variability of the biliary system. A number of anatomic variants of the biliary tree have been reported. We present a rare case in which magnetic resonance cholangiography demonstrated a new variant of the cholecystohepatic bile duct acting as a communication between the gallbladder fundus and an intrahepatic biliary duct. PMID:25086964

Minutoli, Fabio; Naso, Serena; Visalli, Carmela; Iannelli, Dario; Silipigni, Salvatore; Pitrone, Alessia; Bottari, Antonio

2014-08-01

371

A Bioinformatics Workflow for Variant Peptide Detection in Shotgun Proteomics*  

PubMed Central

Shotgun proteomics data analysis usually relies on database search. However, commonly used protein sequence databases do not contain information on protein variants and thus prevent variant peptides and proteins from been identified. Including known coding variations into protein sequence databases could help alleviate this problem. Based on our recently published human Cancer Proteome Variation Database, we have created a protein sequence database that comprehensively annotates thousands of cancer-related coding variants collected in the Cancer Proteome Variation Database as well as noncancer-specific ones from the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Database (dbSNP). Using this database, we then developed a data analysis workflow for variant peptide identification in shotgun proteomics. The high risk of false positive variant identifications was addressed by a modified false discovery rate estimation method. Analysis of colorectal cancer cell lines SW480, RKO, and HCT-116 revealed a total of 81 peptides that contain either noncancer-specific or cancer-related variations. Twenty-three out of 26 variants randomly selected from the 81 were confirmed by genomic sequencing. We further applied the workflow on data sets from three individual colorectal tumor specimens. A total of 204 distinct variant peptides were detected, and five carried known cancer-related mutations. Each individual showed a specific pattern of cancer-related mutations, suggesting potential use of this type of information for personalized medicine. Compatibility of the workflow has been tested with four popular database search engines including Sequest, Mascot, X!Tandem, and MyriMatch. In summary, we have developed a workflow that effectively uses existing genomic data to enable variant peptide detection in proteomics. PMID:21389108

Li, Jing; Su, Zengliu; Ma, Ze-Qiang; Slebos, Robbert J. C.; Halvey, Patrick; Tabb, David L.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Pao, William; Zhang, Bing

2011-01-01

372

Characterization of Randomly Time-Variant Linear Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with various aspects of the characterization of randomly time-variant linear channels. At the outset it is demonstrated that time-varying linear channels (or filters) may be characterized in an interesting symmetrical manner in time and frequency variables by arranging system functions in (timefrequency) dual pairs. Following this a statistical characterization of randomly time-variant linear channels is carried

P. Bello

1963-01-01

373

Phosphoglucomutase (PGM2) variants in Trio Indians from Surinam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different electrophoretic variants of PGM2 have been identified in a S. American Indian population sample. The phenotypes are designed PGM2 1–5 (Trio). From family data they appear to represent heterozygous and homozygous combinations of a variant allele, designated PGM25(TRIO). The isozymes produced by PGM25(TRIO) are electrophoretically similar to those determined by the rare PGM25 allele which has been identified

R. A. Geerdink; H. A. Bartstra; D. A. Hopkinson

1974-01-01

374

Histone variants — ancient wrap artists of the epigenome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histones wrap DNA to form nucleosome particles that compact eukaryotic genomes. Variant histones have evolved crucial roles in chromosome segregation, transcriptional regulation, DNA repair, sperm packaging and other processes. 'Universal' histone variants emerged early in eukaryotic evolution and were later displaced for bulk packaging roles by the canonical histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4), the synthesis of which is coupled

Paul B. Talbert; Steven Henikoff

2010-01-01

375

RAREMETAL: fast and powerful meta-analysis for rare variants  

PubMed Central

Summary: RAREMETAL is a computationally efficient tool for meta-analysis of rare variants genotyped using sequencing or arrays. RAREMETAL facilitates analyses of individual studies, accommodates a variety of input file formats, handles related and unrelated individuals, executes both single variant and burden tests and performs conditional association analyses. Availability and implementation: http://genome.sph.umich.edu/wiki/RAREMETAL for executables, source code, documentation and tutorial. Contact: sfengsph@umich.edu or goncalo@umich.edu PMID:24894501

Feng, Shuang; Liu, Dajiang; Zhan, Xiaowei; Wing, Mary Kate; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.

2014-01-01

376

Psychopathology of social isolation.  

PubMed

The most important defining factor of being human is the use of symbolic language. Language or communication problem occurs during the growth, the child will have a higher risk of social isolation and then the survival will be threatened constantly. Today, adolescents and youths are familiar with computer and smart-phone devices, and communication with others by these devices is easy than face-to-face communication. As adolescents and youths live in the comfortable and familiar cyber-world rather than actively participating real society, so they make social isolation. Extreme form of this isolation in adolescents and youths is so-called Socially Withdrawn Youth. In this study, the psychopathological factors inducing social isolation were discussed. Development stages of social isolation in relation with types of social isolation, Ego-syntonic isolation and Ego-dystonic isolation, were also considered. PMID:25061592

Baek, Sang-Bin

2014-06-01

377

Vibrio cholerae O1 epidemic variants in Angola: a retrospective study between 1992 and 2006.  

