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  1. Consumption of Whole-Grain Bread and Risk of Colorectal Cancer among Norwegian Women (the NOWAC Study)

    PubMed Central

    Bakken, Toril; Braaten, Tonje; Olsen, Anja; Kyrø, Cecilie; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that consumption of foods containing dietary fiber decreases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Whole grains contain dietary fiber, as well as a range of micronutrients and bioactive compounds, but the association between the consumption of whole grains and the risk of CRC remains less studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC incidence among Norwegian women, using data from a prospective cohort study (the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study). Dietary intake was estimated from the food-frequency questionnaires of 78,254 women in the cohort (median age: 55 years), and these women were then followed up for CRC incidence. During the 9 years of median follow-up, 795 women were diagnosed with CRC (316 proximal, 193 distal, 218 rectal). Associations between whole-grain bread consumption and the risk of CRC (including colorectal subsites) were investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. When compared to the low consumption group, the hazard ratio for CRC was 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72–1.09) for the high consumption group and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.72–1.02) for the medium consumption group in a multivariable model. Overall, no association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC was found. PMID:26771634

  2. Consumption of Whole-Grain Bread and Risk of Colorectal Cancer among Norwegian Women (the NOWAC Study).

    PubMed

    Bakken, Toril; Braaten, Tonje; Olsen, Anja; Kyrø, Cecilie; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that consumption of foods containing dietary fiber decreases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Whole grains contain dietary fiber, as well as a range of micronutrients and bioactive compounds, but the association between the consumption of whole grains and the risk of CRC remains less studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC incidence among Norwegian women, using data from a prospective cohort study (the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study). Dietary intake was estimated from the food-frequency questionnaires of 78,254 women in the cohort (median age: 55 years), and these women were then followed up for CRC incidence. During the 9 years of median follow-up, 795 women were diagnosed with CRC (316 proximal, 193 distal, 218 rectal). Associations between whole-grain bread consumption and the risk of CRC (including colorectal subsites) were investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. When compared to the low consumption group, the hazard ratio for CRC was 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-1.09) for the high consumption group and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.72-1.02) for the medium consumption group in a multivariable model. Overall, no association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC was found. PMID:26771634

  3. The multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene polymorphism G-rs3789243-A is not associated with disease susceptibility in Norwegian patients with colorectal adenoma and colorectal cancer; a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Vibeke; Agerstjerne, Lene; Jensen, Dorte; Østergaard, Mette; Sæbø, Mona; Hamfjord, Julian; Kure, Elin; Vogel, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    Background Smoking, dietary factors, and alcohol consumption are known life style factors contributing to gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Genetic variations in carcinogen handling may affect cancer risk. The multidrug resistance 1(MDR1/ABCB1) gene encodes the transport protein P-glycoprotein (a phase III xenobiotic transporter). P-glycoprotein is present in the intestinal mucosal lining and restricts absorption of certain carcinogens, among these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Moreover, P-glycoprotein transports various endogenous substrates such as cytokines and chemokines involved in inflammation, and may thereby affect the risk of malignity. Hence, genetic variations that modify the function of P-glycoprotein may be associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We have previously found an association between the MDR1 intron 3 G-rs3789243-A polymorphism and the risk of CRC in a Danish study population. The aim of this study was to investigate if this MDR1 polymorphism was associated with risk of colorectal adenoma (CA) and CRC in the Norwegian population. Methods Using a case-control design, the association between the MDR1 intron 3 G-rs3789243-A polymorphism and the risk of colorectal carcinomas and adenomas in the Norwegian population was assessed in 167 carcinomas, 990 adenomas, and 400 controls. Genotypes were determined by allelic discrimination. Odds ratio (OR) and 95 confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated by binary logistic regression. Results No association was found between the MDR1 polymorphism (G-rs3789243-A) and colorectal adenomas or cancer. Carriers of the variant allele of MDR1 intron 3 had odds ratios (95% CI) of 0.97 (0.72–1.29) for developing adenomas, and 0.70 (0.41–1.21) for colorectal cancer, respectively, compared to homozygous wild type carriers. Conclusion The MDR1 intron 3 (G-rs3789243-A) polymorphism was not associated with a risk of colorectal adenomas or carcinomas in the present Norwegian study group. Thus, this

  4. Structured electronic template for histopathology reports on colorectal carcinomas: a joint project by the Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Society for Pathology.

    PubMed

    Bjugn, Roger; Casati, Bettina; Norstein, Jarle

    2008-03-01

    Both individual patient treatment and cancer registries depend on adequate histopathology reports. To ensure the quality of these reports, professional organizations have published guidelines on minimum data sets for various cancer types. Norway has a population of 4.6 million, and all individuals have a unique identification number. As required by law, relevant information on cancer is submitted to the Cancer Registry of Norway. A closed, national health data network has been established facilitating electronic transferal between various institutions. The Cancer Registry and the Norwegian Society for Pathology have jointly established a nationwide project to (i) develop standardized templates in database format for histopathology reports on cancer resection specimens and (ii) develop an Extensible Markup Language (XML) standard to facilitate future electronic transfer of cancer reports from hospitals to the Cancer Registry. A minimum data set template for reporting colorectal carcinoma resection specimens and the Extensible Markup Language standard have been established. The template is based on international guidelines and classification systems. For most key parameters, pull-down menus with predefined alternatives have been constructed. The template is fully integrated into software being used by all pathology laboratories in Norway. Since the introduction of the template in April 2005, the template had been used for reporting 430 (93%) of 462 colorectal resections at 2 pilot laboratories (Akershus University Hospital [Lørenskog, Norway] and Stavanger, University Hospital [Stavanger, Norway]), demonstrating that high and consistent quality can be ascertained. Pathologists have found the template both time saving and user friendly. The template is now gradually implemented nationwide. PMID:18187180

  5. Colorectal polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... SJ, et al. United States Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer. Guidelines for colonoscopy surveillance after ... consensus update by the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer. Gastroenterology . 2012;143:844-857. ...

  6. Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  7. Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... both men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  8. Norwegian Aerospace Activities: an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnesen, T. (Editor); Rosenberg, G. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Excerpts from a Governmental Investigation concerning Norwegian participation in the European Space Organization (ESA) is presented. The implications and advantages of such a move and a suggestion for the reorganization of Norwegian Aerospace activity is given.

  9. Norwegian petroleum guide

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    This is about the comprehensive guide to Norwegian oil and gas activities, very useful to anyone in the industry. Material includes political guidelines, control institutions, work possibilities and licenses, working environment law, employer and employee organizations, national insurance, taxes, communication, rescue operations and standby. Contents: Oil and the economy; Petroleum technology research; Responsibilities of different authorities; The Labour Inspection Directorate; The Health Directorate Offshore Office; The Coastal Directorate; Helicopter traffic; The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate; The Maritime Directorate; Det norske Veritas; The Norwegian Waterways and Electricity Board; The State Institute for Radiation Hygiene; The State Explosive Inspection; Work possibilities in the North Sea; Working environment legislation on the Continental Shelf; Collective bargaining agreements, labor conflicts and the right to organize; Taxation Rules; National health insurance and the petroleum activity; Occupational injuries on the Norwegian Continental Shelf; Company insurances; The private pension scheme; Other types of insuracne common among oil companies; The rescue service in Norway; Oganizations within the oil industry offshore and onshore; and Law of aliens admission to the Kindgom.

  10. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  11. Norwegian mastitis control programme.

    PubMed

    Osterås, O; Sølverød, L

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  12. The Norwegian Naval Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, Bjørn Ragnvald

    2007-07-01

    Archival material has revealed milestones and new details in the history of the Norwegian Naval Observatories. We have identified several of the instrument types used at different epochs. Observational results have been extracted from handwritten sources and an extensive literature search. These allow determination of an approximate location of the first naval observatory building (1842) at Fredriksvern. No physical remains exist today. A second observatory was established in 1854 at the new main naval base at Horten. Its location is evident on military maps and photographs. We describe its development until the Naval Observatory buildings, including archives and instruments, were completely demolished during an allied air bomb raid on 23 February 1945. The first director, C.T.H. Geelmuyden, maintained scientific standards at the the Observatory between 1842 and 1870, and collaborated with university astronomers to investigate, develop, and employ time-transfer by telegraphy. Their purpose was accurate longitude determination between observatories in Norway and abroad. The Naval Observatory issued telegraphic time signals twice weekly to a national network of sites, and as such served as the first national time-service in Norway. Later the Naval Observatory focused on the particular needs of the Navy and developed into an internal navigational service.

  13. Tularaemia in Norwegian dogs.

    PubMed

    Nordstoga, Anne; Handeland, Kjell; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Iversen, Lena; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Mattsson, Roland; Wik-Larssen, Kjersti; Afset, Jan Egil; Næverdal, Rune; Lund, Arve

    2014-10-10

    We describe tularaemia in a Norwegian dog caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica. A Hamilton Hound and his owner developed tulaeremia after hunting an infected mountain hare (Lepus timidus). The dog showed signs of lethargy, anorexia and fever during a period two to four days after hunting and thereafter fully recovered. Its antibody titers increased 32-fold from one to three weeks post exposure. Thereafter, the titer declined and leveled off at moderate positive values up to one year after exposure (end of study). This is believed to be the first case report of clinical F. tularensis subspecies holarctica infection in a European dog. In 2011, enormous numbers of Norway lemmings (Lemmus lemmus) occurred in Finnmark, the northernmost county of Norway and many dogs caught and swallowed lemmings. Some of these dogs developed non-specific signs of disease and the owners consulted a veterinary surgeon, who suspected tularaemia. In order to investigate this hypothesis, serum samples from 33 dogs were examined for antibodies to F. tularensis. The dogs were allocated into three groups: Dogs from Finnmark that became sick (Group 1) or remained healthy following contact with lemmings (Group 2), and healthy control dogs from Oslo without known contact with lemmings (Group 3). All the serum samples were analyzed with a tube agglutination assay. Among dogs exposed to lemmings, 10/11 and 3/12 were antibody positive in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, whereas none of the control dogs (n=10) were positive for antibodies against F. tularensis. These results strongly indicate that the non-specific disease seen in the dogs in Finnmark was linked to F. tularensis infection acquired through contact with lemmings. PMID:25150161

  14. Sexual Knowledge among Norwegian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Pal

    1993-01-01

    Studied sexual knowledge among Norwegian adolescents (n=1,855) aged 17-19 years. Found knowledge gaps among adolescents on sexual physiology and anatomy, sexually transmitted diseases, and fecundation/contraception. Level of sexual knowledge was higher among girls than boys and increased with increasing age. Sexual knowledge did not predict…

  15. Five Myths about Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACS » Your Local Offices Close + - Text Size Five Myths About Colorectal Cancer In many cases, colorectal cancer ... screening tests you need, when you need them. Myth: Colorectal cancer is a man’s disease. Truth: Colorectal ...

  16. Important Norwegian crude assays updated

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, R.A

    1990-03-12

    New assays on two important Norwegian North Sea crude oils, Statfjord and Gullfaks, are presented. Both are high-quality, low-sulfur crudes that will yield a full range of good-quality products. All assay data came from industry-standard test procedures. The Statfjord field is the largest in the North Sea. Production started in 1979. Statfjord is a typical North Sea crude, produced from three separate platforms and three separate loading buoys with interconnecting lines. Current production is about 700,000 b/d. Gullfaks is produced from a large field in Block 34/10 of the Norwegian sector of the North Sea production area. Gullfaks crude oil is more biodegraded than other crudes from the region. Biodegradation has removed most of the waxy normal paraffins, resulting in a heavier, more naphthenic and aromatic crude.

  17. Anabolic steroids and Norwegian weightlifters.

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, S.

    1982-01-01

    The mean bodyweight, in kilograms, and mean weightlifting result, in points, for the ten best weightlifters at the annual Norwegian championships 1962-82 have been studied. During the 21 years, the mean bodyweight for these ten increased by 18 kg, probably due to the effect of androgens. The weightlifting results improved rapidly from 1968 onwards, probably reflecting an increasingly widespread use of anabolic steroids by Norwegian weightlifters. In 1977 doping tests were introduced, and from then on, rate of improvement has increased much more slowly. The annual sale of anabolic steroids 1963-81 and testosterone 1974-81, in Norway have been recorded. The sale of anabolic steroids increased irregularly until 1974-75, and has since shown a 42% decrease. The sale of testosterone 1974-81 showed a slight reduction, thus giving no support to the suggestion that doping tests for anabolic steroids would lead to a transfer to testosterone abuse. PMID:7139228

  18. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the ... professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to- ...

  19. Homotolerance and Heterosexuality as Norwegian Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothing, Ase; Svendsen, Stine Helena Bang

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, equality between homosexual and heterosexual relationships has increasingly been presented as a marker for Norwegian values. Norwegian schooling encourages tolerance toward homosexuals, and the state shows active interest in counteracting bullying against LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) youth by supporting research…

  20. Homotolerance and Heteronormativity in Norwegian Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothing, Ase

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on classroom observations and discusses sexual education that addresses homosexuality. Tolerance of queer lifestyles as well as support for judicial equality between heterosexual and homosexual couples is generally perceived as being high in the Norwegian political context. Norwegian sexual politics is, however, based on a…

  1. Stereotypes of Norwegian social groups

    PubMed Central

    Bye, Hege H; Herrebrøden, Henrik; Hjetland, Gunnhild J; Røyset, Guro Ø; Westby, Linda L

    2014-01-01

    We present a pilot study and two main studies that address the nature of stereotypes of social groups in Norway within the framework of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). The first study focused on stereotypes of a wide range of groups across categories such as gender, age, religious conviction, socioeconomic and health status. The second study focused on stereotypes of immigrant groups. Participants (n = 244 and n = 63, respectively) rated the groups on perceived warmth, competence, status, and competition. Results from both studies support the applicability of the SCM in Norway and provides a unique insight into stereotypes of Norwegian social groups. PMID:24975918

  2. The North Norwegian Health Net.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, S; Uldal, S B; Baardsgard, A; Amundsen, M; Myrvang, R; Nordvåg, D; Stenmarkl, H

    1999-01-01

    The North Norwegian Health Net is a comprehensive scheme to connect all health-care institutions in the area to a national computer network. Services available include telemedicine, e-mail and Web access. A general practitioner has responsibility for ensuring that the clinical information is correct. Medical departments are responsible for the content of their own Web pages. All institutions require authorization before connection to ensure data protection and security. Changes in communication between primary- and secondary-care sectors are being monitored. To date the implementation of the network programme has gone smoothly. PMID:10534834

  3. Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradstein, Felix M.; Hammer, Oyvind; Brunstad, Harald; Charnock, Mike; Hellem, Terje; Sigve Lervik, Kjell; Anthonissen, Erik

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX) provides a relational stratigraphic database for the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea and Svalbard. Both regional lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy are being substantially updated, following guidelines laid out in the International Stratigraphic Guide. The main body of information developed is available as a petroleum consortium (oracle-style) database, and the new lithostratigraphic definitions as a public domain (paper) document. NORLEX is presented as a browsing website via the internet at http://www.nhm.uio.no/norlex. Seismic cross-sections, core photographs, well logs, field outcrops, microfossil occurrences and other vital attributes are relationally cross-linked. In addition, there are menus for instantly finding updated formation and member tops or microfossil events in all wells, plus a map contouring routine for unit thicknesses and depths. Several new initiatives will expand data and user coverage: 1. Overhaul of Mesozoic stratigraphy, especially Triassic and Cretaceous, in the Barents Sea. 2. Coverage of East Greenland 3. Linkage to UK and Belgium and The Netherlands surface and subsurface stratigraphy 4. Creation of a Sequence Stratigraphic Framework for specific regions. 5. A national microfossil atlas to support zonations 6. Tight linkage to the basin datapacks in TimeScaleCreator Pro, as developed for Australia, New Zealand, Brasil, Gulf of Mexico, Canada and Russia. NORLEX may thus evolve to become STRATLEX, covering many basin regions.

  4. Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Mienert, Jürgen; Winther, Svein; Hageberg, Anne; Rune Godoe, Olav; Partners, Noon

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) is led by the University of Tromsø and collaborates with the Universities of Oslo and Bergen, UniResearch, Institute of Marine Research, Christian Michelsen Research and SINTEF. It is supported by the Research Council of Norway and oil and gas (O&G) industries like Statoil to develop science, technology and new educational programs. Main topics relate to ocean climate and environment as well as marine resources offshore Norway from the northern North Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. NOON's vision is to bring Norway to the international forefront in using cable based ocean observatory technology for marine science and management, by establishing an infrastructure that enables real-time and long term monitoring of processes and interactions between hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. This activity is in concert with the EU funded European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap and European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation (EMSO) project to attract international leading research developments. NOON envisions developing towards a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Beside, the research community in Norway already possesses a considerable marine infrastructure that can expand towards an international focus for real-time multidisciplinary observations in times of rapid climate change. PIC The presently established cable-based fjord observatory, followed by the establishment of a cable-based ocean observatory network towards the Arctic from an O&G installation, will provide invaluable knowledge and experience necessary to make a successful larger cable-based observatory network at the Norwegian and Arctic margin (figure 1). Access to large quantities of real-time observation from the deep sea, including high definition video, could be used to provide the public and future recruits to science a fascinating insight into an almost unexplored part of the Earth beyond the Arctic Circle

  5. Colorectal Cancer Coalition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Million Strong Shop Join the Movement Share Your Story Check our Calendar Colorectal Support Community Latest News Help Wanted Read Blogs Get Social Free Printable Coloring Sheets Action Alerts About Our ...

  6. What Is Colorectal Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... on staging, see “ Colorectal cancer stages ” The normal colon and rectum The colon and rectum are parts ... through the anus . Types of cancer in the colon and rectum Adenocarcinomas make up more than 95% ...

  7. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michaela; Gasche, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has become one of the most prevalent malignant diseases for both men and women. Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases or certain inherited cancer syndromes are at high risk of developing colorectal cancer and have naturally the highest need for cancer prevention. In familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Lynch syndrome, most of the underlying germline mutations can be detected by DNA sequencing, and medical counselling of affected individuals involves both surveillance tests and chemopreventive measures. However, as the mechanisms leading to colorectal cancer differ in these high-risk groups, the molecular action of chemopreventive drugs needs to be adjusted to the certain pathway of carcinogenesis. In the last decades, a number of drugs have been tested, including sulindac, aspirin, celecoxib, and mesalazine, but some of them are still controversially discussed. This review summarizes the advances and current standards of colorectal cancer prevention in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, FAP and Lynch syndrome. PMID:25531498

  8. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Peter; Leon, Maria Elena

    2002-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a important public health problem: there are nearly one million new cases of colorectal cancer diagnosed world-wide each year and half a million deaths. Recent reports show that, in the US, it was the most frequent form of cancer among persons aged 75 years and older. Given that the majority of cancers occur in elder people and with the ageing of the population in mind, this observation gives further impetus to investigating prevention and treatment strategies among this subgroup of the population. Screening research, recommendations and implementation is an obvious priority. While there are many questions to be resolved, it is apparent that many facets of colorectal cancer are becoming increasingly understood and prospects for prevention are becoming apparent. Achieving colorectal cancer control is the immediate challenge. PMID:12421722

  9. Tests for Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... to look for colorectal cancer Imaging tests use sound waves, x-rays, magnetic fields, or radioactive substances to ... has spread to the liver. Ultrasound Ultrasound uses sound waves and their echoes to create images of the ...

  10. [Colorectal foreign bodies].

    PubMed

    Thim, Troels; Laurberg, Søren

    2006-09-25

    A patient with a retained anally introduced colorectal foreign body or complications hereof needs appropriate treatment. The patient may be in danger and is certainly in discomfort. The problem is relatively rare; however, its incidence may be expected to increase. Guidelines for handling of the situation are lacking in many textbooks. Here, a suggestion for handling of a patient with a retained colorectal foreign body or complications hereof is presented. PMID:17032594

  11. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test. PMID:21954677

  12. Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22943008

  13. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, W. J.; Moorehead, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma represents a major cause of cancer deaths in the United Kingdom. Tumours detected at an early or even premalignant stage have a better prognosis. In this review we consider the argument for screening for colorectal carcinomas and discuss the means available and the implications of implementing screening programmes using some of these methods. A suggestion is made for the more rational use of limited resources to target those at greatest risk. PMID:9185482

  14. Colorectal cancer in adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, A.; Renaut, A. J.; Whelan, J.; Taylor, I.

    1999-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, one of the most common malignancies among adults, is rare in adolescence. This low incidence coupled with non-specific symptoms and aggressive natural history leads to a poorer prognosis than in reported adult series. This article describes two cases of colorectal cancer in adolescents and reviews the literature regarding this rare condition. Earlier diagnosis and a greater understanding of the natural history may lead to improved treatment with concomitant improvements in survival. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10364965

  15. [Epidemiology of colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Launoy, Guy

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer increased in France until the 2000s' then decreased. Time trends in incidence for this cancer varied according to its sublocation along the gut. Incidence increased for right and left colon cancers, whereas it remained stable for sigmoid cancers in males and decreased in females. Incidence decreased over time for rectal cancers. The proportion of colorectal cancer in the overall French cancer prevalence is 12%. In 2008, 121,000 patients had a colorectal cancer diagnosed in the 5 previous years. The cumulative risk of colorectal cancer increased from 3.9% for males born around 1900 to 4.9% for those born around 1930 and then slightly decreased, being 4.5% among those born around 1950. It remained at the same level for females and was 2.9% for those born around 1950. The prognosis of colorectal cancer improved over time. Net 5-year survival increased in males from 53% for cancers diagnosed between 1989 and 1991 to 58% for those diagnosed between 2001 and 2004. The highest improvement of 10 year survival rates concerned left colon and rectosigmoid junction (+19% in a decade). The progressive set up of national colorectal screening since the early 2000's and the introduction of recent immunological tests in 2015 should decrease the mortality for this cancer and, at term, should decrease its incidence too. PMID:26298897

  16. Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening Summer 2016 Table of Contents Dr. Asad Umar, ... know to help determine the best colon cancer screening test for them? Colonoscopy is considered the gold ...

  17. Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... section Colorectal Cancer 4 of 6 sections Take Action! Take Action: Get Tested The best way to prevent colorectal ... I at Risk? 5 of 6 sections Take Action: Healthy Habits Quit smoking. People who smoke are ...

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... of colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  19. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the ... professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to- ...

  20. Endobronchial metastases of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosado Dawid, Natalia-Zuberoa; Villegas Fernández, Francisco Ramón; Rodríguez Cruz, María Del Mar; Ramos Meca, Asunción

    2016-04-01

    Colorectal metastases affecting trachea or bronchi are highly unusual. Up to 26% of endotracheal/endobronchial metastases are due to colorectal cancer. Treatment and palliative management rely on a multidisciplinary team to improve their quality of life. PMID:26856850

  1. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  2. Norwegian crusted scabies: an unusual case presentation.

    PubMed

    Maghrabi, Michael M; Lum, Shireen; Joba, Ameha T; Meier, Molly J; Holmbeck, Ryan J; Kennedy, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Scabies is a contagious condition that is transmitted through direct contact with an infected person and has been frequently associated with institutional and healthcare-facility outbreaks. The subtype Norwegian crusted scabies can masquerade as other dermatologic diseases owing to the heavy plaque formation. Successful treatment has been documented in published reports, including oral ivermectin and topical permethrin. Few case studies documenting the treatment of Norwegian crusted scabies have reported the use of surgical debridement as an aid to topical and/or oral treatment when severe plaque formation has been noted. A nursing home patient was admitted to the hospital for severe plaque formation of both feet. A superficial biopsy was negative for both fungus and scabies because of the severity of the plaque formation on both feet. The patient underwent a surgical, diagnostic biopsy of both feet, leading to the diagnosis of Norwegian crusted scabies. A second surgical debridement was then performed to remove the extensive plaque formation and aid the oral ivermectin and topical permethrin treatment. The patient subsequently made a full recovery and was discharged back to the nursing home. At 2 and 6 months after treatment, the patient remained free of scabies infestation, and the surgical wound had healed uneventfully. The present case presentation has demonstrated that surgical debridement can be complementary to the standard topical and oral medications in the treatment of those with Norwegian crusted scabies infestation. PMID:24370484

  3. The Literacy Achievement of Norwegian Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvistendahl, Rita; Roe, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    The article presents the literacy achievement of Norwegian minority students, their reading habits, and their enjoyment of reading based on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2000 study. Aspects of their family background and attitudes towards school are related to literacy achievement results. A comparison between Denmark,…

  4. Norwegian Secondary School Teachers and ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikan, Gerd; Molster, Terje

    2011-01-01

    ICT is meant to be integrated in all subjects in Norwegian schools; nevertheless many teachers are reluctant to use ICT in their own teaching. This paper explores to what extent teachers use ICT in their classroom teaching and what teacher-level factors influence the use of ICT. It draws on an analysis of 10 focus-group interviews with 10 teachers…

  5. Field development projects advance in Norwegian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1992-03-30

    This paper reports on the Norwegian Sea, lying between the Norwegian North Sea and the western flank of the Barents Sea, which is set to become Norway's second oil and gas producing province. Oil is scheduled to start to flow near the end of next year when AS Norske Shell places on production 428 million bbl Draugen field in Block 6407/9, about 60 miles off the coast of mid-Norway in the frontier sea area known as Haltenbanken. Two years later, in 1995, Norske Conoco AS will add to the 95,000 b/d from Draugen when it commissions the world's first concrete hull tension leg platform (TLP) in Heidrun field. The TLP is expected to produce 200,000 b/d of oil and move associated gas by pipeline to the Norwegian mainland to feed a worldscale methanol plant planned for construction at Tjeldbergodden. The Norwegian government also has been asked to approve a gas pipeline link between Haltenbanken and the gas export infrastructure in the North Sea.

  6. Successful School Leadership: The Norwegian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Jorunn; Eggen, Astrid; Fuglestad, Otto L.; Langfeldt, Gjert; Presthus, Anne-Marie; Skrovset, Siw; Stjernstrom, Else; Vedoy, Gunn

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify what counts as successful school leadership within a Norwegian context. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses multi-site case study methods as a methodological approach. In selecting cases the first strategy included schools appointed as "good practice schools" by the Ministry of Education and Research.…

  7. Being "Neutral"? English Pronunciation among Norwegian Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindal, Ulrikke; Piercy, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the pronunciation of English among Norwegian adolescents by applying sociolinguistic methods in a second language context. Results from an auditory analysis of seven phonological variables show a blended use of linguistic features from American English and British English, with some additional pronunciations, forming a…

  8. Norwegian Superintendents as Mediators of Change Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Jan Merok

    2014-01-01

    The underlying theoretical argument in this article views municipal school superintendents in the Nordic context as middle managers in organizational theory terminology. Empirical support for this discussion emerges from national data collected among Norwegian school superintendents in 2009. Findings show that the actual work and leadership…

  9. Continuing Medical Education: The Norwegian Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, H. A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The Norwegian Medical Association is given responsibility for training and continuing medical education by the government. Government financial support enables the association to provide courses without support from the pharmaceutical industry. Current emphases include doctors as individual learners, as counselors, and as mentors. (SK)

  10. [Euthanasia--experiences from Norwegian pain clinics].

    PubMed

    Meidell, N K; Naess, A C

    1998-10-10

    This survey focuses on the subject of euthanasia. A questionnaire was sent to 90 doctors working in pain clinics in Norwegian hospitals. 60 doctors (67%) returned the questionnaire. Only 18 doctors (30%) had ever received a request for euthanasia. The patients who requested euthanasia suffered from refractory pain, depression, fear of pain and fear of becoming helpless. 67% of the doctors were satisfied with the present Norwegian law, while 13% favoured a liberalization of the law. Only 5% were willing to comply with the patient's request for euthanasia under today's law. One third of the doctors would leave the decision to an officially appointed "board" if euthanasia were to become legalized. A majority wanted a doctor to commit the actual procedure, but there were also suggestions that a lawyer or other lay person should carry out the act of euthanasia. Our conclusion is that the closer the patient-doctor relationship is, the more opposed the doctor is to euthanasia. PMID:9816949

  11. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-11

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que.

  12. Iceberg scouring on the Norwegian continental shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Lien, R.

    1983-05-01

    This paper is a condensed version of parts of a Dr. ing. thesis to be presented during 1983. The first part of the paper deals with the regional distribution of iceberg scouring on the Norwegian continental shelf, and some general aspects related to it. The second part deals with iceberg scouring as a local phenomenon and its relation to the sea floor topography, sediment distribution, and geological and geotechnical properties of the sediments.

  13. Written Language Shift among Norwegian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özerk, Kamil; Todal, Jon

    2013-01-01

    In Norway there are two written Norwegian languages, Bokmâl and Nynorsk. Of these two written languages Bokmâl is being used by the majority of the people, and Bokmâl has the highest prestige in the society. This article is about the shift of written language from Nynorsk to Bokmâl among young people in a traditional Nynorsk district in the…

  14. First drilling in Norwegian sea off Norway yields encouraging results

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsager, E.

    1981-06-08

    Three exploratory wells drilled in the Norwegian Sea penetrated Jurassic sandstones with excellent reservoir qualities, rich source rock, and some evidence of hydrocarbons. Constituting the first wells drilled north of the 62nd parallel off Norway, they produced encouraging evidence of prospective structures. The Norwegian continental shelf north of the North Sea contains areas of thick sedimentary basins having an areal extent 8-9 times that of the Norwegian North Sea.

  15. Norne tests new Norwegian development technologies, philosophies

    SciTech Connect

    Adlam, J. )

    1994-08-01

    The world's largest ship-shaped floating production facility will mine hydrocarbons trapped below 1,246-ft, harsh Norwegian waters at the Norne field. An innovative development philosophy involving functional specifications and life-of-field bench marking will ensure costs and lead time to first oil are minimized. The Block 6608/10 Norne field is the largest discovery on the Norwegian continental shelf in more than a decade. The field extends for 6.2 miles, is 1.24 miles wide and sits 124 miles west of the mid-Norway coast in 1,246-ft waters. Well No. 6608/10-2 first penetrated the Norne reservoir in December 1991. Appraisal well 6608/10-3 was drilled in 1993 and proved the field's northerly extension. Based on results from those two wells, a development project began last year. To improve project economics and company performance, a clear objective was established to reduce investment costs by 25%--30% compared to the current established level in Norway. The Norne organization is working on a Plan for Development and Operation to be submitted to Norwegian authorities later this year so that final approval can be obtained in early 1995.

