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Sample records for nontoxigenic variants isolated

  1. Genetic diversity among toxigenic and nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated from the Western Hemisphere.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, F.; Evins, G. M.; Cook, W. L.; Almeida, R.; Hargrett-Bean, N.; Wachsmuth, K.

    1991-01-01

    Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis was used to examine genetic relationships among and between toxigenic and non-toxigenic isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 obtained from patients and the environment in the US Gulf Coast and surrounding areas. A total of 23 toxigenic and 23 non-toxigenic strains were examined. All the toxigenic and 7 of the non-toxigenic strains had the same alleles at 16 enzyme loci, whereas the balance of the nontoxigenic strains had 9 distinct combinations of alleles. This study suggests that all of the toxigenic strains belong to a single clone, and that while some of the non-toxigenic isolates were related, most were of diverse origin. PMID:1879486

  2. NON-TOXIGENIC ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS ISOLATES FOR REDUCING AFLATOXIN IN MISSISSIPPI DELTA CORN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for two non-toxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus CT3 and K49 isolated from the Mississippi Delta to reduce aflatoxin contamination of corn was assessed in a field study. These two isolates exhibited comparable growth and aggressiveness as the toxigenic A. flavus isolate F3W4. The...

  3. Isolation of nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from a human wound infection.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, J M; McFarland, L M; Bradford, H B; Caraway, C T

    1983-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 organisms that do not produce cholera toxin and, in fact, lack the genetic material encoding the enterotoxin have recently been detected in coastal regions of the United States. Although these organisms have been assumed to be nonpathogenic, they have been considered a potential reservoir of toxigenic V. cholerae. In 1979, nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 was isolated from a leg wound of an accident victim residing in New Orleans. The only known risk factors of the patient, besides his debilitated condition, were alcoholism and the consumption of raw oysters before recognition of his wound infection. Coincident with the identification of the isolate from the leg wound, an identical nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolate was cultured from the sewage system serving the residence of this patient. Nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 seems to be capable of multiplying in human tissue and may produce extraintestinal infection. This indigenous inhabitant of temperate coastal regions may not be avirulent and may be of public health significance. PMID:6863510

  4. Isolation of culturable mycobiota from agricultural soils and determination of tolerance to glyphosate of nontoxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi strains.

    PubMed

    Carranza, Cecilia S; Barberis, Carla L; Chiacchiera, Stella M; Dalcero, Ana María; Magnoli, Carina E

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are extensively used in Argentina's agricultural system to control undesirable weeds. This study was conducted to evaluate the culturable mycobiota [colony forming units (CFU) g(-1) and frequency of fungal genera or species] from an agricultural field exposed to pesticides. In addition, we evaluated the tolerance of A. oryzae and nontoxigenic A. flavus strains to high concentrations (100 to 500 mM - 17,000 to 84,500 ppm) of a glyphosate commercial formulation. The analysis of the mycobiota showed that the frequency of the main fungal genera varied according to the analyzed sampling period. Aspergillus spp. or Aspergillus section Flavi strains were isolated from 20 to 100% of the soil samples. Sterilia spp. were also observed throughout the sampling (50 to 100%). Aspergillus section Flavi tolerance assays showed that all of the tested strains were able to develop at the highest glyphosate concentration tested regardless of the water availability conditions. In general, significant reductions in growth rates were observed with increasing concentrations of the herbicide. However, a complete inhibition of fungal growth was not observed with the concentrations assayed. This study contributes to the knowledge of culturable mycobiota from agricultural soils exposed to pesticides and provides evidence on the effective growth ability of A. oryzae and nontoxigenic A. flavus strains exposed to high glyphosate concentrations in vitro. PMID:26549415

  5. Nontoxigenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Causing Acute Gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Leoni, Francesca; Serra, Roberto; Serracca, Laura; Decastelli, Lucia; Rocchegiani, Elena; Masini, Laura; Canonico, Cristina; Talevi, Giulia; Carraturo, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the virulence properties of four Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains causing acute gastroenteritis following consumption of indigenous mussels in Italy. The isolated strains were cytotoxic and adhesive but, surprisingly, lacked tdh, trh, and type three secretion system 2 (T3SS2) genes. We emphasize that nontoxigenic V. parahaemolyticus can induce acute gastroenteritis, highlighting the need for more investigation of the pathogenicity of this microorganism. PMID:23052317

  6. Nontoxigenic tox-bearing Corynebacterium ulcerans Infection among Game Animals, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Kutzer, Peter; Peters, Martin; Sing, Andreas; Contzen, Matthias; Rau, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Corynebacterium ulcerans may cause diphtheria in humans and caseous lymphadenitis in animals. We isolated nontoxigenic tox-bearing C. ulcerans from 13 game animals in Germany. Our results indicate a role for game animals as reservoirs for zoonotic C. ulcerans. PMID:24572455

  7. Volatile profiles and aflatoxin production by toxigenic and non-toxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus grown on sterile and non-sterile cracked corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus which can grow on corn and produce aflatoxins which render it unsafe for food and feed consumption. In this study, aflatoxin and non-aflatoxin producing isolates of A. flavus were grown separately on wet (20% water added), sterile or non-sterile cracked co...

  8. Draft Genome Sequences of Five Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ST19 Isolates and One Isolate Variant

    PubMed Central

    Platonov, Mikhail E.; Blouin, Yann; Evseeva, Vera V.; Afanas’ev, Maxim V.; Pourcel, Christine; Balakhonov, Sergey V.

    2013-01-01

    We report the first draft genome sequences of five Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolates of sequence type (ST) 19 and of a variant from one of the five isolates. The total length of assemblies ranged from 4,226,485 bp to 4,274,148 bp, including between 3,808 and 3,843 predicted coding sequences. PMID:23580708

  9. Aspergillus flavus genetic diversity of corn fields treated with non-toxigenic strain afla-guard in the southern U.S

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus genetic diversity of corn fields treated with the non-toxigenic strain Afla-Guard (NRRL 21882) was determined for 384 A. flavus isolates from 14 locations within 6 states in the southern U.S. ELISA test has determined low levels of toxigenic strains (only 91 positive). Nearly hal...

  10. Two novel Salmonella genomic island 1 variants in Proteus mirabilis isolates from swine farms in China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Chang-Wei; Zhang, An-Yun; Liu, Bi-Hui; Wang, Hong-Ning; Yang, Li-Qin; Guan, Zhong-Bin; Xu, Chang-Wen; Zhang, Dong-Dong; Yang, Yong-Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Four different Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) variants, including two novel variants, were characterized in one Salmonella enterica serovar Rissen sequence type ST1917 isolate and three Proteus mirabilis isolates from swine farms in China. One novel variant was derived from SGI1-B with the backbone gene S021 disrupted by a 12.72-kb IS26 composite transposon containing the dfrA17-aadA5 cassettes and macrolide inactivation gene cluster mphA-mrx-mphR. The other one was an integron-free SGI1 and contained a 183-bp truncated S025 next to IS6100 and S044. PMID:25918148

  11. Differential functional properties of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIgamma variants isolated from smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Gangopadhyay, Samudra S; Barber, Amy L; Gallant, Cynthia; Grabarek, Zenon; Smith, Janet L; Morgan, Kathleen G

    2003-01-01

    Six variants of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIgamma were isolated from a ferret-aorta smooth-muscle cDNA library. Variant G-2 is generated by a novel alternative polyadenylation, utilizing a site contained in an intron. The last 77 residues of the association domain are replaced with 99 residues of a unique sequence containing Src homology 3-domain-binding motifs, which alter catalytic activity. Variant C-2 has an eight-residue deletion in an ATP-binding motif and does not autophosphorylate Thr(286), but does phosphorylate exogenous substrate. Two variants, B and J, autodephosphorylate. Four variants differing only in the variable domain have differing catalytic activities, despite identical sequences in the catalytic domains. Thus structural features determined by variable and association domains are important for the catalytic activity of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. PMID:12603201

  12. Biological Control of Aflatoxin Contamination in Corn using a Nontoxigenic Strain of Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-year study was conducted to determine the efficacy of different applications of a nontoxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus for reducing aflatoxin contamination in corn. Treatments consisted of the nontoxigenic strain in the form of 1) conidia-coated hulled barley applied to soil when corn was...

  13. Characterization of Pc promoter variants of class 1 integrons in Escherichia coli isolates from poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Soufi, Leila; Sáenz, Yolanda; Vinué, Laura; Abbassi, Mohamed Salah; Hammami, Salah; Torres, Carmen

    2013-12-01

    Integrons are important genetic elements implicated in acquisition and expression of antimicrobial resistance genes. Gene cassettes of class 1 integrons may be differently expressed depending on the Pc promoter variant. Thirty-four Escherichia coli isolates (carrying 38 class 1 integrons), recovered from poultry meat in previous studies in Tunisia and selected by their specific traits, were further characterized in this study. Integron promoter variants and the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of isolates were determined. Three types of promoter variants were identified among the 38 class 1 integrons (PcW, PcH1, and PcS); the weak promoters were the most predominant. A high clonal diversity of the E. coli strains was demonstrated by PFGE or by MLST. Fifteen PFGE profiles were detected among 19 integron-positive isolates of phylogroup B2, and 12 different sequence types were identified by MLST among the remaining 15 isolates (ST48, ST88, ST101, ST117, ST155, ST189, ST351, ST359, ST410, ST641, ST665, and one new ST). These data reflect that the presence of integrons in these isolates is not due to the clonal dispersion but to dissemination of genetic structures carrying integrons in different clones. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report examining the gene cassette promoter variants in class 1 integrons of E. coli isolates from poultry meat origin. The predominance of promoters implicated in weak expression/high excision activity of gene cassette arrays is of interest because they could theoretically enhance the capacity of integrons to adapt to antibiotic pressure. PMID:23988017

  14. Non-toxigenic tox gene-bearing Corynebacterium ulcerans in a traumatic ulcer from a human case and his asymptomatic dog.

    PubMed

    Fuursted, Kurt; Søes, Lillian Marie; Crewe, Bjørn Thomas; Stegger, Marc; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Christensen, Jens Jørgen

    2015-10-01

    A non-toxigenic tox gene-bearing (NTTB) Corynebacterium ulcerans was grown from the wound of a 61-year-old gardener and in a nasal specimen from the patient's asymptomatic dog. The two isolates were similar in terms of antibiogram, multilocus sequence typing (ST341), virulence genes, and only three SNPs were found to differentiate the two NTTB C. ulcerans isolates supporting a zoonotic transmission to or between the patient and his dog. Of interest, we found that the two C. ulcerans isolates, although not expressing the diphtheria toxin tox, possessed 13 out of 14 recently described virulence candidate genes. PMID:26284490

  15. Homozygous loss-of-function variants in European cosmopolitan and isolate populations

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Vera B.; Svinti, Victoria; Prendergast, James G.; Chau, You-Ying; Campbell, Archie; Patarcic, Inga; Barroso, Inês; Joshi, Peter K.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Miljkovic, Ana; Taylor, Martin S.; Enroth, Stefan; Memari, Yasin; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Wright, Alan F.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Durbin, Richard; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Polašek, Ozren; Johansson, Åsa; Sauer, Sascha; Porteous, David J.; Fraser, Ross M.; Drake, Camilla; Vitart, Veronique; Hayward, Caroline; Semple, Colin A.; Wilson, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Homozygous loss of function (HLOF) variants provide a valuable window on gene function in humans, as well as an inventory of the human genes that are not essential for survival and reproduction. All humans carry at least a few HLOF variants, but the exact number of inactivated genes that can be tolerated is currently unknown—as are the phenotypic effects of losing function for most human genes. Here, we make use of 1432 whole exome sequences from five European populations to expand the catalogue of known human HLOF mutations; after stringent filtering of variants in our dataset, we identify a total of 173 HLOF mutations, 76 (44%) of which have not been observed previously. We find that population isolates are particularly well suited to surveys of novel HLOF genes because individuals in such populations carry extensive runs of homozygosity, which we show are enriched for novel, rare HLOF variants. Further, we make use of extensive phenotypic data to show that most HLOFs, ascertained in population-based samples, appear to have little detectable effect on the phenotype. On the contrary, we document several genes directly implicated in disease that seem to tolerate HLOF variants. Overall HLOF genes are enriched for olfactory receptor function and are expressed in testes more often than expected, consistent with reduced purifying selection and incipient pseudogenisation. PMID:26173456

  16. Segregation of distinct variants from Citrus tristeza virus isolate SY568 using aphid transmission.

    PubMed

    Velazquez-Monreal, J J; Mathews, D M; Dodds, J A

    2009-10-01

    A well-studied severe isolate of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) known as SY568 has previously been shown to contain multiple variants of the virus which differ in their genetic and biological characters. Aphid transmission was used in an attempt to segregate some of these variants for further characterization. Resulting infections gave symptoms which varied from asymptomatic to more severe than the inoculum source. RNase protection assays (RPAs) were used to compare nine regions of the CTV genome and determine whether unique strains could be identified. Five aphid-transmitted subcultures, with fingerprints that were different from those of the inoculum sources in at least one genomic area, were then cloned, sequenced, and compared with known isolates. An asymptomatic strain was shown to be different in every area of the CTV genome when examined by RPA and sequencing of selected regions. Mixed-infection studies using graft transmission of the asymptomatic subculture and two of the more severe aphid-transmitted subcultures showed that the mild strain was not able to compete well when in the presence of any of the severe variants tested, and its titer was significantly reduced from that seen in single infection. The mild strain and a selected severe strain were singly graft inoculated into five different citrus hosts (sweet orange, grapefruit, sour orange, lemon, and lime), where they maintained their distinct biological and genetic characteristics. PMID:19740030

  17. Variants of the obligate methanotroph isolate 761M capable of growth on glucose in the absence of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, S.J.; Hanson, R.S.

    1984-10-01

    Isolate 761M is an unusual type I methanotroph that possess a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle. Variants of this methanotroph that were capable of growth with methanol (isolate 761AR) or glucose (isolate 761H) have been isolated. Cultures of isolate 761H grown with glucose and casein hydrolysate as the sole carbon and energy sources retained the ability to grow on methane, contained methane monooxygenase and 3-hexulose phosphate synthase, and possessed intracytoplasmic membranes similar to those found in thin sections of isolate 761M grown on methane. Methane monooxygenase was also present in cultures of isolate 761AR grown on methanol and casein hydrolysate. 18 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Regulatory variants for the expression of H-2 antigens. I. Isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Rajan, T V; Nathenson, S G; Scharff, M D

    1976-06-01

    By subjecting "mutagenized" mouse myeloma cells repeatedly to selection with antiserum against H-2Kd, we isolated variants that expressed little or no H-2Kd alloantigens. The phenotype was unstable, with the culture accumulating revertants in the absence of selective pressure. The variants not only failed to express the selected antigen, but also the antigen coded by the closely liked H-2Dd gene. The cells reexpressed this antigen with the same kinetics as for the selected antigen. Several physiologic parameters (karyotype, cell morphology, size, and growth curves) were not altered by the loss of H-2 antigens.However,when injected iv, the H-2-deficient cells did not lodge in the spleen as readily as did the wild-type cells. PMID:994223

  19. Identification and characterization of porcine kobuvirus variant isolated from suckling piglet in Gansu province, China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shengtao; Sun, Heting; Ying, Ying; Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Zheng; Yu, Yicong; Li, Yuanguo; Wang, Tiecheng; Yu, Zhijun; Yang, Songtao; Zhao, Yongkun; Qin, Chuan; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2013-10-01

    Kobuviruses comprise three species, the Aichivirus A, Aichivirus B, and Aichivirus C (porcine kobuvirus). Porcine kobuvirus is endemic to pig farms and is not restricted geographically but, rather, is distributed worldwide. The complete genomic sequences of four porcine kobuvirus strains isolated during a diarrhea outbreak in piglets in the Gansu province of China were determined. Two of these strains exhibited variations relative to the traditional strains. The potential 3C/3D cleavage sites of the variant strains were Q/C, which differed from the Q/S in the traditional porcine kobuvirus genome. A 90-nucleotide deletion in the 2B protein and a single nucleotide insertion in the 3'UTR were found in the variant strains. The VP1 regions of all four porcine kobuviruses in our study were highly variable (81%-86%). Ten common amino acid mutations were found specifically at certain positions within the VP1 region. Significant recombination sites were identified using SimPlot scans of whole genome sequences. Porcine kobuviruses were also detected in pig serum, indicating that the virus can escape the gastrointestinal tract and travel to the circulatory system. These findings suggest that mutations and recombination events may have contributed to the high level of genetic diversity of porcine kobuviruses and serve as a driving force in its evolution. PMID:24145960

  20. Identification and Characterization of Porcine Kobuvirus Variant Isolated from Suckling Piglet in Gansu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Shengtao; Sun, Heting; Ying, Ying; Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Zheng; Yu, Yicong; Li, Yuanguo; Wang, Tiecheng; Yu, Zhijun; Yang, Songtao; Zhao, Yongkun; Qin, Chuan; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2013-01-01

    Kobuviruses comprise three species, the Aichivirus A, Aichivirus B, and Aichivirus C (porcine kobuvirus). Porcine kobuvirus is endemic to pig farms and is not restricted geographically but, rather, is distributed worldwide. The complete genomic sequences of four porcine kobuvirus strains isolated during a diarrhea outbreak in piglets in the Gansu province of China were determined. Two of these strains exhibited variations relative to the traditional strains. The potential 3C/3D cleavage sites of the variant strains were Q/C, which differed from the Q/S in the traditional porcine kobuvirus genome. A 90-nucleotide deletion in the 2B protein and a single nucleotide insertion in the 3?UTR were found in the variant strains. The VP1 regions of all four porcine kobuviruses in our study were highly variable (81%–86%). Ten common amino acid mutations were found specifically at certain positions within the VP1 region. Significant recombination sites were identified using SimPlot scans of whole genome sequences. Porcine kobuviruses were also detected in pig serum, indicating that the virus can escape the gastrointestinal tract and travel to the circulatory system. These findings suggest that mutations and recombination events may have contributed to the high level of genetic diversity of porcine kobuviruses and serve as a driving force in its evolution. PMID:24145960

  1. Pathogenic mitochondrial mt-tRNA(Ala) variants are uniquely associated with isolated myopathy.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Diana; Schubert, Kathrin; Joshi, Pushpa R; Hardy, Steven A; Tuppen, Helen A L; Baty, Karen; Blakely, Emma L; Bamberg, Christian; Zierz, Stephan; Deschauer, Marcus; Taylor, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations are associated with a wide range of clinical phenotypes, often involving multiple organ systems. We report two patients with isolated myopathy owing to novel mt-tRNA(Ala) variants. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive histopathological findings including cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-deficient fibres. Pyrosequencing confirmed mtDNA heteroplasmy for both mutations (m.5631G>A and m.5610G>A) whilst single-muscle fibre segregation studies (revealing statistically significant higher mutation loads in COX-deficient fibres than in COX-positive fibres), hierarchical mutation segregation within patient tissues and decreased steady-state mt-tRNA(Ala) levels all provide compelling evidence of pathogenicity. Interestingly, both patients showed very high-mutation levels in all tissues, inferring that the threshold for impairment of oxidative phosphorylation, as evidenced by COX deficiency, appears to be extremely high for these mt-tRNA(Ala) variants. Previously described mt-tRNA(Ala) mutations are also associated with a pure myopathic phenotype and demonstrate very high mtDNA heteroplasmy thresholds, inferring at least some genotype:phenotype correlation for mutations within this particular mt-tRNA gene. PMID:25873012

  2. Low-Pass Genome-Wide Sequencing and Variant Inference Using Identity-by-Descent in an Isolated Human Population

    PubMed Central

    Gusev, A.; Shah, M. J.; Kenny, E. E.; Ramachandran, A.; Lowe, J. K.; Salit, J.; Lee, C. C.; Levandowsky, E. C.; Weaver, T. N.; Doan, Q. C.; Peckham, H. E.; McLaughlin, S. F.; Lyons, M. R.; Sheth, V. N.; Stoffel, M.; De La Vega, F. M.; Friedman, J. M.; Breslow, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing in an isolated population with few founders directly ascertains variants from the population bottleneck that may be rare elsewhere. In such populations, shared haplotypes allow imputation of variants in unsequenced samples without resorting to complex statistical methods as in studies of outbred cohorts. We focus on an isolated population cohort from the Pacific Island of Kosrae, Micronesia, where we previously collected SNP array and rich phenotype data for the majority of the population. We report identification of long regions with haplotypes co-inherited between pairs of individuals and methodology to leverage such shared genetic content for imputation. Our estimates show that sequencing as few as 40 personal genomes allows for inference in up to 60% of the 3000-person cohort at the average locus. We ascertained a pilot data set of whole-genome sequences from seven Kosraean individuals, with average 5× coverage. This assay identified 5,735,306 unique sites of which 1,212,831 were previously unknown. Additionally, these variants are unusually enriched for alleles that are rare in other populations when compared to geographic neighbors (published Korean genome SJK). We used the presence of shared haplotypes between the seven Kosraen individuals to estimate expected imputation accuracy of known and novel homozygous variants at 99.6% and 97.3%, respectively. This study presents whole-genome analysis of a homogenous isolate population with emphasis on optimal rare variant inference. PMID:22135348

  3. Campylobacter hyointestinalis Isolated from Pigs Produces Multiple Variants of Biologically Active Cytolethal Distending Toxin.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Kazumasa; Hatanaka, Noritoshi; Asakura, Masahiro; Somroop, Srinuan; Samosornsuk, Worada; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Misawa, Naoaki; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-11-01

    Campylobacter hyointestinalis isolated from swine with proliferative enteritis often is considered to be pathogenic. While the precise virulence mechanisms of this species remain unclear, we have recently identified a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene cluster in C. hyointestinalis isolated from a patient with diarrhea (W. Samosornsuk et al., J Med Microbiol, 27 July 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.000145). However, the sequences of the cdt genes in C. hyointestinalis were found to be significantly different and the gene products are immunologically distinct from those of other Campylobacter species. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of a second variant of the cdt gene cluster in C. hyointestinalis, designated cdt-II, while the former is named cdt-I. Sequencing of the cdt-II gene cluster and deduced amino acid sequences revealed that homologies between the subunits CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC of ChCDT-I and ChCDT-II are 25.0, 56.0, and 24.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the CdtB subunit of ChCDT-II was found to be immunologically unrelated to that of ChCDT-I by Ouchterlony double gel diffusion test. Recombinant ChCDT-II also induced cell distention and death of HeLa cells by blocking the cell cycle at G2/M phase. Interestingly, the cdt-II genes were detected in all 23 animal isolates and in 1 human isolate of C. hyointestinalis, and 21 of these strains carried both cdt-I and cdt-II gene clusters. Altogether, our results indicate that ChCDT-II is an important virulence factor of C. hyointestinalis in animals. PMID:26283337

  4. Genetic characterization of Greek population isolates reveals strong genetic drift at missense and trait-associated variants

    PubMed Central

    Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Hatzikotoulas, Konstantinos; Xifara, Dionysia Kiara; Colonna, Vincenza; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Ritchie, Graham R. S.; Southam, Lorraine; Gilly, Arthur; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Fatumo, Segun; Matchan, Angela; Rayner, Nigel W.; Ntalla, Ioanna; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Chen, Yuan; Kiagiadaki, Chrysoula; Zengini, Eleni; Mamakou, Vasiliki; Athanasiadis, Antonis; Giannakopoulou, Margarita; Kariakli, Vassiliki-Eirini; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Karabarinde, Alex; Sandhu, Manjinder; McVean, Gil; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; Karaleftheri, Maria; Xue, Yali; Dedoussis, George; Zeggini, Eleftheria

    2014-01-01

    Isolated populations are emerging as a powerful study design in the search for low-frequency and rare variant associations with complex phenotypes. Here we genotype 2,296 samples from two isolated Greek populations, the Pomak villages (HELIC-Pomak) in the North of Greece and the Mylopotamos villages (HELIC-MANOLIS) in Crete. We compare their genomic characteristics to the general Greek population and establish them as genetic isolates. In the MANOLIS cohort, we observe an enrichment of missense variants among the variants that have drifted up in frequency by more than fivefold. In the Pomak cohort, we find novel associations at variants on chr11p15.4 showing large allele frequency increases (from 0.2% in the general Greek population to 4.6% in the isolate) with haematological traits, for example, with mean corpuscular volume (rs7116019, P=2.3 × 10?26). We replicate this association in a second set of Pomak samples (combined P=2.0 × 10?36). We demonstrate significant power gains in detecting medical trait associations. PMID:25373335

  5. A new variant of cytolethal distending toxin in a clinical isolate of Campylobacter hyointestinalis.

    PubMed

    Samosornsuk, Worada; Kamei, Kazumasa; Hatanaka, Noritoshi; Taguchi, Takashi; Asakura, Masahiro; Somroop, Srinuan; Sugimoto, Norihiko; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-10-01

    Increasing numbers of Campylobacter hyointestinalis have been isolated from humans and animals with gastroenteritis, although the virulence mechanism of this species remains largely unknown. Here, we show that C. hyointestinalis isolated from a patient with diarrhoea in Thailand produced a novel variant of cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). Sequencing of a 13?965?bp genomic region of C. hyointestinalis carrying the genes coding for Ch-CDT revealed three ORFs of 798, 804 and 537?bp, which code for the Ch-CdtA, Ch-CdtB and Ch-CdtC subunits, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ch-CdtA showed ?38.9?% homology with the CdtA of Campylobacter coli, but sequences of Ch-CdtB and Ch-CdtC were homologous to CdtB (65.7?%) and CdtC (33.1?%) of Campylobacter upsaliensis, respectively. Filter-sterilized sonic lysate of C. hyointestinalis demonstrated distension and death of HeLa cells by arresting the cell cycle at the G2/M phase and phosphorylation of host histone H2AX, a sensitive marker of DNA double-strand breaks. Rabbit antiserum raised against recombinant Ch-CdtB was not reactive against the recombinant CdtB protein of Campylobacter jejuni. A reconstituted Ch-CDT holotoxin prepared using each of the recombinant subunit proteins demonstrated distension and death of HeLa cells, suggesting that the C. hyointestinalis isolate indeed produced functionally active Ch-CDT. Furthermore, the immunological distinctiveness of the Ch-CDT produced by C. hyointestinalis and the increasing prevalence of the species in patients and animals with gastroenteritis suggest that this species may be an important emerging zoonotic pathogen. PMID:26220191

  6. Genomic analysis of a nontoxigenic, invasive Corynebacterium diphtheriae strain from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Encinas, Fernando; Marin, Michel A; Ramos, Juliana N; Vieira, Verônica V; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza; Vicente, Ana Carolina P

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence and analysis of an invasive Corynebacterium diphtheriae strain that caused endocarditis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It was selected for sequencing on the basis of the current relevance of nontoxigenic strains for public health. The genomic information was explored in the context of diversity, plasticity and genetic relatedness with other contemporary strains. PMID:26517665

  7. Genomic analysis of a nontoxigenic, invasive Corynebacterium diphtheriae strain from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Encinas, Fernando; Marin, Michel A; Ramos, Juliana N; Vieira, Verônica V; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza; Vicente, Ana Carolina P

    2015-09-01

    We report the complete genome sequence and analysis of an invasive Corynebacterium diphtheriae strain that caused endocarditis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It was selected for sequencing on the basis of the current relevance of nontoxigenic strains for public health. The genomic information was explored in the context of diversity, plasticity and genetic relatedness with other contemporary strains. PMID:26517665

  8. Exome Sequencing in an Admixed Isolated Population Indicates NFXL1 Variants Confer a Risk for Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Pía; Nudel, Ron; Hoischen, Alexander; Fernández, María Angélica; Simpson, Nuala H.; Gilissen, Christian; Reader, Rose H.; Jara, Lillian; Echeverry, Maria Magdalena; Francks, Clyde; Baird, Gillian; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; O’Hare, Anne; Bolton, Patrick F.; Hennessy, Elizabeth R.; Palomino, Hernán; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Veltman, Joris A.; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; De Barbieri, Zulema

    2015-01-01

    Children affected by Specific Language Impairment (SLI) fail to acquire age appropriate language skills despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. SLI is highly heritable, but the understanding of underlying genetic mechanisms has proved challenging. In this study, we use molecular genetic techniques to investigate an admixed isolated founder population from the Robinson Crusoe Island (Chile), who are affected by a high incidence of SLI, increasing the power to discover contributory genetic factors. We utilize exome sequencing in selected individuals from this population to identify eight coding variants that are of putative significance. We then apply association analyses across the wider population to highlight a single rare coding variant (rs144169475, Minor Allele Frequency of 4.1% in admixed South American populations) in the NFXL1 gene that confers a nonsynonymous change (N150K) and is significantly associated with language impairment in the Robinson Crusoe population (p = 2.04 × 10–4, 8 variants tested). Subsequent sequencing of NFXL1 in 117 UK SLI cases identified four individuals with heterozygous variants predicted to be of functional consequence. We conclude that coding variants within NFXL1 confer an increased risk of SLI within a complex genetic model. PMID:25781923

  9. Exome sequencing in an admixed isolated population indicates NFXL1 variants confer a risk for specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Pía; Nudel, Ron; Hoischen, Alexander; Fernández, María Angélica; Simpson, Nuala H; Gilissen, Christian; Reader, Rose H; Jara, Lillian; Echeverry, María Magdalena; Echeverry, Maria Magdalena; Francks, Clyde; Baird, Gillian; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; O'Hare, Anne; Bolton, Patrick F; Hennessy, Elizabeth R; Palomino, Hernán; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Veltman, Joris A; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; De Barbieri, Zulema; Fisher, Simon E; Newbury, Dianne F

    2015-03-01

    Children affected by Specific Language Impairment (SLI) fail to acquire age appropriate language skills despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. SLI is highly heritable, but the understanding of underlying genetic mechanisms has proved challenging. In this study, we use molecular genetic techniques to investigate an admixed isolated founder population from the Robinson Crusoe Island (Chile), who are affected by a high incidence of SLI, increasing the power to discover contributory genetic factors. We utilize exome sequencing in selected individuals from this population to identify eight coding variants that are of putative significance. We then apply association analyses across the wider population to highlight a single rare coding variant (rs144169475, Minor Allele Frequency of 4.1% in admixed South American populations) in the NFXL1 gene that confers a nonsynonymous change (N150K) and is significantly associated with language impairment in the Robinson Crusoe population (p = 2.04 × 10-4, 8 variants tested). Subsequent sequencing of NFXL1 in 117 UK SLI cases identified four individuals with heterozygous variants predicted to be of functional consequence. We conclude that coding variants within NFXL1 confer an increased risk of SLI within a complex genetic model. PMID:25781923

  10. Isolation of a Variant Strain of Pleurotus eryngii and the Development of Specific DNA Markers to Identify the Variant Strain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Sang-Woo; Ryu, Jae-San; Lee, Chang-Yun

    2014-01-01

    A degenerated strain of Pleurotus eryngii KNR2312 was isolated from a commercial farm. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis performed on the genomic DNA of the normal and degenerated strains of this species revealed differences in the DNA banding pattern. A unique DNA fragment (1.7 kbp), which appeared only in the degenerated strain, was isolated and sequenced. Comparing this sequence with the KNR2312 genomic sequence showed that the sequence of the degenerated strain comprised three DNA regions that originated from nine distinct scaffolds of the genomic sequence, suggesting that chromosome-level changes had occurred in the degenerated strain. Using the unique sequence, three sets of PCR primers were designed that targeted the full length, the 5' half, and the 3' half of the DNA. The primer sets P2-1 and P2-2 yielded 1.76 and 0.97 kbp PCR products, respectively, only in the case of the degenerated strain, whereas P2-3 generated a 0.8 kbp product in both the normal and the degenerated strains because its target region was intact in the normal strain as well. In the case of the P2-1 and P2-2 sets, the priming regions of the forward and reverse primers were located at distinct genomic scaffolds in the normal strain. These two primer sets specifically detected the degenerate strain of KNR2312 isolated from various mushrooms including 10 different strains of P. eryngii, four strains of P. ostreatus, and 11 other wild mushrooms. PMID:24808734

  11. Isolation of a Variant Strain of Pleurotus eryngii and the Development of Specific DNA Markers to Identify the Variant Strain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Sang-Woo; Ryu, Jae-San; Lee, Chang-Yun; Ro, Hyeon-Su

    2014-03-01

    A degenerated strain of Pleurotus eryngii KNR2312 was isolated from a commercial farm. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis performed on the genomic DNA of the normal and degenerated strains of this species revealed differences in the DNA banding pattern. A unique DNA fragment (1.7 kbp), which appeared only in the degenerated strain, was isolated and sequenced. Comparing this sequence with the KNR2312 genomic sequence showed that the sequence of the degenerated strain comprised three DNA regions that originated from nine distinct scaffolds of the genomic sequence, suggesting that chromosome-level changes had occurred in the degenerated strain. Using the unique sequence, three sets of PCR primers were designed that targeted the full length, the 5' half, and the 3' half of the DNA. The primer sets P2-1 and P2-2 yielded 1.76 and 0.97 kbp PCR products, respectively, only in the case of the degenerated strain, whereas P2-3 generated a 0.8 kbp product in both the normal and the degenerated strains because its target region was intact in the normal strain as well. In the case of the P2-1 and P2-2 sets, the priming regions of the forward and reverse primers were located at distinct genomic scaffolds in the normal strain. These two primer sets specifically detected the degenerate strain of KNR2312 isolated from various mushrooms including 10 different strains of P. eryngii, four strains of P. ostreatus, and 11 other wild mushrooms. PMID:24808734

  12. Isolation and molecular characterization of newly emerging avian reovirus variants and novel strains in Pennsylvania, USA, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huaguang; Tang, Yi; Dunn, Patricia A; Wallner-Pendleton, Eva A; Lin, Lin; Knoll, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    Avian reovirus (ARV) infections of broiler and turkey flocks have caused significant clinical disease and economic losses in Pennsylvania (PA) since 2011. Most of the ARV-infected birds suffered from severe arthritis, tenosynovitis, pericarditis and depressed growth or runting-stunting syndrome (RSS). A high morbidity (up to 20% to 40%) was observed in ARV-affected flocks, and the flock mortality was occasionally as high as 10%. ARV infections in turkeys were diagnosed for the first time in PA in 2011. From 2011 to 2014, a total of 301 ARV isolations were made from affected PA poultry. The molecular characterization of the Sigma C gene of 114 field isolates, representing most ARV outbreaks, revealed that only 21.93% of the 114 sequenced ARV isolates were in the same genotyping cluster (cluster 1) as the ARV vaccine strains (S1133, 1733, and 2048), whereas 78.07% of the sequenced isolates were in genotyping clusters 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 (which were distinct from the vaccine strains) and represented newly emerging ARV variants. In particular, genotyping cluster 6 was a new ARV genotype that was identified for the first time in 10 novel PA ARV variants of field isolates. PMID:26469681

  13. Isolation and molecular characterization of newly emerging avian reovirus variants and novel strains in Pennsylvania, USA, 2011–2014

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huaguang; Tang, Yi; Dunn, Patricia A.; Wallner-Pendleton, Eva A.; Lin, Lin; Knoll, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Avian reovirus (ARV) infections of broiler and turkey flocks have caused significant clinical disease and economic losses in Pennsylvania (PA) since 2011. Most of the ARV-infected birds suffered from severe arthritis, tenosynovitis, pericarditis and depressed growth or runting-stunting syndrome (RSS). A high morbidity (up to 20% to 40%) was observed in ARV-affected flocks, and the flock mortality was occasionally as high as 10%. ARV infections in turkeys were diagnosed for the first time in PA in 2011. From 2011 to 2014, a total of 301 ARV isolations were made from affected PA poultry. The molecular characterization of the Sigma C gene of 114 field isolates, representing most ARV outbreaks, revealed that only 21.93% of the 114 sequenced ARV isolates were in the same genotyping cluster (cluster 1) as the ARV vaccine strains (S1133, 1733, and 2048), whereas 78.07% of the sequenced isolates were in genotyping clusters 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 (which were distinct from the vaccine strains) and represented newly emerging ARV variants. In particular, genotyping cluster 6 was a new ARV genotype that was identified for the first time in 10 novel PA ARV variants of field isolates. PMID:26469681

  14. Novel variant serotype of streptococcus suis isolated from piglets with meningitis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zihao; Ma, Jiale; Dong, Wenyang; Song, Wenchao; Wang, Kaicheng; Lu, Chengping; Yao, Huochun

    2015-02-01

    Streptococcus suis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen causing severe infections in pigs and humans. In previous studies, 33 serotypes of S. suis have been identified using serum agglutination. Here, we describe a novel S. suis strain, CZ130302, isolated from an outbreak of acute piglet meningitis in eastern China. Strong pathogenicity of meningitis caused by strain CZ130302 was reproduced in the BALB/c mouse model. The strain showed a high fatality rate (8/10), higher than those for known virulent serotype 2 strains P1/7 (1/10) and 9801 (2/10). Cell adhesion assay results with bEnd.3 and HEp2 cells showed that CZ130302 was significantly close to P1/7 and 9801. Both the agglutination test and its complementary test showed that strain CZ130302 had no strong cross-reaction with the other 33 S. suis serotypes. The multiplex PCR assays revealed no specified bands for all four sets used to detect the other 33 serotypes. In addition, genetic analysis of the whole cps gene clusters of all serotypes was performed in this study. The results of comparative genomics showed that the cps gene cluster of CZ130302, which was not previously reported, showed no homology to the gene sequences of the other strains. Especially, the wzy, wzx, and acetyltransferase genes of strain CZ130302 are phylogenetically distinct from strains of the other 33 serotypes. Therefore, this study suggested that strain CZ130302 represents a novel variant serotype of S. suis (designated serotype Chz) which has a high potential to be virulent and associated with meningitis in animals. PMID:25416757

  15. Novel Variant Serotype of Streptococcus suis Isolated from Piglets with Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zihao; Ma, Jiale; Dong, Wenyang; Song, Wenchao; Wang, Kaicheng

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen causing severe infections in pigs and humans. In previous studies, 33 serotypes of S. suis have been identified using serum agglutination. Here, we describe a novel S. suis strain, CZ130302, isolated from an outbreak of acute piglet meningitis in eastern China. Strong pathogenicity of meningitis caused by strain CZ130302 was reproduced in the BALB/c mouse model. The strain showed a high fatality rate (8/10), higher than those for known virulent serotype 2 strains P1/7 (1/10) and 9801 (2/10). Cell adhesion assay results with bEnd.3 and HEp2 cells showed that CZ130302 was significantly close to P1/7 and 9801. Both the agglutination test and its complementary test showed that strain CZ130302 had no strong cross-reaction with the other 33 S. suis serotypes. The multiplex PCR assays revealed no specified bands for all four sets used to detect the other 33 serotypes. In addition, genetic analysis of the whole cps gene clusters of all serotypes was performed in this study. The results of comparative genomics showed that the cps gene cluster of CZ130302, which was not previously reported, showed no homology to the gene sequences of the other strains. Especially, the wzy, wzx, and acetyltransferase genes of strain CZ130302 are phylogenetically distinct from strains of the other 33 serotypes. Therefore, this study suggested that strain CZ130302 represents a novel variant serotype of S. suis (designated serotype Chz) which has a high potential to be virulent and associated with meningitis in animals. PMID:25416757

  16. Population turnover in a Microcystis bloom results in predominantly nontoxigenic variants late in the season.

    PubMed

    Bozarth, Connie S; Schwartz, Andrew D; Shepardson, Jonathan W; Colwell, Frederick S; Dreher, Theo W

    2010-08-01

    Surface samples of the 2007 Microcystis bloom occurring in Copco Reservoir on the Klamath River in Northern California were analyzed genetically by sequencing clone libraries made with amplicons at three loci: the internal transcribed spacer of the rRNA operon (ITS), cpcBA, and mcyA. Samples were taken between June and October, during which time two cell count peaks occurred, in mid-July and early September. The ITS and cpcBA loci could be classified into four or five allele groups, which provided a convenient means for describing the Microcystis population and its changes over time. Each group was numerically dominated by a single, highly represented sequence. Other members of each group varied by changes at 1 to 3 nucleotide positions, while groups were separated by up to 30 nucleotide differences. As deduced by a partial sampling of the clone libraries, there were marked population turnovers during the season, indicated by changes in allele composition at both the ITS and cpcBA loci. Different ITS and cpcBA genotypes appeared to be dominant at the two population peaks. Toxicity (amount of microcystin per cell) and toxigenic potential (mcyB copy number) were lower during the second peak, and the mcyB copy number fell further as the bloom declined. PMID:20543038

  17. Antagonistic lactic acid bacteria isolated from goat milk and identification of a novel nisin variant Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The raw goat milk microbiota is considered a good source of novel bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains that can be exploited as an alternative for use as biopreservatives in foods. The constant demand for such alternative tools justifies studies that investigate the antimicrobial potential of such strains. Results The obtained data identified a predominance of Lactococcus and Enterococcus strains in raw goat milk microbiota with antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644. Enzymatic assays confirmed the bacteriocinogenic nature of the antimicrobial substances produced by the isolated strains, and PCR reactions detected a variety of bacteriocin-related genes in their genomes. Rep-PCR identified broad genetic variability among the Enterococcus isolates, and close relations between the Lactococcus strains. The sequencing of PCR products from nis-positive Lactococcus allowed the identification of a predicted nisin variant not previously described and possessing a wide inhibitory spectrum. Conclusions Raw goat milk was confirmed as a good source of novel bacteriocinogenic LAB strains, having identified Lactococcus isolates possessing variations in their genomes that suggest the production of a nisin variant not yet described and with potential for use as biopreservatives in food due to its broad spectrum of action. PMID:24521354

  18. Pathogenicity and genomic characterization of a pseudorabies virus variant isolated from Bartha-K61-vaccinated swine population in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuzi; Li, Na; Cong, Xin; Wang, Chun-Hua; Du, Min; Li, Lin; Zhao, Bibo; Yuan, Jin; Liu, Dan-Dan; Li, Su; Li, Yongfeng; Sun, Yuan; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2014-11-01

    Pseudorabies (PR) or Aujeszky's disease (AD), caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV), is an economically important viral disease worldwide. Recently, PR outbreaks occurred in a large number of Bartha-K61-vaccinated swine herds in many regions of China. Here, we isolated a PRV variant, named TJ strain, from a Bartha-K61-vaccinated pig farm in China, evaluated the pathogenicity of the TJ strain in susceptible animals and analyzed its complete genomic sequence obtained by 454 pyrosequencing. Vaccination-challenge experiment in sheep showed that the classical Bartha-K61 vaccine could not provide complete protection against the challenge with the PRV TJ strain. In mice, the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of the TJ strain (10(2.3) TCID50) was lower than that of the classical PRV SC strain (10(3.0) TCID50). Furthermore, the TJ strain displayed higher mortality for pigs, as compared with the SC strain. The PRV TJ strain genome was determined to be 143,642 bp in length, encoding 67 open reading frames. The TJ strain was clustered to an independent branch together with some recent PRV isolates in China in the phylogenetic tree, which was relatively distant from previous PRV isolates. The TJ strain showed unique variations in the viral proteins that play key roles in the viral replication cycle. Taken together, the TJ strain is a highly pathogenic PRV variant with unique molecular signatures. Further studies are needed to explore the relevance of the sequence differences to the virulence alteration of the PRV variant. PMID:25293398

  19. Biochemical Characterization of VIM-39, a VIM-1-Like Metallo-?-Lactamase Variant from a Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate from Greece.

    PubMed

    Papagiannitsis, Costas C; Pollini, Simona; De Luca, Filomena; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Docquier, Jean-Denis; Hrabák, Jaroslav

    2015-12-01

    VIM-39, a VIM-1-like metallo-?-lactamase variant (VIM-1 Thr33Ala His224Leu) was identified in a clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae belonging to sequence type 147. VIM-39 hydrolyzed ampicillin, cephalothin, and imipenem more efficiently than did VIM-1 and VIM-26 (a VIM-1 variant with the His224Leu substitution) because of higher turnover rates. PMID:26369975

  20. Glycosylation of chicken haptoglobin: isolation and characterization of three molecular variants and studies of their distribution in hen plasma before and after turpentine-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Delers, F; Strecker, G; Engler, R

    1988-03-01

    Chicken haptoglobin (Hp), a hemoglobin-binding protein isolated from chicken plasma, is composed of three molecular variants that react differently with concanavalin A (ConA). These glycosylation variants of chicken Hp have been isolated by affinity chromatography using Sepharose-bound ConA. They differ in their molecular weight, as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Analysis of the glycopeptides obtained after pronase digestion of these variants yielded two types of structures: one, reactive with ConA, corresponded to a biantennary N-linked carbohydrate unit and one, unreactive with ConA, corresponded to a triantennary unit. The strongly ConA-reactive Hp variant bears only two biantennary units and the nonreactive Hp variant bears only two triantennary units; the weakly reactive Hp variant bears equal amounts of both units. The distribution of Hp glycosylation variant does not show any significant difference when obtained from the plasma of laying hens before and after turpentine-induced inflammation. PMID:3132955

  1. Mitochondrial DNA Variant in COX1 Subunit Significantly Alters Energy Metabolism of Geographically Divergent Wild Isolates in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Dingley, Stephen D.; Polyak, Erzsebet; Ostrovsky, Julian; Srinivasan, Satish; Lee, Icksoo; Rosenfeld, Amy B.; Tsukikawa, Mai; Xiao, Rui; Selak, Mary A.; Coon, Joshua J.; Hebert, Alexander S.; Grimsrud, Paul A.; Kwon, Young Joon; Pagliarini, David J.; Gai, Xiaowu; Schurr, Theodore G.; Hüttemann, Maik; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Falk, Marni J.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation can influence the penetrance of complex diseases and climatic adaptation. While studies in geographically defined human populations suggest that mtDNA mutations become fixed when they have conferred metabolic capabilities optimally suited for a specific environment, it has been challenging to definitively assign adaptive functions to specific mtDNA sequence variants in mammals. We investigated whether mtDNA genome variation functionally influences Caenorhabditis elegans wild isolates of distinct mtDNA lineages and geographic origins. We found that, relative to N2 (England) wild-type nematodes, CB4856 wild isolates from a warmer native climate (Hawaii) had a unique p.A12S amino acid substitution in the mtDNA-encoded COX1 core catalytic subunit of mitochondrial complex IV (CIV). Relative to N2, CB4856 worms grown at 20 °C had significantly increased CIV enzyme activity, mitochondrial matrix oxidant burden, and sensitivity to oxidative stress but had significantly reduced lifespan and mitochondrial membrane potential. Interestingly, mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly increased in CB4856 grown at its native temperature of 25 °C. A transmitochondrial cybrid worm strain, chpIR (M, CB4856 > N2), was bred as homoplasmic for the CB4856 mtDNA genome in the N2 nuclear background. The cybrid strain also displayed significantly increased CIV activity, demonstrating that this difference results from the mtDNA-encoded p.A12S variant. However, chpIR (M, CB4856 > N2) worms had significantly reduced median and maximal lifespan relative to CB4856, which may relate to their nuclear– mtDNA genome mismatch. Overall, these data suggest that C. elegans wild isolates of varying geographic origins may adapt to environmental challenges through mtDNA variation to modulate critical aspects of mitochondrial energy metabolism. PMID:24534730

  2. Triclosan-Induced Aminoglycoside-Tolerant Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Can Appear as Small-Colony Variants

    PubMed Central

    Kastbjerg, Vicky G.; Hein-Kristensen, Line

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of the human food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to sublethal concentrations of triclosan can cause resistance to several aminoglycosides. Aminoglycoside-resistant isolates exhibit two colony morphologies: normal-size and pinpoint colonies. The purposes of the present study were to characterize the small colonies of L. monocytogenes and to determine if specific genetic changes could explain the triclosan-induced aminoglycoside resistance in both pinpoint and normal-size isolates. Isolates from the pinpoint colonies grew poorly under aerated conditions, but growth was restored by addition of antibiotics. Pinpoint isolates had decreased hemolytic activity under stagnant conditions and a changed spectrum of carbohydrate utilization compared to the wild type and isolates from normal-size colonies. Genome sequence comparison revealed that all seven pinpoint isolates had a mutation in a heme gene, and addition of heme caused the pinpoint isolates to revert to normal colony size. Triclosan-induced gentamicin-resistant isolates had mutations in several different genes, and it cannot be directly concluded how the different mutations caused gentamicin resistance. However, since many of the mutations affected proteins involved in respiration, it seems likely that the mutations affected the active transport of the antibiotic and thereby caused resistance by decreasing the amount of aminoglycoside that enters the bacterial cell. Our study emphasizes that triclosan likely has more targets than just fabI and that exposure to triclosan can cause resistance to antibiotics that enters the cell via active transport. Further studies are needed to elucidate if L. monocytogenes pinpoint isolates could have any clinical impact, e.g., in persistent infections. PMID:24637686

  3. Selective isolation of reversible cold sensitive variants from Chinese hamster ovary cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson-Wilhelm, B M; Freed, J J; Perry, R P

    1976-09-01

    Variants of the Chinese hamster ovary cell line CHO-KI (ATTCCCL61)which grow almost normally at 38.5C but very poorly or not at all at 30C were obtained after treatment with mutagens and application of an indirect selection procedure. Two kinds of variants were recovered. In the first of these, the cold sensitive phenotypw is expressed completely only at low cell densities. At higher cell desity, growth continues at the nonpermissive temperature, but at a reduced rate. In the second class, the cold snesitive phenotype is independent of cell density. Two members of the latter class were studied in detail. In both lines, after shift to the nonpermissive temperature, the rateof H-thymidine incorporation declines markedly; the rates of H-uridine and H-phenylalanine uptake are less drastically reduced. Autoradiographs indicate that the decline in thymidine uptake at the nonpermissive temperature is due to an elongation of part of the cell cycle, so that a smaller proportion of the cells lie in the synthetic (S) phase of the cell cycle with a consequent reduction in the fraction labeled cells. The uridine labeling patterns of the mutants appear to rule out a ribsomal lesion. Low temperature growth inhibition of both cell strains was reversible. In one of the cell lines, an apparent stretching of the cells at the low temperature produces substantial alterations in cell shape. PMID:956283

  4. [Analysis of bacterial small-colony variants isolated from clinical specimens].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takehisa

    2014-07-01

    There is a slow-growing subpopulation of bacteria with distinctive phenotypic and pathogenic traits called bacterial small-colony variants (SCVs). Phenotypically, SCVs show a slow growth rate, atypical colony morphology, and unusual biochemical characteristics. SCV strains often grow on blood agar or Drigalski agar as non-pigmented or pinpoint pigmented colonies, and key biochemical tests for them are often non-reactive. This review describes analyses of hemin-dependent Escherichia coli SCV and Staphylococcus aureus thymidine-dependent SCVs based on our case reports. Because SCVs exhibit fastidious growth characteristics, clinical microbiologists may easily miss or misidentify them in the clinical laboratory. Therefore, we must elucidate the cause of SCVs, and improve laboratory methods for the identification and assessment of the susceptibility of SCVs in the clinical laboratory. PMID:25669045

  5. Genetic Diversity of Tropical Isolates and Color Variants of Aureobasidium pullulans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The polymorphic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was isolated from many provinces in tropical Thailand and cultured in pullulan production medium (PM) containing sucrose and peptone as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Liquid PM cultures varied in color from cream to pale pink, light burgund...

  6. Characterization of Sucrose-Negative Pasteurella multocida Variants, Including Isolates from Large-Cat Bite Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Henrik; Bisgaard, Magne; Angen, Øystein; Frederiksen, Wilhelm; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2005-01-01

    To validate the identification of Pasteurella multocida-like bacteria negative for acid formation from sucrose, including isolates from bite wounds caused by large cats, 17 strains were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of partially sequenced rpoB and infB genes showed the monophyly of the strains characterized and the reference strains of P. multocida. The sucrose-negative strains formed two groups, one related to reference strains of P. multocida and the other related to a separate species-like group (taxon 45 of Bisgaard). DNA-DNA hybridization further documented the species-like nature of this group. Ribotyping showed the heterogeneity of all strains except four strains that shared the same ribotype and that were isolated from bovine lungs. Phylogenetic analysis by 16S rRNA sequence comparison showed the monophyly of the strains characterized and the reference strains of P. multocida. Two strains isolated from leopard bite wounds were related to the type strain of P. dagmatis; however, they represented a new taxon (taxon 46 of Bisgaard), in accordance with their distinct phenotypic and genotypic identifications. The present study documents that sucrose-negative strains of P. multocida-like bacteria belong to two genotypically distinct groups. The study further confirms the phenotypic heterogeneity of P. multocida strains and documents two new species-like taxa of Pasteurella related to P. multocida. Until diagnostic tools have been further elaborated, special care should be taken in the identification of Pasteurella-like bacteria isolated from bite wounds caused by large cats. The evidence of phenotypic and genotypic divergence calls for the further development of PCR tests and DNA sequencing to document doubtful isolates. PMID:15634981

  7. Evaluation of different genotypes of nontoxigenic Aspergillus flavus for their ability to reduce aflatoxin contamination in peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus are potent carcinogens and account for large monetary losses worldwide in peanuts, maize and cottonseed. Biological control in which a nontoxigenic strain of A. flavus is applied to crops at high concentrations effectively reduces aflatoxins thro...

  8. Murine Innate Immune Response to Virulent Toxigenic and Nontoxigenic Bacillus anthracis Strains?

    PubMed Central

    Drysdale, Melissa; Olson, Gwyneth; Koehler, Theresa M.; Lipscomb, Mary F.; Lyons, C. Rick

    2007-01-01

    Effective treatment of anthrax is hampered by our limited understanding of the pathophysiology of Bacillus anthracis infection. We used a genetically complete (pXO1+ pXO2+) virulent B. anthracis strain and four isogenic toxin-null mutants to determine the effects of the anthrax edema toxin (ET; edema factor [EF] plus protective antigen [PA]) and lethal toxin (LT; lethal factor [LF] plus PA) on the host innate response during systemic infection. Using the spleen as an indicator for host response, we found that intravenous inoculation of LT-deficient mutants into C57BL/6 mice significantly increased production of several cytokines over that observed after infection with the parent strain or an EF-deficient mutant. Bacteria producing one or both of the toxins were capable of inducing significant apoptosis of cells present in spleens, whereas apoptosis was greatly reduced in mice infected with nontoxigenic mutants. Mice infected with toxin-producing strains also showed increased splenic neutrophil recruitment compared to mice infected with nontoxigenic strains and neutrophil depletion prior to infection with toxin-producing strains, leading to decreased levels of apoptosis. Together, these studies indicate that anthrax LT suppresses cytokine secretion during infection, but both EF and LF play roles in inducing neutrophil recruitment and enhancing apoptosis. Interestingly, in the absence of LF the effect of EF-induced cell recruitment is further enhanced, perhaps because LF so effectively suppresses the secretion of chemokines. PMID:17242059

  9. Murine innate immune response to virulent toxigenic and nontoxigenic Bacillus anthracis strains.

    PubMed

    Drysdale, Melissa; Olson, Gwyneth; Koehler, Theresa M; Lipscomb, Mary F; Lyons, C Rick

    2007-04-01

    Effective treatment of anthrax is hampered by our limited understanding of the pathophysiology of Bacillus anthracis infection. We used a genetically complete (pXO1(+) pXO2(+)) virulent B. anthracis strain and four isogenic toxin-null mutants to determine the effects of the anthrax edema toxin (ET; edema factor [EF] plus protective antigen [PA]) and lethal toxin (LT; lethal factor [LF] plus PA) on the host innate response during systemic infection. Using the spleen as an indicator for host response, we found that intravenous inoculation of LT-deficient mutants into C57BL/6 mice significantly increased production of several cytokines over that observed after infection with the parent strain or an EF-deficient mutant. Bacteria producing one or both of the toxins were capable of inducing significant apoptosis of cells present in spleens, whereas apoptosis was greatly reduced in mice infected with nontoxigenic mutants. Mice infected with toxin-producing strains also showed increased splenic neutrophil recruitment compared to mice infected with nontoxigenic strains and neutrophil depletion prior to infection with toxin-producing strains, leading to decreased levels of apoptosis. Together, these studies indicate that anthrax LT suppresses cytokine secretion during infection, but both EF and LF play roles in inducing neutrophil recruitment and enhancing apoptosis. Interestingly, in the absence of LF the effect of EF-induced cell recruitment is further enhanced, perhaps because LF so effectively suppresses the secretion of chemokines. PMID:17242059

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of a Bordetella pertussis Strain with the Virulence-Associated Allelic Variant ptxP3, Isolated in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Anselmo, A.; Buttinelli, G.; Ciammaruconi, A.; Midulla, F.; Nicolai, A.; Fortunato, A.; Palozzi, A.; Fillo, S.; Lista, F.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a universal immunization program, pertussis has persisted and resurged, and is of particular concern for infants in terms of morbidity and mortality. Here, we report the genome sequence a of Bordetella pertussis strain with the virulence-associated allelic variant ptxP3, isolated from a 45-day-old infant. PMID:26358588

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of a Bordetella pertussis Strain with the Virulence-Associated Allelic Variant ptxP3, Isolated in Italy.

    PubMed

    Anselmo, A; Buttinelli, G; Ciammaruconi, A; Midulla, F; Nicolai, A; Fortunato, A; Palozzi, A; Fillo, S; Lista, F; Stefanelli, P

    2015-01-01

    Despite a universal immunization program, pertussis has persisted and resurged, and is of particular concern for infants in terms of morbidity and mortality. Here, we report the genome sequence of a Bordetella pertussis strain with the virulence-associated allelic variant ptxP3, isolated from a 45-day-old infant. PMID:26358588

  12. Use of a genetic isolate to identify rare disease variants: C7 on 5p associated with MS

    PubMed Central

    Kallio, Suvi P.; Jakkula, Eveliina; Purcell, Shaun; Suvela, Minna; Koivisto, Keijo; Tienari, Pentti J.; Elovaara, Irina; Pirttilä, Tuula; Reunanen, Mauri; Bronnikov, Denis; Viander, Markku; Meri, Seppo; Hillert, Jan; Lundmark, Frida; Harbo, Hanne F.; Lorentzen, Åslaug R.; De Jager, Philip L.; Daly, Mark J.; Hafler, David A.; Palotie, Aarno; Peltonen, Leena; Saarela, Janna

    2009-01-01

    Large case–control genome-wide association studies primarily expose common variants contributing to disease pathogenesis with modest effects. Thus, alternative strategies are needed to tackle rare, possibly more penetrant alleles. One strategy is to use special populations with a founder effect and isolation, resulting in allelic enrichment. For multiple sclerosis such a unique setting is reported in Southern Ostrobothnia in Finland, where the prevalence and familial occurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS) are exceptionally high. Here, we have studied one of the best replicated MS loci, 5p, and monitored for haplotypes shared among 72 regional MS cases, the majority of which are genealogically distantly related. The haplotype analysis over the 45 Mb region, covering the linkage peak identified in Finnish MS families, revealed only modest association at IL7R (P = 0.04), recently implicated in MS, whereas most significant association was found with one haplotype covering the C7-FLJ40243 locus (P = 0.0001), 5.1 Mb centromeric of IL7R. The finding was validated in an independent sample from the isolate and resulted in an odds ratio of 2.73 (P = 0.000003) in the combined data set. The identified relatively rare risk haplotype contains C7 (complement component 7), an important player of the innate immune system. Suggestive association with alleles of the region was seen also in more heterogeneous populations. Interestingly, also the complement activity correlated with the identified risk haplotype. These results suggest that the MS predisposing locus on 5p is more complex than assumed and exemplify power of population isolates in the identification of rare disease alleles. PMID:19221116

  13. A major EBNA1 variant from Asian EBV isolates shows enhanced transcriptional activity compared to prototype B95.8.

    PubMed

    Do, Nguyen-Van; Ingemar, Ernberg; Phi, Phan-Thi Phi; Jenny, Almqvist; Chinh, Tran-Thi; Zeng, Yixin; Hu, Lifu

    2008-03-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) has an instrumental role in maintaining EBV latent infection by controlling EBV episome replication and regulating viral transcription. It is a ubiquitously expressed protein during latent viral infection and in EBV-associated tumors. The EBNA1 C-terminus interacts functionally with the Qp and Cp that control viral gene expression in latency I/II and III, respectively. EBNA1 has been classified into five subtypes due to sequence variation in the DNA-interacting C-terminus. By DNA sequence analysis of its C-terminus, we detected a main sub-variant (V-val-v1) of EBNA1 with valine located in both positions 487 and 528 from matched samples including NPC biopsies and peripheral blood taken from Vietnamese (9), Chinese (12) NPC patients and healthy donors (5). In the FR-region of oriP from nine NPC biopsies from Vietnam we also frequently found substitutions, deletions and variable numbers of repeats. Using a luciferase reporter system, EBNA1 and FR both derived from Asian isolates induced higher transcriptional activity than those from B95-8 virus. PMID:18096263

  14. Common MFRP sequence variants are not associated with moderate to high hyperopia, isolated microphthalmia, and high myopia

    PubMed Central

    Metlapally, Ravikanth; Li, Yi-Ju; Tran-Viet, Khanh-Nhat; Bulusu, Anuradha; White, Tristan R.; Ellis, Jaclyn; Kao, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The membrane-type frizzled-related protein (MFRP) gene is selectively expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium and ciliary body, and mutations of this gene cause nanophthalmos. The MFRP gene may not be essential for retinal function but has been hypothesized to play a role in ocular axial length regulation. The involvement of the MFRP gene in moderate to high hyperopic, isolated microphthalmic/anophthalmic, and high myopic patients was tested in two phases: a mutation screening/sequence variant discovery phase and a genetic association study phase. Methods Eleven hyperopic, ten microphthalmic/anophthalmic, and seven non-syndromic high-grade myopic patients of varying ages and 11 control subjects participated in the mutation screening phase. Sixteen primer pairs were designed to amplify the 13 exons of the MFRP gene including intron/exon boundaries. Polymerase chain reactions were performed, and amplified products were sequenced using standard techniques. Normal and affected individual DNA sequences were compared alongside the known reference sequence (UCSC genome browser) for the MFRP gene. The genetic association study included 146 multiplex non-syndromic high-grade myopia families. Seventeen intragenic and flanking single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were chosen for the MFRP gene and genotyped in the large data set using the Taqman® allelic discrimination assay. The family-based association Pedigree Disequilibrium Test (PDT) and GenoPDT were performed. Results The average spherical refractive error of the hyperopic patient cohort was +4.21 diopters (D; range +2.00 to +9.25 D) and of the myopic patient cohort was ?12.36 D (range ?8.25 to ?14.50 D). A total of 16 SNPs were identified by direct sequencing. No significant association was determined between the 16 MFRP gene SNPs and the moderate to high hyperopia, microphthalmia/anophthalmia affection status, and high myopia. Family based association analysis did not reveal any association between the 17 SNPs genotyped in the larger family data set for any refractive error type. Conclusions Sequence variants of the MFRP gene do not appear to be associated with either the less severe forms of hyperopia, extreme forms of limited eye growth and development, or high myopia. These results indicate that the MFRP gene may not play a role in regulating ocular axial length in these phenotypes. PMID:18334955

  15. The Kiss2 receptor (Kiss2r) gene in Southern Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus maccoyii and in Yellowtail Kingfish, Seriola lalandi - functional analysis and isolation of transcript variants.

    PubMed

    Nocillado, J N; Biran, J; Lee, Y Y; Levavi-Sivan, B; Mechaly, A S; Zohar, Y; Elizur, A

    2012-10-15

    The kisspeptin system plays an essential role in reproductive function in vertebrates, particularly in the onset of puberty. We investigated the kisspeptin system in two Perciform teleosts, the Southern Bluefin Tuna (SBT; Thunnus maccoyii), and the Yellowtail Kingfish (YTK; Seriola lalandi), by characterising their kisspeptin 2 receptor (Kiss2r) genes. In addition to the full length Kiss2r cDNA sequences, we have isolated from SBT and YTK a transcript variant that retained an intron. We have further obtained three ytkKiss2r transcript variants that contained deletions. In vitro functional analysis of the full length SBT and YTK Kiss2r showed higher response to Kiss2-10 than to Kiss1-10, with stronger transduction via PKC than PKA. The full length ytkKiss2r and two deletion variants were differentially expressed in the brain of male, but not in female, juvenile YTK treated with increasing doses of Kiss2-10 peptide. In the gonads, the expression level of the ytkKiss2r transcripts did not vary significantly either in the male or female fish. This is the first time that transcript variants of the Kiss2r gene that contain deletions and show responsiveness to treatments with kisspeptin have been reported in any teleost. PMID:22824208

  16. Clostridium botulinum Group II Isolate Phylogenomic Profiling Using Whole-Genome Sequence Data.

    PubMed

    Weedmark, K A; Mabon, P; Hayden, K L; Lambert, D; Van Domselaar, G; Austin, J W; Corbett, C R

    2015-09-01

    Clostridium botulinum group II isolates (n = 163) from different geographic regions, outbreaks, and neurotoxin types and subtypes were characterized in silico using whole-genome sequence data. Two clusters representing a variety of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) types and subtypes were identified by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and core single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. While one cluster included BoNT/B4/F6/E9 and nontoxigenic members, the other comprised a wide variety of different BoNT/E subtype isolates and a nontoxigenic strain. In silico MLST and core SNP methods were consistent in terms of clade-level isolate classification; however, core SNP analysis showed higher resolution capability. Furthermore, core SNP analysis correctly distinguished isolates by outbreak and location. This study illustrated the utility of next-generation sequence-based typing approaches for isolate characterization and source attribution and identified discrete SNP loci and MLST alleles for isolate comparison. PMID:26116673

  17. Prevalence of Smqnr and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants in clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia from Japan: novel variants of Smqnr

    PubMed Central

    Kanamori, H.; Yano, H.; Tanouchi, A.; Kakuta, R.; Endo, S.; Ichimura, S.; Ogawa, M.; Shimojima, M.; Inomata, S.; Ozawa, D.; Aoyagi, T.; Weber, D.J.; Kaku, M.

    2015-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an important pathogen in healthcare-associated infections. S. maltophilia may contain Smqnr, a quinolone resistance gene encoding the pentapeptide repeat protein, which confers low-level quinolone resistance upon expression in a heterologous host. We investigated the prevalence of Smqnr and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants in S. maltophilia isolates from Japan. A total of 181 consecutive and nonduplicate clinical isolates of S. maltophilia were collected from four areas of Japan. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for these strains were determined. PCR was conducted for Smqnr and PMQR genes, including qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrS,aac(6?)-Ib and qepA. PCR products for Smqnr and aac(6?)-Ib were sequenced. For the S. maltophilia isolates containing Smqnr, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed using XbaI. Resistance rates to ceftazidime, levofloxacin, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol and minocycline were 67.4%, 6.1%, 17.7%, 8.8% and 0%, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 50% and 90% of organisms were 0.5 and 2 mg/L for moxifloxacin but 1 and 4 mg/L for levofloxacin, respectively. Smqnr was detected in 104 of the 181 S. maltophilia isolates (57.5%), and the most frequent was Smqnr6, followed by Smqnr8 and Smqnr11. Eleven novel variants from Smqnr48 to Smqnr58 were detected. The 24 Smqnr-containing S. maltophilia isolates were typed by PFGE and divided into 21 unique types. Nine S. maltophilia isolates (5.0%) carried aac(6?)-Ib-cr. No qnr or qepA genes were detected. This study describes a high prevalence of Smqnr and novel variants of Smqnr among S. maltophilia from Japan. Continuous antimicrobial surveillance and further molecular epidemiological studies on quinolone resistance in S. maltophilia are needed. PMID:26110061

  18. Prevalence of Smqnr and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants in clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia from Japan: novel variants of Smqnr.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, H; Yano, H; Tanouchi, A; Kakuta, R; Endo, S; Ichimura, S; Ogawa, M; Shimojima, M; Inomata, S; Ozawa, D; Aoyagi, T; Weber, D J; Kaku, M

    2015-09-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an important pathogen in healthcare-associated infections. S. maltophilia may contain Smqnr, a quinolone resistance gene encoding the pentapeptide repeat protein, which confers low-level quinolone resistance upon expression in a heterologous host. We investigated the prevalence of Smqnr and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants in S. maltophilia isolates from Japan. A total of 181 consecutive and nonduplicate clinical isolates of S. maltophilia were collected from four areas of Japan. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for these strains were determined. PCR was conducted for Smqnr and PMQR genes, including qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib and qepA. PCR products for Smqnr and aac(6')-Ib were sequenced. For the S. maltophilia isolates containing Smqnr, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed using XbaI. Resistance rates to ceftazidime, levofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol and minocycline were 67.4%, 6.1%, 17.7%, 8.8% and 0%, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 50% and 90% of organisms were 0.5 and 2 mg/L for moxifloxacin but 1 and 4 mg/L for levofloxacin, respectively. Smqnr was detected in 104 of the 181 S. maltophilia isolates (57.5%), and the most frequent was Smqnr6, followed by Smqnr8 and Smqnr11. Eleven novel variants from Smqnr48 to Smqnr58 were detected. The 24 Smqnr-containing S. maltophilia isolates were typed by PFGE and divided into 21 unique types. Nine S. maltophilia isolates (5.0%) carried aac(6')-Ib-cr. No qnr or qepA genes were detected. This study describes a high prevalence of Smqnr and novel variants of Smqnr among S. maltophilia from Japan. Continuous antimicrobial surveillance and further molecular epidemiological studies on quinolone resistance in S. maltophilia are needed. PMID:26110061

  19. In vitro Isolation and Identification of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Variants with Reduced Sensitivity to C-2 Symmetrical Inhibitors of HIV Type 1 Protease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, M. J.; Garber, S.; Winslow, D. L.; Reid, C. D.; Aldrich, P.; Jadhav, P. K.; Patterson, C. E.; Hodge, C. N.; Cheng, Y.-S. E.

    1993-08-01

    Protease inhibitors are another class of compounds for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-caused disease. The emergence of resistance to the current anti-HIV drugs makes the determination of potential resistance to protease inhibitors imperative. Here we describe the isolation of an HIV type 1 (HIV-1) resistant to an HIV-protease inhibitor. Serial passage of HIV-1 (strain RF) in the presence of the inhibitor, [2-pyridylacetylisoleucylphenylalanyl-psi(CHOH)]_2 (P9941), failed to yield a stock of virus with a resistance phenotype. However, variants of the virus with 6- to 8-fold reduced sensitivity to P9941 were selected by using a combination of plaque assay and endpoint titration. Genetic analysis and computer modeling of the variant proteases revealed a single change in the codon for amino acid 82 (Val -> Ala), which resulted in a protease with lower affinity and reduced sensitivity to this inhibitor and certain, but not all, related inhibitors.