PubMed

Cholera is still a major public health concern in many African countries. In Angola, after a decade of absence, cholera reemerged in 1987, spreading throughout the country until 1996, with outbreaks recurring in a seasonal pattern. In 2006 Angola was hit by one of the most severe outbreaks of the last decade, with ca. 240,000 cases reported. We analyzed 21 clinical strains isolated between 1992 and 2006 from several provinces throughout the country: Benguela, Bengo, Luanda, Cuando Cubango, and Cabinda. We used two multiplex PCR assays to investigate discriminatory mobile genetic elements (MGE) [Integrative Conjugative Elements (ICEs), VSP-II, GI12, GI14, GI15, K, and TLC phages] and we compared the profiles obtained with those of different reference V. cholerae O1 variants (prototypical, altered, and hybrid), responsible for the ongoing 7th pandemic. We also tested the strains for the presence of specific VSP-II variants and for the presence of a genomic island (GI) (WASA-1), correlated with the transmission of seventh pandemic cholera from Africa to South America. Based on the presence/absence of the analyzed genetic elements, five novel profiles were detected in the epidemic strains circulating in the 1990s. The most frequent profiles, F and G, were characterized by the absence of ICEs and the three GIs tested, and the presence of GI WASA-1 and the WASA variant of the VSP-II island. Our results identified unexpected variability within the 1990s epidemic, showing different rearrangements in a dynamic part of the genome not present in the prototypical V. cholerae O1 N16961. Moreover the 2006 strains differed from the current pandemic V. cholerae O1 strain. Taken together, our results highlight the role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in diversifying the genetic background of V. cholerae within a single epidemic. PMID:24348465

Valia, Romy; Taviani, Elisa; Spagnoletti, Matteo; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Cappuccinelli, Piero; Colombo, Mauro M

2013-01-01

378

Vibrio cholerae O1 epidemic variants in Angola: a retrospective study between 1992 and 2006  

PubMed Central

Cholera is still a major public health concern in many African countries. In Angola, after a decade of absence, cholera reemerged in 1987, spreading throughout the country until 1996, with outbreaks recurring in a seasonal pattern. In 2006 Angola was hit by one of the most severe outbreaks of the last decade, with ca. 240,000 cases reported. We analyzed 21 clinical strains isolated between 1992 and 2006 from several provinces throughout the country: Benguela, Bengo, Luanda, Cuando Cubango, and Cabinda. We used two multiplex PCR assays to investigate discriminatory mobile genetic elements (MGE) [Integrative Conjugative Elements (ICEs), VSP-II, GI12, GI14, GI15, K, and TLC phages] and we compared the profiles obtained with those of different reference V. cholerae O1 variants (prototypical, altered, and hybrid), responsible for the ongoing 7th pandemic. We also tested the strains for the presence of specific VSP-II variants and for the presence of a genomic island (GI) (WASA-1), correlated with the transmission of seventh pandemic cholera from Africa to South America. Based on the presence/absence of the analyzed genetic elements, five novel profiles were detected in the epidemic strains circulating in the 1990s. The most frequent profiles, F and G, were characterized by the absence of ICEs and the three GIs tested, and the presence of GI WASA-1 and the WASA variant of the VSP-II island. Our results identified unexpected variability within the 1990s epidemic, showing different rearrangements in a dynamic part of the genome not present in the prototypical V. cholerae O1 N16961. Moreover the 2006 strains differed from the current pandemic V. cholerae O1 strain. Taken together, our results highlight the role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in diversifying the genetic background of V. cholerae within a single epidemic. PMID:24348465

Valia, Romy; Taviani, Elisa; Spagnoletti, Matteo; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Cappuccinelli, Piero; Colombo, Mauro M.

2013-01-01

379

Development of a novel classification system for anatomical variants of the puboprostatic ligaments with expert validation  

PubMed Central

Introduction: We propose a novel classification system with a validation study to help clinicians identify and typify commonly seen variants of the puboprostatic ligaments (PPL). Methods: A preliminary dissection of 6 male cadavers and a prospective dataset of over 300 robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomies (RARP) recorded on video were used to identify 4 distinct ligament types. Then the prospectively collected database of surgical videos was used to isolate images of the PPL from RARP. Over 300 surgical videos were reviewed and classified with 1 to 5 pictures saved for reference of the type of PPL. To validate the new classification system, we selected 5 independent, blinded expert robotic surgeons to classify 100 ligaments based on morphology into a 4-type system: parallel, V-shaped, inverted V-shape, and fused. One week later, a subset of 25 photographs was sent to the same experts and classified. Statistical analyses were performed to determine both the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of the proposed system. Results: Inverted V-shaped ligaments were noted most frequently (29.97%), parallel and V-shaped ligaments were found at 19.19% and 11.11%, respectively and fused ligaments were noted less frequently (6.06%). There was good intra-rater agreement (? = 0.66) and inter-rater agreement (? = 0.67) for the classification system. Conclusions: This classification system provided standardized descriptions of ligament variations that could be adopted universally to help clinicians categorize the variants. The system, validated by several blinded expert surgeons, demonstrated that surgeons were able to learn and correctly classify the variants. The system may be useful in helping to predict peri- and postoperative outcomes; however, this will require further study. PMID:25553158

Kim, Michael; Boyle, Shawna L.; Fernandez, Alfonso; Matsumoto, Edward D.; Pace, Kenneth T.; Anidjar, Maurice; Kozak, Gregory N.; Davé, Sumit; Welk, Blayne K.; Johnson, Marjorie I.; Pautler, Stephen E.

2014-01-01

380

Homolog-specific PCR primer design for profiling splice variants.  