  16. Breivik--the Norwegian terrorist case.

    PubMed

    Syse, Aslak

    2014-01-01

    On July 22, 2011, there were two murderous attacks in Norway. Both assaults - the bombing of governmental buildings in Oslo City center and the lethal shooting down of young members of the Labour Party on an island - were planned and accomplished by a lone perpetrator. These episodes give rise to several interesting questions. What happened really, and how could it happen? Was the perpetrator sane or insane? What was the ideological background for the attacks? It is unnecessary to discuss in any detail whether or not these acts should be categorized as terrorism. However, there is good reason to consider what these terror attacks imply for Norwegian society at large. What significance did the attacks have for Norwegian democracy, and did they have any impact on the 2013 parliamentary elections? What will be the future for the offender, both in the short term and in years to come? What will happen to the Norwegian insanity defense? These questions are addressed in this article. PMID:24757013

  17. Management of Colorectal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Although the treatment strategy for colorectal trauma has advanced during the last part of the twentieth century and the result has improved, compared to other injuries, problems, such as high septic complication rates and mortality rates, still exist, so standard management for colorectal trauma is still a controversial issue. For that reason, we designed this article to address current recommendations for management of colorectal injuries based on a review of literature. According to the reviewed data, although sufficient evidence exists for primary repair being the treatment of choice in most cases of nondestructive colon injuries, many surgeons are still concerned about anastomotic leakage or failure, and prefer to perform a diverting colostomy. Recently, some reports have shown that primary repair or resection and anastomosis, is better than a diverting colostomy even in cases of destructive colon injuries, but it has not fully established as the standard treatment. The same guideline as that for colonic injury is applied in cases of intraperitoneal rectal injuries, and, diversion, primary repair, and presacral drainage are regarded as the standards for the management of extraperitoneal rectal injuries. However, some reports state that primary repair without a diverting colostomy has benefit in the treatment of extraperitoneal rectal injury, and presacral drainage is still controversial. In conclusion, ideally an individual management strategy would be developed for each patient suffering from colorectal injury. To do this, an evidence-based treatment plan should be carefully developed. PMID:21980586

  18. [Nutrition and colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Alexander; Maike, Wolters; Hahn, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Diet plays an important role in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. Current prospective cohort studies and metaanalysis enable a reevaluation of how food or nutrients such as fiber and fat influence cancer risk. Based on the evidence criteria of the WHO/FAD, risk reduction by a high intake of fruit is assessed as possible, while a lowered risk by a high vegetable intake is probable. Especially raw vegetables and fruits seem to exert anticancer properties. The evidence of a risk reducing effect of whole grain relating to colorectal cancer is assessed as probable whereas the evidence of an increased risk by high consumption of refined white flour products and sweets is (still) insufficient despite some evidences. There is a probable risk reducing effect of milk and dairy products. e available data on eggs and red meat indicate a possible risk increasing influence. Stronger clues for a risk increasing effect have been shown for meat products leading to an evidence assessed as probable. Owing to varied interpretations of the data on fiber, the evidence of a risk reducing effect relating to colorectal cancer is assessed as possible or insufficient. The available data on alcohol consumption indicate a possible risk increasing effect. In contrast to former evaluations, diets rich in fat seem to increase colorectal cancer risk only indirectly as part of a hypercaloric diet by advancing the obesity risk. Thus, the evidence of obesity, especially visceral obesity, as a risk of colorectal cancer is judged as convincing today. Prospective cohort studies suggest that people who get higher than average amounts of folic acid from multivitamin supplements have lower risks of colorectal cancer. The evidence for a risk reducing effect of calcium, selenium, vitamin D and vitamin E on colorectal cancer is insufficient. As primary prevention, a diet rich in vegetables, fruits, whole grain products, and legumes added by low-fat dairy products, fish, and poultry can be recommended. In

  19. Radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Deland, F.H.; Casper, S.; Corgan, R.L.; Primus, F.J.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1980-03-15

    This study examines the accuracy of colorectal cancer radioimmunodetection. Twenty-seven patients with a history of histologically-confirmed colonic or rectal carcinoma received a high-titer, purified goat anti-CEA IgG labelled with /sup 131/I at a total dose of at least 1.0 ..mu..Ci. Various body views were scanned at 24 and 48 hours after administration of the radioantibody. Three additional cases were evaluated; one had a villous adenoma in the rectum and received the /sup 131/I-labeled anti-CEA IgG, while two colonic carcinoma patients received normal goat IgG labelled with /sup 131/I. All of the 7 cases with primary colorectal cancer showed true-positive tumor localization, while 20 of 25 sites of metastatic colorectal cancer detected by immune scintigraphy were corroborated by other detection measures. The sensitivity of the radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancers (primary and metastatic) was found to be 90% (true-positive rate), the putative specificity (true-negative rate) was 94%, and the apparent overall accuracy of the technique was 93%. Neither the case of a villous adenoma receiving the anti-CEA IgG nor the two cases of colonic cancer receiving normal goat IgG showed tumor radiolocalization. Very high circulating CEA titers did not appear to hinder successful tumor radiolocalization. These findings suggest that in colorectal cancers the method of CEA radioimmunodetection may be of value in preoperatively determining the location and extent of disease, in assessing possible recurrence or spread postoperatively, and in localizing the source of CEA production in patients with rising or elevated CEA titers. An ancilliary benefit could be a more tumor-specific detection test for confirming the findings of other, more conventional diagnostic measures.

  20. Worldwide variations in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Center, Melissa M; Jemal, Ahmedin; Smith, Robert A; Ward, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have documented significant international variations in colorectal cancer rates. However, these studies were limited because they were based on old data or examined only incidence or mortality data. In this article, the colorectal cancer burden and patterns worldwide are described using the most recently updated cancer incidence and mortality data available from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The authors provide 5-year (1998-2002), age-standardized colorectal cancer incidence rates for select cancer registries in IARC's Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, and trends in age-standardized death rates by single calendar year for select countries in the World Health Organization mortality database. In addition, available information regarding worldwide colorectal cancer screening initiatives are presented. The highest colorectal cancer incidence rates in 1998-2002 were observed in registries from North America, Oceania, and Europe, including Eastern European countries. These high rates are most likely the result of increases in risk factors associated with "Westernization," such as obesity and physical inactivity. In contrast, the lowest colorectal cancer incidence rates were observed from registries in Asia, Africa, and South America. Colorectal cancer mortality rates have declined in many longstanding as well as newly economically developed countries; however, they continue to increase in some low-resource countries of South America and Eastern Europe. Various screening options for colorectal cancer are available and further international consideration of targeted screening programs and/or recommendations could help alleviate the burden of colorectal cancer worldwide. PMID:19897840

  1. Numeracy Activities within VOX: The Norwegian Institute for Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvalo, Svein

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces Vox, Norwegian Institute for Adult Learning, an agency of the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research that focuses mainly on improving basic skills in the adult population in the areas of literacy, numeracy and the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT). Vox is responsible for curriculum…

  2. Habitat of hydrocarbons on the Norwegian continental shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The text attempts to synthesize the details of specific Norwegian finds into a regional framework which not only will be an essential reference documentation for explorationists in the Norwegian sector, but also will provide valuable insights into the variety of habitats of oil and gas accumulations in a global context.

  3. Topicality and Complexity in the Acquisition of Norwegian Object Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderssen, Merete; Bentzen, Kristine; Rodina, Yulia

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the acquisition of object shift in Norwegian child language. We show that object shift is complex derivationally, distributionally, and referentially, and propose a new analysis in terms of IP-internal topicalization. The results of an elicited production study with 27 monolingual Norwegian-speaking children (ages…

  4. [Colorectal cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Castells, Antoni

    2013-10-01

    Colorectal cancer is the paradigm of tumoral growth that is susceptible to preventive measures, especially screening. Various screening strategies with demonstrated efficacy and efficiency are currently available, notable examples being the fecal occult blood test and endoscopic tests. In addition, new modalities have appeared in the last few years that could become viable alternatives in the near future. The present article reviews the most important presentations on colorectal screening at the annual congress of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Orlando in May 2013, with special emphasis on the medium- and long-term results of strategies using the fecal occult blood test and flexible sigmoidoscopy, as well as initial experiences with the use of new biomarkers. PMID:24160954

  5. [Epigenetics and colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Pablo; Villarejo, Pedro; Padilla, David; Menéndez, José María; Rodríguez Montes, José Antonio

    2012-05-01

    The epigenetic and physiological mechanisms that alter the structure of chromatin include the methylation of DNA, changes in the histones, and changes in RNA. A literature review has been carried out using PubMed on the evidence published on the association between epigenetics and colorectal cancer. The scientific literature shows that epigenetic changes, such as genetic modifications may be very significant in the origin of neoplastic disease, contributing both to the development and progression of the disease. PMID:22425513

  6. Techniques for colorectal anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yik-Hong; Ashour, Mohamed Ahmed Tawfik

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal anastomotic leak remains one of the most feared post-operative complications, particularly after anterior resection of the rectum with, the shift from abdomino-peritoneal resections to total mesorectal excision and primary anastomosis. The literature fails to demonstrate superiority of stapled over hand-sewn techniques in colorectal anastomosis, regardless of the level of anastomosis, although a high stricture rate was noted in the former technique. Thus, improvements in safety aspects of anastomosis and alternatives to hand-sewn and stapled techniques are being sought. Here, we review alternative anastomotic techniques used to fashion bowel anastomosis. Compression anastomosis using compression anastomotic clips, endoluminal compression anastomotic rings, AKA-2, biofragmental anastomotic rings, or Magnamosis all involve the concept of creating a sutureless end-to-end anastomosis by compressing two bowel ends together, leading to a simultaneous necrosis and healing process that joins the two lumens. Staple line reinforcement is a new approach that reduce the drawbacks of staplers used in colorectal practice, i.e. leakage, bleeding, misfiring, and inadequate tissue approximation. Various non-absorbable, semi or fully absorbable materials are now available. Two other techniques can provide alternative anastomotic support to the suture line: a colorectal drain and a polyester stent, which can be utilized in ultra-low rectal excision and can negate the formation of a defunctioning stoma. Doxycycline coated sutures have been used to overcome the post-operative weakness in anastomosis secondary to rapid matrix degradation mediated by matrix metalloproteinase. Another novel technique, the electric welding system, showed promising results in construction of a safe, neat, smooth sutureless bowel anastomosis. Various anastomotic techniques have been shown to be comparable to the standard techniques of suturing and stapling. However, most of these alternatives need

  7. New Norwegian HSE standard for the offshore industry

    SciTech Connect

    Huse, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    NORSOK (The competitive standing of the Norwegian offshore sector) is the Norwegian industry initiative to add value, reduce cost and lead time and remove unnecessary activities in offshore field developments and operations. The NORSOK standards are developed by the Norwegian petroleum industry as a part of the NORSOK initiative and are jointly issued by the Norwegian Oil Industry Association and the Federation of Norwegian Engineering Industries. The purpose of the industry standard is to replace the individual oil company specifications for use in existing and future petroleum industry developments, subject to the individual company`s review and application. The NORSOK Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) standards covers: Technical Safety, Working Environment, Environmental Care, HSE during Construction. The standards are now being used in ongoing offshore development projects, and the experience with standards shows that the principle aim is being met. The development of standards continues, implementing experience gained.

  8. The modified norwegian method of biceps tenodesis.

    PubMed

    Foad, Abdullah; Faruqui, Sami; Hanna, Courtney C

    2014-02-01

    This technical note describes a method of biceps tenodesis called the Modified Norwegian Method that is an all-arthroscopic, intra-articular, bony biceps tenodesis that uses a suture shuttle passer through an anterosuperolateral portal. It allows for easy passage of suture through the long head of the biceps tendon while one is viewing through the posterior portal. We believe this method to be a very reasonable and simple method of biceps tenodesis that has complication rates similar to those described for subpectoral and other methods of fixation. PMID:24843845

  9. Biology of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a serious health problem, a challenge for research, and a model for studying the molecular mechanisms involved in its development. According to its incidence, this pathology manifests itself in three forms: family, hereditary, and most commonly sporadic, apparently not associated with any hereditary or familial factor. For the types having inheritance patterns and a family predisposition, the tumours develop through defined stages ranging from adenomatous lesions to the manifestation of a malignant tumour. It has been established that environmental and hereditary factors contribute to the development of colorectal cancer, as indicated by the accumulation of mutations in oncogenes, genes which suppress and repair DNA, signaling the existence of various pathways through which the appearance of tumours may occur. In the case of the suppressive and mutating tracks, these are characterised by genetic disorders related to the phenotypical changes of the morphological progression sequence in the adenoma/carcinoma. Moreover, alternate pathways through mutation in BRAF and KRAS genes are associated with the progression of polyps to cancer. This review surveys the research done at the cellular and molecular level aimed at finding specific alternative therapeutic targets for fighting colorectal cancer. PMID:25932044

  10. Teachers at War: Norwegian Teachers during the German Occupation of Norway 1940-45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunseath, Tessa

    2002-01-01

    States Norwegian Nazi leader, Vidkun Quisling, attempted to control dissenting Norwegian teachers by developing a compulsory union. Reports Nazi beliefs centered on controlling teachers, curriculum, and textbooks as a key to success. Notes Norwegian teachers' refusal to comply with the union scheme stymied Norwegian Nazi leaders' plans for…

  11. Recent Developments in Colorectal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pickhardt, Perry J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The aim of this review is to provide an update on important recent advances in radiologic colorectal imaging, with emphasis on detection, staging, and surveillance of colorectal neoplasia. Recent findings Colorectal imaging advances with magnetic resonance (MR), CT colonography (CTC), and positron emission tomography (PET) over the past year or so have been substantial. Progress in MR imaging for rectal cancer was most notable in terms of assessment of response to neoadjuvant therapy. Continued maturation and clinical validation of CTC was observed for the evaluation of advanced neoplasia, among other areas. Multimodality approaches to colorectal imaging that incorporate functional PET data have also made impressive strides forward. Summary Recent advances in cross-sectional and functional radiologic imaging of the colorectum will positively impact the clinical capabilities for noninvasive evaluation of colorectal neoplasia PMID:25394232

  12. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    LANGMAN, M; BOYLE, P

    1998-01-01

    Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK P BOYLE Colorectal cancer is the fourth commonest form of cancer in men with 678 000 estimated new cases per year worldwide, representing 8.9% of all new cancers. The disease is most frequent in Occidental countries and particularly so in North America, Australia, New Zealand, and parts of Europe. Prospects for colorectal cancer control are bright and a number of possible approaches could prove fruitful. Among these, pharmaceutical measures seem to be valid and logical approaches to the prevention of colorectal cancer and diminishing its impact. Such approaches could concentrate in primary prevention in at-risk subjects or be applied in altering the course of precursor or established disease. Treatments used must fulfil basic requirements of biological plausibility and safety in continued use in large numbers of subjects. Those available include vitamins and minerals, and other drugs with potential as antioxidants, immune modulators or promoters of cell differentiation or apoptosis. Of the various regimens suggested, vitamin A supplementation may even predispose to adverse outcomes, and antioxidant vitamins in general have no coherent body of evidence to support their use. N-acetylcysteine and ursodeoxycholic acid have promising characteristics but there are as yet no clinical data to support the use of the former in gut epithelial cancer, and formal dose ranging studies must be carried out before the latter is submitted to large scale trial. Folate shows promising characteristics but non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and vitamin D seem the most promising agents. Both seem to reduce the incidence of disease, and to reduce growth rates and/or induce differentiation or apoptosis in gut epithelial cancer cells. Both are also well understood pharmacologically. They may be preferred to newer selective compounds in the same class until these newer compounds are confirmed as safe for widespread

  13. Hydrate problems in pipelines: A study from Norwegian continental waters

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, D.; Larsen, R.; Lund, A.; Thomsen, A.K.

    1995-12-31

    This study was undertaken by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate and SINTEF to identify hydrate problems occurring in pipelines on the Norwegian continental shelf. A brief review of hydrate dissociation theory is given. Three major techniques for hydrate removal are discussed, as well as hazards related to hydrate plug removal. Questionnaire answers from 15 companies operating in Norwegian waters show three specific occurrences of hydrate plugs in the North Sea. Problems from other geographical areas are also discussed. Hydrate problems are reported for a wide variety of pipe lengths, diameters, profiles, insulations characteristics and fluids. Most problems occur during normal operation.

  14. Familial colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lung, M S; Trainer, A H; Campbell, I; Lipton, L

    2015-05-01

    Identifying individuals with a genetic predisposition to developing familial colorectal cancer (CRC) is crucial to the management of the affected individual and their family. In order to do so, the physician requires an understanding of the different gene mutations and clinical manifestations of familial CRC. This review summarises the genetics, clinical manifestations and management of the known familial CRC syndromes, specifically Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH-associated neoplasia, juvenile polyposis syndrome and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. An individual suspected of having a familial CRC with an underlying genetic predisposition should be referred to a familial cancer centre to enable pre-test counselling and appropriate follow up. PMID:25955461

  15. Primary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Andrew T.; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has been strongly associated with a Western lifestyle. In the past several decades, much has been learned about the dietary, lifestyle, and medication risk factors for this malignancy. Although there is controversy about the role of specific nutritional factors, consideration of the dietary pattern as a whole appears useful for formulating recommendations. For example, several studies have shown that high intake of red and processed meats, highly refined grains and starches, and sugars is related to increased risk of colorectal cancer. Replacing these factors with poultry, fish, and plant sources as the primary source of protein; unsaturated fats as the primary source of fat; and unrefined grains, legumes and fruits as the primary source of carbohydrates is likely to lower risk of colorectal cancer. Although a role for supplements, including vitamin D, folate, and vitamin B6, remains uncertain, calcium supplementation is likely to be at least modestly beneficial. With respect to lifestyle, compelling evidence indicates that avoidance of smoking and heavy alcohol use, prevention of weight gain, and the maintenance of a reasonable level of physical activity are associated with markedly lower risks of colorectal cancer. Medications such as aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and post-menopausal hormones for women are associated with significant reductions in colorectal cancer risk, though their utility is affected by associated risks. Taken together, modifications in diet and lifestyle should substantially reduce the risk of colorectal cancer and could complement screening in reducing colorectal cancer incidence. PMID:20420944

  16. The Norwegian approach to integrated quality development.

    PubMed

    Ovretveit, J

    2001-01-01

    The UK NHS quality proposals require all NHS organisations to develop an "integrated approach " to quality. In other countries, health care organisations are also working to ensure that the many different quality methods and systems used in health organisations do not duplicate or conflict with each other. The question this paper addresses is "what would an integrated approach to quality look like and how might managers and clinicians develop such an approach in their organisation?" The findings from the Norwegian total quality management experiment in six hospitals were that TQM could not be applied in its pure form in public health care services to ensure integration. The paper draws on this research to describe these hospitals' approach to integrate the different projects and systems which were stimulated by their initial quality programmes. The paper describes the "integrated quality development" approach which characterised these programmes. PMID:11547821

  17. Academic Colorectal Surgery Job Search

    PubMed Central

    Kalady, Matthew F.

    2014-01-01

    The field of academic colorectal surgery encompasses a vast array of possibilities. Clinical care accompanied by research, teaching, innovation, and/or administration provides the foundation for what is considered an academic career. For those choosing academic colorectal surgery, the process of finding and selecting a first job can provoke much angst. This article describes some strategies to approach the academic colorectal job search and provides insight into deciding a career focus, exploring relevant positions, weighing specific factors, and negotiating your first offer. PMID:25067918

  18. Academic colorectal surgery job search.

    PubMed

    Kalady, Matthew F

    2014-06-01

    The field of academic colorectal surgery encompasses a vast array of possibilities. Clinical care accompanied by research, teaching, innovation, and/or administration provides the foundation for what is considered an academic career. For those choosing academic colorectal surgery, the process of finding and selecting a first job can provoke much angst. This article describes some strategies to approach the academic colorectal job search and provides insight into deciding a career focus, exploring relevant positions, weighing specific factors, and negotiating your first offer. PMID:25067918

  19. Food safety practices among Norwegian consumers.

    PubMed

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Lavik, Randi; Ueland, Øydis; Jacobsen, Eivind; Hagtvedt, Therese; Langsrud, Solveig

    2013-11-01

    An informed consumer can compensate for several potential food safety violations or contaminations that may occur earlier in the food production chain. However, a consumer can also destroy the work of others in the chain by poor food handling practices, e.g., by storing chilled ready-to-eat foods at abusive temperatures. To target risk-reducing strategies, consumer groups with high-risk behavior should be identified. The aim of this study was to identify demographic characteristics associated with high-risk food handling practices among Norwegian consumers. More than 2,000 randomly selected Norwegian consumers were surveyed, and the results were analyzed with a risk-based grading system, awarding demerit points for self-reported food safety violations. The violations were categorized into groups, and an ordinary multiple linear regression analysis was run on the summarized demerit score for each group and for the entire survey group as a whole. Young and elderly men were identified as the least informed consumer groups with the most unsafe practices regarding food safety. Single persons reported poorer practices than those in a relationship. People with higher education reported poorer practices than those with lower or no education, and those living in the capital of Norway (Oslo) reported following more unsafe food practices than people living elsewhere in Norway. Men reported poorer food safety practices than women in all categories with two exceptions: parboiling raw vegetables before consumption and knowledge of refrigerator temperature. These findings suggest that risk-reducing measures should target men, and a strategy is needed to change their behavior and attitudes. PMID:24215699

  20. Permian of Norwegian-Greenland sea margins: future exploration target

    SciTech Connect

    Surlyk, F.; Hurst, J.M.; Piasecki, S.; Rolle, F.; Stemmerik, L.; Thomsen, E.; Wrang, P.

    1984-09-01

    Oil and gas exploration in the northern North Sea and the southern Norwegian shelf has mainy been concentrated on Jurassic and younger reservoirs with Late Jurassic black shale source rocks. New onshore investigations in Jameson Land, central East Greenland, suggest that the Permian of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea margins contains relatively thick sequences of potential oil source rocks interbedded with carbonate reefs. The East Greenland, Upper Permian marine basin is exposed over a length of 400 km (250 mi) from Jameson Land in the south to Wollaston Forland in the north, parallel with the continental margin. The Upper Permian black shale is relatively thick, widely distributed, has a high organic carbon content, and a favorable kerogen type. Consequently, the possibilities for a Permian play in the northern part of the Norwegian shelf and along parts of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea margins are worth evaluating.

  1. World's largest TLP moves onto deepwater Norwegian location

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1992-05-04

    This paper reports that the world's largest and most sophisticated tension leg platform (TLP) was floated out to Snorre oil field in the Norwegian North Sea last month. The 78,000 ton unit built by Norwegian independent, Sega Petroleum AS, Oslo, was installed in the southern part of block 34/7 and should produce first oil in August, about a month ahead of schedule.

  2. Meat, vegetables and genetic polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal carcinomas and adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Skjelbred, Camilla F; Sæbø, Mona; Hjartåker, Anette; Grotmol, Tom; Hansteen, Inger-Lise; Tveit, Kjell M; Hoff, Geir; Kure, Elin H

    2007-01-01

    Background The risk of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is mainly associated with lifestyle factors, particularly dietary factors. Diets high in red meat and fat and low in fruit and vegetables are associated with an increased risk of CRC. The dietary effects may be modulated by genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation genes. In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of dietary factors in combination with genetic factors in the different stages of colorectal carcinogenesis in a Norwegian population. Methods We used a case-control study design (234 carcinomas, 229 high-risk adenomas, 762 low-risk adenomas and 400 controls) to test the association between dietary factors (meat versus fruit, berries and vegetables) genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 Ile105Val, EPHX1 Tyr113His and EPHX1 His139Arg), and risk of colorectal carcinomas and adenomas. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated by binary logistic regression. Results A higher ratio of total meat to total fruit, berry and vegetable intake was positively associated with both high and low-risk adenomas, with approximately twice the higher risk in the 2nd quartile compared to the lowest quartile. For the high-risk adenomas this positive association was more obvious for the common allele (Tyr allele) of the EPHX1 codon 113 polymorphism. An association was also observed for the EPHX1 codon 113 polymorphism in the low-risk adenomas, although not as obvious. Conclusion Although, the majority of the comparison groups are not significant, our results suggest an increased risk of colorectal adenomas in individuals for some of the higher ratios of total meat to total fruit, berry and vegetable intake. In addition the study supports the notion that the biotransformation enzymes GSTM1, GSTP1 and EPHX1 may modify the effect of dietary factors on the risk of developing colorectal carcinoma and adenoma. PMID:18093316

  3. Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fiber . Talk with your doctor about taking aspirin every day. Taking aspirin every day can lower your risk of colorectal ... 50 to 59, ask your doctor if daily aspirin is right for you . Previous section Get Tested ...

  4. Molecular genetics of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Julie; Prenen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 90% of colorectal cancer cases are sporadic without family history or genetic predisposition, while in less than 10% a causative genetic event has been identified. Historically, colorectal cancer classification was only based on clinical and pathological features. Many efforts have been made to discover the genetic and molecular features of colorectal cancer, and there is more and more evidence that these features determine the prognosis and response to (targeted) treatment. Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease, with three known major molecular groups. The most common is the chromosomal instable group, characterized by an accumulation of mutations in specific oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. The second is the microsatellite instable group, caused by dysfunction of DNA mismatch repair genes leading to genetic hypermutability. The CpG Island Methylation phenotype is the third group, distinguished by hypermethylation. Colorectal cancer subtyping has also been addressed using genome-wide gene expression profiling in large patient cohorts and recently several molecular classification systems have been proposed. In this review we would like to provide an up-to-date overview of the genetic aspects of colorectal cancer. PMID:24714764

  5. Xenovaccinotherapy for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Seledtsov, Victor I; Niza, Natalya A; Felde, Mariya A; Shishkov, Alexey A; Samarin, Denis M; Seledtsova, Galina V; Seledtsov, Dmitriy V

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this phase I-II trial were to assess the toxicity, immunological and clinical responses induced in 37 patients with stage IV colorectal cancer by the subcutaneous administration of a xenogenic polyantigenic vaccine (XPV) prepared from disrupted murine melanoma (B16) and carcinoma (LLC) cells. An inducing course of vaccinotherapy consisted of 10 immunizations (5 at weekly and 5 at fortnight intervals). Twenty-four hours later each of first 5 vaccinations the patient was subcutaneously given a low dose of the recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2). A consolidating course of vaccinotherapy consisted of monthly vaccinations. No grade III or IV toxicities, but also laboratory and clinical signs of developing systemic autoimmune disorders were noted in any XPV-treated patient. A significant increase in cell-mediated immunoreactivity to both LLC and B16 antigens (Ags) occurred in the patients after inducing vaccinations, as determined by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reactions, as well as by blood lymphocyte proliferation responses. Vaccinations also led to increased cell-mediated reactivity to murine non-tumor, spleen cell (SC)-associated Ags. This reactivity, however, was not as significant as that to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). XPV was also found to capable of generating IgG antibody-mediated responses. With immunotherapy concentrations of both interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) detectably elevated in patients' sera, suggesting intensification of T helper 1-/T helper 2-mediated responses in the XPV-treated patients. The average survival of the XPV-treated patients was noticeably superior than was that of the clinically comparable control patients (17 vs 7 months). Collectively the results suggest that xenogenic TAAs are safe to use, able to induce measurable cellular and humoral immune responses, and may be clinically effective in certain colorectal cancer patients. PMID:17258887

  6. Heat Flow of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, C.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial heat flow determination is of prime interest for oil industry because it impacts directly maturation histories and economic potential of oil fields. Published systematic heat flow determinations from major oil provinces are however seldom. Robust heat flow determinations in drillholes require logging of undisturbed temperatures and intensive sampling of core material for petrophysical measurements. Temperature logging in exploration drillholes is traditionally conducted during drill breaks or shortly after drilling, resulting in temperatures severely disturbed by mud circulation and coring is restricted to selected intervals. Alternatively, test temperatures, information from electric logs and lithological descriptions of drill cuttings can be used to overcome these limitations. The present contribution introduces new heat flow determinations based on 63 exploration drillholes from the Norwegian North Sea, the Mid Norway Margin and the Barents Shelf. Our analyses are based on released DST temperatures, precise lithological descriptions of drill cuttings, previously measured rock matrix thermal conductivities and established porosity laws. For the sake of comparison, we carefully review previous heat flow studies carried out both onshore and offshore Norway. Our results suggest median heat flow values of 64 mW/m2, 65 mW/m2 and 72 mW/m2 for the North Sea, the Mid Norway Margin (mainly the Trøndelag Platform) and the SW Barents Shelf respectively. In detail, heat flow increases by ~ 10 mW/m2 from the southern Norwegian North Sea towards the Mid Norway Margin. This result appears to be in very good agreement with seismic tomographic studies suggesting northward thinning of the underlying mantle lithosphere. Our results together with published marine heat flow data from the Mid Norway Margin suggest a gradual decrease in heat flow levels from both the North Sea and the Trøndelag Platform towards the centres of the deep Møre and Vøring basins. This latter

  7. Heat flow of the Norwegian continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial heat flow influences a large collection of geological processes. Its determination is a requirement to assess the economic potential of deep sedimentary basins. Published heat flow calculations from e.g. major oil provinces are however seldom. Robust heat flow determinations in drillholes require logging of undisturbed temperatures and intensive sampling of core material for petrophysical measurements. Temperature logging in exploration drillholes is traditionally conducted during drill breaks or shortly after drilling, resulting in temperatures severely disturbed by mud circulation and coring is restricted to selected intervals. Alternatively, test temperatures, information from electric logs and lithological descriptions of drill cuttings can be used to overcome these limitations. The present contribution introduces new heat flow determinations based on 63 exploration drillholes from the Norwegian North Sea, the Mid Norway Margin and the Barents Shelf. Our analyses are based on released DST temperatures, precise lithological descriptions of drill cuttings, previously measured rock matrix thermal conductivities and established porosity laws. Our results suggest median heat flow values of 64 mW/m2, 65 mW/m2 and 72 mW/m2 for the North Sea, the Mid Norway Margin (mainly the Trøndelag Platform) and the SW Barents Shelf respectively. The Barents Shelf shows significantly high heat flow, suggesting lateral transfer of heat from the mantle of the adjacent young ocean. In detail, heat flow increases by ~ 10 mW/m2 from the southern Norwegian North Sea towards the Mid Norway Margin. This result appears to be in very good agreement with seismic tomographic studies suggesting northward thinning of the underlying mantle lithosphere. Our results together with published marine heat flow data from the Mid Norway Margin suggest a gradual decrease in heat flow levels from both the North Sea and the Trøndelag Platform towards the centres of the deep Møre and V

  8. Laparoscopic Colorectal Training Gap in Colorectal and Surgical Residents

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Mark; Williamson, Paul; Ferrara, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic colorectal surgery is an established safe procedure with demonstrated benefits. Proficiency in this specialty correlates with the volume of cases. We examined training in this surgical field for both general surgery and colon and rectal surgery residents to determine whether the number of cases needed for proficiency is being realized. Methods: We examined the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and American Board of Colorectal Surgeons (ABCRS) operative statistics for graduating general surgery and colon and rectal surgery residents. Results: Although the number of advanced laparoscopy cases had increased for general surgery residents, there was still a significant gap in case volume between the average number of laparoscopic colorectal operations performed by graduating general surgery residents (21.6) and those performed by graduating colon and rectal surgery residents (81.9) in 2014. Conclusion: There is a gap between general surgery and colon and rectal surgery residency training for laparoscopic colorectal surgery. General surgery residents are not meeting the volume of cases necessary for proficiency in colorectal surgery. This deficit represents a structural difference in training. PMID:27493468

  9. Vibration injuries in Norwegian forest workers

    PubMed Central

    Hellstr⊘m, B.; Andersen, K. Lange

    1972-01-01

    Hellstr⊘m, B., and Lange Andersen, K. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 255-263. Vibration injuries in Norwegian forest workers. A free medical examination with compensation for lost earnings was offered to the forest workers in three areas of eastern Norway. Sixty-six per cent attended (413 workers, of whom 296 used chain saws). The prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) was 47% in chain saw operators, 14% in forest workers not exposed to vibration, and 9% in 302 indoor workers not exposed to vibration. The high prevalence of RP in chain saw operators was attributed to a traumatic vasospastic disease (TVD). The average time of latency was eight years. The standard symptoms of TVD were attacks of blanching and numbness. Cyanosis and pain occurred rarely. In subsamples, measurements of tactile two-point discrimination and maximal isometric muscle strength (hand grip and finger pressure) as well as x-ray examinations of the wrists and the hands gave no evidence of vibration injury to peripheral nerves, muscles, bones, or joints. PMID:5044596

  10. Categorization of speech sounds by Norwegian/English bilinguals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dypvik, Audny T.; Slawinski, Elzbieta B.