  20. Aminoglycoside 6?-N-Acetyltransferase Variants of the Ib Type with Altered Substrate Profile in Clinical Isolates of Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii

    PubMed Central

    Casin, Isabelle; Bordon, Florence; Bertin, Philippe; Coutrot, Anne; Podglajen, Isabelle; Brasseur, Robert; Collatz, Ekkehard

    1998-01-01

    Three clinical isolates, Enterobacter cloacae EC1562 and EC1563 and Citrobacter freundii CFr564, displayed an aminoglycoside resistance profile evocative of low-level 6?-N acetyltransferase type II [AAC(6?)-II] production, which conferred reduced susceptibility to gentamicin but not to amikacin or isepamicin. Aminoglycoside acetyltransferase assays suggested the synthesis in the three strains of an AAC(6?) which acetylated amikacin practically as well as it acetylated gentamicin in vitro. Both compounds, however, as well as isepamicin, retained good bactericidal activity against the three strains. The aac genes were borne by conjugative plasmids (pLMM562 and pLMM564 of ca. 100 kb and pLMM563 of ca. 20 kb). By PCR mapping and nucleotide sequence analysis, an aac(6?)-Ib gene was found in each strain upstream of an ant(3")-I gene in a sulI-type integron. The size of the AAC(6?)-Ib variant encoded by pLMM562 and pLMM564, AAC(6?)-Ib7, was deduced to be 184 (or 177) amino acids long, whereas in pLMM563 a 21-bp duplication allowing the recruitment of a start codon resulted in the translation of a variant, AAC(6?)-Ib8, of 196 amino acids, in agreement with size estimates obtained by Western blot analysis. Both variants had at position 119 a serine instead of the leucine typical for the AAC(6?)-Ib variants conferring resistance to amikacin. By using methods that predict the secondary structure, these two amino acids appear to condition an ?-helical structure within a putative aminoglycoside binding domain of AAC(6?)-Ib variants. PMID:9527761

  1. First isolation of oleate-dependent Enterococcus faecalis small-colony variants from the umbilical exudate of a paediatric patient with omphalitis.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Noriko; Kuzumoto, Kei; Hidaka, Eiko; Yoshizawa, Katsumi; Yumoto, Kayoko; Oana, Kozue; Ogiso, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2013-12-01

    An oleate-dependent Enterococcus faecalis isolate representing small-colony variants (SCVs) was isolated from the umbilical exudate of a 31-month-old Japanese male patient in Nagano Children's Hospital, Azumino, Japan. The patient had been suffering from recurrent omphalitis since early infancy. The initial E. faecalis SCV isolate formed small colonies on sheep blood agar plates and tiny colonies on chocolate and modified Drigalski agar, although no visible growth was observed in HK-semi solid medium after 48 h incubation in ambient air. Moreover, the SCV isolate, the colonial morphology of which was reminiscent of Streptococcus species, could not be identified using the MicroScan WalkAway-40 and API 20 Strep systems, both of which yielded profile numbers that did not correspond to any bacterial species, probably as a result of insufficient growth of the isolate. The SCV isolate was subsequently identified as E. faecalis based on its morphological, cultural and biochemical properties, and this was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene of the organism. Investigations revealed that the addition of oleate, an unsaturated fatty acid, enabled the isolate to grow on every medium with normal-sized colony morphology. Although it has long been known that long-chain fatty acids, especially unsaturated oleic acid, have a major inhibitory effect on the growth of a variety of microorganisms, including not only mycobacteria but also streptococci, this is, to the best of our knowledge, the first clinical isolation of an oleate-dependent E. faecalis SCV isolate. In addition, oleic acid might be considered to affect the cell membrane permeability of carbohydrates or antimicrobial agents such as ?-lactams. PMID:24072765

  2. NDM-12, a Novel New Delhi Metallo-?-Lactamase Variant from a Carbapenem-Resistant Escherichia coli Clinical Isolate in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Tatsuya; Shrestha, Basudha; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Shimada, Kayo; Ohara, Hiroshi; Pokhrel, Bharat M.

    2014-01-01

    A novel New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase variant, NDM-12, was identified in a carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolate obtained from a urine sample from a patient in Nepal. NDM-12 differed from NDM-1 by two amino acid substitutions (M154L and G222D). The enzymatic activities of NDM-12 against ?-lactams were similar to those of NDM-1, although NDM-12 showed lower kcat/Km ratios for all ?-lactams tested except doripenem. The blaNDM-12 gene was located in a plasmid of 160 kb. PMID:25092693

  3. Molecular characterization and expression of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) DEAD-box family VASA gene and mRNA transcript variants isolated from testis tissue.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Ramakant; Singh, Karn Pratap; Bahuguna, Vivek; Rameshbabu, K; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Manik, Radhey Shyam; Palta, Prabhat; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2015-11-01

    VASA is a member of the DEAD-box protein family that plays an indispensable role in mammalian spermatogenesis, particularly during meiosis. In the present study, we isolated, sequenced, and characterized VASA gene in buffalo testis. Here, we demonstrated that VASA mRNA is expressed as multiple isoforms and uses four alternative transcriptional start sites (TSSs) and four different polyadenylation sites. The TSSs identified by 5'-RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-5'-RACE) were positioned at 48, 53, 85, and 88 nucleotides upstream relative to the translation initiation codon. 3'-RACE experiment revealed the presence of tandem polyadenylation signals, which lead to the expression of at least four different 3'-untranslated regions (209, 233, 239 and 605 nucleotides). The full-length coding region of VASA was 2190 bp, which encodes a 729 amino acid (aa) protein containing nine consensus regions of the DEAD box protein family. VASA variants are highly expressed in testis of adult buffalo. We found five variants, one full length VASA (729 aa) and four splice variants VASA 2, 4, 5, 6 (683, 685, 679, 703 aa). The expression level of VASA 1 was significantly higher than rest of all (P < 0.05) except VASA 6. The relative ratio for VASA 1:2:4:5:6 was 100:1.0:1.6:0.9:48. PMID:26127001

  4. Isolation and functional assessment of common, polymorphic variants of the B-MYB proto-oncogene associated with a reduced cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Schwab, R; Bussolari, R; Corvetta, D; Chayka, O; Santilli, G; Kwok, J M-M; Ferrari-Amorotti, G; Amorotti, G F; Tonini, G P; Iacoviello, L; Bertorelle, R; Menin, C; Hubank, M; Calabretta, B; Sala, A

    2008-05-01

    The B-MYB proto-oncogene is a transcription factor belonging to the MYB family that is frequently overexpressed or amplified in different types of human malignancies. While it is suspected that B-MYB plays a role in human cancer, there is still no direct evidence of its causative role. Looking for mutations of the B-MYB gene in human cell lines and primary cancer samples, we frequently isolated two nonsynonymous B-MYB polymorphic variants (rs2070235 and rs11556379). Compared to the wild-type protein, the B-MYB isoforms display altered conformation, impaired regulation of target genes and decreased antiapoptotic activity, suggesting that they are hypomorphic variants of the major allele. Importantly, the B-MYB polymorphisms are common; rs2070235 and rs11556379 are found, depending on the ethnic background, in 10-50% of human subjects. We postulated that, if B-MYB activity is important for transformation, the presence of common, hypomorphic variants might modify cancer risk. Indeed, the B-MYB polymorphisms are underrepresented in 419 cancer patients compared to 230 controls (odds ratio 0.53; (95%) confidence interval 0.385-0.755; P=0.001). This data imply that a large fraction of the human population is carrier of B-MYB alleles that might be associated with a reduced risk of developing neoplastic disease. PMID:18026132

  5. Characterization of a variant of human T-lymphotropic virus type I isolated from a healthy member of a remote, recently contacted group in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, R; Nerurkar, V R; Garruto, R M; Miller, M A; Leon-Monzon, M E; Jenkins, C L; Sanders, R C; Liberski, P P; Alpers, M P; Gajdusek, D C

    1991-01-01

    We report the characterization of a variant of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) isolated from an interleukin 2-dependent, CD8+ T-cell line derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy member of a remote, recently contacted hunter-horticulturalist group (Hagahai) in Madang province of Papua New Guinea. Antigenic characterization of this variant, designated PNG-1, by immunofluorescence, indicated no expression of gag-encoded proteins p19 and p24 (even after incubation with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine), using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against HTLV-I gag gene products. Virus-specific proteins of 15, 19, 46, 53, and 61/68 kDa were demonstrated by Western blot analysis, using sera from patients with serologically and/or virologically confirmed HTLV-I myeloneuropathy, sera from HTLV-I-infected rabbits, and antibodies prepared against the C terminus of the major envelope glycoprotein gp46. Restriction endonuclease maps of PNG-1 proviral DNA differed from that of a prototype strain of HTLV-I (MT-2), but, as verified by polymerase chain reaction, PNG-1 was definitely HTLV-I, not HTLV-II. Nucleotide sequencing and further molecular genetic studies of this variant may provide insights into the origin and evolution of HTLV-I. Images PMID:1996344

  6. Genome Sequences of Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Variant NIH LVR42-0/M6941 Isolates (Arteriviridae: Arterivirus)

    PubMed Central

    Lauck, Michael; Palacios, Gustavo; Wiley, Michael R.; L?, Yànhuá; F?ng, Y?ng; Lackemeyer, Matthew G.; Caì, Yíngyún; Bailey, Adam L.; Postnikova, Elena; Radoshitzky, Sheli R.; Johnson, Reed F.; Alkhovsky, Sergey V.; Deriabin, Petr G.; Friedrich, Thomas C.; Goldberg, Tony L.; Jahrling, Peter B.; O’Connor, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) variant NIH LVR42-0/M6941 is the only remaining SHFV in culture, and only a single genome sequence record exists in GenBank/RefSeq. We compared the genomic sequence of NIH LVR42-0/M6941 acquired from the ATCC in 2011 to NIH LVR42-0/M6941 genomes sequenced directly from nonhuman primates experimentally infected in 1989. PMID:25301647

  7. Prevalence of Factor H–Binding Protein Variants and NadA among Meningococcal Group B Isolates from the United States: Implications for the Development of a Multicomponent Group B Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Beernink, Peter T.; Welsch, Jo Anne; Harrison, Lee H.; Leipus, Arunas; Kaplan, Sheldon L.; Granoff, Dan M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Two promising recombinant meningococcal protein vaccines are in development. One contains factor H–binding protein (fHBP) variants (v.) 1 and 2, whereas the other contains v.1 and 4 other antigens discovered by genome mining (5 component [5C]). Antibodies against fHBP are bactericidal against strains within a variant group. There are limited data on the prevalence of strains expressing different fHBP variants in the United States. Methods A total of 143 group B isolates from patients hospitalized in the United States were tested for fHBP variant by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, for reactivity with 6 anti-fHBP monoclonal antibodies (MAb) by dot immunoblotting, and for susceptibility to bactericidal activity of mouse antisera. Results fHBP v.1 isolates predominated in California (83%), whereas isolates expressing v.1 (53%) or v.2 (42%) were common in 9 other states. Isolates representative of 5 anti-fHBP MAb–binding phenotypes (70% of isolates) were highly susceptible to anti–fHBP v.1 or v.2 bactericidal activity, whereas 3 phenotypes were ~50% susceptible. Collectively, antibodies against the fHBP v.1 and v.2 vaccine and the 5C vaccine killed 76% and 83% of isolates, respectively. Conclusions Susceptibility to bactericidal activity can be predicted, in part, on the basis of fHBP phenotypes. Both vaccines have the potential to prevent most group B disease in the United States. PMID:17436227

  8. Isolated cerebellar variant of adrenoleukodystrophy with a de novo adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette D1 (ABCD1) gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Joon Won; Lee, Sang Mi; Koo, Kyo Yeon; Lee, Young-Mock; Nam, Hyo Suk; Quan, Zhejiu; Kang, Hoon-Chul

    2014-07-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) shows a wide range of phenotypic expression, but clinical presentation as an isolated lesion of the cerebellar white matter and dentate nuclei has not been reported. We report an unusual presentation of X-ALD only with an isolated lesion of the cerebellar white matter and dentate nuclei. The proband, a 37-year-old man presented with bladder incontinence, slurred speech, dysmetria in all limbs, difficulties in balancing, and gait ataxia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed an isolated signal change of white matter around the dentate nucleus in cerebellum. With high level of very long chain fatty acid, gene study showed a de novo mutation in exon 1 at nucleotide position c.277_296dup20 (p.Ala100Cysfs*10) of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette D1 gene. It is advised to consider X-ALD as a differential diagnosis in patients with isolated cerebellar degeneration symptoms. PMID:24954351

  9. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Monophasic Variant 4,12:i:- Isolated from Asymptomatic Wildlife in a Catalonian Wildlife Rehabilitation Center, Spain.

    PubMed

    Molina-López, Rafael A; Vidal, Anna; Obón, Elena; Martín, Marga; Darwich, Laila

    2015-07-01

    Wildlife can act as long-term asymptomatic reservoirs for zoonotic bacteria, such as Salmonella. The prevalence and antimicrobial-susceptibility profiles of Salmonella spp. were assessed in 263 cases in wildlife from 22 animal orders from a wildlife rehabilitation center in Catalonia (NE Spain), September 2013-May 2014. Eleven of 263 tested animals were positive for Salmonella spp., representing an overall prevalence of 4.2%. Prevalences by taxonomic categories were 2% in mammals, 4.7% in birds, and 4.5% in reptiles. By species, one each of European hedgehog (Erinaceus europeus; from a sample of n = 26), Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo; n = 2), Barn Owl (Tyto alba; n = 3), Tawny Owl (Strix aluco; n = 20), Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus; n = 1), Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus; n = 1), and Hoopoe (Upupa epops; n = 2), and two each Common Kestrels (Falco tinnunculus; n = 16) and pond sliders (Trachemys scripta; n = 25) were positive for Salmonella. By serotyping, seven of eleven isolates were classified as S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, and five of seven belonged to the monophasic variant 4,12:i:-. All the monophasic variants were isolated from birds (4/5 in raptors) and showed a multidrug-resistance (MDR) profile to at least ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline (R-type ASSuT), and up to 12 antibiotics. The large proportion of S. Typhimurium monophasic MDR strains detected in wildlife never treated with antibiotics, especially in raptors, adds more complexity to the epidemiologic control of one of the most frequent serovars involved in human and livestock infection. PMID:25973627

  10. A Novel Triplex Quantitative PCR Strategy for Quantification of Toxigenic and Nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae in Aquatic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Bliem, Rupert; Schauer, Sonja; Plicka, Helga; Obwaller, Adelheid; Sommer, Regina; Steinrigl, Adolf; Alam, Munirul; Reischer, Georg H.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a severe human pathogen and a frequent member of aquatic ecosystems. Quantification of V. cholerae in environmental water samples is therefore fundamental for ecological studies and health risk assessment. Beside time-consuming cultivation techniques, quantitative PCR (qPCR) has the potential to provide reliable quantitative data and offers the opportunity to quantify multiple targets simultaneously. A novel triplex qPCR strategy was developed in order to simultaneously quantify toxigenic and nontoxigenic V. cholerae in environmental water samples. To obtain quality-controlled PCR results, an internal amplification control was included. The qPCR assay was specific, highly sensitive, and quantitative across the tested 5-log dynamic range down to a method detection limit of 5 copies per reaction. Repeatability and reproducibility were high for all three tested target genes. For environmental application, global DNA recovery (GR) rates were assessed for drinking water, river water, and water from different lakes. GR rates ranged from 1.6% to 76.4% and were dependent on the environmental background. Uncorrected and GR-corrected V. cholerae abundances were determined in two lakes with extremely high turbidity. Uncorrected abundances ranged from 4.6 × 102 to 2.3 × 104 cell equivalents liter?1, whereas GR-corrected abundances ranged from 4.7 × 103 to 1.6 × 106 cell equivalents liter?1. GR-corrected qPCR results were in good agreement with an independent cell-based direct detection method but were up to 1.6 log higher than cultivation-based abundances. We recommend the newly developed triplex qPCR strategy as a powerful tool to simultaneously quantify toxigenic and nontoxigenic V. cholerae in various aquatic environments for ecological studies as well as for risk assessment programs. PMID:25724966

  11. A novel triplex quantitative PCR strategy for quantification of toxigenic and nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Bliem, Rupert; Schauer, Sonja; Plicka, Helga; Obwaller, Adelheid; Sommer, Regina; Steinrigl, Adolf; Alam, Munirul; Reischer, Georg H; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Kirschner, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a severe human pathogen and a frequent member of aquatic ecosystems. Quantification of V. cholerae in environmental water samples is therefore fundamental for ecological studies and health risk assessment. Beside time-consuming cultivation techniques, quantitative PCR (qPCR) has the potential to provide reliable quantitative data and offers the opportunity to quantify multiple targets simultaneously. A novel triplex qPCR strategy was developed in order to simultaneously quantify toxigenic and nontoxigenic V. cholerae in environmental water samples. To obtain quality-controlled PCR results, an internal amplification control was included. The qPCR assay was specific, highly sensitive, and quantitative across the tested 5-log dynamic range down to a method detection limit of 5 copies per reaction. Repeatability and reproducibility were high for all three tested target genes. For environmental application, global DNA recovery (GR) rates were assessed for drinking water, river water, and water from different lakes. GR rates ranged from 1.6% to 76.4% and were dependent on the environmental background. Uncorrected and GR-corrected V. cholerae abundances were determined in two lakes with extremely high turbidity. Uncorrected abundances ranged from 4.6×10(2) to 2.3×10(4) cell equivalents liter(-1), whereas GR-corrected abundances ranged from 4.7×10(3) to 1.6×10(6) cell equivalents liter(-1). GR-corrected qPCR results were in good agreement with an independent cell-based direct detection method but were up to 1.6 log higher than cultivation-based abundances. We recommend the newly developed triplex qPCR strategy as a powerful tool to simultaneously quantify toxigenic and nontoxigenic V. cholerae in various aquatic environments for ecological studies as well as for risk assessment programs. PMID:25724966

  12. Identification of a novel NDM variant, NDM-13, from a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolate in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Basudha; Tada, Tatsuya; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Shimada, Kayo; Ohara, Hiroshi; Kirikae, Teruo; Pokhrel, Bharat M

    2015-09-01

    A novel New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase, NDM-13, was identified in a carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolate obtained from the urine of a patient in Nepal. The enzymatic activity of NDM-13 against ?-lactams was similar to that of NDM-1. However, NDM-13 displayed significantly higher k cat/Km ratios for cefotaxime. The genetic environment of bla NDM-13 was determined to be tnpA-IS30-bla NDM-13-ble MBL-trpF-dsbC-cutA-groES-groL, with bla NDM-13 located within the chromosome. PMID:26169399

  13. Characterization of reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T DNA and isolation of a novel variant of reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T by molecular cloning.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, I S; Mak, T W; O'Rear, J J; Temin, H M

    1981-01-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T (REV-T) is a highly oncogenic avian retrovirus which causes a rapid neoplastic disease of the lymphoreticular system. Upon infection, this virus gives rise to two species of unintegrated linear viral DNA, which are 8.3 and 5.5 kilobase pairs long and represent the helper virus (REV-A) and the oncogenic component (REV-T), respectively. Restriction endonuclease cleavage maps of these two DNA components indicate that REV-T DNA has a large portion of the genome deleted with respect to REV-A DNA and a substitution about 0.8 to 1.5 kilobase pairs long that is unrelated to REV-A DNA. These additional sequences comprise the putative transforming region of REV-T (rel). A chicken spleen cell line transformed by REV-T produced virus which upon infection gives rise to three species of unintegrated linear viral DNA (8.3, 5.5, and 3,3 kilobase pairs). We isolated the proviruses of the 8.3- and 3.3-kilobase pair species from this cell line by cloning in the phage vector Charon 4A. Restriction enzyme mapping showed that the two proviral clones are proviruses of REV-A and a variant of REV-T, respectively. A subclone of the variant REV-T provirus specific for the rel sequences of REV-T was used as a hybridization probe to demonstrate that the rel sequences are different from the putative transforming sequences of Schmidt-Ruppin Rous sarcoma virus strain A, avain myelocytomatosis virus, avian myeloblastosis virus, avian erythroblastosis virus, Abelson murine leukemia virus, and Friend erythroleukemia virus. In addition, the rel-specific hybridization probe was used to identify a specific set of sequences which are present in uninfected avian DNAs digested with several restriction enzymes. The corresponding cell sequences are not arranged like rel in REV-T. Images PMID:6275117

  14. First Complete Genome Sequence of Clostridium sporogenes DSM 795T, a Nontoxigenic Surrogate for Clostridium botulinum, Determined Using PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time Technology.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Kazuma; Terabayashi, Yasunobu; Shiroma, Akino; Shimoji, Makiko; Tamotsu, Hinako; Ashimine, Noriko; Ohki, Shun; Shinzato, Misuzu; Teruya, Kuniko; Satou, Kazuhito; Hirano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of Clostridium sporogenes DSM 795(T), a nontoxigenic surrogate for Clostridium botulinum, was determined in a single contig using the PacBio single-molecule real-time technology. The genome (4,142,990 bp; G+C content, 27.98%) included 86 sets of >1,000-bp identical sequence pairs and 380 tandem repeats. PMID:26227598

  15. First Complete Genome Sequence of Clostridium sporogenes DSM 795T, a Nontoxigenic Surrogate for Clostridium botulinum, Determined Using PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time Technology

    PubMed Central

    Terabayashi, Yasunobu; Shiroma, Akino; Shimoji, Makiko; Tamotsu, Hinako; Ashimine, Noriko; Ohki, Shun; Shinzato, Misuzu; Teruya, Kuniko; Satou, Kazuhito; Hirano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of Clostridium sporogenes DSM 795T, a nontoxigenic surrogate for Clostridium botulinum, was determined in a single contig using the PacBio single-molecule real-time technology. The genome (4,142,990 bp; G+C content, 27.98%) included 86 sets of >1,000-bp identical sequence pairs and 380 tandem repeats. PMID:26227598

  16. Emergence of related nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae biotype mitis strains in Western Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Funke, G.; Altwegg, M.; Frommelt, L.; von Graevenitz, A.

    1999-01-01

    We report on 17 isolates of Corynebacterium diphtheriae biotype mitis with related ribotypes from Switzerland, Germany, and France. Isolates came from skin and subcutaneous infections of injecting drug users, homeless persons, prisoners, and elderly orthopedic patients with joint prostheses or primary joint infections. Such isolates had only been observed in Switzerland. PMID:10341192

  17. Characterization of a genetic and antigenic variant of avian paramyxovirus 6 isolated from a migratory wild bird, the red-necked stint (Calidris ruficollis).

    PubMed

    Bui, Vuong Nghia; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Nguyen, Tung Hoang; Trinh, Dai Quang; Awad, Sanaa S A; Minoungou, Germaine L; Yamamoto, Yu; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Saito, Keisuke; Watanabe, Yukiko; Runstadler, Jonathan; Huettmann, Falk; Ogawa, Haruko; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2014-11-01

    A hemagglutinating virus (8KS0813) was isolated from a red-necked stint. Hemagglutination inhibition and neutralization tests indicated that 8KS0813 was antigenically related to a prototype strain, APMV-6/duck/Hong Kong/18/199/77, but with an 8- and 16-fold difference, respectively, in their titers. The full genome sequence of 8KS0813 showed 98.6 % nucleotide sequence identity to that of APMV-6/duck/Italy/4524-2/07, which has been reported to belong to an APMV-6 subgroup, and showed less similarity to that of the prototype strain (70.6 % similarity). The growth of 8KS0813 and the prototype strain in four different cell cultures was greatly enhanced by adding trypsin. Interestingly, this virus induced syncytia only in Vero cells. 8KS0813 was identified as APMV-6/red-necked stint/Japan/8KS0813/08, but it is antigenically and genetically distinguishable from the prototype strain, suggesting that variant APMV-6 is circulating in migratory birds. PMID:25000900

  18. Variant surface glycoproteins from Venezuelan trypanosome isolates are recognized by sera from animals infected with either Trypanosoma evansi or Trypanosoma vivax

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Rocío; Izquier, Adriana; Uzcanga, Graciela L.; Perrone, Trina; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Carrasquel, Liomary; Arias, Laura P.; Escalona, José L.; Cardozo, Vanessa; Bubis, José

    2015-01-01

    Salivarian trypanosomes sequentially express only one variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) on their cell surface from a large repertoire of VSG genes. Seven cryopreserved animal trypanosome isolates known as TeAp-ElFrio01, TEVA1 (or TeAp-N/D1), TeGu-N/D1, TeAp-Mantecal01, TeGu-TerecayTrino, TeGu-Terecay03 and TeGu-Terecay323, which had been isolated from different hosts identified in several geographical areas of Venezuela were expanded using adult albino rats. Soluble forms of predominant VSGs expressed during the early infection stages were purified and corresponded to concanavalin A-binding proteins with molecular masses of 48–67 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electropohoresis, and pI values between 6.1 and 7.5. The biochemical characterization of all purified soluble VSGs revealed that they were dimers in their native form and represented different gene products. Sequencing of some of these proteins yielded peptides homologous to VSGs from Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei and Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi and established that they most likely are mosaics generated by homologous recombination. Western blot analysis showed that all purified VSGs were cross-reacting antigens that were recognized by sera from animals infected with either T. evansi or Trypanosoma (Dutonella) vivax. The VSG glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol cross-reacting determinant epitope was only partially responsible for the cross-reactivity of the purified proteins, and antibodies appeared to recognize cross-reacting conformational epitopes from the various soluble VSGs. ELISA experiments were performed using infected bovine sera collected from cattle in a Venezuelan trypanosome-endemic area. In particular, soluble VSGs from two trypanosome isolates, TeGu-N/D1 and TeGu-TeracayTrino, were recognized by 93.38% and 73.55% of naturally T. vivax-infected bovine sera, respectively. However, approximately 70% of the sera samples did not recognize all seven purified proteins. Hence, the use of a combination of various VSGs for the diagnosis of animal trypanosomosis is recommended. PMID:25468674

  19. Cellulase variants

    DOEpatents

    Blazej, Robert; Toriello, Nicholas; Emrich, Charles; Cohen, Richard N.; Koppel, Nitzan

    2015-07-14

    This invention provides novel variant cellulolytic enzymes having improved activity and/or stability. In certain embodiments the variant cellulotyic enzymes comprise a glycoside hydrolase with or comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to one or more of residues F64, A226, and/or E246 in Thermobifida fusca Cel9A enzyme. In certain embodiments the glycoside hydrolase is a variant of a family 9 glycoside hydrolase. In certain embodiments the glycoside hydrolase is a variant of a theme B family 9 glycoside hydrolase.

  20. Genome-wide association analysis on five isolated populations identifies variants of the HLA-DOA gene associated with white wine liking.

    PubMed

    Pirastu, Nicola; Kooyman, Maarten; Traglia, Michela; Robino, Antonietta; Willems, Sara M; Pistis, Giorgio; Amin, Najaf; Sala, Cinzia; Karssen, Lennart C; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Toniolo, Daniela; Gasparini, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Wine is the most popular alcoholic beverage around the world and because of its importance in society has been widely studied. Understanding what drives its flavor has been a quest for decades but much is still unknown and will be determined at least in part by individual taste preferences. Recently studies in the genetics of taste have uncovered the role of different genes in the determination of food preferences giving new insight on its physiology. In this context we have performed a genome-wide association study on red and white wine liking using three isolated populations collected in Italy, and replicated our results on two additional populations coming from the Netherland and Central Asia for a total of 3885 samples. We have found a significant association (P=2.1 × 10(-8)) between white wine liking and rs9276975:C>T a polymorphism in the HLA-DOA gene encoding a non-canonical MHC II molecule, which regulates other MHC II molecules. The same association was also found with red wine liking (P=8.3 × 10(-6)). Sex-separated analysis have also revealed that the effect of HLA-DOA is twice as large in women as compared to men suggesting an interaction between this polymorphism and gender. Our results are one of the first examples of genome-wide association between liking of a commonly consumed food and gene variants. Moreover, our results suggest a role of the MHC system in the determination of food preferences opening new insight in this field in general. PMID:25758996

  1. Antiviral susceptibility of variant influenza A(H3N2)v viruses isolated in the United States from 2011 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Sleeman, K; Mishin, V P; Guo, Z; Garten, R J; Balish, A; Fry, A M; Villanueva, J; Stevens, J; Gubareva, L V

    2014-01-01

    Since 2011, outbreaks caused by influenza A(H3N2) variant [A(H3N2)v] viruses have become a public health concern in the United States. The A(H3N2)v viruses share the A(H1N1)pdm09 M gene containing the marker of M2 blocker resistance, S31N, but do not contain any known molecular markers associated with resistance to neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs). Using a fluorescent NA inhibition (NI) assay, the susceptibilities of recovered A(H3N2)v viruses (n=168) to FDA-approved (oseltamivir and zanamivir) and other (peramivir, laninamivir, and A-315675) NAIs were assessed. All A(H3N2)v viruses tested, with the exception of a single virus strain, A/Ohio/88/2012, isolated from an untreated patient, were susceptible to the NAIs tested. The A/Ohio/88/2012 virus contained two rare substitutions, S245N and S247P, in the NA and demonstrated reduced inhibition by oseltamivir (31-fold) and zanamivir (66-fold) in the NI assay. Using recombinant NA (recNA) proteins, S247P was shown to be responsible for the observed altered NAI susceptibility, in addition to an approximately 60% reduction in NA enzymatic activity. The S247P substitution has not been previously reported as a molecular marker of reduced susceptibility to the NAIs. Using cell culture assays, the investigational antiviral drugs nitazoxanide, favipiravir, and fludase were shown to inhibit the replication of A(H3N2)v viruses, including the virus with the S247P substitution in the NA. This report demonstrates the importance of continuous monitoring of susceptibility of zoonotic influenza viruses to available and investigational antiviral drugs. PMID:24449767

  2. The Genome-Sequenced Variant of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 and the Original Clonal Clinical Isolate Differ Markedly in Colonization, Gene Expression, and Virulence-Associated Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Gaynor, Erin C.; Cawthraw, Shaun; Manning, Georgina; MacKichan, Joanna K.; Falkow, Stanley; Newell, Diane G.

    2004-01-01

    The genome sequence of the enteric bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 (11168-GS) was published in 2000, providing a valuable resource for the identification of C. jejuni-specific colonization and virulence factors. Surprisingly, the 11168-GS clone was subsequently found to colonize 1-day-old chicks following oral challenge very poorly compared to other strains. In contrast, we have found that the original clinical isolate from which 11168-GS was derived, 11168-O, is an excellent colonizer of chicks. Other marked phenotypic differences were also identified: 11168-O invaded and translocated through tissue culture cells far more efficiently and rapidly than 11168-GS, was significantly more motile, and displayed a different morphology. Serotyping, multiple high-resolution molecular genotyping procedures, and subtractive hybridization did not yield observable genetic differences between the variants, suggesting that they are clonal. However, microarray transcriptional profiling of these strains under microaerobic and severely oxygen-limited conditions revealed dramatic expression differences for several gene families. Many of the differences were in respiration and metabolism genes and operons, suggesting that adaptation to different oxygen tensions may influence colonization potential. This correlates biologically with our observation that anaerobically priming 11168-GS or aerobically passaging 11168-O caused an increase or decrease, respectively, in colonization compared to the parent strain. Expression differences were also observed for several flagellar genes and other less well-characterized genes that may participate in motility. Targeted sequencing of the sigma factors revealed specific DNA differences undetected by the other genomic methods. These observations highlight the capacity of C. jejuni to adapt to multiple environmental niches, the likelihood that this adaptation involves genetic evolution, and provides the first whole-genome molecular exploration of the effect of laboratory culture and storage on colonization and virulence properties of this pathogen. PMID:14702320

  3. Non-toxigenic Clostridium sordellii: clinical and microbiological features of a case of cholangitis-associated bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Walk, Seth T.; Jain, Ruchika; Trivedi, Itishree; Grossman, Sylvia; Newton, Duane W.; Thelen, Tennille; Hao, Yibai; Songer, J. Glenn; Carter, Glen P.; Lyras, Dena; Young, Vincent B.; Aronoff, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Toxigenic C. sordellii strains are increasingly recognized to cause highly lethal infections in humans that are typified by a toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Two glucosylating toxins, lethal toxin (TcsL) and hemorrhagic toxin (TcsH) are believed to be important in the pathogenesis of TSS. While non-toxigenic strains of C. sordellii demonstrate reduced cytotoxicity in vitro and lower virulence in animal models of infection, there are few data regarding their behavior in humans. Here we report a non-TSS C. sordellii infection in the context of a polymicrobial bacterial cholangitis. The C. sordellii strain associated with this infection did not carry either the TcsL-encoding tcsL gene or the tcsH gene for TcsH. In addition, the strain was neither cytotoxic in vitro nor lethal in a murine sepsis model. These results provide additional correlative evidence that TcsL and TcsH increase the risk of mortality during C. sordellii infections. PMID:21726656

  4. Identification and Quantification of a Toxigenic and Non-Toxigenic Aspergillus flavus Strain in Contaminated Maize Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Mylroie, J Erik; Ozkan, Seval; Shivaji, Renuka; Windham, Gary L; Alpe, Michael N; Williams, W Paul

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins, which are produced by Aspergillus flavus, are toxic to humans, livestock, and pets. The value of maize (Zea mays) grain is markedly reduced when contaminated with aflatoxin. Plant resistance and biological control using non-toxin producing strains are considered effective strategies for reducing aflatoxin accumulation in maize grain. Distinguishing between the toxin and non-toxin producing strains is important in determining the effectiveness of bio-control strategies and understanding inter-strain interactions. Using polymorphisms found in the fungal rRNA intergenic spacer region (IGS) between a toxigenic strain of A. flavus (NRRL 3357) and the non-toxigenic strain used in the biological control agent Afla-Guard(®) (NRRL 21882), we developed a set of primers that allows for the identification and quantification of the two strains using quantitative PCR. This primer set has been used to screen maize grain that was inoculated with the two strains individually and co-inoculated with both strains, and it has been shown to be effective in both the identification and quantification of both strains. Screening of co-inoculated ears from multiple resistant and susceptible genotypic crosses revealed no significant differences in fungal biomass accumulation of either strain in the field tests from 2010 and 2011 when compared across the means of all genotypes. Only one genotype/year combination showed significant differences in strain accumulation. Aflatoxin accumulation analysis showed that, as expected, genotypes inoculated with the toxigenic strain accumulated more aflatoxin than when co-inoculated with both strains or inoculated with only the non-toxigenic strain. Furthermore, accumulation of toxigenic fungal mass was significantly correlated with aflatoxin accumulation while non-toxigenic fungal accumulation was not. This primer set will allow researchers to better determine how the two fungal strains compete on the maize ear and investigate the interaction between different maize lines and these A. flavus strains. PMID:26742074

  5. Comparative genome analysis of non-toxigenic non-O1 versus toxigenic O1 Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Munmun; Kakarla, Prathusha; Kumar, Sanath; Gonzalez, Esmeralda; Floyd, Jared T.; Inupakutika, Madhuri; Devireddy, Amith Reddy; Tirrell, Selena R.; Bruns, Merissa; He, Guixin; Lindquist, Ingrid E.; Sundararajan, Anitha; Schilkey, Faye D.; Mudge, Joann; Varela, Manuel F.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae are responsible for endemic and pandemic outbreaks of the disease cholera. The complete toxigenic mechanisms underlying virulence in Vibrio strains are poorly understood. The hypothesis of this work was that virulent versus non-virulent strains of V. cholerae harbor distinctive genomic elements that encode virulence. The purpose of this study was to elucidate genomic differences between the O1 serotypes and non-O1 V. cholerae PS15, a non-toxigenic strain, in order to identify novel genes potentially responsible for virulence. In this study, we compared the whole genome of the non-O1 PS15 strain to the whole genomes of toxigenic serotypes at the phylogenetic level, and found that the PS15 genome was distantly related to those of toxigenic V. cholerae. Thus we focused on a detailed gene comparison between PS15 and the distantly related O1 V. cholerae N16961. Based on sequence alignment we tentatively assigned chromosome numbers 1 and 2 to elements within the genome of non-O1 V. cholerae PS15. Further, we found that PS15 and O1 V. cholerae N16961 shared 98% identity and 766 genes, but of the genes present in N16961 that were missing in the non-O1 V. cholerae PS15 genome, 56 were predicted to encode not only for virulence–related genes (colonization, antimicrobial resistance, and regulation of persister cells) but also genes involved in the metabolic biosynthesis of lipids, nucleosides and sulfur compounds. Additionally, we found 113 genes unique to PS15 that were predicted to encode other properties related to virulence, disease, defense, membrane transport, and DNA metabolism. Here, we identified distinctive and novel genomic elements between O1 and non-O1 V. cholerae genomes as potential virulence factors and, thus, targets for future therapeutics. Modulation of such novel targets may eventually enhance eradication efforts of endemic and pandemic disease cholera in afflicted nations. PMID:25722857

  6. Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O139: Isolation from Cholera Patients and Asymptomatic Household Family Members in Bangladesh between 2013 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Fahima; Mather, Alison E.; Begum, Yasmin Ara; Asaduzzaman, Muhammad; Baby, Nabilah; Sharmin, Salma; Biswas, Rajib; Ikhtear Uddin, Muhammad; LaRocque, Regina C.; Harris, Jason B.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Ryan, Edward T.; Clemens, John D.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-01-01

    Background Cholera is endemic in Bangladesh, with outbreaks reported annually. Currently, the majority of epidemic cholera reported globally is El Tor biotype Vibrio cholerae isolates of the serogroup O1. However, in Bangladesh, outbreaks attributed to V. cholerae serogroup O139 isolates, which fall within the same phylogenetic lineage as the O1 serogroup isolates, were seen between 1992 and 1993 and in 2002 to 2005. Since then, V. cholerae serogroup O139 has only been sporadically isolated in Bangladesh and is now rarely isolated elsewhere. Methods Here, we present case histories of four cholera patients infected with V. cholerae serogroup O139 in 2013 and 2014 in Bangladesh. We comprehensively typed these isolates using conventional approaches, as well as by whole genome sequencing. Phenotypic typing and PCR confirmed all four isolates belonging to the O139 serogroup. Findings Whole genome sequencing revealed that three of the isolates were phylogenetically closely related to previously sequenced El Tor biotype, pandemic 7, toxigenic V. cholerae O139 isolates originating from Bangladesh and elsewhere. The fourth isolate was a non-toxigenic V. cholerae that, by conventional approaches, typed as O139 serogroup but was genetically divergent from previously sequenced pandemic 7 V. cholerae lineages belonging to the O139 or O1 serogroups. Conclusion These results suggest that previously observed lineages of V. cholerae O139 persist in Bangladesh and can cause clinical disease and that a novel disease-causing non-toxigenic O139 isolate also occurs. PMID:26562418

  7. Subtypes of intimin among non-toxigenic Escherichia coli from diarrheic calves in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Aidar, L; Penteado, A S; Trabulsi, L R; Blanco, J E; Blanco, M; Blanco, J; Pestana de Castro, A F

    2000-01-01

    One hundred and five strains of Escherichia coli that were isolated from calves with diarrhea in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and were negative for enterotoxins and cytotoxins, were examined for the eae gene. Four (3.8%) strains were positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were shown to produce intimin by using Western blot with specific antiserum against the conserved N-terminal region of intimin. Subtyping of the intimins was done by PCR with specific primers and by Western blot with specific antisera against the C-terminal variable region of the protein. Three of these isolates (O?:H11, O26:H-, O123:H1) produced the beta subtype of intimin, and the 4th (0103:H2) produced intimin that was not typable. The 0103:H2 and the O26:H-isolates adhered to HEp-2 cells with diffuse adherence and localized-like adherence patterns, respectively. The other strains did not adhere to HEp-2 cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the occurrence of a subtype of intimin described for human enteropathogenic E. coli among bovine diarrheogenic E. coli. It is also the first report from Brazil demonstrating the presence of bovine E. coli harboring the eae gene. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:10680651

  8. Efflux-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance in the multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate PA7: identification of a novel MexS variant involved in upregulation of the mexEF-oprN multidrug efflux operon

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Yuji; Tomida, Junko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa has become a serious problem in medical settings. P. aeruginosa clinical isolate PA7 is resistant to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and most ?-lactams but not imipenem. In this study, enhanced efflux-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance of PA7 was shown to reflect increased expression of two resistance nodulation cell division (RND) -type multidrug efflux operons, mexEF-oprN and mexXY-oprA. Such a clinical isolate has rarely been reported because MexEF-OprN-overproducing mutants often increase susceptibility to aminoglycosides apparently owing to impairment of the MexXY system. A mutant of PA7 lacking three RND-type multidrug efflux operons (mexAB-oprM, mexEF-oprN, and mexXY-oprA) was susceptible to all anti-pseudomonas agents we tested, supporting an idea that these RND-type multidrug efflux transporters are molecular targets to overcome multidrug resistance in P. aeruginosa. mexEF-oprN-upregulation in P. aeruginosa PA7 was shown due to a MexS variant harboring the Valine-155 amino acid residue. This is the first genetic evidence shown that a MexS variant causes mexEF-oprN-upregulation in P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. PMID:25653649

  9. Imputation of rare variants in next generation association studies

    PubMed Central

    Asimit, Jennifer L; Zeggini, Eleftheria

    2014-01-01

    The role of rare variants has become a focus in the search for association with complex traits. Imputation is a powerful and cost-efficient tool to access variants that have not been directly typed, but there are several challenges when imputing rare variants, most notably reference panel selection. Extensions to rare variant association tests to incorporate genotype uncertainty from imputation are discussed, as well as the use of imputed low frequency and rare variants in the study of population isolates. PMID:23594497

  10. Prevalence of Met-203 type spaA variant in Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolates and the efficacy of swine erysipelas vaccines in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Mariko; Yamamoto, Kinya; Ochiai, Mariko; Yamamoto, Tsukasa; Hirano, Fumiya; Imamura, Saiki; Nagai, Hidetaka; Ohishi, Kouji; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Kijima, Mayumi

    2014-03-01

    Since 2009, erysipelas infection among pigs in Japan has been increasing. This study investigated the prevalence, and characteristics of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolates in Japan from 2008 to 2010 and assessed the efficacy of current commercial erysipelas vaccines. Based on polymorphisms in a 432-bp hypervariable region in the surface protective antigen A (spaA) gene, 34 isolates were classified into three groups: (i) Group 1 with methionine at position 203 (Met-203) and isoleucine at position 257 (Ile-257) (18 isolates of serotype 1a and one untypable isolate). (ii) Group 2 with Ile-257 (12 isolates of serotypes 1a, 1b, 2, 10 and 11), and (iii) Group 3 with alanine at position 195 (Ala-195) and Ile-257 (three isolates of serotype 1a). Isolates with Met-203 were highly pathogenic in mice and pigs, causing death in the pig and LD50 values of 0.45-1.45 CFU per mouse. One live and three inactivated commercial E. rhusiopathiae vaccines were evaluated for efficacy against a Met-203 isolate. Almost all mice and pigs that received vaccine survived, while non-vaccinated controls all died within 5 days of the challenge. This indicates that swine erysipelas vaccines might be still effective in protecting animals against the recently prevalent Met-203 isolates in Japan. PMID:24405986

  11. Association Analysis of Bitter Receptor Genes in Five Isolated Populations Identifies a Significant Correlation between TAS2R43 Variants and Coffee Liking

    PubMed Central

    Pirastu, Nicola; Kooyman, Maarten; Traglia, Michela; Robino, Antonietta; Willems, Sara M.; Pistis, Giorgio; d’Adamo, Pio; Amin, Najaf; d’Eustacchio, Angela; Navarini, Luciano; Sala, Cinzia; Karssen, Lennart C.; van Duijn, Cornelia; Toniolo, Daniela; Gasparini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Coffee, one of the most popular beverages in the world, contains many different physiologically active compounds with a potential impact on people’s health. Despite the recent attention given to the genetic basis of its consumption, very little has been done in understanding genes influencing coffee preference among different individuals. Given its markedly bitter taste, we decided to verify if bitter receptor genes (TAS2Rs) variants affect coffee liking. In this light, 4066 people from different parts of Europe and Central Asia filled in a field questionnaire on coffee liking. They have been consequently recruited and included in the study. Eighty-eight SNPs covering the 25 TAS2R genes were selected from the available imputed ones and used to run association analysis for coffee liking. A significant association was detected with three SNP: one synonymous and two functional variants (W35S and H212R) on the TAS2R43 gene. Both variants have been shown to greatly reduce in vitro protein activity. Surprisingly the wild type allele, which corresponds to the functional form of the protein, is associated to higher liking of coffee. Since the hTAS2R43 receptor is sensible to caffeine, we verified if the detected variants produced differences in caffeine bitter perception on a subsample of people coming from the FVG cohort. We found a significant association between differences in caffeine perception and the H212R variant but not with the W35S, which suggests that the effect of the TAS2R43 gene on coffee liking is mediated by caffeine and in particular by the H212R variant. No other significant association was found with other TAS2R genes. In conclusion, the present study opens new perspectives in the understanding of coffee liking. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of the TAS2R43 gene in coffee hedonics and to identify which other genes and pathways are involved in its genetics. PMID:24647340

  12. AsaGEI2b: a new variant of a genomic island identified in the Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida JF3224 strain isolated from a wild fish in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Emond-Rheault, Jean-Guillaume; Vincent, Antony T; Trudel, Mélanie V; Frey, Joachim; Frenette, Michel; Charette, Steve J

    2015-07-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the causal agent of furunculosis in salmonids. We recently identified a group of genomic islands (AsaGEI) in this bacterium. AsaGEI2a, one of these genomic islands, has almost exclusively been identified in isolates from North America. To date, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida JF3224, a strain isolated from a wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) caught in Switzerland, was the only European isolate that appeared to bear AsaGEI2a. We analyzed the genome of JF3224 and showed that the genomic island in JF3224 is a new variant of AsaGEI, which we have called AsaGEI2b. While AsaGEI2b shares the same integrase gene and insertion site as AsaGEI2a, it is very different in terms of many other features. Additional genomic investigations combined with PCR genotyping revealed that JF3224 is sensitive to growth at 25°C, leading to insertion sequence-dependent rearrangement of the locus on the pAsa5 plasmid that encodes a type three secretion system, which is essential for the virulence of the bacterium. The analysis of the JF3224 genome confirmed that AsaGEIs are accurate indicators of the geographic origins of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates and is another example of the susceptibility of the pAsa5 plasmid to DNA rearrangements. PMID:26048417

  13. Isolation and characterization of Clostridium difficile from pet dogs in Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Isfaqul; Sharma, R K; Borah, P; Rajkhowa, S; Hussain, Iftikar; Barkalita, L M; Hasin, D; Choudhury, M; Rupnik, M; Deka, N K; Saikia, G K

    2015-12-01

    One hundred and seventeen faecal samples from pet dogs (pup = 21 and adult = 96) brought for treatment to a veterinary clinic were examined for Clostridium difficile. A total of 16 (13.67%) samples were positive. Nine (56.25%) isolates were obtained from 17 adult dogs undergoing antibiotic treatment and this was significantly higher (p < 0.01) as compared to isolates from dogs without antibiotic treatment. Ten isolates (62.5%) were toxigenic (all toxinotype 0) and six were non-toxigenic. None of the isolates were positive for binary toxin genes. PCR ribotyping revealed three different ribotypes (012, 014 and 046) among A(+)B(+) isolates and five different ribotypes (010, SLO 131, and ACD 001 to ACD 003) among A(-)B(-) isolates. The PFGE analysis of toxigenic isolates revealed three different pulsotypes corresponding to the PCR ribotypes. PMID:26393292

  14. In Vitro Selection of Highly Darunavir-Resistant and Replication-Competent HIV-1 Variants by Using a Mixture of Clinical HIV-1 Isolates Resistant to Multiple Conventional Protease Inhibitors? †

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Yasuhiro; Amano, Masayuki; Towata, Tomomi; Danish, Matthew; Leshchenko-Yashchuk, Sofiya; Das, Debananda; Nakayama, Maki; Tojo, Yasushi; Ghosh, Arun K.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    We attempted to select HIV-1 variants resistant to darunavir (DRV), which potently inhibits the enzymatic activity and dimerization of protease and has a high genetic barrier to HIV-1 development of resistance to DRV. We conducted selection using a mixture of 8 highly multi-protease inhibitor (PI)-resistant, DRV-susceptible clinical HIV-1 variants (HIV-1MIX) containing 9 to 14 PI resistance-associated amino acid substitutions in protease. HIV-1MIX became highly resistant to DRV, with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) ?333-fold greater than that against HIV-1NL4-3. HIV-1MIX at passage 51 (HIV-1MIXP51) replicated well in the presence of 5 ?M DRV and contained 14 mutations. HIV-1MIXP51 was highly resistant to amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, lopinavir, and atazanavir and moderately resistant to saquinavir and tipranavir. HIV-1MIXP51 had a resemblance with HIV-1C of the HIV-1MIX population, and selection using HIV-1C was also performed; however, its DRV resistance acquisition was substantially delayed. The H219Q and I223V substitutions in Gag, lacking in HIV-1CP51, likely contributed to conferring a replication advantage on HIV-1MIXP51 by reducing intravirion cyclophilin A content. HIV-1MIXP51 apparently acquired the substitutions from another HIV-1 strain(s) of HIV-1MIX through possible homologous recombination. The present data suggest that the use of multiple drug-resistant HIV-1 isolates is of utility in selecting drug-resistant variants and that DRV would not easily permit HIV-1 to develop significant resistance; however, HIV-1 can develop high levels of DRV resistance when a variety of PI-resistant HIV-1 strains are generated, as seen in patients experiencing sequential PI failure, and ensuing homologous recombination takes place. HIV-1MIXP51 should be useful in elucidating the mechanisms of HIV-1 resistance to DRV and related agents. PMID:20810732

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of a Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Variant with a New Insertion in Glycoprotein 5, Isolated from a Stillborn Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Can; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain GD-2011, a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) that was isolated from a stillborn fetus. The GD-2011 strain is characterized by a discontinuous 30–amino acid deletion in the nonstructural protein 2. In addition, GD-2011 had a 1–amino acid insertion in glycoprotein 5, which does not exist in any other HP-PRRSV strains. PMID:26607885

  16. Protection conferred by live infectious bronchitis vaccine viruses against variant Middle East IS/885/00-like and IS/1494/06-like isolates in commercial broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Faez; Forrester, Anne; Baylis, Matthew; Lemiere, Stephane; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the infectious bronchitis H120 (a Massachusetts strain) and CR88 (a 793B strain) live attenuated vaccine viruses to protect from two Middle East infectious bronchitis virus isolates, IS/885/00-like (IS/885) and IS/1494/06-like (IS/1494) in broiler chicks was investigated. Day-old chicks were separated into three groups, (I) vaccinated with H120 at day-old followed by CR88 at 14 days-old, (II) vaccinated with H120 and CR88 simultaneously at day-old and again with CR88 at 14?days-old, (III) control unvaccinated. At 30?days-old, each of the groups was challenged with virulent IS/885 or IS/1494. Protection was evaluated based on the clinical signs, tracheal and kidney gross lesions and tracheal ciliostasis. Results showed that administering combined live H120 and CR88 vaccines simultaneously at day-old followed by CR88 vaccine at 14?days-old gave more than 80 per cent tracheal ciliary protection from both of the Middle East isolates. In addition, this programme conferred 100 per cent protection from clinical signs and tracheal or kidney lesions. The other vaccination programme, H120 at day-old followed by CR88 at 14 days-old, the tracheal ciliary protection conferred were 60 per cent and 80 per cent from IS/885/00-like and IS/1494/06-like, respectively. PMID:26392909

  17. The intergenic-junction variant (genotype 2 isolate) of hepatitis E virus restores the CREX 'stem-loop' structural integrity, essential for viral life cycle.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Mohammad Khalid

    2015-04-01

    Among the known human HEV strains (genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4), the genotype 2 Mexican isolate has two 'double-base' substitutions (5'U5100G5101?CU/3'C5117U5118?GG) flanking the conserved cis-reactive element (CRE) in the intergenic-junction sequences. While the 'C5100U5101' natural mutations in the upstream ORF1 coding region replace 'alanine' for the conserved 'valine', the 'G5117G5118' doublet resides in the downstream non-coding/promoter region of ORF3 gene. Though a stable 'stem-loop' structure containing CRE, critical for virus replication had been reported, the phenotypic effect of genotype 2 'CU/GG' variations were neither mentioned nor explored. In this study, the evolutionary significance of such tolerable mutations in the conserved regulatory-sequences was investigated. Multiple sequence alignment of intergenic-junction of human HEV strains showed further base conservations flanking the CRE sequences. In silico analysis of the conserved sequences (nts. 5099-5121) of the representative genotypes revealed a stable RNA 'stem-loop' structure (CREX). Of the four genotype-specific CREX, the Mexican mutant bases 'CU/GG' very interestingly, compensated and complemented themselves (5'C5100:3'G5118 and 5'U5101:3'G5117) in the 'lower-stem'. The substitution of 'GG' bases in the ORF3 promoter-region did not affect its 'optimal-context' and therefore, negated its regulatory role at 'nucleotide' level. Virtual mutations introduced to break the two base-pairings in the CREX 'lower-stem', completely destabilized the secondary structure. Further molecular characterization of the CREX mutants in HEV-SAR55 replicon background showed a drastic downregulation of viral RNA replication in S10-3 cells. Though the CREX-mutant RNA were encapsidated into trans-complemented viral capsids (ORF2), and produced virions, they were poorly infectious to naïve HepG2/C3A cells. In conclusion, the compensatory mutations in the intergenic-junction of Mexican isolate suggest strict conservation of the CREX 'stem-loop' structure, essential for HEV genome replication. This could have a greater regulatory role in viral life cycle, including RNA packaging. PMID:25597766

  18. Photoactive bacteriorhodopsin variants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Anil K.; Majumdar, Nirmalya; Pavale, Hanmant M.

    1997-01-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin variants were generated by UV mutagenesis. The protein variants thus engineered were characterized for their UV-visible absorption, light induced proton release activity and photocycle kinetics (BR ? M).

  19. Aspergillus oryzae NRRL 35191 from coffee, a non-toxigenic endophyte with the ability to synthesize kojic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus oryzae was isolated as an endophyte from coffee leaves and found to produce kojic acid in culture. When inoculated in cacao seedlings (Theobroma cacao L.), A. oryzae grew endophytically and synthesize kojic acid in planta. Cacao seedlings inoculated with A. oryzae produced higher levels...

  20. Novel Variant of Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Ternovoi, Vladimir A.; Protopopova, Elena V.; Chausov, Eugene V.; Novikov, Dmitry V.; Leonova, Galina N.; Netesov, Sergey V.

    2007-01-01

    We isolated a novel strain of tickborne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Glubinnoe/2004, from a patient with a fatal case in Russia. We sequenced the strain, whose landmark features included 57 amino acid substitutions and 5 modified cleavage sites. Phylogenetically, Glubinnoe/2004 is a novel variant that belongs to the Eastern type of TBEV. PMID:18258012

  1. Efficacy of commercial produce sanitizers against nontoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 during processing of iceberg lettuce in a pilot-scale leafy green processing line.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Gordon R; Buchholz, Annemarie L; Ryser, Elliot T

    2013-11-01

    Chemical sanitizers are routinely used during commercial flume washing of fresh-cut leafy greens to minimize cross-contamination from the water. This study assessed the efficacy of five commercial sanitizer treatments against Escherichia coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce, in wash water, and on equipment during simulated commercial production in a pilot-scale processing line. Iceberg lettuce (5.4 kg) was inoculated to contain 10(6) CFU/g of a four-strain cocktail of nontoxigenic, green fluorescent protein-labeled, ampicillin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 and processed after 1 h of draining at ~22 °C. Lettuce was shredded using a commercial slicer, step-conveyed to a flume tank, washed for 90 s using six different treatments (water alone, 50 ppm of peroxyacetic acid, 50 ppm of mixed peracid, or 50 ppm of available chlorine either alone or acidified to pH 6.5 with citric acid [CA] or T-128), and then dried using a shaker table and centrifugal dryer. Various product (25-g) and water (50-ml) samples collected during processing along with equipment surface samples (100 cm(2)) from the flume tank, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer were homogenized in neutralizing buffer and plated on tryptic soy agar. During and after iceberg lettuce processing, none of the sanitizers were significantly more effective (P ? 0.05) than water alone at reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations on lettuce, with reductions ranging from 0.75 to 1.4 log CFU/g. Regardless of the sanitizer treatment used, the centrifugal dryer surfaces yielded E. coli O157:H7 populations of 3.49 to 4.98 log CFU/100 cm(2). Chlorine, chlorine plus CA, and chlorine plus T-128 were generally more effective (P ? 0.05) than the other treatments, with reductions of 3.79, 5.47, and 5.37 log CFU/ml after 90 s of processing, respectively. This indicates that chlorine-based sanitizers will likely prevent wash water containing low organic loads from becoming a vehicle for cross-contamination. PMID:24215685

  2. (Alkylamino) piperidine bis(heteroaryl)piperizine analogs are potent, broad-spectrum nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors of drug-resistant isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and select for drug-resistant variants of HIV-1IIIB with reduced replication phenotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Olmsted, R A; Slade, D E; Kopta, L A; Poppe, S M; Poel, T J; Newport, S W; Rank, K B; Biles, C; Morge, R A; Dueweke, T J; Yagi, Y; Romero, D L; Thomas, R C; Sharma, S K; Tarpley, W G

    1996-01-01

    The (alkylamino)piperidine bis(heteroaryl)piperizines (AAP-BHAPs) are a new class of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific inhibitors which were identified by targeted screening of recombinant reverse transcriptase (RT) enzymes carrying key nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance-conferring mutations and NNRTI-resistant variants of HIV-1. Phenotypic profiling of the two most potent AAP-BHAPs, U-95133 and U-104489, against in vitro-selected drug-resistant HIV-1 variants carrying the NNRTI resistance-conferring mutation (Tyr->Cys) at position 181 of the HIV-1 RT revealed submicromolar 90% inhibitory concentration estimates for these compounds. Moreover, U-104489 demonstrated potent activity against BHA-P-resistant HIV-1MF harboring the Pro-236->Leu RT substitution and significantly suppressed the replication of clinical isolates of HIV-1 resistant to both delavirdine (BHAP U-90152T) and zidovudine. Biochemical and phenotypic characterization of AAP-BHAPresistant HIV-1IIIB variants revealed that high-level resistance to the AAP-BHAPs was mediated by a Gly-190->Glu substitution in RT, which had a deleterious effect on the integrity and enzymatic activity of virion-associated RT heterodimers, as well as the replication capacity of these resistant viruses. PMID:8648704

  3. Generation of Virulence Factor Variants in Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms?

    PubMed Central

    Yarwood, Jeremy M.; Paquette, Kara M.; Tikh, Ilya B.; Volper, Esther M.; Greenberg, E. Peter

    2007-01-01

    Several serious diseases are caused by biofilm-associated Staphylococcus aureus. Colonial variants occur in biofilms of other bacterial species, and S. aureus variants are frequently isolated from biofilm-associated infections. Thus, we studied the generation of variants with altered expression of virulence factors in S. aureus biofilms. We observed that the number of variants found in biofilms, as measured by hemolytic activity, varied for different strains. Further study of hemolytic activity and signaling by the accessory gene regulator (Agr) quorum-sensing system in one S. aureus strain revealed three primary biofilm subpopulations: nonhemolytic (Agr deficient), hemolytic (Agr positive), and hyperhemolytic (also Agr positive). The nonhemolytic variant became the numerically dominant subpopulation in the biofilm. The nonhemolytic variant phenotype was stable and heritable, indicating a genetic perturbation, whereas the hyperhemolytic phenotype was unstable, suggesting a phase variation. Transcription profiling revealed that expression of the agr locus and many extracellular virulence factors was repressed in the nonhemolytic variant. Expression of the agr-activating gene, sarU, was also repressed in the nonhemolytic variant, suggesting one potential regulatory pathway responsible for the Agr-deficient phenotype. We suggest that the development of these variants in biofilms may have important clinical implications. PMID:17675387

  4. Occurrence of genetic variants of Listeria monocytogenes strains.

    PubMed

    Tham, Wilhem; Lopez-Valladares, Gloria; Helmersson, Seved; Wennström, Stefan; Österlund, Anders; Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise

    2013-09-01

    Isolates of Listeria monocytogenes saved from outbreaks of listeriosis, cases of sporadic listeriosis, and similar events do not always belong to a solitary genetic variant. Variants of the same strain may have evolved from a unique clone, and plasmid loss or gain and phage-mediated genetic changes are suggested as the main mechanism. Some of these reports are summarized in this short communication. PMID:23988078

  5. Searching for missing heritability: designing rare variant association studies.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Or; Schaffner, Stephen F; Samocha, Kaitlin; Do, Ron; Hechter, Eliana; Kathiresan, Sekar; Daly, Mark J; Neale, Benjamin M; Sunyaev, Shamil R; Lander, Eric S

    2014-01-28

    Genetic studies have revealed thousands of loci predisposing to hundreds of human diseases and traits, revealing important biological pathways and defining novel therapeutic hypotheses. However, the genes discovered to date typically explain less than half of the apparent heritability. Because efforts have largely focused on common genetic variants, one hypothesis is that much of the missing heritability is due to rare genetic variants. Studies of common variants are typically referred to as genomewide association studies, whereas studies of rare variants are often simply called sequencing studies. Because they are actually closely related, we use the terms common variant association study (CVAS) and rare variant association study (RVAS). In this paper, we outline the similarities and differences between RVAS and CVAS and describe a conceptual framework for the design of RVAS. We apply the framework to address key questions about the sample sizes needed to detect association, the relative merits of testing disruptive alleles vs. missense alleles, frequency thresholds for filtering alleles, the value of predictors of the functional impact of missense alleles, the potential utility of isolated populations, the value of gene-set analysis, and the utility of de novo mutations. The optimal design depends critically on the selection coefficient against deleterious alleles and thus varies across genes. The analysis shows that common variant and rare variant studies require similarly large sample collections. In particular, a well-powered RVAS should involve discovery sets with at least 25,000 cases, together with a substantial replication set. PMID:24443550

  6. Genetic Variability of Aspergillus flavus Isolates from a Mississippi Corn Field

    PubMed Central

    Solorzano, Cesar D.; Abbas, Hamed K.; Zablotowicz, Robert M.; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Jones, Walker A.

    2014-01-01

    A nontoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain, K49, is currently being tested as a biological control agent in corn fields in the Mississippi Delta. However, little is known about the overall genetic diversity of A. flavus from year to year in corn fields and specifically in Mississippi. Our objective was to assess the genetic variability of A. flavus isolates from different seasons, inoculum sources, and years, from a no-till corn field. Of the 175 A. flavus isolates examined, 74 and 97 had the typical norB-cypA type I (1.5?kb) and type II (1.0?kb) deletion patterns, respectively. Variability in the sequence of the omtA gene of the majority of the field isolates (n = 118) was compared to strain K49. High levels of haplotypic diversity (24 omtA haplotypes; Hd = 0.61 ± 0.04) were found. Among the 24 haplotypes, two were predominant, H1 (n = 71), which consists of mostly toxigenic isolates, and H49 (n = 18), which consists of mostly atoxigenic isolates including K49. Toxigenic isolates were prevalent (60%) in this natural population. Nonetheless, about 15% of the population likely shared the same ancestral origin with K49. This study provides valuable information on the diversity of A. flavus. This knowledge can be further used to develop additional biological control strains. PMID:25478591

  7. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    DOEpatents

    Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung

    2013-02-26

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  8. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    DOEpatents

    Teter, Sarah (Davis, CA); Ward, Connie (Hamilton, MT); Cherry, Joel (Davis, CA); Jones, Aubrey (Davis, CA); Harris, Paul (Carnation, WA); Yi, Jung (Sacramento, CA)

    2011-04-26

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  9. The Phylloplane as a Source of Bacillus thuringiensis Variants

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert A.; Couche, Graham A.

    1991-01-01

    Novel variants of Bacillus thuringiensis were isolated from the phylloplane of deciduous and conifer trees as well as of other plants. These isolates displayed a range of toxicity towards Trichoplusia ni. Immunoblot and toxin protein analysis indicate that these strains included representatives of the three principal B. thuringiensis pathotypes active against larvae of the orders Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Coleoptera. We propose that B. thuringiensis be considered part of the common leaf microflora of many plants. Images PMID:16348400

  10. Variants of Aspergillus alutaceus var. alutaceus (formerly Aspergillus ochraceus) with altered ochratoxin a production

    SciTech Connect

    Chelack, W.S.; Borsa, J.; Szekely, J.G. ); Marquardt, R.R.; Frohlich, A.A. )

    1991-09-01

    The present studies, using Asperigillus alutaceus var. alutaceus Berkeley et Curtis (formerly A. ochraceus Wilhelm) NRRL 3174 along with three other wild-type strains, were undertaken in an attempt to understand the effects of irradiation and other treatments on mycotoxin production in grain. Bedford barley was inoculated with spores of NRRL 3174, gamma irradiated, and incubated at 28C and 25% moisture. After 10 days of incubation, two colony types, ocher (parental) and yellow (variant), were isolated from the grain. Further culturing of the yellow variant resulted in the spontaneous appearance of a white variant that exhibited greatly enhanced fluorescence under UV light. In subsequent work, we have also isolated variants producing a soluble red pigment. In addition, in model experiments involving irradiation (1 kGy) of pure cultures, induction frequencies ranging between 2 and 4% (survival basis) were observed for the yellow and red variants. Inoculation of these variants into wheat and incubation for 14 days at 28C and 32% moisture resulted in ochratoxin A production in the relative amounts of 0.09:1:4.6:9.3 for the red, ocher (parental), yellow, and white variants, respectively. Additional characteristics of these isolates are described. Confirmation that the white high-ochratoxin-A-producing variants were derived from the parental strain was demonstrated by obtaining revertant sectors in monoclonal cultures of the variants.

  11. COLOR VARIABILITY AND PULLULAN PRODUCTION FROM TROPICAL VARIANTS AUREOBASIDIUM PULLULANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diverse tropical variant strains of the polymorphic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans were isolated from many provinces in Thailand. They were cultured from leaves, painted walls, and wood surfaces. Most colonies were smooth, moist, cream or pale pink on YMA (yeast malt agar) medium, while budding ye...

  12. Teal fluorescent proteins: Characterization of a reversibly photoswitchable variant

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Robert E.

    green fluorescent protein (GFP) in 1961 when he was isolating aequorin, a calciumTeal fluorescent proteins: Characterization of a reversibly photoswitchable variant Hui-wang Ai ABSTRACT Fluorescent proteins (FPs) emerged in the mid 1990s as a powerful tool for life science research

  13. Molecular features of new Peach Latent Mosaic Viroid variants suggest that recombination may have contributed to the evolution of this infectious RNA

    E-print Network

    Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    Molecular features of new Peach Latent Mosaic Viroid variants suggest that recombination may have Nucleotide sequences of a broad range of Peach Latent Mosaic Viroid (PLMVd) variants were determined. The variants were isolated from peach, pear, and almond tree samples collected in Tunisia. Sequence analysis

  14. [Rare keratoacanthoma variants].

    PubMed

    Jasnoch, V; Ernst, K; Hundeiker, M

    1995-04-01

    Keratoacanthomas are made up of the same spinocellular differentiated cell material as squamous cell carcinomas, but they differ from the latter in origin and growth properties. The majority--in our series 98% of 741 examined cases--are of the "crateriform" type, which after rapid growth during the initial stage give way to spontaneous regression, mostly with complete restoration of the cutaneous structure. Less than 2% belong to the rare destructive variants with disturbed or absent regression and persistent invasive growth. Keratoacanthoma marginatum centrifugum, mutilating keratoacanthomas and aggregated keratoacanthomas can lead to extremely severe defects. None of the "conservative" treatment methods recommended in the literature up to now has proved effective, with the exception of surgery and radiotherapy with tumour ratio doses. Many publications are obviously based on uncritically interpreted individual observations. PMID:7790189

  15. Phenylketonuria variants in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    Since mass screening of the newborn population for phenylketonuria (PKU) by the Guthrie test was begun in Ontario in July 1965 many variants of PKU have been recognized in the 96 to 97% screened. Seventy-one cases of classic PKU were detected (four were missed). Of 48 cases of persistent hyperphenylalaninemia discovered, 18 were classified as atypical PKU and 30 as persistent benign hyperphenylalaninemia. Numerous infants with transient hyperphenylalaninemia (initial values over 10 mg/dl in 12), in many instances the result of transient neonatal tyrosinemia, were discovered. There was a slight predominance of males. Serum phenylalanine values of up to 15 mg/dl seemed to be harmless to the developing brain. A survey of 67 247 adults in the general population revealed 1 person with PKU and 1 with persistent benign hyperphenylalaninemia; both had normal intelligence quotients. Of 1548 mothers of retarded children tested, none had hyperphenylalaninemia. PMID:953933

  16. Cellobiohydrolase variants and polynucleotides encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Wogulis, Mark

    2013-09-24

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent cellobiohydrolase II. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the variants.

  17. Cellobiohydrolase variants and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Wogulis, Mark

    2014-10-14

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent cellobiohydrolase II. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the variants.

  18. Cellobiohydrolase variants and polynucleotides encoding the same

    SciTech Connect

    Wogulis, Mark

    2014-09-09

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent cellobiohydrolase. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the cellobiohydrolase variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the cellobiohydrolase variants.

  19. Human AZU-1 gene, variants thereof and expressed gene products

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Bissell, Mina

    2004-06-22

    A human AZU-1 gene, mutants, variants and fragments thereof. Protein products encoded by the AZU-1 gene and homologs encoded by the variants of AZU-1 gene acting as tumor suppressors or markers of malignancy progression and tumorigenicity reversion. Identification, isolation and characterization of AZU-1 and AZU-2 genes localized to a tumor suppressive locus at chromosome 10q26, highly expressed in nonmalignant and premalignant cells derived from a human breast tumor progression model. A recombinant full length protein sequences encoded by the AZU-1 gene and nucleotide sequences of AZU-1 and AZU-2 genes and variant and fragments thereof. Monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies specific to AZU-1, AZU-2 encoded protein and to AZU-1, or AZU-2 encoded protein homologs.

  20. Rare Copy Number Variants

    PubMed Central

    Grozeva, Detelina; Kirov, George; Ivanov, Dobril; Jones, Ian R.; Jones, Lisa; Green, Elaine K.; St Clair, David M.; Young, Allan H.; Ferrier, Nicol; Farmer, Anne E.; McGuffin, Peter; Holmans, Peter A.; Owen, Michael J.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Craddock, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Context Recent studies suggest that copy number variation in the human genome is extensive and may play an important role in susceptibility to disease, including neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. The possible involvement of copy number variants (CNVs) in bipolar disorder has received little attention to date. Objectives To determine whether large (>100 000 base pairs) and rare (found in <1% of the population) CNVs are associated with susceptibility to bipolar disorder and to compare with findings in schizophrenia. Design A genome-wide survey of large, rare CNVs in a case-control sample using a high-density microarray. Setting The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Participants There were 1697 cases of bipolar disorder and 2806 nonpsychiatric controls. All participants were white UK residents. Main Outcome Measures Overall load of CNVs and presence of rare CNVs. Results The burden of CNVs in bipolar disorder was not increased compared with controls and was significantly less than in schizophrenia cases. The CNVs previously implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia were not more common in cases with bipolar disorder. Conclusions Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder differ with respect to CNV burden in general and association with specific CNVs in particular. Our data are consistent with the possibility that possession of large, rare deletions may modify the phenotype in those at risk of psychosis: those possessing such events are more likely to be diagnosed as having schizophrenia, and those without them are more likely to be diagnosed as having bipolar disorder. PMID:20368508

  1. Variants of beta-glucosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2015-07-14

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  2. Variants of beta-glucosidases

    DOEpatents

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2014-10-07

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  3. Variants of beta-glucosidases

    DOEpatents

    Fidantsef, Ana (Davis, CA); Lamsa, Michael (Davis, CA); Clancy, Brian Gorre (Elk Grove, CA)

    2008-08-19

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  4. Variants of beta-glucosidase

    DOEpatents

    Fidantsef, Ana (Davis, CA); Lamsa, Michael (Davis, CA); Gorre-Clancy, Brian (Elk Grove, CA)

    2009-12-29

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  5. Full-length genomes of 16 hepatitis C virus genotype 1 isolates representing subtypes 1c, 1d, 1e, 1g, 1h, 1i, 1j and 1k, and two new subtypes 1m and 1n, and four unclassified variants reveal ancestral relationships among subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunhua; Xu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We characterized the full-length genomes of 16 distinct hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCV-1) isolates. Among them, four represented the first full-length genomes for subtypes 1d (QC103), 1i (QC181), 1j (QC329) and 1k (QC82), and another four corresponded to subtypes 1c (QC165), 1g (QC78), 1h (QC156) and 1e (QC172). Both QC196 and QC87 were assigned into a new subtype 1m, and QC113 and QC74 into another new subtype 1n. The remaining four (QC60, QC316, QC152 and QC180) did not classify among the established subtypes and corresponded to four new lineages. Subtypes 1j, 1k, 1m, 1n and the unclassified isolate QC60 were identified in Haitian immigrants. In the updated HCV nomenclature of 2005, a total of 12 subtypes of HCV-1 were designated. Including the data from the present study, all but subtype 1f now have their full-length genomes defined. Further analysis of partial NS5B sequences available in GenBank denoted a total of 21 unclassified lineages, indicating the taxonomic complexity of HCV-1. Among them, six have had their full-length genomes characterized. Based on the available full-length genome sequences, a timescale phylogenetic tree was reconstructed which estimated important time points in the evolution of HCV-1. It revealed that subtype 1a diverged from its nearest relatives 135 years ago and subtype 1b diverged from its nearest relatives 112 years ago. When subtypes 1a, 1j, 1k, 1m, 1n and six close relatives (all but one from Haitian immigrants) were considered as a whole, the divergence time was 176 years ago. This diversification was concurrent with the time period when the transatlantic slave trade was active. When taking all the HCV-1 isolates as a single lineage, the divergence time was 326 years ago. This analysis suggested the existence of a recent common ancestor for subtype 1a and the Haitian variants; a co-origin for subtypes 1b, 1i and 1d was also implied. PMID:24718832

  6. Gene Variants Reduce Opioid Risks

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... a decreased risk for addiction to heroin or cocaine. The other linked variants in two genes— OPRM1 , ...