PubMed

To study functional diversity of proteins encoded from a single gene, it is important to distinguish the expression levels among the alternatively spliced variants. A variant-specific primer pair is required to amplify each alternatively spliced variant individually. For this purpose, we developed a new feature, homolog-specific primer design (HSPD), in our high-throughput primer and probe design software tool, PRIMEGENS-v2. The algorithm uses a de novo approach to design primers without any prior information of splice variants or close homologs for an input query sequence. It not only designs primer pairs but also finds potential isoforms and homologs of the input sequence. Efficiency of this algorithm was tested for several gene families in soybean. A total of 187 primer pairs were tested under five different abiotic stress conditions with three replications at three time points. Results indicate a high success rate of primer design. Some primer pairs designed were able to amplify all splice variants of a gene. Furthermore, by utilizing combinations within the same multiplex pool, we were able to uniquely amplify a specific variant or duplicate gene. Our method can also be used to design PCR primers to specifically amplify homologs in the same gene family. PRIMEGENS-v2 is available at: http://primegens.org. PMID:21415011

Srivastava, Gyan Prakash; Hanumappa, Mamatha; Kushwaha, Garima; Nguyen, Henry T; Xu, Dong

2011-05-01

381

Rare genetic variant analysis on blood pressure in related samples  

PubMed Central

The genetic variants associated with blood pressure identified so far explain only a small proportion of the total heritability of this trait. With recent advances in sequencing technology and statistical methodology, it becomes feasible to study the association between blood pressure and rare genetic variants. Using real baseline phenotype data and imputed dosage data from Genetic Analysis Workshop 18, we performed a candidate gene association analysis. We focused on 8 genes shown to be associated with either systolic or diastolic blood pressure to identify the association with both common and rare genetic variants, and then did a genome-wide rare-variant analysis on blood pressure. We performed association analysis for rare coding and splicing variants within each gene region and all rare variants in each sliding window, using either burden tests or sequence kernel association tests accounting for familial correlation. With a sample size of only 747, we failed to find any novel associated genetic loci. Consequently, we performed analyses on simulated data, with knowledge of the underlying simulating model, to evaluate the type I error rate and power for the methods used in real data analysis. PMID:25519320

2014-01-01

382

Mouse Tissues Express Multiple Splice Variants of Prominin-1  

PubMed Central

Prominin-1, a heavily glycosylated pentaspan membrane protein, is mainly known for its function as a marker for (cancer) stem cells, although it can also be detected on differentiated cells. Mouse prominin-1 expression is heavily regulated by splicing in eight different variants. The function or the expression pattern of prominin-1 and its splice variants (SVs) is thus far unknown. In this study, we analyzed the expression of the prominin-1 splice variants on mRNA level in several mouse tissues and found a broad tissue expression of the majority of SVs, but a specific set of SVs had a much more restricted expression profile. For instance, the testis expressed only SV3 and SV7. Moreover, SV8 was solely detected in the eye. Intriguingly, prominin-1 knockout mice do not suffer from gross abnormalities, but do show signs of blindness, which suggest that SV8 has a specific function in this tissue. In addition, databases searches for putative promoter regions in the mouse prominin-1 gene revealed three potential promoter regions that could be linked to specific SVs. Interestingly, for both SV7 and SV8, a specific potential promoter region could be identified. To conclude, the majority of mouse prominin-1 splice variants are widely expressed in mouse tissues. However, specific expression of a few variants, likely driven by specific promoters, suggests distinct regulation and a potential important function for these variants in certain tissues. PMID:20808829

Kemper, Kristel; Tol, Marc J. P. M.; Medema, Jan Paul

2010-01-01

383

Integrated Analysis of Germline and Somatic Variants in Ovarian Cancer  

PubMed Central

We report the first large-scale exome-wide analysis of the combined germline-somatic landscape in ovarian cancer. Here we analyze germline and somatic alterations in 429 ovarian carcinoma cases and 557 controls. We identify 3,635 high confidence, rare truncation and 22,953 missense variants with predicted functional impact. We find germline truncation variants and large deletions across Fanconi pathway genes in 20% of cases. Enrichment of rare truncations is shown in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2. Additionally, we observe germline truncation variants in genes not previously associated with ovarian cancer susceptibility (NF1, MAP3K4, CDKN2B, and MLL3). Evidence for loss of heterozygosity was found in 100% and 76% of cases with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 truncations respectively. Germline-somatic interaction analysis combined with extensive bioinformatics annotation identifies 237 candidate functional germline truncation and missense variants, including 2 pathogenic BRCA1 and 1 TP53 deleterious variants. Finally, integrated analyses of germline and somatic variants identify significantly altered pathways, including the Fanconi, MAPK, and MLL pathways. PMID:24448499

Kanchi, Krishna L.; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Lu, Charles; McLellan, Michael D.; Leiserson, Mark D.M.; Wendl, Michael C.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Xie, Mingchao; Kandoth, Cyriac; McMichael, Joshua F.; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Larson, David E.; Schmidt, Heather K.; Miller, Christopher A.; Fulton, Robert S.; Spellman, Paul T.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Druley, Todd E.; Graubert, Timothy A.; Goodfellow, Paul J.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Wilson, Richard K.; Ding, Li

2014-01-01

384

Rare-Variant Association Analysis: Study Designs and Statistical Tests  

PubMed Central

Despite the extensive discovery of trait- and disease-associated common variants, much of the genetic contribution to complex traits remains unexplained. Rare variants can explain additional disease risk or trait variability. An increasing number of studies are underway to identify trait- and disease-associated rare variants. In this review, we provide an overview of statistical issues in rare-variant association studies with a focus on study designs and statistical tests. We present the design and analysis pipeline of rare-variant studies and review cost-effective sequencing designs and genotyping platforms. We compare various gene- or region-based association tests, including burden tests, variance-component tests, and combined omnibus tests, in terms of their assumptions and performance. Also discussed are the related topics of meta-analysis, population-stratification adjustment, genotype imputation, follow-up studies, and heritability due to rare variants. We provide guidelines for analysis and discuss some of the challenges inherent in these studies and future research directions. PMID:24995866