    2005-04-01

    Bilinguals who learned English late in life (late bilinguals) as opposed to those who learned English early in life (early bilinguals) differ in their perception of phonemic distinctions. Age of acquisition of a second language as well as depth of immersion into English is influenced by perceptual differences of phonemic contrasts between monolinguals and bilinguals, with consequences for speech production. The phonemes /v/ and /w/ are from the same category in Norwegian, rendering them perceptually indistinguishable to the native Norwegian listener. In English, /v/ and /w/ occupy two categories. Psychoacoustic testing on this phonemic distinction in the current study will compare perceptual abilities of monolingual English and bilingual Norwegian/English listeners. Preliminary data indicates that Norwegian/English bilinguals demonstrate varying perceptual abilities for this phonemic distinction. A series of speech sounds have been generated by an articulatory synthesizer, the Tube Resonance Model, along a continuum between the postures of /v/ and /w/. They will be presented binaurally over headphones in an anechoic chamber at a sound pressure level of 75 dB. Differences in the perception of the categorical boundary between /v/ and /w/ among English monolinguals and Norwegian/English bilinguals will be further delineated.

  11. [Tumor markers for colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Miyake, Y; Noura, S; Ogawa, M; Yasui, M; Ikenaga, M; Sekimoto, M; Monden, M

    2001-09-01

    CEA and CA19-9 are the two most common tumor markers for colorectal cancer that are currently utilized clinically. The positive rate of CEA is 40-60% and that of CA19-9 is 30-50%. Simultaneous use of the two markers is useful in evaluating the therapeutic effect and monitoring the recurrence of advanced colorectal cancer. Surgical specimens may also provide useful information for the appropriate treatment of patients. Using surgically resected lymph nodes, we examined micrometastasis to assess the spread of the cancer cells and the malignant potential of colorectal cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis using anti-cytokeratin antibody revealed no significant impact of micrometastasis on patient prognosis, while RT-PCR assay using CEA as a genetic marker suggested a positive value in predicting a rapid recurrence. Among various molecular markers, we found that CDC25B phosphatase was a powerful prognostic factor for colorectal cancer. Diagnosis of the existence and malignant potential of cancer cells, together with serum tumor marker levels, may help to construct a more useful system for the better treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:11579645

  12. Language Planning Confronted by Everyday Communication in the International University: The Norwegian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljosland, Ragnhild

    2014-01-01

    Having been the scene of language planning for more than a century in relation to the two competing written standards of Norwegian, Norwegian language planners are now facing a new challenge: how to deal with what has been termed "domain loss" where Norwegian is perceived as losing out to English in important sectors of society,…

  13. People of the Prairies: A Norwegian and German-Russian Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabbert, Jon Charles, Ed.; Peterson, Fredrick E., Ed.

    The guide presents secondary level units designed to promote understanding of the two largest ethnic groups in North Dakota, the Norwegians and the German-Russians. The book is presented in five parts. Part I provides an historical overview of the Norwegian and German-Russian migration to North Dakota. Part II presents three Norwegian units on…

  14. Colorectal Subepithelial Lesions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Most of subepithelial lesion (SEL) being identified was accidentally discovered as small bulging lesion covered with normal mucosa from endoscopic screening. The type of treatment and prognosis vary depending on the type of tumor, it would be crucial to perform an accurate differential diagnosis. Since the differentiation of SEL relied on the indirect findings observed from the mucosal surface using an endoscopy only in the past, it was able to confirm the presence of lesion only but difficult to identify complex detailed nature of the lesion. However, after the endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) was introduced, it became possible to identify extrinsic compression, and size of intramural tumors, internal properties and contour so that it gets possible to have differential diagnosis of lesions and prediction on the lesion whether it is malignant or benign. In addition, the use of EUS-guided fine needle aspiration and EUS-guided core biopsy made it possible to make histological differential diagnosis. This study intended to investigate endoscopic and EUS findings, histological diagnosis, treatment regimen and impression of colorectal SELs. PMID:26240803

  15. Animal Models of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Robert L.; Fleet, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that afflicts a large number of people in the United States. The use of animal models has the potential to increase our understanding of carcinogenesis, tumor biology, and the impact of specific molecular events on colon biology. In addition, animal models with features of specific human colorectal cancers can be used to test strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. In this review we provide an overview of the mechanisms driving human cancer, we discuss the approaches one can take to model colon cancer in animals, and we describe a number of specific animal models that have been developed for the study of colon cancer. We believe that there are many valuable animal models to study various aspects of human colorectal cancer. However, opportunities for improving upon these models exist. PMID:23076650

  16. Grammatical Gender in American Norwegian Heritage Language: Stability or Attrition?

    PubMed Central

    Lohndal, Terje; Westergaard, Marit

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates possible attrition/change in the gender system of Norwegian heritage language spoken in America. Based on data from 50 speakers in the Corpus of American Norwegian Speech (CANS), we show that the three-gender system is to some extent retained, although considerable overgeneralization of the masculine (the most frequent gender) is attested. This affects both feminine and neuter gender forms, while declension class markers such as the definite suffix remain unaffected. We argue that the gender category is vulnerable due to the lack of transparency of gender assignment in Norwegian. Furthermore, unlike incomplete acquisition, which may result in a somewhat different or reduced gender system, attrition is more likely to lead to general erosion, eventually leading to complete loss of gender. PMID:27014151

  17. Nutrients, Foods, and Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S.; Chan, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigation have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grain have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, folate, fruits and vegetables. Nutrients and foods may also interact, as a dietary pattern, to influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet likely influences colorectal carcinogenesis through several interacting mechanisms. These include the direct effects on immune responsiveness and inflammation, and the indirect effects of over-nutrition and obesity—risk factors for colorectal cancer. Emerging evidence also implicates the gut microbiota as an important effector in the relationship between diet and cancer. Dietary modification therefore has the promise of reducing colorectal cancer incidence. PMID:25575572

  18. Colorectal cancers and chlorinated water

    PubMed Central

    El-Tawil, Ahmed Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Published reports have revealed increased risk of colorectal cancers in people exposed to chlorinated drinking water or chemical derivatives of chlorination. Oestrogen plays a dual positive functions for diminishing the possibilities of such risk by reducing the entrance, and increasing the excretion, of these chemicals. In addition, there are supplementary measures that could be employed in order to reduce this risk further, such as boiling the drinking water, revising the standard concentrations of calcium, magnesium and iron in the public drinking water and prescribing oestrogen in susceptible individuals. Hypo-methylation of genomic DNA could be used as a biological marker for screening for the potential development of colorectal cancers. PMID:27096035

  19. Gut Microbiome and Colorectal Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Dulal, Santosh; Keku, Temitope O.

    2015-01-01

    The trillions of bacteria that naturally reside in the human gut collectively constitute the complex system known the gut microbiome, a vital player for the host’s homeostasis and health. However, there is mounting evidence that dysbiosis, a state of pathological imbalance in the gut microbiome is present in many disease states. In this review, we present recent insights concerning the gut microbiome’s contribution to the development of colorectal adenomas and the subsequent progression to colorectal cancer (CRC). In the United States alone, CRC is the second leading cause of cancer deaths. As a result, there is a high interest in identifying risk factors for adenomas, which are intermediate precursors to CRC. Recent research on CRC and the microbiome suggest that modulation of the gut bacterial composition and structure may be useful in preventing adenomas and CRC. We highlight the known risk factors for colorectal adenomas and the potential mechanisms by which microbial dysbiosis may contribute to the etiology of CRC. We also underscore novel findings from recent studies on the gut microbiota and colorectal adenomas along with current knowledge gaps. Understanding the microbiome may provide promising new directions towards novel diagnostic tools, biomarkers, and therapeutic interventions for CRC. PMID:24855012

  20. Minilaparoscopic Colorectal Resections: Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Bona, S.; Molteni, M.; Montorsi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Laparoscopic colorectal resections have been shown to provide short-term advantages in terms of postoperative pain, general morbidity, recovery, and quality of life. To date, long-term results have been proved to be comparable to open surgery irrefutably only for colon cancer. Recently, new trends keep arising in the direction of minimal invasiveness to reduce surgical trauma after colorectal surgery in order to improve morbidity and cosmetic results. The few reports available in the literature on single-port technique show promising results. Natural orifices endoscopic techniques still have very limited application. We focused our efforts in standardising a minilaparoscopic technique (using 3 to 5 mm instruments) for colorectal resections since it can provide excellent cosmetic results without changing the laparoscopic approach significantly. Thus, there is no need for a new learning curve as minilaparoscopy maintains the principle of instrument triangulation. This determines an undoubted advantage in terms of feasibility and reproducibility of the procedure without increasing operative time. Some preliminary experiences confirm that minilaparoscopic colorectal surgery provides acceptable results, comparable to those reported for laparoscopic surgery with regard to operative time, morbidity, and hospital stay. Randomized controlled studies should be conducted to confirm these early encouraging results. PMID:22548166

  1. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  2. Percentage of Adults Who Receive Colorectal Cancer Screening as Appropriate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Appropriate Percentage of Adults Who Receive Colorectal Cancer Screening as Appropriate Colorectal cancer is the second leading ... Percentage of Adults Who Receive Recommended Colorectal Cancer Screening by Age Group 78pm-ubty Download these data » ...

  3. What's New in Colorectal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Additional resources for colorectal cancer What’s new in colorectal cancer research? Research is always going ... ways to find colorectal cancer early by studying new types of screening tests and improving the ones ...

  4. Family Structure in Norwegian Families of Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundeby, Hege; Tossebro, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Background: The idea that raising a child with disabilities has a negative impact on the parents' relationship is still widely accepted despite contradictory research findings. This article addresses the impact of raising a child with disabilities on family structure in the present Norwegian context. Method: Family demographics were collected at…

  5. Educating Voters: Political Education in Norwegian Upper-Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borhaug, Kjetil

    2008-01-01

    Research on political education in schools suggests that an emphasis on formal structure, constitutional principles, formal citizen rights, and debates on current issues is common. The Norwegian national curriculum on political education envisions a different political education emphasizing that students should be critical of political life and…

  6. No indication of Coxiella burnetii infection in Norwegian farmed ruminants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infection with Coxiella burnetii, the cause of Q-fever, has never been detected in Norwegian animals. Recognising the increasing prevalence of the infection in neighbouring countries, the aim of the study was to perform a survey of Norwegian farmed ruminants for the prevalence of C. burnetii infection. Results Milk and blood samples from more than 3450 Norwegian dairy cattle herds, 55 beef cattle herds, 348 dairy goat herds and 118 sheep flocks were serologically examined for antibodies against C. burnetii. All samples were negative for antibodies against C. burnetii. The estimated prevalences of infected herds were 0 (95% confidence interval: 0% - 0.12%), 0 (0% - 12%), 0 (0% - 1.2%) and 0 (0% - 10%) for dairy cattle herds, beef cattle herds, goat herds and sheep flocks, respectively. Conclusions The study indicates that the prevalence of C. burnetii infection in farmed Norwegian ruminants is low, and it cannot be excluded that Norway is free of the infection. It would be beneficial if Norway was able to maintain the current situation. Therefore, preventive measures should be continued. PMID:22607497

  7. [Norwegian psychiatry and Nazism. A historical project of current interest].

    PubMed

    Lavik, N J

    1994-06-10

    In 1945 the Ministry of Justice appointed a committee to conduct a psychiatric examination of Norwegian Nazis. This was done after a proposal from the Norwegian Psychiatric Association on the initiative of Professor Langfeldt, who at that time was head of the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Oslo. An investigation based on a crosscheck between membership of the Nazi party and the Norwegian case register for psychoses for the period 1926-1940 showed 30% more psychoses among the Nazis than in the population as a whole. Other studies tended to support the view that there was a high prevalence of deviant personalities among the Nazis. A study of 340 "front combatants" (not representative of the whole group of 8,000) showed no increase in psychopathology. They had a higher level of intelligence and education than the mean of young Norwegian males. Many of them belonged to strong pro-Nazi families. The studies of pro-Nazi women, especially the very young who had been involved in sexual relationships with German soldiers, are not representative. The findings seem to indicate that many of them lacked family support and had social problems. The studies are discussed in a historical perspective, with some comments about their relevance today. PMID:8079277

  8. The Norwegian "Christianity, Religion and Philosophy" Subject "KRL" in Strasbourg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lied, Sidsel

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the judgement and dissent of the European Court of Human Rights in the "Case of Folgero and others v. Norway" regarding the subject "Christianity, Religion and Philosophy (KRL)" in Norwegian state schools. The verdict, reached with dissenting votes of 9-8, states that parents' freedom of ensuring their children an education…

  9. Exploration of Norwegian Student Teachers' Relational Concerns during Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugan, Jan Arvid; Moen, Torill; Karlsdottir, Ragnheidur

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on and contributes to research on student teachers' relational concerns in teacher education, as four Grade 3 Norwegian student teachers were followed during their internship for two periods of two weeks each. The article presents and discusses data from interviews and student teachers' logs, while the aim of the study is to…

  10. Science Choices in Norwegian Upper Secondary School: What Matters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Maria Vetleseter

    2012-01-01

    There is international concern about young people's participation in science. This study investigated the relevant importance of various issues in 1628 Norwegian upper secondary students' choices of postcompulsory subject combinations: natural science and mathematics (henceforth Science) or languages, social science and economics (henceforth…

  11. Actual Leisure Participation of Norwegian Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in…

  12. Predicting Intentions to Perform Protective Sexual Behaviours among Norwegian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myklestad, Ingri; Rise, Jostein

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the socio-cognitive processes underlying intentions to use condoms and contraceptive pills, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour extended with prototypes in a group of young Norwegian adolescents. The data are derived from a questionnaire survey comprising all pupils in Grade Nine at three schools in Oslo (n = 196). Using…

  13. Deepwater cementing in the Norwegian Sea: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Helgesen, J.T.; Harestad, K.; Sorgaard, E.

    1999-04-01

    During Norway`s 15th licensing round in 1996, five deepwater areas were opened for exploration drilling. All blocks are situated outside the continental shelf in the Norwegian Sea, west of mid-Norway. The seabed and location conditions were studied by the Norwegian Deepwater Project, a joint venture of the operator companies who were awarded blocks in these new unexplored areas. Results of the study revealed that the weather and sea conditions in these remote areas would be among the toughest in the world. Strong return currents from the Arctic Ocean bring undercooled water to these locations, lowering the seabed temperature to as low as {minus}2 C. Because all the blocks are situated outside the Norwegian continental shelf, the water depth is in the range of 2,600--5,000 ft (800--1,600 m). Typical deepwater conditions are present in most of the deepwater locations in the Norwegian Sea. The conditions that posed additional challenges to the drilling operation were poorly consolidated sediments, shallow water flow zones, hydrate destabilization and ooze sediments. The paper describes sediment consolidation, shallow water flow, hydrates, development of deepwater cement slurries, a field case, and future cementing operations in Norway.

  14. Social Capital and Student Achievement in Norwegian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Lihong

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates student social capital in Norwegian secondary schools and its effects on student achievement. Using data from the national survey "Young in Norway 2002", it explores the concept and measurement of social capital in the school context by applying factor analysis. The paper also tests an analytical model that links student…

  15. Teaching Immigrants Norwegian Culture to Support Their Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Awal Mohammed; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted with 48 adult immigrant students studying Norwegian under basic education program of the Ski Municipality Adult Education Unit between 2009-2011. Using the framework of Genc and Bada (2005), we tried to replicate their study in a new setting--Norway. The study investigated migrant students' perceptions learning Norwegian…

  16. The Prevalence and Nature of Intellectual Disability in Norwegian Prisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondenaa, E.; Rasmussen, K.; Palmstierna, T.; Nottestad, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The objective of the study was to calculate the prevalence of inmates with intellectual disabilities (ID), and identify historical, medical and criminological characteristics of a certain impact. Methods: A random sample of 143 inmates from a Norwegian prison cross sectional sample was studied. The Hayes Ability Screening Index (HASI)…

  17. The Norwegian Principal: The Impact of National and Local Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Jorunn

    This article provides a snapshot of educational administration and leadership in Norway. The article describes the Norwegian context and the country's educational system. It reports on a small study that was part of a cross-cultural exploration into the principalship, offering a discussion based on interviews of principals from four…

  18. School Start Time, Sleepiness and Functioning in Norwegian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedaa, Oystein; Saxvig, Ingvild West; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Pallesen, Stale

    2012-01-01

    The study's aim was to investigate how school start time affects sleepiness and functioning in Norwegian 10th grade students (N = 106). The intervention school started at 0930 hours on Mondays and 0830 hours the rest of the week. A control school started at 0830 hours all schooldays. The students were assessed on a reaction time test as well as…

  19. Adapted Education: The Norwegian Pathway to Inclusive and Efficient Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasting, Rolf B.

    2013-01-01

    Since the UNESCO conference in 1994, inclusion has been a major denominator in the educational debates of most OECD countries, focusing on how to facilitate education and social interaction for the diversity of pupils. By international standards, the Norwegian education system is regarded as inclusive, but the ongoing debate and political pressure…

  20. The Multi-Faceted Teacher Educator: A Norwegian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kari

    2011-01-01

    Within the broad theme of this special issue, the current article describes a turbulent Norwegian teacher education context in which two new teacher educators start work in a university. Like other nations, Norway is affected by international educational trends, some of which have a reductive impact on the teaching profession and on teacher…

  1. Writing in the Content Areas: A Norwegian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzberg, Frøydis; Roe, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Since 2006, literacy skills have been mandated as an integral part of all subject areas at all levels (grades 1-13) in Norwegian schools. With the exception of reading, evaluation reports show that teaching in general seems to be little affected by this reform. During the last few years, however, there has been a noticeable growth in interest in…

  2. The Broken Curve: Effects of the Norwegian Manifesto against Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    The first Norwegian Manifesto (Manifesto-I) Against Bullying was launched by the Prime Minister in autumn 2002 and lasted for 2 years. A background for Manifesto-I was that school bullying had increased almost linearly in Norway with over 60% more victims and bullies since 1995. During the manifest period, the percentage of victims and bullies…

  3. Possible Concepts for Waterproofing of Norwegian TBM Railway Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammyr, Øyvind; Nilsen, Bjørn; Thuro, Kurosch; Grøndal, Jørn

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare the durability, life expectancy and maintenance needs of traditional Norwegian waterproofing concepts to the generally more rigid waterproofing concepts seen in other European countries. The focus will be on solutions for future Norwegian tunnel boring machine railway tunnels. Experiences from operation of newer and older tunnels with different waterproofing concepts have been gathered and analyzed. In the light of functional requirements for Norwegian rail tunnels, some preliminary conclusions about suitable concepts are drawn. Norwegian concepts such as polyethylene panels and lightweight concrete segments with membrane are ruled out. European concepts involving double shell draining systems (inner shell of cast concrete with membrane) and single shell undrained systems (waterproof concrete segments) are generally evaluated as favorable. Sprayable membranes and waterproof/insulating shotcrete are welcomed innovations, but more research is needed to verify their reliability and cost effectiveness compared to the typical European concepts. Increasing traffic and reliance on public transport systems in Norway result in high demand for durable and cost effective solutions.

  4. Forecasting the Norwegian Labour Market for Graduates Holding Higher Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naess, Terje

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the phenomenon of long-term unemployed graduates of Norwegian higher education institutions over the period 1973-1999. The phenomenon was unexpected. One explanation for it is that the market for graduates was and remains in disequilibrium because wages are not sufficiently flexible downward. Thus unemployment would be…

  5. Challenges and Possibilities in Norwegian Classroom Drama Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebo, Aud Berggraf

    2009-01-01

    My specific teaching and research interest is drama in the classroom--drama as a teaching and learning medium to fulfil a curriculum demand for student-active, creative and aesthetic learning processes. In this article I will focus on the challenges and possibilities that exist in Norwegian classroom drama. The article is based on my latest…

  6. The Limitations of Multiculturalism in Norwegian Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovdelien, Olav

    2014-01-01

    In Norway, 9 out of 10 children between the ages of one and five participate in an educational formation programme which, despite around half of the kindergartens being privately owned, is regulated by a common law and relatively detailed regulations describing what the content of kindergartens should be. Norwegian kindergartens therefore…

  7. Norwegian "Friluftsliv" and Ideals of Becoming an "Educated Man"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurholt, Kirsti Pedersen

    2008-01-01

    Norwegian "friluftsliv" or outdoor life is often identified as a "simple way of life" and as exemplary of green life-philosophy and environmental practices. This paper argues that "friluftsliv" must be conceptualized as a complex social phenomenon and an example of long-standing Western discourse linking ideas of nature, gender and education. The…

  8. Robotic Versus Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Nicole R.; Hauch, Adam T.; Hu, Tian; Kandil, Emad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Robotic approaches have become increasingly used for colorectal surgery. The aim of this study is to examine the safety and efficacy of robotic colorectal procedures in an adult population. Study Design: A systematic review of articles in both PubMed and Embase comparing laparoscopic and robotic colorectal procedures was performed. Clinical trials and observational studies in an adult population were included. Approaches were evaluated in terms of operative time, length of stay, estimated blood loss, number of lymph nodes harvested, and perioperative complications. Mean net differences and odds ratios were calculated to examine treatment effect of each group. Results: Two hundred eighteen articles were identified, and 17 met the inclusion criteria, representing 4,342 patients: 920 robotic and 3,422 in the laparoscopic group. Operative time for the robotic approach was 38.849 minutes longer (95% confidence interval: 17.944 to 59.755). The robotic group had lower estimated blood loss (14.17 mL; 95% confidence interval: –27.63 to –1.60), and patients were 1.78 times more likely to be converted to an open procedure (95% confidence interval: 1.24 to 2.55). There was no difference between groups with respect to number of lymph nodes harvested, length of stay, readmission rate, or perioperative complication rate. Conclusions: The robotic approach to colorectal surgery is as safe and efficacious as conventional laparoscopic surgery. However, it is associated with longer operative time and an increased rate of conversion to laparotomy. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are warranted to examine the cost-effectiveness of robotic colorectal surgery before it can be adopted as the new standard of care. PMID:25489216

  9. Exemplary Educational Programs in Norwegian Prisons: A Case Study of Norwegian Educators' Attitudes and Humanitarian Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Michelle D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how Norwegian correctional educators' attitudes and working environments influenced successful inmate outcomes. Success for incarcerated students was defined by the ability to enroll in and do well in prison classes, develop life skills, and gain the knowledge and skills to become productive members of…

  10. The Rhetoric of the Norwegian Constitution Day: A Topos Analysis of Young Norwegian Students' May 17 Speeches, 2011 and 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tønnesson, Johan Laurits; Sivesind, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    National Day, or Constitution Day, in Norway, May 17, is often referred to as Children's Day. On this day, thousands of young Norwegian students march in parades and participate in celebrations in schoolyards and similar meeting places. Some students are selected to give speeches, performed in front of family members, neighbors, classmates, and…

  11. Colorectal Cancer Screening, Version 1.2015.

    PubMed

    Provenzale, Dawn; Jasperson, Kory; Ahnen, Dennis J; Aslanian, Harry; Bray, Travis; Cannon, Jamie A; David, Donald S; Early, Dayna S; Erwin, Deborah; Ford, James M; Giardiello, Francis M; Gupta, Samir; Halverson, Amy L; Hamilton, Stanley R; Hampel, Heather; Ismail, Mohammad K; Klapman, Jason B; Larson, David W; Lazenby, Audrey J; Lynch, Patrick M; Mayer, Robert J; Ness, Reid M; Rao, M Sambasiva; Regenbogen, Scott E; Shike, Moshe; Steinbach, Gideon; Weinberg, David; Dwyer, Mary A; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A; Darlow, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Colorectal Cancer Screening provide recommendations for selecting individuals for colorectal cancer screening, and for evaluation and follow-up of colon polyps. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize major discussion points of the 2015 NCCN Colorectal Cancer Screening panel meeting. Major discussion topics this year were the state of evidence for CT colonography and stool DNA testing, bowel preparation procedures for colonoscopy, and guidelines for patients with a positive family history of colorectal cancer. PMID:26285241

  12. Transarterial Therapy for Colorectal Liver Metastases.

    PubMed

    Bhutiani, Neal; Martin, Robert C G

    2016-04-01

    Until recently, hepatic arterial therapies (HAT) had been used for colorectal liver metastases after failure of first-, second-, and third-line chemotherapies. HAT has gained greater acceptance in patients with liver-dominant colorectal metastases after failure of surgery or systemic chemotherapy. The current data demonstrate that HAT is a safe and effective option for preoperative downsizing, optimizing the time to surgery, limiting non-tumor-bearing liver toxicity, and improving overall survival after surgery in patients with colorectal liver-only metastases. The aim of this review is to present the current data for HAT in liver-only and liver-dominant colorectal liver metastases. PMID:27017870

  13. Survivorship Care Plan in Promoting Physical Activity in Breast or Colorectal Cancer Survivors in Wisconsin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-19

    Cancer Survivor; Healthy Subject; Stage I Colorectal Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer

  14. Ovarian metastasis from colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Birnkrant, A; Sampson, J; Sugarbaker, P H

    1986-11-01

    Controversies exist regarding the surgical treatment of the ovaries in women with primary colorectal cancer. A review of the authors' experience and the surgical literature reveals an incidence of ovarian metastases from colorectal cancer of approximately 6 percent. This problem may occur somewhat more frequently in premenopausal women. Resection of the ovaries at the time of colectomy is unlikely to affect survival. Removal of the ovaries at the time of bowel resection will prevent repeat laparotomy to resect an ovarian mass in approximately 2 percent of women with large bowel cancer. Oophorectomy should be performed in all postmenopausal females at the time of primary resection. Oophorectomy should be performed in premenopausal women if any gross abnormality of the ovary is detected or if peritoneal implants are seen at the time of primary resection. PMID:3533472

  15. Telomere function in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Frías, Cristina; Morán, Alberto; de Juan, Carmen; Ortega, Paloma; Fernández-Marcelo, Tamara; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres, Antonio José; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; Benito, Manuel; Iniesta, Pilar

    2009-10-15

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the western world. Tumour cells acquire the hallmarks of cancer during the carcinogenic selection process. Cell immortality is one of the principal features acquired during this process which involves the stabilization of telomere length. It is achieved mainly, by telomerase activation. Thus, the discovery of telomeres and telomerase allowed an understanding of the mechanisms by which cells can become immortalized. Different studies have shown that tumour cells have shorter telomeres than nontumour cells and have detected telomerase activity in the majority of tumours. Survival studies have determined that telomere maintenance and telomerase activity are associated with poor prognosis. Taking into account all the results achieved by different groups, quantification and evaluation of telomerase activity and measurement of telomere length may be useful methods for additional biologic and prognostic staging of colorectal carcinoma. PMID:21160767

  16. Colorectal hepatic metastasis: Evolving therapies

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Francisco Igor B; Makarawo, Tafadzwa

    2014-01-01

    The approach for colorectal hepatic metastasis has advanced tremendously over the past decade. Multidrug chemotherapy regimens have been successfully introduced with improved outcomes. Concurrently, adjunct multimodal therapies have improved survival rates, and increased the number of patients eligible for curative liver resection. Herein, we described major advancements of surgical and oncologic management of such lesions, thereby discussing modern chemotherapeutic regimens, adjunct therapies and surgical aspects of liver resection. PMID:25067997

  17. Subnuclear Proteomics in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Knol, Jaco C.; Piersma, Sander R.; Pham, Thang V.; de Wit, Meike; Mongera, Sandra; Carvalho, Beatriz; Verheul, Henk M. W.; Fijneman, Remond J. A.; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Jimenez, Connie R.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormalities in nuclear phenotype and chromosome structure are key features of cancer cells. Investigation of the protein determinants of nuclear subfractions in cancer may yield molecular insights into aberrant chromosome function and chromatin organization and in addition may yield biomarkers for early cancer detection. Here we evaluate a proteomics work flow for profiling protein constituents in subnuclear domains in colorectal cancer tissues and apply this work flow to a comparative analysis of the nuclear matrix fraction in colorectal adenoma and carcinoma tissue samples. First, we established the reproducibility of the entire work flow. In a reproducibility analysis of three nuclear matrix fractions independently isolated from the same colon tumor homogenate, 889 of 1,047 proteins (85%) were reproducibly identified at high confidence (minimally two peptides per protein at 99% confidence interval at the protein level) with an average coefficient of variance for the number of normalized spectral counts per protein of 30%. This indicates a good reproducibility of the entire work flow from biochemical isolation to nano-LC-MS/MS analysis. Second, using spectral counting combined with statistics, we identified proteins that are significantly enriched in the nuclear matrix fraction relative to two earlier fractions (the chromatin-binding and intermediate filament fractions) isolated from six colorectal tissue samples. The total data set contained 2,059 non-redundant proteins. Gene ontology mining and protein network analysis of nuclear matrix-enriched proteins revealed enrichment for proteins implicated in “RNA processing” and “mRNA metabolic process.” Finally, an explorative comparison of the nuclear matrix proteome in colorectal adenoma and carcinoma tissues revealed many proteins previously implicated in oncogenesis as well as new candidates. A subset of these differentially expressed proteins also exhibited a corresponding change at the mRNA level

  18. Systemic Treatment of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wolpin, Brian M.; Mayer, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common non-cutaneous malignancy in the United States and the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death. Over the past 12 years, significant progress has been made in the systemic treatment of this malignant condition. Six new chemotherapeutic agents have been introduced, increasing median overall survival for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer from less than 9 months with no treatment to approximately 24 months. For patients with stage III (lymph node positive) colon cancer, an overall survival benefit for fluorouracil-based chemotherapy has been firmly established, and recent data have shown further efficacy for the inclusion of oxaliplatin in such adjuvant treatment programs. For patients with stage II colon cancer, the use of adjuvant chemotherapy remains controversial, but may be appropriate in a subset of individuals at higher risk for disease recurrence. Ongoing randomized clinical trials are evaluating how best to combine currently available therapies, while smaller studies are evaluating new agents, with the goal of continued progress in prolonging life among patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and increasing cure rates among those with resectable disease. PMID:18471507

  19. Liver Metastases in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Folprecht, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Resection of colorectal liver metastases is a treatment standard because patients experience long-term disease-free survival or are even cured after undergoing this procedure. Improved surgical techniques for liver resection in combination with downsizing liver metastases by chemotherapy, interventions to induce liver hypertrophy before resection, and the use of ablative techniques have allowed us to expand the indications for liver surgery and local treatment in situations with limited metastatic colorectal cancer. Resectability and identification of patients who might benefit from liver surgery and local ablative techniques are key factors for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Despite the wide acceptance of liver surgery and ablative techniques, there are many open questions on the management of limited metastatic disease, such as which patients benefit from an aggressive surgical approach, what the indications for ablative and other local techniques are, and what the role of chemotherapy is for patients with resectable or resected disease. Unfortunately, results of randomized trials are only available for a limited number of these questions. PMID:27249722

  20. ADAMTS Expression in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Filou, Serafula; Korpetinou, Aggeliki; Kyriakopoulou, Dora; Bounias, Dimitrios; Stavropoulos, Michael; Ravazoula, Panagiota; Papachristou, Dionysios J.; Theocharis, Achilleas D.; Vynios, Demitrios H.