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Shigella flexneri serotype 2 variant in China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xianyan; Wang, Jian; Yang, Chaojie; Liang, Beibei; Ma, Qiuxia; Yi, Shengjie; Li, Hao; Liu, Hongbo; Li, Peng; Wu, Zhihao; Xie, Jing; Jia, Leili; Hao, Rongzhang; Wang, Ligui; Hua, Yuejin; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Shigella flexneri serotype 2 variant (II:3,4,7,8) was isolated in 2008 and first reported in China in 2013. In the present study, epidemiological surveillance from 2003 to 2013 in China suggested that this serotype first appeared in Guangxi in 2003; it then emerged in Shanghai and Xinjiang in 2004 and in Henan in 2008. Of the 1813 S. flexneri isolates, 58 S. flexneri serotype 2 variant strains were identified. Serotype 2 variant has emerged as a prominent serotype in recent years, with 2a (32.6%), X variant (25.2%), 1a (9.4%), X (6.3%), 2b (5.4%), and 1b (3.6%). According to phenotypic and genotypic analysis, the serotype 2 variant originated from 2a to 2b. A higher antibiotic resistance rate was observed between 2009 and 2013 than that between 2003 and 2008. Among 22 cephalosporin-resistant isolates, blaTEM-1, blaOXA-1, blaCTX-3, blaCTX-14, and blaCTX-79 were detected. Among 22 fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates, a Ser80Ile mutation in parC was present in all of the isolates. Moreover, 21 isolates had three gyrA point mutations (Ser83Leu, His211Tyr, Asp87Asn, or Gly) and one isolate had two gyrA point mutations (Ser83Leu and His211Tyr). The prevalence of His211Tyr in the fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates is concerning, and the mutation was first reported in China. Besides, 22 isolates harbored the aac(6?)-Ib-cr gene, and two isolates harbored qnrS1. In view of the increased epidemic frequency and multidrug-resistant strain emergence, continuous surveillance will be needed to understand the actual disease burden and provide guidance for shigellosis. PMID:25999941

  8. Multiplanar imaging of inferior vena cava variants.

    PubMed

    Awais, Muhammad; Rehman, Abdul; Baloch, Noor Ul-Ain; Salam, Basit

    2015-01-01

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) variants are rare and are usually detected incidentally. Even though, these variants are by themselves asymptomatic, they can have important clinical, radiological, and surgical implications. In this pictorial essay, we sensitize the reader to various IVC variants by presenting reports of actual patients. A succinct description of the embryological development of these anatomic variants is also provided. PMID:24981147

  9. Complete Genome Sequences of Low-Passage Virulent and High-Passage Avirulent Variants of Pathogenic Leptospira interrogans Serovar Manilae Strain UP-MMC-NIID, Originally Isolated from a Patient with Severe Leptospirosis, Determined Using PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time Technology.

    PubMed

    Satou, Kazuhito; Shimoji, Makiko; Tamotsu, Hinako; Juan, Ayaka; Ashimine, Noriko; Shinzato, Misuzu; Toma, Claudia; Nohara, Toshitsugu; Shiroma, Akino; Nakano, Kazuma; Teruya, Kuniko; Terabayashi, Yasunobu; Ohki, Shun; Koizumi, Nobuo; Okano, Shou; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Hirano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequences of low-passage virulent and high-passage avirulent variants of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar Manilae strain UP-MMC-NIID, a major causative agent of leptospirosis. While there were no major differences between the genome sequences, the levels of base modifications were higher in the avirulent variant. PMID:26272567

  10. Complete Genome Sequences of Low-Passage Virulent and High-Passage Avirulent Variants of Pathogenic Leptospira interrogans Serovar Manilae Strain UP-MMC-NIID, Originally Isolated from a Patient with Severe Leptospirosis, Determined Using PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shimoji, Makiko; Tamotsu, Hinako; Juan, Ayaka; Ashimine, Noriko; Shinzato, Misuzu; Toma, Claudia; Nohara, Toshitsugu; Shiroma, Akino; Nakano, Kazuma; Teruya, Kuniko; Terabayashi, Yasunobu; Ohki, Shun; Koizumi, Nobuo; Okano, Shou; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Hirano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequences of low-passage virulent and high-passage avirulent variants of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar Manilae strain UP-MMC-NIID, a major causative agent of leptospirosis. While there were no major differences between the genome sequences, the levels of base modifications were higher in the avirulent variant. PMID:26272567

  11. The non-toxigenic Clostridium difficile CD37 protects mice against infection with a BI/NAP1/027 type of C. difficile strain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Keshan; Zhao, Song; Wang, Yuankai; Zhu, Xuejun; Shen, Hong; Chen, Yugen; Sun, Xingmin

    2015-12-01

    Clostridium difficile CD37, a clinical isolate from the USA, does not produce toxin A, B or binary toxin. The aim of this study was to determine whether strain CD37 can protect mice against infection from a challenge with a toxigenic C. difficile strain. Three groups of mice (n = 10) were pretreated with a antibiotics cocktail for 5 days, switched to sterile water for 2 days, and given one dose of clindamycin (10 mg/kg) one day (day-1) before challenge (day 0) with a toxigenic C. difficile strain. Group 1 (CD37 + UK6) was given 10(7)C. difficile CD37 vegetative cells by gavage twice a day on days -1 and -2, followed by challenge with 10(6) spores of the toxigenic C. difficile UK6 (BI/NAPI/027) on day 0; Group 2 (UK6) was infected with 10(6)C. difficile UK6 spores on day 0; Group 3 (CD37) was challenged with 10(6) CD37 vegetative cells on day 0. Our data show that pre-inoculation of strain CD37 provided mice significant protection (survival, p < 0.001 between groups CD37 + UK6 and UK6) against subsequent infection with the strain UK6, while mice infected with CD37 only did not develop any symptoms of C. difficile infection (CDI). Our results highlight the potential use of CD37 as a therapeutic strain for the prevention of primary and recurrent CDI in humans. PMID:26461425

  12. Application of the antibiotic batumin for accurate and rapid identification of staphylococcal small colony variants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen causing significant morbidity and mortality. The S. aureus colonies in osteomyelitis, in patients with cystic fibrosis and patients with endoprosthesis rejection frequently have an atypical morphology, i.e. staphylococcal small-colony variants, which form a naturally occurring subpopulation of clinically important staphylococci. Identification of these small colony variants is difficult, because of the loss of typical phenotypic characteristics of these variants. We wanted to improve and simplify the diagnosis of staphylococcal infection using a diagnostic preparation, consisting of 5 ?g batumin paper disks. Batumin possesses a unique selective activity against all studied Staphylococcus spp., whereas all other species tested thus far are batumin resistant. We assessed the efficacy of the batumin diagnostic preparation to identify staphylococcal small colony variants, isolated from osteomyelitis patients. Findings With the batumin diagnostic preparation, all 30 tested staphylococcal small-colony variants had a growth inhibition zone around the disk of minimum 25 mm, accordant with the inhibition zones of the parent strains, isolated from the same patients. Conclusions The batumin diagnostic preparation correctly identified the small-colony variants of S. aureus, S. haemolyticus and S. epidermidis as belonging to the genus Staphylococcus, which differ profoundly from parental strains and are difficult to identify with standard methods. Identification of staphylococcal small-colony variants with the batumin diagnostic preparation is technically simple and can facilitate practical laboratory work. PMID:22828414

  13. Genetic Variants Associated with Port-Wine Stains

    PubMed Central

    Wooderchak-Donahue, Whitney; Tan, Oon T.; Margraf, Rebecca; Stevenson, David A.; Grimmer, J. Fredrik; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Background Port-wine stains (PWS) are capillary malformations, typically located in the dermis of the head and neck, affecting 0.3% of the population. Current theories suggest that port-wine stains are caused by somatic mutations that disrupt vascular development. Objectives Understanding PWS genetic determinants could provide insight into new treatments. Methods Our study used a custom next generation sequencing (NGS) panel and digital polymerase chain reaction to investigate genetic variants in 12 individuals with isolated port-wine stains. Importantly, affected and healthy skin tissue from the same individual were compared. A subtractive correction method was developed to eliminate background noise from NGS data. This allowed the detection of a very low level of mosaicism. Results A novel somatic variant GNAQ, c.547C>G, p.Arg183Gly was found in one case with 4% allele frequency. The previously reported GNAQ c.548G>A, p.Arg183Gln was confirmed in 9 of 12 cases with an allele frequency ranging from 1.73 to 7.42%. Digital polymerase chain reaction confirmed novel variants detected by next generation sequencing. Two novel somatic variants were also found in RASA1, although neither was predicted to be deleterious. Conclusions This is the second largest study on isolated, non-syndromic PWS. Our data suggest that GNAQ is the main genetic determinant in this condition. Moreover, isolated port-wine stains are distinct from capillary malformations seen in RASA1 disorders, which will be helpful in clinical evaluation. PMID:26192947

  14. Common Variants for Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shutong; Tao, Lichan; Wang, Xiuzhi; Kong, Xiangqing; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a common disease with high morbidity and mortality; however, none of the drugs available are now entirely optimal for the treatment of HF. In addition to various clinical diseases and environment influences, genetic factors also contribute to the development and progression of HF. Identifying the common variants for HF by genome-wide association studies will facilitate the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying HF. This review summarizes the recently identified common variants for HF risk and outcome and discusses their implications for the clinic therapy. PMID:26085806

  15. Pilus Gene Pool Variation and the Virulence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Clinical Isolates during Infection of a Nematode

    PubMed Central

    Broadway, Melissa M.; Rogers, Elizabeth A.; Chang, Chungyu; Huang, I-Hsiu; Dwivedi, Prabhat; Yildirim, Suleyman; Schmitt, Michael P.; Das, Asis

    2013-01-01

    Toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains cause diphtheria in humans. The toxigenic C. diphtheriae isolate NCTC13129 produces three distinct heterotrimeric pili that contain SpaA, SpaD, and SpaH, making up the shaft structure. The SpaA pili are known to mediate bacterial adherence to pharyngeal epithelial cells. However, to date little is known about the expression of different pili in various clinical isolates and their importance in bacterial pathogenesis. Here, we characterized a large collection of C. diphtheriae clinical isolates for their pilin gene pool by PCR and for the expression of the respective pilins by immunoblotting with antibodies against Spa pilins. Consistent with the role of a virulence factor, the SpaA-type pili were found to be prevalent among the isolates, and most significantly, corynebacterial adherence to pharyngeal epithelial cells was strictly correlated with isolates that were positive for the SpaA pili. By comparison, the isolates were heterogeneous for the presence of SpaD- and SpaH-type pili. Importantly, using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model host for infection, we show here that strain NCTC13129 rapidly killed the nematodes, the phenotype similar to isolates that were positive for toxin and all pilus types. In contrast, isogenic mutants of NCTC13129 lacking SpaA-type pili or devoid of toxin and SpaA pili exhibited delayed killing of nematodes with similar kinetics. Consistently, nontoxigenic or toxigenic isolates that lack one, two, or all three pilus types were also attenuated in virulence. This work signifies the important role of pili in corynebacterial pathogenesis and provides a simple host model to identify additional virulence factors. PMID:23772071

  16. Amyloidogenic Potential of Transthyretin Variants

    PubMed Central

    Cendron, Laura; Trovato, Antonio; Seno, Flavio; Folli, Claudia; Alfieri, Beatrice; Zanotti, Giuseppe; Berni, Rodolfo

    2009-01-01

    Human transthyretin (TTR) is an amyloidogenic protein whose mild amyloidogenicity is enhanced by many point mutations affecting considerably the amyloid disease phenotype. To ascertain whether the high amyloidogenic potential of TTR variants may be explained on the basis of the conformational change hypothesis, an aim of this work was to determine structural alterations for five amyloidogenic TTR variants crystallized under native and/or destabilizing (moderately acidic pH) conditions. While at acidic pH structural changes may be more significant because of a higher local protein flexibility, only limited alterations, possibly representing early events associated with protein destabilization, are generally induced by mutations. This study was also aimed at establishing to what extent wild-type TTR and its amyloidogenic variants are intrinsically prone to ?-aggregation. We report the results of a computational analysis predicting that wild-type TTR possesses a very high intrinsic ?-aggregation propensity which is on average not enhanced by amyloidogenic mutations. However, when located in ?-strands, most of these mutations are predicted to destabilize the native ?-structure. The analysis also shows that rat and murine TTR have a lower intrinsic ?-aggregation propensity and a similar native ?-structure stability compared with human TTR. This result is consistent with the lack of in vitro amyloidogenicity found for both murine and rat TTR. Collectively, the results of this study support the notion that the high amyloidogenic potential of human pathogenic TTR variants is determined by the destabilization of their native structures, rather than by a higher intrinsic ?-aggregation propensity. PMID:19602727

  17. Evaluation of Perceived Threat Differences Posed by Filovirus Variants

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Jens H.; Dodd, Lori E.; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Radoshitzky, Sheli R.; Bavari, Sina

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, filoviruses (ebolaviruses and marburgviruses) are listed as National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Category A Priority Pathogens, Select Agents, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Category A Bioterrorism Agents. In recent months, U.S. biodefense professionals and policy experts have initiated discussions on how to optimize filovirus research in regard to medical countermeasure (ie, diagnostics, antiviral, and vaccine) development. Standardized procedures and reagents could accelerate the independent verification of research results across government agencies and establish baselines for the development of animal models acceptable to regulatory entities, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), while being fiscally responsible. At the root of standardization lies the question of which filovirus strains, variants, or isolates ought to be the prototypes for product development, evaluation, and validation. Here we discuss a rationale for their selection. We conclude that, based on currently available data, filovirus biodefense research ought to focus on the classical taxonomic filovirus prototypes: Marburg virus Musoke in the case of marburgviruses and Ebola virus Mayinga in the case of Zaire ebolaviruses. Arguments have been made in various committees in favor of other variants, such as Marburg virus Angola, Ci67 or Popp, or Ebola virus Kikwit, but these rationales seem to be largely based on anecdotal or unpublished and unverified data, or they may reflect a lack of awareness of important facts about the variants' isolation history and genomic properties. PMID:22070137

  18. Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Past Newsletters Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Background Reporting Additional Information Key Facts about Human Infections with Variant Viruses (Swine Origin Influenza Viruses ...

  19. Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses Language: English Español ... pigs and variant influenza virus infections in humans. Swine Flu in Swine (pigs) Swine Flu in Swine ( ...

  20. Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1

    DOEpatents

    Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Gualfetti, Peter (San Francisco, CA); Mitchinson, Colin (Half Moon Bay, CA); Larenas, Edmund (Moss Beach, CA)

    2011-05-31

    Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

  1. Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1

    DOEpatents

    Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Larenas, Edmund

    2014-03-18

    Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

  2. Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1

    DOEpatents

    Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Gualfetti, Peter (San Francisco, CA); Mitchinson, Colin (Half Moon Bay, CA); Larenas, Edmund (Moss Beach, CA)

    2012-08-07

    Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

  3. Variant humicola grisea CBH1.1

    DOEpatents

    Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Edmund, Larenas

    2014-09-09

    Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

  4. Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1

    DOEpatents

    Goedegeburr, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Larenas, Edmund

    2013-02-19

    Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

  5. Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1

    DOEpatents

    Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Gualfetti, Peter (San Francisco, CA); Mitchinson, Colin (Half Moon Bay, CA); Larenas, Edmund (Moss Beach, CA)

    2011-08-16

    Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

  6. Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1

    DOEpatents

    Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Gualfetti, Peter (San Francisco, CA); Mitchinson, Colin (Half Moon Bay, CA); Larenas, Edmund (Moss Beach, CA)

    2008-12-02

    Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

  7. Variant-specific prion interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Jaya; Liebman, Susan W

    2013-01-01

    Prions are protein conformations that “self-seed” the misfolding of their non-prion iso-forms into prion, often amyloid, conformations. The most famous prion is the mammalian PrP protein that in its prion form causes transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Curiously there can be distinct conformational differences even between prions of the same protein propagated in the same host species. These are called prion strains or variants. For example, different PrP variants are faithfully transmitted during self-seeding and are associated with distinct disease characteristics. Variant-specific PrP prion differences include the length of the incubation period before the disease appears and the deposition of prion aggregates in distinct regions of the brain.1 Other more common neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, type 2 diabetes and ALS) are likewise caused by the misfolding of a normal protein into a self-seeding aggregate.2-4 One of the most important unanswered questions is how the first prion-like seed arises de novo, resulting in the pathological cascade. PMID:24475372

  8. Antibiotic Sensitivity of Clostridium perfringens Isolated From Faeces in Tabriz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Bidar Asl, Saeid; Pirzadeh, Tahereh; Naghili, Behruz; Yeganeh, Fatemeh; Memar, Yousef; Mohammadzadeh, Yalda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clostridium perfringens, a Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium that produces at least 16 virulence factors including 12 toxins (?-?), enterotoxin, hemolysin and neuraminidase, can create variable pathogenic condition, ranging from a food poisoning to life-threatening myonecrosis. Among C. perfringens strains, resistance to the drug choices such as penicillin as well as to alternatives of penicillin like metronidazole and clindamycin has also been observed. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the resistance of isolated toxigenic and non-toxigenic C. perfringens strains against common antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, a total of 136 stool specimens were collected. At first, cooked meat medium enrichment method was performed on samples at 45°C. Thereafter, a loopful of the enriched culture was transferred to blood agar and incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24-72 hours. Colonies with double zone of hemolysis were identified by different biochemical tests such as phospholipase C (lecithinase) test, indole and urease production. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for common antibiotics was determined by Etests (Epsilometer) and duplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) reaction was performed with specific primers for amplification of cpe (426 bp) and plc (283 bp) Genes. Results: Of 136 stool samples including diarrhea [48] and non-diarrhea [88] ones, 83 (61.02%) C. perfringens were cultured. Of these 83, 79 C. perfringens isolates showed the alpha-toxin (phospholipase C) production gene by PCR. Respectively, 3 (9.09%) and 2 (4.34%) cpe genes were present in diarrhea and non-diarrhea samples. Of 79 isolates of C. perfringens, 34 (43.03%) cases showed no resistance, 18 (22.78%) had one resistance and 27 (34.17%) isolates had multiple resistance to imipenem, metronidazole, ceftriaxone, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, and penicillin. Conclusions: Periodic evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility for C. perfringens should be performed. Harboring of enterotoxigenic C. perfringens in individuals not necessarily results in diarrhea. PMID:26421135

  9. PBHoney: identifying genomic variants via long-read discordance and interrupted mapping

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As resequencing projects become more prevalent across a larger number of species, accurate variant identification will further elucidate the nature of genetic diversity and become increasingly relevant in genomic studies. However, the identification of larger genomic variants via DNA sequencing is limited by both the incomplete information provided by sequencing reads and the nature of the genome itself. Long-read sequencing technologies provide high-resolution access to structural variants often inaccessible to shorter reads. Results We present PBHoney, software that considers both intra-read discordance and soft-clipped tails of long reads (>10,000 bp) to identify structural variants. As a proof of concept, we identify four structural variants and two genomic features in a strain of Escherichia coli with PBHoney and validate them via de novo assembly. PBHoney is available for download at http://sourceforge.net/projects/pb-jelly/. Conclusions Implementing two variant-identification approaches that exploit the high mappability of long reads, PBHoney is demonstrated as being effective at detecting larger structural variants using whole-genome Pacific Biosciences RS II Continuous Long Reads. Furthermore, PBHoney is able to discover two genomic features: the existence of Rac-Phage in isolate; evidence of E. coli’s circular genome. PMID:24915764

  10. Sequencing of Peach Latent Mosaic Viroid Variants from Nine North American Peach Cultivars Shows that This RNA Folds into a Complex Secondary Structure

    E-print Network

    Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    Sequencing of Peach Latent Mosaic Viroid Variants from Nine North American Peach Cultivars Shows, 1999; accepted March 6, 2000 We sequenced 34 new peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) variants isolated from nine different peach cultivars. This study provides the widest view of PLMVd diversity reported

  11. Outbreak of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strain in Bihar, India.

    PubMed

    Koley, Hemanta; Ray, Nivedita; Chowdhury, Goutam; Barman, Soumik; Mitra, Soma; Ramamurthy, T; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Sarkar, B L; Katyal, Rakesh; Das, Pradeep; Panda, Samiran; Ghosh, Subrata

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of cholera struck Bihar, an Indian state, in August 2008 following a massive flood. Here we report the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from patients with diarrhea. Rectal swabs were obtained from patients with diarrhea who were admitted to medical camps or the hospital, and the strains were biochemically and serologically characterized. V. cholerae was isolated from 21 (65.6%) of 32 rectal swabs. Serological studies revealed that all the 21 isolates belonged to V. cholerae O1 Ogawa. Mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA)-PCR showed that the isolates belonged to El Tor variant group, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) proved that these isolates were of a different lineage than the conventional El Tor variant strains. These isolates were resistant to several drugs, including ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, and furazolidone. The uniqueness of the current report arises from the fact that records of cholera in Bihar are availiable for the early 1960s but not for the next 4 decades. Moreover, the present study is the first to report a cholera outbreak in Bihar that was caused by an El Tor variant strain. PMID:24858614

  12. First Report of Brain Abscess Caused by a Satelliting Phenotypic Variant of Helcococcus kunzii

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Siddharth; Chan, Jasper F. W.

    2014-01-01

    Helcococcus kunzii was isolated from a brain abscess in a diabetic patient with cholesteatoma and demonstrated satellitism around Staphylococcus aureus in culture. This is the first reported case of severe central nervous system infection due to H. kunzii and the first description of a satelliting phenotypic variant of this organism. PMID:24172152

  13. Monophyly of b-tubulin and H -ATPase gene variants in Glomus

    E-print Network

    Sanders, Ian

    Monophyly of b-tubulin and Hþ -ATPase gene variants in Glomus intraradices: consequences) are an ecologically important group of fungi. Previous studies showed the presence of divergent copies of b-tubulin isolate of Glomus intraradices that was free of any obvious contaminants. We found two highly variable b-tubulin

  14. PULLULAN PRODUCTION BY TROPICAL ISOLATES OF AUREOBASIDIUM PULLULANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans previously isolated from distinct habitats in Thailand were characterized for their capacities to produce the valuable polysaccharide, pullulan. A. pullulans strain NRM2, a so-called "color variant" strain, was the best producer, yielding 25.1 g pullulan...

  15. Variability in alternanthera mosaic virus isolates from different hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have determined the complete genome sequences of Alternanthera mosaic virus phlox isolate PA (AltMV-PA) and four infectious clone variants derived from AltMV-SP, as well as partial sequences of other isolates from various types of phlox, and from portulaca, nandina, and cineraria. Phylogenetic co...

  16. Spontaneous resolution of isolated congenital megacystis: the incredible shrinking bladder

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Emilie K.; Nelson, Caleb P.

    2014-01-01

    Isolated congenital megacystis represents a rare variant of fetal megacystis without other associated anomalies. The etiology is unclear, and various management strategies have been proposed. We report a case of isolated congenital megacystis that resolved over the first year of life with observation alone. Considerations for the evaluation and management of this rare entity are discussed. PMID:22910450

  17. A rigorous approach for selection of optimal variant sets for carrier screening with demonstration of clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Perreault-Micale, Cynthia; Davie, Jocelyn; Breton, Benjamin; Hallam, Stephanie; Greger, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Carrier screening for certain diseases is recommended by major medical and Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) societies. Most carrier screening panels test only for common, ethnic-specific variants. However, with formerly isolated ethnic groups becoming increasingly intermixed, this approach is becoming inadequate. Our objective was to develop a rigorous process to curate all variants, for relevant genes, into a database and then apply stringent clinical validity classification criteria to each in order to retain only those with clear evidence for pathogenicity. The resulting variant set, in conjunction with next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS), then affords the capability for an ethnically diverse, comprehensive, highly specific carrier-screening assay. The clinical utility of our approach was demonstrated by screening a pan-ethnic population of 22,864 individuals for Bloom syndrome carrier status using a BLM variant panel comprised of 50 pathogenic variants. In addition to carriers of the common AJ founder variant, we identified 57 carriers of other pathogenic BLM variants. All variants reported had previously been curated and their clinical validity documented, or were of a type that met our stringent, preassigned validity criteria. Thus, it was possible to confidently report an increased number of Bloom’s syndrome carriers compared to traditional, ethnicity-based screening, while not reducing the specificity of the screening due to reporting variants of unknown clinical significance. PMID:26247052

  18. Distribution and medical impact of loss-of-function variants in the Finnish founder population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Elaine T; Würtz, Peter; Havulinna, Aki S; Palta, Priit; Tukiainen, Taru; Rehnström, Karola; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Inouye, Michael; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Chan, Yingleong; Salem, Rany M; Lek, Monkol; Flannick, Jason; Sim, Xueling; Manning, Alisa; Ladenvall, Claes; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Hämäläinen, Eija; Aalto, Kristiina; Maksimow, Mikael; Salmi, Marko; Blankenberg, Stefan; Ardissino, Diego; Shah, Svati; Horne, Benjamin; McPherson, Ruth; Hovingh, Gerald K; Reilly, Muredach P; Watkins, Hugh; Goel, Anuj; Farrall, Martin; Girelli, Domenico; Reiner, Alex P; Stitziel, Nathan O; Kathiresan, Sekar; Gabriel, Stacey; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Lehtimäki, Terho; Laakso, Markku; Groop, Leif; Kaprio, Jaakko; Perola, Markus; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Altshuler, David M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Metspalu, Andres; Freimer, Nelson B; Zeller, Tanja; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Koskinen, Seppo; Raitakari, Olli; Durbin, Richard; MacArthur, Daniel G; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Daly, Mark J; Palotie, Aarno

    2014-07-01

    Exome sequencing studies in complex diseases are challenged by the allelic heterogeneity, large number and modest effect sizes of associated variants on disease risk and the presence of large numbers of neutral variants, even in phenotypically relevant genes. Isolated populations with recent bottlenecks offer advantages for studying rare variants in complex diseases as they have deleterious variants that are present at higher frequencies as well as a substantial reduction in rare neutral variation. To explore the potential of the Finnish founder population for studying low-frequency (0.5-5%) variants in complex diseases, we compared exome sequence data on 3,000 Finns to the same number of non-Finnish Europeans and discovered that, despite having fewer variable sites overall, the average Finn has more low-frequency loss-of-function variants and complete gene knockouts. We then used several well-characterized Finnish population cohorts to study the phenotypic effects of 83 enriched loss-of-function variants across 60 phenotypes in 36,262 Finns. Using a deep set of quantitative traits collected on these cohorts, we show 5 associations (p<5×10??) including splice variants in LPA that lowered plasma lipoprotein(a) levels (P?=?1.5×10?¹¹?). Through accessing the national medical records of these participants, we evaluate the LPA finding via Mendelian randomization and confirm that these splice variants confer protection from cardiovascular disease (OR?=?0.84, P?=?3×10??), demonstrating for the first time the correlation between very low levels of LPA in humans with potential therapeutic implications for cardiovascular diseases. More generally, this study articulates substantial advantages for studying the role of rare variation in complex phenotypes in founder populations like the Finns and by combining a unique population genetic history with data from large population cohorts and centralized research access to National Health Registers. PMID:25078778

  19. Variability and pathogenicity of hepatitis E virus genotype 3 variants.

    PubMed

    Smith, Donald B; Ijaz, Samreen; Tedder, Richard S; Hogema, Boris; Zaaijer, Hans L; Izopet, Jacques; Bradley-Stewart, Amanda; Gunson, Rory; Harvala, Heli; Kokki, Inka; Simmonds, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) can be clinically inapparent or produce symptoms and signs of hepatitis of varying severity and occasional fatality. This variability in clinical outcomes may reflect differences in host susceptibility or the presence of virally encoded determinants of pathogenicity. Analysis of complete genome sequences supports the division of HEV genotype 3 (HEV-3) variants into three major clades: 3ra comprising HEV isolates from rabbits, and 3efg and 3abchij comprising the corresponding named subtypes derived from humans and pigs. Using this framework, we investigated associations between viral genetic variability of HEV-3 in symptomatic and asymptomatic infections by comparing HEV-3 subgenomic sequences previously obtained from blood donors with those from patients presenting with hepatitis in the UK (54 blood donors, 148 hepatitis patients), the Netherlands (38 blood donors, 119 hepatitis patients), France (24 blood donors, 55 hepatitis patients) and Germany (14 blood donors, 36 hepatitis patients). In none of these countries was evidence found for a significant association between virus variants and patient group (P>0.05 Fisher's exact test). Furthermore, within a group of 123 patients in Scotland with clinically apparent HEV infections, we found no evidence for an association between variants of HEV-3 and disease severity or alanine aminotransferase level. The lack of detectable virally encoded determinants of disease outcomes in HEV-3 infection implies a more important role for host factors in its clinical phenotype. PMID:26282123

  20. Histone variants: emerging players in cancer biology

    PubMed Central

    Vardabasso, Chiara; Hasson, Dan; Ratnakumar, Kajan; Chung, Chi-Yeh; Duarte, Luis F.

    2014-01-01

    Histone variants are key players in shaping chromatin structure, and, thus, in regulating fundamental cellular processes such as chromosome segregation and gene expression. Emerging evidence points towards a role for histone variants in contributing to tumor progression, and, recently, the first cancer-associated mutation in a histone variant-encoding gene was reported. In addition, genetic alterations of the histone chaperones that specifically regulate chromatin incorporation of histone variants are rapidly being uncovered in numerous cancers. Collectively, these findings implicate histone variants as potential drivers of cancer initiation and/or progression, and, therefore, targeting histone deposition or the chromatin remodeling machinery may be of therapeutic value. Here, we review the mammalian histone variants of the H2A and H3 families in their respective cellular functions, and their involvement in tumor biology. PMID:23652611

  1. Reliably Detecting Clinically Important Variants Requires Both Combined Variant Calls and Optimized Filtering Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Field, Matthew A.; Cho, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    A diversity of tools is available for identification of variants from genome sequence data. Given the current complexity of incorporating external software into a genome analysis infrastructure, a tendency exists to rely on the results from a single tool alone. The quality of the output variant calls is highly variable however, depending on factors such as sequence library quality as well as the choice of short-read aligner, variant caller, and variant caller filtering strategy. Here we present a two-part study first using the high quality ‘genome in a bottle’ reference set to demonstrate the significant impact the choice of aligner, variant caller, and variant caller filtering strategy has on overall variant call quality and further how certain variant callers outperform others with increased sample contamination, an important consideration when analyzing sequenced cancer samples. This analysis confirms previous work showing that combining variant calls of multiple tools results in the best quality resultant variant set, for either specificity or sensitivity, depending on whether the intersection or union, of all variant calls is used respectively. Second, we analyze a melanoma cell line derived from a control lymphocyte sample to determine whether software choices affect the detection of clinically important melanoma risk-factor variants finding that only one of the three such variants is unanimously detected under all conditions. Finally, we describe a cogent strategy for implementing a clinical variant detection pipeline; a strategy that requires careful software selection, variant caller filtering optimizing, and combined variant calls in order to effectively minimize false negative variants. While implementing such features represents an increase in complexity and computation the results offer indisputable improvements in data quality. PMID:26600436

  2. Simulating realistic genomic data with rare variants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaji; Wu, Yinghua; Song, Chi; Zhang, Heping

    2013-02-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that rare and generally deleterious genetic variants might have a strong impact on disease risks of not only Mendelian disease, but also many common diseases. However, identifying such rare variants remains challenging, and novel statistical methods and bioinformatic software must be developed. Hence, we have to extensively evaluate various methods under reasonable genetic models. Although there are abundant genomic data, they are not most helpful for the evaluation of the methods because the disease mechanism is unknown. Thus, it is imperative that we simulate genomic data that mimic the real data containing rare variants and that enable us to impose a known disease penetrance model. Although resampling simulation methods have shown their advantages in computational efficiency and in preserving important properties such as linkage disequilibrium (LD) and allele frequency, they still have limitations as we demonstrated. We propose an algorithm that combines a regression-based imputation with resampling to simulate genetic data with both rare and common variants. Logistic regression model was employed to fit the relationship between a rare variant and its nearby common variants in the 1000 Genomes Project data and then applied to the real data to fill in one rare variant at a time using the fitted logistic model based on common variants. Individuals then were simulated using the real data with imputed rare variants. We compared our method with existing simulators and demonstrated that our method performed well in retaining the real sample properties, such as LD and minor allele frequency, qualitatively. PMID:23161487

  3. Differences in Transcriptional Activity of Human Papillomavirus Type 6 Molecular Variants in Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Measso do Bonfim, Caroline; Simão Sobrinho, João; Lacerda Nogueira, Rodrigo; Salgado Kupper, Daniel; Cardoso Pereira Valera, Fabiana; Lacerda Nogueira, Maurício; Villa, Luisa Lina; Rahal, Paula; Sichero, Laura

    2015-01-01

    A significant proportion of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is caused by human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6). The long control region (LCR) contains cis-elements for regulation of transcription. Our aim was to characterize LCR HPV-6 variants in RRP cases, compare promoter activity of these isolates and search for cellular transcription factors (TFs) that could explain the differences observed. The complete LCR from 13 RRP was analyzed. Transcriptional activity of 5 variants was compared using luciferase assays. Differences in putative TFs binding sites among variants were revealed using the TRANSFAC database. Chromatin immunoprecipation (CHIP) and luciferase assays were used to evaluate TF binding and impact upon transcription, respectively. Juvenile-onset RRP cases harbored exclusively HPV-6vc related variants, whereas among adult-onset cases HPV-6a variants were more prevalent. The HPV-6vc reference was more transcriptionally active than the HPV-6a reference. Active FOXA1, ELF1 and GATA1 binding sites overlap variable nucleotide positions among isolates and influenced LCR activity. Furthermore, our results support a crucial role for ELF1 on transcriptional downregulation. We identified TFs implicated in the regulation of HPV-6 early gene expression. Many of these factors are mutated in cancer or are putative cancer biomarkers, and must be further studied. PMID:26151558

  4. Genotypes Associated with Virulence in Environmental Isolates of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Irma N. G.; Chun, Jongsik; Huq, Anwar; Sack, R. Brad; Colwell, Rita R.

    2001-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is an autochthonous inhabitant of riverine and estuarine environments and also is a facultative pathogen for humans. Genotyping can be useful in assessing the risk of contracting cholera, intestinal, or extraintestinal infections via drinking water and/or seafood. In this study, environmental isolates of V. cholerae were examined for the presence of ctxA, hlyA, ompU, stn/sto, tcpA, tcpI, toxR, and zot genes, using multiplex PCR. Based on tcpA and hlyA gene comparisons, the strains could be grouped into Classical and El Tor biotypes. The toxR, hlyA, and ompU genes were present in 100, 98.6, and 87.0% of the V. cholerae isolates, respectively. The CTX genetic element and toxin-coregulated pilus El Tor (tcpA ET) gene were present in all toxigenic V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 strains examined in this study. Three of four nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains contained tcpA ET. Interestingly, among the isolates of V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139, two had tcpA Classical, nine contained tcpA El Tor, three showed homology with both biotype genes, and four carried the ctxA gene. The stn/sto genes were present in 28.2% of the non-O1/non-O139 strains, in 10.5% of the toxigenic V. cholerae O1, and in 14.3% of the O139 serogroups. Except for stn/sto genes, all of the other genes studied occurred with high frequency in toxigenic V. cholerae O1 and O139 strains. Based on results of this study, surveillance of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in the aquatic environment, combined with genotype monitoring using ctxA, stn/sto, and tcpA ET genes, could be valuable in human health risk assessment. PMID:11375146

  5. Rare hemoglobin variants in Tunisian population.

    PubMed

    Zorai, A; Moumni, I; Mosbahi, I; Douzi, K; Chaouachi, D; Guemira, F; Abbes, S

    2015-04-01

    During the last 30 years, many studies concerning hemoglobinopathies were realized among Tunisians. More than twenty different thalassemic alleles were detected on the ?-globin gene, and less are affecting the ?-globin genes. Unusual hemoglobin (Hb) variants other than Hb S, Hb C, and Hb O-arab, which are the most frequent variants in Tunisia, were also detected. Eight Tunisian subjects were studied at phenotypic and molecular levels. Hematological indices and hemoglobin (Hb) pattern were performed by alkaline electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing (IEF),and the Hb fractions were quantitated by cation exchange HPLC. On genomic level, coding regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by a sequencing of the purified PCR products using the dye terminator method. Seven uncommon Hb variants were detected and described for the first time among Tunisians. HbA2-Tunis [?46(CD5), Gly ? Glu, GGG ? GAG] is the newly described ?-chain variant in our laboratory, and some other variants (Hb Constant Spring, G San Jose, and Hb J-Bangkok) are very uncommon in the Mediterranean region. We present here an updated review of the Hb variants detected among Tunisians. Twenty-one rare Hb variants were detected affecting the ?1-, ?2-, ?-, ?-, and ?-globin genes, leading in some cases to a severe phenotype especially when the stability is completely altered. The ethnical history of Tunisia could explain this important variability of the observed rare Hb variants. PMID:24905386

  6. Defining Adaptation Constraints for Business Process Variants

    E-print Network

    Governatori, Guido

    : Business Process Management, Process Variant Manage- ment, Constraint-Based BPM, Business ProcessDefining Adaptation Constraints for Business Process Variants Ruopeng Lu1 , Shazia Sadiq2 , Guido, it has been ar- gued that certain characteristics of ad-hocism in business processes are desirable

  7. Disease variants in genomes of 44 centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Freudenberg-Hua, Yun; Freudenberg, Jan; Vacic, Vladimir; Abhyankar, Avinash; Emde, Anne-Katrin; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Barzilai, Nir; Oschwald, Dayna; Christen, Erika; Koppel, Jeremy; Greenwald, Blaine; Darnell, Robert B; Germer, Soren; Atzmon, Gil; Davies, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To identify previously reported disease mutations that are compatible with extraordinary longevity, we screened the coding regions of the genomes of 44 Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians. Individual genome sequences were generated with 30× coverage on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 and single-nucleotide variants were called with the genome analysis toolkit (GATK). We identified 130 coding variants that were annotated as “pathogenic” or “likely pathogenic” based on the ClinVar database and that are infrequent in the general population. These variants were previously reported to cause a wide range of degenerative, neoplastic, and cardiac diseases with autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked inheritance. Several of these variants are located in genes that harbor actionable incidental findings, according to the recommendations of the American College of Medical Genetics. In addition, we found risk variants for late-onset neurodegenerative diseases, such as the APOE ?4 allele that was even present in a homozygous state in one centenarian who did not develop Alzheimer's disease. Our data demonstrate that the incidental finding of certain reported disease variants in an individual genome may not preclude an extraordinarily long life. When the observed variants are encountered in the context of clinical sequencing, it is thus important to exercise caution in justifying clinical decisions. In genome sequences of 44 Ashkenazi centenarians, we identified many coding variants that were annotated as “pathogenic” or “likely pathogenic” based on the ClinVar database. Our data demonstrate that the incidental finding of certain reported disease variants in an individual genome may not preclude an extraordinarily long life. When the observed variants are encountered in the context of clinical sequencing, it is thus important to exercise caution in justifying clinical decisions. PMID:25333069

  8. Systematic comparison of variant calling pipelines using gold standard personal exome variants.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Eiru; Lee, Insuk; Marcotte, Edward M

    2015-01-01

    The success of clinical genomics using next generation sequencing (NGS) requires the accurate and consistent identification of personal genome variants. Assorted variant calling methods have been developed, which show low concordance between their calls. Hence, a systematic comparison of the variant callers could give important guidance to NGS-based clinical genomics. Recently, a set of high-confident variant calls for one individual (NA12878) has been published by the Genome in a Bottle (GIAB) consortium, enabling performance benchmarking of different variant calling pipelines. Based on the gold standard reference variant calls from GIAB, we compared the performance of thirteen variant calling pipelines, testing combinations of three read aligners-BWA-MEM, Bowtie2, and Novoalign-and four variant callers-Genome Analysis Tool Kit HaplotypeCaller (GATK-HC), Samtools mpileup, Freebayes and Ion Proton Variant Caller (TVC), for twelve data sets for the NA12878 genome sequenced by different platforms including Illumina2000, Illumina2500, and Ion Proton, with various exome capture systems and exome coverage. We observed different biases toward specific types of SNP genotyping errors by the different variant callers. The results of our study provide useful guidelines for reliable variant identification from deep sequencing of personal genomes. PMID:26639839

  9. Systematic comparison of variant calling pipelines using gold standard personal exome variants

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Eiru; Lee, Insuk; Marcotte, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    The success of clinical genomics using next generation sequencing (NGS) requires the accurate and consistent identification of personal genome variants. Assorted variant calling methods have been developed, which show low concordance between their calls. Hence, a systematic comparison of the variant callers could give important guidance to NGS-based clinical genomics. Recently, a set of high-confident variant calls for one individual (NA12878) has been published by the Genome in a Bottle (GIAB) consortium, enabling performance benchmarking of different variant calling pipelines. Based on the gold standard reference variant calls from GIAB, we compared the performance of thirteen variant calling pipelines, testing combinations of three read aligners—BWA-MEM, Bowtie2, and Novoalign—and four variant callers—Genome Analysis Tool Kit HaplotypeCaller (GATK-HC), Samtools mpileup, Freebayes and Ion Proton Variant Caller (TVC), for twelve data sets for the NA12878 genome sequenced by different platforms including Illumina2000, Illumina2500, and Ion Proton, with various exome capture systems and exome coverage. We observed different biases toward specific types of SNP genotyping errors by the different variant callers. The results of our study provide useful guidelines for reliable variant identification from deep sequencing of personal genomes. PMID:26639839

  10. A Novel Binary Mixture of Helicoverpa armigera Single Nucleopolyhedrovirus Genotypic Variants Has Improved Insecticidal Characteristics for Control of Cotton Bollworms

    PubMed Central

    Arrizubieta, Maite; Simón, Oihane; Williams, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    The genotypic diversity of two Spanish isolates of Helicoverpa armigera single nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearSNPV) was evaluated with the aim of identifying mixtures of genotypes with improved insecticidal characteristics for control of the cotton bollworm. Two genotypic variants, HearSP1A and HearSP1B, were cloned in vitro from the most pathogenic wild-type isolate of the Iberian Peninsula, HearSNPV-SP1 (HearSP1-wt). Similarly, six genotypic variants (HearLB1 to -6) were obtained by endpoint dilution from larvae collected from cotton crops in southern Spain that died from virus disease during laboratory rearing. Variants differed significantly in their insecticidal properties, pathogenicity, speed of kill, and occlusion body (OB) production (OBs/larva). HearSP1B was ?3-fold more pathogenic than HearSP1-wt and the other variants. HearLB1, HearLB2, HeaLB5, and HearLB6 were the fastest-killing variants. Moreover, although highly virulent, HearLB1, HearLB4, and HearLB5 produced more OBs/larva than did the other variants. The co-occluded HearSP1B:LB6 mixture at a 1:1 proportion was 1.7- to 2.8-fold more pathogenic than any single variant and other mixtures tested and also killed larvae as fast as the most virulent genotypes. Serial passage resulted in modified proportions of the component variants of the HearSP1B:LB6 co-occluded mixture, suggesting that transmissibility could be further improved by this process. We conclude that the improved insecticidal phenotype of the HearSP1B:LB6 co-occluded mixture underlines the utility of the genotypic variant dissection and reassociation approach for the development of effective virus-based insecticides. PMID:25841011

  11. Tissue-specific splice variants of HARE/Stabilin-2 are expressed in bone marrow, lymph node, and spleen.

    PubMed

    Hare, Amanda K; Harris, Edward N

    2015-01-01

    The hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis (HARE), or Stabilin-2, is the mammalian endocytic clearance receptor for HA, heparin, advanced glycation end-products, acetylated and oxidized low-density lipoproteins and collagen N-terminal propeptides. This large 2551 amino acid receptor is encoded by a gene that covers over 180 kbp on human chromosome 12 and is predicted to be composed of 69 exons. Due to the expression profile of this gene and the number of exons it contains, we hypothesized that splice variants of stab2 are encoded in these tissues. In addition, a correlation between alternative splice variants and cancer progression has been shown in other HA receptors such as RHAMM and CD42. In this study, two methods were utilized in identifying and/or isolating the HARE splice variants. The first method used primer sets to amplify the 190-HARE encoding region that could contain splice junctions; therefore, they were purified from agarose gels and sequenced. Five splice variants were detected in that manner. In the second approach, the entire open reading frame of HARE was amplified. This allowed four splice variants with extensive exon splicing to be isolated. After the splice variants were sequenced, three were cloned into a mammalian expression vector. Next, stable cell lines expressing the variants were created in order to determine stable protein expression. In this study, the splice variants were found to be tissue specific in most cases. This suggests that tissue specific regulatory splicing mechanisms may lead to differences in functionality between the splice variants. PMID:25446080

  12. Measuring missing heritability: Inferring the contribution of common variants

    E-print Network

    Golan, David

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs), also called common variant association studies (CVASs), have uncovered thousands of genetic variants associated with hundreds of diseases. However, the variants that reach statistical ...

  13. Filovirus RefSeq Entries: Evaluation and Selection of Filovirus Type Variants, Type Sequences, and Names

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Jens H.; Andersen, Kristian G.; Bào, Y?míng; Bavari, Sina; Becker, Stephan; Bennett, Richard S.; Bergman, Nicholas H.; Blinkova, Olga; Bradfute, Steven; Brister, J. Rodney; Bukreyev, Alexander; Chandran, Kartik; Chepurnov, Alexander A.; Davey, Robert A.; Dietzgen, Ralf G.; Doggett, Norman A.; Dolnik, Olga; Dye, John M.; Enterlein, Sven; Fenimore, Paul W.; Formenty, Pierre; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Garry, Robert F.; Garza, Nicole L.; Gire, Stephen K.; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Griffiths, Anthony; Happi, Christian T.; Hensley, Lisa E.; Herbert, Andrew S.; Hevey, Michael C.; Hoenen, Thomas; Honko, Anna N.; Ignatyev, Georgy M.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Johnson, Joshua C.; Johnson, Karl M.; Kindrachuk, Jason; Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Kobinger, Gary; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Lackemeyer, Matthew G.; Lackner, Daniel F.; Leroy, Eric M.; Lever, Mark S.; Mühlberger, Elke; Netesov, Sergey V.; Olinger, Gene G.; Omilabu, Sunday A.; Palacios, Gustavo; Panchal, Rekha G.; Park, Daniel J.; Patterson, Jean L.; Paweska, Janusz T.; Peters, Clarence J.; Pettitt, James; Pitt, Louise; Radoshitzky, Sheli R.; Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Sealfon, Rachel; Shestopalov, Aleksandr M.; Smither, Sophie J.; Sullivan, Nancy J.; Swanepoel, Robert; Takada, Ayato; Towner, Jonathan S.; van der Groen, Guido; Volchkov, Viktor E.; Volchkova, Valentina A.; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Warren, Travis K.; Warfield, Kelly L.; Weidmann, Manfred; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2014-01-01

    Sequence determination of complete or coding-complete genomes of viruses is becoming common practice for supporting the work of epidemiologists, ecologists, virologists, and taxonomists. Sequencing duration and costs are rapidly decreasing, sequencing hardware is under modification for use by non-experts, and software is constantly being improved to simplify sequence data management and analysis. Thus, analysis of virus disease outbreaks on the molecular level is now feasible, including characterization of the evolution of individual virus populations in single patients over time. The increasing accumulation of sequencing data creates a management problem for the curators of commonly used sequence databases and an entry retrieval problem for end users. Therefore, utilizing the data to their fullest potential will require setting nomenclature and annotation standards for virus isolates and associated genomic sequences. The National Center for Biotechnology Information’s (NCBI’s) RefSeq is a non-redundant, curated database for reference (or type) nucleotide sequence records that supplies source data to numerous other databases. Building on recently proposed templates for filovirus variant naming [ ()/<isolation host-suffix>///variant designation>-<isolate designation>], we report consensus decisions from a majority of past and currently active filovirus experts on the eight filovirus type variants and isolates to be represented in RefSeq, their final designations, and their associated sequences. PMID:25256396

  14. Isolated Aortitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... among others. In some cases, biologics like anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs such as infliximab or rituximab have been used. Isolated aortitis occurring with retroperitoneal fibrosis has been treated with tamoxifen, an anti- ...

  15. Sequence-dependent histone variant positioning signatures

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nucleosome, the fundamental unit of chromatin, is formed by wrapping nearly 147bp of DNA around an octamer of histone proteins. This histone core has many variants that are different from each other by their biochemical compositions as well as biological functions. Although the deposition of histone variants onto chromatin has been implicated in many important biological processes, such as transcription and replication, the mechanisms of how they are deposited on target sites are still obscure. Results By analyzing genomic sequences of nucleosomes bearing different histone variants from human, including H2A.Z, H3.3 and both (H3.3/H2A.Z, so-called double variant histones), we found that genomic sequence contributes in part to determining target sites for different histone variants. Moreover, dinucleotides CA/TG are remarkably important in distinguishing target sites of H2A.Z-only nucleosomes with those of H3.3-containing (both H3.3-only and double variant) nucleosomes. Conclusions There exists a DNA-related mechanism regulating the deposition of different histone variants onto chromatin and biological outcomes thereof. This provides additional insights into epigenetic regulatory mechanisms of many important cellular processes. PMID:21143812

  16. Identification of a chicken anemia virus variant-related gyrovirus in stray cats in china, 2012.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinheng; Liu, Yuanjia; Ji, Jun; Chen, Feng; Sun, Baoli; Xue, Chunyi; Ma, Jingyun; Bi, Yingzuo; Xie, Qingmei

    2014-01-01

    The chicken anemia virus (CAV), is a known member of the genus Gyrovirus and was first isolated from chickens in Japan in 1979. Some reports have also demonstrated that CAV can be identified in human stool specimens. In this study, a variant of CAV was detected using PCR with CAV-based primers in fecal samples of stray cats. The genome of CAV variant was sequenced and the results suggest that it could be a recombinant viral strain from parental CAV strains JQ690762 and AF311900. Recombination is an important evolutionary mechanism that contributes to genetic diversification. These findings indicate that CAV variant might have originated from CAV-infected chickens. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of this novel virus remains to be elucidated. This study underscores the importance of CAV surveillance and it presents the first evidence suggesting the possibility of CAV homologous recombination in cat. PMID:24689034

  17. Harderoporphyria: a variant hereditary coproporphyria.

    PubMed Central

    Nordmann, Y; Grandchamp, B; de Verneuil, H; Phung, L; Cartigny, B; Fontaine, G

    1983-01-01

    Three siblings with intense jaundice and hemolytic anemia at birth were found to excrete a high level of coproporphyrin in their urine and feces; the pattern of fecal porphyrin excretion was atypical for hereditary coproporphyria because the major porphyrin was harderoporphyrin (greater than 60%; normal value is less than 20%). The lymphocyte coproporphyrinogen III oxidase activity of each patient was 10% of control values, which suggests a homozygous state. Both parents showed only mild abnormalities in porphyrin excretion and lymphocyte coproporphyrinogen III oxidase activity decreased to 50% of normal values, as is expected in heterozygous cases of hereditary coproporphyria. Kinetic parameters of coproporphyrinogen III oxidase from these patients were clearly modified, with a Michaelis constant 15-20-fold higher than normal values when using coproporphyrinogen or harderoporphyrinogen as substrates. Maximal velocity was half the normal value, and we also observed a marked sensitivity to thermal denaturation. The possibility that a mutation affecting the enzyme on the active center which is specifically involved in the second decarboxylation (from harderoporphyrinogen to protoporphyrinogen) was eliminated by experiments on rat liver that showed that coproporphyrinogen and harderoporphyrinogen were metabolized at the same active center. The pattern of porphyrin excretion and the coproporphyrinogen oxidase from the three patients exhibited abnormalities that were different from the abnormalities found in another recently described homozygous case of hereditary coproporphyria. We suggest naming this variant of coproporphyrinogen oxidase defect "harderoporphyria." PMID:6886003

  18. Human papillomavirus type 16 sequence variants: identification by E6 and L1 lineage-specific hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, C M; Yamada, T; Hildesheim, A; Jenison, S A

    1997-01-01

    A catalog of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV-16) E6 and L1 signature nucleotides was used to develop PCR-based oligonucleotide probe systems capable of distinguishing HPV-16 class and subclass variants. Twenty-three E6-specific oligonucleotide probes targeting 13 variant nucleotide positions and 12 L1-specific oligonucleotide probes targeting 6 variant nucleotide positions were used to characterize HPV-16-containing cervicovaginal lavage specimens. Nucleotide positions that could be distinguished included E6 nucleotides 109, 131, 132, 143, 145, 178, 183, 286, 289, 335, 350, 403, and 532 and L1 nucleotides 6695, 6721, 6803, 6854, 6862, and 6994. Combined hybridization patterns were assigned on the basis of the predicted HPV-16 class, subclass, or minor class variants described previously (T. Yamada, C. M. Wheeler, A. L. Halpern, A.-C. M. Stewart, A. Hildesheim, and S.A. Jenison, J. Virol. 69:7743-7753, 1995). The major HPV-16 variant lineages detected included European prototype-like (E-P), Asian (As), Asian-American (AA), and African (Af1 and Af2) lineages. In addition, E-G131, an E-class variant, and AA-G183, an AA-class variant, were also identified. For each clinical specimen, DNA hybridization results were compared to nucleotide sequence determinations. Targeted L1 and E6 marker nucleotides covaried within all HPV-16 variant isolates examined. These hybridization-based methods result in minimal misclassification error, are amenable to targeting additional lineage-specific nucleotide positions, and should facilitate the large-scale, low-cost analysis of HPV-16 variants in epidemiologic investigations. Specifically, these methods will facilitate epidemiologic studies of HPV-16 transmission and natural history, as well as studies of associations between HPV variants, host immune responses, and cervical neoplasia. PMID:8968874

  19. Yield of stool culture with isolate toxin testing versus a two-step algorithm including stool toxin testing for detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Reller, Megan E; Lema, Clara A; Perl, Trish M; Cai, Mian; Ross, Tracy L; Speck, Kathleen A; Carroll, Karen C

    2007-11-01

    We examined the incremental yield of stool culture (with toxin testing on isolates) versus our two-step algorithm for optimal detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Per the two-step algorithm, stools were screened for C. difficile-associated glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and, if positive, tested for toxin by a direct (stool) cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). In parallel, stools were cultured for C. difficile and tested for toxin by both indirect (isolate) CCNA and conventional PCR if the direct CCNA was negative. The "gold standard" for toxigenic C. difficile was detection of C. difficile by the GDH screen or by culture and toxin production by direct or indirect CCNA. We tested 439 specimens from 439 patients. GDH screening detected all culture-positive specimens. The sensitivity of the two-step algorithm was 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70 to 84%), and that of culture was 87% (95% CI, 80 to 92%). PCR results correlated completely with those of CCNA testing on isolates (29/29 positive and 32/32 negative, respectively). We conclude that GDH is an excellent screening test and that culture with isolate CCNA testing detects an additional 23% of toxigenic C. difficile missed by direct CCNA. Since culture is tedious and also detects nontoxigenic C. difficile, we conclude that culture is most useful (i) when the direct CCNA is negative but a high clinical suspicion of toxigenic C. difficile remains, (ii) in the evaluation of new diagnostic tests for toxigenic C. difficile (where the best reference standard is essential), and (iii) in epidemiologic studies (where the availability of an isolate allows for strain typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing). PMID:17804652

  20. Efficacy of commercial canarypox vaccine for protecting Hawai'i 'Amakihi from field isolates of Avipoxvirus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Wiegand, Kimberly C.; Triglia, Dennis; Jarvi, Susan I.

    2010-01-01

    At least three variants of avian pox virus are present in Hawai‘i - Fowlpox from domestic poultry and a group of genetically distinct viruses that cluster within two clades (Pox Variant 1 and Pox Variant 2) that are most similar to Canarypox based on DNA sequence of the virus 4b core protein gene. We tested whether Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi can be protected from wild virus isolates with an attenuated live Canarypox vaccine that is closely related to isolates that cluster within clade 1 (Pox Variant 1) based on sequence of the attenuated Canarypox virus 4b core protein. Thirty-one (31) Hawai`i ‘Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) with no prior physical evidence of pox infection were collected on Mauna Kea from xeric, high elevation habitats with low pox prevalence and randomly divided into two groups. One group of 16 was vaccinated with Poximmune C® while the other group received a sham vaccination with virus diluent. Four of 15 (27%) vaccinated birds developed potentially life-threatening disseminated lesions or lesions of unusually long duration, while one bird never developed a vaccine-associated lesion or "take". After vaccine-associated lesions healed, vaccinated birds were randomly divided into three groups of five and challenged with either a wild isolate of Fowlpox, a Hawai`i `Amakihi isolate of a Canarypox-like virus from clade 1 (Pox Variant 1) or a Hawai`i `Amakihi isolate of a Canarypox-like virus from clade 2 (Pox Variant 2). Similarly, three random groups of five unvaccinated ‘Amakihi were challenged with the same virus isolates. Vaccinated and unvaccinated ‘Amakihi challenged with Fowlpox had transient infections with no clinical signs of infection. Mortality in vaccinated ‘Amakihi that were challenged with Pox Variant 1 and Pox Variant 2 ranged from 0% (0/5) for Pox Variant 1 to 60% (3/5) for Pox Variant 2. Mortality in unvaccinated ‘Amakihi ranged from 40% (2/5) for Pox Variant 1 to 100% (5/5) for Pox Variant 2. While the vaccine provided some protection against Pox Variant 1, serious side effects and low efficacy against Pox Variant 2 make it risky to use in captive or wild honeycreepers.

  1. A first case of New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase-7 in an Escherichia coli ST648 isolate in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yasutaka; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2014-12-01

    We report a first identification case of an Escherichia coli ST648 isolate producing a variant New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase (NDM) -7 in Japan, which was recovered from a patient hospitalized in India. Although the first isolate, NDM-1, was identified in Japan in 2010, NDM-producing bacteria have only been isolated from seven patients to date, and no other variant of NDM producing organism has been reported yet. The emergence of NDM variants in Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern, and the use of rigorous screening tests and preventive measures against infection is imperative. PMID:25193039

  2. Glyco-variant library of the versatile enzyme horseradish peroxidase

    PubMed Central

    Capone, Simona; Pletzenauer, Robert; Maresch, Daniel; Metzger, Karl; Altmann, Friedrich; Herwig, Christoph; Spadiut, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    When the glycosylated plant enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is conjugated to specific antibodies, it presents a powerful tool for medical applications. The isolation and purification of this enzyme from plant is difficult and only gives low yields. However, HRP recombinantly produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris experiences hyperglycosylation, which impedes the use of this enzyme in medicine. Enzymatic and chemical deglycosylation are cost intensive and cumbersome and hitherto existing P. pastoris strain engineering approaches with the goal to avoid hyperglycosylation only resulted in physiologically impaired yeast strains not useful for protein production processes. Thus, the last resort to obtain less glycosylated recombinant HRP from P. pastoris is to engineer the enzyme itself. In the present study, we mutated all the eight N-glycosylation sites of HRP C1A. After determination of the most suitable mutation at each N-glycosylation site, we physiologically characterized the respective P. pastoris strains in the bioreactor and purified the produced HRP C1A glyco-variants. The biochemical characterization of the enzyme variants revealed great differences in catalytic activity and stability and allowed the combination of the most promising mutations to potentially give an unglycosylated, active HRP C1A variant useful for medical applications. Interestingly, site-directed mutagenesis proved to be a valuable strategy not only to reduce the overall glycan content of the recombinant enzyme but also to improve catalytic activity and stability. In the present study, we performed an integrated bioprocess covering strain generation, bioreactor cultivations, downstream processing and product characterization and present the biochemical data of the HRP glyco-library. PMID:24859724

  3. Emergence of an Outbreak-Associated Clostridium difficile Variant with Increased Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; López-Ureña, Diana; Acuña-Amador, Luis; Villalobos-Zúñiga, Manuel; Du, Tim; Freire, Rosemayre; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Gamboa-Coronado, María del Mar; Lawley, Trevor D.; Moreno, Edgardo; Mulvey, Michael R.; Brito, Gerly Anne de Castro; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn; Rodríguez, César

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of Clostridium difficile infections has increased due to the emergence of epidemic variants from diverse genetic lineages. Here we describe the emergence of a novel variant during an outbreak in a Costa Rican hospital that was associated with severe clinical presentations. This C. difficile variant elicited higher white blood cell counts and caused disease in younger patients than did other strains isolated during the outbreak. Furthermore, it had a recurrence rate, a 30-day attributable disease rate, and disease severity as great as those of the epidemic strain NAP1. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotyping indicated that the outbreak strains belong to a previously undescribed variant, designated NAPCR1. Whole-genome sequencing and ribotyping indicated that the NAPCR1 variant belongs to C. difficile ribotype 012 and sequence type 54, as does the reference strain 630. NAPCR1 strains are resistant to fluoroquinolones due to a mutation in gyrA, and they possess an 18-bp deletion in tcdC that is characteristic of the epidemic, evolutionarily distinct, C. difficile NAP1 variant. NAPCR1 genomes contain 10% more predicted genes than strain 630, most of which are of hypothetical function and are present on phages and other mobile genetic elements. The increased virulence of NAPCR1 was confirmed by mortality rates in the hamster model and strong inflammatory responses induced by bacteria-free supernatants in the murine ligated loop model. However, NAPCR1 strains do not synthesize toxin A and toxin B at levels comparable to those in NAP1 strains. Our results suggest that the pathogenic potential of this emerging C. difficile variant is due to the acquisition of hypothetical functions associated with laterally acquired DNA. PMID:25653402

  4. Sequence variation of human 28S rRNA and expression of variants in different tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvester, J.E.; Gonzalez, I.L.; Gillespie, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    There are 400 or so copies of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene in humans. Previous studies have shown that human 28S encoding rDNA, and therefore rRNAs, vary in sequence at specific locations termed variable regions; these variations appear in a population and within an individual. This study asked the following questions regarding one variable region (V5) within 28S rRNA gene sequence variation in a single individual: (1) what is the extent and nature of the sequence variation at the DNA level?; (2) are these variant rRNA genes expressed?; (3) does rRNA gene sequence variation result in rRNA structural variation?; (4) is there evidence of differential expression of variant rRNA genes?. To address these four questions, genomic copies of the V5 region were cloned from the individual and sequenced. Six unique sequences were found among seven V5 clones, each differing only in the number of repeats of simple sequences (CGG), (TG), (T), and (C) at a specific site of the V5 region. Computer-generated secondary structure models of each of these variants indicated that the basic structure was not compromised. To test for V5 variant expression in different tissues of an individual, RNAs isolated from different tissues were used to protect each of the cloned V5 variant probes in the RNase protection assay (RPA). We conclude from the RPA results that different variants are present in proportionately different amounts in each tissue tested; however, the relative proportion of variants are similar in these tissues.

  5. Common Variants in UMOD Associate with Urinary Uromodulin Levels: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Olden, Matthias; Corre, Tanguy; Hayward, Caroline; Toniolo, Daniela; Ulivi, Sheila; Gasparini, Paolo; Pistis, Giorgio; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Bergmann, Sven; Campbell, Harry; Cocca, Massimiliano; Gandin, Ilaria; Girotto, Giorgia; Glaudemans, Bob; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Loffing, Johannes; Polasek, Ozren; Rampoldi, Luca; Rudan, Igor; Sala, Cinzia; Traglia, Michela; Vollenweider, Peter; Vuckovic, Dragana; Youhanna, Sonia; Weber, Julien; Wright, Alan F.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Bochud, Murielle; Fox, Caroline S.

    2014-01-01

    Uromodulin is expressed exclusively in the thick ascending limb and is the most abundant protein excreted in normal urine. Variants in UMOD, which encodes uromodulin, are associated with renal function, and urinary uromodulin levels may be a biomarker for kidney disease. However, the genetic factors regulating uromodulin excretion are unknown. We conducted a meta-analysis of urinary uromodulin levels to identify associated common genetic variants in the general population. We included 10,884 individuals of European descent from three genetic isolates and three urban cohorts. Each study measured uromodulin indexed to creatinine and conducted linear regression analysis of approximately 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms using an additive model. We also tested whether variants in genes expressed in the thick ascending limb associate with uromodulin levels. rs12917707, located near UMOD and previously associated with renal function and CKD, had the strongest association with urinary uromodulin levels (P<0.001). In all cohorts, carriers of a G allele of this variant had higher uromodulin levels than noncarriers did (geometric means 10.24, 14.05, and 17.67 ?g/g creatinine for zero, one, or two copies of the G allele). rs12446492 in the adjacent gene PDILT (protein disulfide isomerase-like, testis expressed) also reached genome-wide significance (P<0.001). Regarding genes expressed in the thick ascending limb, variants in KCNJ1, SORL1, and CAB39 associated with urinary uromodulin levels. These data indicate that common variants in the UMOD promoter region may influence urinary uromodulin levels. They also provide insights into uromodulin biology and the association of UMOD variants with renal function. PMID:24578125

  6. Identification of carriers of a variant plasma prealbumin (transthyretin) associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy type I.

    PubMed Central

    Benson, M D; Dwulet, F E

    1985-01-01

    A method is described for detecting carriers of a variant plasma prealbumin that is associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) type I. It is based on the finding of an extra methionine in the variant prealbumin, at position 30 from the amino terminals. Since normal prealbumin has only one methionine (position 13), treatment with cyanogen bromide (CNBr), which cleaves only at methionines, results in two peptides. CNBr treatment of the variant prealbumin gives three peptides. The extra can then be detected in two ways: by HPLC using a reverse phase C18 column, and by sequential Edman degradation. Each method can detect as little as 1% variant prealbumin in isolated plasma prealbumin, and therefore, can identify carriers of the gene for the variant protein. Since FAP type I usually is not manifest until after the childbearing years, this method to identify carriers of the gene offers a new approach for genetic counseling of families with this disease. To date, kindreds with hereditary amyloidosis that could benefit from these studies include those with FAP type I of Swedish, Japanese, and Portuguese origins. PMID:2981253

  7. Identification of an antigenic and genetic variant of dengue-4 virus from the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Henchal, E A; Repik, P M; McCown, J M; Brandt, W E

    1986-03-01

    Twenty-one dengue (DEN) viruses isolated from the Caribbean (Dominica and Jamaica) during the 1981-1982 epidemic year were distinct serological and genetic variants of DEN-4 virus. These isolates were clearly identified as DEN-4 viruses using type-specific monoclonal antibodies in indirect immunofluorescence assays. However, they either were not neutralized, or were neutralized poorly using hyperimmune mouse ascitic fluids (HMAF) or rhesus monkey serum directed against the H-241 prototype strain of DEN-4 virus isolated in the Philippines in 1956. HMAF prepared against a representative Caribbean isolate, however, neutralized with similar effectiveness the homologous virus, the H-241 prototype strain, and virus strains isolated from the Pacific and Southeast Asian areas from 1973 to 1984. The Caribbean isolate exhibited no more than 30% and 16% oligonucleotide spot homology with the H-241 and Bangkok viruses, respectively, by RNA fingerprint analysis, while demonstrating 82% and 89% homology with the Gilbert and Niue Island isolates, respectively. The isolation of dengue viruses which are serologically and genetically distinct from the prototype virus emphasizes the need for continued dengue virus surveillance. The recognition of unique dengue isolates should allow the selection of reference strains and vaccine candidate strains which will induce antibodies that are equally effective in neutralizing viruses from all geographic areas. PMID:3513650

  8. Characterizing sialic acid variants at the glycopeptide level.

    PubMed

    Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Kaasik, Krista; Chalkley, Robert J

    2015-03-01

    Beam-type collision-induced dissociation (CID) data of intact glycopeptides isolated from mouse liver tissue are presented to illustrate characteristic fragmentation of differentially sialylated glycopeptides. Eight glycoforms of an O-linked glycopeptide from Nucleobindin-1 are distinguished on the basis of the precursor masses and characteristic oxonium ions. We report that all sialic acid variants are prone to neutral loss from the charge reduced species in electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) fragmentation. We show how changes in sialic acid composition affect reverse phase chromatographic retention times: sialic acid addition increases glycopeptide retention times significantly; replacing the N-acetylneuraminic acid with the N-glycolyl variant leads to slightly reduced retention times, while O-acetylated sialic acid-containing glycoforms are retained longer. We then demonstrate how MS-Filter in Protein Prospector can use these diagnostic oxonium ions to find glycopeptides, by showing that a wealth of different glycopeptides can be found in a published phosphopeptide data set. PMID:25654559

  9. Hereditary renal amyloidosis with a novel variant fibrinogen.

    PubMed Central

    Uemichi, T; Liepnieks, J J; Benson, M D

    1994-01-01

    Two families with hereditary renal amyloidosis were found to have a novel mutation in the fibrinogen A alpha chain gene. This form of amyloidosis is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by proteinuria, hypertension, and subsequent azotemia. DNAs of patients with amyloidosis were screened for a polymorphism in fibrinogen A alpha chain gene by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, and affected individuals from two kindreds were found to have a mutation. Both of these kindreds are American of Irish descent presenting with non-neuropathic, nephropathic amyloidosis in the fifth to the seventh decade of life. DNA sequencing showed a point mutation in the fibrinogen A alpha chain gene that is responsible for substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 526. By restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, 7 affected individuals and 14 asymptomatic individuals in these two kindreds were positive for the fibrinogen A alpha chain Val 526 gene. Fibrinogen was isolated from plasma of a heterozygous gene carrier and shown to contain approximately 50% variant fibrinogen. Discovery of this new mutation confirms the association between fibrinogen A alpha chain variant and hereditary renal amyloidosis and establishes a new biochemical subtype of amyloidosis. Images PMID:8113408

  10. Super Spy variants implicate flexibility in chaperone action.

    PubMed

    Quan, Shu; Wang, Lili; Petrotchenko, Evgeniy V; Makepeace, Karl At; Horowitz, Scott; Yang, Jianyi; Zhang, Yang; Borchers, Christoph H; Bardwell, James Ca

    2014-01-01

    Experimental study of the role of disorder in protein function is challenging. It has been proposed that proteins utilize disordered regions in the adaptive recognition of their various binding partners. However apart from a few exceptions, defining the importance of disorder in promiscuous binding interactions has proven to be difficult. In this paper, we have utilized a genetic selection that links protein stability to antibiotic resistance to isolate variants of the newly discovered chaperone Spy that show an up to 7 fold improved chaperone activity against a variety of substrates. These "Super Spy" variants show tighter binding to client proteins and are generally more unstable than is wild type Spy and show increases in apparent flexibility. We establish a good relationship between the degree of their instability and the improvement they show in their chaperone activity. Our results provide evidence for the importance of disorder and flexibility in chaperone function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01584.001. PMID:24497545

  11. Detection of variants in SLC6A8 and functional analysis of unclassified missense variants.

    PubMed

    Betsalel, Ofir T; Pop, Ana; Rosenberg, Efraim H; Fernandez-Ojeda, Matilde; Jakobs, Cornelis; Salomons, Gajja S

    2012-04-01

    Creatine transporter deficiency is an X-linked disorder caused by mutations in the SLC6A8 gene. Currently, 38 pathogenic, including 15 missense variants, are reported. In this study, we report 33 novel, including 6 missense variants. To classify all known missense variants, we transfected creatine deficient fibroblasts with the SLC6A8 ORF containing one of the unique variants and tested their ability to restore creatine uptake. This resulted in the definitive classification of 2 non-disease associated and 19 pathogenic variants of which 3 have residual activity. Furthermore, we report the development and validation of a novel DHPLC method for the detection of heterozygous SLC6A8 variants. The method was validated by analysis of DNAs that in total contained 67 unique variants of which 66 could be detected. Therefore, this rapid screening method may prove valuable for the analysis of large cohorts of females with mild intellectual disability of unknown etiology, since in this group heterozygous SLC6A8 mutations may be detected. DHPLC proved also to be important for the detection of somatic mosaicism in mothers of patients who have a pathogenic mutation in SLC6A8. All variants reported in the present and previous studies are included in the Leiden Open Source Variant Database (LOVD) of SLC6A8 (www.LOVD.nl/SLC6A8). PMID:22281021

  12. Molecular Insights into the Phenotypic Divergence in Natural Curli Variants of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) causes severe disease including hemolytic uremic syndrome and contributes significantly to human infections and outbreaks. We previously reported that natural curli variants isolated from the same strain display distinct phenotypic differences: curli-deficient varia...