Lee, Seunggeung; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Boehnke, Michael; Lin, Xihong

2014-01-01

385

Increased frequency of Mediterranean fever gene variants in multiple myeloma  

PubMed Central

High frequencies of inherited variants in the Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene have been identified in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). The sample size of the present pilot study was small, therefore, the actual frequency of inherited variants in the MEFV gene could be investigated in patients with MM. Twenty-eight patients with MM and 65 healthy controls were included in the study. Six heterozygous and one homozygous (E148Q/E148Q) variant was identified in patients with MM. None of the patients had a family history compatible with familial Mediterranean fever. In the healthy control group, 11 heterozygous variants were identified. The difference in the overall frequency of the inherited variants in the MEFV gene between the MM patients and the controls was statistically significant (?2=4.905; P=0.027). In conclusion, a high frequency of inherited variants in the MEFV gene was identified in patients with MM. Based on the current data, it is hypothesized that the MEFV gene is a cancer susceptibility gene. Additional evidence, such as familial aggregation, monozygotic versus dizygotic twin concordance, and tumors in genetically engineered model organisms, is required in order to support this hypothesis. PMID:25202401

CELIK, SERKAN; TANGI, FATIH; OKTENLI, CAGATAY

2014-01-01

386

Integrated analysis of germline and somatic variants in ovarian cancer.  

PubMed

We report the first large-scale exome-wide analysis of the combined germline-somatic landscape in ovarian cancer. Here we analyse germline and somatic alterations in 429 ovarian carcinoma cases and 557 controls. We identify 3,635 high confidence, rare truncation and 22,953 missense variants with predicted functional impact. We find germline truncation variants and large deletions across Fanconi pathway genes in 20% of cases. Enrichment of rare truncations is shown in BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2. In addition, we observe germline truncation variants in genes not previously associated with ovarian cancer susceptibility (NF1, MAP3K4, CDKN2B and MLL3). Evidence for loss of heterozygosity was found in 100 and 76% of cases with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 truncations, respectively. Germline-somatic interaction analysis combined with extensive bioinformatics annotation identifies 222 candidate functional germline truncation and missense variants, including two pathogenic BRCA1 and 1 TP53 deleterious variants. Finally, integrated analyses of germline and somatic variants identify significantly altered pathways, including the Fanconi, MAPK and MLL pathways. PMID:24448499

Kanchi, Krishna L; Johnson, Kimberly J; Lu, Charles; McLellan, Michael D; Leiserson, Mark D M; Wendl, Michael C; Zhang, Qunyuan; Koboldt, Daniel C; Xie, Mingchao; Kandoth, Cyriac; McMichael, Joshua F; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A; Larson, David E; Schmidt, Heather K; Miller, Christopher A; Fulton, Robert S; Spellman, Paul T; Mardis, Elaine R; Druley, Todd E; Graubert, Timothy A; Goodfellow, Paul J; Raphael, Benjamin J; Wilson, Richard K; Ding, Li

2014-01-01

387

Evaluation of the MTHFR A1298C variant in leukoaraiosis.  

PubMed

Vascular demyelinization of the white matter of the brain is referred to as leukoaraiosis (LA). This very frequent entity is associated with a cognitive decline, thereby resulting in a deteriorating quality of life. Besides poorly controlled hypertension and aging, its development is reported to be associated with an elevated serum homocysteine level. Although the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genetic variant is associated with an elevated serum homocysteine level, it has not been proved to be an independent risk factor for LA. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the MTHFR A1298C genetic variant, which is also believed to be unfavorable, is associated with the presence of LA. The clinical and genetic data on 198 LA patients and 235 neuroimaging alteration-free controls were analyzed. The presence of the A1298C or the 1298CC variant was calculated to be a risk factor for LA, as compared with the absence of both of them. The clustering of the heterozygous A1298C and C677T variants was proved to involve the risk of LA. Our results suggest that the MTHFR A1298C variant confers an independent genetic risk of LA, and this pathological role may be amplified by the MTHFR C677T variant. PMID:21845428

Szolnoki, Zoltan; Szaniszlo, Istvan; Szekeres, Marta; Hitri, Krisztina; Kondacs, Andras; Mandi, Yvette; Nedo, Erika; Somogyvari, Ferenc

2012-03-01

388

A variant in the sonic hedgehog regulatory sequence (ZRS) is associated with triphalangeal thumb and deregulates expression in the developing limb  

PubMed Central

A locus for triphalangeal thumb, variably associated with pre-axial polydactyly, was previously identified in the zone of polarizing activity regulatory sequence (ZRS), a long range limb-specific enhancer of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) gene at human chromosome 7q36.3. Here, we demonstrate that a 295T>C variant in the human ZRS, previously thought to represent a neutral polymorphism, acts as a dominant allele with reduced penetrance. We found this variant in three independently ascertained probands from southern England with triphalangeal thumb, demonstrated significant linkage of the phenotype to the variant (LOD = 4.1), and identified a shared microsatellite haplotype around the ZRS, suggesting that the probands share a common ancestor. An individual homozygous for the 295C allele presented with isolated bilateral triphalangeal thumb resembling the heterozygous phenotype, suggesting that the variant is largely dominant to the wild-type allele. As a functional test of the pathogenicity of the 295C allele, we utilized a mutated ZRS construct to demonstrate that it can drive ectopic anterior expression of a reporter gene in the developing mouse forelimb. We conclude that the 295T>C variant is in fact pathogenic and, in southern England, appears to be the most common cause of triphalangeal thumb. Depending on the dispersal of the founding mutation, it may play a wider role in the aetiology of this disorder. PMID:18463159

Furniss, Dominic; Lettice, Laura A.; Taylor, Indira B.; Critchley, Paul S.; Giele, Henk; Hill, Robert E.; Wilkie, Andrew O.M.