    2015-01-01

    ADAMTSs are a family of secreted proteinases that share the metalloproteinase domain with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). By acting on a large panel of extracellular substrates, they control several cell functions such as fusion, adhesion, proliferation and migration. Through their thrombospondin motifs they also possess anti-angiogenic properties. We investigated whether ADAMTSs participate in colorectal cancer progression and invasion. Their expression was investigated at both mRNA and protein levels. Using RT-PCR, the expression of ADAMTS-1, -4, -5 and ADAMTS-20 was estimated in colorectal tumors of different cancer stage and anatomic site and 3 cell lines of different aggressiveness. An overexpression of ADAMTS-4 and -5 was observed, especially in tissue samples, whereas ADAMTS-1 and -20 were found to be down-regulated. Western blot analysis further supported the RT-PCR findings, revealing in addition the degradation of ADAMTS-1 and -20 in cancer. In situ expression and localization of ADAMTS-1, -4, -5 and -20 was also investigated by immunohistochemical analysis. Our data suggest a positive correlation between ADAMTS-4 and -5 expression and cancer progression, in contrast with the anti-angiogenic members of the family, ADAMTS-1 and -20, which were found to be down-regulated. Our findings support the notion that overexpression of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 in colorectal cancer might be a possible invasive mechanism of cancer cells in order to degrade proteoglycans of ECM. PMID:25786261

  1. [Maintenance therapy for colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Kato, Shunsuke

    2014-08-01

    Some trials have demonstrated the benefits of maintenance chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer. In chemotherapeutic strategies for advanced colorectal cancer, chemotherapy-related toxicity prevention and quality of life(QOL)maintenance are more important than the introduction of a strong regimen, especially when additional surgery is not possible. In Japan, the combination of a folinic acid/5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin(FOLFOX)regimen and bevacizumab is a popular first-line chemotherapy regimen. However, despite its effectiveness, neuropathy or hand-foot syndrome after 5 or 6 cycles tends to lead to chemotherapy withdrawal. CAIRO3 trial reported the effectiveness of capecitabine and bevacizumab as a maintenance chemotherapy regimen. Additionally, the ML18147 trial demonstrated that bevacizumab beyond progression(BBP)prolonged overall survival(OS)and progression free survival(PFS)in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Although those trials demonstrated the effectiveness of continuous or maintenance bevacizumab administration, no trials have compared the effectiveness of cytotoxic drugs with bevacizumab as maintenance therapies. Moreover, controversy exists regarding the selection of drugs as a maintenance therapy and the identification of patients who would benefit from maintenance therapy. PMID:25132024

  2. Rift-drift evolution of the outer Norwegian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gernigon, Laurent; Carmen, Gaina; Tadashi, Yamasaki; Gwenn, Péron-Pinvidic; Odleiv, Olesen

    2010-05-01

    Most of the tectonic and dynamic concepts on the evolution of rifted margins have been developed from either intra-continental rift basins or proximal margin usually characterised by small amounts of crustal thinning. Some of these continental margins also display a high level of volcanic activity along the continent-ocean transition (COT). In such a context, the tectonic evolution of the proto-breakup rift system of the outer Norwegian margin is still problematic, due to sub-basalt imaging and a poor knowledge of the mechanisms involved before, during and slightly after the onset of breakup. Regional analysis and interpretation of multichannel seismic data, potential field data, integrated with refined plate reconstruction and finite-element modelling have provided the opportunity to propose an updated tectonic model for the evolution and segmentation of the Norwegian margin and the early Norwegian-Greenland Sea oceanic domain. Timing of deformation and structural styles observed along the conjugates reflect lateral variations of the rifted system which is influenced by complex inherited features, late magma-tectonic processes and local plate instabilities. We show that the deep structures associated with the volcanic rifted margin are still controversial and not necessarily so magmatic. We have also attempted to investigate the role of localised magmatic intrusion in rift and breakup dynamics and compared the results with our geophysical data, offshore Norway. The thickness, composition and temperature of the underplated and/or intruded bodies seem to be important factors that control lithospheric stretching, basin temperature, rift structure, margin asymmetry and COT formation. We also document the early spreading history of the mid-Norwegian by means of two news recent aeromagnetic surveys which highlight a complex spreading evolution correlated with the onset of microcontinent formation (Jan Mayen microcontinent) and an atypical (mid-Eocene?) magmatic event

  3. Priority classification of patients according to a modified 'Norwegian model'.

    PubMed

    van Assendelft, A H

    1996-01-01

    A priority classification was evaluated according to a modified 'Norwegian model.' Many diseases do not belong to any specific priority category based only on the diagnosis. The classification also depends on the condition's type, site, and phase as well as the patient's age and overall condition. Savings cannot be achieved by the model used because 89% of the patients belonged to the priority categories I-III, the care of which can be classified as necessary. PMID:8707510

  4. Seismic background noise at the Norwegian Regional Seismic Array

    SciTech Connect

    Breding, D.R.

    1987-10-01

    The System Control and Receiving Station (SCARS) has been collecting spectral history data on the Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) since 1981 and on the Norwegian Regional Seismic Array (NRSA) since it was installed in 1984. This report details the spectral history data for the NRSA through 1986. The appendix contains spectral history data for all five RSTN stations from the time they were installed until their deactivation in September 1986.

  5. Tailored Telephone Counseling Increases Colorectal Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawl, Susan M.; Christy, Shannon M.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Ding, Yan; Krier, Connie; Champion, Victoria L.; Rex, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of two interventions to promote colorectal cancer screening participation and forward stage movement of colorectal cancer screening adoption among first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps. One hundred fifty-eight first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps were…

  6. Economic Burden of Colorectal Cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Ju-Young; Oh, In-Hwan; Kim, Young Ae; Seo, Hye-Young; Lee, Yo-Han

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The incidence and survival rate of colorectal cancer in Korea are increasing because of improved screening, treatment technologies, and lifestyle changes. In this aging population, increases in economic cost result. This study was conducted to estimate the economic burden of colorectal cancer utilizing claims data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Methods Economic burdens of colorectal cancer were estimated using prevalence data and patients were defined as those who received ambulatory treatment from medical institutions or who had been hospitalized due to colorectal cancer under the International Classification of Disease 10th revision codes from C18-C21. The economic burdens of colorectal cancer were calculated as direct costs and indirect costs. Results The prevalence rate (per 100 000 people) of those who were treated for colorectal cancer during 2010 was 165.48. The economic burdens of colorectal cancer in 2010 were 3 trillion and 100 billion Korean won (KRW), respectively. Direct costs included 1 trillion and 960 billion KRW (62.85%), respectively and indirect costs were 1 trillion and 160 billion (37.15%), respectively. Conclusions Colorectal cancer has a large economic burden. Efforts should be made to reduce the economic burden of the disease through primary and secondary prevention. PMID:24744825

  7. Joint probability of extreme waves and currents on Norwegian shelf--

    SciTech Connect

    Heideman, J.C. ); Hagen, O. )

    1989-07-01

    Simultaneous wave and current measurements on the Norwegian Shelf were used to estimate the appropriate current to associate with extreme waves in platform design. The primary data consisted of seven years of measurements at Tromsoflaket (71{degrees}30'N, 19{degrees}E, 230 m depth), including 38 storms with peak significant wave heights above 7 m. The maximum wave height and maximum current occurred simultaneously in only one of the 38 storms. The wave and current time-series data were used to calculate the time series of drag load on a simple structure and statistics of wave height and drag load were developed. The data showed that the in-line current that must be added to extreme waves in order to preserve the extreme loads approaches 25 cm/s asymptotically as storm severity increases. Sensitivity studies suggest that this limit is largely insensitive to reasonable variations in current profile, wave kinematics theory, structure geometry, tidal current removal, length of data base, or site location. These results show that the current specified by Norwegian regulatory authorities is conservative, and provide a basis for reducing the design hydrodynamic loads on drag-dominated offshore structures on the Norwegian shelf.

  8. Molecular Diagnostic Applications in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huth, Laura; Jäkel, Jörg; Dahl, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, a clinically diverse disease, is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Application of novel molecular diagnostic tests, which are summarized in this article, may lead to an improved survival of colorectal cancer patients. Distinction of these applications is based on the different molecular principles found in colorectal cancer (CRC). Strategies for molecular analysis of single genes (as KRAS or TP53) as well as microarray based techniques are discussed. Moreover, in addition to the fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and colonoscopy some novel assays offer approaches for early detection of colorectal cancer like the multitarget stool DNA test or the blood-based Septin 9 DNA methylation test. Liquid biopsy analysis may also exhibit great diagnostic potential in CRC for monitoring developing resistance to treatment. These new diagnostic tools and the definition of molecular biomarkers in CRC will improve early detection and targeted therapy of colorectal cancer.

  9. Subjective health complaints are more prevalent in Maasais than in Norwegians.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmsen, Ingvard; Mulindi, Sobbie; Sankok, David; Wilhelmsen, Ane B; Eriksen, Hege R; Ursin, Holger

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this observational, population-based study was to compare subjective health complaints (SHC) in Norwegians, living in a Western welfare society, and Maasai people, living in rural Kenya under primitive conditions. An interview-based version of SHC inventory was used. Data from 320 Maasais were compared to data from 1243 Norwegians. The Maasais had significantly higher score than the Norwegians on 23 of 28 items, involving musculoskeletal, "pseudo-neurological" and gastrointestinal complaints. The Maasais, living under primitive conditions, close to nature, seems to have more SHC than Norwegians, living in a modern, highly developed and industrialized country. PMID:17763124

  10. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  11. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Nuri Faruk

    2015-02-10

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  12. Smoking and risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Knekt, P.; Hakama, M.; Järvinen, R.; Pukkala, E.; Heliövaara, M.

    1998-01-01

    Tobacco smoking was studied in relation to colorectal cancer in 56 973 Finnish men and women initially free from cancer. Smoking status was determined by a health questionnaire. During a follow-up period of 28 years, from the baseline in 1966-72 to the end of 1994, 457 cases of colorectal cancer occurred. There was no significant association between baseline smoking status and colorectal cancer risk over the total follow-up period. The sex- and age-adjusted relative risk of colorectal cancer between smokers and non-smokers was 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.33). For follow-up periods of 11-20 years, however, the relative risk was 1.57 (95% confidence interval 1.09-2.24). In a subgroup in which smoking habits were assessed twice, the relative risk of colorectal cancer among persistent smokers was 1.71 (95% confidence interval 1.09-2.68) compared with others. The results of the present prospective study are consistent with the possibility that smoking increases the risk of colorectal cancer after a relatively long induction period. To clarify the role of smoking in colorectal cancer development, further cohort studies are needed with long follow-up periods and allowing for control of dietary and other potential confounding factors. PMID:9662264

  13. Colorectal Cancer Screening in Vietnamese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Bang H.

    2008-01-01

    Background Rates of colorectal cancer screening in Vietnamese Americans are lower than those in non-Hispanic whites. This paper describes rates of colorectal screening, identifies determinants, and recommends educational strategies to improve screening. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 867 Vietnamese aged 50 to 74 drawn from a sampling frame of individuals in the Alameda and Santa Clara Counties, California and Harris County, Texas area telephone directories with Vietnamese surnames were interviewed in 2004. Results Colorectal screening recognition, receipt, currency, and intention rates were low. Conclusions: While the screening rates are low, Vietnamese are receptive to screening if providers recommend it. PMID:18444045

  14. From Digital Divides to Digital Inequality -- The Emerging Digital Inequality in the Norwegian Unitarian School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumsvik, Rune J.

    2008-01-01

    This position paper highlights existing and emerging, prospective digital divides in Norwegian schools and asks whether we are now moving from traditional digital divides to digital inequality in our digitized society and schools. Despite very good technology density in Norwegian society and schools in general, there is the reason to pay attention…

  15. Infant Directed Speech in Natural Interaction--Norwegian Vowel Quantity and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Kjellrun T.; Behne, Dawn M.

    2005-01-01

    An interactive face-to-face setting is used to study natural infant directed speech (IDS) compared to adult directed speech (ADS). With distinctive vowel quantity and vowel quality, Norwegian IDS was used in a natural quasi-experimental design. Six Norwegian mothers were recorded over a period of 6 months alone with their infants and in an adult…

  16. Cross-Validation of the Norwegian Teacher's Self-Efficacy Scale (NTSES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avanzi, Lorenzo; Miglioretti, Massimo; Velasco, Veronica; Balducci, Cristian; Vecchio, Luca; Fraccaroli, Franco; Skaalvik, Einar M.

    2013-01-01

    The study assesses the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Norwegian Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale--NTSES. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis was used to explore the measurement invariance of the scale across two countries. Analyses performed on Italian and Norwegian samples confirmed a six-factor structure of the scale…

  17. Semantic Models of Host-Immigrant Relations in Norwegian Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garthus-Niegel, Kristian; Oppedal, Brit; Vike, Halvard

    2016-01-01

    Education has continuously been regarded as a vital tool in Norwegian policymakers' immigrant integration agendas. This study analyzes semantic structures substantiating the policy language of historical Norwegian immigrant education policies from their inception in 1973 until today (2013). The analysis is framed by Kronenfeld's linguistic…

  18. A Revised Version of the Norwegian Adaptation of the Test Anxiety Inventory in a Heterogeneous Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oktedalen, Tuva; Hagtvet, Knut A.

    2011-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis and Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes (MIMIC) modeling were employed to investigate psychometric properties of a revised adaptation of the Norwegian version of the Test Anxiety Inventory (RTAIN) in a sample of 456 students. The study supported the Norwegian version as a useful inventory for measuring the components…

  19. Work-Plan Heroes: Student Strategies in Lower-Secondary Norwegian Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalland, Cecilie P.; Klette, Kirsti

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how individualized teaching methods, such as the use of work plans, create new student strategies in Norwegian lower secondary classrooms. Work plans, which are frequently set up as instructional tools in Norwegian classrooms, outline different types of tasks and requirements that the students are supposed to do during a…

  20. The Norwegian Educational System, the Linguistic Diversity in the Country and the Education of Different Minority Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özerk, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    Linguistic diversity has always been and still is one of the current issues in the Norwegian educational system. Norwegian is the official language of the country, but, there have been several distinct dialects and two official written Norwegian languages in the country since 1885. One of them is "Bokmål" and the other is…

  1. The deglaciation history of the mid-Norwegian continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haflidason, Haflidi; Bøyum, Eivind; Oline Hjelstuen, Berit

    2013-04-01

    The present knowledge on the last deglaciation of the mid-Norwegian continental shelf is still largely based on works from the late 1970's to early 1980's and improved by re-dating shell rich events using the AMS technology in the late 1990´s. These new dating results offered a new chronological framework for the two youngest till units identified in the outer shelf setting of the Mid-Norwegian shelf area using a regional grid of sparker lines. These till units were found to have been deposited around 15000 and 13500 14C BP. The results showed that the Mid-Norwegian shelf ice partly reached the shelf edge as late as ca. 13000 14C BP. Dating from the nearest coastal area show that most of the shelf area had been deglaciated in less than 1000 years. New high-resolution seismic technology, applying the TOPAS parametric echosounder system, the multibeam and the Olex data bathymetric data combined with new AMS dated gravity cores have in the recent year made it possible to approach the deglaciation history in a more detailed way than previously available. The results show that the last glacial maximum ice sheet retreated from the outer shelf area around 15200 14C. The ice sheet readvanced around 14500 14C and created a large end moraine complex and a new minor readvance is interpreted to have occurred around 13700 14C BP before a rapid retreat to the coastal areas during the Bølling period. The two dated ice sheet readvances have occurred within the period of the cold regional climatic event Heinrich 1.

  2. Monitoring adverse events in Norwegian hospitals from 2010 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Deilkås, Ellen Tveter; Bukholm, Geir; Lindstrøm, Jonas Christoffer; Haugen, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe how adverse event (AE) rates were monitored and estimated nationally across all Norwegian hospitals from 2010 to 2013, and how they developed during the monitoring period. Monitoring was based on medical record review with Global Trigger Tool (GTT). Setting All publicly and privately owned hospitals were mandated to review randomly selected medical records to monitor AE rates. The initiative was part of the Norwegian patient safety campaign, launched by the Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care Services. It started in January 2011 and lasted until December 2013. 2010 was the baseline for the review. One of the main aims of the campaign was to reduce patient harm. Method To standardise the medical record reviews in all hospitals, GTT was chosen as a standard method. GTT teams from all hospitals reviewed 40 851 medical records randomly selected from 2 249 957 discharges from 2010 to 2013. Data were plotted in time series for local measurement and national AE rates were estimated, plotted and monitored. Results AE rates were estimated and published nationally from 2010 to 2013. Estimated AE rates in severity categories E-I decreased significantly from 16.1% in 2011 to 13.0% in 2013 (−3.1% (95% CI −5.2% to −1.1%)). Conclusions Monitoring estimated AE rates emerges as a potential element in national systems for patient safety. Estimated AE rates in the category of least severity decreased significantly during the first 2 years of the monitoring. PMID:26719311

  3. First oil pipeline to Norway crosses Norwegian trench

    SciTech Connect

    Johsrud, P.

    1988-05-02

    Norsk Hydro AS laid the first oil pipeline from North Sea fields to Norway last summer as part of the Oseberg transportation system. The line was hydrostatically tested last fall in preparation for start-up next year. After several appraisal wells and extensive evaluation work, the operator for the field, Norsk Hydro, presented a development plan which was approved by the Norwegian parliament in the spring of 1984. This article describes the development phases, the transportation system, and how the trench crossing was done.

  4. The performance of immigrants in the Norwegian labor market.

    PubMed

    Hayfron, J E

    1998-01-01

    "This paper tests the assimilation hypothesis with Norwegian data. Using both cross-section and cohort analyses, the results show that the 1970-1979 immigrant cohort experienced an earnings growth of about 11% between 1980 and 1990, when their earnings profile was compared to that of natives. This is lower than the 19% assimilation rate predicted by the cross-section method. On the contrary, the results reveal a rapid earnings divergence across cohorts, and between the 1960-1969 cohort and natives." PMID:12293838

  5. Levels of cadmium in liver and kidneys from Norwegian cervides

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Investigations during the last decade have demonstrated that the environment of the southernmost parts of Norway are substantially polluted by acid precipitation originating mainly from Central and Western Europe. These areas are also subjected to pollution by long-distance transport of some fairly volatile trace elements such as lead, cadmium, arsenic and selenium. Accordingly, north-south concentration gradients have been demonstrated for these elements in surface soils, in coniferous forest ecosystems, and in certain herbivorous animals. The purpose of the present study was to determine the cadmium burden in Norwegian cervides, with special reference to moose, and to demonstrate possible regional differences in this regard.

  6. Norwegian remote sensing experiment in a marginal ice zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrelly, B.; Johannessen, J.A.; Svendsen, E.; Kloster, K.; Horjen, I.; Matzler, C.; Crawford, J.; Harrington, R.; Jones, L.; Swift, C.; Delnore, V.E.; Cavalieri, D.; Gloersen, P.; Hsiao, S.V.; Shemdin, O.H.; Thompson, T.W.; Ramseier, R.O.; Johannessen, O.M.; Campbell, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Norwegian Remote Sensing Experiment in the marginal ice zone north of Svalbard took place in fall 1979. Coordinated passive and active microwave measurements were obtained from shipborne, airborne, and satellite instruments together with in situ observations. The obtained spectra of emissivity (frequency range, 5 to 100 gigahertz) should improve identification of ice types and estimates of ice concentration. Mesoscale features along the ice edge were revealed by a 1.215-gigahertz synthetic aperture radar. Ice edge location by the Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer was shown to be accurate to within 10 kilometers.

  7. Micronucleus analysis in patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma and colorectal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Ali; Binici, Doğan Nasır; Kabalar, Mehmet Eşref; Çalıkuşu, Züleyha

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine, by counting micronucleus (MN) frequencies, whether chromosomal or DNA damage have an effect on the pathogenesis of early colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC). METHODS: We analyzed MN frequencies in 21 patients with CRC, 24 patients with colon polyps [10 neoplastic polyps (NP) and 14 non-neoplastic polyps (NNP)] and 20 normal controls. RESULTS: MN frequency was significantly increased in CRC patients and in NP patients compared with controls (3.72 ± 1.34, 3.58 ± 1.21 vs 1.97 ± 0.81, P < 0.001). However, there was no difference in the MN frequency between CRC patients and NP patients (P > 0.05). Similarly, there was no difference in the MN frequency between NNP patients (2.06 ± 0.85) and controls (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest increased chromosome/DNA instabilities may be associated with the pathogenesis of early CRC. PMID:19058310

  8. The Tumor Microenvironment in Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Peddareddigari, Vijay G.; Wang, Dingzhi

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Therapeutic developments in the past decade have extended life expectancy in patients with metastatic disease. However, metastatic colorectal cancers remain incurable. Numerous agents that were demonstrated to have significant antitumor activity in experimental models translated into disappointing results in extending patient survival. This has resulted in more attention being focused on the contribution of tumor microenvironment to the progression of a number of solid tumors including colorectal cancer. A more complete understanding of interactions between tumor epithelial cells and their stromal elements will enhance therapeutic options and improve clinical outcome. Here we will review the role of various stromal components in colorectal carcinogenesis and discuss the potential of targeting these components for the development of future therapeutic agents. PMID:21209781

  9. TAS-102 for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from an international phase III trial that compared TAS-102 with placebo in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer whose disease progressed following prior treatments or who had health conditions that prevented the re-administrati

  10. Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... be acceptable screening tests for colorectal cancer: High-sensitivity fecal occult blood tests (FOBT). Both polyps and ... higher than that of gFOBT or FIT. Test sensitivity for adenomas is low. False-positive test results ...

  11. Abdominal metastases from colorectal cancer: intraperitoneal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guend, Hamza; Patel, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Patients with peritoneal metastasis from colorectal cancer represent a distinct subset with regional disease rather than systemic disease. They often have poorer survival outcomes with systemic chemotherapy. Optimal cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC) offers such patients a more directed therapy with improved survival. In this review, we discuss the diagnosis, evaluation and classification, as well as rational for treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) secondary to colorectal cancer. PMID:26697203

  12. Unique complications of robotic colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthy, Sonia; Obias, Vincent

    2013-02-01

    Robotic approaches in all surgical realms have seen tremendous growth over the previous few years. Taking advantage of 3-dimensional visualization, improved articulation, and the opportunity for an enhanced ability to suture/operate in the deep pelvis all provide theoretical and real advantages in colorectal surgery. This article reviews the potential advantages and disadvantages, current indications, future directions, and lessons learned for robotic approaches in colorectal surgery. PMID:23177076

  13. Percutaneous ablation of colorectal lung metastases

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Lung metastasectomy can prolong survival in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma. Thermal ablation offers a potential solution with similar reported survival outcomes. It has minimal effect on pulmonary function, or quality of life, can be repeated, and may be considered more acceptable to patients because of the associated shorter hospital stay and recovery. This review describes the indications, technique, reported outcomes, complications and radiologic appearances after thermal ablation of colorectal lung metastases. PMID:26697202

  14. Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references.

  15. Laparoscopic Colorectal Resection in Octogenarian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Minghao; Qin, Huabo; Luo, Qianxin; He, Xiaosheng; Lan, Ping; Lian, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The population older than 80 years has been increasing. A significant proportion of colorectal diseases that require colorectal resection occur in very elderly patients. However, the benefits of laparoscopy remain controversial in octogenarians. A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational study was performed to compare clinical outcomes between laparoscopic versus open colorectal resection in octogenarians. The PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases from the years 1990 to 2015 were searched for studies that compare surgical outcomes between laparoscopic and open colorectal resection in octogenarians (≥80 years old). Seven eligible studies including 528 laparoscopic and 484 open colorectal resections were identified. Laparoscopic approach was associated with lower rate of mortality (odds ratio [OR] 0.48, P = 0.03), overall complications (OR 0.54, P < 0.001), and prolonged ileus (OR 0.56, P = 0.009), quicker bowel function return (standardized mean difference [SMD] −0.50, P < 0.001), and shorter length of hospital stay (SMD −0.47, P = 0.007). No differences were found in anastomotic leak (OR 1.16, P = 0.72), respiratory complication (OR 0.60, P = 0.07), and reoperation (OR 0.85, P = 0.69). Laparoscopic colorectal resection is as safe as open approach, and the short-term outcomes appear to be more favorable in octogenarians. PMID:26496302

  16. Gut microbiota imbalance and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gagnière, Johan; Raisch, Jennifer; Veziant, Julie; Barnich, Nicolas; Bonnet, Richard; Buc, Emmanuel; Bringer, Marie-Agnès; Pezet, Denis; Bonnet, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota acts as a real organ. The symbiotic interactions between resident micro-organisms and the digestive tract highly contribute to maintain the gut homeostasis. However, alterations to the microbiome caused by environmental changes (e.g., infection, diet and/or lifestyle) can disturb this symbiotic relationship and promote disease, such as inflammatory bowel diseases and cancer. Colorectal cancer is a complex association of tumoral cells, non-neoplastic cells and a large amount of micro-organisms, and the involvement of the microbiota in colorectal carcinogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Indeed, many changes in the bacterial composition of the gut microbiota have been reported in colorectal cancer, suggesting a major role of dysbiosis in colorectal carcinogenesis. Some bacterial species have been identified and suspected to play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis, such as Streptococcus bovis, Helicobacter pylori, Bacteroides fragilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium septicum, Fusobacterium spp. and Escherichia coli. The potential pro-carcinogenic effects of these bacteria are now better understood. In this review, we discuss the possible links between the bacterial microbiota and colorectal carcinogenesis, focusing on dysbiosis and the potential pro-carcinogenic properties of bacteria, such as genotoxicity and other virulence factors, inflammation, host defenses modulation, bacterial-derived metabolism, oxidative stress and anti-oxidative defenses modulation. We lastly describe how bacterial microbiota modifications could represent novel prognosis markers and/or targets for innovative therapeutic strategies. PMID:26811603

  17. Analysis of the petroleum resources of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Flertoft, I.P.; Kvadsheim, E.; Kalheim, J.E.

    1995-08-01

    The 1995 analysis of the petroleum resources of Norway is based on a play analysis. The input to the 1995 analysis is updated and refined compared with the analysis of 1993. The analysis makes a major distinction between unconfirmed play models and plays confirmed by discoveries. The unconfirmed plays have a higher risk and a greater range of uncertainty in the resource estimates compared to the confirmed plays. The effect of the unconfirmed plays on the estimates within different exploration areas is discussed. The unconfirmed play models are an important aspect of the exploration in the new exploration areas north of 62{degrees}N. The total estimate for the Norwegian Shelf is well within the estimate given in the 1993 analysis, but there are some adjustments in the relative importance of the different exploration provinces. Much emphasis is placed on incorporating historical exploration data and statistics to calibrate the play models. This includes rate of success and field size distributions of the individual play models and exploration provinces. Major confirmed plays in the North Sea have a rate of success of about 30% and show a good fit to a log normal field size distribution. Based on the log normal distribution it is possible to give prognosis for the size distribution of the undiscovered accumulation. This has made it possible to work out an economic analysis of the profitability of future exploration on the Norwegian Continental Shelf.

  18. Structural evolution and petroleum potential of the Norwegian Barents Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, K.T.

    1995-08-01

    The tectonic history of the Norwegian Barents Sea has provided potential hydrocarbon traps in clastic reservoirs associated with rotated fault blocks, compressional anticlines and salt domes. Significant stratigraphic potential also resides in Paleozoic carbonates. Drilling in the Hammerfest Basin has yielded large gas discoveries in rotated fault blocks, but other trapping concepts remain relatively untested. The undrilled arm north of 74{degrees} 30 minutes N, currently being mapped by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate using exclusive seismic and geological data from shallow boreholes, represents a significant area for future exploration. Prospectivity is critically dependent on the scaling of traps following Neogene uplift of large areas of the Barents platform. The area is dominated by structural trends inherited from the Caledonian and older orogens. Carboniferous rifting established a system of half grabens and intervening highs, followed by late Permian faulting in the west which initiated regional subsidence continuing into the early Jurassic. Fault reactivation in early Triassic times triggered salt diapirism and provided structural control for the formation of Triassic shelf margins. During the late Jurassic-early Cretaceous western basins underwent tectonic subsidence, while the northeastern platform arm was subject to gentle compression. In the late Cretaceous salt was reactivated in the Nordkapp Basin and compressional structures developed west of the Loppa High. Further subsidence of the western basins was promoted by late Mesozoic and early Tertiary transtensional movements along the North Atlantic rift system. Subsequent regional compression in these basins, and basin inversion east of the Loppa High, are of post-Eocene age.

  19. Risk perception and safety in Norwegian offshore workers

    SciTech Connect

    Rundmo, T.

    1996-12-31

    The relationships between perception of risk, behavior and involvement in accidents are receiving increased attention in the offshore oil industry. How employees perceive the risk they are exposed to during the conduct of their work may contribute to an understanding of risk management and thereby to the safety of their working conditions. A self-completion questionnaire survey was carried out among employees on a representative sample of offshore oil installations in the Norwegian part of the North Sea in 1990. In 1994 a follow-up study was carried out. A total of 915 respondents replied to our questionnaire in 1990 and 1138 in 1994. The studies were financed by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. There were significantly fewer of the personnel who felt at risk in 1994 compared to 1990 and a greater percentage of the personnel were satisfied with the safety and contingency measures and experienced job stress to a greater extent in 1990 than they did in 1994. Emotional reactions caused by potentially-hazardous risk sources were dependent on the respondents perceived controllability of the risk sources. The study also showed that there were significant positive correlations between organizational factors, safety status, perceived risk, and accidents. However, safety cannot be improved by changing risk perception. It is the factors that cause variations in risk perception as well as behavior and safety which should be the focus of safety promotion.