  13. MUS-2, a novel variant of the chromosome-encoded ?-lactamase MUS-1, from Myroides odoratimimus.

    PubMed

    Al-Bayssari, C; Gupta, S Kumar; Dabboussi, F; Hamze, M; Rolain, J-M

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of carbapenem resistance of three imipenem-resistant isolates of Myroides odoratimimus recovered from two livestock farms of cows and pigeons by rectal swab in Lebanon in January 2014. Investigation of imipenem resistance of these isolates using the modified Hodge test, the EDTA test, the modified CarbaNP test and the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry Ultraflex assay showed a carbapenemase activity due to the presence of a chromosome-encoded ?-lactamase MUS, verified by PCR. However amplification and sequencing of this chromosomal gene showed a novel variant of it designated MUS-2 by the curators of the Lahey database of ?-lactamases (http://www.lahey.org/Studies/webt.asp). Cloning of the bla MUS-2 was performed, followed by protein expression in Escherichia coli TOP 10. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clearly showed that the three isolates belonged to the same clone. This study reports a novel variant of the chromosome-encoded bla MUS-1 associated with carbapenem resistance in Myroides odoratimimus and shows that animals may represent a reservoir of bacteria harbouring several variants of resistance genes. PMID:26257915

  14. MUS-2, a novel variant of the chromosome-encoded ?-lactamase MUS-1, from Myroides odoratimimus

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bayssari, C.; Gupta, S. Kumar; Dabboussi, F.; Hamze, M.; Rolain, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of carbapenem resistance of three imipenem-resistant isolates of Myroides odoratimimus recovered from two livestock farms of cows and pigeons by rectal swab in Lebanon in January 2014. Investigation of imipenem resistance of these isolates using the modified Hodge test, the EDTA test, the modified CarbaNP test and the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry Ultraflex assay showed a carbapenemase activity due to the presence of a chromosome-encoded ?-lactamase MUS, verified by PCR. However amplification and sequencing of this chromosomal gene showed a novel variant of it designated MUS-2 by the curators of the Lahey database of ?-lactamases (http://www.lahey.org/Studies/webt.asp). Cloning of the blaMUS-2 was performed, followed by protein expression in Escherichia coli TOP 10. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clearly showed that the three isolates belonged to the same clone. This study reports a novel variant of the chromosome-encoded blaMUS-1 associated with carbapenem resistance in Myroides odoratimimus and shows that animals may represent a reservoir of bacteria harbouring several variants of resistance genes. PMID:26257915

  15. Cluster of neonatal infections in Jerusalem due to unusual biochemical variant of Enterobacter sakazakii.

    PubMed

    Block, C; Peleg, O; Minster, N; Bar-Oz, B; Simhon, A; Arad, I; Shapiro, M

    2002-08-01

    Reported here is a cluster of infections due to a nitrate-negative variant of Enterobacter sakazakii, which occurred among premature neonates at the Hadassah Hospital, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, in December 1999-January 2000. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed cluster isolates to be identical but unrelated to previous systemic isolates recovered in 1993 and 1998. The organism was not isolated from infant formula powder, but it was recovered from prepared formula and from a kitchen blender. Elimination of the environmental focus, a change to factory-prepared infant formula, and isolation of affected infants terminated the event. Faecal carriage of Enterobacter sakazakii was observed for up to 18 weeks, emphasising the potential for cross-infection. PMID:12226694

  16. Novel compound heterozygous NMNAT1 variants associated with Leber congenital amaurosis

    PubMed Central

    Siemiatkowska, Anna M.; van den Born, L. Ingeborgh; van Genderen, Maria M.; Bertelsen, Mette; Zobor, Ditta; Rohrschneider, Klaus; van Huet, Ramon A.C.; Nurohmah, Siska; Klevering, B. Jeroen; Kohl, Susanne; Faradz, Sultana M.H.; Rosenberg, Thomas; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Collin, Rob W.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The gene encoding nicotinamide nucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 (NMNAT1) was recently found to be mutated in a subset of patients with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) with macular atrophy. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and frequency of NMNAT1 mutations and associated phenotypes in different types of inherited retinal dystrophies. Methods DNA samples of 161 patients with LCA without genetic diagnosis were analyzed for variants in NMNAT1 using Sanger sequencing. Variants in exon 5 of NMNAT1, which harbors the majority of the previously identified mutations, were screened in 532 additional patients with retinal dystrophies. This cohort encompassed 108 persons with isolated or autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy (CRD), 271 with isolated or autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and 49 with autosomal dominant RP, as well as 104 persons with LCA in whom the causative mutation was previously identified. Results Compound heterozygous alterations were found in six patients with LCA and in one person with early-onset RP. All except one carried the common p.E257K variant on one allele. Macular atrophy was absent in one patient, who carried this variant in combination with a truncating mutation on the other allele. The p.E257K alteration was also found in a heterozygous state in five individuals with LCA and one with RP while no mutation was detected on the other allele. Two individuals with LCA carried other NMNAT1 variants in a heterozygous state, whereas no NMNAT1 variants in exon 5 were identified in individuals with CRD. The p.E257K variant was found to be enriched in a heterozygous state in individuals with LCA (0.94%) compared to Caucasian controls (0.18%), although the difference was statistically insignificant (p=0.12). Conclusions Although macular atrophy can occur in LCA and CRD, no NMNAT1 mutations were found in the latter cohort. NMNAT1 variants were also not found in a large group of patients with sporadic or autosomal recessive RP. The enrichment of p.E257K in a heterozygous state in patients with LCA versus controls suggests that this allele could act as a modifier in other genetic subtypes of LCA. PMID:24940029

  17. Allele Variants of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin Are Globally Transmitted and Associated with Colonization Factors

    PubMed Central

    Joffré, Enrique; von Mentzer, Astrid; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Oezguen, Numan; Savidge, Tor; Dougan, Gordon; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. ETEC-mediated diarrhea is orchestrated by heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxins (STp and STh), acting in concert with a repertoire of more than 25 colonization factors (CFs). LT, the major virulence factor, induces fluid secretion after delivery of a monomeric ADP-ribosylase (LTA) and its pentameric carrier B subunit (LTB). A study of ETEC isolates from humans in Brazil reported the existence of natural LT variants. In the present study, analysis of predicted amino acid sequences showed that the LT amino acid polymorphisms are associated with a geographically and temporally diverse set of 192 clinical ETEC strains and identified 12 novel LT variants. Twenty distinct LT amino acid variants were observed in the globally distributed strains, and phylogenetic analysis showed these to be associated with different CF profiles. Notably, the most prevalent LT1 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS1 + CS3 or CS2 + CS3, and the most prevalent LT2 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS5 + CS6 or CFA/I. LTB allele variants generally exhibited more-stringent amino acid sequence conservation (2 substitutions identified) than LTA allele variants (22 substitutions identified). The functional impact of LT1 and LT2 polymorphisms on virulence was investigated by measuring total-toxin production, secretion, and stability using GM1–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (GM1-ELISA) and in silico protein modeling. Our data show that LT2 strains produce 5-fold more toxin than LT1 strains (P < 0.001), which may suggest greater virulence potential for this genetic variant. Our data suggest that functionally distinct LT-CF variants with increased fitness have persisted during the evolution of ETEC and have spread globally. PMID:25404692

  18. Diversity of black Aspergilli isolated from raisins in Argentina: Polyphasic approach to species identification and development of SCAR markers for Aspergillus ibericus.

    PubMed

    Giaj Merlera, G; Muñoz, S; Coelho, I; Cavaglieri, L R; Torres, A M; Reynoso, M M

    2015-10-01

    Aspergillus section Nigri is a heterogeneous fungal group including some ochratoxin A producer species that usually contaminate raisins. The section contains the Series Carbonaria which includes the toxigenic species Aspergillus carbonarius and nontoxigenic Aspergillus ibericus that are phenotypically undistinguishable. The aim of this study was to examine the diversity of black aspergilli isolated from raisins and to develop a specific genetic marker to distinguish A. ibericus from A. carbonarius. The species most frequently found in raisins in this study were Aspergillus tubingensis (35.4%) and A. carbonarius (32.3%), followed by Aspergillus luchuensis (10.7%), Aspergillus japonicus (7.7%), Aspergillus niger (6.2%), Aspergillus welwitschiae (4.6%) and A. ibericus (3.1%). Based on inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) fingerprinting profiles of major Aspergillus section Nigri members, a sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was identified. Primers were designed based on the conserved regions of the SCAR marker and were utilized in a PCR for simultaneous identification of A. carbonarius and A. ibericus. The detection level of the SCAR-PCR was found to be 0.01 ng of purified DNA. The present SCAR-PCR is rapid and less cumbersome than conventional identification techniques and could be a supplementary strategy and a reliable tool for high-throughput sample analysis. PMID:26114593

  19. Frequency of thermostability variants: estimation of total rare variant frequency in human populations

    SciTech Connect

    Mohrenweiser, H.W.; Neel, J.V.

    1981-09-01

    Eight erythrocyte enzymes were examine for thermostability in an unselected sample of 100 newborn infants. Three thermolabile variants, one each of lactate dehydrogenase, glucosephosphate isomerase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, were identified, none of which was detectable as a variant by standard electrophoretic techniques. All were inherited. This frequency of 3.8 heritable thermostability variants per 1000 determinations is to be compared with a frequency of electrophoretically detectable variants of 1.1 per 1000 determinations, a frequency of 2.4 enzyme-deficiency variants per 1000 determinations, and a frequency of individuals with rare enzyme deficiency or electrophoretic or thermostability (or both) variants at these loci is 8.4 per 1000 determinations. A similar distribution and frequency is seen when the comparison is limited to the seven loci studied by all techniques. it is clear that not all of the electrophoretic and thermostability variants present in the population are detected by the techniques used in this study. Accordingly, it is estimated that the true frequency of carriers of a rare variant for each of these enzyme-coding loci averages greater than 10/1000. Some implications of these frequencies for human disease are discussed.

  20. Nuclear receptor variants in liver disease.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Vincent; Liebe, Roman; Lammert, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This snapshot reviews the current state of knowledge on genetic variants of nuclear receptors (NRs) involved in regulating various aspects of liver metabolism. Interindividual differences in responses to diet and other 'in-' and environmental stressors can be caused by variants in components of the NR regulatory gene network. We recapitulate recent evidence for the application of NRs in genetic diagnosis of monogenic liver disease. Genetic analysis of multifactorial liver diseases, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and diabetes mellitus, pinpoints key players in disease predisposition and progression. In particular, NR1H4 variants have been associated with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and gallstone disease. Other examples include studies of NR1I2 and NR1I3 polymorphisms in patients with drug-induced liver injury and NR5A2 variation in cholangiocarcinoma. Associations of NR gene variants have been identified in patients with dyslipidemia and other metabolic syndrome-associated traits by genome-wide studies. Evidence from these analyses confirms a role for NR variation in common diseases, linking regulatory networks to complex and variable phenotypes. These new insights into the impact of NR variants offer perspectives for their future use in diagnosis and treatment of common diseases. PMID:26045277

  1. Characterization of new variants of avian infectious bronchitis virus in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Bourogâa, Hager; Miled, Khaled; Gribâa, Latifa; El Behi, Imen; Ghram, Abdeljelil

    2009-09-01

    Three infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains, isolated from suspected Tunisian broiler flocks, were characterized as variant viruses using genotyping and serotyping techniques. They were compared with commonly used vaccine strains, including 793/B, D274, and Massachusetts types. Reverse transcription-PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, nucleotide sequencing, and GenBank BLAST database analyses of the hypervariable region of the S1 subunit of the virus spike gene showed that the three isolates, designated TN20/00, TN200/01, and TN335/01, share from 64% to 82% homologies between each other but are very different from the H120 strain, the only infectious bronchitis vaccine used in Tunisia. In addition, they showed from 57% to 78% similarities with the European genotypes, including D274 and 793/B. Phylogenetic data allowed classification of the three Tunisian isolates as new genotypes placed inside the same genetic group as the CR88121 and D274 genotypes but very distant from the Massachusetts genotype. Cross-virus neutralization tests confirmed the genotyping results and showed that both TN200/01 and TN335/01 isolates are serologically related, whereas the TN20/00 is closer to TN335/01 than to TN200/01. Moreover, all three Tunisian isolates are closely related to the European variant serotypes, including the CR88121 and the D274 strains, but none is serologically related to the H120 vaccine strain. These data demonstrated, for the first time in Tunisia, the cocirculation of IBV variant serotypes along with the Massachusetts type, causing severe clinical diseases and high economic losses to the poultry industry. PMID:19848084

  2. ?IIb?3 variants defined by next-generation sequencing: predicting variants likely to cause Glanzmann thrombasthenia.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Lorena; Rendon, Augusto; Liang, Yupu; Simeoni, Ilenia; Negri, Ana; Filizola, Marta; Ouwehand, Willem H; Coller, Barry S

    2015-04-14

    Next-generation sequencing is transforming our understanding of human genetic variation but assessing the functional impact of novel variants presents challenges. We analyzed missense variants in the integrin ?IIb?3 receptor subunit genes ITGA2B and ITGB3 identified by whole-exome or -genome sequencing in the ThromboGenomics project, comprising ?32,000 alleles from 16,108 individuals. We analyzed the results in comparison with 111 missense variants in these genes previously reported as being associated with Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT), 20 associated with alloimmune thrombocytopenia, and 5 associated with aniso/macrothrombocytopenia. We identified 114 novel missense variants in ITGA2B (affecting ?11% of the amino acids) and 68 novel missense variants in ITGB3 (affecting ?9% of the amino acids). Of the variants, 96% had minor allele frequencies (MAF) < 0.1%, indicating their rarity. Based on sequence conservation, MAF, and location on a complete model of ?IIb?3, we selected three novel variants that affect amino acids previously associated with GT for expression in HEK293 cells. ?IIb P176H and ?3 C547G severely reduced ?IIb?3 expression, whereas ?IIb P943A partially reduced ?IIb?3 expression and had no effect on fibrinogen binding. We used receiver operating characteristic curves of combined annotation-dependent depletion, Polyphen 2-HDIV, and sorting intolerant from tolerant to estimate the percentage of novel variants likely to be deleterious. At optimal cut-off values, which had 69-98% sensitivity in detecting GT mutations, between 27% and 71% of the novel ?IIb or ?3 missense variants were predicted to be deleterious. Our data have implications for understanding the evolutionary pressure on ?IIb?3 and highlight the challenges in predicting the clinical significance of novel missense variants. PMID:25827233

  3. ?IIb?3 variants defined by next-generation sequencing: Predicting variants likely to cause Glanzmann thrombasthenia

    PubMed Central

    Buitrago, Lorena; Rendon, Augusto; Liang, Yupu; Simeoni, Ilenia; Negri, Ana; Filizola, Marta; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Coller, Barry S.; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Ballmaier, Matthias; Bariana, Tadbir; Bellissimo, Daniel; Bertoli, Marta; Bray, Paul; Bury, Loredana; Carrell, Robin; Cattaneo, Marco; Collins, Peter; French, Deborah; Favier, Remi; Freson, Kathleen; Furie, Bruce; Germeshausen, Manuela; Ghevaert, Cedric; Gomez, Keith; Goodeve, Anne; Gresele, Paolo; Guerrero, Jose; Hampshire, Dan J.; Hadinnapola, Charaka; Heemskerk, Johan; Henskens, Yvonne; Hill, Marian; Hogg, Nancy; Johnsen, Jill; Kahr, Walter; Kerr, Ron; Kunishima, Shinji; Laffan, Michael; Natwani, Amit; Neerman-Arbez, Marguerite; Nurden, Paquita; Nurden, Alan; Ormiston, Mark; Othman, Maha; Ouwehand, Willem; Perry, David; Vilk, Shoshana Ravel; Reitsma, Pieter; Rondina, Matthew; Simeoni, Ilenia; Smethurst, Peter; Stephens, Jonathan; Stevenson, William; Szkotak, Artur; Turro, Ernest; Van Geet, Christel; Vries, Minka; Ward, June; Waye, John; Westbury, Sarah; Whiteheart, Sidney; Wilcox, David; Zhang, Bi

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing is transforming our understanding of human genetic variation but assessing the functional impact of novel variants presents challenges. We analyzed missense variants in the integrin ?IIb?3 receptor subunit genes ITGA2B and ITGB3 identified by whole-exome or -genome sequencing in the ThromboGenomics project, comprising ?32,000 alleles from 16,108 individuals. We analyzed the results in comparison with 111 missense variants in these genes previously reported as being associated with Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT), 20 associated with alloimmune thrombocytopenia, and 5 associated with aniso/macrothrombocytopenia. We identified 114 novel missense variants in ITGA2B (affecting ?11% of the amino acids) and 68 novel missense variants in ITGB3 (affecting ?9% of the amino acids). Of the variants, 96% had minor allele frequencies (MAF) < 0.1%, indicating their rarity. Based on sequence conservation, MAF, and location on a complete model of ?IIb?3, we selected three novel variants that affect amino acids previously associated with GT for expression in HEK293 cells. ?IIb P176H and ?3 C547G severely reduced ?IIb?3 expression, whereas ?IIb P943A partially reduced ?IIb?3 expression and had no effect on fibrinogen binding. We used receiver operating characteristic curves of combined annotation-dependent depletion, Polyphen 2-HDIV, and sorting intolerant from tolerant to estimate the percentage of novel variants likely to be deleterious. At optimal cut-off values, which had 69–98% sensitivity in detecting GT mutations, between 27% and 71% of the novel ?IIb or ?3 missense variants were predicted to be deleterious. Our data have implications for understanding the evolutionary pressure on ?IIb?3 and highlight the challenges in predicting the clinical significance of novel missense variants. PMID:25827233

  4. Phylogenetic relationship of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae isolated in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Zain, Zaini; Kamsani, Nurul H; Ahmad, Norazah; Clarke, Stuart C

    2015-12-01

    The epidemiology of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) remains poorly understood. We therefore sought to determine the genetic relationship of 25 NTHi isolated from various states in Malaysia using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The majority of isolates were obtained from sputum. There were 24 novel sequence types (STs). Eight isolates were single-locus variants, the remainder being singletons. Clustering was not based on clinical site of isolation or geographical origin. Despite the limited number of isolates examined in this study, we demonstrate that NTHi isolates in Malaysia are diverse and warrant further investigation. PMID:26394107

  5. Novel Human Butyrylcholinesterase Variants: Toward Organophosphonate Detoxication

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE) is currently being developed as a detoxication enzyme for stoichiometric binding and/or catalytic hydrolysis of organophosphates. Herein, we describe the use of a molecular evolution method to develop novel hBChE variants with increased resistance to stereochemically defined nerve agent model compounds of soman, sarin, and cyclosarin. Novel hBChE variants (Y332S, D340H, and Y332S/D340H) were identified with an increased resistance to nerve agent model compounds that retained robust intrinsic catalytic efficiency. Molecular dynamics simulations of these variants revealed insights into the mechanism by which these structural changes conferred nerve agent model compound resistance. PMID:24902043

  6. Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Genetic Variants: Phylogeny and Classification Based on E6 and LCR

    PubMed Central

    Gheit, Tarik; Franceschi, Silvia; Vignat, Jerome; Burk, Robert D.; Sylla, Bakary S.; Tommasino, Massimo; Clifford, Gary M.

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring genetic variants of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) are common and have previously been classified into 4 major lineages; European-Asian (EAS), including the sublineages European (EUR) and Asian (As), African 1 (AFR1), African 2 (AFR2), and North-American/Asian-American (NA/AA). We aimed to improve the classification of HPV16 variant lineages by using a large resource of HPV16-positive cervical samples collected from geographically diverse populations in studies on HPV and/or cervical cancer undertaken by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In total, we sequenced the entire E6 genes and long control regions (LCRs) of 953 HPV16 isolates from 27 different countries worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed previously described variant lineages and subclassifications. We characterized two new sublineages within each of the lineages AFR1 and AFR2 that are robustly classified using E6 and/or the LCR. We could differentiate previously identified AA1, AA2, and NA sublineages, although they could not be distinguished by E6 alone, requiring the LCR for correct phylogenetic classification. We thus provide a classification system for HPV16 genomes based on 13 and 32 phylogenetically distinguishing positions in E6 and the LCR, respectively, that distinguish nine HPV16 variant sublineages (EUR, As, AFR1a, AFR1b, AFR2a, AFR2b, NA, AA1, and AA2). Ninety-seven percent of all 953 samples fitted this classification perfectly. Other positions were frequently polymorphic within one or more lineages but did not define phylogenetic subgroups. Such a standardized classification of HPV16 variants is important for future epidemiological and biological studies of the carcinogenic potential of HPV16 variant lineages. PMID:22491459

  7. The curation of genetic variants: difficulties and possible solutions.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Kapil Raj; Maden, Narendra; Poudel, Barsha; Pradhananga, Sailendra; Sharma, Amit Kumar

    2012-12-01

    The curation of genetic variants from biomedical articles is required for various clinical and research purposes. Nowadays, establishment of variant databases that include overall information about variants is becoming quite popular. These databases have immense utility, serving as a user-friendly information storehouse of variants for information seekers. While manual curation is the gold standard method for curation of variants, it can turn out to be time-consuming on a large scale thus necessitating the need for automation. Curation of variants described in biomedical literature may not be straightforward mainly due to various nomenclature and expression issues. Though current trends in paper writing on variants is inclined to the standard nomenclature such that variants can easily be retrieved, we have a massive store of variants in the literature that are present as non-standard names and the online search engines that are predominantly used may not be capable of finding them. For effective curation of variants, knowledge about the overall process of curation, nature and types of difficulties in curation, and ways to tackle the difficulties during the task are crucial. Only by effective curation, can variants be correctly interpreted. This paper presents the process and difficulties of curation of genetic variants with possible solutions and suggestions from our work experience in the field including literature support. The paper also highlights aspects of interpretation of genetic variants and the importance of writing papers on variants following standard and retrievable methods. PMID:23317699

  8. Overexpression of Rad51C splice variants in colorectal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kalvala, Arjun; Gao, Li; Aguila, Brittany; Reese, Tyler; Otterson, Gregory A.; Villalona-Calero, Miguel A.; Duan, Wenrui

    2015-01-01

    Functional alterations in Rad51C are the cause of the Fanconi anemia complementation group O (FANCO) gene disorder. We have identified novel splice variants of Rad51C mRNA in colorectal tumors and cells. The alternatively spliced transcript variants are formed either without exon-7 (variant 1), without exon 6 and 7 (variant 2) or without exon 7 and 8 (variant 3). Real time PCR analysis of nine pair-matched colorectal tumors and non-tumors showed that variant 1 was overexpressed in tumors compared to matched non-tumors. Among 38 colorectal tumor RNA samples analyzed, 18 contained variant 1, 12 contained variant 2, 14 contained variant 3, and eight expressed full length Rad51C exclusively. Bisulfite DNA sequencing showed promoter methylation of Rad51C in tumor cells. 5-azacytidine treatment of LS-174T cells caused a 14 fold increase in variant 1, a 4.8 fold increase for variant 3 and 3.4 fold for variant 2 compared to 2.5 fold increase in WT. Expression of Rad51C variants is associated with FANCD2 foci positive colorectal tumors and is associated with microsatellite stability in those tumors. Further investigation is needed to elucidate differential function of the Rad51C variants to evaluate potential effects in drug resistance and DNA repair. PMID:25669972

  9. Multilocus Phylogenetic Analyses, Pullulan Production and Xylanase Activity of Tropical Isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aureobasidium pullulans is the source of the commercial polysaccharide, pullulan, and the enzyme, xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8). Isolates are typically off-white to black on solid media, while some tropical isolates have been described as "color variants" with bright pigments of red, yellow, or purple. In...

  10. Genotyping of newly isolated infectious bronchitis virus isolates from northeastern Georgia.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Arun B; Resurreccion, Reynaldo S

    2010-12-01

    Sixteen infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) field isolates obtained from vaccinated commercial broiler chickens showing clinical respiratory disease were characterized by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of the hypervariable region of the S1 spike glycoprotein gene. The genetic relationship among these variants and reference strains was determined by phylogenetic analysis and use of the basic local alignment search tool. All the isolates formed a distinct phylogenetic group with very short branched distances, suggesting that isolates had a similar origin. All the isolates showed 85% amino acid identity with recently described Australian isolates, particularly N1-62. Given that little was known about this new emergent IBV we have characterized five field isolates by sequencing the entire S1 gene. Multiple sequence alignment of deduced amino acid sequences with commonly used vaccine strains revealed that most substitutions occurred in the 53-148 amino acid region. A possible recombination site with N1-62 isolate was identified between amino acid residues 115-121. All the field isolates shared four or five out of seven amino acid residues with N1-62 in this region as opposed to Ark-DPI and Mass 41 reference strains, which shared only two residues. Results indicate that IBV isolates reported here can be considered as new IBV genotype. PMID:21313832

  11. Anatomical variants and pathologies of the vermix

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Swati; Verde, Franco; Johnson, Pamela T.; Fishman, Elliot K.

    2015-01-01

    The appendix may demonstrate a perplexing range of normal and abnormal appearances on imaging exams. Familiarity with the anatomy and anatomical variants of the appendix is helpful in identifying the appendix on ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Knowledge of the variety of pathologies afflicting the appendix and of the spectrum of imaging findings may be particularly useful to the emergency radiologist for accurate diagnosis and appropriate guidance regarding clinical and surgical management. In this pictorial essay, we review appendiceal embryology, anatomical variants such as Amyand hernias, and pathologies from appendicitis to carcinoid, mucinous, and nonmucinous epithelial neoplasms. PMID:24570122

  12. Novel Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius variants harboring lactose metabolism genes homologous to Streptococcus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Jans, Christoph; Gerber, Andrea; Bugnard, Joséphine; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2012-08-01

    Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) commonly associated with human and animal infections. We elucidated the lactose metabolism of S. infantarius subsp. infantarius predominant in African fermented milk products. S. infantarius subsp. infantarius isolates (n = 192) were identified in 88% of spontaneously fermented camel milk suusac samples (n = 24) from Kenya and Somalia at log?? 8.2-8.5 CFU mL?¹. African S. infantarius isolates excreted stoichiometric amounts of galactose when grown on lactose, exhibiting a metabolism similar to Streptococcus thermophilus and distinct from their type strain. African S. infantarius subsp. infantarius CJ18 harbors a regular gal operon with 99.7-100% sequence identity to S. infantarius subsp. infantarius ATCC BAA-102(T) and a gal-lac operon with 91.7-97.6% sequence identity to S. thermophilus, absent in all sequenced SBSEC strains analyzed. The expression and functionality of lacZ was demonstrated in a ?-galactosidase assay. The gal-lac operon was identified in 100% of investigated S. infantarius isolates (n = 46) from suusac samples and confirmed in Malian fermented cow milk isolates. The African S. infantarius variant potentially evolved through horizontal gene transfer of an S. thermophilus-homologous lactose pathway. Safety assessments are needed to identify any putative health risks of this novel S. infantarius variant. PMID:22475940

  13. Identification of S-sulfonation and S-thiolation of a novel transthyretin Phe33Cys variant from a patient diagnosed with familial transthyretin amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Amareth; Prokaeva, Tatiana; McComb, Mark E.; Connors, Lawreen H.; Skinner, Martha; Costello, Catherine E.

    2003-01-01

    Familial transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR) is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with a variant form of the plasma carrier protein transthyretin (TTR). Amyloid fibrils consisting of variant TTR, wild-type TTR, and TTR fragments deposit in tissues and organs. The diagnosis of ATTR relies on the identification of pathologic TTR variants in plasma of symptomatic individuals who have biopsy proven amyloid disease. Previously, we have developed a mass spectrometry-based approach, in combination with direct DNA sequence analysis, to fully identify TTR variants. Our methodology uses immunoprecipitation to isolate TTR from serum, and electrospray ionization and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MS) peptide mapping to identify TTR variants and posttranslational modifications. Unambiguous identification of the amino acid substitution is performed using tandem MS (MS/MS) analysis and confirmed by direct DNA sequence analysis. The MS and MS/MS analyses also yield information about posttranslational modifications. Using this approach, we have recently identified a novel pathologic TTR variant. This variant has an amino acid substitution (Phe ? Cys) at position 33. In addition, like the Cys10 present in the wild type and in this variant, the Cys33 residue was both S-sulfonated and S-thiolated (conjugated to cysteine, cysteinylglycine, and glutathione). These adducts may play a role in the TTR fibrillogenesis. PMID:12876326

  14. New genetic variants associated with prostate cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have newly identified 23 common genetic variants -- one-letter changes in DNA known as single-nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs -- that are associated with risk of prostate cancer. These results come from an analysis of more than 10 million SNP

  15. Regional Phonological Variants in Louisiana Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubrecht, August Weston

    Based on tape recorded conversations of 28 informants in 18 Louisiana communities, this study investigated regional phonological variants in Louisiana speech. On the basis of settlement history and previous dialect studies, four regions are defined: northern Louisiana, the Florida Parishes, French Louisiana, and New Orleans. The informants are all…

  16. A condition assessment method for time-variant structures with incomplete measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Y.; Zhao, B. Y.; Wu, B.; Xu, G. S.; Lin, Q.; Jiang, H. B.; Miao, Q. S.

    2015-06-01

    The structural damage incurred in a seismic event is always time-variant. In this paper, a new time-variant structural system identification method is proposed based on a two-stage strategy and incomplete structural acceleration responses. In the first stage, an external excitation identification method is developed for a time-variant structural system. The unknown structural response could be re-constructed with the average acceleration discrete algorithm in this stage. In the second stage, structural parameter is identified and updated with a reduced extended Kalman filter which can improve the computational effort. The re-constructed structural response and identified external excitation are used in the second stage for the damage identification and model updating. The proposed method is validated numerically with the simulation of a fifteen-storey shear frame structure subject to earthquake excitation. A model of a fourteen-storey concrete shear wall building was also studied experimentally with shaking table tests to further validate the proposed method. This shear wall building has a two-storey steel frame on top with base isolation. Both the stiffness of the model and the interface force in the isolator at the bottom of the steel frame during the seismic excitation were estimated with the proposed method. Results from both numerical simulations and laboratory tests indicate that the proposed method can be used to identify structural parameters and external excitations effectively based on a few number of polluted structural acceleration measurements.

  17. Genomic characterization of novel Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b variant strains.

    PubMed

    Laksanalamai, Pongpan; Huang, Bixing; Sabo, Jonathan; Burall, Laurel S; Zhao, Shaohua; Bates, John; Datta, Atin R

    2014-01-01

    Over 90% of the human listeriosis cases are caused by Listeria monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b strains. As an alternative to antigen-antibody based serotyping, a PCR-based method for serogrouping has been developed and validated. In this communication, we report an in-depth analysis of five 4b variant strains, four clinical isolates from Australia and one environmental isolate from USA. Although these five strains were serotype 4b by classical serotyping method, the serogrouping PCR profiles of these strains show the presence of a 1/2a-3a specific amplicon in addition to the standard 4b-4d-4e specific amplicons. These strains were further analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, binary gene typing, multi-locus variable-number-tandem-repeat analysis and a high density pan-genomic Listeria microarray. Using these sub-typing results, the clinical isolates were grouped into two distinct genomic groups- one of which could be part of an unidentified outbreak. The microarray results when compared with our database of other 4b outbreak isolates indicated that the serotype 4b variant strains represent very different genotypic profiles than the known reported 4b outbreak strains representing major epidemic clones. The acquisition of serotype 1/2a gene clusters by the 4b variant strains appears to be independent in origin, spanning large areas of geographical and temporal space and may indicate predisposition of some 4b strains towards accepting DNA from related organisms. PMID:24586485

  18. Genomic Characterization of Novel Listeria monocytogenes Serotype 4b Variant Strains

    PubMed Central

    Laksanalamai, Pongpan; Huang, Bixing; Sabo, Jonathan; Burall, Laurel S.; Zhao, Shaohua; Bates, John; Datta, Atin R.

    2014-01-01

    Over 90% of the human listeriosis cases are caused by Listeria monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b strains. As an alternative to antigen-antibody based serotyping, a PCR-based method for serogrouping has been developed and validated. In this communication, we report an in-depth analysis of five 4b variant strains, four clinical isolates from Australia and one environmental isolate from USA. Although these five strains were serotype 4b by classical serotyping method, the serogrouping PCR profiles of these strains show the presence of a 1/2a-3a specific amplicon in addition to the standard 4b-4d-4e specific amplicons. These strains were further analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, binary gene typing, multi-locus variable-number-tandem-repeat analysis and a high density pan-genomic Listeria microarray. Using these sub-typing results, the clinical isolates were grouped into two distinct genomic groups- one of which could be part of an unidentified outbreak. The microarray results when compared with our database of other 4b outbreak isolates indicated that the serotype 4b variant strains represent very different genotypic profiles than the known reported 4b outbreak strains representing major epidemic clones. The acquisition of serotype 1/2a gene clusters by the 4b variant strains appears to be independent in origin, spanning large areas of geographical and temporal space and may indicate predisposition of some 4b strains towards accepting DNA from related organisms. PMID:24586485

  19. Mouse p63 variants and chondrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Junxia; Lu, Yaojuan; Qiao, Longwei; Ran, Deyuan; Li, Na; Cao, Hong; Gao, Yan; Zheng, Qiping

    2013-01-01

    As a critical member of the p53 family of transcription factors, p63 has been implicated a role in development than in tumor formation, because p63 is seldom mutated in human cancers, while p63 null mice exhibit severe developmental abnormalities without increasing cancer susceptibility. Notably, besides the major epithelial and cardiac defect, p63 deficient mice show severe limb and craniofacial abnormalities. In addition, humans with p63 mutations also show severe limb and digit defects, suggesting a putative role of p63 in skeletal development. There are eight p63 variants which encode for the TAp63 and ?Np63 isoforms by alternative promoters. How these isoforms function during skeletal development is currently largely unknown. Our recent transgenic studies suggest a role of TAP63?, but not ?NP63?, during embryonic long bone development. However, the moderate skeletal phenotypes in the TAP63? transgenic mice suggest requirement of additional p63 isoform(s) for the limb defects in p63 null mice. Here, we report analysis of mouse p63 variants in MCT and ATDC5 cells, two cell models undergo hypertrophic differentiation and mimic the process of endochondral bone formation upon growth arrest or induction. We detected increased level of p63 variants in hypertrophic MCT cells by regular RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis by qRT-PCR, we detected significantly upregulated level of ? variant (p<0.05), but not ? or ? variant (p>0.05), in hypertrophic MCT cells than in proliferative MCT cells. Moreover, we detected upregulated TAP63? in ATDC5 cells undergoing hypertrophic differentiation. Our results suggest that TAp63? plays a positive role during endochondral bone formation. PMID:24294373

  20. Two Naturally Occurring Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus Variants of Neodiprion sertifer Geoffr. (Hymenoptera; Diprionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Brown, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Two isolates of Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffr.) nuclear polyhedrosis virus from Britain and North America were compared using three biochemical techniques. Alkaline protease assays of polyhedra revealed the presence of endogenous enzyme activity in the British isolate but not in the North American isolate. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of virus particle structural polypeptides revealed only minor differences, with the exception that the North American virus was contaminated with polyhedral protein. The restriction endonucleases SalI, HindIII, and HpaII were used as a definitive method of distinguishing the two variants, with all endonucleases achieving this to a greater or lesser extent. The possible significance of all of these observations is discussed in terms of their possible influence on the registration and field application of this virus. Images PMID:16345930

  1. Whole genome regulatory variant evaluation for transcription factor binding

    E-print Network

    Zeng, Haoyang

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of high-throughput sequencing technology, Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of genetic variants that are associated with disease and complex traits. Many of these variants ...

  2. The association between genetic variants in hMLH1 and hMSH2 and the development of sporadic colorectal cancer in the Danish population

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Lise Lotte; Madsen, Bo E; Wikman, Friedrik P; Wiuf, Carsten; Koed, Karen; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Andersen, Claus L; Ørntoft, Torben F

    2008-01-01

    Background Mutations in the mismatch repair genes hMLH1 and hMSH2 predispose to hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Genetic screening of more than 350 Danish patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) has led to the identification of several new genetic variants (e.g. missense, silent and non-coding) in hMLH1 and hMSH2. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of these variants in hMLH1 and hMSH2 in Danish patients with sporadic colorectal cancer and in the healthy background population. The purpose was to reveal if any of the common variants lead to increased susceptibility to colorectal cancer. Methods Associations between genetic variants in hMLH1 and hMSH2 and sporadic colorectal cancer were evaluated using a case-cohort design. The genotyping was performed on DNA isolated from blood from the 380 cases with sporadic colorectal cancer and a sub-cohort of 770 individuals. The DNA samples were analyzed using Single Base Extension (SBE) Tag-arrays. A Bonferroni corrected Fisher exact test was used to test for association between the genotypes of each variant and colorectal cancer. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was investigated using HaploView (v3.31). Results Heterozygous and homozygous changes were detected in 13 of 35 analyzed variants. Two variants showed a borderline association with colorectal cancer, whereas the remaining variants demonstrated no association. Furthermore, the genomic regions covering hMLH1 and hMSH2 displayed high linkage disequilibrium in the Danish population. Twenty-two variants were neither detected in the cases with sporadic colorectal cancer nor in the sub-cohort. Some of these rare variants have been classified either as pathogenic mutations or as neutral variants in other populations and some are unclassified Danish variants. Conclusion None of the variants in hMLH1 and hMSH2 analyzed in the present study were highly associated with colorectal cancer in the Danish population. High linkage disequilibrium in the genomic regions covering hMLH1 and hMSH2, indicate that common genetic variants in the two genes in general are not involved in the development of sporadic colorectal cancer. Nevertheless, some of the rare unclassified variants in hMLH1 and hMSH2 might be involved in the development of colorectal cancer in the families where they were originally identified. PMID:18547406

  3. Variant Influenza Associated with Live Animal Markets, Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Choi, M J; Morin, C A; Scheftel, J; Vetter, S M; Smith, K; Lynfield, R

    2015-08-01

    Variant influenza viruses are swine-origin influenza A viruses that cause illness in humans. Surveillance for variant influenza A viruses, including characterization of exposure settings, is important because of the potential emergence of novel influenza viruses with pandemic potential. In Minnesota, we have documented variant influenza A virus infections associated with swine exposure at live animal markets. PMID:24931441

  4. Processing of No-Release Variants in Connected Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoCasto, Paul C.; Connine, Cynthia M.

    2011-01-01

    The cross modal repetition priming paradigm was used to investigate how potential lexically ambiguous no-release variants are processed. In particular we focus on segmental regularities that affect the variant's frequency of occurrence (voicing of the critical segment) and phonological context in which the variant occurs (status of the following…

  5. Genetic characterization of MHC class II DQB exon 2 variants in gayal (Bos frontalis)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongke; Xi, Dongmei; Li, Guozhi; Hao, Tiantian; Chen, Yuhan; Yang, Yuai

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, exon 2 of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQB gene from 39 gayals (Bos frontalis) was isolated, characterized and compared with previously reported patterns for other bovidae. It was revealed by sequence analyses that there are 36 DQB exon 2 variants among 39 gayals. These variants exhibited a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions with most amino acid variations occurring at positions forming the peptide-binding sites (PBS). The DQB loci were analysed for patterns of synonymous (d S) and non-synonymous (d N) substitution. The gayals were observed to be under strong balancing selection in the DQB exon 2 PBS (d N = 0.094, P = 0.001). It appears that this variability among gayals could confer the ability to mount immune responses to a wide variety of peptides or pathogens. PMID:26019566

  6. Random Plant Viral Variants Attain Temporal Advantages During Systemic Infections and in Turn Resist other Variants of the Same Virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Jiangbo; Zhang, Xiuchun; Meulia, Tea; Paul, Pierce; Madden, Laurence V.; Li, Dawei; Qu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Infection of plants with viruses containing multiple variants frequently leads to dominance by a few random variants in the systemically infected leaves (SLs), for which a plausible explanation is lacking. We show here that SL dominance by a given viral variant is adequately explained by its fortuitous lead in systemic spread, coupled with its resistance to superinfection by other variants. We analyzed the fate of a multi-variant turnip crinkle virus (TCV) population in Arabidopsis and N. benthamiana plants. Both wild-type and RNA silencing-defective plants displayed a similar pattern of random dominance by a few variant genotypes, thus discounting a prominent role for RNA silencing. When introduced to plants sequentially as two subpopulations, a twelve-hour head-start was sufficient for the first set to dominate. Finally, SLs of TCV-infected plants became highly resistant to secondary invasions of another TCV variant. We propose that random distribution of variant foci on inoculated leaves allows different variants to lead systemic movement in different plants. The leading variants then colonize large areas of SLs, and resist the superinfection of lagging variants in the same areas. In conclusion, superinfection resistance is the primary driver of random enrichment of viral variants in systemically infected plants. PMID:26481091

  7. Random Plant Viral Variants Attain Temporal Advantages During Systemic Infections and in Turn Resist other Variants of the Same Virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Jiangbo; Zhang, Xiuchun; Meulia, Tea; Paul, Pierce; Madden, Laurence V; Li, Dawei; Qu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Infection of plants with viruses containing multiple variants frequently leads to dominance by a few random variants in the systemically infected leaves (SLs), for which a plausible explanation is lacking. We show here that SL dominance by a given viral variant is adequately explained by its fortuitous lead in systemic spread, coupled with its resistance to superinfection by other variants. We analyzed the fate of a multi-variant turnip crinkle virus (TCV) population in Arabidopsis and N. benthamiana plants. Both wild-type and RNA silencing-defective plants displayed a similar pattern of random dominance by a few variant genotypes, thus discounting a prominent role for RNA silencing. When introduced to plants sequentially as two subpopulations, a twelve-hour head-start was sufficient for the first set to dominate. Finally, SLs of TCV-infected plants became highly resistant to secondary invasions of another TCV variant. We propose that random distribution of variant foci on inoculated leaves allows different variants to lead systemic movement in different plants. The leading variants then colonize large areas of SLs, and resist the superinfection of lagging variants in the same areas. In conclusion, superinfection resistance is the primary driver of random enrichment of viral variants in systemically infected plants. PMID:26481091

  8. The Saccharomyces Genome Database Variant Viewer.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Travis K; Hitz, Benjamin C; Engel, Stacia R; Song, Giltae; Balakrishnan, Rama; Binkley, Gail; Costanzo, Maria C; Dalusag, Kyla S; Demeter, Janos; Hellerstedt, Sage T; Karra, Kalpana; Nash, Robert S; Paskov, Kelley M; Skrzypek, Marek S; Weng, Shuai; Wong, Edith D; Cherry, J Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD; http://www.yeastgenome.org) is the authoritative community resource for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae reference genome sequence and its annotation. In recent years, we have moved toward increased representation of sequence variation and allelic differences within S. cerevisiae. The publication of numerous additional genomes has motivated the creation of new tools for their annotation and analysis. Here we present the Variant Viewer: a dynamic open-source web application for the visualization of genomic and proteomic differences. Multiple sequence alignments have been constructed across high quality genome sequences from 11 different S. cerevisiae strains and stored in the SGD. The alignments and summaries are encoded in JSON and used to create a two-tiered dynamic view of the budding yeast pan-genome, available at http://www.yeastgenome.org/variant-viewer. PMID:26578556

  9. Nuclear Receptor Variants in Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Müllenbach, Roman; Weber, Susanne N.; Lammert, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This review aims to provide a snapshot of the actual state of knowledge on genetic variants of nuclear receptors (NR) involved in regulating important aspects of liver metabolism. It recapitulates recent evidence for the application of NR in genetic diagnosis of monogenic (“Mendelian”) liver disease and their use in clinical diagnosis. Genetic analysis of multifactorial liver diseases such as viral hepatitis or fatty liver disease identifies key players in disease predisposition and progression. Evidence from these analyses points towards a role of NR polymorphisms in common diseases, linking regulatory networks to complex and variable phenotypes. The new insights into NR variants also offer perspectives and cautionary advice for their use as handles towards diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22523693

  10. Wham: Identifying Structural Variants of Biological Consequence.

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Zev N; Osborne, Edward J; Cone, Kelsey R; Kennedy, Brett J; Domyan, Eric T; Shapiro, Michael D; Elde, Nels C; Yandell, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Existing methods for identifying structural variants (SVs) from short read datasets are inaccurate. This complicates disease-gene identification and efforts to understand the consequences of genetic variation. In response, we have created Wham (Whole-genome Alignment Metrics) to provide a single, integrated framework for both structural variant calling and association testing, thereby bypassing many of the difficulties that currently frustrate attempts to employ SVs in association testing. Here we describe Wham, benchmark it against three other widely used SV identification tools-Lumpy, Delly and SoftSearch-and demonstrate Wham's ability to identify and associate SVs with phenotypes using data from humans, domestic pigeons, and vaccinia virus. Wham and all associated software are covered under the MIT License and can be freely downloaded from github (https://github.com/zeeev/wham), with documentation on a wiki (http://zeeev.github.io/wham/). For community support please post questions to https://www.biostars.org/. PMID:26625158

  11. The Saccharomyces Genome Database Variant Viewer

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Travis K.; Hitz, Benjamin C.; Engel, Stacia R.; Song, Giltae; Balakrishnan, Rama; Binkley, Gail; Costanzo, Maria C.; Dalusag, Kyla S.; Demeter, Janos; Hellerstedt, Sage T.; Karra, Kalpana; Nash, Robert S.; Paskov, Kelley M.; Skrzypek, Marek S.; Weng, Shuai; Wong, Edith D.; Cherry, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD; http://www.yeastgenome.org) is the authoritative community resource for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae reference genome sequence and its annotation. In recent years, we have moved toward increased representation of sequence variation and allelic differences within S. cerevisiae. The publication of numerous additional genomes has motivated the creation of new tools for their annotation and analysis. Here we present the Variant Viewer: a dynamic open-source web application for the visualization of genomic and proteomic differences. Multiple sequence alignments have been constructed across high quality genome sequences from 11 different S. cerevisiae strains and stored in the SGD. The alignments and summaries are encoded in JSON and used to create a two-tiered dynamic view of the budding yeast pan-genome, available at http://www.yeastgenome.org/variant-viewer. PMID:26578556

  12. Wham: Identifying Structural Variants of Biological Consequence

    PubMed Central

    Kronenberg, Zev N.; Osborne, Edward J.; Cone, Kelsey R.; Kennedy, Brett J.; Domyan, Eric T.; Shapiro, Michael D.; Elde, Nels C.; Yandell, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Existing methods for identifying structural variants (SVs) from short read datasets are inaccurate. This complicates disease-gene identification and efforts to understand the consequences of genetic variation. In response, we have created Wham (Whole-genome Alignment Metrics) to provide a single, integrated framework for both structural variant calling and association testing, thereby bypassing many of the difficulties that currently frustrate attempts to employ SVs in association testing. Here we describe Wham, benchmark it against three other widely used SV identification tools–Lumpy, Delly and SoftSearch–and demonstrate Wham’s ability to identify and associate SVs with phenotypes using data from humans, domestic pigeons, and vaccinia virus. Wham and all associated software are covered under the MIT License and can be freely downloaded from github (https://github.com/zeeev/wham), with documentation on a wiki (http://zeeev.github.io/wham/). For community support please post questions to https://www.biostars.org/. PMID:26625158

  13. Phosphotriesterase variants with high methylphosphonatase activity and strong negative trade-off against phosphotriesters.

    PubMed

    Briseño-Roa, Luis; Timperley, Christopher M; Griffiths, Andrew D; Fersht, Alan R

    2011-01-01

    The most lethal organophosphorus nerve agents (NA), like sarin, soman, agent-VX and Russian-VX, share a methylphosphonate moiety. Pseudomonas diminuta phosphotriesterase (PTE) catalyses the hydrolysis of methylphosphonate NA analogues with a catalytic efficiency orders of magnitude lower than that towards the pesticide paraoxon. With a view to obtaining PTE variants that more readily accept methylphosphonate NA, ~75,000 PTE variants of the substrate-binding residues Gly-60, Ile-106, Leu-303 and Ser-308 were screened with fluorogenic analogues of the NA Russian-VX and cyclosarin. Seven new PTE variants were isolated, purified and their k(cat)/K(M) determined against five phosphotriesters and five methylphosphonate analogues of sarin, cyclosarin, soman, agent-VX and Russian-VX. The novel PTE variants exhibited as much as a 10-fold increase in activity towards the methylphosphonate compounds--many reaching a k(cat)/K(M) of 10? M?¹ s?¹--and as much as a 29,000-fold decrease in their phosphotriesterase activity. The mutations found in two of the variants, SS0.5 (G60V/I106L/S308G) and SS4.5 (G60V/I106A/S308G), were modelled into a high-resolution structure of PTE-wild type and docked with analogues of cyclosarin and Russian-VX using Autodock 4.2. The kinetic data and docking simulations suggest that the increase in activity towards the methylphosphonates and the loss of function against the phosphotriesters were due to an alteration of the shape and hydrophobicity of the binding pocket that hinders the productive binding of non-chiral racemic phosphotriesters, yet allows the binding of the highly asymmetric methylphosphonates. PMID:21037279

  14. Variant influenza virus hemagglutinin that induces fusion at elevated pH.

    PubMed Central

    Doms, R W; Gething, M J; Henneberry, J; White, J; Helenius, A

    1986-01-01

    The hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein of influenza virus performs two critical roles during infection: it binds virus to cell surface sialic acids, and under mildly acidic conditions it induces fusion of the virion with intracellular membranes, liberating the genome into the cytoplasm. The pH dependence of fusion varies for different influenza virus strains. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a naturally occurring variant of the X31 strain that fuses at a pH 0.2 units higher than the parent strain does and that is less sensitive to the effects of ammonium chloride, a compound known to elevate endosomal pH. The bromelain-solubilized ectodomain of the variant HA displayed a corresponding shift in the pH at which it changed conformation and bound to liposomes. Cloning and sequencing of the variant HA gene revealed amino acid substitutions at three positions in the polypeptide. Two substitutions were in antigenic determinants in the globular region of HA1, and the third occurred in HA2 near the base of the molecule. By using chimeric HA molecules expressed in CV-1 cells from simian virus 40-based vectors, we demonstrated that the change in HA2 was solely responsible for the altered fusion phenotype. This substitution, asparagine for aspartic acid at position 132, disrupted a highly conserved interchain salt bridge between adjacent HA2 subunits. The apparent role of this residue in stabilizing the HA trimer is consistent with the idea that the trimer dissociates at low pH. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that influenza virus populations contain fusion variants, raising the possibility that such variants may play a role in the evolution of the virus. Images PMID:3003392

  15. Detecting Novel Genetic Variants Associated with Isoniazid-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Maurice K. L.; Ong, Danny C. T.; Tongyoo, Pumipat; Wong, Sin-Yew; Lee, Ann S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Isoniazid (INH) is a highly effective antibiotic central for the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). INH-resistant MTB clinical isolates are frequently mutated in the katG gene and the inhA promoter region, but 10 to 37% of INH-resistant clinical isolates have no detectable alterations in currently known gene targets associated with INH-resistance. We aimed to identify novel genes associated with INH-resistance in these latter isolates. Methodology/Principal Findings INH-resistant clinical isolates of MTB were pre-screened for mutations in the katG, inhA, kasA and ndh genes and the regulatory regions of inhA and ahpC. Twelve INH-resistant isolates with no mutations, and 17 INH-susceptible MTB isolates were subjected to whole genome sequencing. Phylogenetically related variants and synonymous mutations were excluded and further analysis revealed mutations in 60 genes and 4 intergenic regions associated with INH-resistance. Sanger sequencing verification of 45 genes confirmed that mutations in 40 genes were observed only in INH-resistant isolates and not in INH-susceptible isolates. The ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous mutations (dN/dS ratio) for the INH-resistance associated mutations identified in this study were 1.234 for INH-resistant and 0.654 for INH-susceptible isolates, strongly suggesting that these mutations are indeed associated with INH-resistance. Conclusion The discovery of novel targets associated with INH-resistance described in this study may potentially be important for the development of improved molecular detection strategies. PMID:25025225

  16. Time Variant Floating Mean Counting Algorithm

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-06-03

    This software was written to test a time variant floating mean counting algorithm. The algorithm was developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company and a provisional patent has been filed on the algorithm. The test software was developed to work with the Val Tech model IVB prototype version II count rate meter hardware. The test software was used to verify the algorithm developed by WSRC could be correctly implemented with the vendor''s hardware.

  17. Malaria-induced acquisition of antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens.

    PubMed

    Ofori, Michael F; Dodoo, Daniel; Staalsoe, Trine; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A L; Koram, Kwadwo; Theander, Thor G; Akanmori, Bartholomew D; Hviid, Lars

    2002-06-01

    In areas of intense Plasmodium falciparum transmission, protective immunity is acquired during childhood in parallel with acquisition of agglutinating antibodies to parasite-encoded variant surface antigens (VSA) expressed on parasitized red blood cells. In a semi-immune child in such an area, clinical disease is caused mainly by parasites expressing VSA not recognized by preexisting VSA-specific antibodies in that child. Such malaria episodes are known to cause an increase in agglutinating antibodies specifically recognizing VSA expressed by the parasite isolate causing the illness, whereas antibody responses to other parasite isolates are relatively unaffected. However, the detailed kinetics of this VSA antibody acquisition are unknown and hence were the aim of this study. We show that P. falciparum malaria in Ghanaian children generally caused a rapid and sustained increase in variant-specific VSA antibody levels, while more transient and limited increases in levels of antibodies to VSA expressed by other parasite isolates were also seen. Plasma VSA antibody levels were positively correlated with the age of the healthy plasma donors but negatively correlated with the age of the parasite donors (the malaria patient). The data from this first detailed longitudinal study of acquisition of VSA antibodies support the hypothesis that naturally acquired protective immunity to P. falciparum malaria is mediated, at least in part, by VSA-specific antibodies. PMID:12010988

  18. Novel RNA variants in colorectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Andreas M; Johannessen, Bjarne; Alagaratnam, Sharmini; Zhao, Sen; Nome, Torfinn; Løvf, Marthe; Bakken, Anne C; Hektoen, Merete; Sveen, Anita; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Skotheim, Rolf I

    2015-11-01

    With an annual estimated incidence of 1.4 million, and a five-year survival rate of 60%, colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major clinical burden. To identify novel RNA variants in CRC, we analyzed exon-level microarray expression data from a cohort of 202 CRCs. We nominated 25 genes with increased expression of their 3' parts in at least one cancer sample each. To efficiently investigate underlying transcript structures, we developed an approach using rapid amplification of cDNA ends followed by high throughput sequencing (RACE-seq). RACE products from the targeted genes in 23 CRC samples were pooled together and sequenced. We identified VWA2-TCF7L2, DHX35-BPIFA2 and CASZ1-MASP2 as private fusion events, and novel transcript structures for 17 of the 23 other candidate genes. The high-throughput approach facilitated identification of CRC specific RNA variants. These include a recurrent read-through fusion transcript between KLK8 and KLK7, and a splice variant of S100A2. Both of these were overrepresented in CRC tissue and cell lines from external RNA-seq datasets. PMID:26474385

  19. Negative feedback buffers effects of regulatory variants

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Daniel M; Wilkening, Stefan; Lin, Gen; Tekkedil, Manu M; Dietrich, Kim; Steinmetz, Lars M; Gagneur, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms conferring robustness against regulatory variants have been controversial. Previous studies suggested widespread buffering of RNA misexpression on protein levels during translation. We do not find evidence that translational buffering is common. Instead, we find extensive buffering at the level of RNA expression, exerted through negative feedback regulation acting in trans, which reduces the effect of regulatory variants on gene expression. Our approach is based on a novel experimental design in which allelic differential expression in a yeast hybrid strain is compared to allelic differential expression in a pool of its spores. Allelic differential expression in the hybrid is due to cis-regulatory differences only. Instead, in the pool of spores allelic differential expression is not only due to cis-regulatory differences but also due to local trans effects that include negative feedback. We found that buffering through such local trans regulation is widespread, typically compensating for about 15% of cis-regulatory effects on individual genes. Negative feedback is stronger not only for essential genes, indicating its functional relevance, but also for genes with low to middle levels of expression, for which tight regulation matters most. We suggest that negative feedback is one mechanism of Waddington's canalization, facilitating the accumulation of genetic variants that might give selective advantage in different environments. PMID:25634765

  20. Infection of chickens with antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT193 and monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium-like variants: an emerging risk to the poultry industry?

    PubMed

    Parsons, B N; Crayford, G; Humphrey, T J; Wigley, P

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica poses a particular risk to public health, and in particular isolates belonging to clonal lineages such as Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 cause epidemics across species including poultry. In recent years, antimicrobial-resistant S. Typhimurium DT193 and specifically the monophasic S. Typhimurium-like variants of this phage type, serotypes 4,12:i:- and 4,5,12:i:-, have become an increasing risk to public health in Europe and the USA and now account for nearly one-half of human S. Typhimurium infections in the UK. Unlike S. Typhimurium that possesses two forms of flagella which can vary between phase 1 and phase 2 during infection, monophasic variants possess only phase 1 flagella. These monophasic antimicrobial-resistant variants have become a major problem in pig production but human cases have also been associated with poultry consumption and have been found in UK flocks through surveillance schemes since 2010. In this study we determined the ability of antimicrobial-resistant DT193 serotype 4,12:i:- and 4,5,12:i:- isolates from pigs to infect chickens. All isolates were found to colonize the caeca and liver. All but one isolate of serotype 4,5,12:i:- also infected the spleen. Levels of infection and pathology were comparable with those found with the virulent S. Typhimurium isolate 4/74. These findings indicate that both S. Typhimurium DT193 and monophasic variants of this phage type usually associated with pigs are capable of colonizing the chicken. This shows that both S. Typhimurium DT193 and monophasic variants represent a significant and potential emerging threat to poultry production from "spill-over" of these isolates from the pig industry or other sources. PMID:23930753

  1. Evaluation of the antigenic diversity of placenta-binding Plasmodium falciparum variants and the antibody repertoire among pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Hommel, Mirja; Elliott, Salenna R; Soma, Viju; Kelly, Greg; Fowkes, Freya J I; Chesson, Joanne M; Duffy, Michael F; Bockhorst, Joseph; Avril, Marion; Mueller, Ivo; Raiko, Andrew; Stanisic, Danielle I; Rogerson, Stephen J; Smith, Joseph D; Beeson, James G

    2010-05-01

    Pregnant women are infected by specific variants of Plasmodium falciparum that adhere and accumulate in the placenta. Using serological and molecular approaches, we assessed the global antigenic diversity of surface antigens expressed by placenta-binding isolates to better understand immunity to malaria in pregnancy and evolution of polymorphisms and to inform vaccine development. We found that placenta-binding isolates originating from all major regions where malaria occurs were commonly recognized by antibodies in different populations of pregnant women. There was substantial antigenic overlap and sharing of epitopes between isolates, including isolates from distant geographic locations, suggesting that there are limitations to antigenic diversity; however, differences between populations and isolates were also seen. Many women had cross-reactive antibodies and/or a broad repertoire of antibodies to different isolates. Studying VAR2CSA as the major antigen expressed by placenta-binding isolates, we identified antibody epitopes encoded by variable sequence blocks in the DBL3 domain. Analysis of global var2csa DBL3 sequences demonstrated that there was extensive sharing of variable blocks between Africa, Asia, Papua New Guinea, and Latin America, which likely contributes to the high level of antigenic overlap between different isolates. However, there was also evidence of geographic clustering of sequences and differences in VAR2CSA sequences between populations. The results indicate that there is limited antigenic diversity in placenta-binding isolates and may explain why immunity to malaria in pregnancy can be achieved after exposure during one pregnancy. Inclusion of a limited number of variants in a candidate vaccine may be sufficient for broad population coverage, but geographic considerations may also have to be included in vaccine design. PMID:20160014

  2. Genetic variants of bovine ?- and ?-casein result in different immunoglobulin E-binding epitopes after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Lisson, M; Lochnit, G; Erhardt, G

    2013-09-01

    Immunoglobulin E-mediated allergy to cow milk is a common allergy in industrialized countries, mainly affecting young children and infants. ?-Casein (CN) and ?-CN belong to the major allergens in cow milk. Within these milk proteins, genetic polymorphisms occur, which are characterized by substitutions or deletions of AA, resulting in different variants for each protein. Until now, these variants have not been considered when discussing the allergenic potential of bovine milk. In this study, the focus was placed on the arising peptide pattern after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of several ?- and ?-CN variants to determine resistant fragments containing IgE-binding epitopes and to identify potential differences between these variants. ?-Casein A(1), A(2), and B, as well as ?-CN A, B, and E, were separated and isolated from milk of cows homozygous for these variants and digested with an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. The resulting peptides were identified using mass spectrometry and compared with previously determined epitopes. Seven ?-CN and 4 ?-CN peptides, common in all ?- or ?-CN variants, remained of sufficient size to harbor IgE-binding epitopes. In addition, some peptides and, consequently, epitopes differ from each other due to the AA substitution occurring in the individual variants. The distinct peptides AA 108 to 129 of ?-CN A(1) and A(2), AA 103 to 123 of ?-CN B, as well as AA 59 to 72, AA 59 to 80, and AA 58 to 80 of all 3 ?-CN variants correspond to the IgE-binding epitopes AA 107 to 120 and AA 55 to 70, respectively. In ?-CN, the 2 variant-specific peptides AA 136 to 149 (?-CN A, E) and AA 134 to 150 (?-CN B) are congruent with the IgE-binding epitope AA 137 to 148. The present study shows that genetic polymorphisms affected the arising peptide pattern of the caseins and thus modifications in the IgE-binding epitopes occurred. As a consequence, the casein variants could show differences in their allergenicity. Studies investigating the allergenic potential of these different peptides are currently in progress. PMID:23871370

  3. Genomic characterization of a novel avian arthritis orthoreovirus variant by next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi; Lu, Huaguang

    2015-10-01

    By using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, we have identified a divergent avian orthoreovirus (ARV) field variant (Reo/PA/Broiler/15511/13, or PA15511), isolated from broiler chickens with viral arthritis in Pennsylvania in 2013. The complete genome of the PA15511 field strain was 23,495 bp in length with 10 dsRNA segments encoding 12 viral proteins. The lengths of the genomic segments ranged from 1192 bp (S4) to 3958 bp (L1). Genomic analysis has revealed that this virus is distinct from reference ARV strains and meets criteria for a new or novel strain. PMID:26234183

  4. Isolated sleep paralysis

    MedlinePLUS

    Sleep paralysis - isolated; Parasomnia - Isolated sleep paralysis ... Episodes of isolated sleep paralysis last from a few seconds to 1 or 2 minutes in which the person is unable to move or speak. ...

  5. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of clinical isolates of Aspergillus flavus from Iran reveals the first cases of Aspergillus minisclerotigenes associated with human infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aspergillus flavus is intensively studied for its role in infecting crop plants and contaminating produce with aflatoxin, but its role as a human pathogen is less well understood. In parts of the Middle East and India, A. flavus surpasses A. fumigatus as a cause of invasive aspergillosis and is a significant cause of cutaneous, sinus, nasal and nail infections. Methods A collection of 45 clinical and 10 environmental A. flavus isolates from Iran were analysed using Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (VNTR) markers with MICROSAT and goeBURST to determine their genetic diversity and their relatedness to clinical and environmental A. flavus isolates from Australia. Phylogeny was assessed using partial ?-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequencing, and mating type was determined by PCR. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed on selected isolates using a reference microbroth dilution method. Results There was considerable diversity in the A. flavus collection, with no segregation on goeBURST networks according to source or geographic location. Three Iranian isolates, two from sinus infections and one from a paranasal infection grouped with Aspergillus minisclerotigenes, and all produced B and G aflatoxin. Phylogenic analysis using partial ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequencing confirmed two of these as A. minisclerotigenes, while the third could not be differentiated from A. flavus and related species within Aspergillus section flavi. Based on epidemiological cut-off values, the A. minisclerotigens and A. flavus isolates tested were susceptible to commonly used antifungal drugs. Conclusions This is the first report of human infection due to A. minisclerotigenes, and it raises the possiblity that other species within Aspergillus section flavi may also cause clinical disease. Clinical isolates of A. flavus from Iran are not distinct from Australian isolates, indicating local environmental, climatic or host features, rather than fungal features, govern the high incidence of A. flavus infection in this region. The results of this study have important implications for biological control strategies that aim to reduce aflatoxin by the introduction of non-toxigenic strains, as potentially any strain of A. flavus, and closely related species like A. minisclerotigenes, might be capable of human infection. PMID:24986045

  6. Natural Variants of C. elegans Demonstrate Defects in Both Sperm Function and Oogenesis at Elevated Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Petrella, Lisa N.

    2014-01-01

    The temperature sensitivity of the germ line is conserved from nematodes to mammals. Previous studies in C. briggsae and Drosophila showed that isolates originating from temperate latitudes lose fertility at a lower temperature than strains originating from tropical latitudes. In order to investigate these relationships in C. elegans, analysis of the fertility of 22 different wild-type isolates of C. elegans isolated from equatorial, tropical and temperate regions was undertaken. It was found that there are significant temperature, genotype and temperature × genotype effects on fertility but region of isolation showed no significant effect on differences in fertility. For most isolates 100% of the population maintained fertility from 20°C to 26°C, but there was a precipitous drop in the percentage of fertile hermaphrodites at 27°C. In contrast, all isolates show a progressive decrease in brood size as temperature increases from 20°C to 26°C, followed by a brood size near zero at 27°C. Temperature shift experiments were performed to better understand the causes of high temperature loss of fertility. Males up-shifted to high temperature maintained fertility, while males raised at high temperature lost fertility. Down-shifting males raised at high temperature generally did not restore fertility. This result differs from that observed in Drosophila and suggested that in C. elegans spermatogenesis or sperm function is irreversibly impaired in males that develop at high temperature. Mating and down-shifting experiments with hermaphrodites were performed to investigate the relative contributions of spermatogenic and oogenic defects to high temperature loss of fertility. It was found that the hermaphrodites of all isolates demonstrated loss in both spermatogenic and oogenic germ lines that differed in their relative contribution by isolate. These studies uncovered unexpectedly high variation in both the loss of fertility and problems with oocyte function in natural variants of C. elegans at high temperature. PMID:25380048

  7. Genomic variant representation in a Chlamydia population is dynamic and adaptive with dependence on in vitro and in vivo passage.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Deana K; Sigar, Ira M; Schripsema, Justin H; Sainvil, Carlyn K; Smith, Christopher L; Yeruva, Laxmi; Rank, Roger G; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Widder, Jared R; Ramsey, Kyle H

    2015-02-01

    We have previously shown that Chlamydia muridarum has multiple genomic variants that concomitantly vary in their in vitro and in vivo phenotype. Herein, we used real-time polymerase chain reaction-based genotyping assays to query plaque-cloned isolates of C. muridarum for the frequency of eight selected polymorphisms. These strains had no history of passage in vivo since their original isolation from laboratory mice. There was significant variance in the frequency of two of the eight polymorphisms assessed with the remaining exhibiting a low rate of variance. To determine if any of these polymorphisms were more favorable for in vivo conditions, we blindly passaged non-clonal C. muridarum three times at 7-day intervals through the urogenital tract of mice. Seven of the eight polymorphisms varied in frequency following in vivo passage and four of these varied between C. muridarum strains. Selected isolates displayed variable growth rates and cytopathic effect in vitro. We conclude that multiple genotypic variants are present within the existing known C. muridarum strains and that the frequency of these variants changes upon introduction into the mouse host. These findings lend support to the concept that genotypic proportional representation in a chlamydial population is dynamic and adaptive. PMID:25673672

  8. Molecular Evidence of Cholera Outbreak Caused by a Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Variant Strain in Kelantan, Malaysia ?