2008-01-01

389

Vibration isolation technology experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the vibration isolation technology experiment are to demonstrate the viability of the magnetic suspension technology in providing the isolation of large structures elements from the external environment and to quantify the degree of isolation provided by this system. The approach proposed for this experiment is to mount a six-degrees-of-freedom magnetic bearing suspension system at the free end

C. R. Keckler

1984-01-01

390

An Escherichia coli Expression Assay and Screen for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Variants with Decreased Susceptibility to Indinavir  

PubMed Central

We have developed a recombinant Escherichia coli screening system for the rapid detection and identification of amino acid substitutions in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease associated with decreased susceptibility to the protease inhibitor indinavir (MK-639; Merck & Co.). The assay depends upon the correct processing of a segment of the HIV-1 HXB2 gag-pol polyprotein followed by detection of HIV reverse transcriptase activity by a highly sensitive, colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The highly sensitive system detects the contributions of single substitutions such as I84V, L90M, and L63P. The combination of single substitutions further decreases the sensitivity to indinavir. We constructed a library of HIV protease variant genes containing dispersed mutations and, using the E. coli recombinant system, screened for mutants with decreased indinavir sensitivity. The discovered HIV protease variants contain amino acid substitutions commonly associated with indinavir resistance in clinical isolates, including the substitutions L90M, L63P, I64V, V82A, L24I, and I54T. One substitution, W6R, is also frequently found by the screen and has not been reported elsewhere. Of a total of 12,000 isolates that were screened, 12 protease variants with decreased sensitivity to indinavir were found. The L63P substitution, which is also associated with indinavir resistance, increases the stability of the isolated protease relative to that of the native HXB2 protease. The rapidity, sensitivity, and accuracy of this screen also make it useful for screening for novel inhibitors. We have found the approach described here to be useful for the detection of amino acid substitutions in HIV protease that have been associated with drug resistance as well as for the screening of novel compounds for inhibitory activity. PMID:9835523

Melnick, Laurence; Yang, Shiow-Shong; Rossi, Rick; Zepp, Charlie; Heefner, Donald

1998-01-01

391

Candidate genes for congenital diaphragmatic hernia from animalmodels: sequencing of fog2 and pdgfra reveals rare variants indiaphragmatic hernia patients  

SciTech Connect

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common, lifethreatening birth defect. Although there is strong evidence implicatinggenetic factors in its pathogenesis, few causative genes have beenidentified, and in isolated CDH, only one de novo, nonsense mutation hasbeen reported in FOG2 in a female with posterior diaphragmaticeventration. We report here that the homozygous null mouse for the Pdgfragene has posterolateral diaphragmatic defects and thus is a model forhuman CDH. We hypothesized that mutations in this gene could cause humanCDH. We sequenced PDGFRa and FOG2 in 96 patients with CDH, of which 53had isolated CDH (55.2 percent), 36 had CDH and additional anomalies(37.5 percent), and 7 had CDH and known chromosome aberrations (7.3percent). For FOG2, we identified novel sequence alterations predictingp.M703L and p.T843A in two patients with isolated CDH that were absent in526 and 564 control chromosomes respectively. These altered amino acidswere highly conserved. However, due to the lack of available parental DNAsamples we were not able to determine if the sequence alterations were denovo. For PDGFRa, we found a single variant predicting p.L967V in apatient with CDH and multiple anomalies that was absent in 768 controlchromosomes. This patient also had one cell with trisomy 15 on skinfibroblast culture, a finding of uncertain significance. Although ourstudy identified sequence variants in FOG2 and PDGFRa, we have notdefinitively established the variants as mutations and we found noevidence that CDH commonly results from mutations in thesegenes.

Bleyl, S.B.; Moshrefi, A.; Shaw, G.M.; Saijoh, Y.; Schoenwolf,G.C.; Pennacchio, L.A.; Slavotinek, A.M.

2007-05-11

392

Characterization of Fusarium wilt resistant somaclonal variants of banana cv. Rasthali by cDNA-RAPD.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt of banana, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is counted among the most destructive diseases of crop plants in India. In the absence of any credible control measure to manage this disease, development of resistant cultivars is the best option. Somaclonal variations arising out of long term in vitro culture of plant tissues is an important source of genetic variability and the selection of somaclones having desired characteristics is a promising strategy to develop plants with improved characters. In the present study, we isolated a group of somaclonal variants of banana cv. Rasthali which showed efficient resistance towards Foc race 1 infection in repeated bioassays. cDNA-RAPD methodology using 96 decamer primers was used to characterize these somaclonal variants. Among the four differentially amplified bands obtained, one mapping to the coding region of a lipoxygenase gene was confirmed to be down regulated in the somaclones as compared to controls by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Our results correlated well with earlier studies with lipoxygenase mutants in maize wherein reduced expression of lipoxygenase led to enhanced resistance towards Fusarium infection. PMID:25160909

Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

2014-12-01

393

Catecholaminergic gene variants: contribution in ADHD and associated comorbid attributes in the eastern Indian probands.  