  20. Heteronormative consensus in the Norwegian same-sex adoption debate?

    PubMed

    Anderssen, Norman; Hellesund, Tone

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the Norwegian newspaper debate (1998-2002) on the right of homosexual couples to adopt children. It identifies two patterns of meaning within which both anti-adoption and pro-adoption sides of the debate were located: 1) the nuclear family as reference point; and 2) a focus on innate qualities. Parallell to a continuous liberalization of sexualities in Norway we seem to witness a consensus on heteronormativity in Norway on both sides of the debate as the basic axiom in public discussions on homosexuality and adoption. In this article, we explore the nature of the heteronormative arguments and the reason for their appearance in this particular debate. The two patterns of meaning reproduce a perception of lesbians and gays as either a worthy or unworthy minority. These findings may be seen as reflecting fundamental positions regarding the Norwegian modernization project, where both sides of the debate see homosexuality as a central symbol. State feminism may also have played the role of reinforcing gender categories and thereby served as an important condition of possibility for contemporary heteronormativity. PMID:19197645

  1. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a general perception that train drivers and conductors may be at increased risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. Aims To study job-related hearing loss among train drivers and train conductors. Methods Audiograms from train drivers and train conductors were obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the major Norwegian railway company. The results were compared with audiograms from an internal control group of railway workers and an external reference group of people not occupationally exposed to noise. The monaural hearing threshold level at 4kHz, the mean binaural value at 3, 4 and 6kHz and the prevalence of audiometric notches (≥25 dB at 4kHz) were used for comparison. Results Audiograms were available for 1567 drivers, 1565 conductors, 4029 railway worker controls and 15 012 people not occupationally exposed to noise. No difference in hearing level or prevalence of audiometric notches was found between study groups after adjusting for age and gender. Conclusions Norwegian train drivers and conductors have normal hearing threshold levels comparable with those in non-exposed groups. PMID:24204021

  2. Factors influencing Saprolegnia spp. spore numbers in Norwegian salmon hatcheries.

    PubMed

    Thoen, E; Evensen, Ø; Skaar, I

    2016-06-01

    A quantitative survey of Saprolegnia spp. in the water systems of Norwegian salmon hatcheries was performed. Water samples from 14 salmon hatcheries distributed along the Norwegian coastline were collected during final incubation in the hatcheries. Samples of inlet and effluent water were analyzed to estimate Saprolegnia propagule numbers. Saprolegnia spores were found in all samples at variable abundance. Number of spores retrieved varied from 50 to 3200 L(-1) in inlet water and from 30 to >5000 L(-1) in effluent water. A significant elevation of spore levels in effluent water compared to inlet water was detected. The estimated spore levels were related to recorded managerial and environmental parameters, and the number of spores in inlet water and temperature was the factor having most influence on the spore concentration in the incubation units (effluent water). Further, the relative impact of spore concentration on hatching rates was investigated by correlation analysis. From this was found that even high spore counts did not impact significantly on hatching success. PMID:26123005

  3. Perceptions of Norwegian physiotherapy students: cultural diversity in practice.

    PubMed

    Fougner, Marit; Horntvedt, And Tone

    2012-01-01

    At the Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo University College there is a growing recognition of the need for cultural competency training among students at the bachelor programmes. At the Mensendieck-physiotherapy bachelor programme the students are engaged in leading physical activity groups for Muslim women. This qualitative study describes ethnically Norwegian students experiencing cultural diversity in practice. Twenty-two female physiotherapy students participated in the interviews; 6 students were interviewed individually by telephone, and 16 students were interviewed in person in 8 pairs. The students' framework for dealing with diversity is based on preconceived notions about Muslim women and is reflected in two particular ways. One is how the values and norms of Norwegian "ideology of sameness" are pursued by the students. The other is how the students constructed images of the women as "the others." The interview responses indicate difficulties in uniting the reality of diversity and the "need" for integration. The curriculum requires additional attention on cultural competency for health care professionals in a multicultural society. PMID:21682583

  4. Variation in the Association Between Colorectal Cancer Susceptibility Loci and Colorectal Polyps by Polyp Type

    PubMed Central

    Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Peters, Ulrike; Passarelli, Michael N.; Schwartz, Malaika R.; Upton, Melissa P.; Zhu, Lee-Ching; Potter, John D.; Makar, Karen W.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study of the association between subsets of colorectal polyps, including adenomas and serrated polyps, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to colorectal cancer through prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Participants were enrollees in the Group Health Cooperative (Seattle, Washington) aged 24–79 years who received a colonoscopy from 1998 to 2007, donated a buccal or blood sample, and completed a structured questionnaire. We performed genotyping of 13 colorectal cancer susceptibility SNPs. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations between polyps and the colorectal cancer risk allele for each SNP under a log-additive model. Analyses included 781 controls, 489 cases with adenoma, 401 cases with serrated polyps, and 188 cases with both polyp types. The following SNPs were associated with advanced adenomas: rs10936599, rs10795668, rs16892766, and rs9929218 (P < 0.05). For nonadvanced adenomas and for serrated polyps overall, only rs961253 was statistically significant (P < 0.05). These associations were in the same directions as those in prior colorectal cancer GWAS. No SNP was significantly associated with hyperplastic polyps, and only rs6983267 was significantly associated with sessile serrated polyps, but this association was opposite of that found in colorectal cancer GWAS. Our results suggest that the association between colorectal cancer susceptibility SNPs and colorectal polyps varies by polyp type. PMID:24875374

  5. Diet and Colorectal Cancer Risk: Baseline Dietary Knowledge of Colorectal Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, K. J.; Fearon, K. C. H.; Buckner, K.; Richardson, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To establish the dietary knowledge, attitudes and potential barriers to change of patients attending a colorectal outpatient clinic. Design: Use of a semistructured interview to generate qualitative and quantitative data. Setting: A regional colorectal outpatient clinic within Edinburgh. Method: Patients attending clinic with colorectal…

  6. DNA Methylation and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ashktorab, Hassan; Brim, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major cancers in the world and second death-causing cancer in the US. CRC development involves genetic and epigenetic alterations. Changes in DNA methylation status are believed to be involved at different stages of CRC. Promoter silencing via DNA methylation and hypomethylation of oncogenes alter genes’ expression, and can be used as a tool for the early detection of colonic lesions. DNA methylation use as diagnostic and prognostic marker has been described for many cancers including CRC. CpG Islands Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) is one of the underlying CRC mechanisms. This review aims to define methylation signatures in CRC. The analysis of DNA methylation profile in combination with the pathological diagnosis would be useful in predicting CRC tumors’ evolution and their prognostic behavior. PMID:25580099

  7. Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cisterna, Bruno A; Kamaly, Nazila; Choi, Won Il; Tavakkoli, Ali; Farokhzad, Omid C; Vilos, Cristian

    2016-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, and despite notable progress in treatment still leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has become one of the most promising strategies for cancer therapy. Targeted nanoparticles could take advantage of differentially expressed molecules on the surface of tumor cells, providing effective release of cytotoxic drugs. Several efforts have recently reported the use of diverse molecules as ligands on the surface of nanoparticles to interact with the tumor cells, enabling the effective delivery of antitumor agents. Here, we present recent advances in targeted nanoparticles against CRC and discuss the promising use of ligands and cellular targets in potential strategies for the treatment of CRCs. PMID:27529192

  8. Translation initiation in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Parsyan, Armen; Hernández, Greco; Meterissian, Sarkis

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancers (CRC) are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in high-income countries. Targeted screening programs have resulted in early treatment and a substantial decrease in mortality. However, treatment strategies for CRC still require improvement. Understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of CRC would provide tools for improving treatment of patients with this disease. It is only recently that deregulation of the protein synthesis apparatus has begun to gain attention as a major player in cancer development and progression. Among the numerous steps of protein synthesis, deregulation of the process of translation initiation appears to play a key role in cancer growth and proliferation. This manuscript discusses a fascinating and rapidly growing field exploring translation initiation as a fundamental component in CRC development and progression and summarizing CRC treatment perspectives based on agents targeting translation initiation. PMID:22418835

  9. Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minhhuyen T; Weinberg, David S

    2016-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. The main goals of screening are to prevent carcinogenesis (via adenoma detection and removal) and detect cancer at an early, curable stage. CRC mortality is steadily dropping in the United States, partly because of greater screening utilization. However, nearly 1 in 3 average-risk people are not up to date with standard CRC screening recommendations. This review surveys a wide range of CRC biomarkers in various stages of development, which may offer attractive risk stratification tools; a few have reached the commercial stage. If widely accepted, these tools may contribute to shift CRC screening practices away from 1-step colonoscopy to a 2-step risk stratification process of predictive biomarker measurements followed by colonoscopy for lower-risk patients with a positive result. Such strategies could potentially increase the rate of CRC screening. PMID:27496118

  10. Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stay Informed Cancer Home Questions to Ask Your Doctor About Colorectal Cancer Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... helps pay for colorectal cancer screening. Ask Your Doctor Do I need to get a screening test ...

  11. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Colorectal Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... colorectal cancer survivor What should you ask your doctor about colorectal cancer? It’s important to have frank, ... treatment? Do I need to see any other doctors or health professionals? If I’m concerned about ...

  12. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-In; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Seong-Eun; Kim, Se Hyung; Hong, Sung Noh; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Sung Jae; Lee, Suck-Ho; Park, Dong Il; Kim, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyun Jung; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Hyo Jong; Jeon, Hae Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Now colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in males and the fourth most common cancer in females in Korea. Since most of colorectal cancers occur after the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are one of the most effective methods to prevent colorectal cancer. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish Korean guideline for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The guideline was developed by the Korean Multi-Society Take Force and we tried to establish the guideline by evidence-based methods. Parts of the statements were draw by systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Herein we discussed epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea and optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations. PMID:22741131

  13. Characteristics of the Norwegian Coastal Current during Years with High Recruitment of Norwegian Spring Spawning Herring (Clupea harengus L.).

    PubMed

    Skagseth, Øystein; Slotte, Aril; Stenevik, Erling Kåre; Nash, Richard D M

    2015-01-01

    Norwegian Spring Spawning herring (NSSH) Clupea harengus L. spawn on coastal banks along the west coast of Norway. The larvae are generally transported northward in the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC) with many individuals utilizing nursery grounds in the Barents Sea. The recruitment to this stock is highly variable with a few years having exceptionally good recruitment. The principal causes of recruitment variability of this herring population have been elusive. Here we undertake an event analysis using data between 1948 and 2010 to gain insight into the physical conditions in the NCC that coincide with years of high recruitment. In contrast to a typical year when northerly upwelling winds are prominent during spring, the years with high recruitment coincide with predominantly southwesterly winds and weak upwelling in spring and summer, which lead to an enhanced northward coastal current during the larval drift period. Also in most peak recruitment years, low-salinity anomalies are observed to propagate northward during the spring and summer. It is suggested that consistent southwesterly (downwelling) winds and propagating low-salinity anomalies, both leading to an enhanced northward transport of larvae, are important factors for elevated recruitment. At the same time, these conditions stabilize the coastal waters, possibly leading to enhanced production and improved feeding potential along the drift route to Barents Sea. Further studies on the drivers of early life history mortality can now be undertaken with a better understanding of the physical conditions that prevail during years when elevated recruitment occurs in this herring stock. PMID:26636759

  14. Characteristics of the Norwegian Coastal Current during Years with High Recruitment of Norwegian Spring Spawning Herring (Clupea harengus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Skagseth, Øystein; Slotte, Aril; Stenevik, Erling Kåre; Nash, Richard D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Norwegian Spring Spawning herring (NSSH) Clupea harengus L. spawn on coastal banks along the west coast of Norway. The larvae are generally transported northward in the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC) with many individuals utilizing nursery grounds in the Barents Sea. The recruitment to this stock is highly variable with a few years having exceptionally good recruitment. The principal causes of recruitment variability of this herring population have been elusive. Here we undertake an event analysis using data between 1948 and 2010 to gain insight into the physical conditions in the NCC that coincide with years of high recruitment. In contrast to a typical year when northerly upwelling winds are prominent during spring, the years with high recruitment coincide with predominantly southwesterly winds and weak upwelling in spring and summer, which lead to an enhanced northward coastal current during the larval drift period. Also in most peak recruitment years, low-salinity anomalies are observed to propagate northward during the spring and summer. It is suggested that consistent southwesterly (downwelling) winds and propagating low-salinity anomalies, both leading to an enhanced northward transport of larvae, are important factors for elevated recruitment. At the same time, these conditions stabilize the coastal waters, possibly leading to enhanced production and improved feeding potential along the drift route to Barents Sea. Further studies on the drivers of early life history mortality can now be undertaken with a better understanding of the physical conditions that prevail during years when elevated recruitment occurs in this herring stock. PMID:26636759

  15. Clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical profile of ovarian metastases from colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kir, Gozde; Gurbuz, Ayse; Karateke, Ates; Kir, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Metastasis of colorectal adenocarcinoma of the ovary is not an uncommon occurrence and ovarian metastases from colorectal carcinoma frequently mimic endometrioid and mucinous primary ovarian carcinoma. The clinical and pathologic features of metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma involving the ovary is reviewed with particular focus on the diagnostic challenge of distinguishing these secondary ovarian tumors from primary ovarian neoplasm. Immunohistochemical stains that may be useful in the differential diagnosis of metastatic colorectal tumors to the ovary and primary ovarian tumors are detailed. PMID:21160859

  16. Genetics of Colorectal Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of colorectal cancer, including information about specific genes and family cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about screening for colorectal cancer and research aimed at prevention of this disease. Psychosocial issues associated with genetic testing and counseling of individuals who may have hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome are also discussed.

  17. Monoterpene emissions from Scots pine and Norwegian spruce

    SciTech Connect

    Janson, R.W. )

    1993-02-20

    Rates of monoterpene emissions from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norwegian spruce (Picea abies) have been measured at four sites in Sweden with a dynamic flow chamber technique. Forest floor emissions have been made in the pine forest with the static chamber technique. The compounds [Delta][sup 3]-carene and [alpha]-pinene were the predominant terpenes emitted from the crown and floor of the Scots pine forest. Alpha-pinene was the main terpene emitted from Norwegian spruce at the sites in southern and central Sweden, while [Delta][sup 3]-carene was predominant at the northern site. Emission rates, normalized to temperature, were seen to vary diurnally with a maximum at midday, and seasonally with maxima in early May and October, and a summer maximum in June-July. The possible dependence of the emission rate on needle growth rate and other plant-physiological processes is discussed. A higher emission rate and different relative composition of the emission was seen to occur when the vegetation was wet, as compared to dry vegetation. The emission from the pine forest floor was seen to have a composition different from that of the crown and a seasonality of the rate similar to that of the crown. The ground emission could not be explained by sources in the litter or ground vegetation alone, and it is suggested that the root system of the trees is also an emission source. The emission rate from the pine forest floor was of the order of 30% of the crown emission. The July rate of emission from the crown of Scots pine, normalized to 20[degrees]C and averaged over four sites in Sweden, was 0.8 [plus minus] 0.4 [mu]g (gdw (grams dry weight) h)[sup [minus]1], and for Norwegian spruce, 0.5 [plus minus] 0.7 [mu]g(gdw h)[sup [minus]1]. It would seem that previous regional and global estimates of hydrocarbon fluxes to the atmosphere have used emission factors which are too high for boreal coniferous forests. 52 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Norwegian mountain glaciers in the past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesje, Atle; Bakke, Jostein; Dahl, Svein Olaf; Lie, Øyvind; Matthews, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Documentation of glacier changes is a key element for reconstruction of past climate variability and early detection of global climate change. In this paper, records of Holocene glacier variations in different regions in Norway have been synthesised. During the period from approximately 8000 to 4000 cal. yr BP, most glaciers in Norway were completely melted away at least once due to high summer temperatures and/or reduced winter precipitation. Lichenometrically and historically dated moraines at Jostedalsbreen, in Jotunheimen, at Hardangerjøkulen, and at Folgefonna were used to extend records of glacier length variations back to their maximum position during the 'Little Ice Age'. The timing of the maximum 'Little Ice Age' glacial advance in different parts of southern Norway varied considerably, ranging from the early 18th century to the late 19th century. Cumulative glacier length variations of glaciers in southern Norway show an overall retreat from ˜ AD 1750 to the 1930s-40s. Thereafter, most Norwegian glaciers retreated significantly. Short maritime outlet glaciers with a short response time (< 10-15 yr) started to advance in the mid-1950s, whereas long outlet glaciers with longer frontal time lag (> 15-20 yr) continued their retreat to the 1980s. In the 1990s, however, several of the maritime glaciers started to advance as a response to higher winter accumulation during the first part of the 1990s. Since 2000 most of the observed glaciers have retreated remarkably fast (annual frontal retreat > 100 m) mainly due to high summer temperatures. The last glacier inventory in Norway published in 1988 shows that there were 1627 glaciers covering a total area of 2609 km 2 with an estimated volume of 164 km 3. Modern climate-glacier relationships from mass balance data in Scandinavia have been used to present possible effects on the Norwegian glaciers of climate scenarios between 1961-1990 and 2070-2100 presented by the 'RegClim' project. This long-term weather

  19. Method for estimating road salt contamination of Norwegian lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitterød, Nils-Otto; Wike Kronvall, Kjersti; Turtumøygaard, Stein; Haaland, Ståle

    2013-04-01

    Consumption of road salt in Norway, used to improve winter road conditions, has been tripled during the last two decades, and there is a need to quantify limits for optimal use of road salt to avoid further environmental harm. The purpose of this study was to implement methodology to estimate chloride concentration in any given water body in Norway. This goal is feasible to achieve if the complexity of solute transport in the landscape is simplified. The idea was to keep computations as simple as possible to be able to increase spatial resolution of input functions. The first simplification we made was to treat all roads exposed to regular salt application as steady state sources of sodium chloride. This is valid if new road salt is applied before previous contamination is removed through precipitation. The main reasons for this assumption are the significant retention capacity of vegetation; organic matter; and soil. The second simplification we made was that the groundwater table is close to the surface. This assumption is valid for major part of Norway, which means that topography is sufficient to delineate catchment area at any location in the landscape. Given these two assumptions, we applied spatial functions of mass load (mass NaCl pr. time unit) and conditional estimates of normal water balance (volume of water pr. time unit) to calculate steady state chloride concentration along the lake perimeter. Spatial resolution of mass load and estimated concentration along the lake perimeter was 25 m x 25 m while water balance had 1 km x 1 km resolution. The method was validated for a limited number of Norwegian lakes and estimation results have been compared to observations. Initial results indicate significant overlap between measurements and estimations, but only for lakes where the road salt is the major contribution for chloride contamination. For lakes in catchments with high subsurface transmissivity, the groundwater table is not necessarily following the

  20. Monoterpene emissions from Scots pine and Norwegian spruce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janson, Robert W.

    1993-02-01

    Rates of monoterpene emissions from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norwegian spruce (Picea abies) have been measured at four sites in Sweden with a dynamic flow chamber technique. Forest floor emissions have been made in the pine forest with the static chamber technique. Sampling was done with Tenax TA and analysis and detection by GC and ion trap detection. The compounds Δ3-carene and α-pinene were the predominant terpenes emitted from the crown and floor of the Scots pine forest. Alpha-pinene was the main terpene emitted from Norwegian spruce at the sites in southern and central Sweden, while Δ3-carene was predominant at the northern site. The relative composition of the emission of both species underwent changes in early spring and fall. Emission rates, normalized to temperature, were seen to vary diurnally with a maximum at midday, and seasonally with maxima in early May and October, and a summer maximum in June-July. The possible dependence of the emission rate on needle growth rate and other plant-physiological processes is discussed. A higher emission rate and different relative composition of the emission was seen to occur when the vegetation was wet, as compared to dry vegetation. The emission from the pine forest floor was seen to have a composition different from that of the crown and a seasonality of the rate similar to that of the crown. The ground emission could not be explained by sources in the litter or ground vegetation alone, and it is suggested that the root system of the trees is also an emission source. The emission rate from the pine forest floor was of the order of 30% of the crown emission. The July rate of emission from the crown of Scots pine, normalized to 20°C and averaged over four sites in Sweden, was 0.8 ± 0.4 μg (gdw (grams dry weight) h)-1, and for Norwegian spruce, 0.5 ± 0.7 μg(gdw h)-1. It would seem that previous regional and global estimates of hydrocarbon fluxes to the atmosphere have used emission factors which are

  1. Developing Electronic Cooperation Tools: A Case From Norwegian Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Mydske, Per Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Background Many countries aim to create electronic cooperational tools in health care, but the progress is rather slow. Objective The study aimed to uncover how the authoritys’ financing policies influence the development of electronic cooperational tools within public health care. Methods An interpretative approach was used in this study. We performed 30 semistructured interviews with vendors, policy makers, and public authorities. Additionally, we conducted an extensive documentation study and participated in 18 workshops concerning information and communication technology (ICT) in Norwegian health care. Results We found that the interorganizational communication in sectors like health care, that have undergone an independent development of their internal information infrastructure would find it difficult to create electronic services that interconnect the organizations because such connections would affect all interconnected organizations within the heterogenic structure. The organizations would, to a large extent, depend on new functionality in existing information systems. Electronic patient records play a central role in all parts of the health care sector and therefore dependence is established to the information systems and theirs vendors. The Norwegian government authorities, which run more than 80% of the Norwegian health care, have not taken extraordinary steps to compensate for this dependency–the government's political philosophy is that each health care institution should pay for further electronic patient record development. However, cooperational tools are complex due to the number of players involved and the way they are intertwined with the overall workflow. The customers are not able to buy new functionalities on the drawing table, while the electronic patient record vendors are not willing to take the economic risk in developing cooperational tools. Thus, the market mechanisms in the domain are challenged. We also found that public projects

  2. Genetic Variants Associated with Colorectal Adenoma Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Abulí, Anna; Castells, Antoni; Bujanda, Luis; Lozano, Juan José; Bessa, Xavier; Hernández, Cristina; Álvarez-Urturi, Cristina; Pellisé, Maria; Esteban-Jurado, Clara; Hijona, Elizabeth; Burón, Andrea; Macià, Francesc; Grau, Jaume; Guayta, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Background Common low-penetrance genetic variants have been consistently associated with colorectal cancer risk. Aim To determine if these genetic variants are associated also with adenoma susceptibility and may improve selection of patients with increased risk for advanced adenomas and/or multiplicity (≥ 3 adenomas). Methods We selected 1,326 patients with increased risk for advanced adenomas and/or multiplicity and 1,252 controls with normal colonoscopy from population-based colorectal cancer screening programs. We conducted a case-control association study analyzing 30 colorectal cancer susceptibility variants in order to investigate the contribution of these variants to the development of subsequent advanced neoplasia and/or multiplicity. Results We found that 14 of the analyzed genetic variants showed a statistically significant association with advanced adenomas and/or multiplicity: the probability of developing these lesions increased with the number of risk alleles reaching a 2.3-fold risk increment in individuals with ≥ 17 risk alleles. Conclusions Nearly half of the genetic variants associated with colorectal cancer risk are also related to advanced adenoma and/or multiplicity predisposition. Assessing the number of risk alleles in individuals within colorectal cancer screening programs may help to identify better a subgroup with increased risk for advanced neoplasia and/or multiplicity in the general population. PMID:27078840

  3. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS. PMID:27157689

  4. Norwegian words: A lexical database for clinicians and researchers.

    PubMed

    Lind, Marianne; Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Hansen, Pernille; Holm, Elisabeth; Mevik, Bjørn-Helge

    2015-04-01

    All words have properties linked to form, meaning and usage patterns which influence how easily they are accessed from the mental lexicon in language production, perception and comprehension. Examples of such properties are imageability, phonological and morphological complexity, word class, argument structure, frequency of use and age of acquisition. Due to linguistic and cultural variation the properties and the values associated with them differ across languages. Hence, for research as well as clinical purposes, language specific information on lexical properties is needed. To meet this need, an electronically searchable lexical database with more than 1600 Norwegian words coded for more than 12 different properties has been established. This article presents the content and structure of the database as well as the search options available in the interface. Finally, it briefly describes some of the ways in which the database can be used in research, clinical practice and teaching. PMID:25588015

  5. Enterobius vermicularis and allergic conditions in Norwegian children.

    PubMed

    Bøås, H; Tapia, G; Rasmussen, T; Rønningen, K S

    2014-10-01

    Studies investigating the association between Enterobius vermicularis and allergic conditions have shown conflicting results. This study was conducted to test for any such associations in Norwegian children. Parents were asked to answer questionnaires concerning their children's history of allergies, wheezing or eczema and pinworm infections. Current pinworm infections were diagnosed by microscopic examination of anal scotch tape samples. The data were analysed using logistic regression. Atopic eczema, allergy or wheezing was reported to be confirmed by a physician in 23% of the children (84/364). A possible association between current pinworm infections and food allergy was found, with 17·5% of children without food allergy testing positive for pinworms, compared to 36·8% of children with food allergy (odds ratio 2·9, 95% confidence interval 1·1-8·0). No association was found between past pinworm treatments and present atopic conditions. The association between current E. vermicularis infections and food allergy warrants further study. PMID:24331127

  6. Sounds produced by Norwegian killer whales, Orcinus orca, during capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Parijs, Sofie M.; Leyssen, Teo; Similä, Tiu

    2004-07-01

    To date very little is still known about the acoustic behavior of Norwegian killer whales, in particular that of individual whales. In this study a unique opportunity was presented to document the sounds produced by five captured killer whales in the Vestfjord area, northern Norway. Individuals produced 14 discrete and 7 compound calls. Two call types were used both by individuals 16178 and 23365 suggesting that they may belong to the same pod. Comparisons with calls documented in Strager (1993) showed that none of the call types used by the captured individuals were present. The lack of these calls in the available literature suggests that call variability within individuals is likely to be large. This short note adds to our knowledge of the vocal repertoire of this population and demonstrates the need for further studies to provide behavioural context to these sounds.

  7. Actual leisure participation of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-02-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in individual, structured parent interviews, and added to existing longitudinal data from a project following the sample. Generally, the leisure activity may be viewed as varying along a continuum-reaching from formal, organized, and assisted activity participation outside home, to informal, self-organized, and independent participation at home. Formal leisure activities were either organized "for all" or "adapted for disabled." The adolescents' leisure appears as active and social. However, social participation largely involved parents and family, while socializing with other adolescents mainly took place within formal activities adapted for disabled. Clearly, formal and informal activities provide rather different opportunities for social encounters and assistance. PMID:24515503

  8. Lidar investigations of phytoplankton distribution on the north Norwegian shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Babichenko, S.; Wassmann, P.

    1997-08-01

    The results of field studies of the small-scale spatial variability and seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton on the north Norwegian shelf are presented. The remote sensing has been carried out on board of RV {open_quotes}Jan Mayen{close_quotes} in May, June and September 1995. The tuneable lidar FLS-S based on excimer and dye-lasers has been used to measure the horizontal and vertical profiles of phytoplankton abundance. The data were collected in underway sensing along the tracks of 20 - 30 n.m. with horizontal spatial resolution of 100 m. In stratification measurements the lidar consistently sensed the water layers shifted to the depth with the step of 3 m.

  9. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F.; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS. PMID:27157689

  10. Ultrastructure of Frenkelia sp. from a Norwegian lemming in Finland.

    PubMed

    Laakkonen, J; Henttonen, H

    2000-04-01

    An apparently healthy Norwegian lemming (Lemmus lemmus) caught in northern Finland was observed to have a whitish body 0.5 to 1.0 mm in diameter in the external layer of the cerebral cortex. By light microscopy a highly lobulated cyst of Frenkelia sp. was observed. By transmission electron microscopy lemmus) collected in the cyst wall was seen consisting of a parasitophorous vacuolar membrane, an underlying electron-dense layer and a granular layer. The membrane was only slightly convoluted. The protrusions of the cyst wall appeared round but were often not distinctive. A very thin septum divided the interior of the cyst into compartments packed with bradyzoites and maturing zoites. The bradyzoites were elongate measuring 5-8 x 1.5-2 microm. This is the first electron microscopical study of Frenkelia sp. from L. lemmus. PMID:10813619

  11. Clinicopathologic Features of Colorectal Carcinoma in HIV-Positive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sigel, Carlie; Cavalcanti, Marcela S.; Daniel, Tanisha; Vakiani, Efsevia; Shia, Jinru; Sigel, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence suggests differences in colo-rectal cancer in HIV-infected patients (HIV+) compared with HIV− patients. Microsatellite instability (MSI), occurring in a subset of colorectal cancer, is present at a higher rate in certain cancers in HIV+ patients. Colorectal cancer with MSI share some characteristics with those reported for HIV+ colorectal cancer. On this premise, we studied clinical and pathologic features of HIV+ colorectal cancer and evaluated for MSI using matched HIV− colorectal cancer controls. Methods Two nested, matched cohorts were identified from a hospital-based cohort of colorectal cancer patients. HIV+ colo-rectal cancers were identified and random control patients were matched for selected characteristics. Mismatch repair protein (MMR) IHC was performed as the detection method for MSI. Variables were compared between cases and controls using fixed-effects logit modeling to account for matching. Results We included 184 colorectal cancer samples (38 HIV+, 146 HIV− control). Median patient age at colorectal cancer onset was 55. When compared with HIV− colorectal cancer, HIV+patients were more likely to have smoked (P = 0.001), have right-sided colorectal cancer (37% vs. 14%; P = 0.003), and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) above 50/10 high-power fields (21% vs. 7%). There was no difference in MMR protein expression (P = 0.6). HIV+ colorectal cancer patients had reduced overall survival (P = 0.02) but no difference in progression-free survival. Conclusions HIV+ patients developed colorectal cancer at a lower median age than population estimates, had a higher frequency of right-sided disease, and increased TILs, suggesting potential biologic differences compared with uninfected patients. Impact Clinicopathologic differences in colorectal cancer of HIV+ persons may have implications for tumor pathogenesis. PMID:27197294

  12. Local school policies increase physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Ellen; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Samdal, Oddrun

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The implementation of school policies to support the adoption of physical activity is one of the main strategies recommended to increase physical activity levels among this age group. However, documentation of the effect of such policies is so far limited. The purpose of this study was to explore policy-related practices to support physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools and their association with recess physical activity. Emphasis was given to examine the association between policies and physical activity, over and beyond, individual level interests and environmental factors and to examine cross-level interaction effects. This cross-sectional study was based on a nationally representative sample of Norwegian secondary schools and grade 8 students who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2005/06 study. The final sample comprised 68 schools and 1347 students. Data were collected through questionnaires. The results showed that schools with a written policy for physical activity and schools offering organized non-curricular physical activity several times a week had a higher proportion of students reporting daily participation in recess physical activity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis demonstrated a cross-level main effect of the policy index after controlling for sex, socio-economic status, individual-level interests and the physical environment. A significant contribution of adding the policy index to the prediction of recess physical activity above that provided by the individual-level interests and the physical environment was demonstrated. The results are encouraging and give scientific support to policy documents recommending the implementation of school policies to increase physical activity. PMID:19884244

  13. Norwegian Physicians’ Knowledge of the Prices of Pharmaceuticals: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Ida Iren; Melberg, Hans Olav; Bringedal, Berit

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to measure physicians’ knowledge of the prices of pharmaceuticals, and investigate whether there are differences in knowledge of prices between groups of physicians. This article reports on a survey study of physicians’ knowledge of the prices of pharmaceuticals conducted on a representative sample of Norwegian physicians in the autumn of 2010. The importance of physicians’ knowledge of costs derives from their influence on total spending and allocation of limited health-care resources. Physicians are important drivers in the effort to contain costs in health care, but only if they have the knowledge needed to choose the most cost-effective treatment options. A survey was sent to 1 543 Norwegian physicians, asking them for price estimates and their opinions on the importance of considering the cost of treatment to society as a decision factor when treating their patients. This article deals with a subsection in which the physicians were asked to estimate the price of five pharmaceuticals: simvastatin, alendronate (Fosamax), infliximab (Remicade), natalizumab (Tysabri) and escitalopram (Cipralex). The response rate was 65%. For all the five pharmaceuticals, more than 50% and as many as 83% gave responses that differed more than 50% from the actual drug price. The price of more expensive pharmaceuticals was underestimated, while the opposite was the case for less expensive medicines. The data show that physicians in general have poor knowledge of the prices of the pharmaceuticals they offer their patients. However, the physicians who frequently deal with a drug have better knowledge of its price than those who do not handle a medication as often. The data also suggest that those physicians who agree that cost of care to society is an important decision factor have better knowledge of drug prices. PMID:24040402

  14. Psychometric properties of a four-component Norwegian Organizational Justice Scale.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Olav Kjellevold; Myrseth, Helga; Eidhamar, Are; Hystad, Sigurd W

    2012-04-01

    Organizational justice has attracted attention as a predictor of employees' mental and physical health as well as commitment and work outcomes. The lack of a Norwegian translation of an organizational justice scale has precluded its use in Norway. Four dimensions of the organizational justice construct were examined in a Norwegian military context, including facet measures of distributional, interpersonal, and informational justice developed by Colquitt in 2001, in addition to procedural justice developed by Moorman in 1991. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a four-dimensional structure with good internal consistency. Follow-up analyses have suggested that the four dimensions were nested beneath a general, latent organizational justice factor. A positive relationship between organizational justice and self-sacrificial behavior was found, indicating satisfactory construct validity. The results demonstrate that the Norwegian Organizational Justice Scale is a reliable and construct-valid measure of organizational justice in a Norwegian setting. PMID:22662411

  15. Precancerous Lesions in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sandouk, Fayez; Al Jerf, Feras; Al-Halabi, M. H. D. Bassel

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer death in the world. The incidence rate (ASR) and age distribution of this disease differ between most of African-Middle-Eastern (AMAGE) and North America and Europe for many reasons. However, in all areas, “CRC” is considered as one of the most preventable cancers, because it might develop from variant processes like polyps and IBD in addition to the genetic pathogenesis which became very well known in this disease. We tried in this paper to review all the possible reasons of the differences in incidence and age between the west and AMAGE. Also we reviewed all the mutations that lead to the hereditary and familiar clustering of this disease with the correlations with the surrounding food and environment of different areas. Then, we focused on the precancerous pathology of this disease with special focusing on early detection depending on new endoscopy technology and most important genetic studies. We lastly reviewed the evidence of some of the surveillance and put suggestions about future surveillance programs and how important those programs are on the psychological aspect of the patients and their families. PMID:23737765

  16. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bardhan, Kankana; Liu, Kebin

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy. PMID:24216997

  17. Relationship between intestinal microbiota and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cipe, Gokhan; Idiz, Ufuk Oguz; Firat, Deniz; Bektasoglu, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract hosts a complex and vast microbial community with up to 1011-1012 microorganisms colonizing the colon. The gut microbiota has a serious effect on homeostasis and pathogenesis through a number of mechanisms. In recent years, the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and sporadic colorectal cancer has attracted much scientific interest. Mechanisms underlying colonic carcinogenesis include the conversion of procarcinogenic diet-related factors to carcinogens and the stimulation of procarcinogenic signaling pathways in luminal epithelial cells. Understanding each of these mechanisms will facilitate future studies, leading to the development of novel strategies for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of colorectal cancer. In this review, we discuss the relationship between colorectal cancer and the intestinal microbiota. PMID:26483877

  18. Treatment of peritoneal metastases from colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    März, Loreen; Piso, Pompiliu

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal seedings of a colorectal tumor represent the second most frequent site of metastasis (after the liver). In the era of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-only chemotherapy, the prognosis was poor for colorectal cancer with peritoneal metastases. Within the last few years, new chemotherapeutic and targeted agents have improved the prognosis; however, the response to these treatments seems to be lower than that for liver metastases. The combination of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy have further improved both disease-free survival and overall survival. Keeping this in mind, every patient presenting with peritoneal metastases from colorectal cancer should be evaluated and receive adequate treatment, if possible in the above-mentioned combination. This paper reviews recent advancements in the therapy of peritoneal carcinomatosis. PMID:26424828

  19. The stability of colorectal cancer mathematical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairudin, Nur Izzati; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2013-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. To better understand about the kinetics of cancer growth, mathematical models are used to provide insight into the progression of this natural process which enables physicians and oncologists to determine optimal radiation and chemotherapy schedules and develop a prognosis, both of which are indispensable for treating cancer. This thesis investigates the stability of colorectal cancer mathematical models. We found that continuous saturating feedback is the best available model of colorectal cancer growth. We also performed stability analysis. The result shows that cancer progress in sequence of genetic mutations or epigenetic which lead to a very large number of cells population until become unbounded. The cell population growth initiate and its saturating feedback is overcome when mutation changes causing the net per-capita growth rate of stem or transit cells exceed critical threshold.