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Geik Yong; Yu, Choo Yee; Balqis, Kamarudin; Elina, Husni Tan; Azura, Hussin; Hani, Mat Hussin; Yean, Chan Yean

    2010-01-01

    A total of 20 Vibrio cholerae isolates were recovered for investigation from a cholera outbreak in Kelantan, Malaysia, that occurred between November and December 2009. All isolates were biochemically characterized as V. cholerae serogroup O1 Ogawa of the El Tor biotype. They were found to be resistant to multiple antibiotics, including tetracycline, erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, streptomycin, penicillin G, and polymyxin B, with 35% of the isolates being resistant to ampicillin. All isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and kanamycin. Multiplex PCR analysis confirmed the biochemical identification and revealed the presence of virulence genes, viz., ace, zot, and ctxA, in all of the isolates. Interestingly, the sequencing of the ctxB gene showed that the outbreak strain harbored the classical cholera toxin gene and therefore belongs to the newly assigned El Tor variant biotype. Clonal analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated that a single clone of a V. cholerae strain was responsible for this outbreak. Thus, we present the first molecular evidence that the toxigenic V. cholerae O1 El Tor variant has invaded Malaysia, highlighting the need for continuous monitoring to facilitate early interventions against any potential epidemic by this biotype. PMID:20826646

  9. Mutation Update: The Spectra of Nebulin Variants and Associated Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Lehtokari, Vilma-Lotta; Kiiski, Kirsi; Sandaradura, Sarah A.; Laporte, Jocelyn; Repo, Pauliina; Frey, Jennifer A.; Donner, Kati; Marttila, Minttu; Saunders, Carol; Barth, Peter G.; den Dunnen, Johan T.; Beggs, Alan H.; Clarke, Nigel F.; North, Kathryn N.; Laing, Nigel G.; Romero, Norma B.; Winder, Thomas L.; Pelin, Katarina; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina

    2015-01-01

    A mutation update on the nebulin gene (NEB) is necessary because of recent developments in analysis methodology, the identification of increasing numbers and novel types of variants, and a widening in the spectrum of clinical and histological phenotypes associated with this gigantic, 183 exons containing gene. Recessive pathogenic variants in NEB are the major cause of nemaline myopathy (NM), one of the most common congenital myopathies. Moreover, pathogenic NEB variants have been identified in core-rod myopathy and in distal myopathies. In this update, we present the disease-causing variants in NEB in 159 families, 143 families with NM, and 16 families with NM-related myopathies. Eighty-eight families are presented here for the first time. We summarize 86 previously published and 126 unpublished variants identified in NEB. Furthermore, we have analyzed the NEB variants deposited in the Exome Variant Server (http://evs.gs.washington.edu/EVS/), identifying that pathogenic variants are a minor fraction of all coding variants (~7%). This indicates that nebulin tolerates substantial changes in its amino acid sequence, providing an explanation as to why variants in such a large gene result in relatively rare disorders. Lastly, we discuss the difficulties of drawing reliable genotype–phenotype correlations in NEB-associated disease. PMID:25205138

  10. Non-coding genetic variants in human disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Lupski, James R

    2015-10-15

    Genetic variants, including single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy number variants (CNVs), in the non-coding regions of the human genome can play an important role in human traits and complex diseases. Most of the genome-wide association study (GWAS) signals map to non-coding regions and potentially point to non-coding variants, whereas their functional interpretation is challenging. In this review, we discuss the human non-coding variants and their contributions to human diseases in the following four parts. (i) Functional annotations of non-coding SNPs mapped by GWAS: we discuss recent progress revealing some of the molecular mechanisms for GWAS signals affecting gene function. (ii) Technical progress in interpretation of non-coding variants: we briefly describe some of the technologies for functional annotations of non-coding variants, including the methods for genome-wide mapping of chromatin interaction, computational tools for functional predictions and the new genome editing technologies useful for dissecting potential functional consequences of non-coding variants. (iii) Non-coding CNVs in human diseases: we review our emerging understanding the role of non-coding CNVs in human disease. (iv) Compound inheritance of large genomic deletions and non-coding variants: compound inheritance at a locus consisting of coding variants plus non-coding ones is described. PMID:26152199

  11. Rare Variant of Lycanthropy and Ecstasy

    PubMed Central

    Nasirian, Mansoureh; Banazadeh, Nabi; Kheradmand, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background: Lycanthropy is an unusual belief or delusion in which the patient thinks that he/she has been transformed into an animal. In rare cases, the patient believes that another person has been transformed into an animal. Case Report: We report a patient with an uncommon variant of lycanthropy is introduced. The symptoms appeared after consumption of ecstasy. This shows the occurrences of uncommon and rare psychosis after ecstasy drug use especially in patients susceptible to schizophrenia. Ecstasy drug can induce paranoid psychosis similar to schizophrenia. In the presented case, ecstasy seemed to have a role in patient's underlying susceptibility to schizophrenia. PMID:24494083

  12. Characterization and radiation response of a heat-resistant variant of V79 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, S.D.; Kruuv, J.; Lepock, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A thermoresistant variant of the established cell line V79-S171-W1 was isolated after treatment with nitrosoguanidine and repeated heat treatments at 42.6 to 43 degrees C, and showed an enhanced ability to survive at 42.6, 43.5, and 44.5 degrees C. The rates of inactivation of the normal and heat-resistant lines differed by approximately a factor of 2 over this temperature range. This level of thermoresistance was stable for the first 80 doublings, but was lost by 120 doublings. This may have been due to a reversion to the normal V79 line since there was no continuous selection pressure and the thermoresistant variant, which was designated at HR7, had a longer average doubling time. Transient thermotolerance was induced in both the V79 and HR7 cells by a 10-min exposure to 44.5 degrees C. After 3 hr incubation at 37 degrees C, both cell lines had an identical sensitivity to further exposure to 44.5 degrees C. Thus the long-term thermoresistance of the HR7 cells may be due to a permanent induction of a low level of thermotolerance. The (ionizing) radiation survival curves and the ability to repair sublethal radiation damage were identical for the thermoresistant variant and the parent cell line.

  13. Variants in CUL4B are Associated with Cerebral Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T.; Nakagawa, Tadashi; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Haas, Stefan A.; Hu, Hao; Bienek, Melanie; Vissers, Lisenka E.L.M.; Gilissen, Christian; Tzschach, Andreas; Busche, Andreas; Müsebeck, Jörg; Rump, Patrick; Mathijssen, Inge B.; Avela, Kristiina; Somer, Mirja; Doagu, Fatma; Philips, Anju K.; Rauch, Anita; Baumer, Alessandra; Voesenek, Krysta; Poirier, Karine; Vigneron, Jacqueline; Amram, Daniel; Odent, Sylvie; Nawara, Magdalena; Obersztyn, Ewa; Lenart, Jacek; Charzewska, Agnieszka; Lebrun, Nicolas; Fischer, Ute; Nillesen, Willy M.; Yntema, Helger G.; Järvelä, Irma; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; de Vries, Bert B.A.; Brunner, Han G.; van Bokhoven, Hans; Raymond, F. Lucy; Willemsen, Michèl A.A.P.; Chelly, Jamel; Xiong, Yue; Barkovich, A. James; Kalscheuer, Vera M.; Kleefstra, Tjitske; de Brouwer, Arjan P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Variants in cullin 4B (CUL4B) are a known cause of syndromic X-linked intellectual disability. Here, we describe an additional 25 patients from 11 families with variants in CUL4B. We identified nine different novel variants in these families and confirmed the pathogenicity of all nontruncating variants. Neuroimaging data, available for 15 patients, showed the presence of cerebral malformations in ten patients. The cerebral anomalies comprised malformations of cortical development (MCD), ventriculomegaly, and diminished white matter volume. The phenotypic heterogeneity of the cerebral malformations might result from the involvement of CUL-4B in various cellular pathways essential for normal brain development. Accordingly, we show that CUL-4B interacts with WDR62, a protein in which variants were previously identified in patients with microcephaly and a wide range of MCD. This interaction might contribute to the development of cerebral malformations in patients with variants in CUL4B. PMID:25385192

  14. Variantes 2 IFT6299 H2014 UdeM Miklos Csuros VARIANTES G ENOMIQUES II

    E-print Network

    Csürös, Miklós

    ´equences de SNPs Variantes 2 IFT6299 H2014 UdeM Mikl´os Csur¨os vii minor allele frequency (MAF) : fr´equence d'all`ele mutant dans la population (q) SNPs fr´equents (MAF > 10%) et rares (MAF Houston), MEX (mexicains de Los Angeles), LWK (Luhya, Kenya), . . . MAF sp´ecifique aux populations db

  15. A casein variant in cow's milk is atherogenic.

    PubMed

    Tailford, Kristy A; Berry, Celia L; Thomas, Anita C; Campbell, Julie H

    2003-09-01

    Casein is a major protein in cow's milk that occurs in several variant forms, two of which are beta-casein A1 and beta-casein A2. The levels of these two proteins vary considerably in milk dependent on the breed of cow, and epidemiology studies suggest that there is a relationship between their consumption and the degree of atherosclerosis. In the present study, the direct effect of consumption of beta-casein A1 vs beta-casein A2 on atherosclerosis development was examined in a rabbit model. Sixty rabbits had their right carotid artery balloon de-endothelialised at t=0, divided randomly into 10 groups (n=6 per group), then for 6 weeks fed a diet containing 0, 5, 10 or 20% casein isolate, either beta-casein variant A1 or A2, made up to 20% milk protein with whey. Some groups had their diets supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol. Blood samples were collected at t=0, 3 and 6 weeks and rabbits were sacrificed at t=6 weeks. In the absence of dietary cholesterol, beta-casein A1 produced significantly higher (P<0.05) serum cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglyceride levels than whey diet alone, which in turn produced higher levels than beta-casein A2. Rabbits fed beta-casein A1 had a higher percent surface area of aorta covered by fatty streaks than those fed beta-casein A2 (5.2+/-0.81 vs 1.1+/-0.39, P<0.05) and the thickness of the fatty streak lesions in the aortic arch was significantly higher (0.04+/-0.010 vs 0.00, P<0.05). Similarly, the intima to media ratio (I:M) of the balloon injured carotid arteries in A1 fed animals (0.77+/-0.07) was higher than in those that consumed A2 (0.57+/-0.04) or whey (0.58+/-0.04), but this did not reach significance. In the presence of 0.5% dietary cholesterol, the thickness of the aortic arch lesions was higher (P<0.05) in 5, 10 and 20% casein A1 fed animals compared with their A2 counterparts, while other parameters were not significantly different. It is concluded that beta-casein A1 is atherogenic compared with beta-casein A2. PMID:12957678

  16. [Transferrin variants: significance and identification in paternity cases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Mauff, G; Doppelfeld, E; Weber, W

    1975-08-01

    Transferrin phenotypes were determined in 3380 sera of unrelated persons of the western region of Germany with 97.60 percent for TfC and 2.40 percent for Tf variants. Identification was achieved by immunochemical means or through autoradiography. Relative mobilities in some variants were measured using Tf B2C (0.7) as reference. Application of Tf variants is demonstrated in paternity cases. PMID:171873

  17. TRPC6 gene variants and neuropsychiatric lupus.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Giuseppe A; Lanzani, Chiara; Bozzolo, Enrica P; Citterio, Lorena; Zagato, Laura; Casamassima, Nunzia; Canti, Valentina; Sabbadini, Maria Grazia; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Manunta, Paolo; Manfredi, Angelo A

    2015-11-15

    Neuropsychiatric manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) influence patients' quality of life and their survival. Little is known about the pathophysiological bases of NPSLE and accordingly there are no specific therapeutic agents to be employed in this setting. Genetic research in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is rapidly evolving as a tool to find clues about the pathogenic determinants of the disease and of its manifestations. Here, we describe the association of a single nucleotide polymorphic variant of the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 6 (TRPC6) gene with protection from the development of NPSLE in a cohort of 106 patients with SLE. TRPC6 is involved in the regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signalling, a major player in post-ischemic neuronal injury and in the pathogenesis of NPSLE. TRPC6 genetic variants are promising candidate predictors of nervous system involvement in SLE, whereas the TRPC6 pathway might constitute a potential novel therapeutic target. PMID:26531690

  18. Clinical relevance of hepatitis B virus variants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Duan, Zhong-Ping; Coffin, Carla S

    2015-05-18

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a global public health problem with more than 240 million people chronically infected worldwide, who are at risk for end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. There are an estimated 600000 deaths annually from complications of HBV-related liver disease. Antiviral therapy with nucleos/tide analogs (NA) targeting the HBV polymerase (P) can inhibit disease progression by long-term suppression of HBV replication. However, treatment may fail with first generation NA therapy due to the emergence of drug-resistant mutants, as well as incomplete medication adherence. The HBV replicates via an error-prone reverse transcriptase leading to quasispecies. Due to overlapping open reading frames mutations within the HBV P can cause concomitant changes in the HBV surface gene (S) and vice versa. HBV quasispecies diversity is associated with response to antiviral therapy, disease severity and long-term clinical outcomes. Specific mutants have been associated with antiviral drug resistance, immune escape, liver fibrosis development and tumorgenesis. An understanding of HBV variants and their clinical relevance may be important for monitoring chronic hepatitis B disease progression and treatment response. In this review, we will discuss HBV molecular virology, mechanism of variant development, and their potential clinical impact. PMID:26052397

  19. COMT gene locus: new functional variants.

    PubMed

    Meloto, Carolina B; Segall, Samantha K; Smith, Shad; Parisien, Marc; Shabalina, Svetlana A; Rizzatti-Barbosa, Célia M; Gauthier, Josée; Tsao, Douglas; Convertino, Marino; Piltonen, Marjo H; Slade, Gary Dmitri; Fillingim, Roger B; Greenspan, Joel D; Ohrbach, Richard; Knott, Charles; Maixner, William; Zaykin, Dmitri; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Reenilä, Ilkka; Männistö, Pekka T; Diatchenko, Luda

    2015-10-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) metabolizes catecholaminergic neurotransmitters. Numerous studies have linked COMT to pivotal brain functions such as mood, cognition, response to stress, and pain. Both nociception and risk of clinical pain have been associated with COMT genetic variants, and this association was shown to be mediated through adrenergic pathways. Here, we show that association studies between COMT polymorphic markers and pain phenotypes in 2 independent cohorts identified a functional marker, rs165774, situated in the 3' untranslated region of a newfound splice variant, (a)-COMT. Sequence comparisons showed that the (a)-COMT transcript is highly conserved in primates, and deep sequencing data demonstrated that (a)-COMT is expressed across several human tissues, including the brain. In silico analyses showed that the (a)-COMT enzyme features a distinct C-terminus structure, capable of stabilizing substrates in its active site. In vitro experiments demonstrated not only that (a)-COMT is catalytically active but also that it displays unique substrate specificity, exhibiting enzymatic activity with dopamine but not epinephrine. They also established that the pain-protective A allele of rs165774 coincides with lower COMT activity, suggesting contribution to decreased pain sensitivity through increased dopaminergic rather than decreased adrenergic tone, characteristic of reference isoforms. Our results provide evidence for an essential role of the (a)-COMT isoform in nociceptive signaling and suggest that genetic variations in (a)-COMT isoforms may contribute to individual variability in pain phenotypes. PMID:26207649

  20. Characterization of Human Influenza Virus Variants Selected In Vitro in the Presence of the Neuraminidase Inhibitor GS 4071

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Chun Y.; Escarpe, Paul A.; Sidwell, Robert W.; Williams, Matthew A.; Lew, Willard; Wu, Huiwei; Kim, Choung U.; Mendel, Dirk B.

    1998-01-01

    An oral prodrug of GS 4071, a potent and selective inhibitor of influenza neuraminidases, is currently under clinical development for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza virus infections in humans. To investigate the potential development of resistance during the clinical use of this compound, variants of the human influenza A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2) virus with reduced susceptibility to the neuraminidase inhibitor GS 4071 were selected in vitro by passaging the virus in MDCK cells in the presence of inhibitor. After eight passages, variants containing two amino acid substitutions in the hemagglutinin (A28T in HA1 and R124M in HA2) but no changes in the neuraminidase were isolated. These variants exhibited a 10-fold reduction in susceptibility to GS 4071 and zanamivir (GG167) in an in vitro plaque reduction assay. After 12 passages, a second variant containing these hemagglutinin mutations and a Lys substitution for the conserved Arg292 of the neuraminidase was isolated. The mutant neuraminidase enzyme exhibited high-level (30,000-fold) resistance to GS 4071, but only moderate (30-fold) resistance to zanamivir and 4-amino-Neu5Ac2en, the amino analog of zanamivir. The mutant enzyme had weaker affinity for the fluorogenic substrate 2?-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-?-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid and lower enzymatic activity compared to the wild-type enzyme. The viral variant containing the mutant neuraminidase did not replicate as well as the wild-type virus in culture and was 10,000-fold less infectious than the wild-type virus in a mouse model. These results suggest that although the R292K neuraminidase mutation confers high-level resistance to GS 4071 in vitro, its effect on viral virulence is likely to render this mutation of limited clinical significance. PMID:9835519

  1. Spontaneous Variants of the [RNQ+] Prion in Yeast Demonstrate the Extensive Conformational Diversity Possible with Prion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Vincent J.; Stein, Kevin C.; True, Heather L.

    2013-01-01

    Prion strains (or variants) are structurally distinct amyloid conformations arising from a single polypeptide sequence. The existence of prion strains has been well documented in mammalian prion diseases. In many cases, prion strains manifest as variation in disease progression and pathology, and in some cases, these prion strains also show distinct biochemical properties. Yet, the underlying basis of prion propagation and the extent of conformational possibilities available to amyloidogenic proteins remain largely undefined. Prion proteins in yeast that are also capable of maintaining multiple self-propagating structures have provided much insight into prion biology. Here, we explore the vast structural diversity of the yeast prion [RNQ+] in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We screened for the formation of [RNQ+] in vivo, allowing us to calculate the rate of spontaneous formation as ~2.96x10-6, and successfully isolate several different [RNQ+] variants. Through a comprehensive set of biochemical and biological analyses, we show that these prion variants are indeed novel. No individual property or set of properties, including aggregate stability and size, was sufficient to explain the physical basis and range of prion variants and their resulting cellular phenotypes. Furthermore, all of the [RNQ+] variants that we isolated were able to facilitate the de novo formation of the yeast prion [PSI+], an epigenetic determinant of translation termination. This supports the hypothesis that [RNQ+] acts as a functional amyloid in regulating the formation of [PSI+] to produce phenotypic diversity within a yeast population and promote adaptation. Collectively, this work shows the broad spectrum of available amyloid conformations, and thereby expands the foundation for studying the complex factors that interact to regulate the propagation of distinct aggregate structures. PMID:24205387

  2. The IBO germination quantitative trait locus encodes a phosphatase 2C-related variant with a nonsynonymous amino acid change that interferes with abscisic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Amiguet-Vercher, Amélia; Santuari, Luca; Gonzalez-Guzman, Miguel; Depuydt, Stephen; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Hardtke, Christian S

    2015-02-01

    Natural genetic variation is crucial for adaptability of plants to different environments. Seed dormancy prevents precocious germination in unsuitable conditions and is an adaptation to a major macro-environmental parameter, the seasonal variation in temperature and day length. Here we report the isolation of IBO, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) that governs c. 30% of germination rate variance in an Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the parental accessions Eilenburg-0 (Eil-0) and Loch Ness-0 (Lc-0). IBO encodes an uncharacterized phosphatase 2C-related protein, but neither the Eil-0 nor the Lc-0 variant, which differ in a single amino acid, have any appreciable phosphatase activity in in vitro assays. However, we found that the amino acid change in the Lc-0 variant of the IBO protein confers reduced germination rate. Moreover, unlike the Eil-0 variant of the protein, the Lc-0 variant can interfere with the activity of the phosphatase 2C ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 1 in vitro. This suggests that the Lc-0 variant possibly interferes with abscisic acid signaling, a notion that is supported by physiological assays. Thus, we isolated an example of a QTL allele with a nonsynonymous amino acid change that might mediate local adaptation of seed germination timing. PMID:25490966

  3. Genetic divergence of Chikungunya virus plaque variants from the Comoros Island (2005).

    PubMed

    Wasonga, Caroline; Inoue, Shingo; Rumberia, Cecilia; Michuki, George; Kimotho, James; Ongus, Juliette R; Sang, Rosemary; Musila, Lillian

    2015-12-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) from a human sample collected during the 2005 Chikungunya outbreak in the Comoros Island, showed distinct and reproducible large (L2) and small (S7) plaques which were characterized in this study. The parent strain and plaque variants were analysed by in vitro growth kinetics in different cell lines and their genetic similarity assessed by whole genome sequencing, comparative sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. In vitro growth kinetic assays showed similar growth patterns of both plaque variants in Vero cells but higher viral titres of S7 compared to L2 in C6/36 cells. Amino acids (AA) alignments of the CHIKV plaque variants and S27 African prototype strain, showed 30 AA changes in the non-structural proteins (nsP) and 22 AA changes in the structural proteins. Between L2 and S7, only two AAs differences were observed. A missense substitution (C642Y) of L2 in the nsP2, involving a conservative AA substitution and a nonsense substitution (R524X) of S7 in the nsP3, which has been shown to enhance O'nyong-nyong virus infectivity and dissemination in Anopheles mosquitoes. The phenotypic difference observed in plaque size could be attributed to one of these AA substitutions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the parent strain and its variants clustered closely together with each other and with Indian Ocean CHIKV strains indicating circulation of isolates with close evolutionary relatedness in the same outbreak. These observations pave way for important functional studies to understand the significance of the identified genetic changes in virulence and viral transmission in mosquito and mammalian hosts. PMID:26347221

  4. Production of synthetically created phospholipase A(2) variants with industrial impact.

    PubMed

    Markert, Yvonne; Mansfeld, Johanna; Schierhorn, Angelika; Rücknagel, Karl Peter; Ulbrich-Hofmann, Renate

    2007-09-01

    Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) play an important role for the production of lysophospholipids. Presently they are mainly obtained from porcine or bovine pancreas but these mammalian sources are not accepted in several fields of application. To make accessible a non-mammalian PLA(2) to industrial application, synthetic genes encoding PLA(2) from honey bee (Apis mellifera) with modified N-termini were constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. While expression of the gene with an N-terminal leader sequence to direct the protein into the periplasm failed, four variants with slightly modified N-termini (I1A-PLA(2), I1V-PLA(2), His(6)-tagged PLA(2) and PLA(2) still containing the start methionine) were successfully expressed. In all cases, the PLA(2) variants were produced as inclusion bodies. Their protein content amounted to 26-35% of total cell protein. The optimized renaturation procedure and subsequent purification by cation-exchange chromatography yielded pure active enzymes in yields of 4-11 mg L(-1). The recombinant PLA(2) variants showed activities, far-UV CD and fluorescence spectra similar to the glycosylated PLA(2) isolated from the venom glands of honey bee (bv-PLA(2)). The thermodynamic stabilities of the recombinant enzymes calculated from the transition curves of guanidine hydrochloride induced unfolding were also nearly identical to the stability of bv-PLA(2). For the variant I1A-PLA(2) high-cell density fermentation in 10 L-scale using mineral salt medium was shown to increase the volumetric enzyme yield considerably. PMID:17318911

  5. A polyadenylation site variant causes transcript-specific BMP1 deficiency and frequent fractures in children.

    PubMed

    Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Al-Jallad, Hadil; Majewski, Jacek; Palomo, Telma; Moffatt, Pierre; Roschger, Paul; Klaushofer, Klaus; Glorieux, Francis H; Rauch, Frank

    2015-01-15

    We had previously published the clinical characteristics of a bone fragility disorder in children that was characterized mainly by lower extremity fractures and a mineralization defect in bone tissue but not on the growth plate level. We have now performed whole-exome sequencing on four unrelated individuals with this phenotype. Three individuals were homozygous for a nucleotide change in BMP1, affecting the polyadenylation signal of the transcript that codes for the short isoform of BMP1 (BMP1-1) (c.*241T>C). In skin fibroblasts of these individuals, we found low levels of BMP1-1 transcript and protein. The fourth individual was compound heterozygous for the c.*241T>C variant in BMP1-1 and a variant in BMP1 exon 15 (c.2107G>C) that affected splicing in both BMP1-1 and the long isoform of BMP1 (BMP1-3). Both the homozygous 3'UTR variant and the compound heterozygous variants were associated with impaired procollagen type I C-propeptide cleavage, as the amount of free C-propeptide in the supernatant of skin fibroblasts was less than in controls. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography showed that all individuals had elevated volumetric cortical bone mineral density. Assessment of iliac bone samples by histomorphometry and quantitative backscattered electron imaging indicated that the onset of mineralization at bone formation sites was delayed, but that mineralized matrix was hypermineralized. These results show that isolated lack of BMP1-1 causes bone fragility in children. PMID:25214535

  6. Diversity of acid stress resistant variants of Listeria monocytogenes and the potential role of ribosomal protein S21 encoded by rpsU

    PubMed Central

    Metselaar, Karin I.; den Besten, Heidy M. W.; Boekhorst, Jos; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Zwietering, Marcel H.; Abee, Tjakko

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic response of microorganisms to environmental conditions depends on the behavior of individual cells within the population. Adverse environments can select for stable stress resistant subpopulations. In this study, we aimed to get more insight in the diversity within Listeria monocytogenes LO28 populations, and the genetic basis for the increased resistance of stable resistant fractions isolated after acid exposure. Phenotypic cluster analysis of 23 variants resulted in three clusters and four individual variants and revealed multiple-stress resistance, with both unique and overlapping features related to stress resistance, growth, motility, biofilm formation, and virulence indicators. A higher glutamate decarboxylase activity correlated with increased acid resistance. Whole genome sequencing revealed mutations in rpsU, encoding ribosomal protein S21 in the largest phenotypic cluster, while mutations in ctsR, which were previously shown to be responsible for increased resistance of heat and high hydrostatic pressure resistant variants, were not found in the acid resistant variants. This underlined that large population diversity exists within one L. monocytogenes strain and that different adverse conditions drive selection for different variants. The finding that acid stress selects for rpsU variants provides potential insights in the mechanisms underlying population diversity of L. monocytogenes. PMID:26005439

  7. Isolated laryngeal myasthenia gravis for 26 years.

    PubMed

    Renard, Dimitri; Hedayat, Amir; Gagnard, Corinne

    2015-02-01

    Laryngeal myasthenia gravis is a relatively rare variant of myasthenia gravis. A vast portion of patients with initial laryngeal myasthenia gravis develop involvement of ocular and/or extra-ocular muscles during the years after symptom onset although a minority of laryngeal myasthenia gravis patients continues to have isolated laryngeal muscle involvement for several years. We present a 58-year-old woman with recurrent episodic isolated dysphonia (associated with diffuse bilateral vocal cord paresis on laryngoscopy) since the age of 32. Dysphonia became permanent since 6 months. A diagnosis of laryngeal myasthenia gravis was made based on abnormal single-fiber electromyography and spectacular response to pyridostigmine treatment. Repetitive nerve stimulation was normal and anti-acetylcholine receptor and anti-muscle specific tyrosine kinase antibodies were absent. This case shows that laryngeal myasthenia gravis can be isolated during 26 years of follow-up. We propose that even when myasthenia gravis seems unlikely as underlying mechanism of isolated dysphonia (because of lack of antibodies, normal repetitive nerve stimulation, and absence of extra-laryngeal involvement after years of follow-up), single-fiber electromyography should be performed and myasthenia gravis treatment should be tried. PMID:25454167

  8. [A telangiectatic clinical variant of mastocytosis].

    PubMed

    Kasimov, N

    1990-01-01

    Six cases of telangiectatic clinical variant of mastocytosis (TMV) are reported. Patients' age varied from 33 to 62, there were 2 men and 4 women. A number of clinical features of TMV were detected in the course of follow-up: a generalized type of the skin process; abundant maculopapular eruptions colored brownish, sometimes with a cyanotic shade, liable to fuse and form diffuse foci of involvement; development of telangiectasias on the surface of these eruptions; symptoms of elevated blood histamin levels, i.e. regular blood congestion, enhanced itching, tachycardia, gastrointestinal events, etc.; systemic mastocytosis (3 of the 6 patients developed lymphadenopathy and hepatomegaly). The detected features of the condition permit considering TMV as an individual clinical variety of mastocytosis. PMID:2288158

  9. Aequorin variants with improved bioluminescence properties

    PubMed Central

    Dikici, E.; Qu, X.; Rowe, L.; Millner, L.; Logue, C.; Deo, S.K.; Ensor, M.; Daunert, S.

    2009-01-01

    The photoprotein aequorin has been widely used as a bioluminescent label in immunoassays, for the determination of calcium concentrations in vivo, and as a reporter in cellular imaging. It is composed of apoaequorin (189 amino acid residues), the imidazopyrazine chromophore coelenterazine and molecular oxygen. The emission characteristics of aequorin can be changed by rational design of the protein to introduce mutations in its structure, as well as by substituting different coelenterazine analogues to yield semi-synthetic aequorins. Variants of aequorin were created by mutating residues His16, Met19, Tyr82, Trp86, Trp108, Phe113 and Tyr132. Forty-two aequorin mutants were prepared and combined with 10 different coelenterazine analogues in a search for proteins with different emission wavelengths, altered decay kinetics and improved stability. This spectral tuning strategy resulted in semi-synthetic photoprotein mutants with significantly altered bioluminescent properties. PMID:19168563

  10. Variant terminology. [for aerospace information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    A system called Variant Terminology Switching (VTS) is set forth that is intended to provide computer-assisted spellings for terms that have American and British versions. VTS is based on the use of brackets, parentheses, and other symbols in conjunction with letters that distinguish American and British spellings. The symbols are used in the systems as indicators of actions such as deleting, adding, and replacing letters as well as replacing entire words and concepts. The system is shown to be useful for the intended purpose and also for the recognition of misspellings and for the standardization of computerized input/output. The VTS system is of interest to the development of international retrieval systems for aerospace and other technical databases that enhance the use by the global scientific community.

  11. Characterization of Pratylenchus penetrans from Ten Geographically Isolated Populations Based on Their Reaction on Potato

    PubMed Central

    France, R. A.; Brodie, B. B.

    1996-01-01

    Single female cuhures of Pratylenchus penetrans were established from soil and root samples collected from 10 geographically isolated locations in North America. The resultant isolates were used to evaluate nematode egression from and multiplication on roots of potato clones to distinguish intraspecific differences among isolates. The 10 nematode isolates were statistically separated into four groups based on percentage of nematodes that egressed from the P. penetrans-resistant potato done L 118-2. The Cornell (CR), Wisconsin (WI), Long Island (LI), and Adirondack (AD) isolates, selected as representative isolates of each of the four groups, exhibited 53%, 39%, 25%, and 10% egression from L118-2, respectively. Reproduction of these four isolates was measured on three potato cultivars (Russet Burbank, Butte, and Hudson) and two breeding lines (NY85 and L118-2). The LI and AD isolates reproduced well on all five potato clones. The CR isolate reproduced well on Russet Burbank and NY85 but significantly less on Butte, Hudson, and L118-2. Reproduction of the WI isolate was less than the LI and AD isolates but more than the CR isolate on all potato clones tested except Russet Burbank. Reproduction of the WI isolate on Russet Burbank was less than the other three isolates. Based on these results, four distinct intraspecific variants of P. penetrans are proposed: Cornell, Wisconsin, Long Island, and Adirondack. PMID:19277170

  12. Characterization of Bartonella strains isolated from black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Martin, Andrew; Ray, Chris; Sheff, Kelly; Chalcraft, Linda; Collinge, Sharon K

    2008-01-01

    Thirty bartonella strains were isolated from the blood of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) from Boulder County, Colorado, USA. The bacteria appeared as small, fastidious, aerobic, Gram-negative rods. The partial sequences of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) demonstrated five unique genetic variants. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of gltA, 16S rRNA, rpoB, ftsZ, and ribC showed that the black-tailed prairie dog-related Bartonella variants comprise a distinct monophyletic clade that is closely related to Bartonella washoensis, a species isolated from a human patient and subsequently from ground squirrels. These variants, however, are grouped together in 100% of the bootstrapped trees. These variants were not found in other small mammals trapped during the same study, showing some evidence of host specificity. We believe that the group being described here is typical of the black-tailed prairie dog. We propose to name the bacteria Candidatus Bartonella washoensis subsp. cynomysii. The type strain is CL8606co(T)(=ATCC BAA-1342(T) = CCUG 53213(T)), which is the representative isolate of the dominant variant of the characterized group. PMID:18237261

  13. Release of ?-casomorphin-7/5 during simulated gastrointestinal digestion of milk ?-casein variants from Indian crossbred cattle (Karan Fries).

    PubMed

    Ul Haq, Mohammad Raies; Kapila, Rajeev; Kapila, Suman

    2015-02-01

    Crossbred Karan Fries (KF) cows, among the best yielders of milk in India are carriers of A1 and A2 alleles. These genetic variants have been established as the source of ?-casomorphins (BCMs) bioactive peptides that are implicated with various physiological and health issues. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the release of BCM-7/5 from ?-casein variants of KF by simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) performed with proteolytic enzymes, in vitro. ?-Casein variants (A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2) were isolated from milk samples of genotyped Karan Fries animals and subjected to hydrolysis by SGID using proteolytic enzymes (pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin and pancreatin), in vitro. Detection of BCMs were carried out in two peptide fractions (A and B) of RP-HPLC collected at retention time (RT) 24 and 28min respectively corresponding to standard BCM-5 and BCM-7 by MS-MS and competitive ELISA. One of the RP-HPLC fractions (B) showed the presence of 14 amino acid peptide (VYPFPGPIHNSLPQ) having encrypted internal BCMs sequence while no such peptide or precursor was observed in fraction A by MS-MS analysis. Further hydrolysis of fraction B of A1A1 and A1A2 variants of ?-casein with elastase and leucine aminopeptidase revealed the release of BCM-7 by competitive ELISA. The yield of BCM-7 (0.20±0.02mg/g ?-casein) from A1A1 variant was observed to be almost 3.2 times more than A1A2 variant of ?-casein. However, release of BCM-7/5 could not be detected from A2A2 variant of ?-casein. The biological activity of released peptides on rat ileum by isolated organ bath from A1A1 (IC50=0.534-0.595?M) and A1A2 (IC50=0.410-0.420?M) hydrolysates further confirmed the presence of opioid peptide BCM-7. PMID:25172685

  14. Recovery and characterization of environmental variants of Shigella flexneri from surface water in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammed Ziaur; Azmuda, Nafisa; Hossain, Mohammad Jahangir; Sultana, Munawar; Khan, Sirajul Islam; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre

    2011-10-01

    Little is known about the distribution, survival, and transmission of Shigella in environmental surface waters. To gain more insight into the environmental biology of Shigella we isolated five bacterial strains serotyped as Shigella flexneri 2b from a freshwater lake in Bangladesh using a modified nutrient broth supplemented with nucleic acid bases. The biochemical properties of the isolates, including inability to ferment lactose and a negative lysine decarboxylase test, indicated common physiological characteristics with Shigella, but differed significantly from that of standard clinical strains. The isolates possessed the ipaH virulence gene and a megaplasmid, but lacked other Shigella-related virulence marker genes. Genetic fingerprinting and sequence analysis of housekeeping genes confirmed the strains as S. flexneri isolates. An apparent clonal origin of strains recovered with a one-year interval indicates a strong environmental selection pressure on Shigella for persistence in the freshwater environment. The lack of a complete set of virulence genes as well as uncommon biochemical properties suggest that these strains might represent a group of non-invasive and atypical environmental Shigella variants, with the potential for further elucidation of the survival mechanism, diversity, and emergence of virulent Shigella in tropical freshwater environments. PMID:21826486

  15. Genetic variants associated with protein C levels

    PubMed Central

    Vossen, C.Y.; Koeleman, B.P.; Hasstedt, S.J.; Nijman, I.J.; Renkens, I.J.; Callas, P.W.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Bovill, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Normal protein C (PC) plasma levels range widely in the general population. Factors influencing normal PC levels are thought to influence the risk of venous thrombosis. Little is known about the underlying genetic variants. Objectives We performed a genome scan of normal PC levels to identify genes that regulate normal PC levels. Patients/Methods We performed a variance components linkage analysis for normal PC levels in 275 individuals from a single, large family. We then sequenced candidate genes under the identified linkage peak in eight family members: four with high and four with low, but normal PC levels. For variants showing a difference in carriers between those with high and low PC levels, we re-evaluated linkage in the 275 family members conditional on the measured genotype effect. Genotype-specific mean PC levels were determined using likelihood analysis. Findings were replicated in the Leiden Thrombophilia Study (LETS). Results We identified a quantitative trait locus at chromosome 5q14.1 affecting normal PC plasma level variability. Next-generation sequencing of 113 candidate genes under the linkage peak revealed four SNPs in BHMT2, ACOT12, SSBP2 and XRCC4, which significantly increased PC levels in our thrombophilic family, but not in LETS. Conclusions We identified four genes at chromosome 5q14.1 that might influence normal PC levels. BHMT2 seems the most likely candidate to regulate PC levels via homocysteine, a competitive inhibitor to thrombin. Failure to replicate our findings in LETS might be due to differences between the studies in genetic background and linkage disequilibrium patterns. PMID:23387557

  16. The Structural Determinants behind the Epigenetic Role of Histone Variants

    PubMed Central

    Cheema, Manjinder S.; Ausió, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Histone variants are an important part of the histone contribution to chromatin epigenetics. In this review, we describe how the known structural differences of these variants from their canonical histone counterparts impart a chromatin signature ultimately responsible for their epigenetic contribution. In terms of the core histones, H2A histone variants are major players while H3 variant CenH3, with a controversial role in the nucleosome conformation, remains the genuine epigenetic histone variant. Linker histone variants (histone H1 family) haven’t often been studied for their role in epigenetics. However, the micro-heterogeneity of the somatic canonical forms of linker histones appears to play an important role in maintaining the cell-differentiated states, while the cell cycle independent linker histone variants are involved in development. A picture starts to emerge in which histone H2A variants, in addition to their individual specific contributions to the nucleosome structure and dynamics, globally impair the accessibility of linker histones to defined chromatin locations and may have important consequences for determining different states of chromatin metabolism. PMID:26213973

  17. Genetics Home Reference: GM2-gangliosidosis, AB variant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and may include treatment providers. Genetic Testing Registry: Tay-Sachs disease, variant AB You might also find information ... AB variant Activator Deficiency/GM2 Gangliosidosis Activator-deficient Tay-Sachs disease GM2 Activator Deficiency Disease GM2 gangliosidosis, type ...

  18. Role of src splice variants in nerve terminal function 

    E-print Network

    Abdelhameed, Taher

    2010-01-01

    Src is a 60 kDa tyrosine kinase that is expressed in most of animal tissues. Src has three splice variants, C-src, which is ubiquitously expressed, and N1- and N2-src, which are neuronal specific splice variants. The ...

  19. SPACE-VARIANT IMAGE CODING FOR STEREOSCOPIC MEDIA Arzu ltekin

    E-print Network

    Çöltekin, Arzu

    wasting valuable communication bandwidth. 2. SPACE VARIANT NATURE OF HUMAN VISION Human visual system (HVS) has a space variant nature, i.e. the spatial resolution is not uniformly perceived by human eyes coding based on the structure of human fovea and it is well studied in image and video processing domains

  20. Rare variants in PLXNA4 and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Eva C; Stahl, Immanuel; Czamara, Darina; Ellwanger, Daniel C; Eck, Sebastian; Graf, Elisabeth; Mollenhauer, Brit; Zimprich, Alexander; Lichtner, Peter; Haubenberger, Dietrich; Pirker, Walter; Brücke, Thomas; Bereznai, Benjamin; Molnar, Maria J; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 20% of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) report a positive family history. Yet, a large portion of causal and disease-modifying variants is still unknown. We used exome sequencing in two affected individuals from a family with late-onset familial PD followed by frequency assessment in 975 PD cases and 1014 ethnically-matched controls and linkage analysis to identify potentially causal variants. Based on the predicted penetrance and the frequencies, a variant in PLXNA4 proved to be the best candidate and PLXNA4 was screened for additional variants in 862 PD cases and 940 controls, revealing an excess of rare non-synonymous coding variants in PLXNA4 in individuals with PD. Although we cannot conclude that the variant in PLXNA4 is indeed the causative variant, these findings are interesting in the light of a surfacing role of axonal guidance mechanisms in neurodegenerative disorders but, at the same time, highlight the difficulties encountered in the study of rare variants identified by next-generation sequencing in diseases with autosomal dominant or complex patterns of inheritance. PMID:24244438

  1. Rare variants in LRRK1 and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Eva C; Ellwanger, Daniel C; Dihanich, Sybille; Manzoni, Claudia; Stangl, Katrin; Schormair, Barbara; Graf, Elisabeth; Eck, Sebastian; Mollenhauer, Brit; Haubenberger, Dietrich; Pirker, Walter; Zimprich, Alexander; Brücke, Thomas; Lichtner, Peter; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Meitinger, Thomas; Lewis, Patrick A; Klünemann, Hans H; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2014-03-01

    Approximately 20 % of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) report a positive family history. Yet, a large portion of causal and disease-modifying variants is still unknown. We used exome sequencing in two affected individuals from a family with late-onset PD to identify 15 potentially causal variants. Segregation analysis and frequency assessment in 862 PD cases and 1,014 ethnically matched controls highlighted variants in EEF1D and LRRK1 as the best candidates. Mutation screening of the coding regions of these genes in 862 cases and 1,014 controls revealed several novel non-synonymous variants in both genes in cases and controls. An in silico multi-model bioinformatics analysis was used to prioritize identified variants in LRRK1 for functional follow-up. However, protein expression, subcellular localization, and cell viability were not affected by the identified variants. Although it has yet to be proven conclusively that variants in LRRK1 are indeed causative of PD, our data strengthen a possible role for LRRK1 in addition to LRRK2 in the genetic underpinnings of PD but, at the same time, highlight the difficulties encountered in the study of rare variants identified by next-generation sequencing in diseases with autosomal dominant or complex patterns of inheritance. PMID:24241507

  2. Rare Variants in PLXNA4 and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Eva C.; Stahl, Immanuel; Czamara, Darina; Ellwanger, Daniel C.; Eck, Sebastian; Graf, Elisabeth; Mollenhauer, Brit; Zimprich, Alexander; Lichtner, Peter; Haubenberger, Dietrich; Pirker, Walter; Brücke, Thomas; Bereznai, Benjamin; Molnar, Maria J.; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 20% of individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) report a positive family history. Yet, a large portion of causal and disease-modifying variants is still unknown. We used exome sequencing in two affected individuals from a family with late-onset familial PD followed by frequency assessment in 975 PD cases and 1014 ethnically-matched controls and linkage analysis to identify potentially causal variants. Based on the predicted penetrance and the frequencies, a variant in PLXNA4 proved to be the best candidate and PLXNA4 was screened for additional variants in 862 PD cases and 940 controls, revealing an excess of rare non-synonymous coding variants in PLXNA4 in individuals with PD. Although we cannot conclude that the variant in PLXNA4 is indeed the causative variant, these findings are interesting in the light of a surfacing role of axonal guidance mechanisms in neurodegenerative disorders but, at the same time, highlight the difficulties encountered in the study of rare variants identified by next-generation sequencing in diseases with autosomal dominant or complex patterns of inheritance. PMID:24244438

  3. The personal genome browser: visualizing functions of genetic variants

    PubMed Central

    Juan, Liran; Teng, Mingxiang; Zang, Tianyi; Hao, Yafeng; Wang, Zhenxing; Yan, Chengwu; Liu, Yongzhuang; Li, Jie; Zhang, Tianjiao; Wang, Yadong

    2014-01-01

    Advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have brought us into the individual genome era. Projects such as the 1000 Genomes Project have led the individual genome sequencing to become more and more popular. How to visualize, analyse and annotate individual genomes with knowledge bases to support genome studies and personalized healthcare is still a big challenge. The Personal Genome Browser (PGB) is developed to provide comprehensive functional annotation and visualization for individual genomes based on the genetic–molecular–phenotypic model. Investigators can easily view individual genetic variants, such as single nucleotide variants (SNVs), INDELs and structural variations (SVs), as well as genomic features and phenotypes associated to the individual genetic variants. The PGB especially highlights potential functional variants using the PGB built-in method or SIFT/PolyPhen2 scores. Moreover, the functional risks of genes could be evaluated by scanning individual genetic variants on the whole genome, a chromosome, or a cytoband based on functional implications of the variants. Investigators can then navigate to high risk genes on the scanned individual genome. The PGB accepts Variant Call Format (VCF) and Genetic Variation Format (GVF) files as the input. The functional annotation of input individual genome variants can be visualized in real time by well-defined symbols and shapes. The PGB is available at http://www.pgbrowser.org/. PMID:24799434

  4. CBH1 homologs and variant CBH1 cellulases

    DOEpatents

    Goedegebuur, Frits (Rozenlaan, NL); Gualfetti, Peter (San Francisco, CA); Mitchinson, Colin (Half Moon Bay, CA); Neefe, Paulien (Zoetermeer, NL)

    2011-05-31

    Disclosed are a number of homologs and variants of Hypocrea jecorina Cel7A (formerly Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I or CBH1), nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The homologs and variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted and/or deleted.

  5. CBH1 homologs and variant CBH1 cellulases

    DOEpatents

    Goedegebuur, Frits (Rozenlaan, NL); Gualfetti, Peter (San Francisco, CA); Mitchinson, Colin (Half Moon Bay, CA); Neefe, Paulien (Zoetermeer, NL)

    2008-11-18

    Disclosed are a number of homologs and variants of Hypocrea jecorina Cel7A (formerly Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I or CBH1), nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The homologs and variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted and/or deleted.

  6. Exploring the basis of [PIN(+)] variant differences in [PSI(+)] induction.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jaya; Liebman, Susan W

    2013-09-01

    Certain soluble proteins can form amyloid-like prion aggregates. Indeed, the same protein can make different types of aggregates, called variants. Each variant is heritable because it attracts soluble homologous protein to join its aggregate, which is then broken into seeds (propagons) and transmitted to daughter cells. [PSI(+)] and [PIN(+)] are respectively prion forms of Sup35 and Rnq1. Curiously, [PIN(+)] enhances the de novo induction of [PSI(+)]. Different [PIN(+)] variants do this to dramatically different extents. Here, we investigate the mechanism underlying this effect. Consistent with a heterologous prion cross-seeding model, different [PIN(+)] variants preferentially promoted the appearance of different variants of [PSI(+)]. However, we did not detect this specificity in vitro. Also, [PIN(+)] variant cross-seeding efficiencies were not proportional to the level of Rnq1 coimmunocaptured with Sup35 or to the number of [PIN(+)] propagons characteristic for that variant. This leads us to propose that [PIN(+)] variants differ in the cross-seeding quality of their seeds, following the Sup35/[PIN(+)] binding step. PMID:23770111

  7. Exploring the basis of [PIN+] variant differences in [PSI+] induction

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Jaya; Liebman, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    Certain soluble proteins can form amyloid-like prion aggregates. Indeed, the same protein can make different types of aggregates, called variants. Each variant is heritable because it attracts soluble homologous protein to join its aggregate, which is then broken into seeds (propagons) and transmitted to daughter cells. [PSI+] and [PIN+] are respectively prion forms of Sup35 and Rnq1. Curiously, [PIN+] enhances the de novo induction of [PSI+]. Different [PIN+] variants do this to dramatically different extents. Here we investigate the mechanism underlying this effect. Consistent with a heterologous prion cross-seeding model, different [PIN+] variants preferentially promoted the appearance of different variants of [PSI+]. However, we did not detect this specificity in vitro. Also, [PIN+] variant cross-seeding efficiencies were not proportional to the level of Rnq1 coimmunocaptured with Sup35, nor to the number of [PIN+] propagons characteristic for that variant. This leads us to propose that [PIN+] variants differ in the cross-seeding quality of their seeds, following the Sup35/[PIN+] binding step. PMID:23770111

  8. Identification of a new splice variant of BDNF in chicken

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to be involved in the central regulation of energy homeostasis. BDNF splicing variants were discovered in vertebrates. Results from human, mouse and rat suggest that alternative BDNF splicing variants potentially play a role in fat deposition. Using t...

  9. A novel homozygous variant in the dsp gene underlies the first case of non-syndromic form of alopecia.

    PubMed

    Jan, Abid; Basit, Sulman; Wakil, Salma M; Ramzan, Khushnooda; Ahmad, Wasim

    2015-11-01

    Autosomal recessive forms of hair loss (alopecia) disorders have previously been associated with variants in at least five different genes including hairless (HR), desmoglein-4 (DSG4), desmocollin-3 (DSC3), lipase-H (LIPH), and lysophosphatidic acid receptor 6 (LPAR6). Here, we report the first familial case of alopecia resulting from a novel homozygous variant in the DSP gene. Since previous reports indicated the presence of heart abnormalities in patients carrying variants in the DSP gene; therefore, the echocardiographic evaluations of all affected members were performed. The results clearly excluded the presence of any form of heart abnormality in patients of the present family. Human genome scan mapped a disease locus on chromosome 6p25.1-p23, harboring DSP gene. Sequence analysis identified a novel homozygous missense variant [c.1493C > T (p.Pro498Leu)] in the DSP gene as the underlying genetic cause of non-syndromic alopecia in the family. The transition alters the completely conserved Pro498 residue in the SH3 domain of plakin that contributes to the stability and rigidity of this subfamily of spectrin repeats (SRs) containing proteins. Our study strengthens the evidence that hereditary hair loss disorders are genetically heterogeneous and imply that isolated form of alopecia is allelic with cardiocutaneous syndromes. PMID:26148547

  10. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Classical and Variant Virulent Parental/Attenuated Strains of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fangzhou; Zhu, Yinxing; Wu, Meizhou; Ku, Xugang; Ye, Shiyi; Li, Zhonghua; Guo, Xiaozhen; He, Qigai

    2015-01-01

    Since 2010, the variant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has been the etiological agent responsible for the outbreak of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) worldwide. In this study, a variant PEDV strain YN1 was isolated, serially propagated on the Vero cells and was characterized for 200 passages. To better elucidate the molecular basis of Vero cell adaptation of variant PEDV strains, we sequenced, compared, and analyzed the full-genome sequences of parental YN1 and passages 15, 30, 60, 90, 144, and 200. The results showed that the variations increased with the viral passage. The nucleotides sequences of non-structural protein (NSP)2, NSP4-7, NSP10, NSP12 and NSP13 genes did not change during the Vero cell adaptation process. After comparison of the variation characteristic of classical, variant virulent/attenuated strains, it was found that attenuation of PEDV virus was associated with 9?26 amino acid (aa) changes in open reading frames (ORF) 1a/b and S protein, early termination in ORF3, 1–3 aa changes in E, M and N protein and some nucleotide sequences’ synonymous mutations. The aa deletion at about 144 aa of S protein could be the attenuation marker for the PEDV. The pig study showed that the early termination in ORF3 was more important for virus cell adaptation than virus attenuation. PMID:26512689

  11. Conformational characterization of the charge variants of a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody using H/D exchange mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liangjie; Sundaram, Shanmuuga; Zhang, Jingming; Carlson, Ping; Matathia, Alice; Parekh, Babita; Zhou, Qinwei; Hsieh, Ming-Ching

    2013-01-01

    MAb1, a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody produced in a NS0 cell line, exhibits charge heterogeneity because of the presence of variants formed by processes such as N-terminal glutamate cyclization, C-terminal lysine truncation, deamidation, aspartate isomerization and sialylation in the carbohydrate moiety. Four major charge variants of MAb1 were isolated and the conformations of these charge variants were studied using hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, including the H/D exchange time course (HX-MS) and the stability of unpurified proteins from rates of H/D exchange (SUPREX) techniques. HX-MS was used to evaluate the conformation and solution dynamics of MAb1 charge variants by measuring their deuterium buildup over time at the peptide level. The SUPREX technique evaluated the unfolding profile and relative stability of the charge variants by measuring the exchange properties of globally protected amide protons in the presence of a chemical denaturant. The H/D exchange profiles from both techniques were compared among the four charge variants of MAb1. The two techniques together offered extensive understanding about the local and subglobal/global unfolding of the charge variants of MAb1. Our results demonstrated that all four charge variants of MAb1 were not significantly different in conformation, solution dynamics and chemical denaturant-induced unfolding profile and stability, which aids in understanding the biofunctions of the molecules. The analytical strategy used for conformational characterization may also be applicable to comparability studies done for antibody therapeutics. PMID:23222183

  12. Meningococcal Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccines Derived from Mutant Strains Engineered To Express Factor H Binding Proteins from Antigenic Variant Groups 1 and 2?

    PubMed Central

    Koeberling, Oliver; Giuntini, Serena; Seubert, Anja; Granoff, Dan M.

    2009-01-01

    Meningococcal outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines, which are treated with detergents to decrease endotoxin activity, are safe and effective in humans. However, the vaccines elicit serum bactericidal antibody responses largely directed against PorA, which is antigenically variable. We previously prepared a native (non-detergent-treated) OMV vaccine from a mutant of group B strain H44/76 in which the lpxL1 gene was inactivated, which resulted in penta-acylated lipid A with attenuated endotoxin activity. To enhance protection, we overexpressed factor H binding protein (fHbp) from the antigenic variant 1 group. The vaccine elicited broad serum bactericidal antibody responses in mice against strains with fHbp variant 1 (?70% of group B isolates) but not against strains with variant 2 or 3. In the present study, we constructed a mutant of group B strain NZ98/254 with attenuated endotoxin that expressed both endogenous variant 1 and heterologous fHbp variant 2. A mixture of the two native OMV vaccines from the H44/76 and NZ98/254 mutants stimulated proinflammatory cytokine responses by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells similar to those stimulated by control, detergent-treated OMV vaccines from the wild-type strains. In mice, the mixture of the two native OMV vaccines elicited broad serum bactericidal antibody responses against strains with heterologous PorA and fHbp in the variant 1, 2, or 3 group. By adsorption studies, the principal bactericidal antibody target was determined to be fHbp. Thus, native OMV vaccines from mutants expressing fHbp variants have the potential to be safe for humans and to confer broad protection against meningococcal disease from strains expressing fHbp from each of the antigenic variant groups. PMID:19109451

  13. Conformational characterization of the charge variants of a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody using H/D exchange mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Liangjie; Sundaram, Shanmuuga; Zhang, Jingming; Carlson, Ping; Matathia, Alice; Parekh, Babita; Zhou, Qinwei; Hsieh, Ming-Ching

    2013-01-01

    MAb1, a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody produced in a NS0 cell line, exhibits charge heterogeneity because of the presence of variants formed by processes such as N-terminal glutamate cyclization, C-terminal lysine truncation, deamidation, aspartate isomerization and sialylation in the carbohydrate moiety. Four major charge variants of MAb1 were isolated and the conformations of these charge variants were studied using hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, including the H/D exchange time course (HX-MS) and the stability of unpurified proteins from rates of H/D exchange (SUPREX) techniques. HX-MS was used to evaluate the conformation and solution dynamics of MAb1 charge variants by measuring their deuterium buildup over time at the peptide level. The SUPREX technique evaluated the unfolding profile and relative stability of the charge variants by measuring the exchange properties of globally protected amide protons in the presence of a chemical denaturant. The H/D exchange profiles from both techniques were compared among the four charge variants of MAb1. The two techniques together offered extensive understanding about the local and subglobal/global unfolding of the charge variants of MAb1. Our results demonstrated that all four charge variants of MAb1 were not significantly different in conformation, solution dynamics and chemical denaturant-induced unfolding profile and stability, which aids in understanding the biofunctions of the molecules. The analytical strategy used for conformational characterization may also be applicable to comparability studies done for antibody therapeutics. PMID:23222183

  14. Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: A Review and Discussion of Variant Translocations.

    PubMed

    Adams, Julia; Nassiri, Mehdi

    2015-10-01

    The majority of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) manifest the t(15;17)(q24.1;q21.2) translocation; however, a minor but significant proportion of patients with APL harbor complex, cryptic, or variant translocations, which typically involve RARA. With the exception of ZBTB16/RARA, these variants have similar morphologic and immunophenotypic features as classic APL. Study of the variant forms of APL not only gives insight into the pathogenesis of APL but also allows us to understand the mechanism of retinoid therapy. It is important to identify these cryptic and variant translocations because certain variants, including ZBTB16/RARA and STAT5B/RARA, are resistant to treatment with all-trans retinoic acid, arsenic trioxide, and anthracyclines. PMID:26414475

  15. Clinical and laboratory update on the DEL variant.

    PubMed

    Nuchnoi, Pornlada; Thongbus, Jairak; Srisarin, Apapan; Kerdpin, Usanee; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    Serological assays for the RhD blood group are based on detection of the RhD antigen on human red blood cells using a specific anti-D antibody. The weak expression of the RhD antigen in the DEL variant hinders the sensitivity of conventional serological assays. Evidence of anti-D immunization in patients with D-negativity who have received DEL-variant blood units has been reported in various populations. This observation has prompted the need for genetic epidemiological and clinical data on the DEL variant in the development of DEL molecular diagnostic testing. This review highlights the molecular features of the DEL variant, the clinical consequences of DEL-blood transfusion, and current approaches for detection of the DEL-variant for donor screening and transfusion. PMID:25316658

  16. Genetic variants of human serum albumin in Italy: point mutants and a carboxyl-terminal variant.

    PubMed Central

    Madison, J; Galliano, M; Watkins, S; Minchiotti, L; Porta, F; Rossi, A; Putnam, F W

    1994-01-01

    Of the > 50 different genetic variants of human serum albumin (alloalbumins) that have been characterized by amino acid or DNA sequence analysis, almost half have been identified in Italy through a long-term electrophoretic survey of serum. Previously we have reported structural studies of 11 Italian alloalbumins with point mutations, 2 different carboxyl-terminal variants, and 1 case of analbuminemia in an Italian family. This article describes confirmation by DNA sequencing of mutations previously inferred from protein sequencing of 4 of the above alloalbumins; it also reports the mutations identified by protein and DNA sequence analysis of 4 other Italian alloalbumins not previously recorded: albumin Larino, His3-->Tyr; Tradate-2 (protein sequencing only), Lys225-->Gln; Caserta, Lys276-->Asn; and Bazzano, a carboxyl-terminal variant. The first 3 have point mutations that produce a single amino acid substitution, but a nucleotide deletion causes a frameshift and an altered and truncated carboxyl-terminal sequence in albumin Bazzano. In these 4 instances the expression of the alloalbumin is variable, ranging from 10% to 70% of the total albumiN, in contrast to the usual 50% each for the normal and mutant albumin. The distribution of point mutations in the albumin gene is nonrandom; most of the 47 reported point substitutions involve charged amino acid residues on the surface of the molecule that are not concerned with ligand-binding sites. Images PMID:8022807

  17. Ku86 exists as both a full-length and a protease-sensitive natural variant in multiple myeloma cells

    PubMed Central

    Gullo, Charles A; Ge, Feng; Cow, Geraline; Teoh, Gerrard

    2008-01-01

    Background Truncated variants of Ku86 protein have previously been detected in 86% to 100% of freshly isolated patient multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Since, the Ku70/Ku86 heterodimer functions as the regulatory subunit of the DNA repair enzyme, DNA-dependent protein kinase, we have been interested in the altered expression and function of Ku86 variant (Ku86v) proteins in genome maintenance of MM. Results Although, a number of studies have suggested that truncated forms of Ku proteins could be artificially generated by proteolytic degradation in vitro in human lymphocytes, we now show using whole cell immunoblotting that the RPMI-8226 and SGH-MM5 human MM cell lines consistently express full-length Ku86 as well as a 69-kDa Ku86v; a C-terminus truncated 69-kDa variant Ku86 protein. In contrast, Ku86v proteins were not detected in the freshly isolated lymphocytes as was previously reported. Data also indicates that the Ku86v was not generated as a result of carbohydrate modification but that serine proteases may act on the full-length form of the protein. Conclusion These data confirm that MM cells contain bona fide Ku86v proteins that were generated intracellularly by a post-transcriptional mechanism, which required proteolytic processing. PMID:18442416

  18. Molecular analysis of the thymidine-auxotrophic small colony variant phenotype of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Besier, Silke; Ludwig, Albrecht; Ohlsen, Knut; Brade, Volker; Wichelhaus, Thomas A

    2007-07-01

    Thymidine-auxotrophic small colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus are frequently isolated from the chronically infected airways of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. To date, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms leading to the formation of this special phenotype, but the auxotrophism for thymidine suggests that impaired thymidine metabolism might play a major role. Sequence analysis of the thymidylate synthase-encoding thyA gene of six clinical thymidine-auxotrophic S. aureus SCVs revealed that all isolates had mutations within thyA. In five isolates the function of the thymidylate synthase was definitely impaired: three of them showed a truncation of the thyA coding sequence by nonsense or frame-shift mutations, in one further isolate the active site of the enzyme was affected by an internal 12-bp deletion, and another isolate had a 173-bp deletion spanning the 5'-terminal region of thyA and the preceding DNA sequence. The sixth isolate showed two amino acid substitutions within the thyA gene product. To confirm the importance of impaired thymidylate synthase synthesis or activity for the formation of the thymidine-auxotrophic SCV phenotype, we constructed a thyA knock-out mutant of a wild-type S. aureus strain. This mutant showed all characteristics of clinical SCVs, such as slow growth, decreased pigment production, reduced hemolytic activity, auxotrophism for thymidine, resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazol, and reduced plasma coagulase activity. Complementation of the thyA knock-out mutant with intact thyA in trans nearly restored the normal phenotype. In conclusion, these data confirm at the molecular level that impaired thymidylate synthase function is causative for the formation of the thymidine-auxotrophic SCV phenotype in S. aureus. PMID:17412637

  19. Characteristics of Salmonella enterica Serovar 4,[5],12:i:- as a Monophasic Variant of Serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Ido, Noriko; Lee, Ken-ichi; Iwabuchi, Kaori; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Uchida, Ikuo; Kusumoto, Masahiro; Iwata, Taketoshi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Akiba, Masato

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (S. 4,[5]12:i:-) is believed to be a monophasic variant of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). This study was conducted to corroborate this hypothesis and to identify the molecular and phenotypic characteristics of the S. 4,[5]12:i:- isolates in Japan. A total of 51 S. 4,[5]12:i:- isolates derived from humans, cattle, swine, chickens, birds, meat (pork), and river water in 15 prefectures in Japan between 2000 and 2010 were analyzed. All the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates were identified as S. Typhimurium by two different polymerase chain reactions (PCR) for identification of S. Typhimurium. Of the 51 S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates, 39 (76.5%) harbored a 94-kb virulence plasmid, which is known to be specific for S. Typhimurium. These data suggest that the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates are monophasic variants of S. Typhimurium. The flagellar phase variation is induced by three adjacent genes (fljA, fljB, and hin) in the chromosome. The results of PCR mapping of this region and comparative genomic hybridization analysis suggested that the deletion of the fljAB operon and its flanking region was the major genetic basis of the monophasic phenotype of S. 4,[5],12:i:-. The fljAB operon and hin gene were detectable in eight of the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates with common amino acid substitutions of A46T in FljA and R140L in Hin. The introduction of these mutations into S. Typhimurium isolates led to the loss of selectability of isolates expressing the phase 2 H antigen. These data suggested that a point mutation was the genetic basis, at least in part, of the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates. The results of phenotypic analysis suggested that the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates in Japan consist of multiple distinct clones. This is the first detailed characterization of the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates derived from various sources across Japan. PMID:25093666

  20. OVA: integrating molecular and physical phenotype data from multiple biomedical domain ontologies with variant filtering for enhanced variant prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Antanaviciute, Agne; Watson, Christopher M.; Harrison, Sally M.; Lascelles, Carolina; Crinnion, Laura; Markham, Alexander F.; Bonthron, David T.; Carr, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Exome sequencing has become a de facto standard method for Mendelian disease gene discovery in recent years, yet identifying disease-causing mutations among thousands of candidate variants remains a non-trivial task. Results: Here we describe a new variant prioritization tool, OVA (ontology variant analysis), in which user-provided phenotypic information is exploited to infer deeper biological context. OVA combines a knowledge-based approach with a variant-filtering framework. It reduces the number of candidate variants by considering genotype and predicted effect on protein sequence, and scores the remainder on biological relevance to the query phenotype. We take advantage of several ontologies in order to bridge knowledge across multiple biomedical domains and facilitate computational analysis of annotations pertaining to genes, diseases, phenotypes, tissues and pathways. In this way, OVA combines information regarding molecular and physical phenotypes and integrates both human and model organism data to effectively prioritize variants. By assessing performance on both known and novel disease mutations, we show that OVA performs biologically meaningful candidate variant prioritization and can be more accurate than another recently published candidate variant prioritization tool. Availability and implementation: OVA is freely accessible at http://dna2.leeds.ac.uk:8080/OVA/index.jsp Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. Contact: umaan@leeds.ac.uk PMID:26272982

  1. Psychopathology of social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sang-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The most important defining factor of being human is the use of symbolic language. Language or communication problem occurs during the growth, the child will have a higher risk of social isolation and then the survival will be threatened constantly. Today, adolescents and youths are familiar with computer and smart-phone devices, and communication with others by these devices is easy than face-to-face communication. As adolescents and youths live in the comfortable and familiar cyber-world rather than actively participating real society, so they make social isolation. Extreme form of this isolation in adolescents and youths is so-called Socially Withdrawn Youth. In this study, the psychopathological factors inducing social isolation were discussed. Development stages of social isolation in relation with types of social isolation, Ego-syntonic isolation and Ego-dystonic isolation, were also considered. PMID:25061592

  2. Evaluating the impact of genotype errors on rare variant tests of association

    E-print Network

    Cook, Kaitlyn

    The new class of rare variant tests has usually been evaluated assuming perfect genotype information. In reality, rare variant genotypes may be incorrect, and so rare variant tests should be robust to imperfect data. Errors ...

  3. Molecular detection and characterization of Chinese Yam mild mosaic virus isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An improved RT-PCR was developed and validated to be sensitive and reliable for the detection of Yam mild mosaic virus (YMMV). Sequences of coat protein core region of 19 Chinese isolates were obtained, and analysis indicated the presence of different genetic variants. Phylogenetic analyses showed t...

  4. The phosphoprotein gene of a dolphin morbillivirus isolate exhibits genomic variation at the editing site.

    PubMed

    Bolt, G; Alexandersen, S; Blixenkrone-Møller, M

    1995-12-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the phosphoprotein (P) gene of a dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) isolate was determined. Like those of other morbilliviruses the DMV P gene encoded P and C proteins in overlapping open reading frames and V protein by editing the P gene transcript. Among P mRNA based clones the editing site variants GGGC, GGGG, GAGC and GGGGGGC predicting a P protein, and the variants GGGGC and GGGGGG predicting a V protein, were found. Surprisingly, the three variants GGGC, GGGG and GAGC were also found among clones generated from genomic RNA of the DMV isolate. Thus, more than one viral genome type appeared to be present in cells infected with the DMV isolate. By a similar analysis of the virus genomes in the tissue from which the DMV isolate was obtained, only the GGGC type was found, indicating that the GGGG and GAGC types arose during adaptation of the virus to growth in cell cultures. No editing site variants likely to have arisen by editing the GAGC type were encountered, and it remains ot be determined whether mRNA encoding V protein can be transcribed from genomes with this editing site. Using antisera raised against the common N terminus and unique C termini of the predicted P and V proteins, the in vivo expression of these proteins was demonstrated. PMID:8847510

  5. Persisters: Methods for Isolation and Identifying Contributing Factors-A Review.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Sarah E; Conlon, Brian P; Keren, Iris; Lewis, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Persister cells are phenotypic variants surviving a lethal dose of antibiotic, sufficient to kill the bulk of an exponential phase population. In this chapter we summarize current techniques to isolate persisters and discuss limitations associated with identifying mechanisms of persister formation. PMID:26468096

  6. Multi-Locus Analysis of a Citreoviridin-Producing Isolate Previously Identified as Penicillium NRRL 13013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cole et al (1981) reported a citreoviridin-producing isolate of Penicillium charlesii (NRRL 13013) from molded pecans. Wicklow later identified it as a variant of Penicillium citreoviride, noting that it produced sclerotia, although the species as a whole is not known to do so. We sequenced the IT...

  7. Characterization of Five Zoonotic Streptococcus suis Strains from Germany, Including One Isolate from a Recent Fatal Case of Streptococcal Toxic Shock-Like Syndrome in a Hunter.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Tobias; Hudemann, Christoph; Hossain, Hamid M; Hewer, Angela; Tello, Khodr; Bandorski, Dirk; Rohde, Manfred; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Baums, Christoph Georg

    2015-12-01

    A Streptococcus suis isolate from a German hunter with streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (STSLS) and four additional zoonotic isolates were genotyped as mrp(+) epf* (variant 1890) sly(+) cps2(+). All five zoonotic German strains were characterized by high multiplication in human blood samples ex vivo, but induction of only low levels of proinflammatory cytokines compared to a Chinese STSLS strain. PMID:26424844

  8. Two Novel Toxin Variants Revealed by Whole-Genome Sequencing of 175 Clostridium botulinum Type E Strains

    PubMed Central

    Weedmark, K. A.; Lambert, D. L.; Mabon, P.; Hayden, K. L.; Urfano, C. J.; Leclair, D.; Van Domselaar, G.; Austin, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    We sequenced 175 Clostridium botulinum type E strains isolated from food, clinical, and environmental sources from northern Canada and analyzed their botulinum neurotoxin (bont) coding sequences (CDSs). In addition to bont/E1 and bont/E3 variant types, neurotoxin sequence analysis identified two novel BoNT type E variants termed E10 and E11. Strains producing type E10 were found along the eastern coastlines of Hudson Bay and the shores of Ungava Bay, while strains producing type E11 were only found in the Koksoak River region of Nunavik. Strains producing BoNT/E3 were widespread throughout northern Canada, with the exception of the coast of eastern Hudson Bay. PMID:25107978

  9. Nonradioactive heteroduplex tracking assay for the detection of minority-variant chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, Jonathan J; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Ramarosandratana, Benjamin; Ariey, Frédéric; Mwapasa, Victor; Meshnick, Steven R

    2009-01-01

    Background Strains of Plasmodium falciparum genetically resistant to chloroquine (CQ) due to the presence of pfcrt 76T appear to have been recently introduced to the island of Madagascar. The prevalence of such resistant genotypes is reported to be low (< 3%) when evaluated by conventional PCR. However, these methods are insensitive to low levels of mutant parasites present in patients with polyclonal infections. Thus, the current estimates may be an under representation of the prevalence of the CQ-resistant P. falciparum isolates on the island. Previously, minority variant chloroquine resistant parasites were described in Malawian patients using an isotopic heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA), which can detect pfcrt 76T-bearing P. falciparum minority variants in individual patients that were undetectable by conventional PCR. However, as this assay required a radiolabeled probe, it could not be used in many resource-limited settings. Methods This study describes a digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled chemiluminescent heteroduplex tracking assay (DIG-HTA) to detect pfcrt 76T-bearing minority variant P. falciparum. This assay was compared to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and to the isotopic HTA for detection of genetically CQ-resistant parasites in clinical samples. Results Thirty one clinical P. falciparum isolates (15 primary isolates and 16 recurrent isolates) from 17 Malagasy children treated with CQ for uncomplicated malaria were genotyped for the pfcrt K76T mutation. Two (11.7%) of 17 patients harboured genetically CQ-resistant P. falciparum strains after therapy as detected by HTA. RFLP analysis failed to detect any pfcrt K76T-bearing isolates. Conclusion These findings indicate that genetically CQ-resistant P. falciparum are more common than previously thought in Madagascar even though the fitness of the minority variant pfcrt 76T parasites remains unclear. In addition, HTAs for malaria drug resistance alleles are promising tools for the surveillance of anti-malarial resistance. The use of a non-radioactive label allows for the use of HTAs in malaria endemic countries. PMID:19291288

  10. Variant -and individual dependent nature of persistent Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of tick-borne fever in ruminants and human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis (HGA). The bacterium is able to survive for several months in immune-competent sheep by modifying important cellular and humoral defence mechanisms. Little is known about how different strains of A. phagocytophilum propagate in their natural hosts during persistent infection. Methods Two groups of five lambs were infected with each of two 16S rRNA gene variants of A. phagocytophilum, i.e. 16S variant 1 which is identical to GenBank no M73220 and 16S variant 2 which is identical to GenBank no AF336220, respectively. The lambs were infected intravenously and followed by blood sampling for six months. A. phagocytophilum infection in the peripheral blood was detected by absolute quantitative real-time PCR. Results Both 16S rRNA gene variants of A. phagocytophilum established persistent infection for at least six months and showed cyclic bacteraemias, but variant 1 introduced more frequent periods of bacteraemia and higher number of organisms than 16S rRNA gene variant 2 in the peripheral blood. Conclusion Organisms were available from blood more or less constantly during the persistent infection and there were individual differences in cyclic activity of A. phagocytophilum in the infected animals. Two 16S rRNA gene variants of A. phagocytophilum show differences in cyclic activity during persistent infection in lambs. PMID:20398321

  11. Variants of human papillomavirus type 16 predispose toward persistent infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Liao, Hong; Yang, Binlie; Geffre, Christopher P; Zhang, Ai; Zhou, Aizhi; Cao, Huimin; Wang, Jieru; Zhang, Zhenbo; Zheng, Wenxin

    2015-01-01

    A cohort study of 292 Chinese women was conducted to determine the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 variants and persistent viral infection. Enrolled patients were HPV16 positive and had both normal cytology and histology. Flow-through hybridization and gene chip technology was used to identify the HPV type. A PCR sequencing assay was performed to find HPV16 E2, E6 and E7 gene variants. The associations between these variants and HPV16 persistent infection was analyzed by Fisher’s exact test. It was found that the variants T178G, T350G and A442C in the E6 gene, as well as C3158A and G3248A variants in the E2 gene were associated with persistent HPV16 infection. No link was observed between E7 variants and persistent viral infection. Our findings suggest that detection of specific HPV variants would help identify patients who are at high risk for viral persistence and development of cervical neoplasia. PMID:26339417

  12. Identification of copy number variants in horses

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Ryan; Cohen, Noah; Harrington, Jessica; Veazy, Kylee; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, Gus; McCue, Molly E.; Skow, Loren; Dindot, Scott V.