PubMed

Contribution of genes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been explored in various populations, and several genes were speculated to contribute small but additive effects. We have assessed variants in four genes, DDC (rs3837091 and rs3735273), DRD2 (rs1800496, rs1801028, and rs1799732), DRD4 (rs4646984 and rs4646983), and COMT (rs165599 and rs740603) in Indian ADHD subjects with comorbid attributes. Cases were recruited following the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV-TR after obtaining informed written consent. DNA isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes of ADHD probands (N = 170), their parents (N = 310), and ethnically matched controls (n = 180) was used for genotyping followed by population- and family-based analyses by the UNPHASED program. DRD4 sites showed significant difference in allelic frequencies by case-control analysis, while DDC and COMT exhibited bias in familial transmission (P < 0.05). rs3837091 "AGAG," rs3735273 "A," rs1799732 "C," rs740603 "G," rs165599 "G" and single repeat alleles of rs4646984/rs4646983 showed positive correlation with co-morbid characteristics (P < 0.05). Multi dimensionality reduction analysis of case-control data revealed significant interactive effects of all four genes (P < 0.001), while family-based data showed interaction between DDC and DRD2 (P = 0.04). This first study on these gene variants in Indo-Caucasoid ADHD probands and associated co-morbid conditions indicates altered dopaminergic neurotransmission in ADHD. PMID:24163823

Ghosh, Paramita; Sarkar, Kanyakumarika; Bhaduri, Nipa; Ray, Anirban; Sarkar, Keka; Sinha, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Kanchan

2013-01-01

394

Hemoglobin NYU, a delta chain variant, alpha 2 delta 2 lys.  

PubMed

A minor hemoglobin (Hb) component with the electrophoretic properties of the delta-chain variant Hb A(2') was encountered in two unrelated families of Russian-Jewish ancestry. This minor component, designated Hb NYU, was shown to result from the substitution of lysine for asparagine at delta(12). We have confirmed studies of others that hemoglobin A(2') isolated from the hemoglobin of some African subjects, results from the replacement of the normal glycine at delta(16) by arginine. Thus for interpretations of the incidence of delta-chain variants in different populations, electrophoretic data are not sufficient. In members of one of the families in the present study, the visual estimations of normal Hb A(2) and of Hb NYU on starch-gel electrophoretic patterns suggested the presence of delta-thalassemia. In hemolysates of one of the heterozygotes for Hb NYU, hemoglobin A(2) was not demonstrable with starch-gel electrophoretic methods but was readily recovered by column chromatography in approximately the amounts expected for delta-chain heterozygotes. PMID:5824070

Ranney, H M; Jacobs, A S; Ramot, B; Bradley, T B

1969-11-01

395

Site-restricted plasminogen activation mediated by group A streptococcal streptokinase variants.  

PubMed

SK (streptokinase) is a secreted plasminogen activator and virulence factor of GAS (group A Streptococcus). Among GAS isolates, SK gene sequences are polymorphic and are grouped into two sequence clusters (cluster type-1 and cluster type-2) with cluster type-2 being further classified into subclusters (type-2a and type-2b). In the present study, we examined the role of bacterial and host-derived cofactors in SK-mediated plasminogen activation. All SK variants, apart from type-2b, can form an activator complex with Glu-Plg (Glu-plasminogen). Specific ligand-binding-induced conformational changes in Glu-Plg mediated by fibrinogen, PAM (plasminogen-binding group A streptococcal M protein), fibrinogen fragment D or fibrin, were required for type-2b SK to form a functional activator complex with Glu-Plg. In contrast with type-1 and type-2a SK, type-2b SK activator complexes were inhibited by ?2-antiplasmin unless bound to fibrin or to the GAS cell-surface via PAM in combination with fibrinogen. Taken together, these data suggest that type-2b SK plasminogen activation may be restricted to specific microenvironments within the host such as fibrin deposits or the bacterial cell surface through the action of ?2-antiplasmin. We conclude that phenotypic SK variation functionally underpins a pathogenic mechanism whereby SK variants differentially focus plasminogen activation, leading to specific niche adaption within the host. PMID:24266842

Cook, Simon M; Skora, Amanda; Walker, Mark J; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L; McArthur, Jason D

2014-02-15

396

Cellulase variants with improved expression, activity and stability, and use thereof  

DOEpatents

The present disclosure relates to cellulase variants. In particular the present disclosure relates to cellulase variants having improved expression, activity and/or stability. Also described are nucleic acids encoding the cellulase variants, compositions comprising the cellulase variants, and methods of use thereof.

Aehle, Wolfgang; Bott, Richard R; Bower, Benjamin; Caspi, Jonathan; Estell, David A; Goedegebuur, Frits; Hommes, Ronaldus W.J.; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley; Kralj, Slavko; Van Lieshout, Johan; Nikolaev, Igor; Van Stigt Thans, Sander; Wallace, Louise; Vogtentanz, Gudrun; Sandgren, Mats

2014-03-25

397

Variant detection at the d opioid receptor (OPRD1) locus and population genetics of a novel variant affecting protein sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three opioid receptor genes, and in particular the µ and ' loci (OPRM1 and OPRD1, respectively), are compelling candidates to influence risk for substance dependence. Previous study of a variant at the OPRD1 locus, T921C, has shown association with opioid dependence. This variant does not alter protein sequence, and could not be directly responsible for a physiologic effect. We

Joel Gelernter; Henry R. Kranzler

2000-01-01

398

Emergence of new variants of ST131 clonal group among extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum ?-lactamases.  