  20. Tissue Specific Promoters in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rama, A. R.; Aguilera, A.; Melguizo, C.; Caba, O.; Prados, J.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. In the most advanced stages, the use of chemotherapy induces a poor response and is usually accompanied by other tissue damage. Significant progress based on suicide gene therapy has demonstrated that it may potentiate the classical cytotoxic effects in colorectal cancer. The inconvenience still rests with the targeting and the specificity efficiency. The main target of gene therapy is to achieve an effective vehicle to hand over therapeutic genes safely into specific cells. One possibility is the use of tumor-specific promoters overexpressed in cancers. They could induce a specific expression of therapeutic genes in a given tumor, increasing their localized activity. Several promoters have been assayed into direct suicide genes to cancer cells. This review discusses the current status of specific tumor-promoters and their great potential in colorectal carcinoma treatment. PMID:26648599

  1. Mini-invasive surgery for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wei-Gen; Zhou, Zhi-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic techniques have been extensively used for the surgical management of colorectal cancer during the last two decades. Accumulating data have demonstrated that laparoscopic colectomy is associated with better short-term outcomes and equivalent oncologic outcomes when compared with open surgery. However, some controversies regarding the oncologic quality of mini-invasive surgery for rectal cancer exist. Meanwhile, some progresses in colorectal surgery, such as robotic technology, single-incision laparoscopic surgery, natural orifice specimen extraction, and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, have been made in recent years. In this article, we review the published data and mainly focus on the current status and latest advances of mini-invasive surgery for colorectal cancer. PMID:24589210

  2. Ablative Therapies for Colorectal Polyps and Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Hochwald, Steven N.; Nurkin, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic techniques are gaining popularity in the management of colorectal polyps and occasionally superficial cancers. While their use is in many times palliative, they have proven to be curative in carefully selected patients with polyps or malignancies, with less morbidity than radical resection. However, one should note that data supporting local and ablative therapies for colorectal cancer is scarce and may be subject to publication bias. Therefore, for curative intent, these techniques should only be considered in highly select cases as higher rates of local recurrences have also been reported. The aim of this review is to explain the different modalities of local and ablative therapies specific to colorectal neoplasia and explain the indications and circumstances where they have been most successful. PMID:25089281

  3. [Norwegian scabies in a pediatric patient with Down syndrome, a case report].

    PubMed

    Mantero, Natalia M; Jaime, Lorena J; Nijamin, Tamara R; Laffargue, Jorge A; De Lillo, Leonardo; Grees, Susana A

    2013-12-01

    Norwegian (crusted) scabies is a rare and extreme manifestation of scabies that can be observed mainly among immunosuppressed patients. Due to the high number of scabies mites present in each lesion, crusted scabies symptoms are much more intense than in usual scabies and it is thus highly contagious. A case study of a child with Down syndrome and Norwegian scabies who shows a good response to a treatment combining keratolytics, emollients, ivermectin and topical scabicides is described. PMID:24196772

  4. Feeding Ecology of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel, Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring and Blue Whiting in the Norwegian Sea

    PubMed Central

    Bachiller, Eneko; Skaret, Georg; Nøttestad, Leif; Slotte, Aril

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring (Clupea harengus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus) are extremely abundant pelagic planktivores that feed in the Norwegian Sea (NS) during spring and summer. This study investigated the feeding ecology and diet composition of these commercially important fish stocks on the basis of biological data, including an extensive set of stomach samples in combination with hydrographical data, zooplankton samples and acoustic abundance data from 12 stock monitoring surveys carried out in 2005–2010. Mackerel were absent during the spring, but had generally high feeding overlap with herring in the summer, with a diet mainly based on calanoid copepods, especially Calanus finmarchicus, as well as a similar diet width. Stomach fullness in herring diminished from spring to summer and feeding incidence was lower than that of mackerel in summer. However, stomach fullness did not differ between the two species, indicating that herring maintain an equally efficient pattern of feeding as mackerel in summer, but on a diet that is less dominated by copepods and is more reliant on larger prey. Blue whiting tended to have a low dietary overlap with mackerel and herring, with larger prey such as euphausiids and amphipods dominating, and stomach fullness and feeding incidence increasing with length. For all the species, feeding incidence increased with decreasing temperature, and for mackerel so did stomach fullness, indicating that feeding activity is highest in areas associated with colder water masses. Significant annual effects on diet composition and feeding-related variables suggested that the three species are able to adapt to different food and environmental conditions. These annual effects are likely to have an important impact on the predation pressure on different plankton groups and the carrying capacity of individual systems, and emphasise the importance of regular

  5. Feeding Ecology of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel, Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring and Blue Whiting in the Norwegian Sea.

    PubMed

    Bachiller, Eneko; Skaret, Georg; Nøttestad, Leif; Slotte, Aril

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring (Clupea harengus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus) are extremely abundant pelagic planktivores that feed in the Norwegian Sea (NS) during spring and summer. This study investigated the feeding ecology and diet composition of these commercially important fish stocks on the basis of biological data, including an extensive set of stomach samples in combination with hydrographical data, zooplankton samples and acoustic abundance data from 12 stock monitoring surveys carried out in 2005-2010. Mackerel were absent during the spring, but had generally high feeding overlap with herring in the summer, with a diet mainly based on calanoid copepods, especially Calanus finmarchicus, as well as a similar diet width. Stomach fullness in herring diminished from spring to summer and feeding incidence was lower than that of mackerel in summer. However, stomach fullness did not differ between the two species, indicating that herring maintain an equally efficient pattern of feeding as mackerel in summer, but on a diet that is less dominated by copepods and is more reliant on larger prey. Blue whiting tended to have a low dietary overlap with mackerel and herring, with larger prey such as euphausiids and amphipods dominating, and stomach fullness and feeding incidence increasing with length. For all the species, feeding incidence increased with decreasing temperature, and for mackerel so did stomach fullness, indicating that feeding activity is highest in areas associated with colder water masses. Significant annual effects on diet composition and feeding-related variables suggested that the three species are able to adapt to different food and environmental conditions. These annual effects are likely to have an important impact on the predation pressure on different plankton groups and the carrying capacity of individual systems, and emphasise the importance of regular

  6. Norwegian petroleum resources with focus on challenges and opportunities in the Barents Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Aamodt, F.R.

    1995-12-31

    The Norwegian Continental Shelf can be subdivided into 3 different petroleum provinces: (1) the North Sea, (2) the Norwegian Sea including the Jan Mayen ridge, and (3) the Barents Sea including the islands of Svalbard. The majority of the fields and discoveries and most of the resources are located in the mature North Sea Basin. Significant resources are however also discovered in the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea. 39 fields are in production or decided to be developed while 3 fields are closed down. Approximately 70% of the discovered resources are located in these fields, of which some are gigantic in size (Statfjord, Ekofisk, Gullfaks, Oseberg, Troll and Snorre). Most of the remaining discoveries (134) are smaller in size and approximately 2/3 of the resources are gas. According to a recent study carried out by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate the expected undiscovered Norwegian Petroleum Resources are assessed to be on the order of 3,5 billion Sm{sup 3} o.e. with a level of uncertainty ranging from 2 to 6 billion Sm{sup 3} o.e. 40% of the undiscovered petroleum resources are expected to be found as oil. These are the perspectives of the Norwegian Petroleum Resources. The resources of the Barents Sea is included in this perspective. The significance of the Barents Sea resources is not particularly important in the short-medium term perspective, but will be important in the longer perspective.

  7. [Colorectal carcinoma in Cronkhite-Canada syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zügel, N P; Hehl, J A; Jechart, G; Tannapfel, A; Wienbeck, M; Witte, J

    2001-05-01

    We report a 63-year-old lady with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome, who developed colorectal cancer. A hemicolectomy was performed, and the tumor specimen was prepared for DNA-analysis and immunohistochemical screening. We found a mutation of p53 gene without APC- and ras-gene alteration and expression of erbB2-protooncogen. The polyps in non-hereditary Cronkhite-Canada-syndrom are neither adenomatous nor hyperplastic, but patients often develop colorectal cancers. The steps of mutation do not follow the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, first described by Vogelstein 1988. This and previous observations suggest that carcinogenesis in Cronkhite-Canada syndrome follows another independent sequence. PMID:11413916

  8. Promoting Colorectal Cancer Screening Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Christy, Shannon M.; Perkins, Susan M.; Tong, Yan; Krier, Connie; Champion, Victoria L.; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Springston, Jeffrey K.; Imperiale, Thomas F.; Rawl, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Provider recommendation is a predictor of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Purpose To compare the effects of two clinic-based interventions on patient–provider discussions about CRC screening. Design Two-group RCT with data collected at baseline and 1 week post-intervention. Participants/setting African-American patients that were non-adherent to CRC screening recommendations (n=693) with a primary care visit between 2008 and 2010 in one of 11 urban primary care clinics. Intervention Participants received either a computer-delivered tailored CRC screening intervention or a nontailored informational brochure about CRC screening immediately prior to their primary care visit. Main outcome measures Between-group differences in odds of having had a CRC screening discussion about a colon test, with and without adjusting for demographic, clinic, health literacy, health belief, and social support variables, were examined as predictors of a CRC screening discussion using logistic regression. Intervention effects on CRC screening test order by PCPs were examined using logistic regression. Analyses were conducted in 2011 and 2012. Results Compared to the brochure group, a greater proportions of those in the computer-delivered tailored intervention group reported having had a discussion with their provider about CRC screening (63% vs 48%, OR=1.81, p<0.001). Predictors of a discussion about CRC screening included computer group participation, younger age, reason for visit, being unmarried, colonoscopy self-efficacy, and family member/friend recommendation (all p-values <0.05). Conclusions The computer-delivered tailored intervention was more effective than a nontailored brochure at stimulating patient–provider discussions about CRC screening. Those who received the computer-delivered intervention also were more likely to have a CRC screening test (fecal occult blood test or colonoscopy) ordered by their PCP. Trial registration This study is registered at www

  9. Ewe characteristics associated with neonatal loss in Norwegian sheep.

    PubMed

    Holmøy, Ingrid H; Waage, Steinar; Gröhn, Yrjö T

    2014-06-01

    A case-control study was conducted to identify ewe characteristics that affect the risk of a ewe losing at least one lamb during the first 5 days post lambing. Data were from a national sheep registry, and only ewes that lambed in the spring of 2010 belonging to flocks that reported disease events were included. Ewes registered with abortion or stillbirth were excluded. Cases (n=4850) and controls (n=85,354) from 1153 flocks were studied using logistic regression models, accounting for within flock correlation. The odds of losing at least one lamb increased substantially when litter size exceeded two. For example, in 3-year-old ewes, the odds were 6 times greater for those with 3 lambs than for those with 1 lamb. However, the effect of litter size depended on the age of the ewe; for example for ewes giving birth to triplet lambs, the odds of losing at least one lamb were 2.7 times greater in 1-year-old ewes than in 3-year-old ewes. Dystocia was associated with increased risk of losing at least one lamb, but the effect varied by litter size. In ewes with single lambs, the odds of lamb loss were 5 times greater in those that experienced dystocia than in those that did not, while within subgroups of ewes with twins, triplets or >3 lambs, the corresponding odds ratio (OR) of losing one or more lambs was 2.2, 1.5 and 1.3, respectively. Compared with ewes of the Norwegian White breed, ewes of old Norwegian breeds were less likely to lose lambs (OR=0.8). We also examined the effects of several diseases experienced by the ewe during pregnancy or shortly postpartum on the risk of subsequent neonatal lamb loss. Significantly increased risk was found for ewes with abdominal hernia (OR=2.5) and for ewes treated for moderate to severe clinical mastitis (OR=1.6) when compared with ewes without these disorders. In conclusion, our large study population allowed for a detailed analysis of the combined effect of important ewe factors that affected survival of their lambs in the

  10. Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Lessons Learned, Future Possibilities.

    PubMed

    Venook, Alan P

    2016-05-01

    Survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer has dramatically improved over the past 20 years, primarily because physicians have become adept at using the many regimens approved for this patient population. Future advances may come from understanding molecular subtypes, finding and treating new actionable mutations, and harnessing the immune system. PMID:27226509

  11. Advanced endoscopic technologies for colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Obstein, Keith L; Valdastri, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in men and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Diagnosing colorectal has been increasingly successful due to advances in technology. Flexible endoscopy is considered to be an effective method for early diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, making it a popular choice for screening programs. However, millions of people who may benefit from endoscopic colorectal cancer screening fail to have the procedure performed. Main reasons include psychological barriers due to the indignity of the procedure, fear of procedure related pain, bowel preparation discomfort, and potential need for sedation. Therefore, an urgent need for new technologies addressing these issues clearly exists. In this review, we discuss a set of advanced endoscopic technologies for colorectal cancer screening that are either already available or close to clinical trial. In particular, we focus on visual-inspection-only advanced flexible colonoscopes, interventional colonoscopes with alternative propulsion mechanisms, wireless capsule colonoscopy, and technologies for intraprocedural bowel cleansing. Many of these devices have the potential to reduce exam related patient discomfort, obviate the need for sedation, increase diagnostic yield, reduce learning curves, improve access to screening, and possibly avert the need for a bowel preparation. PMID:23382621

  12. URINARY MUTAGENICITY AND COLORECTAL ADENOMA RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    We investigated urinary mutagenicity and colorectal adenoma risk in a clinic-based, case-control study of currently nonsmoking cases (n = 143) and controls (n = 156). Urinary organics were extracted by C18/methanol from 12-h overnight urine samples, and mutagenici...

  13. Local inflammatory response in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Łaskowski, P; Klim, B; Ostrowski, K; Szkudlarek, M; Litwiejko-Pietryńczak, E; Kitlas, K; Nienartowicz, S; Dzięcioł, J

    2016-06-01

    Type and intensity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in close proximity to the primary tumor are prognostically significant in postoperative patients. High intensity of TILs is considered to be a prognostically beneficial factor. The research included 66 postoperative colorectal cancer patients. The control group comprised 20 colon segments. Monoclonal antibodies LCA, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20, CD23 and CD138 were used to differentiate between T and B lymphocytes. Types of cells in the infiltrate were defined. We found greater numbers of T and B lymphocytes located in close proximity to the cancerous tissue when compared to the control group. T lymphocyte intensity in the inflammatory infiltrations was directly correlated with the size of resected tumors, presence of regional lymphatic node metastases and histological grade of malignancy. Lymphocytic infiltrations of greater intensity located in close proximity to the primary tumor were found in subjects with less advanced colorectal cancer. The research presented here proves direct dependence between the immune system and colorectal cancer. The presence of lymphocytes in the inflammatory infiltrations located in close proximity to the cancerous tissue has been proved to be prognostically beneficial. The obtained results support the application of immunotherapy in colorectal cancer treatment. PMID:27543872

  14. Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... getting colorectal cancer, followed by white, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI), and American Indian/Alaska Native ( ... white, Hispanic, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Asian/Pacific Islander women. Sources: CDC’s National Program of Cancer ...

  15. BK polyomavirus association with colorectal cancer development.

    PubMed

    Khabaz, M N; Nedjadi, T; Gari, M A; Al-Maghrabi, J A; Atta, H M; Basuni, A A; Elderwi, D A

    2016-01-01

    The development of human neoplasms can be provoked by exposure to one of several viruses. Burkitt lymphoma, cervical carcinoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma are associated with Epstein-Barr, human papilloma, and hepatitis B virus infections, respectively. Over the past three decades, many studies have attempted to establish an association between colorectal cancer and viruses, with debatable results. The aim of the present research was to assess the presence of BK polyomavirus (BKV) DNA and protein in colorectal cancer samples from patients in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia. DNA extracted from archival samples of colorectal cancer tissues was analyzed for BKV sequences using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. In addition, expression of a BKV protein was assessed using immunohistochemical staining. None of the tumor and control samples examined tested positive for BKV DNA in PCR assays. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining failed to detect viral proteins in both cancer and control specimens. These results may indicate that BKV is not associated with the development of colorectal adenocarcinoma in patients in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia. PMID:27173319

  16. Computed tomography evaluation of colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Scharling, E S; Wolfman, N T; Bechtold, R E

    1996-04-01

    Knowledge of the extent of primary colorectal carcinoma at initial diagnosis is critical for proper management of disease. Currently, CT does not have a role in screening for colorectal carcinoma, though promising work on virtual colonoscopy is on the horizon. In patients with proven colorectal carcinoma, accurate prospective noninvasive assessment can identify those who may benefit from preoperative local radiotherapy, hepatic resection or cryoablation, or intra-arterial chemotherapy. CT should be considered complementary to the clinical assessment of colorectal carcinoma and to other modalities, such as barium enema, endorectal ultrasonography, MRI, and immunoscintigraphy. Although limited in evaluation of the primary tumor and local spread, CT has proven useful in assessing patients thought to harbor extensive local or metastatic disease. CT is generally the modality of choice for imaging the postoperative patient. The cross-sectional display of CT clearly depicts the operative bed, particularly after abdominoperineal resection. Baseline examinations should be obtained 2 to 4 months after surgery, with follow-up examinations every 6 to 9 months for 2 years, and yearly studies thereafter. CT-guided biopsies should be performed when findings suggest recurrent carcinoma. PMID:8848730

  17. Nutrients Impact the Pathogenesis and Development of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wan; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is a commonly diagnosed cancer and the cause of many cancer deaths worldwide. Nutrients might be crucial in the pathogenesis and development of colorectal cancer. Although a number of studies have demonstrated the potential effects of nutrients, many challenges still remain Summary A tremendous amount of research has emerged concerning the roles of nutrients in colorectal cancer during the past decades. Here, we review the latest research progress on nutrients, including vitamins, folic acid, calcium, selenium and dietary fiber, involved in colorectal cancer prevention Key Message Nutrients are commonly consumed in foods or dietary supplements. It is clear that nutrients could play an important role and influence colorectal cancer outcomes. The relationship between nutrients and colorectal risk is complex. Vitamins, folic acid, calcium, selenium and dietary fiber have been proposed as potential agents to prevent colorectal cancer. However, some studies found that these nutrients did not reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer Practical Implications The supplementary dose of nutrients, the length of time required to observe the effects and confounding factors during the study might influence the role of nutrients in the prevention of colorectal cancer. Therefore, more evidence from ongoing clinical trials with different population groups and longer follow-up periods is critical to determine the relationship between nutrients and colorectal cancer. PMID:27403415

  18. Diet and supplements and their impact on colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pericleous, Marinos; Mandair, Dalvinder

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third commonest cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death among men and women. It has been proposed that dietary factors are responsible for 70-90% of colorectal cancer and diet optimization may prevent most cases. Aim To evaluate the role of dietary components and supplements in colorectal cancer. Methods Bibliographical searches were performed in Pubmed for the terms “diet and colorectal cancer”, “diet and colon cancer”, “diet and rectal cancer”, “nutrition and colorectal cancer”, “probiotics and colorectal cancer”, “prebiotics and colorectal cancer”, “alcohol and cancer” and “colorectal cancer epidemiology”. Results Consumption of processed or red meat, especially when cooked at high temperatures may be associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. The evidence for dietary fibre is unclear but foods that contain high amounts of fibre are usually rich in polyphenols which have been shown to alter molecular processes that can encourage colorectal carcinogenesis. Meta-analyses provide evidence on the benefits of circulating, diet-derived and supplemented, vitamin D and Calcium. We also found that diets rich in Folate may prevent colorectal carcinoma. The evidence on dietary micronutrients such as Zinc and Selenium in association with colorectal cancer is not conclusive. It has been suggested that there may be a direct association between alcohol intake and colorectal cancer. In vitro and in vivo studies have highlighted a possible protective role of prebiotics and probiotics. Conclusions The lack of randomized trials and the presence of confounding factors including smoking, physical activity, obesity and diabetes may often yield inconclusive results. Carefully designed randomized trials are recommended. PMID:24294513

  19. Integrated exploration study of Norwegian-Danish basin, northwestern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Joergensen, N.B.; Haselton, T.M.

    1987-05-01

    The Norwegian-Danish basin (NDB) extends from offshore Norway southeast through Denmark. This study, initiated by the Danish Energy Agency to evaluate hydrocarbon potential, consists of geophysical structural and stratigraphic mapping combined with geologic source rock and reservoir analysis. Approximately 25 wells and 15,000 km of seismic data were included. Formation of the NDB resulted from uplift of the Variscan foldbelt followed by subsidence of the foreland, i.e., the NDB and the North German basin. The Ringkoebing-Fyn High, a positive feature probably established in the late Precambrian and persisting to present, separates the basins, thus constituting the southern boundary of the NDB. Northeast the basin is bounded by the Fennoscandian shield and to the west by the North Sea graben system. Following deposition of Rotliegendes eolian and fluviatile sandstones, a major Late Permian marine transgression deposited up to 2000 m of evaporites and carbonates. Early Triassic regression resulted in thick red-bed deposits. Halokinesis commencing in the Upper Triassic dominated subsequent structural development. Continued subsidence led to deposition of Early Jurassic shelf mudstones overlain by deltaic sandstones. Rising seas during Late Cretaceous allowed widespread deposition of oceanic pelagic chalk. Early Paleocene wrench movements produced inversion. Basinal downwarping during the Tertiary was accompanied by progradation from the northeast. The complex tectonic history provides numerous different structural styles and a variety of depositional environments. To date only obvious structural features have been tested. This integrated basin study demonstrates that a number of other hydrocarbon plays remain to be explored.

  20. Cesium-137 body burdens in Norwegian Lapps, 1965-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Westerlund, E.A.; Berthelsen, T.; Berteig, L.

    1987-02-01

    Results of measurements of the whole-body contents of /sup 137/Cs during the period 1965-1983 in Lapps from the Kautokeino area in Norway are reported with measurements of /sup 137/Cs in reindeer meat during the period 1966-1983. By using available data on /sup 137/Cs in precipitation for the period 1950-1980, transfer coefficients from /sup 137/Cs in precipitation to reindeer meat have been assessed. A correlation between the /sup 137/Cs content in reindeer meat and the /sup 137/Cs content in Lapp reindeer breeders has been established. The average whole-body committed dose equivalent, H50, to the reindeer breeders from internally deposited /sup 137/Cs from intakes up to year 2000 was assessed to 13 mSv with a peak value of 30 mSv. In comparison, the corresponding committed dose equivalent to the Norwegian population from internally deposited /sup 137/Cs has been estimated to be about 1 mSv. The higher intake of /sup 137/Cs by reindeer breeders is due to the lichen-reindeer-man exposure pathway.

  1. Social Variations in Perceived Parenting Styles among Norwegian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elstad, Jon Ivar; Stefansen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented the associations between parenting and parenting styles and child and adolescent outcomes. Little is known, however, about the social structuring of parenting in contemporary Nordic welfare states. A possible hypothesis is that socioeconomic variations in parenting styles in present-day Norway will be small because of material affluence, limited income inequality, and an active welfare state. This study examines social variations in parenting as perceived by Norwegian adolescents (N = 1362), with a focus on four parenting style dimensions: responsiveness, demandingness, neglecting, and intrusive. Responsiveness seems to capture major divisions in parenting. Adolescents in families with fewer economic resources experienced their parents as somewhat less responsive, but responsiveness was not related to parents' education. Low parental education was on the other hand associated with perceptions of parents as neglecting and intrusive. Viewing parents as demanding did neither vary with parental education nor with family economy. Substantial variations in parenting styles persist in present-day Norway, and these variations correspond moderately with the families' placement in the social structure. Indicators of parenting and parenting styles may be useful indicators of some aspects of child and adolescent well-being. PMID:25132873

  2. Characteristics of Water Ingress in Norwegian Subsea Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    Water ingress represents one of the main challenges in subsea tunnelling, particularly when this occurs in sections with poor rock mass quality. This paper is discussing the main characteristics of water ingress in subsea hard rock tunnels based on the experience from almost 50 such tunnels that have been built in Norway. Following a brief description of the geological conditions and the basic design of the subsea tunnels, pre-construction investigations and investigations during excavation are discussed with particular emphasis on prediction of water ingress. Two cases with particularly difficult conditions; the Bjorøy tunnel and the Atlantic Ocean tunnel, are discussed in detail. In these cases, large water inflow with pressure of up to 2.4 MPa was encountered at major faults/weakness zones during excavation, and special procedures were required to cope with the problems. Based on the experience from the Norwegian projects, it is concluded that continuous follow-up by experienced engineering geologists, probe drilling with the drilling jumbo and pre-grouting where required are the most important factors for coping with water ingress and ensuring stability.