    2012-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a substantial source of genetic variation in mammals. However, the occurrence of CNVs in horses and their subsequent impact on phenotypic variation is unknown. We performed a study to identify CNVs in 16 horses representing 15 distinct breeds (Equus caballus) and an individual gray donkey (Equus asinus) using a whole-exome tiling array and the array comparative genomic hybridization methodology. We identified 2368 CNVs ranging in size from 197 bp to 3.5 Mb. Merging identical CNVs from each animal yielded 775 CNV regions (CNVRs), involving 1707 protein- and RNA-coding genes. The number of CNVs per animal ranged from 55 to 347, with median and mean sizes of CNVs of 5.3 kb and 99.4 kb, respectively. Approximately 6% of the genes investigated were affected by a CNV. Biological process enrichment analysis indicated CNVs primarily affected genes involved in sensory perception, signal transduction, and metabolism. CNVs also were identified in genes regulating blood group antigens, coat color, fecundity, lactation, keratin formation, neuronal homeostasis, and height in other species. Collectively, these data are the first report of copy number variation in horses and suggest that CNVs are common in the horse genome and may modulate biological processes underlying different traits observed among horses and horse breeds. PMID:22383489

  13. Anatomical variant of the liver blood supply

    PubMed Central

    MASLARSKI, IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Vascular variations are significant for liver transplantations, radiological procedures, laparoscopic method of operation and for the healing of penetrating injuries, including the space close to the hepatic area. These variants are very common in the abdominal region, and their description will be useful. During a routine dissection of a 73 year old female cadaver, we found in the subhepatic region that the blood supply of the liver differed from a normal one. The difference was found in the absence of the right liver branch and the cystic artery, which normally arises from the common hepatic artery. After a detailed dissection of the superior mesenteric artery we distinguished a branchthat was routed to the right lobe of the liver. The diameter of this vessel was 3.7 mm and the length 8.2 cm. In the artery pathway, three consecutive branches were observed. The first branch was found about 2.02 cm before the portal region of the liver. The second one became visible after another millimeter and finally the artery made one little curve and became a cystic artery. PMID:26609280

  14. Radicicol induces intracellular accumulation of glycan-deficient clusterin variant.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ilho; Lee, Yumi; Park, Joong-Yeol; Song, Youngsup; Chang, Eun-Ju; Kang, Sang-Wook

    2015-03-13

    Proteostasis regulation using naturally occurring small molecules has been considered as a promising strategy for manipulating cancer sensitivity and therapy. Here, we identify a small molecule Hsp90 inhibitor radicicol that induces intracellular accumulation of cytotoxic clusterin variant. In the mechanistic basis, this variant proved to be a product disposed from the stressed ER. During this process, inhibitory effect of radicicol on protein degradation results in cytosolic accumulation of glycan-deficient clusterin variant that signals cell death. These results provide a therapeutic insight into the targeted proteostasis perturbation of clusterin as an anti-cancer strategy. PMID:25680466

  15. Variant selection and transformation texture in zirconium alloy Excel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattari, M.; Holt, R. A.; Daymond, M. R.

    2014-10-01

    The crystallographic texture and variant selection during phase transformations in zirconium alloy Excel (Zr-3.5% Sn-0.8% Mo-0.8% Nb) was investigated. It was shown that upon water-quenching from ?Zr + ?Zr or fully ?Zr regions, variant selection occurs during ?Zr ? ??Zr martensitic transformation. Also during air-cooling from the ?Zr + ?Zr region, only a partial memory effect and some transformation texture with variant selection was observed which is contrary to previous reports on zirconium alloys heat treated in the ?Zr + ?Zr region.

  16. Meta-analysis of gene-level associations for rare variants based on single-variant statistics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi-Juan; Berndt, Sonja I; Gustafsson, Stefan; Ganna, Andrea; Hirschhorn, Joel; North, Kari E; Ingelsson, Erik; Lin, Dan-Yu

    2013-08-01

    Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) has led to the discoveries of many common variants associated with complex human diseases. There is a growing recognition that identifying "causal" rare variants also requires large-scale meta-analysis. The fact that association tests with rare variants are performed at the gene level rather than at the variant level poses unprecedented challenges in the meta-analysis. First, different studies may adopt different gene-level tests, so the results are not compatible. Second, gene-level tests require multivariate statistics (i.e., components of the test statistic and their covariance matrix), which are difficult to obtain. To overcome these challenges, we propose to perform gene-level tests for rare variants by combining the results of single-variant analysis (i.e., p values of association tests and effect estimates) from participating studies. This simple strategy is possible because of an insight that multivariate statistics can be recovered from single-variant statistics, together with the correlation matrix of the single-variant test statistics, which can be estimated from one of the participating studies or from a publicly available database. We show both theoretically and numerically that the proposed meta-analysis approach provides accurate control of the type I error and is as powerful as joint analysis of individual participant data. This approach accommodates any disease phenotype and any study design and produces all commonly used gene-level tests. An application to the GWAS summary results of the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium reveals rare and low-frequency variants associated with human height. The relevant software is freely available. PMID:23891470

  17. Meta-analysis of Gene-Level Associations for Rare Variants Based on Single-Variant Statistics

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yi-Juan; Berndt, Sonja I.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Ganna, Andrea; Berndt, Sonja I.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Mägi, Reedik; Ganna, Andrea; Wheeler, Eleanor; Feitosa, Mary F.; Justice, Anne E.; Monda, Keri L.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Day, Felix R.; Esko, Tõnu; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gentilini, Davide; Jackson, Anne U.; Luan, Jian’an; Randall, Joshua C.; Vedantam, Sailaja; Willer, Cristen J.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Wood, Andrew R.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Hu, Yi-Juan; Lee, Sang Hong; Liang, Liming; Lin, Dan-Yu; Min, Josine L.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Yang, Jian; Albrecht, Eva; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Cadby, Gemma; den Heijer, Martin; Eklund, Niina; Fischer, Krista; Goel, Anuj; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Jarick, Ivonne; Johansson, Åsa; Johnson, Toby; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E.; König, Inke R.; Kristiansson, Kati; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lamina, Claudia; Lecoeur, Cecile; Li, Guo; Mangino, Massimo; McArdle, Wendy L.; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Ngwa, Julius S.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Perola, Markus; Peters, Marjolein J.; Preuss, Michael; Rose, Lynda M.; Shi, Jianxin; Shungin, Dmitry; Smith, Albert Vernon; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Surakka, Ida; Teumer, Alexander; Trip, Mieke D.; Tyrer, Jonathan; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Waite, Lindsay L.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Absher, Devin; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Atalay, Mustafa; Attwood, Antony P.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Basart, Hanneke; Beilby, John; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Brambilla, Paolo; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Campbell, Harry; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chines, Peter S.; Collins, Francis S.; Connell, John M.; Cookson, William; de Faire, Ulf; de Vegt, Femmie; Dei, Mariano; Dimitriou, Maria; Edkins, Sarah; Estrada, Karol; Evans, David M.; Farrall, Martin; Ferrario, Marco M.; Ferrières, Jean; Franke, Lude; Frau, Francesca; Gejman, Pablo V.; Grallert, Harald; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hall, Alistair S.; Hall, Per; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hebebrand, Johannes; Homuth, Georg; Hu, Frank B.; Hunt, Sarah E.; Hyppönen, Elina; Iribarren, Carlos; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Jansson, John-Olov; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kee, Frank; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kivimaki, Mika; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana H.; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Launer, Lenore J.; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Liu, Jianjun; Liuzzi, Antonio; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lorentzon, Mattias; Madden, Pamela A.; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Manunta, Paolo; Marek, Diana; März, Winfried; Leach, Irene Mateo; McKnight, Barbara; Medland, Sarah E.; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mooser, Vincent; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Musk, Arthur W.; Narisu, Narisu; Navis, Gerjan; Nicholson, George; Nohr, Ellen A.; Ong, Ken K.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Palotie, Aarno; Peden, John F.; Pedersen, Nancy; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pouta, Anneli; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Prokopenko, Inga; Pütter, Carolin; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Raitakari, Olli; Rendon, Augusto; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Saaristo, Timo E.; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Sanders, Alan R.; Sanna, Serena; Saramies, Jouko; Schipf, Sabine; Schreiber, Stefan; Schunkert, Heribert; Shin, So-Youn; Signorini, Stefano; Sinisalo, Juha; Skrobek, Boris; Soranzo, Nicole; Stan?áková, Alena; Stark, Klaus; Stephens, Jonathan C.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P.; Stumvoll, Michael; Swift, Amy J.; Theodoraki, Eirini V.; Thorand, Barbara; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Tremoli, Elena; Van der Klauw, Melanie M.; van Meurs, Joyce B.J.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Viikari, Jorma; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vitart, Veronique; Waeber, Gérard; Wang, Zhaoming; Widén, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F.

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) has led to the discoveries of many common variants associated with complex human diseases. There is a growing recognition that identifying “causal” rare variants also requires large-scale meta-analysis. The fact that association tests with rare variants are performed at the gene level rather than at the variant level poses unprecedented challenges in the meta-analysis. First, different studies may adopt different gene-level tests, so the results are not compatible. Second, gene-level tests require multivariate statistics (i.e., components of the test statistic and their covariance matrix), which are difficult to obtain. To overcome these challenges, we propose to perform gene-level tests for rare variants by combining the results of single-variant analysis (i.e., p values of association tests and effect estimates) from participating studies. This simple strategy is possible because of an insight that multivariate statistics can be recovered from single-variant statistics, together with the correlation matrix of the single-variant test statistics, which can be estimated from one of the participating studies or from a publicly available database. We show both theoretically and numerically that the proposed meta-analysis approach provides accurate control of the type I error and is as powerful as joint analysis of individual participant data. This approach accommodates any disease phenotype and any study design and produces all commonly used gene-level tests. An application to the GWAS summary results of the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium reveals rare and low-frequency variants associated with human height. The relevant software is freely available. PMID:23891470

  18. Simple time-variant filtering by operator scaling

    E-print Network

    Park, Choon Byong; Black, Ross A.

    1995-09-01

    A convolutional method of time?variant, band?pass filtering presented shows that a change of filter cutoff frequencies with time is achieved by frequency scaling the amplitude spectrum of a reference operator. According ...

  19. Genetic variant as a marker for bladder cancer therapy

    Cancer.gov

    Patients who have inherited a specific common genetic variant develop bladder cancer tumors that strongly express a protein known as prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), which is also expressed in many pancreatic and prostate tumors, according to research a

  20. Genetic Variants Offer Breast Cancer Risk Models Small Benefit

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists report that breast cancer risk assessment models, which predict a woman’s chance of developing breast cancer, do not perform better when they include common inherited genetic variants recently linked to the disease.

  1. Diversification of histone H2A variants during plant evolution.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Lorkovi?, Zdravko J; Nishihama, Ryuichi; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Axelsson, Elin; Yelagandula, Ramesh; Kohchi, Takayuki; Berger, Frederic

    2015-07-01

    Among eukaryotes, the four core histones show an extremely high conservation of their structure and form nucleosomes that compact, protect, and regulate access to genetic information. Nevertheless, in multicellular eukaryotes the two families, histone H2A and histone H3, have diversified significantly in key residues. We present a phylogenetic analysis across the green plant lineage that reveals an early diversification of the H2A family in unicellular green algae and remarkable expansions of H2A variants in flowering plants. We define motifs and domains that differentiate plant H2A proteins into distinct variant classes. In non-flowering land plants, we identify a new class of H2A variants and propose their possible role in the emergence of the H2A.W variant class in flowering plants. PMID:25983206

  2. Frequency of enzyme deficiency variants in erythrocytes of newborn infants

    SciTech Connect

    Mohrenweiser, H.W.

    1981-08-01

    The frequency of enzyme deficiency variants, defined as alleles whose products are either absent or almost devoid of normal activity in erythrocytes, was determined for nine erythrocyte enzymes in some 675 newborn infants and in approximately 200 adults. Examples of this type of genetic abnormality, which in the homozygous condition are often associated with significant health consequences, were detected for seven of the nine enzymes studied. Fifteen inherited enzyme deficiency variants in 1809 determinations from adults were identified. Seven of the deficiency variants involved triosephosphate isomerase, a frequency of 0.01 in the newborn population. The average frequency of 2.4/1000 is 2 to 3 times the frequency observed for rare electrophoretic variants of erythrocyte enzymes in this same population.

  3. Leapfrog variants of iterative methods for linear algebra equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saylor, Paul E.

    1988-01-01

    Two iterative methods are considered, Richardson's method and a general second order method. For both methods, a variant of the method is derived for which only even numbered iterates are computed. The variant is called a leapfrog method. Comparisons between the conventional form of the methods and the leapfrog form are made under the assumption that the number of unknowns is large. In the case of Richardson's method, it is possible to express the final iterate in terms of only the initial approximation, a variant of the iteration called the grand-leap method. In the case of the grand-leap variant, a set of parameters is required. An algorithm is presented to compute these parameters that is related to algorithms to compute the weights and abscissas for Gaussian quadrature. General algorithms to implement the leapfrog and grand-leap methods are presented. Algorithms for the important special case of the Chebyshev method are also given.

  4. New insights into old methods for identifying causal rare variants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haitian; Huang, Chien-Hsun; Lo, Shaw-Hwa; Zheng, Tian; Hu, Inchi

    2011-01-01

    The advance of high-throughput next-generation sequencing technology makes possible the analysis of rare variants. However, the investigation of rare variants in unrelated-individuals data sets faces the challenge of low power, and most methods circumvent the difficulty by using various collapsing procedures based on genes, pathways, or gene clusters. We suggest a new way to identify causal rare variants using the F-statistic and sliced inverse regression. The procedure is tested on the data set provided by the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 (GAW17). After preliminary data reduction, we ranked markers according to their F-statistic values. Top-ranked markers were then subjected to sliced inverse regression, and those with higher absolute coefficients in the most significant sliced inverse regression direction were selected. The procedure yields good false discovery rates for the GAW17 data and thus is a promising method for future study on rare variants. PMID:22373518

  5. Regional Isolation Drives Bacterial Diversification within Cystic Fibrosis Lungs.

    PubMed

    Jorth, Peter; Staudinger, Benjamin J; Wu, Xia; Hisert, Katherine B; Hayden, Hillary; Garudathri, Jayanthi; Harding, Christopher L; Radey, Matthew C; Rezayat, Amir; Bautista, Gilbert; Berrington, William R; Goddard, Amanda F; Zheng, Chunxiang; Angermeyer, Angus; Brittnacher, Mitchell J; Kitzman, Jacob; Shendure, Jay; Fligner, Corinne L; Mittler, John; Aitken, Moira L; Manoil, Colin; Bruce, James E; Yahr, Timothy L; Singh, Pradeep K

    2015-09-01

    Bacterial lineages that chronically infect cystic fibrosis (CF) patients genetically diversify during infection. However, the mechanisms driving diversification are unknown. By dissecting ten CF lung pairs and studying ?12,000 regional isolates, we were able to investigate whether clonally related Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhabiting different lung regions evolve independently and differ functionally. Phylogenetic analysis of genome sequences showed that regional isolation of P. aeruginosa drives divergent evolution. We investigated the consequences of regional evolution by studying isolates from mildly and severely diseased lung regions and found evolved differences in bacterial nutritional requirements, host defense and antibiotic resistance, and virulence due to hyperactivity of the type 3 secretion system. These findings suggest that bacterial intermixing is limited in CF lungs and that regional selective pressures may markedly differ. The findings also may explain how specialized bacterial variants arise during infection and raise the possibility that pathogen diversification occurs in other chronic infections characterized by spatially heterogeneous conditions. PMID:26299432

  6. Engineering human interleukin-6 to obtain variants with strongly enhanced bioactivity.

    PubMed Central

    Toniatti, C; Cabibbo, A; Sporena, E; Salvati, A L; Cerretani, M; Serafini, S; Lahm, A; Cortese, R; Ciliberto, G

    1996-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) triggers the formation of a high affinity receptor complex with the ligand binding subunit IL-6Ralpha and the signal transducing chain gp130. Since the intracytoplasmic region of the IL-6Ralpha does not contribute to signaling, soluble forms of the extracytoplasmic domain (sIL-6Ralpha), potentiate IL-6 bioactivity and induce a cytokine-responsive status in cells expressing gp130 only. This observation, together with the detection of high levels of circulating soluble human IL-6Ralpha (shIL-6Ralpha) in sera, suggests that the hIL-6-shIL-6Ralpha complex is an alternative form of the cytokine. Here we describe the generation of human IL-6 (hIL-6) variants with strongly enhanced shIL-6Ralpha binding activity and bioactivity. Homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis of hIL-6 suggested that the binding interface for hIL-6Ralpha is constituted by the C-terminal portion of the D-helix and residues contained in the AB loop. Four libraries of hIL-6 mutants were generated by each time fully randomizing four different amino acids in the predicted AB loop. These libraries were displayed monovalently on filamentous phage surface and sorted separately for binding to immobilized shIL-6Ralpha. Mutants were selected which, when expressed as soluble proteins, showed a 10- to 40-fold improvement in shIL-6Ralpha binding; a further increase (up to 70-fold) was achieved by combining variants isolated from different libraries. Interestingly, high affinity hIL-6 variants show strongly enhanced bioactivity on cells expressing gp13O in the presence of shIL-6Ralpha at concentrations similar to those normally found in human sera. Images PMID:8654370

  7. Fitness of Isogenic Colony Morphology Variants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Murine Airway Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rakhimova, Elza; Munder, Antje; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Bredenbruch, Florian; Tümmler, Burkhard

    2008-01-01

    Chronic lung infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa are associated with the diversification of the persisting clone into niche specialists and morphotypes, a phenomenon called ‘dissociative behaviour’. To explore the potential of P. aeruginosa to change its morphotype by single step loss-of–function mutagenesis, a signature-tagged mini-Tn5 plasposon library of the cystic fibrosis airway isolate TBCF10839 was screened for colony morphology variants under nine different conditions in vitro. Transposon insertion into 1% of the genome changed colony morphology into eight discernable morphotypes. Half of the 55 targets encode features of primary or secondary metabolism whereby quinolone production was frequently affected. In the other half the transposon had inserted into genes of the functional categories transport, regulation or motility/chemotaxis. To mimic dissociative behaviour of isogenic strains in lungs, pools of 25 colony morphology variants were tested for competitive fitness in an acute murine airway infection model. Six of the 55 mutants either grew better or worse in vivo than in vitro, respectively. Metabolic proficiency of the colony morphology variant was a key determinant for survival in murine airways. The most common morphotype of self-destructive autolysis did unexpectedly not impair fitness. Transposon insertions into homologous genes of strain PAO1 did not reproduce the TBCF10839 mutant morphotypes for 16 of 19 examined loci pointing to an important role of the genetic background on colony morphology. Depending on the chosen P. aeruginosa strain, functional genome scans will explore other areas of the evolutionary landscape. Based on our discordant findings of mutant phenotypes in P. aeruginosa strains PAO1, PA14 and TBCF10839, we conclude that the current focus on few reference strains may miss modes of niche adaptation and dissociative behaviour that are relevant for the microevolution of complex traits in the wild. PMID:18301762

  8. Amplicon Sequencing of Colorectal Cancer: Variant Calling in Frozen and Formalin-Fixed Samples

    PubMed Central

    Betge, Johannes; Kerr, Grainne; Miersch, Thilo; Leible, Svenja; Erdmann, Gerrit; Galata, Christian L.; Zhan, Tianzuo; Gaiser, Timo; Post, Stefan; Ebert, Matthias P.; Horisberger, Karoline; Boutros, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) is an emerging technology becoming relevant for genotyping of clinical samples. Here, we assessed the stability of amplicon sequencing from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and paired frozen samples from colorectal cancer metastases with different analysis pipelines. 212 amplicon regions in 48 cancer related genes were sequenced with Illumina MiSeq using DNA isolated from resection specimens from 17 patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases. From ten of these patients, paired fresh frozen and routinely processed FFPE tissue was available for comparative study. Sample quality of FFPE tissues was determined by the amount of amplifiable DNA using qPCR, sequencing libraries were evaluated using Bioanalyzer. Three bioinformatic pipelines were compared for analysis of amplicon sequencing data. Selected hot spot mutations were reviewed using Sanger sequencing. In the sequenced samples from 16 patients, 29 non-synonymous coding mutations were identified in eleven genes. Most frequent were mutations in TP53 (10), APC (7), PIK3CA (3) and KRAS (2). A high concordance of FFPE and paired frozen tissue samples was observed in ten matched samples, revealing 21 identical mutation calls and only two mutations differing. Comparison of these results with two other commonly used variant calling tools, however, showed high discrepancies. Hence, amplicon sequencing can potentially be used to identify hot spot mutations in colorectal cancer metastases in frozen and FFPE tissue. However, remarkable differences exist among results of different variant calling tools, which are not only related to DNA sample quality. Our study highlights the need for standardization and benchmarking of variant calling pipelines, which will be required for translational and clinical applications. PMID:26010451

  9. Prevalence of Titin Truncating Variants in General Population

    PubMed Central

    Akinrinade, Oyediran; Koskenvuo, Juha W.; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Background Truncating titin (TTN) mutations, especially in A-band region, represent the most common cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Clinical interpretation of these variants can be challenging, as these variants are also present in reference populations. We carried out systematic analyses of TTN truncating variants (TTNtv) in publicly available reference populations, including, for the first time, data from Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). The goal was to establish more accurate estimate of prevalence of different TTNtv to allow better clinical interpretation of these findings. Methods and Results Using data from 1000 Genomes Project, Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) and ExAC, we estimated the prevalence of TTNtv in the population. In the three population datasets, 52–54% of TTNtv were not affecting all TTN transcripts. The frequency of truncations affecting all transcripts in ExAC was 0.36% (0.32% - 0.41%, 95% CI) and 0.19% (0.16% - 0.23%, 95% CI) for those affecting the A-band. In the A-band region, the prevalences of frameshift, nonsense and essential splice site variants were 0.057%, 0.090%, and 0.047% respectively. Cga/Tga (arginine/nonsense–R/*) transitional change at CpG mutation hotspots was the most frequent type of TTN nonsense mutation accounting for 91.3% (21/23) of arginine residue nonsense mutation (R/*) at TTN A-band region. Non-essential splice-site variants had significantly lower proportion of private variants and higher proportion of low-frequency variants compared to essential splice-site variants (P = 0.01; P = 5.1 X 10?4, respectively). Conclusion A-band TTNtv are more rare in the general population than previously reported. Based on this analysis, one in 500 carries a truncation in TTN A-band suggesting the penetrance of these potentially harmful variants is still poorly understood, and some of these variants do not manifest as autosomal dominant DCM. This calls for caution when interpreting TTNtv in individuals and families with no history of DCM. Considering the size of TTN, expertise in DNA library preparation, high coverage NGS strategies, validated bioinformatics approach, accurate variant assessment strategy, and confirmatory sequencing are prerequisites for reliable evaluation of TTN in clinical settings, and ideally with the inclusion of mRNA and/or protein level assessment for a definite diagnosis. PMID:26701604

  10. Two variants of minimum discarded fill ordering

    SciTech Connect

    D'Azevedo, E.F. ); Forsyth, P.A.; Tang, Wei-Pai . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    It is well known that the ordering of the unknowns can have a significant effect on the convergence of Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) methods. There has been considerable experimental work on the effects of ordering for regular finite difference problems. In many cases, good results have been obtained with preconditioners based on diagonal, spiral or natural row orderings. However, for finite element problems having unstructured grids or grids generated by a local refinement approach, it is difficult to define many of the orderings for more regular problems. A recently proposed Minimum Discarded Fill (MDF) ordering technique is effective in finding high quality Incomplete LU (ILU) preconditioners, especially for problems arising from unstructured finite element grids. Testing indicates this algorithm can identify a rather complicated physical structure in an anisotropic problem and orders the unknowns in the preferred'' direction. The MDF technique may be viewed as the numerical analogue of the minimum deficiency algorithm in sparse matrix technology. At any stage of the partial elimination, the MDF technique chooses the next pivot node so as to minimize the amount of discarded fill. In this work, two efficient variants of the MDF technique are explored to produce cost-effective high-order ILU preconditioners. The Threshold MDF orderings combine MDF ideas with drop tolerance techniques to identify the sparsity pattern in the ILU preconditioners. These techniques identify an ordering that encourages fast decay of the entries in the ILU factorization. The Minimum Update Matrix (MUM) ordering technique is a simplification of the MDF ordering and is closely related to the minimum degree algorithm. The MUM ordering is especially for large problems arising from Navier-Stokes problems. Some interesting pictures of the orderings are presented using a visualization tool. 22 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. The Lymphoid Variant of Hypereosinophilic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lefèvre, Guillaume; Copin, Marie-Christine; Staumont-Sallé, Delphine; Avenel-Audran, Martine; Aubert, Hélène; Taieb, Alain; Salles, Gilles; Maisonneuve, Hervé; Ghomari, Kamel; Ackerman, Félix; Legrand, Fanny; Baruchel, André; Launay, David; Terriou, Louis; Leclech, Christian; Khouatra, Chahera; Morati-Hafsaoui, Chafika; Labalette, Myriam; Borie, Raphäel; Cotton, François; Gouellec, Noémie Le; Morschhauser, Franck; Trauet, Jacques; Roche-Lestienne, Catherine; Capron, Monique; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Prin, Lionel; Kahn, Jean-Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The CD3-CD4+ aberrant T-cell phenotype is the most described in the lymphoid variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome (L-HES), a rare form of HES. Only a few cases have been reported, and data for these patients are scarce. To describe characteristics and outcome of CD3-CD4+ L-HES patients, we conducted a national multicentric retrospective study in the French Eosinophil Network. All patients who met the recent criteria of hypereosinophilia (HE) or HES and who had a persistent CD3-CD4+ T-cell subset on blood T-cell phenotyping were included. Clinical and laboratory data were retrospectively collected by chart review. CD3-CD4+ L-HES was diagnosed in 21 patients (13 females, median age 42 years [range, 5–75 yr]). Half (48%) had a history of atopic manifestations. Clinical manifestations were dermatologic (81%), superficial adenopathy (62%), rheumatologic (29%), gastrointestinal (24%), pulmonary (19%), neurologic (10%), and cardiovascular (5%). The median absolute CD3-CD4+ T-cell count was 0.35?G/L (range, 0.01–28.3), with a clonal TCR?? rearrangement in 76% of patients. The mean follow-up duration after HES diagnosis was 6.9 ± 5.1 years. All patients treated with oral corticosteroids (CS) (n?=?18) obtained remission, but 16 required CS-sparing treatments. One patient had a T-cell lymphoma 8 years after diagnosis, and 3 deaths occurred during follow-up. In conclusion, clinical manifestations related to CD3-CD4+ T cell-associated L-HES are not limited to skin, and can involve all tissue or organs affected in other types of HE. Contrary to FIP1L1-PDGFRA chronic eosinophilic leukemia patients, CS are always effective in these patients, but CS-sparing treatments are frequently needed. The occurrence of T-cell lymphoma, although rare in our cohort, remains a major concern during follow-up. PMID:25398061

  12. An Escherichia coli Expression Assay and Screen for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Variants with Decreased Susceptibility to Indinavir

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Laurence; Yang, Shiow-Shong; Rossi, Rick; Zepp, Charlie; Heefner, Donald

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a recombinant Escherichia coli screening system for the rapid detection and identification of amino acid substitutions in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease associated with decreased susceptibility to the protease inhibitor indinavir (MK-639; Merck & Co.). The assay depends upon the correct processing of a segment of the HIV-1 HXB2 gag-pol polyprotein followed by detection of HIV reverse transcriptase activity by a highly sensitive, colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The highly sensitive system detects the contributions of single substitutions such as I84V, L90M, and L63P. The combination of single substitutions further decreases the sensitivity to indinavir. We constructed a library of HIV protease variant genes containing dispersed mutations and, using the E. coli recombinant system, screened for mutants with decreased indinavir sensitivity. The discovered HIV protease variants contain amino acid substitutions commonly associated with indinavir resistance in clinical isolates, including the substitutions L90M, L63P, I64V, V82A, L24I, and I54T. One substitution, W6R, is also frequently found by the screen and has not been reported elsewhere. Of a total of 12,000 isolates that were screened, 12 protease variants with decreased sensitivity to indinavir were found. The L63P substitution, which is also associated with indinavir resistance, increases the stability of the isolated protease relative to that of the native HXB2 protease. The rapidity, sensitivity, and accuracy of this screen also make it useful for screening for novel inhibitors. We have found the approach described here to be useful for the detection of amino acid substitutions in HIV protease that have been associated with drug resistance as well as for the screening of novel compounds for inhibitory activity. PMID:9835523

  13. Candidate genes for congenital diaphragmatic hernia from animalmodels: sequencing of fog2 and pdgfra reveals rare variants indiaphragmatic hernia patients

    SciTech Connect

    Bleyl, S.B.; Moshrefi, A.; Shaw, G.M.; Saijoh, Y.; Schoenwolf,G.C.; Pennacchio, L.A.; Slavotinek, A.M.

    2007-05-11

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common, lifethreatening birth defect. Although there is strong evidence implicatinggenetic factors in its pathogenesis, few causative genes have beenidentified, and in isolated CDH, only one de novo, nonsense mutation hasbeen reported in FOG2 in a female with posterior diaphragmaticeventration. We report here that the homozygous null mouse for the Pdgfragene has posterolateral diaphragmatic defects and thus is a model forhuman CDH. We hypothesized that mutations in this gene could cause humanCDH. We sequenced PDGFRa and FOG2 in 96 patients with CDH, of which 53had isolated CDH (55.2 percent), 36 had CDH and additional anomalies(37.5 percent), and 7 had CDH and known chromosome aberrations (7.3percent). For FOG2, we identified novel sequence alterations predictingp.M703L and p.T843A in two patients with isolated CDH that were absent in526 and 564 control chromosomes respectively. These altered amino acidswere highly conserved. However, due to the lack of available parental DNAsamples we were not able to determine if the sequence alterations were denovo. For PDGFRa, we found a single variant predicting p.L967V in apatient with CDH and multiple anomalies that was absent in 768 controlchromosomes. This patient also had one cell with trisomy 15 on skinfibroblast culture, a finding of uncertain significance. Although ourstudy identified sequence variants in FOG2 and PDGFRa, we have notdefinitively established the variants as mutations and we found noevidence that CDH commonly results from mutations in thesegenes.

  14. HIV-1 Genetic Variants in the Russian Far East

    PubMed Central

    Kazennova, Elena; Laga, Vita; Lapovok, Ilya; Glushchenko, Nataliya; Neshumaev, Dmitry; Vasilyev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A molecular analysis of HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants circulating in cities in the Russian Far East was performed. The study included samples from 201 outpatients from Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, and Blagoveshchensk. In most parts of Russia, patients are infected with HIV-1 subtype A, known as the IDU-A variant. Subtype B, including the IDU-B variant, is rare in Russia but widespread in the Ukraine, and the CRF02_AG is prevalent in Central Asian countries and Siberia, Russia. One of the challenges of this study in the Far East was to determine whether the molecular landscape of HIV infection in this region is influenced by the bordering countries, including China and Japan, where a distinct set of HIV subtypes is circulating, such as B?, C, and CRF01_AE. The distribution of HIV-1 genetic variants in the cities studied was as follows: subtype A (IDU-A), 55.7%; subtype B, 25.3% (IDU-B variant—24.3%); subtype C, 10.0%; CRF02_AG, 1.5%; and CRF63_02A1, 7.5%. A phylogenetic analysis confirmed the relationship of subtype A viruses with the IDU-A variant predominating in Ukraine, Russia and other former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, of subtype B viruses with IDU-B in the Ukraine and of CRF02_AG variants with variants in Uzbekistan, Russia, and other former USSR countries. Subtype C sequences were not uniform, and most clustered between each other and HIV-1 sequences originating from Africa; there was only one sample possibly related to Chinese variants. Thus, despite close cultural and commercial relationships among Russia, China, and Japan, the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes in the Russian Far East is still primarily influenced by contacts with the countries of the former USSR. PMID:24773167

  15. Functional significance of SPINK1 promoter variants in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Derikx, Monique H M; Geisz, Andrea; Kereszturi, Éva; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós

    2015-05-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disorder of the pancreas, which often develops as a result of genetic predisposition. Some of the most frequently identified risk factors affect the serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) gene, which encodes a trypsin inhibitor responsible for protecting the pancreas from premature trypsinogen activation. Recent genetic and functional studies indicated that promoter variants in the SPINK1 gene might contribute to disease risk in carriers. Here, we investigated the functional effects of 17 SPINK1 promoter variants using luciferase reporter gene expression assay in four different cell lines, including three pancreatic acinar cell lines (rat AR42J with or without dexamethasone-induced differentiation and mouse 266-6) and human embryonic kidney 293T cells. We found that most variants caused relatively small changes in promoter activity. Surprisingly, however, we observed significant variations in the effects of the promoter variants in the different cell lines. Only four variants exhibited consistently reduced promoter activity in all acinar cell lines, confirming previous reports that variants c.-108G>T, c.-142T>C, and c.-147A>G are risk factors for chronic pancreatitis and identifying c.-52G>T as a novel risk variant. In contrast, variant c.-215G>A, which is linked with the disease-associated splice-site mutation c.194 + 2T>C, caused increased promoter activity, which may mitigate the overall effect of the pathogenic haplotype. Our study lends further support to the notion that sequence evaluation of the SPINK1 promoter region in patients with chronic pancreatitis is justified as part of the etiological investigation. PMID:25792561

  16. Better prediction of functional effects for sequence variants

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the effects of naturally occurring genetic variation is one of the major challenges for personalized health and personalized medicine. Here, we introduce SNAP2, a novel neural network based classifier that improves over the state-of-the-art in distinguishing between effect and neutral variants. Our method's improved performance results from screening many potentially relevant protein features and from refining our development data sets. Cross-validated on >100k experimentally annotated variants, SNAP2 significantly outperformed other methods, attaining a two-state accuracy (effect/neutral) of 83%. SNAP2 also outperformed combinations of other methods. Performance increased for human variants but much more so for other organisms. Our method's carefully calibrated reliability index informs selection of variants for experimental follow up, with the most strongly predicted half of all effect variants predicted at over 96% accuracy. As expected, the evolutionary information from automatically generated multiple sequence alignments gave the strongest signal for the prediction. However, we also optimized our new method to perform surprisingly well even without alignments. This feature reduces prediction runtime by over two orders of magnitude, enables cross-genome comparisons, and renders our new method as the best solution for the 10-20% of sequence orphans. SNAP2 is available at: https://rostlab.org/services/snap2web Definitions used Delta, input feature that results from computing the difference feature scores for native amino acid and feature scores for variant amino acid; nsSNP, non-synoymous SNP; PMD, Protein Mutant Database; SNAP, Screening for non-acceptable polymorphisms; SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism; variant, any amino acid changing sequence variant. PMID:26110438

  17. A Bioinformatics Workflow for Variant Peptide Detection in Shotgun Proteomics*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Su, Zengliu; Ma, Ze-Qiang; Slebos, Robbert J. C.; Halvey, Patrick; Tabb, David L.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Pao, William; Zhang, Bing

    2011-01-01

    Shotgun proteomics data analysis usually relies on database search. However, commonly used protein sequence databases do not contain information on protein variants and thus prevent variant peptides and proteins from been identified. Including known coding variations into protein sequence databases could help alleviate this problem. Based on our recently published human Cancer Proteome Variation Database, we have created a protein sequence database that comprehensively annotates thousands of cancer-related coding variants collected in the Cancer Proteome Variation Database as well as noncancer-specific ones from the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Database (dbSNP). Using this database, we then developed a data analysis workflow for variant peptide identification in shotgun proteomics. The high risk of false positive variant identifications was addressed by a modified false discovery rate estimation method. Analysis of colorectal cancer cell lines SW480, RKO, and HCT-116 revealed a total of 81 peptides that contain either noncancer-specific or cancer-related variations. Twenty-three out of 26 variants randomly selected from the 81 were confirmed by genomic sequencing. We further applied the workflow on data sets from three individual colorectal tumor specimens. A total of 204 distinct variant peptides were detected, and five carried known cancer-related mutations. Each individual showed a specific pattern of cancer-related mutations, suggesting potential use of this type of information for personalized medicine. Compatibility of the workflow has been tested with four popular database search engines including Sequest, Mascot, X!Tandem, and MyriMatch. In summary, we have developed a workflow that effectively uses existing genomic data to enable variant peptide detection in proteomics. PMID:21389108

  18. Identification of new splice variants and differential expression of the human kallikrein 10 gene, a candidate cancer biomarker.

    PubMed

    Yousef, George M; White, Nicole M A; Michael, Iacovos P; Cho, Jane Chan-Kyung; Robb, John Desmond; Kurlender, Lisa; Khan, Saba; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2005-01-01

    The human kallikrein gene 10 (KLK10) is a member of the kallikrein gene family on chromosome 19q13.4. This gene was identified by its downregulation in breast cancer, and preliminary evidence suggests that it may act as a tumor suppressor. A computer-based analysis was performed on EST and SAGE clones from the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project and other databases. Experimental verification of differential expression of KLK10 in cancer was performed by PCR using gene-specific primers. The mRNA and EST analysis allowed the construction of the longest transcript of the gene and characterization of a 5' extension of the reported mRNA. In addition, seven new splice variants of KLK10 were identified. One of these variants, named KLK10 splice variant 3 (KLK10-SV3) which starts with a novel first exon, was experimentally verified. This variant is predicted to encode for the same protein as the 'classical' KLK10 mRNA, since the first exon is untranslated. One variant mRNA partially matches with the sequence of KLK10, while the rest of the mRNA matches with a portion of the polycystic kidney disease gene, found on chromosome 15. This variant could not be experimentally verified in either normal or cancerous tissues. There are 39 reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the gene, in which three result in amino acid substitutions. SAGE analysis shows a clear upregulation of KLK10 in ovarian, pancreatic, colon, and gastric cancers. The gene is, however, downregulated in breast and prostate cancers. A three-fold decrease in expression levels was noted in actinic keratosis, compared to normal skin from the same patient. The differential regulation of KLK10 in ovarian and prostate cancers was experimentally verified by RT-PCR analysis. In addition, a significant number of clones were isolated from carcinomas of the head and neck. Fewer clones were found in carcinomas of the skin, brain and prostate. Orthologues were identified in three other species, with the highest degree of homology observed with the mouse and rat orthologues (42% in each). In conclusion new splice variants of the KLK10 gene were identified. These in silico analyses show a differential expression of the gene in various malignancies and provide the basis for directing experimental efforts to investigate the possible role of the gene as a cancer biomarker. PMID:16103744

  19. The sequence of a viroid from grapevine closely related to severe isolates of citrus exocortis viroid.

    PubMed Central

    García-Arenal, F; Pallás, V; Flores, R

    1987-01-01

    The primary structure of a grapevine viroid (GVs) isolated in Spain was determined. The sequence consisted of 369 nucleotide residues forming a circular molecule. GVs presented extensive homology with viroids of the potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV) group, that was specially high in the case of citrus exocortis viroid (CEV) both with variants found in isolates inducing severe (92% with CEV-A) and mild (89% with CEV-DE26) symptoms on tomato. The secondary structure proposed for GVs showed that the changes in the sequence in relation to CEV-A generated modifications of the secondary structure particularly important in the left terminal (Tl), variable (V) and pathogenesis (P) viroid domains that have been postulated. Nevertheless it was noted in GVs a central core in the P domain that is conserved in the class A sequence variants characteristic of severe isolates, but not in the class B ones found in mild isolates of CEV. These observations indicate that GVs should be considered as a severe isolate of CEV from grapevine (CEV-g), a suggestion that correlates with the biological properties of CEV-g both in tomato and in Gynura aurantiaca. The presence of this central core in the P domain seems to characterize all the variants of CEV inducing severe symptoms in tomato. PMID:2438653

  20. Module isolation devices

    DOEpatents

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Cooke, John Albert; Buzinski, Michael David

    2010-04-27

    A gas flow isolation device includes a gas flow isolation valve movable from an opened condition to a closed condition. The module isolation valve in one embodiment includes a rupture disk in flow communication with a flow of gas when the module isolation valve is in an opened condition. The rupture disk ruptures when a predetermined pressure differential occurs across it causing the isolation valve to close. In one embodiment the valve is mechanically linked to the rupture disk to maintain the valve in an opened condition when the rupture disk is intact, and which permits the valve to move into a closed condition when the rupture disk ruptures. In another embodiment a crushable member maintains the valve in an open condition, and the flow of gas passed the valve upon rupturing of the rupture disk compresses the crushable member to close the isolation valve.

  1. Mutation and premating isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, R. C.; Thompson, J. N. Jr

    2002-01-01

    While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

  2. Exploring the role of exposure frequency in recognizing pronunciation variants

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Mark A.; Dilley, Laura; Tat, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Words can be pronounced in multiple ways in casual speech. Corpus analyses of the frequency with which these pronunciation variants occur (e.g., Patterson & Connine, 2001) show that typically, one pronunciation variant tends to predominate; this raises the question of whether variant recognition is aligned with exposure frequency. We explored this issue in words containing one of four phonological contexts, each of which favors one of four surface realizations of word-medial /t/: [t], [?], [?], or a deleted variant. The frequencies of the four realizations in all four contexts were estimated for a set of words in a production experiment. Recognition of all pronunciation variants was then measured in a lexical decision experiment. Overall, the data suggest that listeners are sensitive to variant frequency: Word classification rates closely paralleled production frequency. The exceptions to this were [t] realizations (i.e., canonical pronunciations of the words), a finding which confirms other results in the literature and indicates that factors other than exposure frequency affect word recognition. PMID:21822340

  3. Mutation update for GNE gene variants associated with GNE myopathy.

    PubMed

    Celeste, Frank V; Vilboux, Thierry; Ciccone, Carla; de Dios, John Karl; Malicdan, May Christine V; Leoyklang, Petcharat; McKew, John C; Gahl, William A; Carrillo-Carrasco, Nuria; Huizing, Marjan

    2014-08-01

    The GNE gene encodes the rate-limiting, bifunctional enzyme of sialic acid biosynthesis, uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE). Biallelic GNE mutations underlie GNE myopathy, an adult-onset progressive myopathy. GNE myopathy-associated GNE mutations are predominantly missense, resulting in reduced, but not absent, GNE enzyme activities. The exact pathomechanism of GNE myopathy remains unknown, but likely involves aberrant (muscle) sialylation. Here, we summarize 154 reported and novel GNE variants associated with GNE myopathy, including 122 missense, 11 nonsense, 14 insertion/deletions, and seven intronic variants. All variants were deposited in the online GNE variation database (http://www.dmd.nl/nmdb2/home.php?select_db=GNE). We report the predicted effects on protein function of all variants well as the predicted effects on epimerase and/or kinase enzymatic activities of selected variants. By analyzing exome sequence databases, we identified three frequently occurring, unreported GNE missense variants/polymorphisms, important for future sequence interpretations. Based on allele frequencies, we estimate the world-wide prevalence of GNE myopathy to be ?4-21/1,000,000. This previously unrecognized high prevalence confirms suspicions that many patients may escape diagnosis. Awareness among physicians for GNE myopathy is essential for the identification of new patients, which is required for better understanding of the disorder's pathomechanism and for the success of ongoing treatment trials. PMID:24796702

  4. A role for chromosomal instability in the development of and selection for radioresistant cell variants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limoli, C. L.; Corcoran, J. J.; Jordan, R.; Morgan, W. F.; Schwartz, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    Chromosome instability is a common occurrence in tumour cells. We examined the hypothesis that the elevated rate of mutation formation in unstable cells can lead to the development of clones of cells that are resistant to the cancer therapy. To test this hypothesis, we compared chromosome instability to radiation sensitivity in 30 independently isolated clones of GM10115 human-hamster hybrid cells. There was a broader distribution of radiosensitivity and a higher mean SF(2)in chromosomally unstable clones. Cytogenetic and DNA double-strand break rejoining assays suggest that sensitivity was a function of DNA repair efficiency. In the unstable population, the more radioresistant clones also had significantly lower plating efficiencies. These observations suggest that chromosome instability in GM10115 cells can lead to the development of cell variants that are more resistant to radiation. In addition, these results suggest that the process of chromosome breakage and recombination that accompanies chromosome instability might provide some selective pressure for more radioresistant variants. Copyright 2001 Cancer Research Campaign.

  5. Characterization of Fusarium wilt resistant somaclonal variants of banana cv. Rasthali by cDNA-RAPD.

    PubMed

    Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2014-12-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is counted among the most destructive diseases of crop plants in India. In the absence of any credible control measure to manage this disease, development of resistant cultivars is the best option. Somaclonal variations arising out of long term in vitro culture of plant tissues is an important source of genetic variability and the selection of somaclones having desired characteristics is a promising strategy to develop plants with improved characters. In the present study, we isolated a group of somaclonal variants of banana cv. Rasthali which showed efficient resistance towards Foc race 1 infection in repeated bioassays. cDNA-RAPD methodology using 96 decamer primers was used to characterize these somaclonal variants. Among the four differentially amplified bands obtained, one mapping to the coding region of a lipoxygenase gene was confirmed to be down regulated in the somaclones as compared to controls by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Our results correlated well with earlier studies with lipoxygenase mutants in maize wherein reduced expression of lipoxygenase led to enhanced resistance towards Fusarium infection. PMID:25160909

  6. Catecholaminergic Gene Variants: Contribution in ADHD and Associated Comorbid Attributes in the Eastern Indian Probands

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Kanyakumarika; Bhaduri, Nipa; Sarkar, Keka; Sinha, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Kanchan

    2013-01-01

    Contribution of genes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been explored in various populations, and several genes were speculated to contribute small but additive effects. We have assessed variants in four genes, DDC (rs3837091 and rs3735273), DRD2 (rs1800496, rs1801028, and rs1799732), DRD4 (rs4646984 and rs4646983), and COMT (rs165599 and rs740603) in Indian ADHD subjects with comorbid attributes. Cases were recruited following the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV-TR after obtaining informed written consent. DNA isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes of ADHD probands (N = 170), their parents (N = 310), and ethnically matched controls (n = 180) was used for genotyping followed by population- and family-based analyses by the UNPHASED program. DRD4 sites showed significant difference in allelic frequencies by case-control analysis, while DDC and COMT exhibited bias in familial transmission (P < 0.05). rs3837091 “AGAG,” rs3735273 “A,” rs1799732 “C,” rs740603 “G,” rs165599 “G” and single repeat alleles of rs4646984/rs4646983 showed positive correlation with co-morbid characteristics (P < 0.05). Multi dimensionality reduction analysis of case-control data revealed significant interactive effects of all four genes (P < 0.001), while family-based data showed interaction between DDC and DRD2 (P = 0.04). This first study on these gene variants in Indo-Caucasoid ADHD probands and associated co-morbid conditions indicates altered dopaminergic neurotransmission in ADHD. PMID:24163823

  7. Thymidine-dependent Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variants: human pathogens that are relevant not only in cases of cystic fibrosis lung disease.

    PubMed

    Besier, Silke; Zander, Johannes; Siegel, Ekkehard; Saum, Stephan H; Hunfeld, Klaus-Peter; Ehrhart, Annabelle; Brade, Volker; Wichelhaus, Thomas A

    2008-11-01

    We report the isolation of thymidine-dependent small-colony variants (TD-SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus from unusual infection sites of patients with chronic soft tissue infection, tympanitis, bronchitis, peritonitis, and septicemia. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the essential growth factor for TD-SCVs, i.e., thymidine, and its metabolite dTMP are present in various human specimens. PMID:18832128

  8. Emergence of Extensively Drug-Resistant Proteus mirabilis Harboring a Conjugative NDM-1 Plasmid and a Novel Salmonella Genomic Island 1 Variant, SGI1-Z.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shangshang; Qi, Hui; Zhang, Qijing; Zhao, Di; Liu, Zhen-Zhen; Tian, Hao; Xu, Lijuan; Xu, Hui; Zhou, Mengmeng; Feng, Xianju; Liu, Hong-Min

    2015-10-01

    Acquisition of blaNDM-1 in bacterial species, such as Proteus mirabilis that is intrinsically resistant to tetracycline, tigecycline and colistin, will make clinical treatment extremely difficult. Here, we characterized an NDM-1-producing clinical isolate of P. mirabilis (PM58) that displayed an extensively drug-resistant (XDR) phenotype, susceptible only to aztreonam. Molecular analysis revealed that PM58 harbored both a conjugative NDM-1 plasmid and a novel Salmonella genomic island 1 variant on chromosome. PMID:26195511

  9. Identification of lung cancer histology-specific variants applying Bayesian framework variant prioritization approaches within the TRICL and ILCCO consortia.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Darren R; Amos, Christopher I; Brhane, Yonathan; Timofeeva, Maria N; Caporaso, Neil; Wang, Yufei; Christiani, David C; Bickeböller, Heike; Yang, Ping; Albanes, Demetrius; Stevens, Victoria L; Gapstur, Susan; McKay, James; Boffetta, Paolo; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Krokan, Hans E; Skorpen, Frank; Gabrielsen, Maiken E; Vatten, Lars; Njølstad, Inger; Chen, Chu; Goodman, Gary; Lathrop, Mark; Vooder, Tõnu; Välk, Kristjan; Nelis, Mari; Metspalu, Andres; Broderick, Peter; Eisen, Timothy; Wu, Xifeng; Zhang, Di; Chen, Wei; Spitz, Margaret R; Wei, Yongyue; Su, Li; Xie, Dong; She, Jun; Matsuo, Keitaro; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Ito, Hidemi; Risch, Angela; Heinrich, Joachim; Rosenberger, Albert; Muley, Thomas; Dienemann, Hendrik; Field, John K; Raji, Olaide; Chen, Ying; Gosney, John; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Davies, Michael P A; Marcus, Michael; McLaughlin, John; Orlow, Irene; Han, Younghun; Li, Yafang; Zong, Xuchen; Johansson, Mattias; Liu, Geoffrey; Tworoger, Shelley S; Le Marchand, Loic; Henderson, Brian E; Wilkens, Lynne R; Dai, Juncheng; Shen, Hongbing; Houlston, Richard S; Landi, Maria T; Brennan, Paul; Hung, Rayjean J

    2015-11-01

    Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have likely uncovered all common variants at the GWAS significance level. Additional variants within the suggestive range (0.0001> P > 5×10(-8)) are, however, still of interest for identifying causal associations. This analysis aimed to apply novel variant prioritization approaches to identify additional lung cancer variants that may not reach the GWAS level. Effects were combined across studies with a total of 33456 controls and 6756 adenocarcinoma (AC; 13 studies), 5061 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; 12 studies) and 2216 small cell lung cancer cases (9 studies). Based on prior information such as variant physical properties and functional significance, we applied stratified false discovery rates, hierarchical modeling and Bayesian false discovery probabilities for variant prioritization. We conducted a fine mapping analysis as validation of our methods by examining top-ranking novel variants in six independent populations with a total of 3128 cases and 2966 controls. Three novel loci in the suggestive range were identified based on our Bayesian framework analyses: KCNIP4 at 4p15.2 (rs6448050, P = 4.6×10(-7)) and MTMR2 at 11q21 (rs10501831, P = 3.1×10(-6)) with SCC, as well as GAREM at 18q12.1 (rs11662168, P = 3.4×10(-7)) with AC. Use of our prioritization methods validated two of the top three loci associated with SCC (P = 1.05×10(-4) for KCNIP4, represented by rs9799795) and AC (P = 2.16×10(-4) for GAREM, represented by rs3786309) in the independent fine mapping populations. This study highlights the utility of using prior functional data for sequence variants in prioritization analyses to search for robust signals in the suggestive range. PMID:26363033

  10. Cellulase variants with improved expression, activity and stability, and use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Aehle, Wolfgang; Bott, Richard R; Bower, Benjamin; Caspi, Jonathan; Estell, David A; Goedegebuur, Frits; Hommes, Ronaldus W.J.; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley; Kralj, Slavko; Van Lieshout, Johan; Nikolaev, Igor; Van Stigt Thans, Sander; Wallace, Louise; Vogtentanz, Gudrun; Sandgren, Mats

    2014-03-25

    The present disclosure relates to cellulase variants. In particular the present disclosure relates to cellulase variants having improved expression, activity and/or stability. Also described are nucleic acids encoding the cellulase variants, compositions comprising the cellulase variants, and methods of use thereof.

  11. Diagnosis of a new variant of soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus with extended host-range in India.

    PubMed

    Sandra, Nagamani; Kumar, Alok; Sharma, Prachi; Kapoor, Reetika; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Mandal, Bikash

    2015-12-01

    Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV, genus Carmovirus) was previously known to occur in South Korea and USA causing bright yellow mosaic in soybean. In this study, SYMMV (Car-Mb14 isolate) was isolated from mungbean (Vigna radiata) exhibiting mild mottling and puckering symptoms in the experimental field at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi during 2012. The virus isolate, Car-Mb14 induced veinal mottling, mild mottling, chlorotic blotching, local and systemic necrosis in soybean, mungbean, blackgram, French bean and guar bean, respectively. The symptomatology of the present isolate of SYMMV was different from the previously reported South Korean isolate, as the later did not induce symptoms in any of the above legumes other than soybean. The present isolate was phylogenetically distinct and shared 90-93 % sequence identity in coat protein (CP) of 52 SYMMV isolates reported from Korea and USA. In order to know the serological relationships, the CP gene of the present isolate was over expressed as a 39 kDa protein in E. coli and an antiserum of 1:16,000 titer against the recombinant CP was produced. Serological cross reactivity analysis revealed that SYMMV was serologically related to blackgram mottle virus but not to cowpea mottle virus, the other legume infecting carmoviruses. The antiserum was used to detect prevalence of SYMMV in legume crops by ELISA. Out of 145 field samples of legumes (mungbean, blackgram, French bean and soybean) collected from different places in India, SYMMV was detected only in 16 samples of mungbean and one sample of blackgram. The natural infection of SYMMV in mungbean and blackgram was further confirmed based on CP gene sequence. This study provides evidence of occurrence of a new variant of SYMMV with distinct symptom phenotype and extended host-range in India. PMID:26645042

  12. Evolution of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Variant with Enhanced Replication in Pig-Tailed Macaque Cells by DNA Shuffling

    PubMed Central

    Pekrun, Katja; Shibata, Riri; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Reed, Margaret; Sheppard, Liana; Patten, Philip A.; Stemmer, Willem P. C.; Martin, Malcolm A.; Soong, Nay-Wei

    2002-01-01

    DNA shuffling facilitated the evolution of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variant with enhanced replication in pig-tailed macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pt mPBMC). This variant consists exclusively of HIV-1-derived sequences with the exception of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) nef. Sequences spanning the gag-protease-reverse transcriptase (gag-pro-RT) region from several HIV-1 isolates were shuffled and cloned into a parental HIV-1 backbone containing SIV nef. Neither this full-length parent nor any of the unshuffled HIV-1 isolates replicated appreciably or sustainably in pt mPBMC. Upon selection of the shuffled viral libraries by serial passaging in pt mPBMC, a species emerged which replicated at substantially higher levels (50 to 100 ng/ml p24) than any of the HIV-1 parents and most importantly, could be continuously passaged in pt mPBMC. The parental HIV-1 isolates, when selected similarly, became extinct. Analyses of full-length improved proviral clones indicate that multiple recombination events in the shuffled region and adaptive changes in the rest of the genome contributed synergistically to the improved phenotype. This improved variant may prove useful in establishing a pig-tailed macaque model of HIV-1 infection. PMID:11861859

  13. Association of genetic variants with dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Abe, Shintaro; Tokoro, Fumitaka; Matsuoka, Reiko; Arai, Masazumi; Noda, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Sachiro; Horibe, Hideki; Fujimaki, Tetsuo; Oguri, Mitsutoshi; Kato, Kimihiko; Minatoguchi, Shinya; Yamada, Yoshiji

    2015-10-01

    Although genetic variants, which regulate lipid metabolism, have been extensively investigated in Caucasian populations, the genes, which confer susceptibility to dyslipidemia in Japanese individuals, remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to examine a possible association among hypertriglyceridemia, hypo?high density lipoprotein (HDL)?cholesterolemia or hyper?low density lipoprotein (LDL)?cholesterolemia in Japanese individuals with 29 polymorphisms observed to confer susceptibility for coronary heart disease. This was performed through meta?analyses of genome?wide association studies in Caucasian populations. The study population comprised 2,354 individuals with dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia, hypo?HDL?cholesterolemia or hyper?LDL?cholesterolemia) and 3,106 control individuals. To compensate for multiple comparisons of genotypes, a false discovery rate (FDR) of <0.05 was adopted to determine the statistical significance of the associations. Comparisons of allele frequencies using the ?2 test revealed that rs964184 of zinc finger gene (ZPR1; FDR=2.1x10?7), rs4845625 of interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R; FDR=0.032), rs46522 of ubiquitin?conjugating enzyme E2Z gene (UBE2Z; FDR=0.032) and rs17514846 of furin (FDR=0.041) were significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia. The ?2 test revealed that rs599839 of proline/serine?rich coiled?coil 1 (PSRC1; FDR=0.004) and rs2075650 of translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homolog (TOMM40; FDR=0.004) were significantly associated with hyper?LDL?cholesterolemia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age, gender and body mass index revealed that rs964184 of ZPR1 (P=5.1x10?7; odds ratio, 1.37; dominant model), rs4845625 of IL6R (P=0.0019, odds ratio, 1.25; dominant model) and rs46522 of UBE2Z (P=0.0039, odds ratio, 1.19; dominant model) were significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia, and that rs599839 of PSRC1 (P=0.0004, odds ratio, 0.70; dominant model) and rs2075650 of TOMM40 (P=0.0004, odds ratio, 1.43; dominant model) were significantly associated with hyper?LDL?cholesterolemia. Therefore, ZPR1, IL6R, and UBE2Z may be susceptibility loci for hypertriglyceridemia, whereas PSRC1 and TOMM40 may be such loci for hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia in Japanese individuals. PMID:26238946

  14. A magnetic non-reciprocal isolator for broadband terahertz operation

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Mostafa; Peccianti, Marco; Ozturk, Yavuz; Morandotti, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    A Faraday isolator is an electromagnetic non-reciprocal device, a key element in photonics. It is required to shield electromagnetic sources against the effect of back-reflected light, as well as to limit the detrimental effect of back-propagating spontaneous emissions. A common isolator variant, the circulator, is widely used to obtain a complete separation between forward- and backward-propagating waves, thus enabling the realization of a desired transfer function in reflection only. Here we demonstrate a non-reciprocal terahertz Faraday isolator, operating on a bandwidth exceeding one decade of frequency, a necessary requirement to achieve isolation with the (few-cycle) pulses generated by broadband sources. The exploited medium allows a broadband rotation, up to 194°/T, obtained using a SrFe12O19 terahertz-transparent permanent magnet. This in turn enables the design of a stand-alone complete terahertz isolator without resorting to an external magnetic field bias, as opposed to all the optical isolators realized so far. PMID:23463001

  15. A comparative study of rabies virus isolates from hematophagous bats in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Juliana G; Carnieli, Pedro; Oliveira, Rafael N; Fahl, Willian O; Cavalcante, Rosangela; Santana, Antonio A; Rosa, Wellington L G A; Carrieri, Maria L; Kotait, Ivanete

    2010-10-01

    The Brazilian chiropteran fauna consists of 167 species; of which, three are hematophagous: the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), the white-winged vampire bat (Diaemus youngi), and the hairy-legged vampire bat (Diphylla ecaudata). The aim of this study was to describe the isolation of Rabies virus from common and hairy-legged vampire bats and to report the first comparative antigenic and genetic studies of isolates from these bats. Antigenic and genetic typing of both isolates identified them as antigenic variant 3 (AgV3), the variant frequently isolated from common vampire bats. Phylogenetic analysis showed 99.3% identity between the isolates. This is the first time since 1934 that Rabies virus has been isolated from hairy-legged vampire bats in Brazil. Our analysis provides evidence that the existence of rabies-positive isolates from hairy-legged vampire bats may be the result of an interspecific rabies transmission event from common vampire bats and suggests that roost cohabitation may occur. PMID:20966291

  16. Wrentit Genetic Isolation Map

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This map of the Thousand Oaks, Calif. area visualizes the degree of genetic isolation being experienced by the wrentit (Chamaea fasciata), a small songbird. USGS and National Park Service biologists discovered that as urban development fragmented the Santa Monica Mountains scrubland into isolated

  17. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1975-01-01

    A positive isolation disconnect was developed for component replacement in serviced liquid and gaseous spacecraft systems. Initially a survey of feasible concepts was made to determine the optimum method for fluid isolation, sealing techniques, coupling concepts, and foolproofing techniques. The top concepts were then further evaluated, including the fabrication of a semifunctional model. After all tradeoff analyses were made, a final configuration was designed and fabricated for development testing. This resulted in a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) line and 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) line positive isolation disconnect, each unit consisting of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique was incorporated that prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation.

  18. CYP2C9 allelic variants and frequencies in a pediatric sickle cell disease cohort: implications for NSAIDs pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jaja, Cheedy; Patel, Niren; Scott, Stuart A; Gibson, Robert; Kutlar, Abdullah

    2014-10-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) used to treat pain in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are metabolized by the CYP2C9 enzyme. Racial differences in CYP2C9 allele frequencies impact NSAIDs efficacy and safety. We determined the frequencies of CYP2C9 alleles in an African American pediatric SCD cohort. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples of 30 patients aged between 7 and 17 years. Genotyping of nine CYP2C9 alleles (*1,*2, *3, *4, *5, *6, *8, *11, and *13) was performed using restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR assays and the Tag-It™ Mutation Detection System. The wild type *1 allele frequency was 0.850. The most common variant allele detected was CYP2C9*8 (0.067). The combined frequency of the *2, *5, *6, *8, and *11 variants was 0.151. Seventy percent of the study cohort were predicted extensive metabolizers (*1/*1) and 30% were intermediate metabolizers due mainly to the *1/*8 genotype. Analysis of CYP2C9 using an expanded assay panel facilitated improved classification of predicted drug metabolic phenotypes in our cohort. However, the pharmacokinetic effects of the CYP2C9*5,*6,*8, and *11 alleles on NSAIDs metabolism has not been evaluated and underscores the need for studies on substrate-specific effects of variant alleles common in populations with genetic susceptibility to SCD. PMID:24889181

  19. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures.

    PubMed

    Hibar, Derrek P; Stein, Jason L; Renteria, Miguel E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R K; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H; Olde Loohuis, Loes M; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; van Eijk, Kristel R; Walters, Raymond K; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Winkler, Anderson M; Zwiers, Marcel P; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M H; Hartberg, Cecilie B; Haukvik, Unn K; Heister, Angelien J G A M; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C M; Lopez, Lorna M; Makkinje, Remco R R; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A M; McKay, D Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S L; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A; Bastin, Mark E; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Carless, Melanie A; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J Raphael; Göring, Harald H H; Green, Robert C; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K; Hartman, Catharina A; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; McMahon, Katie L; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Mostert, Jeanette C; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Nalls, Michael A; Nichols, Thomas E; Nilsson, Lars G; Nöthen, Markus M; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G Bruce; Potkin, Steven G; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M; Sussmann, Jessika E; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; van 't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J A; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J; Wassink, Thomas H; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H; Zonderman, Alan B; Ashbrook, David G; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J; Morris, Derek W; Williams, Robert W; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Roffman, Joshua L; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smoller, Jordan W; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brouwer, Rachel M; Cannon, Dara M; Cookson, Mark R; de Geus, Eco J C; Deary, Ian J; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C; Grabe, Hans J; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Jönsson, Erik G; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; Ophoff, Roel A; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Simmons, Andy

    2015-04-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume and intracranial volume. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08?×?10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction. PMID:25607358

  20. [Structural variants of hemoglobin in Ibero-America].

    PubMed

    Sáenz Renauld, G F; Rodríguez Romero, W; Chaves Villalobos, M

    1993-12-01

    Structural hemoglobin variants are reviewed for Iberoamerica; specially in Latin America, they reflect racial composition and geographic origin. Latin American genetic composition is a function of ethnic composition in each country (mainly Africans and Spaniards, and the "indians" or native peoples). For this reason the distribution of hemoglobin variants has been greatly affected by the individual and population movements, specially as a result of the 18th and 19th century African slave trade. Scientific, sanitary, social and cultural factors explain (at least for Latin America and Portugal), a quantitative and qualitative subestimation of the structural variants of hemoglobin. In Spain, which has extensive research on the subject, the Caucasian variant number is known to be high, compared with Latin America and Portugal. Concerning origin and prevalence of hemoglobin polymorphism, the only established positive selection force is malaria falciparum. In Iberoamerica, the Hb S, as the major polymorphism and the HbC, have the greatest clinical and anthropological importance. Nevertheless, most variants are rare (found in an individual person or a particular family). Other minor Iberoamerica polymorphisms are the Hb E and D-Punjab, from Asia; and the Hb Korle-Bu, G-Philadelphia and A2 from Africa. PMID:7701080

  1. [Human hemoglobin: polymorphism, neutrality of variants, evolutionary aspect].

    PubMed

    Spivak, V A

    1986-01-01

    Integrated analysis of the polymorphism of human hemoglobin has been made using populational genetics, hematological, physiological, protein chemistry and molecular biology data. The known variants of human hemoglobin are conventionally classified as "widely common", "less common" and "rare", depending on their contribution to polymorphism. The importance of homeostasis and compensatory reactions for maintaining the resistance of the human body against mutant hemoglobins is emphasized. Hb D Punjab and Hb O Arab being relatively neutral, the genetic structure of populations may restrict their distribution. A hypothesis is put forward concerning the possible role of an increased local conformational mobility of protein in creating neutral protein variants. It is proposed to discriminate between truly neutral and pseudoneutral protein variants. In case of possible changes in the genetic and environmental factors, the former are not subject to selection, while the latter may be. Contribution to neutral evolution can be made only by truly neutral variants. In a compensated heterozygotic state the truly neutral and pseudoneutral variants may give rise to new functions and adaptively valuable properties in protein. The evolution of proteins is believed to proceed from a stage which is consistent with M. Kimura's concept of neutrality of protein polymorphism toward a stage which is consistent with the concept of selectionism. It is concluded, that the currently observed degree of polymorphism of human hemoglobin corresponds to the present stage of molecular evolution of the protein. PMID:3724752

  2. [Specificities of the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia].