PubMed

Having shown that Lucus Augusti Hospital in Lugo, Spain, has been affected by Escherichia coli clone O25:H4-ST131 producing CTX-M-15, the present study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of this clone among the extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli isolates and to identify novel variants of this clone. Of the 77 ESBL-producing E. coli isolated between January and April 2012, 47 (61%) were identified as belonging to the ST131 clonal group, comprising 38 O25b:H4-B2-ST131 (34 CTX-M-15, 2 CTX-M-14, 1 CTX-M-1 and 1 CTX-M-27), 7 O-non-typeable:H4-B2-ST131 (all CTX-M-15) and 2 O16:H5-B2-ST131 (both CTX-M-14). The 47 isolates of ST131 exhibited a significantly higher virulence score (mean of 9.1 virulence genes) compared with the 30 non-ST131 isolates (mean of 4.3 virulence genes). A new virulence profile (fimH, papG II, sat, cnf1, hlyA, iucD, kpsM II-K5, traT, malX, usp) was detected among O25b:H4-B2-ST131 isolates belonging to the new Pasteur sequence type PST621. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the O-non-typeable:H4-B2-ST131 and O16:H5-B2-ST131 variants in Europe. PMID:23992646

Dahbi, Ghizlane; Mora, Azucena; López, Cecilia; Alonso, María Pilar; Mamani, Rosalía; Marzoa, Juan; Coira, Amparo; García-Garrote, Fernando; Pita, Julia María; Velasco, David; Herrera, Alexandra; Viso, Susana; Blanco, Jesús E; Blanco, Miguel; Blanco, Jorge

2013-10-01

399

Emergence, Spread, and Characterization of Phage Variants of Epidemic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 in England and Wales  

PubMed Central

Epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 (EMRSA-16) and EMRSA-15 are the two most important and prevalent EMRSA strains found in the United Kingdom and have also been found in a number of European countries and the United States. We describe for the first time the spread of an EMRSA strain (EMRSA-16) from its point of origin in one hospital to the surrounding hospitals and regions over the following 2 years. In the first 18 months after its original appearance, 136 hospitals referred EMRSA-16 isolates for typing, and interhospital and intraregional spread were reported: it was more prevalent in males between 60 and 80 years old and was isolated from sputum and throat more often than EMRSA-15. Important characteristics, e.g., carriage of the enterotoxin A (sea) and toxic shock syndrome toxin (tst) genes and production of urease, are described. Phage-variant strains of EMRSA-16 which share some of the characteristics of the classical strain, including toxin carriage and urease production, emerged, but without genotypic investigations, their relationship could only be inferred. A total of 129 clinical isolates from 52 hospitals, collected between March 1998 and April 1999 and representing classical EMRSA-16 (49 isolates) or phage variants (80 isolates), were compared by phage typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) following SmaI macrorestriction, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, urease production, and PCR detection of toxin gene carriage. PFGE analysis revealed 29 profiles, A1 to A29, with A1 representing the prototypic strain, NCTC 13143. All other profiles differed from A1 by 1 to 6 bands, but some differed from each other by up to 10 bands. PMID:15528709

Murchan, S.; Aucken, H. M.; O'Neill, G. L.; Ganner, M.; Cookson, B. D.

2004-01-01

400

Genetic variability for pathogenicity, isozyme, ribosomal DNA and colony color variants in populations of Rhynchosporium secalis.  

PubMed

Samples of Rhynchosporium secalis were collected from two experimental barley populations known to carry a diverse array of alleles for resistance to this fungal pathogen. Classification of 163 isolates for four putative isozyme systems, a colony color dimorphism and 20 ribosomal DNA restriction fragment length variants revealed 49 different multilocus phenotypes (haplotypes). The six most common haplotypes differed significantly in pathogenicity. Genetic analyses of the data indicated that effective population sizes of the fungus were very large, that the effects of genetic drift were small, and that negligible recombination occurred in the populations studied. Frequency dependent selection was suggested as an explanation for the maintenance of variation in pathogenicity in the fungus. PMID:2759420

McDermott, J M; McDonald, B A; Allard, R W; Webster, R K

1989-07-01

401

Characterisation of a chicken anaemia virus variant population that resists neutralisation with a group-specific monoclonal antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?A variant population of chicken anaemia virus (CAV), termed P310 2A9-resist, that resists neutralisation by the monoclonal\\u000a antibody (MAb) 2A9, was selected from Cux-1 virus that had been passaged 310 times (P310) in MDCC-MSB1 cells. Substantially\\u000a higher concentrations of MAb 2A9 were required to neutralise the selected virus compared to those required to neutralise a\\u000a low-passage (P13) Cux-1 isolate. Virus

A. N. J. Scott; M. S. McNulty; D. Todd

2001-01-01

402

Volume 15 Number 11 1987 Nucleic Acids Research Characterization of a cDNA clone coding for a sea urchin histone H2A variant related to the  

E-print Network

, 1987 ABSTRACT A cDNA clone coding for a sea urchin histone H2A variant has been isolated. The coding in chickens. The nucleotide sequence of the sea urchin H2A.F/Z is 74% conserved when compared to chicken H2A.F and 51% conserved compared to sea urchin H2A early and 60% compared to sea urchin H2A late

Ernst, Susan G.