  3. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among Norwegian female biathlon athletes

    PubMed Central

    Østerås, Håvard; Garnæs, Kirsti Krohn; Augestad, Liv Berit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to examine musculoskeletal disorders in Norwegian female biathlon athletes (age ≥ 16), both juniors and seniors. The design was a retrospective cross-sectional study. In all, 148 athletes (79.1%) responded; of these, 118 athletes were 16–21 years (juniors) (77.6%), and 30 athletes were 22 years or older (seniors) (20.3%), and mean age was 19.1. A validated questionnaire was used to collect the data. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was 57.8%. The most affected parts were the knee (23.0% of the total injuries), calf (12.2%), ankle/foot (10.8%), lower back (10.8%), and thigh (10.1%). The disorders resulted in training/competition cessation for 73.5% of athletes, in alternative training for 87.8%. Fifty percent of the athletes had one or several musculoskeletal disorders. Most of the problems occurred preseason, and the duration of symptoms was often prolonged. Few differences between the juniors and seniors were found. This study showed the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems among female biathlon athletes. The results indicate that prevention of lower limb problems must be prioritized, especially during the preseason. PMID:24379711

  4. Nurse Competence Scale--psychometric testing in a Norwegian context.

    PubMed

    Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Nordström, Gun

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to test the construct validity of the Nurse Competence Scale. The Nurse Competence Scale has been used in hospital settings for various purposes in several countries. Despite this, confirmatory factor analyses are scarcely reported. The present study is based on re-analyses of data from 2007 (i.e. psychometric testing) and 593 newly graduated nurses working in various contexts were included. Confirmatory as well as exploratory factor analyses (Principal Component Analysis) were carried out. The original 7-factor model of the Nurse Competence Scale (73 items) was not confirmed. The exploratory factor analyses resulted in a Norwegian Nurse Competence Scale consisting of 46 items in the following competence categories: Planning and delivery of care, Teaching functions, Professional leadership, Research utilization and nursing values and Professional awareness. The results underline the needs for psychometric testing of an instrument after translation processes. The instrument is suitable for describing and comparing nurse competence for various reasons. It may also be helpful in creating competence development programs at an individual as well as at an organizational level. Further studies with a broader sample are recommended. PMID:25434831

  5. Diversity and Significance of Mold Species in Norwegian Drinking Water▿

    PubMed Central

    Hageskal, Gunhild; Knutsen, Ann Kristin; Gaustad, Peter; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Skaar, Ida

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine the occurrence, distribution, and significance of mold species in groundwater- and surface water-derived drinking water in Norway, molds isolated from 273 water samples were identified. Samples of raw water, treated water, and water from private homes and hospital installations were analyzed by incubation of 100-ml membrane-filtered samples on dichloran-18% glycerol agar. The total count (number of CFU per 100 ml) of fungal species and the species diversity within each sample were determined. The identification of mold species was based on morphological and molecular methods. In total, 94 mold species belonging to 30 genera were identified. The mycobiota was dominated by species of Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Aspergillus, with some of them occurring throughout the drinking water system. Several of the same species as isolated from water may have the potential to cause allergic reactions or disease in humans. Other species are common contaminants of food and beverages, and some may cause unwanted changes in the taste or smell of water. The present results indicate that the mycobiota of water should be considered when the microbiological safety and quality of drinking water are assessed. In fact, molds in drinking water should possibly be included in the Norwegian water supply and drinking water regulations. PMID:17028226

  6. Surgical quality in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Plummer, Joseph M.; Williams, Nadia; Leake, Pierre-Anthony; Ferron-Boothe, Doreen; Meeks-Aitken, Nicola; Mitchell, Derek I.; McFarlane, Michael E.; East, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the quality of surgical management offered to patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) as measured by adequacy of nodal resections and compare variations across the major hospitals in Jamaica. Method Data was obtained from the CRC Registry of patients diagnosed and treated surgically for CRC during the 3-year period commencing January 1, 2011. Variables analyzed included tumor site, stage and number of lymph nodes resected across hospitals. Results During the period under review 60% (349) of 586 patients had resections and formed the basis of this study. Of these 49% were treated at the UHWI, 27% from the KPH and STH, 15% from CRH and MRH and 8% from a private laboratory (DPS). Patient distribution was similar at UHWI compared to the others with mean age (61 vs 62) and with slightly more women having surgery (53% Vs 54%) (UHWI vs Others). For tumor grade, margin status, lymphovascular and depth of invasion (majority T3) there was no difference between UHWI and the other sites, although a smaller percentage of tumors treated at UHWI had Crohn's like reaction (p = 0.01). There was a larger proportion of sigmoid cancer at UHWI while the reverse trend was seen in cancers of the rectum (p = 0.027). The tumors treated at UHWI have a larger median number of regional nodes when compared to the other facilities (14 vs 10; p < 0.001) and also more likely to have positive nodes, as were women and younger patients. Comparison across facilities revealed that the proportion of tumors classed as well differentiated, circumferential margin involvement, and having lymphovascular invasion were higher for specimens processed at the private facility (p = 0.021, 0.035, 0.01 respectively). Histopathology reports of tumors treated at UHWI and DPS had median 14 and 18 nodes respectively while at NPH laboratory and CRH they were 9 and 10 respectively (p < 0.001), whilst those of the ascending, descending, sigmoid colon and rectum had median 15, 11, 13, 11

  7. Implementation Intentions and Colorectal Screening

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, K. Allen; Daley, Christine M.; Epp, Aaron; James, Aimee; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Geana, Mugur; Born, Wendi; Engelman, Kimberly K.; Shellhorn, Jeremy; Hester, Christina M.; LeMaster, Joseph; Buckles, Daniel; Ellerbeck, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low-income and racial/ethnic minority populations experience disproportionate colorectal cancer (CRC) burden and poorer survival. Novel behavioral strategies are needed to improve screening rates in these groups. Purpose To test a theoretically based “implementation intentions” intervention for improving CRC screening among unscreened adults in urban safety-net clinics. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting/participants Adults (N=470) aged ≥50 years, due for CRC screening, from urban safety-net clinics were recruited. Intervention The intervention (conducted in 2009–2011) was delivered via touchscreen computers that tailored informational messages to decisional stage and screening barriers. The computer then randomized participants to generic health information on diet and exercise (Comparison group) or “implementation intentions” questions and planning (Experimental group) specific to the CRC screening test chosen (fecal immunochemical test or colonoscopy). Main outcome measures The primary study outcome was completion of CRC screening at 26 weeks based on test reports (analysis conducted in 2012–2013). Results The study population had a mean age of 57 years, and was 42% non-Hispanic African American, 28% non-Hispanic white, and 27% Hispanic. Those receiving the implementation intentions–based intervention had higher odds (AOR=1.83, 95% CI=1.23, 2.73) of completing CRC screening than the Comparison group. Those with higher self-efficacy for screening (AOR=1.57, 95% CI=1.03, 2.39), history of asthma (AOR=2.20, 95% CI=1.26, 3.84), no history of diabetes (AOR=1.86, 95% CI=1.21, 2.86), and reporting they had never heard that “cutting on cancer” makes it spread (AOR=1.78, 95% CI=1.16, 2.72) were more likely to complete CRC screening. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that programs incorporating an implementation intentions approach can contribute to successful completion of CRC screening even among very low-income and

  8. New registry: National Cancer Patient Registry--Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wendy, L; Radzi, M

    2008-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is emerging as one of the commonest cancers in Malaysia. Data on colorectal cancer from the National Cancer Registry is very limited. Comprehensive information on all aspects of colorectal cancer, including demographic details, pathology and treatment outcome are needed as the management of colorectal cancer has evolved rapidly over the years involving several disciplines including gastroenterology, surgery, radiology, pathology and oncology. This registry will be an important source of information that can help the development of guidelines to improve colorectal cancer care relevant to this country. The database will initially recruit all colorectal cancer cases from eight hospitals. The data will be stored on a customized web-based case report form. The database has begun collecting data from 1 October 2007 and will report on its first year findings at the end of 2008. PMID:19230248

  9. Emerging role of vitamin D in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wonmo; Lee, Sujin; Jeon, Eunyi; Yun, Ye-Rang; Kim, Kook-Hyun; Jang, Jun-Hyeog

    2011-08-15

    Colorectal cancer is a common cancer and the fourth leading cause of death in Korea. The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer varies according to risk factors, such as age, family history, genetic history, food habits, and physical activities. Some studies have focused on the association between vitamin D and colorectal cancer. Today, there is growing evidence that high vitamin D intake and a plasma level of 25(OH)D(3) reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer by modifying cancer angiogenesis, cell apoptosis, differentiation, and proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest that vitamin D supplementation alone, or in combination with anti-cancer agents, might reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer. In this review, we discuss the function and mechanism of vitamin D including the effect of vitamin D on colorectal cancer. PMID:22007275

  10. Emerging role of vitamin D in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Wonmo; Lee, Sujin; Jeon, Eunyi; Yun, Ye-Rang; Kim, Kook-Hyun; Jang, Jun-Hyeog

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a common cancer and the fourth leading cause of death in Korea. The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer varies according to risk factors, such as age, family history, genetic history, food habits, and physical activities. Some studies have focused on the association between vitamin D and colorectal cancer. Today, there is growing evidence that high vitamin D intake and a plasma level of 25(OH)D3 reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer by modifying cancer angiogenesis, cell apoptosis, differentiation, and proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest that vitamin D supplementation alone, or in combination with anti-cancer agents, might reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer. In this review, we discuss the function and mechanism of vitamin D including the effect of vitamin D on colorectal cancer. PMID:22007275

  11. Colorectal Carcinogenesis, Radiation Quality, and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Kamal; Suman, Shubhankar; Kumar, Santosh; Fornace, Albert J

    2016-01-01

    Adult colorectal epithelium undergoes continuous renewal and maintains homeostatic balance through regulated cellular proliferation, differentiation, and migration. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway involving the transcriptional co-activator β-catenin is important for colorectal development and normal epithelial maintenance, and deregulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. Colorectal carcinogenesis has been linked to radiation exposure, and radiation has been demonstrated to alter Wnt/β-catenin signaling, as well as the proteasomal pathway involved in the degradation of the signaling components and thus regulation of β-catenin. The current review discusses recent progresses in our understanding of colorectal carcinogenesis in relation to different types of radiation and roles that radiation quality plays in deregulating β-catenin and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) for colorectal cancer initiation and progression. PMID:26819641

  12. Achievements of risk-based produced water management on the Norwegian continental shelf (2002-2008).

    PubMed

    Smit, Mathijs G D; Frost, Tone K; Johnsen, Ståle

    2011-10-01

    In 1996, the Norwegian government issued a White Paper requiring the Norwegian oil industry to reach the goal of "zero discharge" for the marine environment by 2005. To achieve this goal, the Norwegian oil and gas industry initiated the Zero Discharge Programme for discharges of produced formation water from the hydrocarbon-containing reservoir, in close communication with regulators. The environmental impact factor (EIF), a risk-based management tool, was developed by the industry to quantify and document the environmental risks from produced water discharges. The EIF represents a volume of recipient water containing concentrations of one or more substances to a level exceeding a generic threshold for ecotoxicological effects. In addition, this tool facilitates the identification and selection of cost-effective risk mitigation measures. The EIF tool has been used by all operators on the Norwegian continental shelf since 2002 to report progress toward the goal of "zero discharge," interpreted as "zero harmful discharges," to the regulators. Even though produced water volumes have increased by approximately 30% between 2002 and 2008 on the Norwegian continental shelf, the total environmental risk from produced water discharges expressed by the summed EIF for all installations has been reduced by approximately 55%. The total amount of oil discharged to the sea has been reduced by 18% over the period 2000 to 2006. The experience from the Zero Discharge Programme shows that a risk-based approach is an excellent working tool to reduce discharges of potential harmful substances from offshore oil and gas installations. PMID:21594986

  13. Circulating Non-coding RNA as Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferracin, Manuela; Lupini, Laura; Mangolini, Alessandra; Negrini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that colorectal cancer influences the types and quantity of nucleic acids - especially microRNAs - detected in the bloodstream. Concentration of circulating (cell-free) microRNAs, and possibly of other non-coding RNAs, could therefore serve as valuable colorectal cancer biomarker and could deliver insight into the disease process. This chapter addresses the recent discoveries on circulating microRNA and long non-coding RNA as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers in colorectal cancer. PMID:27573900

  14. Colorectal cancer prognosis: is it all mutation, mutation, mutation?

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, A B; Paraskeva, C

    2005-01-01

    For the 500 000 new cases of colorectal cancer in the world each year, identification of patients with a worse prognosis and those who are more likely to respond to treatment is a challenge. There is an increasing body of evidence correlating genetic mutations with outcome in tumours derived from human colorectal cancer cohorts. K-ras, but not p53 or APC, mutations appear to be associated with poorer overall survival in colorectal cancer patients. PMID:16099785

  15. The role of virtual colonoscopy in colorectal screening.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jay D; Chang, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The earlier colorectal cancer is detected, the better chance a person has of surviving 5 years after being diagnosed, emphasizing the need for effective and regular colorectal screening. Computed tomographic colonography has repeatedly demonstrated sensitivities equivalent to the current gold standard, optical colonoscopy, in the detection of clinically relevant polyps. It is an accurate, safe, affordable, available, reproducible, quick, and cost-effective option for colorectal screening and should be considered for mass screening. PMID:26298421

  16. Colonoscopy as a screening test for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Schapira, M; Adler, M

    2005-01-01

    Colonoscopy is the current gold standard for the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal neoplasms. Several gastroenterological and/or endoscopical societies recommend screening by colonoscopy in high risk patients for colorectal cancer whilst for average risk patients colonoscopy remains a valid option. In some countries screening colonoscopy is now covered by medical insurance. It is also the final common pathway of all colorectal cancer screening methods. This paper addresses the advantages and also limitations of colonoscopy as the first procedure for colorectal screening and emphasizes the importance of organized training and continuous assessment of competence of gastroenterologists and the necessity to have quality control audits of the endoscopy units. PMID:16013645

  17. Protective effect of dietary fibers against colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mia, M Abdur Razzaque; Siddiqui, M Nazrul Islam; Rukunuzzaman, M; Rahman, M Matiur; Deb, Kalpana

    2002-01-01

    Dietary fibers are remnant of plant cells resistant to hydrolysis by human alimentary tract enzymes. These are cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectins and gums. Intake of dietary fibers or foods rich in dietary fibers decreases the incidence of colorectal carcinoma. Reduced risk of colorectal carcinoma is reported when populations with diet high in red meat and total fats switched to a diet high in total fibers and certain whole grain, goods. Fibre intake is also inversely related to mortality from colorectal carcinoma. Beneficial influence of most vegetables and fruits against colorectal carcinoma is confirmed and this is due to their fibre contents. PMID:12148400

  18. Survival of patients with hereditary colorectal cancer: comparison of HNPCC and colorectal cancer in FAP patients with sporadic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bertario, L; Russo, A; Sala, P; Eboli, M; Radice, P; Presciuttini, S; Andreola, S; Rodriguez-Bigas, M A; Pizzetti, P; Spinelli, P

    1999-01-18

    Conflicting data exist on the prognosis of hereditary colorectal cancer. HNPCC patients, in particular, are often reported to have a better survival. We examined 2,340 colorectal-cancer patients treated in our Institution: 144 HNPCC patients (Amsterdam Criteria), 161 FAP patients and 2,035 patients with sporadic cancer. Data on hereditary-cancer patients treated between 1980 and 1995 was collected in a registry. The 2,035 sporadic colorectal-cancer patients (controls) included all new cases treated in the Department of Gastrointestinal-Tract Surgery during the same period. Observed survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cumulative survival probability was estimated at 5 years within each group and stratified by various clinical and pathological variables. The age distribution at diagnosis of sporadic patients was significantly higher than that of FAP and HNPCC patients (median 60 years vs. 43 and 49 years; p < 0.0001). In the HNPCC group, 40% had a right cancer location, vs. 14% in the FAP group and 13% in the sporadic-cancer group. In the sporadic group, 51% were early-stage cancers (Dukes A or B) vs. 48.4% and 52.1% in the FAP and HNPCC groups respectively. In the HNPCC, FAP and sporadic-cancer groups, the 5-year cumulative survival rate was 56.9%, 54.4% and 50.6% respectively. Survival analysis by the Cox proportional-hazards method revealed no substantial survival advantage for HNPCC and FAP patients compared with the sporadic group, after adjustment for age, gender, stage and tumor location. The hazard ratio for HNPCC was 1.01 (95% CI 0.72-1.39) and 1.27 (95% CI 0.95-1.7) for FAP patients compared with the sporadic-colorectal-cancer group. PMID:9935197

  19. Assessment Procedures of Norwegian PhD Theses as Viewed by Examiners from the USA, the UK and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyvik, Svein

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the assessment procedures of Norwegian PhD theses as viewed by external members of evaluation committees from three countries with different examination systems; the USA, the UK and Sweden. Their viewpoints give useful information not only on the pros and cons with the Norwegian system, but also on the strengths and…

  20. "Glocality" in Play: Efforts and Dilemmas in Changing the Model of the Teacher for the Norwegian National Framework for Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ødegaard, Elin Eriksen

    2016-01-01

    Norwegian society is becoming increasingly heterogeneous. In order to meet challenges and provide conditions for high quality kindergartens "The National Kindergarten Act" and the "Norwegian Framework Plan for Kindergartens" are under revision (period 2013 to 2016). A central challenge of this is how to formulate ideas that…

  1. Young People and the European Dimension in a Norwegian Context. Migration and National Critical Events as Challenges to Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeie, Geir

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the "European dimension" in a Norwegian context with focus on the relevance for young people in particular. Against a backdrop of literature discussing Norwegian majority self-understanding in relation to Europe, the article discusses some examples that are relevant for addressing the overall theme, namely recent…

  2. Hearing loss and tinnitus in rock musicians: A Norwegian survey.

    PubMed

    Størmer, Carl Christian Lein; Laukli, Einar; Høydal, Erik Harry; Stenklev, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    Our focus in this study was to assess hearing thresholds and the prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus in a large group of rock musicians based in Norway. A further objective was to assess related factors such as exposure, instrument category, and the preventive effect of hearing protection. The study was a cross-sectional survey of rock musicians selected at random from a defined cohort of musicians. A random control group was included for comparison. We recruited 111 active musicians from the Oslo region, and a control group of 40 nonmusicians from the student population at the University of TromsØ. The subjects were investigated using clinical examination, pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and a questionnaire. We observed a hearing loss in 37.8% of the rock musicians. Significantly poorer hearing thresholds were seen at most pure-tone frequencies in musicians than controls, with the most pronounced threshold shift at 6 kHz. The use of hearing protection, in particular custom-fitted earplugs, has a preventive effect but a minority of rock musicians apply them consistently. The degree of musical performance exposure was inversely related to the degree of hearing loss in our sample. Bass and guitar players had higher hearing thresholds than vocalists. We observed a 20% prevalence of chronic tinnitus but none of the affected musicians had severe tinnitus symptomatology. There was no statistical association between permanent tinnitus and hearing loss in our sample. We observed an increased prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in our sample of Norwegian rock musicians but the causal relationship between musical exposure and hearing loss or tinnitus is ambiguous. We recommend the use of hearing protection in rock musicians. PMID:26572701

  3. Norwegian farmers ceasing certified organic production: characteristics and reasons.

    PubMed

    Flaten, Ola; Lien, Gudbrand; Koesling, Matthias; Løes, Anne-Kristin

    2010-12-01

    This article examines the characteristics of and reasons for Norwegian farmers' ceasing or planning to cease certified organic production. We gathered cross-sectional survey data in late 2007 from organic farmers deregistering between January 2004 and September 2007 (n=220), and similar data from a random sample of farmers with certified organic management in 2006 (n=407). Of the respondents deregistering by November 2007, 17% had quit farming altogether, 61% now farmed conventionally, and 21% were still farming by organic principles, but without certification. Nearly one in four organic farmers in 2007 indicated that they planned to cease certification within the next 5-10 years. From the two survey samples, we categorised farmers who expect to be deregistered in 5-10 years into three groups: conventional practices (n=139), continuing to farm using organic principles (uncertified organic deregistrants, n=105), and stopped farming (n=33). Of the numerous differences among these groups, two were most striking: the superior sales of uncertified organic deregistrants through consumer-direct marketing and the lowest shares of organic land among conventional deregistrants. We summarised a large number of reasons for deregistering into five factors through factor analysis: economics, regulations, knowledge-exchange, production, and market access. Items relating to economics and regulations were the primary reasons offered for opting out. The regression analysis showed that the various factors were associated with several explanatory variables. Regulations, for example, figured more highly among livestock farmers than crop farmers. The economic factor strongly reflected just a few years of organic management. Policy recommendations for reducing the number of dropouts are to focus on economics, environmental attitudes, and the regulatory issues surrounding certified organic production. PMID:20702020

  4. Hearing loss and tinnitus in rock musicians: A Norwegian survey

    PubMed Central

    Størmer, Carl Christian Lein; Laukli, Einar; Høydal, Erik Harry; Stenklev, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    Our focus in this study was to assess hearing thresholds and the prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus in a large group of rock musicians based in Norway. A further objective was to assess related factors such as exposure, instrument category, and the preventive effect of hearing protection. The study was a cross-sectional survey of rock musicians selected at random from a defined cohort of musicians. A random control group was included for comparison. We recruited 111 active musicians from the Oslo region, and a control group of 40 nonmusicians from the student population at the University of Tromsø. The subjects were investigated using clinical examination, pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and a questionnaire. We observed a hearing loss in 37.8% of the rock musicians. Significantly poorer hearing thresholds were seen at most pure-tone frequencies in musicians than controls, with the most pronounced threshold shift at 6 kHz. The use of hearing protection, in particular custom-fitted earplugs, has a preventive effect but a minority of rock musicians apply them consistently. The degree of musical performance exposure was inversely related to the degree of hearing loss in our sample. Bass and guitar players had higher hearing thresholds than vocalists. We observed a 20% prevalence of chronic tinnitus but none of the affected musicians had severe tinnitus symptomatology. There was no statistical association between permanent tinnitus and hearing loss in our sample. We observed an increased prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in our sample of Norwegian rock musicians but the causal relationship between musical exposure and hearing loss or tinnitus is ambiguous. We recommend the use of hearing protection in rock musicians. PMID:26572701

  5. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database - a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliussen, H.; Christiansen, H. H.; Strand, G. S.; Iversen, S.; Midttømme, K.; Rønning, J. S.

    2010-10-01

    NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database, was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY). Its structural and technical design is described in this paper along with the ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, being the primary data providers of NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed. The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. The IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data is followed, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) standard. NORPERM is purely a temperature database, and the data is stored in a relation database management system and made publically available online through a map-based graphical user interface. The datasets include temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. All the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project is included in the database, totalling 32 temperature time series from boreholes, 98 time series of micrometeorological temperature conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual logging in boreholes. The database content will gradually increase as data from previous and future projects are added. Links to near real-time permafrost temperatures, obtained

  6. Triclosan Exposure and Allergic Sensitization in Norwegian Children

    PubMed Central

    Bertelsen, Randi J.; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Løvik, Martinus; Calafat, Antonia M.; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; London, Stephanie J.; Carlsen, Karin C. Lødrup

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to the synthetic antimicrobial chemical, triclosan, used in personal care products, has been hypothesized to lead to allergic disease. We investigated whether triclosan exposure was associated with allergic sensitization and symptoms in 10-year old Norwegian children. Methods Urinary concentrations of triclosan were measured in one first morning void from 623 children, collected 2001– 2004. Logistic regression models, controlling for urine specific gravity, parental allergic disease, maternal education, and household income, were fitted for allergic sensitization (either skin prick test positivity or serum specific IgE ≥0.35 kU/L to at least one of 15 evaluated inhalant and food allergens), current rhinitis, and current asthma (questionnaire and exercise challenge test). Results The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for allergic sensitization among those in the fourth quartile of triclosan concentration was 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 3.4) compared with the reference group (< the limit of detection) and the aOR per log10 unit increase in triclosan was 1.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.4). The aOR for current rhinitis was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.4) for the fourth quartile and 1.2 (95% CI:0.97, 1.4) per log10 unit increase in triclosan. Conclusion Triclosan concentrations were associated with allergic sensitization, especially inhalant and seasonal allergens rather thanfood allergens. Current rhinitis was associated with the highest levels of triclosan, whereas no association was seen for current asthma. These results are consistent with recent findings in other studies and provide additional evidence for an association between triclosan and allergy. PMID:23146048

  7. Comparative genomics of Enterococcus faecalis from healthy Norwegian infants

    PubMed Central

    Solheim, Margrete; Aakra, Ågot; Snipen, Lars G; Brede, Dag A; Nes, Ingolf F

    2009-01-01

    Background Enterococcus faecalis, traditionally considered a harmless commensal of the intestinal tract, is now ranked among the leading causes of nosocomial infections. In an attempt to gain insight into the genetic make-up of commensal E. faecalis, we have studied genomic variation in a collection of community-derived E. faecalis isolated from the feces of Norwegian infants. Results The E. faecalis isolates were first sequence typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and characterized with respect to antibiotic resistance and properties associated with virulence. A subset of the isolates was compared to the vancomycin resistant strain E. faecalis V583 (V583) by whole genome microarray comparison (comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)). Several of the putative enterococcal virulence factors were found to be highly prevalent among the commensal baby isolates. The genomic variation as observed by CGH was less between isolates displaying the same MLST sequence type than between isolates belonging to different evolutionary lineages. Conclusion The variations in gene content observed among the investigated commensal E. faecalis is comparable to the genetic variation previously reported among strains of various origins thought to be representative of the major E. faecalis lineages. Previous MLST analysis of E. faecalis have identified so-called high-risk enterococcal clonal complexes (HiRECC), defined as genetically distinct subpopulations, epidemiologically associated with enterococcal infections. The observed correlation between CGH and MLST presented here, may offer a method for the identification of lineage-specific genes, and may therefore add clues on how to distinguish pathogenic from commensal E. faecalis. In this work, information on the core genome of E. faecalis is also substantially extended. PMID:19393078

  8. Urinary Biomarkers for Phthalates Associated with Asthma in Norwegian Children

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, Karin C. Lødrup; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Håland, Geir; Mowinckel, Petter; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Løvik, Martinus

    2012-01-01

    Background: High-molecular-weight phthalates in indoor dust have been associated with asthma in children, but few studies have evaluated phthalate biomarkers in association with respiratory outcomes. Objectives: We explored the association between urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and current asthma. Methods: In a cross-sectional analysis, 11 metabolites of 8 phthalates [including four metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate] were measured in one first morning void collected from 2001 through 2004 from 623 10-year-old Norwegian children. Logistic regression models controlling for urine specific gravity, sex, parental asthma, and income were used to estimate associations between current asthma and phthalate metabolite concentrations by quartiles or as log10-transformed variables. Results: Current asthma was associated with both mono(carboxyoctyl) phthalate (MCOP) and mono(carboxynonyl) phthalate (MCNP), although the association was limited to those in the highest quartile of these chemicals. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for current asthma was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.0, 3.3) for the highest MCOP quartile compared with the lowest quartile, and 1.3 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.7) for an interquartile-range increase. The aOR for current asthma was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.2, 4.0) for the highest MCNP quartile and 1.3 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.7) for an interquartile-range increase. The other phthalate metabolites were not associated with current asthma. Conclusions: Current asthma was associated with the highest quartiles of MCOP and MCNP, metabolites of two high molecular weight phthalates, diisononyl phthalate and diisodecyl phthalate, respectively. Given the short biological half-life of the phthalates and the cross-sectional design, our findings should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:23164678

  9. [Norwegian front fighters 1940-1945, 50 years later. Experiences, strains, medical and social conditions].

    PubMed

    Stridsklev, I C

    1995-04-30

    The author describes a medical and social investigation of 181 Norwegian war veterans who served on the Eastern Front during World War II. To ensure representativity, special emphasis is placed on 76 Norwegians in 1st Company, Regiment Norge, as listed in January 1944. They have been interviewed about hardships during war service in the civil war in Spain and until spring 1945, during captivity in Russia, in other Allied forces' camps and in Norwegian camps and prisons after the war. Their medical and social status from 1940 until today has been studied. The "front fighters" are a heavily strained group. This is best illustrated by their death rates during the war and in the first years after the war. However, as a group, they have more resources than the general population, and have done comparatively well since the war, in spite of physical and social handicaps. PMID:7770837

  10. The impact of the Holocaust on the second generation: Norwegian Jewish Holocaust survivors and their children.

    PubMed

    Major, E F

    1996-07-01

    The entire population of Norwegian-born Jews who survived the German concentration camps and their children was examined, and compared to Norwegian-born Jews who escaped to Sweden, and their children. An attempt is made to look for the symptoms described as a "second generation syndrome" by several authors. The present findings do not support the presence of serious psychopathology among the children of Norwegian-born Jewish survivors as a group, but indicate a certain degree of psychological vulnerability among these children. As adults, they are more often engaged in health/social care professions and organizations and also show signs of greater assimilation to their non-Jewish surroundings than the comparison group. PMID:8827648

  11. Norwegian regulatory requirements related to the utilization of intelligent pigs in pipeline integrity monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Vestre, H.I.

    1996-08-01

    Since the first steps of the Norwegian Offshore Petroleum Industry were taken in the late sixties, several philosophies and generations of tools for pipeline integrity monitoring have been utilized. This paper presents and discusses the Norwegian Regulatory Requirements relevant for internal integrity monitoring of pipelines on the continental shelf. It is pointed out that, for several pipeline systems, the establishment of an internal baseline and subsequent inspections by intelligent pigs at intervals that are partly adjusted based on operational experience, is of vital importance in the continuous effort to maintain and develop the high availability of oil and gas through the Norwegian pipeline grid. It is also pointed out that the selection of philosophy and technology for integrity monitoring should include an evaluation of the continuous corrosivity of the transported products, the consequences of failures for personnel, the environment, the economic investment and the income of the society.

  12. BRAF Mutation in Colorectal Cancer: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Barras, David

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is still one of the deadliest cancer-related diseases. About 10% of CRC patients are characterized by a mutation in the B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) gene resulting in a valine-to-glutamate change at the residue 600 (V600E). This mutation is also present in more than 60% of melanoma patients. BRAF inhibitors were developed and found to improve patient survival; however, most patients at the end of the track ultimately develop resistance to these inhibitors. Melanoma patients benefit from the combination of BRAF inhibitors with mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitors, among others. Unfortunately, colorectal patients do not respond much efficiently, which suggests different resistance mechanisms between the two cancer types. This review aims at shedding light on recent discoveries that improve our understanding of the BRAF mutation biology in CRC. PMID:26396549

  13. Potential Targets for Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Temraz, Sally; Mukherji, Deborah; Shamseddine, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The step-wise development of colorectal neoplasia from adenoma to carcinoma suggests that specific interventions could delay or prevent the development of invasive cancer. Several key factors involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis have already been identified including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), survivin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Clinical trials of COX-2 inhibitors have provided the “proof of principle” that inhibition of this enzyme can prevent the formation of colonic adenomas and potentially carcinomas, however concerns regarding the potential toxicity of these drugs have limited their use as a chemopreventative strategy. Curcumin, resveratrol and quercetin are chemopreventive agents that are able to suppress multiple signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and hence are attractive candidates for further research. PMID:23975167

  14. Plasminogen activators in human colorectal neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Gelister, J S; Mahmoud, M; Lewin, M R; Gaffney, P J; Boulos, P B

    1986-01-01

    A crucial step in the transition from adenomatous polyp to invasive colorectal cancer is the degradation of the epithelial basement membrane. Plasminogen activators may play a part in regulating the extracellular protease environment necessary for this to occur. Both functional and antigenic activity of the two principal activators of plasminogen, tissue plasminogen activator and urokinase, were measured in 30 colorectal cancers, matched samples of mucosa, and eight adenomatous polyps. Both polyps (p less than 0.01) and carcinomas (p less than 0.001) had raised urokinase activities compared with normal mucosa, the activity being highest in the carcinomas. Activity of tissue plasminogen activator, however, was diminished in both polyps (p less than 0.01) and carcinomas (p less than 0.001) compared with normal mucosa, the values being lowest in carcinomas. Plasmin generation by urokinase--in contrast with tissue plasminogen activator--is fibrin independent and thus less subject to physiological control. Images p730-a PMID:3094628

  15. Ziv-aflibercept in metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Anuj; Sun, Weijing

    2014-01-01

    The combination of cytotoxic chemotherapy and antiangiogenic agents has become a conventional treatment option for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Ziv-aflibercept is a fusion protein which acts as a decoy receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-B, and placental growth factor (PlGF); it was approved in combination with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that is resistant to or has progressed after an oxaliplatin-containing fluoropyrimidine-based regimen. Herein we review the role of tumor angiogenesis as the rationale for antiangiogenic therapy, the clinical data associated with ziv-aflibercept, and its current role as a treatment option compared to other antiangiogenic agents, such as bevacizumab and regorafenib. PMID:24368879

  16. Gut Microbiota, Inflammation, and Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Caitlin A; Garrett, Wendy S

    2016-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and fourth-leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cancer is largely considered to be a disease of genetic and environmental factors, increasing evidence has demonstrated a role for the microbiota (the microorganisms associated with the human body) in shaping inflammatory environments and promoting tumor growth and spread. Herein, we discuss both human data from meta'omics analyses and data from mechanistic studies in cell culture and animal models that support specific bacterial agents as potentiators of tumorigenesis-including Fusobacterium nucleatum, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, and colibactin-producing Escherichia coli. Further, we consider how microbes can be used in diagnosing colorectal cancer and manipulating the tumor environment to encourage better patient outcomes in response to immunotherapy treatments. PMID:27607555

  17. COGENT (COlorectal cancer GENeTics) revisited

    PubMed Central

    Houlston, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Many colorectal cancers (CRCs) develop in genetically susceptible individuals most of whom are not carriers of germ line mismatch repair or APC gene mutations and much of the heritable risk of CRC appears to be attributable to the co-inheritance of multiple low-risk variants. The accumulated experience to date in identifying this class of susceptibility allele has highlighted the need to conduct statistically and methodologically rigorous studies and the need for the multi-centre collaboration. This has been the motivation for establishing the COGENT (COlorectal cancer GENeTics) consortium which now includes over 20 research groups in Europe, Australia, the Americas, China and Japan actively working on CRC genetics. Here, we review the rationale for identifying low-penetrance variants for CRC and the current and future challenges for COGENT. PMID:22294761

  18. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for colorectal neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Takamaru, Hiroyuki; Mori, Genki; Yamada, Masayoshi; Kinjo, Yuzuru; So, Eriko; Abe, Seiichiro; Otake, Yosuke; Nakajima, Takeshi; Matsuda, Takahisa; Saito, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an established therapeutic technique for the treatment of gastrointestinal neoplasms. Because it is typically completed as en bloc resection, this technique provides a complete specimen for precise pathological evaluation. On the other hand, ESD is not as widely applied in treating colorectal neoplasms as with gastric cancers, due to its technical difficulty, longer procedure time, and increased risk of perforation. However, some devices that facilitate ESD and improve the safety of the procedure have been recently reported, and the use of the technique has gradually spread worldwide. Endoscopists who begin to perform ESD need to recognize the indications of ESD, the technical issue involved in this procedure, and its associated complications. This review outlines the methods and certain types of devices used for colorectal ESD. PMID:25333002

  19. Ecosystem structure and resilience—A comparison between the Norwegian and the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaragina, Natalia A.; Dolgov, Andrey V.