    PubMed

    Magnin, E; Teichmann, M; Martinaud, O; Moreaud, O; Ryff, I; Belliard, S; Pariente, J; Moulin, T; Vandel, P; Démonet, J-F

    2015-01-01

    The logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia is a syndrome with neuropsychological and linguistic specificities, including phonological loop impairment for which diagnosis is currently mainly based on the exclusion of the two other variants, semantic and nonfluent/agrammatic primary progressive aphasia. The syndrome may be underdiagnosed due (1) to mild language difficulties during the early stages of the disease or (2) to being mistaken for mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease when the evaluation of episodic memory is based on verbal material and (3) finally, it is not uncommon that the disorders are attributed to psychiatric co-morbidities such as, for example, anxiety. Moreover, compared to other variants of primary progressive aphasia, brain abnormalities are different. The left temporoparietal junction is initially affected. Neuropathology and biomarkers (cerebrospinal fluid, molecular amyloid nuclear imaging) frequently reveal Alzheimer's disease. Consequently this variant of primary progressive aphasia does not fall under the traditional concept of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. These distinctive features highlight the utility of correct diagnosis, classification, and use of biomarkers to show the neuropathological processes underlying logopenic primary progressive aphasia. The logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia is a specific form of Alzheimer's disease frequently presenting a rapid decline; specific linguistic therapies are needed. Further investigation of this syndrome is needed to refine screening, improve diagnostic criteria and better understand the epidemiology and the biological mechanisms involved. PMID:25444173

  3. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    PubMed Central

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Olde Loohuis, Loes M.; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; van ’t Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Jönsson, Erik G.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences1. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement2, learning, memory3 and motivation4, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease2. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume5 and intracranial volume6. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10?33; 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability inhuman brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction. PMID:25607358

  4. Variant priorization and analysis incorporating problematic regions of the genome.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Anil; Clark, Michael; Morgan, Alex; Chervitz, Stephen; Pratt, Mark; Bartha, Gabor; Chandratillake, Gemma; Garcia, Sarah; Leng, Nan; Chen, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In case-control studies of rare Mendelian disorders and complex diseases, the power to detect variant and gene-level associations of a given effect size is limited by the size of the study sample. Paradoxically, low statistical power may increase the likelihood that a statistically significant finding is also a false positive. The prioritization of variants based on call quality, putative effects on protein function, the predicted degree of deleteriousness, and allele frequency is often used as a mechanism for reducing the occurrence of false positives, while preserving the set of variants most likely to contain true disease associations. We propose that specificity can be further improved by considering errors that are specific to the regions of the genome being sequenced. These problematic regions (PRs) are identified a-priori and are used to down-weight constitutive variants in a case-control analysis. Using samples drawn from 1000-Genomes, we illustrate the utility of PRs in identifying true variant and gene associations using a case-control study on a known Mendelian disease, cystic fibrosis (CF). PMID:24297554

  5. Genomic structural variants are linked with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Bulayeva, Kazima; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Bulayev, Oleg; Walsh, Christopher; Glatt, Stephen; Gurgenova, Farida; Omarova, Jamilja; Berdichevets, Irina; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-09-01

    Mutations in more than 500 genes have been associated with intellectual disability (ID) and related disorders of cognitive function, such as autism and schizophrenia. Here we aimed to unravel the molecular epidemiology of non-specific ID in a genetic isolate using a combination of population and molecular genetic approaches. A large multigenerational pedigree was ascertained within a Dagestan Genetic Heritage research program in a genetic isolate of indigenous ethnics. Clinical characteristics of the affected members were based on combining diagnoses from regional psychiatric hospitals with our own clinical assessment, using a Russian translation of the structured psychiatric interviews, the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies and the Family Interview for Genetic Studies, based on DSM-IV criteria. Weber/CHLC 9.0 STRs set was used for multipoint parametric linkage analyses (Simwalk2.91). Next, we checked CNVs and LOH (based on Affymetrix SNP 5.0 data) in the linked with ID genomic regions with the aim to identify candidate genes associated with mutations in linked regions. The number of statistically significant (p ? 0.05) suggestive linkage peaks with 1.3 < LOD < 3.0 we detected in a total of 10 genomic regions: 1q41, 2p25.3-p24.2, 3p13-p12.1, 4q13.3, 10p11, 11q23, 12q24.22-q24.31, 17q24.2-q25.1, 21q22.13 and 22q12.3-q13.1. Three significant linkage signals with LOD >3 were obtained at 2p25.3-p24.2 under the dominant model, with a peak at 21 cM flanked by loci D2S2976 and D2S2952; at 12q24.22-q24.31 under the recessive model, with a peak at -120 cM flanked by marker D12S2070 and D12S395 and at 22q12.3 under the dominant model, with a peak at 32 cM flanked by marker D22S683 and D22S445. After a set of genes had been designated as possible candidates in these specific chromosomal regions,we conducted an exploratory search for LOH and CNV based on microarray data to detect structural genomic variants within five ID-linked regions with LOD scores between 2.0 and 3.9. In these selected regions we obtained 173 ROH segments and 98 CN segments. Further analysis of region 2p25.3-p24.2 revealed deletions within genes encoding MYTL, SNTG2 and TPO among five of 21 affected cases at 2p25.3-p24.2. In the ID-linked region at 12q24.22-12q24.31 19 out of 21 ID cases carried segmental CNV and 20 of 21 them displayed ROH segments with mean size lengths for ID cases 2512 kb (500-6,472 kb) and for healthy control 682 kb (531-986 kb), including the genes MED13L, HRK, FBXW8, TESC, CDK2AP1 and SBNO1. Seven of 21 affected pedigree members displayed segmental deletions at 22q12.3 that includes the gene LARGE. Eight affected pedigree members carried ROH segments and 6 CN segments at 10p11.23-p11.21 containing the genes ZEB1, c10orf68 and EPC1. Our linkage and structural genomic variation analyses in a remote highland genetic isolate with aggregation of ID demonstrated that even highly isolated single kindred ID has oligo/polygenic pathogenesis. The results obtained implicate 10 genomic regions linked with ID that contain some of previously reported candidate genes, including HRK, FBXW8, TESC, CDK2AP1 and SBNO1 at 12q24 that were shown in recent studies as associated with brain measures derived from MRI scans. PMID:25626716

  6. Emergence of Amoxicillin-Resistant Variants of Spain9V-ST156 Pneumococci Expressing Serotype 11A Correlates with Their Ability to Evade the Host Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Aguinagalde, Leire; Corsini, Bruno; Domenech, Arnau; Domenech, Mirian; Cámara, Jordi; Ardanuy, Carmen; García, Ernesto; Liñares, Josefina; Fenoll, Asunción; Yuste, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Capsular switching allows pre-existing clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae expressing vaccine serotypes to escape the vaccine-induced immunity by acquisition of capsular genes from pneumococci of a non-vaccine serotype. Here, we have analysed the clonal composition of 492 clinical isolates of serotype 11A causing invasive disease in Spain (2000–2012), and their ability to evade the host immune response. Antibiograms, serotyping and molecular typing were performed. The restriction profiles of pbp2x, pbp1a and pbp2b genes were also analysed. Interaction with the complement components C1q, C3b, C4BP, and factor H was explored whereas opsonophagocytosis assays were performed using a human cell line differentiated to neutrophils. Biofilm formation and the polymorphisms of the major autolysin LytA were evaluated. The main genotypes of the 11A pneumococci were: ST62 (447 isolates, 90.6%), followed by ST6521 (35 isolates, 7.3%) and ST838 (10 isolates, 2.1%). Beta lactam resistant serotype 11A variants of genotypes ST838 and ST6521 closely related to the Spain9V-ST156 clone were first detected in 2005. A different pattern of evasion of complement immunity and phagocytosis was observed between genotypes. The emergence of one vaccine escape variant of Spain9V-ST156 (ST652111A), showing a high potential to avoid the host immune response, was observed. In addition, isolates of ST652111A showed higher ability to produce biofilms than ST83811A or ST6211A, which may have contributed to the emergence of this PEN-resistant ST652111A genotype in the last few years. The emergence of penicillin-resistant 11A invasive variants of the highly successful ST156 clonal complex merits close monitoring. PMID:26368279

  7. Outbreak of variant pseudorabies virus in Bartha-K61-vaccinated piglets in central Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dongfang; Zhang, Zhendong; Lv, Lin; Xiao, Yihong; Qu, Yajin; Ma, Haiying; Niu, Yujuan; Wang, Guangwen; Liu, Sidang

    2015-09-01

    An epidemic that mainly endangered 3-7-day-old piglets struck many farms in Shandong Province, China in 2013 and caused heavy losses. To identify the pathogenesis, the type of lesions, and the causative agent, systemic examinations were performed. Autopsy showed multiple lesions, including necrotic foci of the spleen and liver, punctate hemorrhage of the renal cortex, and interstitial pneumonia. Histological examinations showed typical nonsuppurative encephalitis, necrotic lymphocytes, and reticuloendothelial cells in lymphatic tissues, as well as eosinophilic inclusion bodies in the nuclei of reticuloendothelial cells, necrotic foci in liver cells, and hemorrhagic glomeruli. The average seroprevalence rate of field pseudorabies virus (PRV; Suid herpesvirus 1) of a representative farm tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was 46%, indicating that the PRV infectious pressure was quite severe especially among gilts, young multiparous sows, boars, and growing-finishing pigs. The glycoprotein E (gE) gene of PRV was detected in 8 of 10 clinical samples, and the virus in the positive samples induced obvious cytopathic effects. An immunoperoxidase monolayer assay showed that PRV antigens were distributed both in the nucleoli and cytoplasm of infected cells. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the gE gene showed that the strain isolated herein, TaiAn SD 2013, was highly similar to previously isolated strains, especially those isolated in northern China in 2013, and was closely related to other isolates from Asia. Evidence confirmed that the variant PRV was the etiologic agent of this epidemic, suggesting that the Bartha-K61 vaccine does not provide complete protection against PRV infection. Further challenge tests are ongoing to investigate the virulence of variant PRV. PMID:26179102

  8. Abstract Vibrio fischeri strains isolated from light or-gans of the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolpes are non-vis-

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    Abstract Vibrio fischeri strains isolated from light or- gans of the sepiolid squid Euprymna for their pleiotropic conversion upon colonization of the squid. Key words Vibrio fischeri · Spontaneous variant between Vibrio fischeri and the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes (McFall-Ngai and Ruby 1991), the bacteria

  9. MOX Fabrication Isolation Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Eric L. Shaber; Bradley J Schrader

    2005-08-01

    This document provides a technical position on the preferred level of isolation to fabricate demonstration quantities of mixed oxide transmutation fuels. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative should design and construct automated glovebox fabrication lines for this purpose. This level of isolation adequately protects the health and safety of workers and the general public for all mixed oxide (and other transmutation fuel) manufacturing efforts while retaining flexibility, allowing parallel development and setup, and minimizing capital expense. The basis regulations, issues, and advantages/disadvantages of five potential forms of isolation are summarized here as justification for selection of the preferred technical position.

  10. Fault detection and isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernath, Greg

    1994-01-01

    In order for a current satellite-based navigation system (such as the Global Positioning System, GPS) to meet integrity requirements, there must be a way of detecting erroneous measurements, without help from outside the system. This process is called Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI). Fault detection requires at least one redundant measurement, and can be done with a parity space algorithm. The best way around the fault isolation problem is not necessarily isolating the bad measurement, but finding a new combination of measurements which excludes it.

  11. Histone variants: the tricksters of the chromatin world.

    PubMed

    Volle, Catherine; Dalal, Yamini

    2014-04-01

    The eukaryotic genome exists in vivo at an equimolar ratio with histones, thus forming a polymer composed of DNA and histone proteins. Each nucleosomal unit in this polymer provides versatile capabilities and dynamic range. Substitutions of the individual components of the histone core with structurally distinct histone variants and covalent modifications alter the local fabric of the chromatin fiber, resulting in epigenetic changes that can be regulated by the cell. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the study of histone variant structure, assembly, and inheritance, their influence on nucleosome positioning, and their cumulative effect upon gene expression, DNA repair and the progression of disease. We also highlight fundamental questions that remain unanswered regarding the behavior of histone variants and their influence on cellular function in the normal and diseased states. PMID:24463272

  12. Histone variants: the tricksters of the chromatin world?

    PubMed Central

    Volle, Catherine; Dalal, Yamini

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic genome exists in vivo at an equimolar ratio with histones, thus forming a polymer composed of DNA and histone proteins. Each nucleosomal unit in this polymer provides versatile capabilities and dynamic range. Substitutions of the individual components of the histone core with structurally distinct histone variants and covalent modifications alter the local fabric of the chromatin fiber, resulting in epigenetic changes that can be regulated by the cell. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the study of histone variant structure, assembly, and inheritance, their influence on nucleosome positioning, and their cumulative effect upon gene expression, DNA repair and the progression of disease. We also highlight fundamental questions that remain unanswered regarding the behavior of histone variants and their influence on cellular function in the normal and diseased states. PMID:24463272

  13. UPRE-variant: a novel criterion for parametric PSF estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Feng; Li, Zhifeng; Liu, Jiaqi; Meng, Gang; Zhao, Min

    2015-10-01

    We propose a variant of unbiased predictive risk estimate (UPRE) as a novel criterion for estimating a point spread function (PSF) from the degraded image only. Compared to the traditional unbiased estimates (e.g. UPRE and SURE), the key advantage of this variant is that it does not require the knowledge of noise variance. The PSF is obtained by minimizing this new objective functional over a family of smoother processings. Based on this estimated PSF, we then perform deconvolution using our recently developed SURE-LET algorithm. The novel criterion is exemplified with a number of parametric PSF. The experimental results demonstrate that the UPRE-variant minimization yields highly accurate estimates of the PSF parameters, which also result in a negligible loss of visual quality, compared to that obtained with the exact PSF. The highly competitive results outline the great potential of developing more powerful blind deconvolution algorithms based on this criterion.

  14. Massively Parallel Functional Analysis of BRCA1 RING Domain Variants.

    PubMed

    Starita, Lea M; Young, David L; Islam, Muhtadi; Kitzman, Jacob O; Gullingsrud, Justin; Hause, Ronald J; Fowler, Douglas M; Parvin, Jeffrey D; Shendure, Jay; Fields, Stanley

    2015-06-01

    Interpreting variants of uncertain significance (VUS) is a central challenge in medical genetics. One approach is to experimentally measure the functional consequences of VUS, but to date this approach has been post hoc and low throughput. Here we use massively parallel assays to measure the effects of nearly 2000 missense substitutions in the RING domain of BRCA1 on its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and its binding to the BARD1 RING domain. From the resulting scores, we generate a model to predict the capacities of full-length BRCA1 variants to support homology-directed DNA repair, the essential role of BRCA1 in tumor suppression, and show that it outperforms widely used biological-effect prediction algorithms. We envision that massively parallel functional assays may facilitate the prospective interpretation of variants observed in clinical sequencing. PMID:25823446

  15. Arylsulfatase A: Relationship of genotype to variant electrophoretic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Park, D.S.; Poretz, R.D.; Ricketts, M.H.; Manowitz, P.

    1996-04-01

    Previous work has shown that specific electrophoretic variants of arylsulfatase A occur more frequently among alcoholic patients than among psychiatric and normal controls. The present study sequenced the gene for two of these electrophoretic variants, IIIa and IIIb. Both contain an A-to-G transition corresponding to substitution of Asn{sub 350} by Ser, with the resulting loss of an N -glycosylation site. The difference in electrophoretic mobility of their gene products is due to a mutation in the IIIb gene resulting in the replacement of Arg{sub 496} by His. Evidence is presented that individuals posessing either of two other electrophoretic variants, Va and Vb, are heterozygous for a normal ASA allele and either a IIIa or IIIb allele, respectively. Thus, the relationship between the phenotype of the electrophoretic banding patterns, IIIa, IIIb, Va, and Vb, and their corresponding genotypes has been elucidated. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Peroneus Brevis Tendon Variant Insertion on the Calcaneus

    PubMed Central

    Cecava, Nathan D.; Campbell, Scot E.

    2015-01-01

    Insertion of the peroneus brevis tendon normally occurs at the lateral aspect of the fifth metatarsal base. However, there is new evidence that congenital variant insertion of the tendon on the calcaneal peroneal tubercle occurs in a small segment of the population. We report a case of 24-year old male presenting with non-traumatic ankle pain who underwent ankle magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging demonstrated insertion of the peroneus brevis tendon on the calcaneal peroneal tubercle with absence of the tendon distal to the calcaneus. Furthermore, in reviewing 200 consecutive ankle magnetic resonance examinations, the authors discovered one additional case of this variant. We discuss the magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of this anatomic variant, the implications for clinical management, and review the literature on peroneal anatomic variations.

  17. Scripps Genome ADVISER: Annotation and Distributed Variant Interpretation SERver

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Phillip H.; Shipman, William J.; Erikson, Galina A.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Torkamani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of human genomes is a major challenge. We present the Scripps Genome ADVISER (SG-ADVISER) suite, which aims to fill the gap between data generation and genome interpretation by performing holistic, in-depth, annotations and functional predictions on all variant types and effects. The SG-ADVISER suite includes a de-identification tool, a variant annotation web-server, and a user interface for inheritance and annotation-based filtration. SG-ADVISER allows users with no bioinformatics expertise to manipulate large volumes of variant data with ease – without the need to download large reference databases, install software, or use a command line interface. SG-ADVISER is freely available at genomics.scripps.edu/ADVISER. PMID:25706643

  18. Identification and Characterization of Clostridium perfringens Beta Toxin Variants with Differing Trypsin Sensitivity and In Vitro Cytotoxicity Activity

    PubMed Central

    Theoret, James R.; Uzal, Francisco A.

    2015-01-01

    By producing toxins, Clostridium perfringens causes devastating diseases of both humans and animals. C. perfringens beta toxin (CPB) is the major virulence determinant for type C infections and is also implicated in type B infections, but little is known about the CPB structure-function relationship. Amino acid sequence comparisons of the CPBs made by 8 randomly selected isolates identified two natural variant toxins with four conserved amino acid changes, including a switch of E to K at position 168 (E168K) that introduces a potential trypsin cleavage site into the CPB protein of strain JGS1076. To investigate whether this potential trypsin cleavage site affects sensitivity to trypsin, a primary host defense against this toxin, the two CPB variants were assayed for their trypsin sensitivity. The results demonstrated a significant difference in trypsin sensitivity, which was linked to the E168K switch by using site-directed recombinant CPB (rCPB) mutants. The natural CPB variants also displayed significant differences in their cytotoxicity to human endothelial cells. This cytotoxicity difference was mainly attributable to increased host cell binding rather than the ability to oligomerize or form functional pores. Using rCPB site-directed mutants, differences in cytotoxicity and host cell binding were linked to an A300V amino acid substitution in the strain JGS1076 CPB variant that possessed more cytotoxic activity. Mapping of sequence variations on a CPB structure modeled using related toxins suggests that the E168K substitution is surface localized and so can interact with trypsin and that the A300V substitution is located in a putative binding domain of the CPB toxin. PMID:25643999

  19. Applications for an engineered Protein-G variant with a pH controllable affinity to antibody fragments

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Lucas J.; Sheehy, Kimberly M.; Hoey, Robert J.; Schaefer, Zachary P.; Ura, Marcin; Kossiakoff, Anthony A.

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin binding proteins (IBPs) are broadly used as reagents for the purification and detection of antibodies. Among the IBPs, the most widely used are Protein-A and Protein-G. The C2 domain of Protein-G from Streptococcus is a multi-specific protein domain; it possesses a high affinity (KD ~ 10 nM) for the Fc region of the IgG, but a much lower affinity (KD ~ low ?M) for the constant domain of the antibody fragment (Fab), which limits some of its applications. Here, we describe the engineering of the Protein-G interface using phage display to create Protein-G-A1, a variant with 8 point mutations and an approximately 100-fold improved affinity over the parent domain for the 4D5 Fab scaffold. Protein-G-A1 is capable of robust binding to Fab fragments for numerous applications. Furthermore, we isolated a variant with pH-dependent affinity, demonstrating a 10,000-fold change in affinity from pH 7 to 4. Additional rational mutagenesis endowed Protein-G with significantly enhanced stability in basic conditions relative to the parent domain while maintaining high affinity to the Fab. This property is particularly useful to regenerate Protein-G affinity columns. Lastly, the affinity-matured Protein-G-A1 variant was tethered together to produce dimers capable of providing multivalent affinity enhancement to a low affinity antibody fragment-antigen interaction. Engineered Protein-G variants should find widespread application in the use of Fab-based affinity reagents. PMID:25450256

  20. [Enterobacter cloacae. In vivo emergence of a variant resistant to new beta-lactams during treatment with lamoxactam-gentamicin].

    PubMed

    Jarlier, V; Philippon, A; Nicolas, M H; Bismuth, R; Paul, G; Fusciardi, J

    1984-05-01

    In a patient recently operated for an abdominal gun wound, and given gentamicin-cephalosporin (cefoxitin for one day, then moxalactam) for 11 days, treatment failed as a result of emergence of a E. cloacae variant resistant to beta-lactams only, i.e. carbenicillin, mezlocillin, cefamandole (CFM), cefoperazone (CPZ), cefotaxim (CTX) and moxalactam ( MOX ). The initial susceptible strains isolated from blood cultures (SH1, SH2) and the resistant ones isolated 11 days later from pancreatic pus (RP) and blood cultures ( RH1 , RH2 ) shared the same chemotype. MICs of CFM, CPZ, CTX, and MOX were much higher (1 000 to 4 000 fold) for RH1 than for SH1. The biochemical mechanism of resistance showed the six following features: loss of antimicrobial activity of CFM, CTX and MOX added to RH1 cultures; much higher (1 500 fold) beta-lactamase activity for RH1 than for SH1 (iodometric and microacidimetric methods); beta-lactamases focusing at the same pl (greater than 8) produced by RH1 , RP and also, but only after induction, SH1 and SH2; cephalosporinase-type beta-lactamase according to the enzymatic activity profile; restoration of RH1 's susceptibility to CFM, CTX and MOX merely by adding cloxacillin; apparently unchanged crypticity for RH1 . The enzymatic mechanism (cephalosporinase hyperproducing variant) seems very likely. PMID:6739148

  1. Genetic Characterization of Esterase Activity Variants Associated with an Esterase Gene Amplification in a Strain of Culex pipiens from California.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, James A

    2015-03-01

    In the Culex pipiens complex, a common mechanism of insecticide resistance is amplification of esterase genes leading to overproduction of detoxifying esterase enzymes. A number of electrophoretic esterase alleles have been identified, and in field populations individuals with the same esterase electromorph can exhibit a wide range of esterase enzyme activities. We isolated and characterized esterase activity variants associated with the esterase B1 electromorph from a field strain. A mating scheme was used to isolate chromosomes with esterase genes from the strain into 45 families. Twenty-six of the families received esterase genes from the field strain that conferred elevated esterase activity. Mean esterase activities in these families ranged from 43 to 695 nmoles ?-naphthyl acetate hydrolyzed/min/mg protein. Variance components indicated that genetic variance (i.e., genetic differences among families) accounted for 77% of the total variation in esterase activity. A comparison of mean esterase activities indicated that there were at least 11 different esterase activity variants contributing to the observed genetic variation in esterase activity among the 26 families. The relevance of these results to understanding the dynamics of amplified esterase genes in populations is discussed. PMID:25843171

  2. DNA-based identification of novel bovine casein gene variants.

    PubMed

    Gallinat, J L; Qanbari, S; Drögemüller, C; Pimentel, E C G; Thaller, G; Tetens, J

    2013-01-01

    In cattle, at least 39 variants of the 4 casein proteins (?(S1)-, ?-, ?(S2)- and ?-casein) have been described to date. Many of these variants are known to affect milk-production traits, cheese-processing properties, and the nutritive value of milk. They also provide valuable information for phylogenetic studies. So far, the majority of studies exploring the genetic variability of bovine caseins considered European taurine cattle breeds and were carried out at the protein level by electrophoretic techniques. This only allows the identification of variants that, due to amino acid exchanges, differ in their electric charge, molecular weight, or isoelectric point. In this study, the open reading frames of the casein genes CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2, and CSN3 of 356 animals belonging to 14 taurine and 3 indicine cattle breeds were sequenced. With this approach, we identified 23 alleles, including 5 new DNA sequence variants, with a predicted effect on the protein sequence. The new variants were only found in indicine breeds and in one local Iranian breed, which has been phenotypically classified as a taurine breed. A multidimensional scaling approach based on available SNP chip data, however, revealed an admixture of taurine and indicine populations in this breed as well as in the local Iranian breed Golpayegani. Specific indicine casein alleles were also identified in a few European taurine breeds, indicating the introgression of indicine breeds into these populations. This study shows the existence of substantial undiscovered genetic variability of bovine casein loci, especially in indicine cattle breeds. The identification of new variants is a valuable tool for phylogenetic studies and investigations into the evolution of the milk protein genes. PMID:23102962

  3. Classification of BRCA1 missense variants of unknown clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, C; Dapic, V; Tice, B; Favis, R; Kwan, E; Barany, F; Manoukian, S; Radice, P; van der Luijt, R B; van Nesselrooij, B P M; Chenevix-Trench, G; kConFab; Caldes, T; de La Hoya, M; Lindquist, S; Tavtigian, S; Goldgar, D; Borg, A; Narod, S; Monteiro, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: BRCA1 is a tumour suppressor with pleiotropic actions. Germline mutations in BRCA1 are responsible for a large proportion of breast–ovarian cancer families. Several missense variants have been identified throughout the gene but because of lack of information about their impact on the function of BRCA1, predictive testing is not always informative. Classification of missense variants into deleterious/high risk or neutral/low clinical significance is essential to identify individuals at risk. Objective: To investigate a panel of missense variants. Methods and results: The panel was investigated in a comprehensive framework that included (1) a functional assay based on transcription activation; (2) segregation analysis and a method of using incomplete pedigree data to calculate the odds of causality; (3) a method based on interspecific sequence variation. It was shown that the transcriptional activation assay could be used as a test to characterise mutations in the carboxy-terminus region of BRCA1 encompassing residues 1396–1863. Thirteen missense variants (H1402Y, L1407P, H1421Y, S1512I, M1628T, M1628V, T1685I, G1706A, T1720A, A1752P, G1788V, V1809F, and W1837R) were specifically investigated. Conclusions: While individual classification schemes for BRCA1 alleles still present limitations, a combination of several methods provides a more powerful way of identifying variants that are causally linked to a high risk of breast and ovarian cancer. The framework presented here brings these variants nearer to clinical applicability. PMID:15689452

  4. Variants associated with Gaucher disease in multiple system atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Mitsui, Jun; Matsukawa, Takashi; Sasaki, Hidenao; Yabe, Ichiro; Matsushima, Masaaki; Dürr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis; Takashima, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Akio; Aoki, Masashi; Ishiura, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Tsutomu; Date, Hidetoshi; Ahsan, Budrul; Iwata, Atsushi; Goto, Jun; Ichikawa, Yaeko; Nakahara, Yasuo; Momose, Yoshio; Takahashi, Yuji; Hara, Kenju; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Yamada, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Onodera, Osamu; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Ito, Mizuki; Sobue, Gen; Ishikawa, Kinya; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Kanai, Kazuaki; Hattori, Takamichi; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Arai, Kimihito; Koyano, Shigeru; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Yuasa, Tatsuhiko; Yasui, Kenichi; Nakashima, Kenji; Ito, Hijiri; Izumi, Yuishin; Kaji, Ryuji; Kato, Takeo; Kusunoki, Susumu; Osaki, Yasushi; Horiuchi, Masahiro; Kondo, Tomoyoshi; Murayama, Shigeo; Hattori, Nobutaka; Yamamoto, Mitsutoshi; Murata, Miho; Satake, Wataru; Toda, Tatsushi; Filla, Alessandro; Klockgether, Thomas; Wüllner, Ullrich; Nicholson, Garth; Gilman, Sid; Tanner, Caroline M; Kukull, Walter A; Stern, Mathew B; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Trojanowski, John Q; Masliah, Eliezer; Low, Phillip A; Sandroni, Paola; Ozelius, Laurie J; Foroud, Tatiana; Tsuji, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    Objective Glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) variants that cause Gaucher disease are associated with Parkinson disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). To investigate the role of GBA variants in multiple system atrophy (MSA), we analyzed GBA variants in a large case–control series. Methods We sequenced coding regions and flanking splice sites of GBA in 969 MSA patients (574 Japanese, 223 European, and 172 North American) and 1509 control subjects (900 Japanese, 315 European, and 294 North American). We focused solely on Gaucher-disease-causing GBA variants. Results In the Japanese series, we found nine carriers among the MSA patients (1.65%) and eight carriers among the control subjects (0.89%). In the European series, we found three carriers among the MSA patients (1.35%) and two carriers among the control subjects (0.63%). In the North American series, we found five carriers among the MSA patients (2.91%) and one carrier among the control subjects (0.34%). Subjecting each series to a Mantel–Haenszel analysis yielded a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 2.44 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14–5.21) and a P-value of 0.029 without evidence of significant heterogeneity. Logistic regression analysis yielded similar results, with an adjusted OR of 2.43 (95% CI 1.15–5.37) and a P-value of 0.022. Subtype analysis showed that Gaucher-disease-causing GBA variants are significantly associated with MSA cerebellar subtype (MSA-C) patients (P = 7.3 × 10?3). Interpretation The findings indicate that, as in PD and DLB, Gaucher-disease-causing GBA variants are associated with MSA. PMID:25909086

  5. Release of ?-casomorphins 5 and 7 during simulated gastro-intestinal digestion of bovine ?-casein variants and milk-based infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Noni, Ivano De

    2008-10-15

    The release of ?-casomorphin-5 (BCM5) and ?-casomorphin-7 (BCM7) was investigated during simulated gastro-intestinal digestion (SGID) of bovine ?-casein variants (n=3), commercial milk-based infant formulas (n=6) and experimental infant formulas (n=3). SGID included pepsin digestion at pH 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 and further hydrolysis with Corolase PP™. ?-Casein (?-CN) variants were extracted from raw milks coming from cows of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey breeds. Genomic DNA was isolated from milk and the ?-CN genotype was determined by a PCR-based method. Phenotype at protein level was determined by capillary zone electrophoresis in order to ascertain the level of gene expression. Recognition and quantification of BCMs involved HPLC coupled to tandem MS. Regardless of the pH, BCM7 generated from variants A1 and B of ?-CN (5-176mmol/mol casein) the highest amount being released during SGID of form B. As expected, the peptide was not released from variant A2 at any steps of SGID. BCM5 was not formed in hydrolysates irrespective of either the genetic variant or the pH value during SGID. Variants A1, A2 and B of ?-CN were present in all the commercial infant formulae (IFs) submitted to SGID. Accordingly, 16-297nmol BCM7 were released from 800ml IF, i.e. the daily recommended intake for infant. Industrial indirect-UHT treatments (156°C×6-9s) did not modify release of BCM7 and, during SGID, comparable peptide amounts formed in raw formulation and final heat-treated IFs. PMID:26047276

  6. Sequence variants in the HLX gene at chromosome 1q41-1q42 in patients with diaphragmatic hernia

    PubMed Central

    Slavotinek, AM; Moshrefi, A; LopezJimenez, N; Chao, R; Mendell, A; Shaw, GM; Pennacchio, LA; Bates, MD

    2010-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common birth defect for which few causative genes have been identified. Several candidate regions containing genes necessary for normal diaphragm development have been identified, including a 4–5 Mb deleted region at chromosome 1q41–1q42 from which the causative gene(s) has/have not been cloned. We selected the HLX gene from this interval as a candidate gene for CDH, as the Hlx homozygous null mouse has been reported to have diaphragmatic defects and the gene was described as being expressed in the murine diaphragm. We re-sequenced HLX in 119 CDH patients and identified four novel single nucleotide substitutions that predict amino acid changes: p.S12F, p.S18L, p.D173Y and p.A235V. These sequence alterations were all present in patients with isolated CDH, although patients with both isolated CDH and CDH with additional anomalies were studied. The single-nucleotide substitutions were absent in more than 186 control chromosomes. In-situ hybridization studies confirmed expression of Hlx in the developing murine diaphragm at the site of the junction of the diaphragm and the liver. Although functional studies to determine if these novel sequence variants altered the inductive activity of Hlx on the ?-smooth muscle actin and SM22? promoters showed no significant differences between the variants and wild-type Hlx, sequence variants in HLX may still be relevant in the pathogenesis of CDH in combination with additional genetic and environmental factors. PMID:19459883

  7. Role of small colony variants in persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis lungs

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Jacob G

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that predominates during the later stages of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung infections. Over many years of chronic lung colonization, P. aeruginosa undergoes extensive adaptation to the lung environment, evolving both toward a persistent, low virulence state and simultaneously diversifying to produce a number of phenotypically distinct morphs. These lung-adapted P. aeruginosa strains include the small colony variants (SCVs), small, autoaggregative isolates that show enhanced biofilm formation, strong attachment to surfaces, and increased production of exopolysaccharides. Their appearance in the sputum of CF patients correlates with increased resistance to antibiotics, poor lung function, and prolonged persistence of infection, increasing their relevance as a subject for clinical investigation. The evolution of SCVs in the CF lung is associated with overproduction of the ubiquitous bacterial signaling molecule cyclic-di-GMP, with increased cyclic-di-GMP levels shown to be responsible for the SCV phenotype in a number of different CF lung isolates. Here, we review the current state of research in clinical P. aeruginosa SCVs. We will discuss the phenotypic characteristics underpinning the SCV morphotype, the clinical implications of lung colonization with SCVs, and the molecular basis and clinical evolution of the SCV phenotype in the CF lung environment. PMID:26251621

  8. The 5-HT4 receptor: molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of two splice variants.

    PubMed Central

    Gerald, C; Adham, N; Kao, H T; Olsen, M A; Laz, T M; Schechter, L E; Bard, J A; Vaysse, P J; Hartig, P R; Branchek, T A

    1995-01-01

    Molecular cloning efforts have provided primary amino acid sequence and signal transduction data for a large collection of serotonin receptor subtypes. These include five 5-HT1-like receptors, three 5-HT2 receptors, one 5-HT3 receptor, two 5-HT5 receptors, one 5-HT6 receptor and one 5-HT7 receptor. Molecular biological information on the 5-HT4 receptor is notably absent from this list. We now report the cloning of the pharmacologically defined 5-HT4 receptor. Using degenerate oligonucleotide primers, we identified a rat brain PCR fragment which encoded a '5-HT receptor-like' amino acid sequence. The corresponding full length cDNA was isolated from a rat brain cDNA library. Transiently expressed in COS-7 cells, this receptor stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity and is sensitive to the benzamide derivative cisapride. The response is also blocked by ICS-205930. Interestingly, we isolated two splice variants of the receptor, 5-HT4L and 5-HT4S, differing in the length and sequence of their C-termini. In rat brain, the 5-HT4S transcripts are restricted to the striatum, but the 5-HT4L transcripts are expressed throughout the brain, except in the cerebellum where it was barely detectable. In peripheral tissues, differential expression was also observed in the atrium of the heart where only the 5-HT4S isoform was detectable. Images PMID:7796807

  9. [Variants of psychopath-like pictures in adolescents with schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Lichko, A E; Kozlova, I A

    1976-01-01

    The author studied 100 adolescent boys from 12-18 years of age with schizophrenia in whom either in the onset, remission or during the entire extent of the disease there was a psychopath-like syndrome. Three variants of such conditions are described, they resemble schizoid, unstable and epileptoid psychopathy. The report contains differential diagnostical criteria of these states. Some common symptoms for all variants of psychopath-like pictures are given: ambivalency, unmotivated cruelty or seemingly crude demonstrativeness in suicidal activity, unmotivated wandering instead of goal-directed escapes, abuse of alcohol or narcotics as doping, etc. PMID:998094

  10. Protective variant for hippocampal atrophy identified by whole exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Nho, Kwangsik; Kim, Sungeun; Risacher, Shannon L; Shen, Li; Corneveaux, Jason J; Swaminathan, Shanker; Lin, Hai; Ramanan, Vijay K; Liu, Yunlong; Foroud, Tatiana M; Inlow, Mark H; Siniard, Ashley L; Reiman, Rebecca A; Aisen, Paul S; Petersen, Ronald C; Green, Robert C; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Baldwin, Clinton T; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Farrer, Lindsay A; Furney, Simon J; Lovestone, Simon; Simmons, Andrew; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Tsolaki, Magda; Kloszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilkka; McDonald, Brenna C; Farlow, Martin R; Ghetti, Bernardino; Huentelman, Matthew J; Saykin, Andrew J

    2015-03-01

    We used whole-exome sequencing to identify variants other than APOE associated with the rate of hippocampal atrophy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. An in-silico predicted missense variant in REST (rs3796529) was found exclusively in subjects with slow hippocampal volume loss and validated using unbiased whole-brain analysis and meta-analysis across 5 independent cohorts. REST is a master regulator of neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation that has not been previously implicated in Alzheimer's disease. These findings nominate REST and its functional pathways as protective and illustrate the potential of combining next-generation sequencing with neuroimaging to discover novel disease mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets. PMID:25559091

  11. Common variants in FOXP1 are associated with generalized vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ying; Birlea, Stanca A.; Fain, Pamela R.; Mailloux, Christina M.; Riccardi, Sheri L.; Gowan, Katherine; Holland, Paulene J.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Wallace, Margaret R.; McCormack, Wayne T.; Kemp, E. Helen; Gawkrodger, David J.; Weetman, Anthony P.; Picardo, Mauro; Leone, Giovanni; Taïeb, Alain; Jouary, Thomas; Ezzedine, Khaled; van Geel, Nanny; Lambert, Jo; Overbeck, Andreas; Spritz, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent genome-wide association study of generalized vitiligo (GV) we identified 10 confirmed susceptibility loci. By testing additional loci that showed suggestive association in the genome-wide study, using two replication cohorts of European descent, we observed replicated association of GV with variants at 3p13 encompassing FOXP1 (rs17008723, combined P = 1.04 × 10-8) and with variants at 6q27 encompassing CCR6 (rs6902119, combined P = 3.94 × 10-7). PMID:20526340

  12. Crystallographic variant selection in {alpha}-{beta} brass

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, N.; Bate, P.S. . E-mail: pete.bate@man.ac.uk

    2005-02-01

    The transformation texture of {alpha}/{beta} brass with a diffusional Widmanstaetten {alpha} growth morphology has been investigated. Electron micrographs and electron backscattered diffraction was used to determine that the orientation relationship between the {beta} phase and the {alpha} associated with nucleation at {beta} grain boundaries was 44.3 deg <1 1 6>. Crystallographic variant selection was observed across those prior {beta}/{beta} grain boundaries, but this has little effect on the transformation texture due to the crystal symmetry. The effect of the crystallographic variant selection on texture is further weakened by nucleation of diffusional transformed {alpha} in the grain interior.

  13. A designed apoplastocyanin variant that shows reversible folding.

    PubMed

    Datta, Deepshikha; Mayo, Stephen L

    2002-08-30

    Plastocyanin, like many other metalloproteins, does not undergo reversible folding, which is thought to be due to an irreversible conformational change in the copper-binding site. Moreover, apoplastocyanin's ability to adopt a native tertiary structure is highly salt-dependent, and even in high salt, it has an irreversible thermal denaturation. Here, we report a designed apoplastocyanin variant, PCV, that is well folded and has reversible folding in both high and low salt conditions. This variant provides a tractable model for understanding and designing protein beta-sheets. PMID:12200146

  14. Genetic variants of serum albumin in Americans and Japanese

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, J.; Sakamoto, Yasushi; Watkins, S.; Davis, E.; Putnam, F.W. ); Arai, Kunio ); Feld, R.D. ); Kyle R.A. ); Matsuda, Yuhichi; Amaki, Itta )

    1991-11-01

    A collaborative search for albumin genetic variants (alloalbumins) was undertaken by cellulose acetate and agarose electrophoresis at pH 8.6 of the sera of patients at two major medical centers in the United States and of nearly 20,000 blood donors in Japan. Seventeen instances of alloalbuminemia were ascertained, and seven different alloalbumin types were characterized by structural study. Two previously unreported alloalbumin types were identified. All of the variants characterized in this study are point mutants, and the sites are spread throughout the albumin gene. However, about one-fourth of all known albumin mutations are clustered in the sequence segment from position 354 through 382.

  15. Base isolation: Fresh insight

    SciTech Connect

    Shustov, V.

    1993-07-15

    The objective of the research is a further development of the engineering concept of seismic isolation. Neglecting the transient stage of seismic loading results in a widespread misjudgement: The force of resistance associated with velocity is mostly conceived as a source of damping vibrations, though it is an active force at the same time, during an earthquake type excitation. For very pliant systems such as base isolated structures with relatively low bearing stiffness and with artificially added heavy damping mechanism, the so called `damping`` force may occur even the main pushing force at an earthquake. Thus, one of the two basic pillars of the common seismic isolation philosophy, namely, the doctrine of usefulness and necessity of a strong damping mechanism, is turning out to be a self-deception, sometimes even jeopardizing the safety of structures and discrediting the very idea of seismic isolation. There is a way out: breaking with damping dependancy.

  16. Heterogeneity of Host TLR2 Stimulation by Staphylocoocus aureus Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Hilmi, Dina; Parcina, Marijo; Stollewerk, Daniel; Ostrop, Jenny; Josten, Michaele; Meilaender, Alina; Zaehringer, Ulrich; Wichelhaus, Thomas A.; Bierbaum, Gabriele; Heeg, Klaus; Wolz, Christiane; Bekeredjian-Ding, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    High lipoprotein expression and potent activation of host Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) are characteristic features of the staphylococcal species. Expression of TLR2 in the host is important for clearance of Staphylococcus aureus infection and host survival. Thus, we hypothesized that bacterial regulation of its intrinsic TLR2-stimulatory capacity could represent a means for immune evasion or host adaptation. We, therefore, compared clinical S. aureus isolates in regards to their TLR2 activation potential and assessed the bacterial factors that modulate TLR2-mediated recognition. S. aureus isolates displayed considerable variability in TLR2-activity with low to absent TLR2-activity in 64% of the isolates tested (68/106). Notably, strain-specific TLR2-activity was independent of the strain origin, e.g. no differences were found between strains isolated from respiratory specimen from cystic fibrosis patients or those isolated from invasive disease specimen. TLR2-activity correlated with protein A expression but not with the agr status. Capsule expression and small colony variant formation had a negative impact on TLR2-activity but any disruption of cell wall integrity enhanced TLR2 activation. Altogether, heterogeneity in host TLR2-activity reflects differences in metabolic activity and cell wall synthesis and/or remodeling. PMID:24810614

  17. Fast atom bombardment and tandem mass spectrometry for the characterization of hemoglobin variants including a new variant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yoshinao; Matsuo, Takekiyo; Papayannopoulos, Ioannis A.; Costello, Catherine E.; Biemann, Klaus

    1992-12-01

    Four variants of human hemoglobin have been structurally characterized by mass spectrometry. The molecular weight changes caused by the mutations were -58, + 14, + 1, and -1 u respectively. The detection of the last two mutations was based on the observation of a distorted isotope pattern for the (M + H)+ ion of the proteolytic peptides encompassing the site of mutation, because the mutants are always accompanied by the normal protein chain. For those cases where the molecular weight measurements alone do not unambiguously determine the nature and location of the modification, tandem mass spectrometry had to be used. Of the four variants, three proved to have been reported previously: [alpha]68Asn-->Asp (Hb Ube-II), [beta]22Glu-->Ala (Hb G Coushatta) and [beta]43Glu-->Gln (Hb Hoshida). The fourth variant was found to be due to a [beta]79Asp-->Glu mutation that had not been discovered before and was named Hb Miyazono.

  18. Differentiation of BHV-1 isolates from vaccine virus by high-resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Ostertag-Hill, Claire; Fang, Liang; Izume, Satoko; Lee, Megan; Reed, Aimee; Jin, Ling

    2015-02-16

    An efficacious bovine herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) vaccine has been used for many years. However, in the past few years, abortion and respiratory diseases have occurred after administration of the modified live vaccine. To investigate whether BHV-1 isolates from disease outbreaks are identical to those of the vaccines used, selected regions of the BHV-1 genome were investigated by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis and PCR-DNA sequencing. When a target region within the thymidine kinase (TK) gene was examined by HRM analysis, 6 out of the 11 isolates from abortion cases and 22 out of the 25 isolates from bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases had different melting curves compared to the vaccine virus. Surprisingly, when a conserved region within the US6 gene that encodes glycoprotein D (gD) was examined by HRM analysis, 5 out of the 11 abortion isolates and 18 out of the 23 BRD isolates had different melting curves from the vaccine virus. To determine whether SNPs within the coding regions of glycoprotein E (gE) and TK genes can be used to differentiate the isolates from the vaccine virus, PCR-DNA sequencing was used to examine these SNPs in all the isolates. This revealed that only 1 out of 11 of the abortion isolates and 4 out of 24 of the BRD isolates are different in the target region of gE from the vaccine virus, while 5 out of 11 abortion isolates and 4 out of 22 BRD isolates are different in the target region of TK from the vaccine virus. No DNA sequence differences were observed in glycoprotein G (gG) region between disease and vaccine isolates. Our study demonstrated that many disease isolates had genetic differences from the vaccine virus in regions examined by HRM and PCR-DNA sequencing analysis. In addition, many isolates contained more than one type of mutation and were composed of mixed variants. Our study suggests that a mixture of variants were present in isolates collected post-vaccination. HRM is a rapid diagnostic method that can be used for rapid differentiation of clinical isolates from vaccine strains. PMID:25556125

  19. [Characterisation of a phenotypic monophasic variant belonging to Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium from wild birds and its possible transmission to cats and humans].

    PubMed

    Hauser, Elisabeth; Hühn, Stephan; Junker, Ernst; Jaber, Manuela; Schroeter, Andreas; Helmuth, Reiner; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Winterhoff, Nora; Malorny, Burkhard

    2009-01-01

    In the last two years The National Salmonella Reference Laboratory (NRL-Salm) received an accumulating number of salmonellae with sero-formula 4,12:-:1,2 isolated from perished wild birds, particularly siskins. Within these strains flagellar antigen of the first phase was phenotypically not detectable. By PCR a fragment could be amplified coding specifically for the H:i-flagellar antigen. Consequently, this is a phenotypically monophasic variant of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium var. copenhagen with the sero-formula 4,12:-:1,2. Phage-typing showed most of the isolates belonged to phage type DT40. Some other strains harboured the same lysis pattern but could not assign to a definite phage type. Those strains are designated as RDNC (react with phages but does not conform with definite or provisorial types). Pulsed field gel-electrophoresis (PFGE) confirmed those two lineages of the monophasic variant. Phage type DT40 isolates from humans or cats, able to express both flagellar antigens, did not differ in genotypic properties from those not able to express the flagellar antigen of the first phase. Salmonella strains with identical genotypic characteristics have been isolated from wild birds, human cases particular infants and also cats. This refers to a direct or indirect transmission of the pathogen from wild bird to human. By eating or getting in contact with contaminated birds domestic cats could play an important role as vehicle between bird and human. PMID:19517930

  20. Coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis. Characterization of stable attenuated variants that protect against infection with the cardiovirulent wild-type strain.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H.; Morgan-Capner, P.; Latif, N.; Pandolfino, Y. A.; Fan, W.; Dunn, M. J.; Archard, L. C.

    1997-01-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is the enterovirus most frequently involved in human myocarditis or dilated cardiomyopathy. Attenuated variants were derived from a cardiovirulent CVB3 reactivated from a sequenced, full-length cDNA clone. The prophylactic potential of these variants was assessed in SWR/Ola (H-2q) mice. Animals immunized with attenuated variants of CVB3 were protected from myocarditis when challenged subsequently with the cardiovirulent wild-type virus. In contrast to nonimmunized controls, the wild-type virus was not isolated from myocardium of protected mice, nor was viral RNA detected in myocardium by reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction. Specific antibody to CVB3 was demonstrated by virus neutralization assay and by indirect immunofluorescence. The attenuated phenotype of one variant, p14V-1, remained stable throughout 20 consecutive passages in SWR mice and induced a markedly lower level of autoantibody against mouse cardiac myosin heavy chain than the cardiovirulent wild type. These data demonstrate that attenuated strains protect against CVB3-induced myocarditis in mice, that the attenuated phenotype is stable, and that they do not persist in myocardium nor induce a significant level of anti-heart anti-body against myosin heavy chain. These attenuants may be the basis of a live vaccine against CVB3 in the prevention of enteroviral heart muscle disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9176409

  1. Construction of a triple gene-deleted Chinese Pseudorabies virus variant and its efficacy study as a vaccine candidate on suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaolin; Guo, Linghua; Jia, Xiangrui; Wang, Tongyan; Wang, Juan; Sun, Zhe; Wang, Lilin; Li, Xiangdong; Tan, Feifei; Tian, Kegong

    2015-05-15

    New-emerging variants of Pseudorabies virus (PRV) compromise the protection provided by current vaccines and cause the death of all ages of vaccinated pigs since 2011. New vaccines based on current circulating PRV strain are needed to control the spread of disease since the variants are antigenically different from classical strains of virus. In this study, a TK/gE/gI triple gene-deleted PRV derived from current circulating field isolate was generated by using bacterial artificial chromosome techniques, and the rescued virus showed similar growth properties in vitro to its parent strain but reduced plaque size. To evaluate it as vaccine candidate, 9 day-old pigs were vaccinated and challenged with a virulent PRV variant. The results showed that vaccination can generate high level of protective gB-specific antibodies after vaccination and provide complete protection to the viral challenge. By contrast, the unvaccinated piglets all died within 6 days after viral challenge. Therefore, the TK/gE/gI triple gene-deleted PRV could be a promising vaccine candidate to control the wide spreading of PR variants in China. PMID:25865469

  2. Variant selection in samples of austenitic stainless steel cold

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    Variant selection in samples of austenitic stainless steel cold rolled and deformed by tension texture of samples deformed by cold rolling. ­ Comparing texture measured by EBSD in cold rolled samples Tensor for deformation in a tension test Tensor for deformation by cold rolling #12;Austenitic stainless

  3. Sequence and structure evolved separately in a ribosomal ubiquitin variant

    E-print Network

    Ratner, Daniel M.

    Sequence and structure evolved separately in a ribosomal ubiquitin variant Andre´ Catic1,5,7 , Zhen of three precursor proteins, two of which are fusions to the ribosomal subunits S27a and L40. Ubiquitin assists in ribosome biogenesis and also functions as a post- translational modifier after its release from

  4. Multi-Variant Modeling Concepts, Issues, and Challenges

    E-print Network

    Westfechtel, Bernhard

    .Conradi@idi.ntnu.no Abstract. When applying model-driven engineering to a product line, there is a need to deal with multi-variant models. So far, in industry software product line engineering has primarily been applied to data to [1], software product line engineering (SPLE) is a paradigm to de- velop software applications using

  5. Multi-variants synthesis of Petri nets for FPGA devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukowiec, Arkadiusz; Doligalski, Micha?

    2015-09-01

    There is presented new method of synthesis of application specific logic controllers for FPGA devices. The specification of control algorithm is made with use of control interpreted Petri net (PT type). It allows specifying parallel processes in easy way. The Petri net is decomposed into state-machine type subnets. In this case, each subnet represents one parallel process. For this purpose there are applied algorithms of coloring of Petri nets. There are presented two approaches of such decomposition: with doublers of macroplaces or with one global wait place. Next, subnets are implemented into two-level logic circuit of the controller. The levels of logic circuit are obtained as a result of its architectural decomposition. The first level combinational circuit is responsible for generation of next places and second level decoder is responsible for generation output symbols. There are worked out two variants of such circuits: with one shared operational memory or with many flexible distributed memories as a decoder. Variants of Petri net decomposition and structures of logic circuits can be combined together without any restrictions. It leads to existence of four variants of multi-variants synthesis.

  6. Reliability and Validation Study of the Online Instinctual Variant Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    Leaders often manage both chaos and diversity. We can improve our leadership effectiveness by better understanding our motives and behaviors, and those of our followers. A potential tool for leadership development is the Instinctual Variant Questionnaire (IVQ). Based on Enneagram theory (pronounced "ANY-a-gram"), this online instrument…

  7. ERR? splice variants differentially regulate cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Heckler, Mary Mazzotta; Riggins, Rebecca B

    2015-01-01

    Orphan receptors comprise nearly half of all members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Despite having broad structural similarities to the classical estrogen receptors, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) have their own unique DNA response elements and functions. In this study, we focus on 2 ERR? splice variants, short form ERR? (ERR?sf) and ERR?2, and identify their differing roles in cell cycle regulation. Using DY131 (a synthetic agonist of ERR?), splice-variant selective shRNA, and exogenous ERR?sf and ERR?2 cDNAs, we demonstrate the role of ERR?sf in mediating the G1 checkpoint through p21. We also show ERR?sf is required for DY131-induced cellular senescence. A key novel finding of this study is that ERR?2 can mediate a G2/M arrest in response to DY131. In the absence of ERR?2, the DY131-induced G2/M arrest is reversed, and this is accompanied by p21 induction and a G1 arrest. This study illustrates novel functions for ERR? splice variants and provides evidence for splice variant interaction. PMID:25496115

  8. Mutation Update for UBE3A variants in Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sadikovic, Bekim; Fernandes, Priscilla; Zhang, Victor Wei; Ward, Patricia A; Miloslavskaya, Irene; Rhead, William; Rosenbaum, Richard; Gin, Robert; Roa, Benjamin; Fang, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Angelman syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a deficiency of the imprinted and maternally expressed UBE3A gene. Although de novo genetic and epigenetic imprinting defects of UBE3A genomic locus account for majority of Angelman diagnoses, approximately 10% of individuals affected with Angelman syndrome are a result of UBE3A loss-of-function mutations occurring on the expressed maternal chromosome. The variants described in this manuscript represent the analysis of 2,515 patients referred for UBE3A gene sequencing at our institution, along with a comprehensive review of the UBE3A mutation literature. Of these, 267 (10.62%) patients had a report issued for detection of a UBE3A gene nucleotide variant, which in many cases involved family studies resulting in reclassification of variants of unknown clinical significance (VUS). Overall, 111 (4.41%) probands had a nucleotide change classified as pathogenic or strongly favored to be pathogenic, 29 (1.15%) had a VUS, and 126 (5.0%) had a nucleotide change classified as benign or strongly favored to be benign. All variants and their clinical interpretations are submitted to NCBI ClinVar, a freely accessible human variation and phenotype database. PMID:25212744

  9. Lignin content in natural Populus variants affects sugar release

    E-print Network

    California at Riverside, University of

    Lignin content in natural Populus variants affects sugar release Michael H. Studera,b,1 , Jaclyn D fuels from lignocel- lulosic biomass is a plant's recalcitrance to releasing sugars bound in the cell and guaiacyl units (S/G ratio). This subset was tested for total sugar release through enzymatic hydrolysis

  10. Dynamic Stokes shift in green fluorescent protein variants

    E-print Network

    Boxer, Steven G.

    to study the dynamic Stokes shift through its evolutionary history. The far-red emission of mDynamic Stokes shift in green fluorescent protein variants Paul Abbyad, William Childs, Xinghua Shi to an emission shift to longer wavelengths during the excited-state lifetime. This solvation response is absent

  11. Development of infant baboons' responses to graded bark variants

    E-print Network

    Seyfarth, Robert

    Development of infant baboons' responses to graded bark variants Julia Fischer1* , Dorothy L of Pennsylvania, 3815 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA We studied the development of infant baboons to attach the appropriate meaning to alarm and contact barks. Keywords: baboon; infant; playback

  12. A Variant of the Buchberger Algorithm for Integer Programming

    E-print Network

    Ziegler, Günter M.

    easily be adapted to the solution of families of integer programs with varying right hand sides b with families of integer programming problems of the form Ax = b, x 0 for varying right hand side vectors b, weA Variant of the Buchberger Algorithm for Integer Programming Regina Urbaniak Robert Weismantel G

  13. On Managing Business Processes Variants Ruopeng Lu a

    E-print Network

    Governatori, Guido

    On Managing Business Processes Variants Ruopeng Lu a , Shazia Sadiq b , Guido Governatori c a to organizations mature in their BPM (Business Process Management) uptake so that they can ensure organization wide for managing busi- ness processes that is conducive to dynamic change and the need for flexibility in execution

  14. A PYY Q62P variant linked to human obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Ahituv, Nadav; Kavaslar, Nihan; Schackwitz, Wendy; Ustaszewska,Anna; Collier, John Michael; Hebert, Sybil; Doelle, Heather; Dent,Robert; Pennacchio, Len A.; McPherson, Ruth

    2005-06-27

    Members of the pancreatic polypeptide family and the irreceptors have been implicated in the control of food intake in rodents and humans. To investigate whether nucleotide changes in these candidate genes result in abnormal weight in humans, we sequenced the coding exons and splice sites of seven family members (NPY, PYY, PPY, NPY1R, NPY2R, NPY4R, and NPY5R) in a large cohort of extremely obese (n=379) and lean (n=378) individuals. In total we found eleven rare non-synonymous variants, four of which exhibited familial segregation, NPY1R L53P and PPY P63L with leanness and NPY2R D42G and PYY Q62P with obesity. Functional analysis of the obese variants revealed NPY2R D42G to have reduced cell surface expression, while previous cell culture based studies indicated variant PYY Q62P to have altered receptor binding selectivity and we show that it fails to reduce food intake through mouse peptide injection experiments. These results support that rare non-synonymous variants within these genes can alter susceptibility to human body mass index extremes.

  15. Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Young Rabbits, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Kevin P.; Nicieza, Inés; Balseiro, Ana; Muguerza, María A.; Rosell, Joan M.; Casais, Rosa; Álvarez, Ángel L.

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen. PMID:23171812

  16. Rare variants of cutaneous leishmaniasis presenting as eczematous lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi, Jamshid; Fattahi Bafghi, Ali; Shahcheraghi, Seyed Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis may present with clinical presentation such as zosteriform, sporotrichoid and erysipeloid. The eczema variant has rarely been reported. We report a 27- year- old patient with atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis resembling eczema on the hand of a man in Yazd province in the central of Iran. PMID:25405136

  17. Genetic associations of nonsynonymous exonic variants with psychophysiological endophenotypes.

    PubMed

    Vrieze, Scott I; Malone, Stephen M; Pankratz, Nathan; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Miller, Michael B; Kang, Hyun Min; McGue, Matt; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Iacono, William G

    2014-12-01

    We mapped ?85,000 rare nonsynonymous exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to 17 psychophysiological endophenotypes in 4,905 individuals, including antisaccade eye movements, resting EEG, P300 amplitude, electrodermal activity, affect-modulated startle eye blink. Nonsynonymous SNPs are predicted to directly change or disrupt proteins encoded by genes and are expected to have significant biological consequences. Most such variants are rare, and new technologies can efficiently assay them on a large scale. We assayed 247,870 mostly rare SNPs on an Illumina exome array. Approximately 85,000 of the SNPs were polymorphic, rare (MAF?variant association tests identified a SNP in the PARD3 gene associated with theta resting EEG power. The sequence kernel association test, a gene-based test, identified a gene PNPLA7 associated with pleasant difference startle, the difference in startle magnitude between pleasant and neutral images. No other single nonsynonymous variant, or gene-based group of variants, was strongly associated with any endophenotype. PMID:25387709

  18. Efficient Variants of the ICP Algorithm Szymon Rusinkiewicz

    E-print Network

    Schulz, Dirk

    , which typically only scan an object from one direction at a time. ICP starts with two meshes [Johnson 97a], computing principal axes of scans [Dorai 97], exhaustive search for corresponding points pairs. 6. Minimizing the error metric. In this paper, we will look at variants in each of these six cat

  19. Original article 877 The potentially deleterious functional variant

    E-print Network

    in African­ Americans (26%) and Hispanics (2% to 7%). Possessing this variant increases the risk of pulmonary in the metabolism of drugs that are used to treat diseases that are prevalent in Africa. Results and Conclusion We is relatively homogeneous across sub-Saharan Africa, with approximately one third of individuals possessing

  20. A noncytotoxic DsRed variant for whole-cell

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    (Supplementary Fig. 1 online). To assess cytotoxicity in HeLa cells, we expressed fluorescent proteinsA noncytotoxic DsRed variant for whole-cell labeling Rita L Strack1,4, Daniel E Strongin2 A common application of fluorescent proteins is to label whole cells, but many RFPs are cytotoxic when used

  1. Polymorphic variants of adrenoceptors: pharmacology, physiology, and role in disease.

    PubMed

    Ahles, Andrea; Engelhardt, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    The human genome encodes nine different adrenoceptor genes. These are grouped into three families, namely, the ?1-, ?2-, and ?-adrenoceptors, with three family members each. Adrenoceptors are expressed by most cell types of the human body and are primary targets of the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine that are released from the sympathetic nervous system during its activation. Upon catecholamine binding, adrenoceptors change conformation, couple to and activate G proteins, and thereby initiate various intracellular signaling cascades. As the primary receivers and transducers of sympathetic activation, adrenoceptors have a central role in human physiology and disease and are important targets for widely used drugs. All nine adrenoceptor subtypes display substantial genetic variation, both in their coding sequence as well as in adjacent regions. Despite the fact that some of the adrenoceptor variants range among the most frequently studied genetic variants assessed in pharmacogenetics to date, their functional relevance remains ill defined in many cases. A substantial fraction of the associations reported from early candidate gene approaches have not subsequently been confirmed in different cohorts or in genome-wide association studies, which have increasingly been conducted in recent years. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of all adrenoceptor variants that have reproducibly been detected in the larger genome sequencing efforts. We evaluate these variants with respect to the modulation of receptor function and expression and discuss their role in physiology and disease. PMID:24928328

  2. Andes Hantavirus Variant in Rodents, Southern Amazon Basin, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M.; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M. Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A. Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O.; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T.; Hirschberg, David L.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Bausch, Daniel G.; Montgomery, Joel M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted. PMID:24447689

  3. Interaction of human butyrylcholinesterase variants with bambuterol and terbutaline.

    PubMed

    Kovarik, Zrinka; Simeon-Rudolf, Vera

    2004-04-01

    Bambuterol, a dimethylcarbamate, carbamoylates butyrylcholinesterase (BChE; EC 3.1.1.8). The carbamoylated enzyme is not very stable and the final product of the two-step hydrolysis is a bronchodilator drug, terbutaline (1-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-t-butylamino-ethanol sulphate). Both bambuterol and terbutaline inhibit BChE, but their affinities differ in human serum BChE variants (U, A, F, K and S) due to their positive charge. Bambuterol inhibition rate constants for the homozygous usual (UU), Kalow (KK), fluoride-resistant (FF) or atypical (AA) variant ranged from 4.4 to 0.085min (-1)microM(-1). Terbutaline showed competitive reversible inhibition for all BChE variants. The dissociation constants for UU, FF and AA homozygotes were 0.18, 0.31 and 3.3 mM, respectively. The inhibition rate or dissociation constants for heterozygotes were distributed between the respective constants for the corresponding homozygotes. A 50-fold difference in inhibition between the UU and AA enzyme might affect terbutaline release in humans. The affinity of all studied BChE variants for terbutaline was low, which suggests that terbutaline originating from bambuterol hydrolysis should not affect the hydrolysis of bambuterol by BChE. PMID:15449725

  4. Oncogenic potential diverge among human papillomavirus type 16 natural variants

    SciTech Connect

    Sichero, Laura; Department of Virology, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Sao Paulo 01323-903 ; Simao Sobrinho, Joao; Department of Virology, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Sao Paulo 01323-903 ; Lina Villa, Luisa; Department of Virology, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Sao Paulo 01323-903; Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo

    2012-10-10

    We compared E6/E7 protein properties of three different HPV-16 variants: AA, E-P and E-350G. Primary human foreskin keratinocytes (PHFK) were transduced with HPV-16 E6 and E7 and evaluated for proliferation and ability to grow in soft agar. E-P infected keratinocytes presented the lowest efficiency in colony formation. AA and E-350G keratinocytes attained higher capacity for in vitro transformation. We observed similar degradation of TP53 among HPV-16 variants. Furthermore, we accessed the expression profile in early (p5) and late passage (p30) transduced cells of 84 genes commonly involved in carcinogenesis. Most differences could be attributed to HPV-16 E6/E7 expression. In particular, we detected different expression of ITGA2 and CHEK2 in keratinocytes infected with AA and AA/E-350G late passage cells, respectively, and higher expression of MAP2K1 in E-350G transduced keratinocytes. Our results indicate differences among HPV-16 variants that could explain, at least in part, differences in oncogenic potential attributed to these variants.

  5. The IPS Compiler: Optimizations, Variants and Concrete Efficiency

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    The IPS Compiler: Optimizations, Variants and Concrete Efficiency Yehuda Lindell Eli Oxman Benny in the presence of covert adversaries. Finally, we analyze the IPS compiler from a concrete efficiency perspective. Keywords: secure computation, malicious, semi-honest and covert adversaries, asymptotic and concrete

  6. Observational consequences of the standard model Higgs inflation variants

    SciTech Connect

    Popa, L.A.

    2011-10-01

    We consider the possibility to observationally differentiate the Standard Model (SM) Higgs driven inflation with non-minimal coupling to gravity from other variants of SM Higgs inflation based on the scalar field theories with non-canonical kinetic term such as Galileon-like kinetic term and kinetic term with non-minimal derivative coupling to the Einstein tensor. In order to ensure consistent results, we study the SM Higgs inflation variants by using the same method, computing the full dynamics of the background and perturbations of the Higgs field during inflation at quantum level. Assuming that all the SM Higgs inflation variants are consistent theories, we use the MCMC technique to derive constraints on the inflationary parameters and the Higgs boson mass from their fit to WMAP7+SN+BAO data set. We conclude that a combination of the SM Higgs mass measurement by the LHC and accurate determination by the PLANCK satellite of the spectral index of curvature perturbations and tensor-to-scalar ratio will enable to distinguish among these models. We also show that the consistency relations of the SM Higgs inflation variants are distinct enough to differentiate among them.

  7. Spatially-Variant Mathematical Morphology: A Geometry-Based

    E-print Network

    Schonfeld, Dan

    -variant dilations and erosions are defined and their properties investigated. A kernel representation of a large(), respectively. Xc denotes the complement of X P(). We use O = P()P() to denote the set of all operators mapping- ogy Consider an Abelian group of translation operators (+) defined over a set 1 . 2.1 Erosions

  8. A Variant of Young's Double Slit Experiment for Educational Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henault, Francois; Spang, Alain

    2011-01-01

    We describe a variant of the classical Young's double slit experiment that can be easily realized in any classroom, in order to evidence the wave nature of light. The proposed apparatus and its simplified theory are described and pictures of fringes, readily obtained using only cheap and off-the-shelf optical components, are reproduced. The…

  9. Genetic variants underlying risk of endometriosis: insights from

    E-print Network

    Nyholt, Dale R.

    variants underlying risk of endometriosis: insights from meta-analysis of eight genome-wide association; accepted on February 26, 2014 table of contents Introduction GWAS of endometriosis Sources-wide significant results across the studies Investigation of other reported GWAS associations in endometriosis loci

  10. Constitutive Regulatory Activity of an Evolutionarily Excluded Riboswitch Variant*

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Renaud; Lemay, Jean-François; Blouin, Simon; Mulhbacher, Jérôme; Bonneau, Éric; Legault, Pascale; Dupont, Paul; Penedo, J. Carlos; Lafontaine, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    The exquisite specificity of the adenine-responsive riboswitch toward its cognate metabolite has been shown to arise from the formation of a Watson-Crick interaction between the adenine ligand and residue U65. A recent crystal structure of a U65C adenine aptamer variant has provided a rationale for the phylogenetic conservation observed at position 39 for purine aptamers. The G39-C65 variant adopts a compact ligand-free structure in which G39 is accommodated by the ligand binding site and is base-paired to the cytosine at position 65. Here, we demonstrate using a combination of biochemical and biophysical techniques that the G39-C65 base pair not only severely impairs ligand binding but also disrupts the functioning of the riboswitch in vivo by constitutively activating gene expression. Folding studies using single-molecule FRET revealed that the G39-C65 variant displays a low level of dynamic heterogeneity, a feature reminiscent of ligand-bound wild-type complexes. A restricted conformational freedom together with an ability to significantly fold in monovalent ions are exclusive to the G39-C65 variant. This work provides a mechanistic framework to rationalize the evolutionary exclusion of certain nucleotide combinations in favor of sequences that preserve ligand binding and gene regulation functionalities. PMID:21676871

  11. Milk protein genetic variants and isoforms identified in bovine milk representing extremes in coagulation properties.

    PubMed

    Jensen, H B; Holland, J W; Poulsen, N A; Larsen, L B

    2012-06-01

    A gel-based proteomic approach consisting of 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry was applied for detailed protein characterization of a subset of individual milk samples with extreme rennet coagulation properties. A milk subset with either good or poor coagulation abilities was selected from 892 Danish Holstein-Friesian and Jersey cows. Screening of genetic variants of the major milk proteins resulted in the identification of common genetic variants of ?-casein (CN; A(1), A(2), B), ?-CN (A, B), and ?-lactoglobulin (LG; A, B), as well as a low frequency variant, ?-CN variant E, and variants not previously reported in Danish breeds (i.e., ?-CN variant I and ?-LG variant C). Clear differences in the frequencies of the identified genetic variants were evident between breeds and, to some extent, between coagulation groups within breeds, indicating that an underlying genetic variation of the major milk proteins affects the overall milk coagulation ability. In milk with good coagulation ability, a high prevalence of the B variants of all 3 analyzed proteins were identified, whereas poorly coagulating milk was associated with the ?-CN variant A(2), ?-CN variant A or E, and ?-LG variant A or C. The ?-CN variant I was identified in milk with both good and poor coagulation ability, a variant that has not usually been discriminated from ?-CN variant A(2) in other studied cow populations. Additionally, a detailed characterization of ?-CN isoforms was conducted. Six ?-CN isoforms varying in phosphorylation and glycosylation levels from each of the genetic variants of ?-CN were separated and identified, along with an unmodified ?-CN form at low abundance. Relative quantification showed that around 95% of total ?-CN was phosphorylated with 1 or 2 phosphates attached, whereas approximately 35% of the identified ?-CN was glycosylated with 1 to 3 tetrasaccharides. Comparing isoforms from individual samples, we found a very consistent ?-CN isoform pattern, with only minor differences in relation to breed, ?-CN genetic variant, and milk coagulation ability. PMID:22612926

  12. Clonal diversity in a single isolate of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Thaithong, S; Beale, G H; Fenton, B; McBride, J; Rosario, V; Walker, A; Walliker, D

    1984-01-01

    Clones of an isolate of Plasmodium falciparum from Mae Sod (Thailand) were prepared by a dilution procedure. Some of the parasite cultures thus obtained have been typed for the following characters: (i) electrophoretic variants of three enzymes; (ii) susceptibility to chloroquine and pyrimethamine; (iii) antigen diversities recognized by ten strain-specific monoclonal antibodies; (iv) presence or absence of knobs on infected erythrocytes and (v) two-dimensional PAGE variants of seven proteins. Amongst the clones there was variation involving each of these five characters. At least seven different types of clones were found in ten cultures produced by dilution. The amount of phenotypic variation within a single isolate has thus been shown to be surprisingly great. Variations in drug susceptibility and antigens are considered to be particularly important in view of their relevance to anti-malarial treatments. PMID:6380016

  13. Bioactivation of chlorpyrifos by CYP2B6 variants.

    PubMed

    Crane, Alice L; Klein, Kathrin; Olson, James R

    2012-12-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus (OP) pesticide, is bioactivated by cytochrome P450s (CYPs) to the active metabolite chlorpyrifos oxon (CPF-O). Given that human CYP2B6 has the highest intrinsic clearance (CL(int)) for CPF bioactivation, CYP2B6 polymorphisms may impact human susceptibility to CPF at real world environmental and occupational CPF exposure levels. CYP2B6.4,.5,.7, and .18 were over-expressed in mammalian COS-1 cells to assess the impact of CYP2B6 variants on the K(m) and V(max) for bioactivation of CPF. Cell lysates were incubated with CPF (0-100 ?M) and the production of CPF-O was measured via HPLC analysis. CYP2B6 content was determined by western blot. CYP2B6.18 had neither detectable protein nor activity levels. The V(max) value for each remaining variant was significantly higher than wild-type (CYP2B6.1, V(max) 4.13 × 10(4) pmol/min/nmol CYP2B6), with CYP2B6.4,.5, and .7 having V(max) values of 4.52 × 10(5), 1.82 × 10(5), and 9.60 × 10(4) pmol/min/nmol CYP2B6, respectively. The K(m) values for these variants ranged from 0.39 to 1.09 ?M and were not significantly different from wild-type. All active variants examined had significantly higher CL(int) than CYP2B6.1. Variants of CYP2B6 have altered capacity to bioactivate CPF and may affect individual susceptibility by altering the V(max) for CPF-O formation. PMID:22775490

  14. The natural history of temporal variant frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, W.W.; Bauer, A.M.; Miller, B.L.; Gorno-Tempini, M.L.; Kramer, J.H.; Weiner, M.; Rosen, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background The temporal variant of frontotemporal dementia (tvFTD) features asymmetric anterior temporal/amygdala degeneration as well as ventromedial frontal, insular, and inferoposterior temporal involvement. Left temporal atrophy has been linked to loss of semantic knowledge, whereas behavioral symptoms dominate the right temporal variant. Objective To investigate the first symptoms and the timing of subsequent symptoms in patients with left versus right tvFTD. Methods Twenty-six patients with tvFTD were identified. Six had right > left temporal atrophy (right temporal lobe variant [RTLV]) and were matched with six having comparable left > right temporal atrophy (left temporal lobe variant [LTLV]). Clinical records were reviewed to generate individualized symptom chronologies. Results In all patients, first symptoms involved semantics (4/6 LTLV, 1/6 RTLV), behavior (4/6 RTLV, 1/6 LTLV), or both (1 LTLV, 1 RTLV). Semantic loss began with anomia, word-finding difficulties, and repetitive speech, whereas the early behavioral syndrome was characterized by emotional distance, irritability, and disruption of physiologic drives (sleep, appetite, libido). After an average of 3 years, patients developed whichever of the two initial syndromes—semantic or behavioral—that they lacked at onset. A third stage, 5 to 7 years from onset, saw the emergence of disinhibition, compulsions, impaired face recognition, altered food preference, and weight gain. Compulsions in LTLV were directed toward visual, nonverbal stimuli, whereas patients with RTLV were drawn to games with words and symbols. Conclusions The temporal variant of frontotemporal dementia follows a characteristic cognitive and behavioral progression that suggests early spread from one anterior temporal lobe to the other. Later symptoms implicate ventromedial frontal, insular, and inferoposterior temporal regions, but their precise anatomic correlates await confirmation. PMID:15851728

  15. Interleukin-37 gene variants segregated anciently coexist during hominid evolution.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bin; Cheng, Shimeng; Peng, Jinbiao; Yan, Jingjing; Zhang, Shuye

    2015-10-01

    IL37 is a member of IL-1 cytokine family but conveys anti-inflammatory functions. The biological characteristic and genetic heterogeneity of IL37 are not fully understood yet. Here using the whole-genome sequencing data from 1000 Genomes Project, we performed population and evolutionary genetic analysis of human IL37 gene. First, 2184 IL37 gene sequences from different human populations were retrieved. The IL37 protein sequences were inferred from the coding DNA sequences and multiple species alignment was made. Then, the phylogenetic tree of IL37 was built and dN/dS ratios were calculated for each evolutionary branch, the classic McDonald and Kreitman test was also performed. Next, we conducted intraspecific evolutionary genetic analysis and built the genealogy network of 116 unique IL37 haplotypes through median-joining network analysis. Finally, we compared IL37 sequences between the modern and archaic humans. Our results for the first time provide solid evidence that common IL37 variants other than NCBI reference sequence are present worldwide. Our data also supports that IL37 variants are shaped and maintained by selection instead of neutral evolution. We further identified that human IL37 variants consist of two major haplogroups and their presence in archaic humans corroborates its ancient origin in hominid evolution. In conclusion, these data indicate that common IL37 variants are maintained among human populations by selective force, suggesting their potential involvements in immune regulation and human diseases. In addition, the ancient history of IL37 variants reveals interesting insight into the complicated human evolutionary history. PMID:25626704

  16. Rare Variants Create Synthetic Genome-Wide Associations

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Samuel P.; Wang, Kai; Krantz, Ian; Hakonarson, Hakon; Goldstein, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have now identified at least 2,000 common variants that appear associated with common diseases or related traits (http://www.genome.gov/gwastudies), hundreds of which have been convincingly replicated. It is generally thought that the associated markers reflect the effect of a nearby common (minor allele frequency >0.05) causal site, which is associated with the marker, leading to extensive resequencing efforts to find causal sites. We propose as an alternative explanation that variants much less common than the associated one may create “synthetic associations” by occurring, stochastically, more often in association with one of the alleles at the common site versus the other allele. Although synthetic associations are an obvious theoretical possibility, they have never been systematically explored as a possible explanation for GWAS findings. Here, we use simple computer simulations to show the conditions under which such synthetic associations will arise and how they may be recognized. We show that they are not only possible, but inevitable, and that under simple but reasonable genetic models, they are likely to account for or contribute to many of the recently identified signals reported in genome-wide association studies. We also illustrate the behavior of synthetic associations in real datasets by showing that rare causal mutations responsible for both hearing loss and sickle cell anemia create genome-wide significant synthetic associations, in the latter case extending over a 2.5-Mb interval encompassing scores of “blocks” of associated variants. In conclusion, uncommon or rare genetic variants can easily create synthetic associations that are credited to common variants, and this possibility requires careful consideration in the interpretation and follow up of GWAS signals. PMID:20126254

  17. JC Virus Encephalopathy Is Associated with a Novel Agnoprotein-Deletion JCV Variant

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Xin; Wüthrich, Christian; Gordon, Jennifer; Sawa, Hirofumi; Koralnik, Igor J.