403

Comparison of four variants of a major allergen in hazelnut ( Corylus avellana) Cor a 1.04 with the major hazel pollen allergen Cor a 1.01  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to produce the Bet v 1-related major hazelnut allergen Cor a 1.0401 and variants thereof as recombinant allergens, and to compare their immuno-reactivity with the major hazel pollen allergen using sera of patients whose hazelnut allergy recently was confirmed by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC) in a multicenter study.Total RNA was isolated from immature

D. Lüttkopf; U. Müller; P. S. Skov; B. K. Ballmer-Weber; B. Wüthrich; K. Skamstrup Hansen; L. K. Poulsen; M. Kästner; D. Haustein; S. Vieths

2002-01-01

404

Soluble Variants of Human Recombinant Glutaminyl Cyclase  

PubMed Central

Recombinant human Glutaminyl Cyclase expressed in E. coli is produced as inclusion bodies. Lack of glycosylation is the main origin of its accumulation in insoluble aggregates. Mutation of single isolated hydrophobic amino acids into negative amino acids was not able to circumvent inclusion bodies formation. On the contrary, substitution with carboxyl-terminal residues of two or three aromatic residues belonging to extended hydrophobic patches on the protein surface provided soluble but still active forms of the protein. These mutants could be expressed in isotopically enriched forms for NMR studies and the maximal attainable concentration was sufficient for the acquisition of 1H-15N HSQC spectra that represent the starting point for future drug development projects targeting Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23977104

Castaldo, Cristiana; Ciambellotti, Silvia; de Pablo-Latorre, Raquel; Lalli, Daniela; Porcari, Valentina; Turano, Paola

2013-01-01

405

Functionally Significant, Rare Transcription Factor Variants in Tetralogy of Fallot  

PubMed Central

Objective Rare variants in certain transcription factors involved in cardiac development cause Mendelian forms of congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study was to systematically assess the frequency of rare transcription factor variants in sporadic patients with the cardiac outflow tract malformation tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Methods and Results We sequenced the coding, 5?UTR, and 3?UTR regions of twelve transcription factor genes implicated in cardiac outflow tract development (NKX2.5, GATA4, ISL1, TBX20, MEF2C, BOP/SMYD1, HAND2, FOXC1, FOXC2, FOXH, FOXA2 and TBX1) in 93 non-syndromic, non-Mendelian TOF cases. We also analysed Illumina Human 660W-Quad SNP Array data for copy number variants in these genes; none were detected. Four of the rare variants detected have previously been shown to affect transactivation in in vitro reporter assays: FOXC1 p.P297S, FOXC2 p.Q444R, FOXH1 p.S113T and TBX1 p.P43_G61del PPPPRYDPCAAAAPGAPGP. Two further rare variants, HAND2 p.A25_A26insAA and FOXC1 p.G378_G380delGGG, A488_491delAAAA, affected transactivation in in vitro reporter assays. Each of these six functionally significant variants was present in a single patient in the heterozygous state; each of the four for which parental samples were available were maternally inherited. Thus in the 93 TOF cases we identified six functionally significant mutations in the secondary heart field transcriptional network. Significance This study indicates that rare genetic variants in the secondary heart field transcriptional network with functional effects on protein function occur in 3–13% of patients with TOF. This is the first report of a functionally significant HAND2 mutation in a patient with congenital heart disease. PMID:25093829

Töpf, Ana; Griffin, Helen R.; Glen, Elise; Soemedi, Rachel; Brown, Danielle L.; Hall, Darroch; Rahman, Thahira J.; Eloranta, Jyrki J.; Jüngst, Christoph; Stuart, A. Graham; O'Sullivan, John; Keavney, Bernard D.; Goodship, Judith A.

2014-01-01

406

Comparative Studies of Plaque Variants Derived From a Florida Strain of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus  

PubMed Central

Small- and large-plaque variants of a Florida strain (Fe 3-7c) of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus were studied in vivo and in vitro. The small-plaque variant was less virulent in mice, hamsters, and guinea pigs than the large-plaque variant. The variants could be distinguished by calcium phosphate chromatography. The implications of plaque variants within a mixed virus population are discussed. Images PMID:4344368

Pedersen, Carl E.; Slocum, Donald R.; Robinson, David M.

1972-01-01

407

Occurrence of the Cys311 DRD2 variant in a pedigree multiply affected with panic disorder  

SciTech Connect

Following the detection of the rare DRD2 codon 311 variant (Ser{yields}Cys) in an affected member from a large, multiply affected panic disorder family, we investigated the occurrence of this variant in other family members. The variant occurred in both affected and unaffected individuals. Further screening in panic disorder sib pairs unrelated to this family failed to detect the Cys311 variant. Our data suggests that this variant has no pathogenic role in panic disorder. 18 refs., 1 fig.

Crawford, F.; Hoyne, J.; Diaz, P. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)] [and others

1995-08-14

408

Prevalence of Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae Putative Serotype 6E in South Korea  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of serogroup 6 among 1,206 Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates collected from Korean hospitals over three periods (1996 to 2001, 2004 to 2006, and 2008 to 2009) was investigated. The number of serogroup 6 isolates increased from 9.7 to 17.5% over the three periods. While the proportion of serotype 6A and 6D isolates increased significantly, that of serotype 6B isolates decreased. Twenty-four isolates (2.0%) were typed as the recently identified putative serotype 6E or genetic variants of serotype 6B. The results suggest that the lack of change in frequency of serotype 6B, in spite of the introduction of the PCV7 vaccine as seen in previous studies in South Korea, might be due mainly to the improper inclusion of putative serotype 6E in serotype 6B. All but three serotype 6E isolates belonged to CC90, indicating their clonal expansion. PMID:24719436

Baek, Jin Yang; Park, In Ho

2014-01-01

409

The sequence of a viroid from grapevine closely related to severe isolates of citrus exocortis viroid.  

PubMed Central

The primary structure of a grapevine viroid (GVs) isolated in Spain was determined. The sequence consisted of 369 nucleotide residues forming a circular molecule. GVs presented extensive homology with viroids of the potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV) group, that was specially high in the case of citrus exocortis viroid (CEV) both with variants found in isolates inducing severe (92% with CEV-A) and mild (89% with