    2012-01-01

    JC virus encephalopathy (JCVE) is a newly described gray matter disease of the brain caused by productive infection of cortical pyramidal neurons. We characterized the full length sequence of JCV isolated from the brain of a JCVE patient, analyzed its distribution in various compartments by PCR, and determined viral gene expression in the brain by immunohistochemistry(IHC). We identified a novel JCV variant, JCVCPN1, with a unique 143 bp deletion in the Agno gene encoding a truncated 10 amino acid peptide, and harboring an archetype-like regulatory region. This variant lacked one of three nuclear protein binding regions in the Agno gene. It was predominant in the brain, where it coexisted with an Agno-intact wild-type strain. Double immunostaining with anti-Agno and anti- VP1 antibodies demonstrated that the truncated JCVCPN1 Agno peptide was present in the majority of cortical cells productively infected with JCV. We then screened 68 DNA samples from 8 brain, 30 CSF and 30 PBMC samples of PML patients, HIV+ and HIV- control subjects. Another JCVCPN strain with a different pattern of Agno-deletion was found in the CSF of an HIV+/PML patient, where it also coexisted with wild-type, Agno-intact JCV. These findings suggest that the novel tropism for cortical pyramidal neurons of JCVCPN1, may be associated with the Agno deletion. Productive and lytic infection of these cells, resulting in fulminant JCV encephalopathy and death may have been facilitated by the co-infection with a wild- type strain of JCV. PMID:22536439

  18. Nucleosome stability mediated by histone variants H3.3 and H2A.Z

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chunyuan; Felsenfeld, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Nucleosomes containing the histone variant H3.3 tend to be clustered in vivo in the neighborhood of transcriptionally active genes and over regulatory elements. It has not been clear, however, whether H3.3-containing nucleosomes possess unique properties that would affect transcription. We report here that H3.3 nucleosomes isolated from vertebrates, regardless of whether they are partnered with H2A or H2A.Z, are unusually sensitive to salt-dependent disruption, losing H2A/H2B or H2A.Z/H2B dimers. Immunoprecipitation studies of nucleosome core particles (NCPs) show that NCPs that contain both H3.3 and H2A.Z are even less stable than NCPs containing H3.3 and H2A. Intriguingly, NCPs containing H3 and H2A.Z are at least as stable as H3/H2A NCPs. These results establish an hierarchy of stabilities for native nucleosomes carrying different complements of variants, and suggest how H2A.Z could play different roles depending on its partners within the NCP. They also are consistent with the idea that H3.3 plays an active role in maintaining accessible chromatin structures in enhancer regions and transcribed regions. Consistent with this idea, promoters and enhancers at transcriptionally active genes and coding regions at highly expressed genes have nucleosomes that simultaneously carry both H3.3 and H2A.Z, and should therefore be extremely sensitive to disruption. PMID:17575053

  19. A Natural Genetic Variant of Granzyme B Confers Lethality to a Common Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Andoniou, Christopher E.; Sutton, Vivien R.; Wikstrom, Matthew E.; Fleming, Peter; Thia, Kevin Y. T.; Matthews, Antony Y.; Kaiserman, Dion; Schuster, Iona S.; Coudert, Jerome D.; Eldi, Preethi; Chaudhri, Geeta; Karupiah, Gunasegaran; Bird, Phillip I.

    2014-01-01

    Many immune response genes are highly polymorphic, consistent with the selective pressure imposed by pathogens over evolutionary time, and the need to balance infection control with the risk of auto-immunity. Epidemiological and genomic studies have identified many genetic variants that confer susceptibility or resistance to pathogenic micro-organisms. While extensive polymorphism has been reported for the granzyme B (GzmB) gene, its relevance to pathogen immunity is unexplored. Here, we describe the biochemical and cytotoxic functions of a common allele of GzmB (GzmBW) common in wild mouse. While retaining ‘Asp-ase’ activity, GzmBW has substrate preferences that differ considerably from GzmBP, which is common to all inbred strains. In vitro, GzmBW preferentially cleaves recombinant Bid, whereas GzmBP activates pro-caspases directly. Recombinant GzmBW and GzmBP induced equivalent apoptosis of uninfected targets cells when delivered with perforin in vitro. Nonetheless, mice homozygous for GzmBW were unable to control murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, and succumbed as a result of excessive liver damage. Although similar numbers of anti-viral CD8 T cells were generated in both mouse strains, GzmBW-expressing CD8 T cells isolated from infected mice were unable to kill MCMV-infected targets in vitro. Our results suggest that known virally-encoded inhibitors of the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway account for the increased susceptibility of GzmBW mice to MCMV. We conclude that different natural variants of GzmB have a profound impact on the immune response to a common and authentic viral pathogen. PMID:25502180

  20. A Family-Based Paradigm to Identify Candidate Chromosomal Regions for Isolated Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Arrington, Cammon B.; Bleyl, Steven B.; Matsunami, Nori; Bowles, Neil E.; Leppert, Tami I.; Demarest, Bradley L.; Osborne, Karen; Yoder, Bradley A.; Byrne, Janice L.; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Null, Donald M.; DiGeronimo, Robert; Rollins, Michael; Faix, Roger; Comstock, Jessica; Camp, Nicola J.; Leppert, Mark F.; Yost, H. Joseph; Brunelli, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a developmental defect of the diaphragm that causes high newborn mortality. Isolated or non-syndromic CDH is considered a multifactorial disease, with strong evidence implicating genetic factors. As low heritability has been reported in isolated CDH, family-based genetic methods have yet to identify the genetic factors associated with the defect. Using the Utah Population Database, we identified distantly related patients from several extended families with a high incidence of isolated CDH. Using high-density genotyping, seven patients were analyzed by homozygosity exclusion rare allele mapping (HERAM) and phased haplotype sharing (HapShare), two methods we developed to map shared chromosome regions. Our patient cohort shared three regions not previously associated with CDH, i.e. 2q11.2-q12.1, 4p13 and 7q11.2, and two regions previously involved in CDH, i.e. 8p23.1 and 15q26.2. The latter regions contain GATA4 and NR2F2, two genes implicated in diaphragm formation in mice. Interestingly, three patients shared the 8p23.1 locus and one of them also harbored the 15q26.2 segment. No coding variants were identified in GATA4 or NR2F2, but a rare shared variant was found in intron 1 of GATA4. This work shows the role of heritability in isolated CDH. Our family-based strategy uncovers new chromosomal regions possibly associated with disease, and suggests that non-coding variants of GATA4 and NR2F2 may contribute to the development of isolated CDH. This approach could speed up the discovery of the genes and regulatory elements causing multifactorial diseases, such as isolated CDH. PMID:23165927

  1. Characterization of CbCyp51 from field isolates of Cercospora beticola.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Melvin D; Birla, Keshav; Rivera-Varas, Viviana; Rudolph, Kurt D; Secor, Gary A

    2012-03-01

    The hemibiotrophic fungus Cercospora beticola causes leaf spot of sugar beet. Leaf spot control measures include the application of sterol demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides. However, reduced sensitivity to DMIs has been reported recently in the Red River Valley sugar beet-growing region of North Dakota and Minnesota. Here, we report the cloning and molecular characterization of CbCyp51, which encodes the DMI target enzyme sterol P450 14?-demethylase in C. beticola. CbCyp51 is a 1,632-bp intron-free gene with obvious homology to other fungal Cyp51 genes and is present as a single copy in the C. beticola genome. Five nucleotide haplotypes were identified which encoded three amino acid sequences. Protein variant 1 composed 79% of the sequenced isolates, followed by protein variant 2 that composed 18% of the sequences and a single isolate representative of protein variant 3. Because resistance to DMIs can be related to polymorphism in promoter or coding sequences, sequence diversity was assessed by sequencing >2,440 nucleotides encompassing CbCyp51 coding and flanking regions from isolates with varying EC(50) values (effective concentration to reduce growth by 50%) to DMI fungicides. However, no mutations or haplotypes were associated with DMI resistance or sensitivity. No evidence for alternative splicing or differential methylation of CbCyp51 was found that might explain reduced sensitivity to DMIs. However, CbCyp51 was overexpressed in isolates with high EC(50) values compared with isolates with low EC(50) values. After exposure to tetraconazole, isolates with high EC(50) values responded with further induction of CbCyp51, with a positive correlation of CbCyp51 expression and tetraconazole concentration up to 2.5 ?g ml(-1). PMID:22085297

  2. Distribution and Medical Impact of Loss-of-Function Variants in the Finnish Founder Population

    E-print Network

    Altshuler, David

    Exome sequencing studies in complex diseases are challenged by the allelic heterogeneity, large number and modest effect sizes of associated variants on disease risk and the presence of large numbers of neutral variants, ...

  3. Regenerative Estimation Variants of Response Times in Closed Networks of Queues

    E-print Network

    Katsaros, Panagiotis

    Regenerative Estimation Variants of Response Times in Closed Networks of Queues PANAJOTIS KATSAROS regenerative estimation variants of response times, in multivariate simulations of closed queuing networks. Key-Words: - Queuing networks, Regenerative method, Simulation output analysis, Sequential control

  4. Structural Variant Detection in Colorectal Cancer - Evert van den Broek, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Structural Variant Detection in Colorectal Cancer - Evert van den Broek Structural Variant Detection in Colorectal Cancer - Evert van den Broek, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012 You will need Adobe Flash

  5. Whole-genome sequencing of clarithromycin resistant Helicobacter pylori characterizes unidentified variants of multidrug resistant efflux pump genes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clarithromycin (CLR) is the key drug in eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, and widespread use of CLR has led to an increase in primary CLR-resistant H. pylori. The known mechanism of CLR resistance has been established in A2146G and A2147G mutations in the 23S rRNA gene, but evidence of the involvement of other genetic mechanisms is lacking. Using the MiSeq platform, whole-genome sequencing of the 19 clinical strains and the reference strain ATCC26695 was performed to identify single nucleotide variants (SNVs) of multi-drug resistant efflux pump genes in the CLR-resistant phenotype. Results Based on sequencing data of ATCC26695, over one million sequencing reads with over 50-fold coverage were sufficient to detect SNVs, but not indels in the bacterial genome. Sequencing reads of the clinical isolates ranged from 1.82 to 10.8 million, and average coverage ranged from 90.9- to 686.3-fold, which were acceptable criteria for detecting SNVs. Utilizing the conventional approach of allele-specific PCR, point mutations in the 23S rRNA gene were detected in 12 clinical resistant isolates, but not in 7 clinical susceptible isolates. All sequencing reads of CLR-resistant strains had a G mutation in an identical position of the 23S rRNA gene. In addition, genetic variants of four gene clusters (hp0605-hp0607, hp0971-hp0969, hp1327-hp1329, and hp1489-hp1487) of TolC homologues, which have been implicated in multi-drug resistance, were examined. Specific SNVs were dominantly found in resistant strains. Conclusions Gene clusters of TolC homologues are involved in CLR susceptibility profiles in individual H. pylori strains. Whole-genome sequencing has yielded novel understanding of genotype-phenotype relationships. PMID:24995043

  6. Chondroitin sulfate A-adhering Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes express functionally important antibody epitopes shared by multiple variants.

    PubMed

    Barfod, Lea; Dobrilovic, Tina; Magistrado, Pamela; Khunrae, Pongsak; Viwami, Firmine; Bruun, Jonas; Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Bernasconi, Nadia L; Fried, Michal; John, Davis; Duffy, Patrick E; Salanti, Ali; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Lim, Chwee Teck; Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Higgins, Matthew K; Hviid, Lars

    2010-12-15

    Acquired protection from Plasmodium falciparum placental malaria, a major cause of maternal, fetal, and infant morbidity, is mediated by IgG specific for the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 variant VAR2CSA. This protein enables adhesion of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes to chondroitin sulfate A in the intervillous space. Although interclonal variation of the var2csa gene is lower than that among var genes in general, VAR2CSA-specific Abs appear to target mainly polymorphic epitopes. This has raised doubts about the feasibility of VAR2CSA-based vaccines. We used eight human monoclonal IgG Abs from affinity-matured memory B cells of P. falciparum-exposed women to study interclonal variation and functional importance of Ab epitopes among placental and peripheral parasites from East and West Africa. Most placental P. falciparum isolates were labeled by several mAbs, whereas peripheral isolates from children were essentially nonreactive. The mAb reactivity of peripheral isolates from pregnant women indicated that some were placental, whereas others had alternative sequestration foci. Most of the mAbs were comparable in their reactivity with bound infected erythrocytes (IEs) and recombinant VAR2CSA and interfered with IE and/or VAR2CSA binding to chondroitin sulfate A. Pair-wise mAb combinations were more inhibitory than single mAbs, and all of the mAbs together was the most efficient combination. Each mAb could opsonize IEs for phagocytosis, and a combination of the eight mAbs caused phagocytosis similar to that of plasma IgG-opsonized IEs. We conclude that functionally important Ab epitopes are shared by the majority of polymorphic VAR2CSA variants, which supports the feasibility of VAR2CSA-based vaccines against placental malaria. PMID:21078904

  7. Computerized design and generation of space-variant holographic filters. II - Applications of space-variant filters to optical computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambs, P.; Fainman, Y.; Esener, S.; Lee, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    Holographic optical elements (HOEs) of space-variant impulse response have been designed and generated using a computerized optical system. HOEs made of dichromated gelatin have been produced and used for spatial light modulator defect removal and optical interconnects. Experimental performance and characteristics are presented.

  8. Strain isolated ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolokan, R. P.; Brady, J. B.; Jarrabet, G. P.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are used in gas turbine engines to improve component temperature capability and cooling air efficiency. A compliant metal fiber strain isolator between a plasma sprayed ceramic coating and a metal substrate improves ceramic durability while allowing thicker coatings for better insulation. Development of strain isolated coatings has concentrated on design and fabrication of coatings and coating evaluation via thermal shock testing. In thermal shock testing, five types of failure are possible: buckling failure im compression on heat up, bimetal type failure, isothermal expansion mismatch failure, mudflat cracking during cool down, and long term fatigue. A primary failure mode for thermally cycled coatings is designated bimetal type failure. Bimetal failure is tensile failure in the ceramic near the ceramic-metal interface. One of the significant benefits of the strain isolator is an insulating layer protecting the metal substrate from heat deformation and thereby preventing bimetal type failure.

  9. Nucleic acid isolation

    DOEpatents

    Longmire, J.L.; Lewis, A.K.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1988-01-21

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduces the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without effect on the protocol.

  10. Nucleic acid isolation process

    DOEpatents

    Longmire, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Annette K. (La Jolla, CA); Hildebrand, Carl E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

  11. Human Infections Attributable to the d-Tartrate-Fermenting Variant of Salmonella enterica Serovar Paratyphi B in Germany Originate in Reptiles and, on Rare Occasions, Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Toboldt, Anne; Tietze, Erhard; Helmuth, Reiner; Fruth, Angelika; Junker, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the population structure, incidence, and potential sources of human infection caused by the d-tartrate-fermenting variant of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B [S. Paratyphi B (dT+)] was investigated. In Germany, the serovar is frequently isolated from broilers. Therefore, a selection of 108 epidemiologically unrelated S. enterica serovar Paratyphi B (dT+) strains isolated in Germany between 2002 and 2010 especially from humans, poultry/poultry meat, and reptiles was investigated by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Strains isolated from poultry and products thereof were strongly associated with multilocus sequence type ST28 and showed antimicrobial multiresistance profiles. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis XbaI profiles were highly homogeneous, with only a few minor XbaI profile variants. All strains isolated from reptiles, except one, were strongly associated with ST88, another distantly related type. Most of the strains were susceptible to antimicrobial agents, and XbaI profiles were heterogeneous. Strains isolated from humans yielded seven sequence types (STs) clustering in three distantly related lineages. The first lineage, comprising five STs, represented mainly strains belonging to ST43 and ST149. The other two lineages were represented only by one ST each, ST28 and ST88. The relatedness of strains based on the pathogenicity gene repertoire (102 markers tested) was mostly in agreement with the multilocus sequence type. Because ST28 was frequently isolated from poultry but rarely in humans over the 9-year period investigated, overall, this study indicates that in Germany S. enterica serovar Paratyphi B (dT+) poses a health risk preferentially by contact with reptiles and, to a less extent, by exposure to poultry or poultry meat. PMID:22885742

  12. Human infections attributable to the D-tartrate-fermenting variant of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B in Germany originate in reptiles and, on rare occasions, poultry.

    PubMed

    Toboldt, Anne; Tietze, Erhard; Helmuth, Reiner; Fruth, Angelika; Junker, Ernst; Malorny, Burkhard

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the population structure, incidence, and potential sources of human infection caused by the d-tartrate-fermenting variant of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B [S. Paratyphi B (dT+)] was investigated. In Germany, the serovar is frequently isolated from broilers. Therefore, a selection of 108 epidemiologically unrelated S. enterica serovar Paratyphi B (dT+) strains isolated in Germany between 2002 and 2010 especially from humans, poultry/poultry meat, and reptiles was investigated by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Strains isolated from poultry and products thereof were strongly associated with multilocus sequence type ST28 and showed antimicrobial multiresistance profiles. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis XbaI profiles were highly homogeneous, with only a few minor XbaI profile variants. All strains isolated from reptiles, except one, were strongly associated with ST88, another distantly related type. Most of the strains were susceptible to antimicrobial agents, and XbaI profiles were heterogeneous. Strains isolated from humans yielded seven sequence types (STs) clustering in three distantly related lineages. The first lineage, comprising five STs, represented mainly strains belonging to ST43 and ST149. The other two lineages were represented only by one ST each, ST28 and ST88. The relatedness of strains based on the pathogenicity gene repertoire (102 markers tested) was mostly in agreement with the multilocus sequence type. Because ST28 was frequently isolated from poultry but rarely in humans over the 9-year period investigated, overall, this study indicates that in Germany S. enterica serovar Paratyphi B (dT+) poses a health risk preferentially by contact with reptiles and, to a less extent, by exposure to poultry or poultry meat. PMID:22885742

  13. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: how safe is eating beef?

    PubMed

    Roma, Andres A; Prayson, Richard A

    2005-03-01

    Cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, mad cow disease) have been found in North American cattle. Its human counterpart, called variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (variant CJD), is rare but seems to be linked to eating diseased beef. Many questions remain about these diseases, such as why young people seem at greater risk of variant CJD. Also, are some people more genetically at risk for acquiring variant CJD than others? PMID:15825799

  14. Virus nomenclature below the species level: a standardized nomenclature for natural variants of viruses assigned to the family Filoviridae

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Jens H.; Bao, Yiming; Bavari, Sina; Becker, Stephan; Bradfute, Steven; Brister, J. Rodney; Bukreyev, Alexander A.; Chandran, Kartik; Davey, Robert A.; Dolnik, Olga; Dye, John M.; Enterlein, Sven; Hensley, Lisa; Honko, Anna N.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Johnson, Karl M.; Kobinger, Gary; Leroy, Eric M.; Lever, Mark S.; Mühlberger, Elke; Netesov, Sergey V.; Olinger, Gene G.; Palacios, Gustavo; Patterson, Jean L.; Paweska, Janusz T.; Pitt, Louise; Radoshitzky, Sheli R.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Smither, Sophie J.; Swanepoel, Robert; Towner, Jonathan S.; van der Groen, Guido; Volchkov, Viktor E.; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Warren, Travis; Weidmann, Manfred; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2012-01-01

    The task of international expert groups is to recommend the classification and naming of viruses. The ICTV Filoviridae Study Group and other experts have recently established an almost consistent classification and nomenclature for filoviruses. Here, further guidelines are suggested to include their natural genetic variants. First, this term is defined. Second, a template for full-length virus names (such as “Ebola virus H.sapiens-tc/COD/1995/Kikwit-9510621”) is proposed. These names contain information on the identity of the virus (e.g., Ebola virus), isolation host (e.g., members of the species Homo sapiens), sampling location (e.g., Democratic Republic of the Congo (COD)), sampling year, genetic variant (e.g., Kikwit), and isolate (e.g., 9510621). Suffixes are proposed for individual names that clarify whether a given genetic variant has been characterized based on passage zero material (-wt), has been passaged in tissue/cell culture (-tc), is known from consensus sequence fragments only (-frag), or does (most likely) not exist anymore (-hist). We suggest that these comprehensive names are to be used specifically in the methods section of publications. Suitable abbreviations, also proposed here, could then be used throughout the text, while the full names could be used again in phylograms, tables, or figures if the contained information aids the interpretation of presented data. The proposed system is very similar to the well-known influenzavirus nomenclature and the nomenclature recently proposed for rotaviruses. If applied consistently, it would considerably simplify retrieval of sequence data from electronic databases and be a first important step toward a viral genome annotation standard as sought by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Furthermore, adoption of this nomenclature would increase the general understanding of filovirus-related publications and presentations and improve figures such as phylograms, alignments, and diagrams. Most importantly, it would counter the increasing confusion in genetic variant naming due to the identification of ever more sequences through technological breakthroughs in high-throughput sequencing and environmental sampling. PMID:23001720

  15. [Myelopeptides: isolation and structure].

    PubMed

    Fonina, L A; Gur'ianov, S A; Efremov, M A; Smirnova, O V

    1998-06-01

    A new method was developed for the isolation of biologically active peptides present in small quantities in supernatants of bone marrow cell cultures. Four new peptides, which exhibited immunostimulating and differentiating activities, were isolated from the supernatant using solid phase extraction and reversed-phase HPLC. For these peptides, the following primary structures were elucidated: Leu-Val-Cys-Tyr-Pro-Gln, Phe-Arg-Pro-Arg-Ile-Met-Thr-Pro, Val-Val-Tyr-Pro-Asp, and Val-Asp-Pro-Pro. PMID:9702349

  16. Association of bovine ?-casein protein variant I with milk production and milk protein composition.

    PubMed

    Visker, M H P W; Dibbits, B W; Kinders, S M; van Valenberg, H J F; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to detect new polymorphisms in the bovine ?-casein (?-CN) gene and to evaluate association of (new) ?-CN protein variants with milk production traits and milk protein composition. Screening of the ?-CN gene in genomic DNA from 72 Holstein Friesian (HF) bulls resulted in detection of 19 polymorphisms and revealed the presence of ?-CN protein variant I in the Dutch HF population. Studies of association of ?-CN protein variants with milk composition usually do not discriminate protein variant I from variant A2. Association of ?-CN protein variants with milk composition was studied in 1857 first-lactation HF cows and showed that associations of protein variants A2 and I were quite different for several traits. ?-CN protein variant I was significantly associated with protein percentage and protein yield, and with ?s1 -casein (?s1 -CN), ?s2 -casein (?s2 -CN), ?-casein (?-CN), ?-lactalbumin (?-LA), ?-lactoglobulin (?-LG), casein index and casein yield. Inferring ?-?-CN haplotypes showed that ?-CN protein variant I occurred only with ?-CN variant B. Consequently, associations of ?-?-CN haplotype IB with protein percentage, ?-CN, ?-LA, ?-LG and casein index are likely resulting from associations of ?-CN protein variant B, while associations of ?-?-CN haplotype IB with ?s1 -CN and ?s2 -CN seem to be resulting from associations of ?-CN variant I. PMID:24725229

  17. Methods for engineering polypeptide variants via somatic hypermutation and polypeptide made thereby

    SciTech Connect

    Tsien, Roger Y; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-13

    Methods using somatic hypermutation (SHM) for producing polypeptide and nucleic acid variants, and nucleic acids encoding such polypeptide variants are disclosed. Such variants may have desired properties. Also disclosed are novel polypeptides, such as improved fluorescent proteins, produced by the novel methods, and nucleic acids, vectors, and host cells comprising such vectors.

  18. Compositions and methods comprising cellulase variants with reduced affinity to non-cellulosic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cascao-Pereira, Luis G; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley R; Liu, Amy D

    2015-04-07

    The present disclosure relates to cellulase variants. In particular the present disclosure relates to cellulase variants having reduced binding to non-cellulosic materials. Also described are nucleic acids encoding the cellulase, compositions comprising said cellulase, methods of identifying cellulose variants and methods of using the compositions.

  19. Compositions and methods comprising cellulase variants with reduced affinity to non-cellulosic materials

    DOEpatents

    Cascao-Pereira, Luis G.; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley R; Liu, Amy D.

    2012-08-07

    The present disclosure relates to cellulase variants. In particular the present disclosure relates to cellulase variants having reduced binding to non-cellulosic materials. Also described are nucleic acids encoding the cellulase, compositions comprising said cellulase, methods of identifying cellulose variants and methods of using the compositions.

  20. ORIGINAL PAPER Identification of alternatively spliced mRNA variants related to cancers by

    E-print Network

    Tian, Weidong

    (ASA), to look for splicing variants of human gene transcripts by genome-wide ESTs alignment. Using ASA as splicing variants. Of 4322 genes screened, 3490 (81%) were observed with at least one alternative splicing as the indicators for gene expression level. Using Fisher's exact test, alternative splicing variants, of which EST

  1. Nomenclature- and Database-Compatible Names for the Two Ebola Virus Variants that Emerged in Guinea and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Jens H.; Andersen, Kristian G.; Baize, Sylvain; Bào, Y?míng; Bavari, Sina; Berthet, Nicolas; Blinkova, Olga; Brister, J. Rodney; Clawson, Anna N.; Fair, Joseph; Gabriel, Martin; Garry, Robert F.; Gire, Stephen K.; Goba, Augustine; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Günther, Stephan; Happi, Christian T.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Kobinger, Gary; Kugelman, Jeffrey R.; Leroy, Eric M.; Maganga, Gael Darren; Mbala, Placide K.; Moses, Lina M.; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; N’Faly, Magassouba; Nichol, Stuart T.; Omilabu, Sunday A.; Palacios, Gustavo; Park, Daniel J.; Paweska, Janusz T.; Radoshitzky, Sheli R.; Rossi, Cynthia A.; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Schieffelin, John S.; Schoepp, Randal J.; Sealfon, Rachel; Swanepoel, Robert; Towner, Jonathan S.; Wada, Jiro; Wauquier, Nadia; Yozwiak, Nathan L.; Formenty, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, Ebola virus (EBOV) was identified as the etiological agent of a large and still expanding outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa and a much more confined EVD outbreak in Middle Africa. Epidemiological and evolutionary analyses confirmed that all cases of both outbreaks are connected to a single introduction each of EBOV into human populations and that both outbreaks are not directly connected. Coding-complete genomic sequence analyses of isolates revealed that the two outbreaks were caused by two novel EBOV variants, and initial clinical observations suggest that neither of them should be considered strains. Here we present consensus decisions on naming for both variants (West Africa: “Makona”, Middle Africa: “Lomela”) and provide database-compatible full, shortened, and abbreviated names that are in line with recently established filovirus sub-species nomenclatures. PMID:25421896

  2. HIV-1 sequence variation between isolates from mother-infant transmission pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, C.M.; Daniels, M.R.; Furtado, M.; Wolinsky, M.; Korber, B.; Hutto, C.; Munoz, J.; Parks, W.; Saah, A.

    1991-12-31

    To examine the sequence diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) between known transmission sets, sequences from the V3 and V4-V5 region of the env gene from 4 mother-infant pairs were analyzed. The mean interpatient sequence variation between isolates from linked mother-infant pairs was comparable to the sequence diversity found between isolates from other close contacts. The mean intrapatient variation was significantly less in the infants` isolates then the isolates from both their mothers and other characterized intrapatient sequence sets. In addition, a distinct and characteristic difference in the glycosylation pattern preceding the V3 loop was found between each linked transmission pair. These findings indicate that selection of specific genotypic variants, which may play a role in some direct transmission sets, and the duration of infection are important factors in the degree of diversity seen between the sequence sets.

  3. HIV-1 sequence variation between isolates from mother-infant transmission pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, C.M.; Daniels, M.R.; Furtado, M.; Wolinsky, M.; Korber, B.; Hutto, C.; Munoz, J.; Parks, W.; Saah, A.

    1991-01-01

    To examine the sequence diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) between known transmission sets, sequences from the V3 and V4-V5 region of the env gene from 4 mother-infant pairs were analyzed. The mean interpatient sequence variation between isolates from linked mother-infant pairs was comparable to the sequence diversity found between isolates from other close contacts. The mean intrapatient variation was significantly less in the infants' isolates then the isolates from both their mothers and other characterized intrapatient sequence sets. In addition, a distinct and characteristic difference in the glycosylation pattern preceding the V3 loop was found between each linked transmission pair. These findings indicate that selection of specific genotypic variants, which may play a role in some direct transmission sets, and the duration of infection are important factors in the degree of diversity seen between the sequence sets.

  4. Polymorphism of a specific region in gene p23 of Citrus tristeza virus allows discrimination between mild and severe isolates.

    PubMed

    Sambade, A; López, C; Rubio, L; Flores, R; Guerri, J; Moreno, P

    2003-12-01

    The pathogenicity determinants of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) are presently unknown, although transgenic Mexican limes over-expressing CTV p23, an RNA-binding protein involved in regulating the asymmetrical accumulation of viral RNA strands, display typical CTV symptoms. Here we compared the predominant sequence variants of gene p23 from 18 CTV isolates of different geographic origin and pathogenicity characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences revealed three groups of isolates: i) mild, inducing only symptoms in lime and/or decline of citrus species grafted on sour orange rootstock, ii) severe, causing additionally stem pitting on sweet orange and/or grapefruit, and iii) an atypical group of isolates inciting variable symptoms. The sequences of the isolates located at the periphery of each group were recombinants. Pairwise comparisons of the predicted amino acid sequences showed that residues at positions 78-80 were characteristic of each group of isolates. Group-specific primers based on these differences allowed RT-PCR detection of each sequence type in dsRNA-rich preparations from infected tissues. While mild isolates contained only the sequence characteristic of this group, most severe isolates contained the sequences characteristic of their group, and additionally, sequences characteristic of the mild and/or the atypical groups, suggesting that the severe phenotype is associated with the presence of the severe and/or the atypical sequence types. This association can be exploited for quick detection of potentially damaging sequence variants and for monitoring cross protection. PMID:14648289

  5. Biological Isolation Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A spinoff of astronaut's biological garment will allow hospital patients who are highly vulnerable to infection to leave their sterile habitats for several hours, carrying their germ free environment with them. Garments can be used in any of some 200 hospitals where isolation rooms are installed to treat leukemia.

  6. Isolation of Nuclei.

    PubMed

    Nabbi, Arash; Riabowol, Karl

    2015-08-01

    The isolation of nuclei is often the first step in studying processes such as nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling, subcellular localization of proteins, and protein-chromatin or nuclear protein-protein interactions in response to diverse stimuli. Therefore, rapidly obtaining nuclei from cells with relatively high purity and minimal subcellular contamination, protein degradation, or postharvesting modification is highly desirable. Historically, the isolation of nuclei involved a homogenization step followed by centrifugation through high-density glycerol or sucrose. Although clean nuclei with little cytoplasmic contamination can be prepared using this method, it is typically time consuming and can allow protein degradation, protein modification, and leaching of components from the nuclei to occur. We have developed a rapid and simple fractionation method that is based on the selective dissolution of the cytoplasmic membrane (but not the nuclear membrane) using a low concentration of a nonionic detergent and rapid centrifugation steps. Here we describe important considerations when isolating nuclei from cells, introduce our rapid method, and compare this method to a more traditional protocol for isolating nuclei, noting the strengths and limitations of each approach. PMID:26240413

  7. Diversity of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Strains Isolated from Inpatients of 30 Hospitals in Orange County, California

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Lyndsey O.; Murphy, Courtney R.; Spratt, Brian G.; Enright, Mark C.; Elkins, Kristen; Nguyen, Christopher; Terpstra, Leah; Gombosev, Adrijana; Kim, Diane; Hannah, Paul; Mikhail, Lydia; Alexander, Richard; Moore, Douglas F.; Huang, Susan S.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for a regional assessment of the frequency and diversity of MRSA to determine major circulating clones and the extent to which community and healthcare MRSA reservoirs have mixed. We conducted a prospective cohort study of inpatients in Orange County, California, systematically collecting clinical MRSA isolates from 30 hospitals, to assess MRSA diversity and distribution. All isolates were characterized by spa typing, with selective PFGE and MLST to relate spa types with major MRSA clones. We collected 2,246 MRSA isolates from hospital inpatients. This translated to 91/10,000 inpatients with MRSA and an Orange County population estimate of MRSA inpatient clinical cultures of 86/100,000 people. spa type genetic diversity was heterogeneous between hospitals, and relatively high overall (72%). USA300 (t008/ST8), USA100 (t002/ST5) and a previously reported USA100 variant (t242/ST5) were the dominant clones across all Orange County hospitals, representing 83% of isolates. Fifteen hospitals isolated more t008 (USA300) isolates than t002/242 (USA100) isolates, and 12 hospitals isolated more t242 isolates than t002 isolates. The majority of isolates were imported into hospitals. Community-based infection control strategies may still be helpful in stemming the influx of traditionally community-associated strains, particularly USA300, into the healthcare setting. PMID:23637976

  8. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2007-09-12

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of triggered star formation in a cosmological context.

  9. Fluorescent antibody test, quantitative polymerase chain reaction pattern and clinical aspects of rabies virus strains isolated from main reservoirs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Appolinário, Camila; Allendorf, Susan Dora; Vicente, Acácia Ferreira; Devidé Ribeiro, Bruna; da Fonseca, Clóvis Reinaldo; Antunes, João Marcelo; Peres, Marina Gea; Kotait, Ivanete; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Megid, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) isolated from different mammals seems to have unique characteristics that influence the outcome of infection. RABV circulates in nature and is maintained by reservoirs that are responsible for the persistence of the disease for almost 4000 years. Considering the different pattern of pathogenicity of RABV strains in naturally and experimentally infected animals, the aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of RABV variants isolated from the main Brazilian reservoirs, being related to a dog (variant 2), Desmodus rotundus (variant 3), crab eating fox, marmoset, and Myotis spp. Viral replication in brain tissue of experimentally infected mouse was evaluated by two laboratory techniques and the results were compared to clinical evolution from five RABV variants. The presence of the RABV was investigated in brain samples by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for quantification of rabies virus nucleoprotein gene (N gene). Virus replication is not correlated with clinical signs and evolution. The pattern of FAT is associated with RABV replication levels. Virus isolates from crab eating fox and marmoset had a longer evolution period and higher survival rate suggesting that the evolution period may contribute to the outcome. RABV virus variants had independent characteristics that determine the clinical evolution and survival of the infected mice. PMID:26303004

  10. The macrophage scavenger receptor CD163: endocytic properties of cytoplasmic tail variants.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Madsen, Mette; Møller, Holger J; Moestrup, Søren K

    2006-04-01

    CD163 is the monocyte/macrophage-specific receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) complexes. The cytoplasmic tail of human CD163 exists as a short tail variant and two long tail variants. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that all three CD163 variants are substantially expressed in blood, liver, and spleen, and the short tail variant is the predominant mRNA species. Using cell transfectants in which cDNA encoding the CD163 variants was inserted at the same site in the genome, we evaluated the expression and endocytic properties of the tail variants. Ligand uptake analysis showed that cells expressing the CD163 short tail variant exhibited a higher capacity for ligand endocytosis than cells expressing the CD163 long tail variants. The difference in endocytic activity was explained by confocal microscopic analysis, showing marked deviations in subcellular distribution. Surface expression was far most pronounced for the CD163 short tail variant, whereas the long tail variants were most abundant in the Golgi region/endosomes. Mutational change of a putative signal for endocytosis (Tyr-Arg-Glu-Met), present in a common part of the cytoplasmic tail of the variants, almost completely inactivated the endocytic activity of the short tail variant. In conclusion, the three physiological tail variants of CD163 may contribute to Hp-Hb endocytosis by means of the common ligand-binding region and endocytic signal. However, the high mRNA expression level and relatively high endocytic capacity of the short tail variant suggest that it accounts for the majority of Hp-Hb uptake from the circulation, whereas the long tail variants may have yet-unknown intracellular roles. PMID:16434690

  11. Determining the Pathogenicity of Genetic Variants Associated with Cardiac Channelopathies

    PubMed Central

    Campuzano, Oscar; Allegue, Catarina; Fernandez, Anna; Iglesias, Anna; Brugada, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in genetic screening have generated massive amounts of data on genetic variation; however, a lack of clear pathogenic stratification has left most variants classified as being of unknown significance. This is a critical limitation for translating genetic data into clinical practice. Genetic screening is currently recommended in the guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of cardiac channelopathies, which are major contributors to sudden cardiac death in young people. We propose to characterize the pathogenicity of genetic variants associated with cardiac channelopathies using a stratified scoring system. The development of this system was considered by using all of the tools currently available to define pathogenicity. The use of this scoring system could help clinicians to understand the limitations of genetic associations with a disease, and help them better define the role that genetics can have in their clinical routine. PMID:25608792

  12. Intramuscular dendritic fibromyxolipoma: myxoid variant of spindle cell lipoma?

    PubMed

    Karim, Rooshdiya Z; McCarthy, Stanley W; Palmer, Allan A; Bonar, S Fiona; Scolyer, Richard A

    2003-04-01

    Dendritic fibromyxolipoma (DFML) is an uncommon, recently described, benign soft tissue lesion that shares many clinical and pathological features with myxoid variants of spindle cell lipoma (SCL). As described, DFML is distinguished from SCL by the presence of dendritic cytoplasmic processes, abundant keloidal collagen and a prominent, often plexiform vascular pattern. We describe the first known reported case of an intramuscular DFML that occurred in the right shoulder region of a 73-year-old man. The tumor displayed the typical histopathological features of DFML but also included foci of chondroid metaplasia, a previously unreported finding. This report also discusses the differential diagnosis, particularly distinguishing DFML from SCL and myxoid liposarcoma. In view of the similarities in many clinical and pathological features between SCL and DFML, we speculate that DFML probably represents an unusual variant of myxoid SCL. PMID:12675771

  13. Diagnosis and Management of Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Pressman, Peter; Miller, Bruce L

    2014-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) was documented over a century ago. The last decade, however, has seen substantial changes in our conceptions of this increasingly recognized disorder. Different clinical variants have been delineated, the most common of which is the behavioral variant (bvFTD). Updated diagnostic criteria have been established. New histopathological findings and genetic etiologies have been discovered. Research continues to uncover molecular mechanisms by which abnormal proteins accumulate in degenerating brain tissue. Novel neuroimaging techniques suggest that functional networks are diminished in bvFTD that may be relevant to empathy and social behavior. Despite rapid advances in our understanding of bvFTD, the disease is still under-recognized and commonly misdiagnosed. The result is inappropriate patient care. Recognizing the various presentations of bvFTD and its histological and genetic subtypes may further diagnosis, treatment and research. PMID:24315411

  14. Single organ variant of polyarteritis nodosa in epididymis.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ketan; Dawson, Leelavathi

    2015-01-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis that typically affects medium-sized muscular arteries, with occasional involvement of small muscular arteries. Unlike some other vasculitides (e.g. microscopic polyarteritis, Wegener's granulomatosis) PAN is not associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. Patients typically present with systemic symptoms such as fever, weight loss, and malaise. The kidneys, skin, joints, muscles, nerves, and gastrointestinal tract are commonly involved, usually in some combination. PAN can affect any organ, but usually spare the lungs. Clinical variants or subsets of PAN include single-organ disease and cutaneous-only PAN. Scrotal involvement is rarely the first presenting sign. We herein report a case of 36-year-old man who presented with a swelling in the left epididymis, which was surgically removed. The swelling histopathologically showed necrotizing inflammation, fibrinoid necrosis of the medium-sized arteries of the epididymis and was diagnosed to be single organ variant of PAN. PMID:26458682

  15. Efficient variants of the vertex space domain decomposition algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, T.F.; Shao, J.P. . Dept. of Mathematics); Mathew, T.P. . Dept. of Mathematics)

    1994-11-01

    Several variants of the vertex space algorithm of Smith for two-dimensional elliptic problems are described. The vertex space algorithm is a domain decomposition method based on nonoverlapping subregions, in which the reduced Schur complement system on the interface is solved using a generalized block Jacobi-type preconditioner, with the blocks corresponding to the vertex space, edges, and a coarse grid. Two kinds of approximations are considered for the edge and vertex space subblocks, one based on Fourier approximation, and another based on an algebraic probing technique in which sparse approximations to these subblocks are computed. The motivation is to improve the efficiency of the algorithm without sacrificing the optimal convergence rate. Numerical and theoretical results on the performance of these algorithms, including variants of an algorithm of Bramble, Pasciak, and Schatz are presented.

  16. Virasoro Module Structure of Local Martingales of SLE Variants

    E-print Network

    Kalle Kytölä

    2007-02-07

    Martingales often play an important role in computations with Schramm-Loewner evolutions (SLEs). The purpose of this article is to provide a straightforward approach to the Virasoro module structure of the space of local martingales for variants of SLEs. In the case of ordinary chordal SLE, it has been shown in Bauer & Bernard: Phys.Lett.B 557 that polynomial local martingales form a Virasoro module. We will show for more general variants that the module of local martingales has a natural submodule M that has the same interpretation as the module of polynomial local martingales of chordal SLE, but it is in many cases easy to find more local martingales than that. We discuss the surprisingly rich structure of the Virasoro module M and construction of the ``SLE state'' or ``martingale generating function'' by Coulomb gas formalism. In addition, Coulomb gas or Feigin-Fuchs integrals will be shown to transparently produce candidates for multiple SLE pure geometries.

  17. Multidetector CT angiography of renal vasculature: normal anatomy and variants.

    PubMed

    Türkvatan, Aysel; Ozdemir, Mustafa; Cumhur, Turhan; Olçer, Tülay

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the variations in renal vascular anatomy is important before laparoscopic donor or partial nephrectomy and vascular reconstruction for renal artery stenosis or abdominal aortic aneurysm. Recently, multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography has become a principal imaging investigation for assessment of the renal vasculature and has challenged the role of conventional angiography. It is an excellent imaging technique because it is a fast and non-invasive tool that provides highly accurate and detailed evaluation of normal renal vascular anatomy and variants. The number, size and course of the renal arteries and veins are easily identified by MDCT angiography. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate MDCT angiographic appearance of normal anatomy and common variants of the renal vasculature. PMID:18665365

  18. Histone H2A (H2A.X and H2A.Z) Variants in Molluscs: Molecular Characterization and Potential Implications For Chromatin Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    González-Romero, Rodrigo; Rivera-Casas, Ciro; Frehlick, Lindsay J.; Méndez, Josefina; Ausió, Juan; Eirín-López, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Histone variants are used by the cell to build specialized nucleosomes, replacing canonical histones and generating functionally specialized chromatin domains. Among many other processes, the specialization imparted by histone H2A (H2A.X and H2A.Z) variants to the nucleosome core particle constitutes the earliest response to DNA damage in the cell. Consequently, chromatin-based genotoxicity tests have been developed in those cases where enough information pertaining chromatin structure and dynamics is available (i.e., human and mouse). However, detailed chromatin knowledge is almost absent in most organisms, specially protostome animals. Molluscs (which represent sentinel organisms for the study of pollution) are not an exception to this lack of knowledge. In the present work we first identified the existence of functionally differentiated histone H2A.X and H2A.Z variants in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (MgH2A.X and MgH2A.Z), a marine organism widely used in biomonitoring programs. Our results support the functional specialization of these variants based on: a) their active expression in different tissues, as revealed by the isolation of native MgH2A.X and MgH2A.Z proteins in gonad and hepatopancreas; b) the evolutionary conservation of different residues encompassing functional relevance; and c) their ability to confer specialization to nucleosomes, as revealed by nucleosome reconstitution experiments using recombinant MgH2A.X and MgH2A.Z histones. Given the seminal role of these variants in maintaining genomic integrity and regulating gene expression, their preliminary characterization opens up new potential applications for the future development of chromatin-based genotoxicity tests in pollution biomonitoring programs. PMID:22253857

  19. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  20. Coagulation factor VII variants resistant to inhibitory antibodies.

    PubMed

    Branchini, Alessio; Baroni, Marcello; Pfeiffer, Caroline; Batorova, Angelika; Giansily-Blaizot, Muriel; Schved, Jean F; Mariani, Guglielmo; Bernardi, Francesco; Pinotti, Mirko

    2014-11-01

    Replacement therapy is currently used to prevent and treat bleeding episodes in coagulation factor deficiencies. However, structural differences between the endogenous and therapeutic proteins might increase the risk for immune complications. This study was aimed at identifying factor (F)VII variants resistant to inhibitory antibodies developed after treatment with recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in a FVII-deficient patient homozygous for the p.A354V-p.P464Hfs mutation, which predicts trace levels of an elongated FVII variant in plasma. We performed fluorescent bead-based binding, ELISA-based competition as well as fluorogenic functional (activated FX and thrombin generation) assays in plasma and with recombinant proteins. We found that antibodies displayed higher affinity for the active than for the zymogen FVII (half-maximal binding at 0.54 ± 0.04 and 0.78 ± 0.07 BU/ml, respectively), and inhibited the coagulation initiation phase with a second-order kinetics. Isotypic analysis showed a polyclonal response with a large predominance of IgG1. We hypothesised that structural differences in the carboxyl-terminus between the inherited FVII and the therapeutic molecules contributed to the immune response. Intriguingly, a naturally-occurring, poorly secreted and 5-residue truncated FVII (FVII-462X) escaped inhibition. Among a series of truncated rFVII molecules, we identified a well-secreted and catalytically competent variant (rFVII-464X) with reduced binding to antibodies (half-maximal binding at 0.198 ± 0.003 BU/ml) as compared to the rFVII-wt (0.032 ± 0.002 BU/ml), which led to a 40-time reduced inhibition in activated FX generation assays. Taken together our results provide a paradigmatic example of mutation-related inhibitory antibodies, strongly support the FVII carboxyl-terminus as their main target and identify inhibitor-resistant FVII variants. PMID:25104096

  1. Metabolic gene variants associated with chromosomal aberrations in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Frank, Christoph; Försti, Asta; Musak, Ludovit; Kazimirova, Alena; Barancokova, Magdalena; Horska, Alexandra; Vymetalkova, Veronika; Smerhovsky, Zdenek; Naccarati, Alessio; Soucek, Pavel; Vodickova, Ludmila; Buchancova, Janka; Smolkova, Bozena; Dusinska, Maria; Vodicka, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    Nonspecific chromosomal aberrations (CAs) are found in about 1% of lymphocytes drawn from healthy individuals. They include chromosome-type aberrations (CSAs), which are increased in exposure to ionizing radiation, and chromatid-type aberrations (CTAs) which in experimental systems are formed by DNA binding carcinogens and mutagens. The frequency of CAs is associated with the risk of cancer, but the causes of CAs in general population are unknown. Here, we want to test whether variants in metabolic genes associate with CAs in healthy volunteers. Cases were considered those whose total CA (CAtot) frequency was >2% and for CSA and CTA the limit was >1%. Controls had lower frequencies of CAs. Functional polymorphisms in seven genes were selected for analysis: cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1), epoxide hydrolase 1 (EPHX1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), each coding for phase 1 enzymes, and glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), glutathione S-transferases M1 (GSTM1) and T1 (GSTT1), coding for enzymes which conjugate reactive metabolites, that is, phase 2 enzymes. The number of volunteers genotyped for each gene varied from 550 to 1,500. Only EPHX1 was individually associated with CAtot; high activity genotypes decreased CAtot. A total of six significant (P < 0.01) pair-wise interactions were observed, most including a GST variant as one of the pair. In all genotype combinations with significant odds ratios for CAs a GST variant was involved. The present data provide evidence that variants in genes coding for metabolic enzymes, which individually have small effects, interact and are associated with CA frequencies in peripheral lymphocytes of healthy volunteers. PMID:25622915

  2. Spatially variant tomographic imaging: Estimation, identification, and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.R.

    1991-11-01

    This thesis is an investigation of methods for processing multidimensional signals acquired using modern tomography systems that have an anisotropic or spatially variant response function. The main result of this research is the discovery of a new method to obtain better estimators of an unknown spatial intensity distribution by incorporating detailed knowledge about the tomograph system response function and statistical properties of the acquired signal into a mathematical model.

  3. Identifying rare variants from exome scans: the GAW17 experience

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 (GAW17) provided a platform for evaluating existing statistical genetic methods and for developing novel methods to analyze rare variants that modulate complex traits. In this article, we present an overview of the 1000 Genomes Project exome data and simulated phenotype data that were distributed to GAW17 participants for analyses, the different issues addressed by the participants, and the process of preparation of manuscripts resulting from the discussions during the workshop. PMID:22373325

  4. APOE ? variants increase risk of warfarin-related intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, Guido J.; Radmanesh, Farid; Brouwers, H. Bart; Battey, Thomas W.K.; Devan, William J.; Valant, Valerie; Raffeld, Miriam R.; Chitsike, Lennox P.; Ayres, Alison M.; Schwab, Kristin; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M.; Selim, Magdy; Meschia, James F.; Brown, Devin L.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Silliman, Scott L.; Tirschwell, David L.; Flaherty, Matthew L.; Martini, Sharyl R.; Deka, Ranjan; Biffi, Alessandro; Kraft, Peter; Woo, Daniel; Rosand, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to assess the effect of APOE ? variants on warfarin-related intracerebral hemorrhage (wICH), evaluated their predictive power, and tested for interaction with warfarin in causing wICH. Methods: This was a prospective, 2-stage (discovery and replication), case-control study. wICH was classified as lobar or nonlobar based on the location of the hematoma. Controls were sampled from ambulatory clinics (discovery) and random digit dialing (replication). APOE ? variants were directly genotyped. A case-control design and logistic regression analysis were utilized to test for association between APOE ? and wICH. A case-only design and logistic regression analysis were utilized to test for interaction between APOE ? and warfarin. Receiver operating characteristic curves were implemented to evaluate predictive power. Results: The discovery stage included 319 wICHs (44% lobar) and 355 controls. APOE ?2 was associated with lobar (odds ratio [OR] 2.46; p < 0.001) and nonlobar wICH (OR 1.67; p = 0.04), whereas ?4 was associated with lobar (OR 2.09; p < 0.001) but not nonlobar wICH (p = 0.35). The replication stage (63 wICHs and 1,030 controls) confirmed the association with ?2 (p = 0.03) and ?4 (p = 0.003) for lobar but not for nonlobar wICH (p > 0.20). Genotyping information on APOE ? variants significantly improved case/control discrimination of lobar wICH (C statistic 0.80). No statistical interaction between warfarin and APOE was found (p > 0.20). Conclusions: APOE ? variants constitute strong risk factors for lobar wICH. APOE exerts its effect independently of warfarin, although power limitations render this absence of interaction preliminary. Evaluation of the predictive ability of APOE in cohort studies is warranted. PMID:25150286

  5. The molecular characterization of 16 new sequence variants of Hop stunt viroid reveals the existence of invariable regions and a conserved hammerhead-like structure on the viroid molecule.

    PubMed

    Amari, K; Gomez, G; Myrta, A; Di Terlizzi, B; Pallás, V

    2001-04-01

    At present isolates of Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) are divided into five groups: three major groups (plum-type, hop-type and citrus-type) each containing isolates from only a limited number of isolation hosts and two minor groups that were presumed to derive from recombination events between members of the main groups. In this work we present the characterization of 16 new sequence variants of HSVd obtained from four Mediterranean countries (Cyprus, Greece, Morocco and Turkey) where this viroid had not previously been described. Molecular variability comparisons considering the totality of the sequence variants characterized so far revealed that most of the variability is found in the pathogenic and variable domains of the viroid molecule whereas both the terminal right (T(R)) and left (T(L)) domains are regions of low or no variability, respectively, suggesting the existence of constraints limiting the heterogeneity of the sequence variants. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that sequence variants belonging to the two minor recombinant subgroups are more frequent than previously thought. When the cruciform structure alternative to the typical rod-like conformation was considered it was observed that the upper part of this structure (hairpin I) was strictly conserved whereas in the lower part a reduced variability was found. The existence of a covariation in this lower part was notable. Interestingly, a hammerhead-like sequence was found within the T(R) domain of HSVd and it was strictly conserved in all the sequence variants. The evolutionary implications of the presence of this motif on the HSVd are discussed. PMID:11257203

  6. Capillary electrophoretic analysis of genetic variants of milk proteins from different species.

    PubMed

    Recio, I; Pérez-Rodríguez, M L; Ramos, M; Amigo, L

    1997-04-18

    Polymorphism of bovine, ovine and caprine milk proteins was studied by CE. Identification of some rare bovine variants was carried out by isoelectric focussing (IEF) using PhastSystem. Genetic variants A and D of bovine alpha s2-casein, beta-casein variants A1, A2, A3, B and C and alpha s1-casein variants B and C were determined by CE. In addition, the different casein fractions including some genetic variants of ovine and caprine milk were identified by CE. In order to carry out this identification, collected fractions from a cation-exchange FPLC separation were injected by CE. PMID:9175274

  7. Differentiation of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) variants by pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Jussimara; Widen, Raymond H; Pignatari, Antonio C C; Kubasek, Carly; Silbert, Suzane

    2014-05-01

    A fast and reliable protocol using the pyrosequencing technique was developed to identify 11 different types of the KPC enzyme. A total of 65 blaKPC positive bacterial isolates were tested and characterized. In the end, the pyrosequencing proved to be a powerful tool for epidemiological studies of KPC producer isolates. PMID:24631557

  8. Mating type genes and genetic markers to decipher intraspecific variability among Fusarium udum isolates from pigeonpea.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Rai, Shalini; Kumar, Sudheer; Srivastava, Alok Kumar; Anandaraj, M; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2015-07-01

    To ascertain the variability in Fusarium udum (Fu) isolates associated with pigeonpea wilt is a difficult task, if based solely on morphological and cultural characters. In this respect, the robustness of five different genetic marker viz., random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC), BOX elements, mating type locus, and microsatellite markers were employed to decipher intra-specific variability in Fu isolates. All techniques yielded intra-specific polymorphism, but different levels of discrimination were obtained. RAPD-PCR was more discriminatory, enabling the detection of thirteen variants among twenty Fu isolates. By microsatellite, ERIC- and BOX-PCR fingerprinting, the isolates were categorized in seven, five, and two clusters, respectively. Cluster analysis of the combined data also showed that the Fu isolates were grouped into ten clusters, sharing 50-100% similarity. The occurrence of both mating types in Fu isolates is reported for the first time in this study. All examined isolates harbored one of the two mating-type idiomorphs, but never both, which suggests a heterothallic mating system of sexual reproduction among them. Information obtained from comparing results of different molecular marker systems should be useful to organize the genetic variability and ideally, will improve disease management practices by identifying sources of inoculum and isolate characteristics. PMID:25639472

  9. Systematic functional regulatory assessment of disease-associated variants

    PubMed Central

    Karczewski, Konrad J.; Dudley, Joel T.; Kukurba, Kimberly R.; Chen, Rong; Butte, Atul J.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Snyder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have discovered many genetic loci associated with disease traits, but the functional molecular basis of these associations is often unresolved. Genome-wide regulatory and gene expression profiles measured across individuals and diseases reflect downstream effects of genetic variation and may allow for functional assessment of disease-associated loci. Here, we present a unique approach for systematic integration of genetic disease associations, transcription factor binding among individuals, and gene expression data to assess the functional consequences of variants associated with hundreds of human diseases. In an analysis of genome-wide binding profiles of NF?B, we find that disease-associated SNPs are enriched in NF?B binding regions overall, and specifically for inflammatory-mediated diseases, such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and coronary artery disease. Using genome-wide variation in transcription factor-binding data, we find that NF?B binding is often correlated with disease-associated variants in a genotype-specific and allele-specific manner. Furthermore, we show that this binding variation is often related to expression of nearby genes, which are also found to have altered expression in independent profiling of the variant-associated disease condition. Thus, using this integrative approach, we provide a unique means to assign putative function to many disease-associated SNPs. PMID:23690573

  10. Rare variants, private polymorphisms, and locus heterozygosity in Amerindian populations.

    PubMed Central

    Neel, J V

    1978-01-01

    The results of 21,103 electrophoretic typings distributed across 28 polypeptides in members of 12 Amerindian tribes are reported, and the accumulated results of electrophoretic studies on these same polypeptides in 21 Amerindian tribes are then analyzed. Thus far 11 'private' polymorphisms have been identified in these tribes. When the tribal samples are combined and traits achieving polymorphic proportions in the total sample excluded from consideration, the average frequency of rare variants is 2.8 per 1,000 determinations. For a subset of 23 of these polypeptides also studied in Caucasians and Japanese, variant frequencies per 1,000 determinations are: Indians, 2.2; Caucasians (British), 1.6; and Japanese, 1.5. Average locus heterogeneity for these polypeptides (based on rare variants plus polymorphisms) is: Indians, .049; Caucasians, .078; and Japanese, .077. A higher proportion of loci are monomorphic within tribes than within civilized urban populations. It is argued that for inferences concerning the forces maintaining genetic variability within populations, studies on samples from tribespeople are much more appropriate than studies on samples from civilized urban populations. PMID:367157

  11. Point substitutions in albumin genetic variants from Asia.

    PubMed Central

    Arai, K; Madison, J; Shimizu, A; Putnam, F W

    1990-01-01

    Despite their rarity and physiologically neutral character, more inherited structural variants of serum albumin (alloalbumins) are known than for any other human protein except hemoglobin. Including three previously unreported examples described here, we have identified 13 different point substitutions in alloalbumins of Japanese origin. Of these only albumin B and two proalbumins have been reported in other ethnic groups, and these are the most common variants of European origin. Some alloalbumins of Asiatic origin, but not yet identified in Japanese, are present in diverse ethnic groups. An alloalbumin found in indigenes of New Guinea (lysine----asparagine at position 313) is also present in Caucasians of various European descents. Albumin Lambadi, occurring in a tribal group in south India, has a mutation (glutamic acid----lysine at position 501) also found as a rare variant in individuals of diverse ethnic origin resident on four continents. These results suggest that some alloalbumins with the same substitution may have originated by independent mutations in various populations. This, together with the apparent clustering of point substitutions in the protein structure, may reflect hypermutability of the albumin gene. PMID:2404284

  12. Rare Variant Association Testing Under Low-Coverage Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Navon, Oron; Sul, Jae Hoon; Han, Buhm; Conde, Lucia; Bracci, Paige M.; Riby, Jacques; Skibola, Christine F.; Eskin, Eleazar; Halperin, Eran

    2013-01-01

    Deep sequencing technologies enable the study of the effects of rare variants in disease risk. While methods have been developed to increase statistical power for detection of such effects, detecting subtle associations requires studies with hundreds or thousands of individuals, which is prohibitively costly. Recently, low-coverage sequencing has been shown to effectively reduce the cost of genome-wide association studies, using current sequencing technologies. However, current methods for disease association testing on rare variants cannot be applied directly to low-coverage sequencing data, as they require individual genotype data, which may not be called correctly due to low-coverage and inherent sequencing errors. In this article, we propose two novel methods for detecting association of rare variants with disease risk, using low coverage, error-prone sequencing. We show by simulation that our methods outperform previous methods under both low- and high-coverage sequencing and under different disease architectures. We use real data and simulation studies to demonstrate that to maximize the power to detect associations for a fixed budget, it is desirable to include more samples while lowering coverage and to perform an analysis using our suggested methods. PMID:23636738

  13. Variant in oxytocin receptor gene is associated with amygdala volume

    PubMed Central

    Furman, Daniella J.; Chen, Michael C.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    The oxytocin system plays a significant role in modulating stress responses in animals and humans; perturbations in this system may contribute to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorder. Attempts to identify clinically relevant genetic variants in the oxytocin system have yielded associations between polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and both autism and major depression. To date, however, little is known about how such variants affect brain structures implicated in these disorders. Applying a manual tracing procedure to high-resolution structural magnetic resonance images, amygdala volumes were measured in 51 girls genotyped on OXTR rs2254298(G>A), a single nucleotide polymorphism associated with psychopathology. These results of this study indicate that despite having greater gray matter volume, participants homozygous for the G allele were characterized by smaller volumes of both left and right amygdala than were carriers of the A allele. A subsequent whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed additional genotype-mediated volumetric group differences in the posterior brain stem and dorsomedial anterior cingulate cortex. These findings highlight one neurobiological pathway by which oxytocin gene variants may increase risk for psychopathology. Further research is needed to characterize the mechanism by which this polymorphism contributes to anatomical variability and to identify functional correlates of these alterations in regional brain volume. PMID:21208749

  14. Classification of primary progressive aphasia and its variants

    PubMed Central

    Hillis, A.E.; Weintraub, S.; Kertesz, A.; Mendez, M.; Cappa, S.F.; Ogar, J.M.; Rohrer, J.D.; Black, S.; Boeve, B.F.; Manes, F.; Dronkers, N.F.; Vandenberghe, R.; Rascovsky, K.; Patterson, K.; Miller, B.L.; Knopman, D.S.; Hodges, J.R.; Mesulam, M.M.; Grossman, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a classification of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and its 3 main variants to improve the uniformity of case reporting and the reliability of research results. Criteria for the 3 variants of PPA—nonfluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic—were developed by an international group of PPA investigators who convened on 3 occasions to operationalize earlier published clinical descriptions for PPA subtypes. Patients are first diagnosed with PPA and are then divided into clinical variants based on specific speech and language features characteristic of each subtype. Classification can then be further specified as “imaging-supported” if the expected pattern of atrophy is found and “with definite pathology” if pathologic or genetic data are available. The working recommendations are presented in lists of features, and suggested assessment tasks are also provided. These recommendations have been widely agreed upon by a large group of experts and should be used to ensure consistency of PPA classification in future studies. Future collaborations will collect prospective data to identify relationships between each of these syndromes and specific biomarkers for a more detailed understanding of clinicopathologic correlations. PMID:21325651

  15. Sequence variants in the FcepsilonRI alpha chain gene.

    PubMed

    Shikanai, Toshiki; Silverman, Eric S; Morse, Brian W; Lilly, Craig M; Inoue, Hiroshi; Drazen, Jeffrey M

    2002-07-01

    There is a relationship between IgE levels and expression of high-affinity IgE receptors (FcepsilonRI). Because the alpha chain is the only portion of the receptor that binds directly to IgE, we reasoned that sequence variants in the FcepsilonRI alpha gene may exist that alter these binding events. We screened all of the exons and the promoter region of the FcepsilonRI alpha chain gene with genomic DNA from 389 asthmatic and 341 normal control subjects for mutations by using single-stranded conformational polymorphism analysis. No nonsynonomous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the coding region. Three SNPs were found in the promoter region: an A/C transversion at -770 from the translation start site; a G/A transition at -664; and a T/C transition at -335. No differences in allele frequencies were detected between asthmatic subjects and controls. Homozygosity for the C variant at locus -335 was more common in Caucasian asthmatic patients with IgE levels in the lower quartile than in the upper quartile (P = 0.032). An analysis of highly polymorphic SNPs indicated that this association is unlikely to be due to population substructure. We conclude that homozygosity for the C allele of FcepsilonRI alpha chain variant is associated with lower IgE levels. PMID:12070183

  16. Germline TP53 variants and susceptibility to osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Mirabello, Lisa; Yeager, Meredith; Mai, Phuong L; Gastier-Foster, Julie M; Gorlick, Richard; Khanna, Chand; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Sierrasesúmaga, Luis; Lecanda, Fernando; Andrulis, Irene L; Wunder, Jay S; Gokgoz, Nalan; Barkauskas, Donald A; Zhang, Xijun; Vogt, Aurelie; Jones, Kristine; Boland, Joseph F; Chanock, Stephen J; Savage, Sharon A

    2015-07-01

    The etiologic contribution of germline genetic variation to sporadic osteosarcoma is not well understood. Osteosarcoma is a sentinel cancer of Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), in which approximately 70% of families meeting the classic criteria have germline TP53 mutations. We sequenced TP53 exons in 765 osteosarcoma cases. Data were analyzed with ?(2) tests, logistic regression, and Cox proportional hazards regression models. We observed a high frequency of young osteosarcoma cases (age <30 years) carrying a known LFS- or likely LFS-associated mutation (3.8%) or rare exonic variant (5.7%) with an overall frequency of 9.5%, compared with none in case patients age 30 years and older (P < .001). This high TP53 mutation prevalence in young osteosarcoma cases is statistically significantly greater than the previously reported prevalence of 3% (P = .0024). We identified a novel association between a TP53 rare variant and metastasis at diagnosis of osteosarcoma (rs1800372, odds ratio = 4.27, 95% confidence interval = 1.2 to 15.5, P = .026). Genetic susceptibility to young onset osteosarcoma is distinct from older adult onset osteosarcoma, with a high frequency of LFS-associated and rare exonic TP53 variants. PMID:25896519

  17. Purification and properties of molecular-weight variants of human placental alkaline phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Nimai K.; Fishman, William H.

    1968-01-01

    1. Alkaline phosphatase of human placenta was purified by a procedure involving homogenization with tris buffer, pH8·6, extraction with butanol, ammonium sulphate fractionation, exposure to heat, ethanol fractionation, gel filtration, triethylaminoethylcellulose anion-exchange chromatography, continuous curtain electrophoresis on paper and equilibrium dialysis. Methods for both laboratory-scale and large-scale preparation were devised. 2. Two major molecular-weight variants designated A and B were separated by molecular sieving with Sephadex G-200 and variant A was purified 4000-fold. 3. Variant B, which comes off the Sephadex G-200 column before variant A, is the electrophoretically slower-moving species on starch gel and is quite heterogeneous. 4. Purified variant A was fairly homogeneous on the basis of electrophoretic studies on starch gel and Sephadex gel, ultracentrifugation and immunodiffusion. 5. The respective molecular weights for variants A and B were 70000 and over 200000 on the basis of sucrose-density-gradient ultracentrifugation. Variant A exhibited a sedimentation coefficient of 4·2s. 6. Crystalline variant B could be converted into fast-moving variant A and vice versa. 7. Kinetic studies indicated no difference between the two variants. These include linear rates of hydrolysis, pH optimum, Michaelis constants and uncompetitive stereospecific l-phenylalanine inhibition. 8. The amino acid compositions of variants A and B and of placental albumin were determined. ImagesFig. 3.Fig. 5.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9. PMID:4970595

  18. Joint Association Testing of Common and Rare Genetic Variants Using Hierarchical Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Cardin, Niall J.; Mefford, Joel A.; Witte, John S.

    2015-01-01

    New sequencing technologies provide an opportunity for assessing the impact of rare and common variants on complex diseases. Several methods have been developed for evaluating rare variants, many of which use weighted collapsing to combine rare variants. Some approaches require arbitrary frequency thresholds below which to collapse alleles, and most assume that effect sizes for each collapsed variant are either the same or a function of minor allele frequency. Some methods also further assume that all rare variants are deleterious rather than protective. We expect that such assumptions will not hold in general, and as a result performance of these tests will be adversely affected. We propose a hierarchical model, implemented in the new program CHARM, to detect the joint signal from rare and common variants within a genomic region while properly accounting for linkage disequilibrium between variants. Our model explores the scale, rather than the center of the odds ratio distribution, allowing for both causative and protective effects. We use cross-validation to assess the evidence for association in a region. We use model averaging to widen the range of disease models under which we will have good power. To assess this approach, we simulate data under a range of disease models with effects at common and/or rare variants. Overall, our method had more power than other well-known rare variant approaches; it performed well when either only rare, or only common variants were causal, and better than other approaches when both common and rare variants contributed to disease. PMID:22807252

  19. Exome array study did not identify novel variants in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sun Ju; Kim, Mi-Jung; Kim, Juyeon; Kim, Young Jin; You, Sooyeoun; Koh, Jaeyoung; Kim, Seong Yoon; Lee, Jae-Hong

    2014-08-01

    Genetic variants so far identified explain a small fraction of the overall inherited risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We aimed to identify novel genetic variants in AD using exome array that contains comprehensive panel. We genotyped 295,988 variants in 1005 subjects (400 AD cases and 605 controls) using Axiom Exome Genotyping Array that contains a pool of variants discovered in over 16 major human exome sequencing initiatives. Logistic regression analysis and the sequence kernel association optimal test were performed. The APOE, APOC1, and TOMM40 showed significant associations with AD in the single variant analysis. However, no significant association of other variants with AD was observed. This exome array study failed to identify novel genetic variants in AD. PMID:24685331

  20. Reovirus Variants with Mutations in Genome Segments S1 and L2 Exhibit Enhanced Virion Infectivity and Superior Oncolysis

    PubMed Central

    Gujar, Shashi A.; Ahn, Dae-Gyun; Mohamed, Adil

    2012-01-01

    Reovirus preferentially replicates in transformed cells and is being explored as a cancer therapy. Immunological and physical barriers to virotherapy inspired a quest for reovirus variants with enhanced oncolytic potency. Using a classical genetics approach, we isolated two reovirus variants (T3v1 and T3v2) with superior replication relative to wild-type reovirus serotype 3 Dearing (T3wt) on various human and mouse tumorigenic cell lines. Unique mutations in reovirus ?2 vertex protein and ?1 cell attachment protein were associated with the large plaque-forming phenotype of T3v1 and T3v2, respectively. Both T3v1 and T3v2 exhibited higher infectivity (i.e., a higher PFU-to-particle ratio) than T3wt. A detailed analysis of virus replication revealed that virus cell binding and uncoating were equivalent for variant and wild-type reoviruses. However, T3v1 and T3v2 were significantly more efficient than T3wt in initiating productive infection. Thus, when cells were infected with equivalent input virus particles, T3v1 and T3v2 produced significantly higher levels of early viral RNAs relative to T3wt. Subsequent steps of virus replication (viral RNA and protein synthesis, virus assembly, and cell death) were equivalent for all three viruses. In a syngeneic mouse model of melanoma, both T3v1 and T3v2 prolonged mouse survival compared to wild-type reovirus. Our studies reveal that oncolytic potency of reovirus can be improved through distinct mutations that increase the infectivity of reovirus particles. PMID:22532697