    2009-10-01

    Abundance and biomass of the most important fish species inhabited the Barents and Norwegian Sea ecosystems have shown considerable fluctuations over the last decades. These fluctuations connected with fishing pressure resulted in the trophic structure alterations of the ecosystems. Resilience and other theoretical concepts (top-down, wasp-waste and bottom-up control, trophic cascades) were viewed to examine different response of the Norwegian and Barents Sea ecosystems on disturbing forces. Differences in the trophic structure and functioning of Barents and Norwegian Sea ecosystems as well as factors that might influence the resilience of the marine ecosystems, including climatic fluctuation, variations in prey and predator species abundance, alterations in their regular migrations, and fishing exploitation were also considered. The trophic chain lengths in the deep Norwegian Sea are shorter, and energy transfer occurs mainly through the pelagic fish/invertebrates communities. The shallow Barents Sea is characterized by longer trophic chains, providing more energy flow into their benthic assemblages. The trophic mechanisms observed in the Norwegian Sea food webs dominated by the top-down control, i.e. the past removal of Norwegian Spring spawning followed by zooplankton development and intrusion of blue whiting and mackerel into the area. The wasp-waist response is shown to be the most pronounced effect in the Barents Sea, related to the position of capelin in the ecosystem; large fluctuations in the capelin abundance have been strengthened by intensive fishery. Closer links between ecological and fisheries sciences are needed to elaborate and test various food webs and multispecies models available.

  20. Incidence of colorectal neoplasms among male pilots

    PubMed Central

    Moshkowitz, Menachem; Toledano, Ohad; Galazan, Lior; Hallak, Aharon; Arber, Nadir; Santo, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms (adenomas, advanced adenomas and colorectal cancers) among Israeli military and commercial airline pilots. METHODS: Initial screening colonoscopy was performed on average-risk (no symptoms and no family history) airline pilots at the Integrated Cancer Prevention Center (ICPC) in the Tel-Aviv Medical Center. Visualized polyps were excised and sent for pathological examination. Advanced adenoma was defined as a lesion >10 mm in diameter, with high-grade dysplasia or villous histology. The results were compared with those of an age- and gender-matched random sample of healthy adults undergoing routine screening at the ICPC. RESULTS: There were 270 pilots (mean age 55.2 ± 7.4 years) and 1150 controls (mean age 55.7 ± 7.8 years). The prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was 15.9% among the pilots and 20.6% among the controls (P = 0.097, χ2 test). There were significantly more hyperplastic polyps among pilots (15.5% vs 9.4%, P = 0.004) and a trend towards fewer adenomas (14.8% vs 20.3% P = 0.06). The prevalence of advanced lesions among pilots and control groups was 5.9% and 4.7%, respectively (P = 0.49), and the prevalence of cancer was 0.7% and 0.69%, respectively (P = 0.93). CONCLUSION: There tends to be a lower colorectal adenoma, advanced adenoma and cancer prevalence but a higher hyperplastic polyp prevalence among pilots than the general population. PMID:25083084

  1. N-glycosylation of Colorectal Cancer Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Balog, Crina I. A.; Stavenhagen, Kathrin; Fung, Wesley L. J.; Koeleman, Carolien A.; McDonnell, Liam A.; Verhoeven, Aswin; Mesker, Wilma E.; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Deelder, André M.; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide with an annual incidence of ∼1 million cases and an annual mortality rate of ∼655,000 individuals. There is an urgent need for identifying novel targets to develop more sensitive, reliable, and specific tests for early stage detection of colon cancer. Post-translational modifications are known to play an important role in cancer progression and immune surveillance of tumors. In the present study, we compared the N-glycan profiles from 13 colorectal cancer tumor tissues and corresponding control colon tissues. The N-glycans were enzymatically released, purified, and labeled with 2-aminobenzoic acid. Aliquots were profiled by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC-HPLC) with fluorescence detection and by negative mode MALDI-TOF-MS. Using partial least squares discriminant analysis to investigate the N-glycosylation changes in colorectal cancer, an excellent separation and prediction ability were observed for both HILIC-HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS data. For structure elucidation, information from positive mode ESI-ion trap-MS/MS and negative mode MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS was combined. Among the features with a high separation power, structures containing a bisecting GlcNAc were found to be decreased in the tumor, whereas sulfated glycans, paucimannosidic glycans, and glycans containing a sialylated Lewis type epitope were shown to be increased in tumor tissues. In addition, core-fucosylated high mannose N-glycans were detected in tumor samples. In conclusion, the combination of HILIC and MALDI-TOF-MS profiling of N-glycans with multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated its potential for identifying N-glycosylation changes in colorectal cancer tissues and provided new leads that might be used as candidate biomarkers. PMID:22573871

  2. Spatial Analysis of Colorectal Cancer in Iran.

    PubMed

    Pakzad, Reza; Moudi, Asieh; Pournamdar, Zahra; Pakzad, Iraj; Mohammadian-Hashejani, Abdollah; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Salehiniya, Hamid; Towhidi, Farhad; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers. Due to demographic changes, it is predicted that the incidence of this cancer will increase. Variations of its incidence rate among geographical areas are due to various contributing factors. Since there have been a lack of studies on this topic in our country, the present assessment of spatial patterns of colorectal cancer incidence in Iran was performed. In this ecological study, the new cases of colon cancer were extracted from Cancer Registry Center report of the Health Deputy of Iran in 2009. The reported incidences of the disease were standardized on the basis of the World Health Organization population and the direct method. Then the data were inserted into the GIS software, and finally, using the analysis of hot spots (Getis-Ord Gi) high-risk areas were drawn. Provinces that are higher or lower than the national average (1.9 SD) were considered hot spots or cold spots, significant at the level of 0.05. A total of 6,210 cases of colorectal cancer were registered in Iran in 2009, of which 3,727 were in men and 2,783 in women (age-standardized rates of 11.3 and 10.9 per 100,000 population, respectively). The results showed that in central and northern Iran including Isfahan, Qom, Tehran, Qazvin and Mazandaran significant hot spots in men were present (p <0.05). In women also we have high incidence in northern and central states: Mazandaran province (p<0.01) and the province of Tehran (p<0.05) had higher incidences than the national average and were apparent as significant hot spots. Analysis of the spatial distribution of colorectal cancer showed significant differences between different areas pointing to the necessity for further epidemiological studies into the etiology and early detection. PMID:27165208

  3. Colorectal Cancer with Uncommon Metastatic Spread

    PubMed Central

    Dellavedova, Luca; Calcagno, Anna; Roncoroni, Lucia; Maffioli, Lorenzo Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of bone metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) is quite low and the presence of isolated osseous metastases at the time of diagnosis or the onset of bone metastases without other organ involvement during follow-up is even lower. Here, we present an interesting case of diffuse skeletal metastases from CRC in which both the atypical presentation of the metastatic spread and the presence of infective comorbidities created some troubles in getting the final diagnosis. PMID:26420997

  4. [Current strategy in colorectal cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Lefter, L P; Dajbog, Elena; Scripcariu, V; Dragomir, Cr

    2005-01-01

    Screening programs should begin by classifying the individual patient's level of risk based on personal, family, and medical history, which will determine the appropriate approach for each subject. The individual's risk status determines when screening should be initiated and what tests and frequency are appropriate. To achieve these aims, care systems should establish standards and operating procedures. This review focuses on colorectal cancer screening methodology highlighting the latest available strategies. PMID:16610172

  5. Future of Minimally Invasive Colorectal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Whealon, Matthew; Vinci, Alessio; Pigazzi, Alessio

    2016-09-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is slowly taking over as the preferred operative approach for colorectal diseases. However, many of the procedures remain technically difficult. This article will give an overview of the state of minimally invasive surgery and the many advances that have been made over the last two decades. Specifically, we discuss the introduction of the robotic platform and some of its benefits and limitations. We also describe some newer techniques related to robotics. PMID:27582647

  6. No association between mitochondrial DNA copy number and colorectal adenomas.

    PubMed

    Thyagarajan, Bharat; Guan, Weihua; Fedirko, Veronika; Barcelo, Helene; Tu, Huakang; Gross, Myron; Goodman, Michael; Bostick, Roberd M

    2016-08-01

    Despite previously reported associations between peripheral blood mtDNA copy number and colorectal cancer, it remains unclear whether altered mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood is a risk factor for colorectal cancer or a biomarker for undiagnosed colorectal cancer. Though colorectal adenomas are well-recognized precursor lesions to colorectal cancer, no study has evaluated an association between mtDNA copy number and colorectal adenoma risk. Hence, we investigated an association between peripheral blood mtDNA copy number and incident, sporadic colorectal adenoma in 412 colorectal adenoma cases and 526 cancer-free controls pooled from three colonoscopy-based case-control studies that used identical methods for case ascertainment, risk factor determination, and biospecimen collection. We also evaluated associations between relative mtDNA copy number and markers of oxidative stress, including circulating F2 -isoprostanes, carotenoids, and fluorescent oxidation products. We measured mtDNA copy number using a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We used unconditional logistic regression to analyze the association between mtDNA copy number and colorectal adenoma risk after multivariable adjustment. We found no association between logarithmically transformed relative mtDNA copy number, analyzed as a continuous variable, and colorectal adenoma risk (odds ratio = 1.02, 95%CI: 0.82-1.27; P = 0.86). There were no statistically significant associations between relative mtDNA copy number and other markers of oxidative stress. Our findings, taken together with those from previous studies, suggest that relative mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood may more likely be a marker of early colorectal cancer than of risk for the disease or of in vivo oxidative stress. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26258394

  7. Colorectal cancer risk in hamartomatous polyposis syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme; Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world, and approximately 5% of them develop in a context of inherited mutations leading to some form of familial colon cancer syndromes. Recognition and characterization of these patients have contributed to elucidate the genetic basis of CRC. Polyposis Syndromes may be categorized by the predominant histological structure found within the polyps. The aim of the present paper is to review the most important clinical features of the Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes, a rare group of genetic disorders formed by the peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenil polyposis syndrome and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome (Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalacaba and Cowden Syndromes). A literature search was performed in order to retrieve the most recent and important papers (articles, reviews, clinical cases and clinical guidelines) regarding the studied subject. We searched for terms such as “hamartomatous polyposis syndromes”, “Peutz-Jeghers syndrome”, “juvenile polyposis syndrome”, “juvenile polyp”, and “PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome” (Cowden syndrome, Bananyan-Riley-Ruvalcaba). The present article reports the wide spectrum of disease severity and extraintestinal manifestations, with a special focus on their potential to develop colorectal and other neoplasia. In the literature, the reported colorectal cancer risk for Juvenile Polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndromes are 39%-68%, 39%-57% and 18%, respectively. A review regarding cancer surveillance recommendations is also presented. PMID:25848489

  8. Management of resectable colorectal lung metastases.

    PubMed

    Moorcraft, Sing Yu; Ladas, George; Bowcock, Anne; Chau, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Lung metastases occur in 10-20 % of patients with colorectal cancer. The biology of colorectal lung metastases is poorly understood, however lung metastases are more common in patients with rectal cancer and in patients with RAS mutations. Although the majority of patients have extrapulmonary disease, a small proportion of patients with lung metastases are suitable for lung metastasectomy and surgical resection has become a standard of care, based on data from retrospective series demonstrating a 5-year overall survival of 40-68 %. However, there remains uncertainty regarding the optimal management approach for these patients due to the lack of evidence from randomized controlled trials and current practice varies between institutions. For example, the role for neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy is not yet defined and there are no randomized trials comparing surgery with alternative treatment options such as radiofrequency ablation and stereotactic ablative radiotherapy. Further research is needed to improve the selection of patients for surgery, but favourable prognostic factors include a normal pre-operative CEA, solitary metastasis, complete resection and a long disease-free interval. There is also evidence that patients with resectable liver and lung metastases may benefit from resection of both sites of disease, and that re-resection may be of benefit in selected patients who relapse with resectable lung metastases. This article summarizes the biology of colorectal lung metastases and discusses the management of patients with lung metastases. PMID:26659389

  9. TNIK inhibition abrogates colorectal cancer stemness

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Mari; Uno, Yuko; Ohbayashi, Naomi; Ohata, Hirokazu; Mimata, Ayako; Kukimoto-Niino, Mutsuko; Moriyama, Hideki; Kashimoto, Shigeki; Inoue, Tomoko; Goto, Naoko; Okamoto, Koji; Shirouzu, Mikako; Sawa, Masaaki; Yamada, Tesshi

    2016-01-01

    Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling is essential for maintaining intestinal stem cells, and its constitutive activation has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. We and others have previously identified Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK) as an essential regulatory component of the T-cell factor-4 and β-catenin transcriptional complex. Consistent with this, Tnik-deficient mice are resistant to azoxymethane-induced colon tumorigenesis, and Tnik−/−/Apcmin/+ mutant mice develop significantly fewer intestinal tumours. Here we report the first orally available small-molecule TNIK inhibitor, NCB-0846, having anti-Wnt activity. X-ray co-crystal structure analysis reveals that NCB-0846 binds to TNIK in an inactive conformation, and this binding mode seems to be essential for Wnt inhibition. NCB-0846 suppresses Wnt-driven intestinal tumorigenesis in Apcmin/+ mice and the sphere- and tumour-forming activities of colorectal cancer cells. TNIK is required for the tumour-initiating function of colorectal cancer stem cells. Its inhibition is a promising therapeutic approach. PMID:27562646

  10. microRNAs and Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ress, Anna Lena; Perakis, Samantha; Pichler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of human cancer with high cancer-related morbidity and mortality rates. The development and clinical validation of novel therapeutic avenues have improved the clinical outcome, but metastatic CRC still remains an incurable disease in most cases. The interest in discovering novel pathophysiological drivers in CRC is intensively ongoing and the search for novel biomarkers for early diagnosis, for patient's stratification for prognostic purposes or for predicting treatment response are warranted. microRNAs are small RNA molecules that regulate the expression of larger messenger RNA species by different mechanisms with the final consequence to provide a fine tuning tool for global gene expression patterns. First discovered in worms, around 15 years ago it became clear that microRNAs are also existing in humans and that they are widely involved in human carcinogenesis. Within the last years, tremendous progress in the understanding of microRNAs and their role in CRC carcinogenesis has been developed. In this book chapter, several examples of previously identified microRNAs and how they influence colorectal carcinogenesis will be discussed. The information starting at the underlying molecular mechanisms towards clinical applications will be depicted and an overview what great potential these small molecules might carry in future colorectal cancer medicine, will be discussed. PMID:26658998

  11. Implications of preoperative hypoalbuminemia in colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Truong, Adam; Hanna, Mark H; Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Stamos, Michael J

    2016-05-27

    Serum albumin has traditionally been used as a quantitative measure of a patient's nutritional status because of its availability and low cost. While malnutrition has a clear definition within both the American and European Societies for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition clinical guidelines, individual surgeons often determine nutritional status anecdotally. Preoperative albumin level has been shown to be the best predictor of mortality after colorectal cancer surgery. Specifically in colorectal surgical patients, hypoalbuminemia significantly increases the length of hospital stay, rates of surgical site infections, enterocutaneous fistula risk, and deep vein thrombosis formation. The delay of surgical procedures to allow for preoperative correction of albumin levels in hypoalbuminemic patients has been shown to improve the morbidity and mortality in patients with severe nutritional risk. The importance of preoperative albumin levels and the patient's chronic inflammatory state on the postoperative morbidity and mortality has led to the development of a variety of surgical scoring systems to predict outcomes efficiently. This review attempts to provide a systematic overview of albumin and its role and implications in colorectal surgery. PMID:27231513

  12. TNIK inhibition abrogates colorectal cancer stemness.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Mari; Uno, Yuko; Ohbayashi, Naomi; Ohata, Hirokazu; Mimata, Ayako; Kukimoto-Niino, Mutsuko; Moriyama, Hideki; Kashimoto, Shigeki; Inoue, Tomoko; Goto, Naoko; Okamoto, Koji; Shirouzu, Mikako; Sawa, Masaaki; Yamada, Tesshi

    2016-01-01

    Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling is essential for maintaining intestinal stem cells, and its constitutive activation has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. We and others have previously identified Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK) as an essential regulatory component of the T-cell factor-4 and β-catenin transcriptional complex. Consistent with this, Tnik-deficient mice are resistant to azoxymethane-induced colon tumorigenesis, and Tnik(-/-)/Apc(min/+) mutant mice develop significantly fewer intestinal tumours. Here we report the first orally available small-molecule TNIK inhibitor, NCB-0846, having anti-Wnt activity. X-ray co-crystal structure analysis reveals that NCB-0846 binds to TNIK in an inactive conformation, and this binding mode seems to be essential for Wnt inhibition. NCB-0846 suppresses Wnt-driven intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(min/+) mice and the sphere- and tumour-forming activities of colorectal cancer cells. TNIK is required for the tumour-initiating function of colorectal cancer stem cells. Its inhibition is a promising therapeutic approach. PMID:27562646

  13. MTDH genetic variants in colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Gnosa, Sebastian; Ticha, Ivana; Haapaniemi, Staffan; Sun, Xiao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The colorectal carcinogenesis is a complex process encompassing genetic alterations. The oncoprotein AEG-1, encoded by the MTDH gene, was shown previously to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and the spectrum of MTDH variants in tumor tissue, and their relationship to clinicopathological variables in CRC patients. The study included tumors from 356 unselected CRC patients. Mutation analysis of the MTDH gene, including coding region and adjacent intronic sequences, was performed by direct DNA sequencing. The corresponding normal colorectal tissue was analyzed in the carriers of exonic variant to confirm germline or somatic origin. We detected 42 intronic variants, where 25 were novel. Furthermore, we found 8 exonic variants of which four, one missense (c.977C > G-germline) and three frameshift mutations (c.533delA-somatic, c.1340dupA-unknown origin, c.1731delA-unknown origin), were novel. In silico prediction analyses suggested four deleterious variants (c.232G > T, c.533delA, c.1340dupA, and c.1731delA). There were no correlations between the MTDH variants and tumor stage, differentiation or patient survival. We described several novel exonic and intronic variants of the MTDH gene. The detection of likely pathogenic truncating mutations and alterations in functional protein domains indicate their clinical significance, although none of the variants had prognostic potential. PMID:26983693

  14. Therapeutic strategy in unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tournigand, Christophe; André, Thierry; de Gramont, Aimery

    2012-01-01

    While surgery is the cornerstone treatment for early-stage colorectal cancer, chemotherapy is the first treatment option for metastatic disease when tumor lesions are frequently not fully resectable at presentation. Mortality from colon cancer has decreased over the past 30 years, but there is still a huge heterogeneity in survival rates that can be mainly explained by patient and tumor characteristics, host response factors, and treatment modalities. The management of unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer is a global treatment strategy, which applies several lines of therapy, salvage surgery, maintenance, and treatment-free intervals. The individualization of cancer treatment is based on the evaluation of prognostic factors for survival (serum lactate dehydrogenase level, performance status), and predictive factors for treatment efficacy [Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutation status]. The available treatment modalities for metastatic colorectal cancer are chemotherapy (fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, irinotecan), anti-angiogenic agents (e.g. bevacizumab), and anti-epidermal growth factor agents (cetuximab, panitumumab). The increasing number of active compounds dictates the strategy of trials evaluating these treatments either in combination or sequentially. Alternative outcomes that can be measured earlier than overall survival are needed to shorten the duration and reduce the size and cost of clinical trials. PMID:22423266

  15. Treatment of colorectal cancer in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Millan, Monica; Merino, Sandra; Caro, Aleidis; Feliu, Francesc; Escuder, Jordi; Francesch, Tani

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has a high incidence, and approximately 60% of colorectal cancer patients are older than 70, with this incidence likely increasing in the near future. Elderly patients (> 70-75 years of age) are a very heterogeneous group, ranging from the very fit to the very frail. Traditionally, these patients have often been under-treated and recruited less frequently to clinical trials than younger patients, and thus are under-represented in publications about cancer treatment. Recent studies suggest that fit elderly patients can be treated in the same way as their younger counterparts, but the treatment of frail patients with comorbidities is still a matter of controversy. Many factors should be taken into account, including fitness for treatment, the wishes of the patient and family, and quality of life. This review will focus on the existing evidence for surgical, oncologic, and palliative treatment in patients over 70 years old with colorectal cancer. Careful patient assessment is necessary in order to individualize treatment approach, and this should rely on a multidisciplinary process. More well-designed controlled trials are needed in this patient population. PMID:26483875

  16. Implications of preoperative hypoalbuminemia in colorectal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Adam; Hanna, Mark H; Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Stamos, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Serum albumin has traditionally been used as a quantitative measure of a patient’s nutritional status because of its availability and low cost. While malnutrition has a clear definition within both the American and European Societies for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition clinical guidelines, individual surgeons often determine nutritional status anecdotally. Preoperative albumin level has been shown to be the best predictor of mortality after colorectal cancer surgery. Specifically in colorectal surgical patients, hypoalbuminemia significantly increases the length of hospital stay, rates of surgical site infections, enterocutaneous fistula risk, and deep vein thrombosis formation. The delay of surgical procedures to allow for preoperative correction of albumin levels in hypoalbuminemic patients has been shown to improve the morbidity and mortality in patients with severe nutritional risk. The importance of preoperative albumin levels and the patient’s chronic inflammatory state on the postoperative morbidity and mortality has led to the development of a variety of surgical scoring systems to predict outcomes efficiently. This review attempts to provide a systematic overview of albumin and its role and implications in colorectal surgery. PMID:27231513

  17. Examining Convergence in the Cultural Value Orientations of Norwegians in the Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teague, Jennifer

    There is much debate in Norway as to whether Norwegian cultural values are being diluted by the increasing influx of international organizations. Little empirical work has been done to assess the effect of employment by international organizations on the cultural values of Norwegians. The aim of this study was to determine if individuals retain cultural values closest to their own nationality or the nationality of their employing organization. This objective was accomplished by comparing cultural value dimensions of Norwegians employed in organizations headquartered in one of five countries. Recruitment emails were sent to 612 possible participants and 160 individuals completed the survey completely, resulting in a sample size of N=160, a response rate of 26%. From the completed surveys, cultural dimension scores were calculated for each individual and group in the areas of power distance, individualism, masculinity, and uncertainty avoidance. Using those cultural dimension scores, three groups of one-way ANOVA tests were run in accordance with the parameters of each of three research questions. Comparing Norwegians employed in local government or a Norwegian oil and gas company, a significant difference existed only for uncertainty avoidance (p=.0074). Comparing cultural dimension scores of Norwegians employed in local government with those employed by one of four internationally-headquartered oil companies resulted in significant differences in scores for power distance (p=.0007), individualism (p=.0000), and uncertainty avoidance (p=.0000); however, there was not a statistically significant difference in masculinity scores between the two groups (p=.0792). Comparing cultural dimension scores of Norwegians employed in a Norwegian oil and gas company with those employed by one of four internationally-headquartered oil and gas companies also resulted in statistically significant differences in scores for power distance (p=.0015), individualism (p=.0000), and

  18. Scalar winds from SSM/I in the Norwegian and Greenland seas during Norcsex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, Per; Hubanks, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Data acquired with the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I) during the Norwegian Coastal Sea Experiment (Norcsex) in March 1988 have been utilized to estimate scalar winds in the Norwegian and Greenland Seas. The algorithm for calculating these winds was first developed for the Nimbus-7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) in order to investigate scalar winds during the Polar Lows Experiment in February 1984. The coefficients in this algorithm have been tuned to accommodate differences in the SSM/I and SMMR instruments.

  19. Improving colorectal cancer screening: fact and fantasy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dam, Jacques

    2008-02-01

    Premalignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such as Barrett's esophagus, long-standing ulcerative colitis, and adenomatous polyps, have a significantly increased risk for development of adenocarcinoma, most often through an intermediate stage of dysplasia. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is the second most common cancer in the United States. Because patients with colorectal cancer often present with advanced disease, the outcomes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Effective methods of early detection are essential. As non-polypoid dysplasia is not visible using conventional endoscopy, surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus and ulcerative colitis is performed via a system in which multiple random biopsies are obtained at prescribed intervals. Sampling error and missed diagnoses occur frequently and render current screening methods inadequate. Also, the examination of a tissue biopsy is time consuming and costly, and significant intra- and inter-observer variation may occur. The newer methods discussed herein demonstrate the potential to solve these problems by early detection of disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Conventional endoscopy is based on the observation of white light reflected off the tissue surface. Subtle changes in color and shadow reveal structural changes. New developments in optical imaging go beyond white light, exploiting other properties of light. Several promising methods will be discussed at this meeting and shall be briefly discussed below. However, few such imaging modalities have arrived at our clinical practice. Some much more practical methods to improve colorectal cancer screening are currently being evaluated for their clinical impact. These methods seek to overcome limitations other than those of detecting dysplasia not visible under white light endoscopy. The current standard practice of colorectal cancer screening utilizes colonoscopy, an uncomfortable, sometimes difficult medical

  20. NIH study finds sigmoidoscopy reduces colorectal cancer rates

    Cancer.gov

    Study finds that flexible sigmoidoscopy is effective in reducing the rates of new cases and deaths due to colorectal cancer. Researchers found that overall colorectal cancer mortality was reduced by 26 percent and incidence was reduced by 21 percent as a

  1. Colorectal cancer screening awareness among physicians in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Xilomenos, Apostolos; Mauri, Davide; Kamposioras, Konstantinos; Gkinosati, Athanasia; Zacharias, Georgios; Sidiropoulou, Varvara; Papadopoulos, Panagiotis; Chatzimichalis, Georgios; Golfinopoulos, Vassilis; Peponi, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Background Data comparison between SEER and EUROCARE database provided evidence that colorectal cancer survival in USA is higher than in European countries. Since adjustment for stage at diagnosis markedly reduces the survival differences, a screening bias was hypothesized. Considering the important role of primary care in screening activities, the purpose of the study was to investigate the colorectal cancer screening awareness among Hellenic physicians. Methods 211 primary care physicians were surveyed by mean of a self-reported prescription-habits questionnaire. Both physicians' colorectal cancer screening behaviors and colorectal cancer screening recommendations during usual check-up visits were analyzed. Results Only 50% of physicians were found to recommend screening for colorectal cancer during usual check-up visits, and only 25% prescribed cost-effective procedures. The percentage of physicians recommending stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy was 24% and 4% respectively. Only 48% and 23% of physicians recognized a cancer screening value for stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy. Colorectal screening recommendations were statistically lower among physicians aged 30 or less (p = 0.012). No differences were found when gender, level and type of specialization were analyzed, even though specialists in general practice showed a trend for better prescription (p = 0.054). Conclusion Contemporary recommendations for colorectal cancer screening are not followed by implementation in primary care setting. Education on presymptomatic control and screening practice monitoring are required if primary care is to make a major impact on colorectal cancer mortality. PMID:16756674

  2. Is height a risk factor for colorectal adenoma?

    PubMed Central

    Pyo, Jeung Hui; Hong, Sung Noh; Min, Byung-Hoon; Chang, Dong Kyung; Son, Hee Jung; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Jae J.; Kim, Young-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Although it is generally known that the risk for all types of cancer increases with adult height, combined and for several common site-specific cancers (including colon and rectal), evidence is limited for adenomas, which are precursors to colorectal cancer. We evaluated the association between height and risk of colorectal adenoma at various stages of the adenoma-carcinoma pathway. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using data from patients who had undergone a complete colonoscopy as part of a health examination at the Health Promotion Center of Samsung Medical Center between October 13, 2009 and December 31, 2011. A total of 1,347 male subjects were included in our study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between height and colorectal adenoma. Results: Each 5-cm increase in height was associated with 1.6% and 5.3% higher risks of advanced colorectal adenoma and high-risk colorectal adenoma, respectively, but associations were not significant after adjusting for age, body mass index, metabolic syndrome, alcohol intake, smoking, family history of colorectal cancer, and regular aspirin use (p = 0.840 and p = 0.472, respectively). Conclusions: No clear association was found between colorectal adenoma risk and height. Unlike other site-specific tumors reported to have a consistent relationship with height, the association between colorectal tumor and height remains controversial. PMID:26701232

  3. Colorectal cancer screening: The role of the noninvasive options.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Lisa; Varcak, Susan Combs

    2016-09-01

    Recommended screening options for colorectal cancer are divided into noninvasive stool-based options, and invasive procedure-based options. Because multiple screening strategies are effective, efforts to reduce deaths from colorectal cancer should focus on maximizing the number of patients who are screened. This article reviews noninvasive stool-based screening options. PMID:27575898

  4. Gut Microbiota and Colorectal Surgery: Impact on Postoperative Complications.

    PubMed

    Russ, Andrew J; Casillas, Mark A

    2016-09-01

    Colorectal anastomotic leakage is a dreaded complication after colorectal surgery and causes high morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of anastomotic healing remains unclear despite numerous studies. In this article, our aim is to provide different perspectives on what is known about the role of the gastrointestinal tract microbiome and its relation to anastomotic integrity. PMID:27582651

  5. [Colorectal cancer endometriosis resembling stenosing extrapelvic: report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Gallardo Arteaga, Josué; Marin Calderón, Luis; Barboza Beraun, Aurelio; Rivas Wong, Luz; Frisancho Velarde, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    We present two women of 40 and 42 years with colorectal endometriosis, both with a history of pelvic endometriosis and simultaneous episodes of rectal bleeding with menstruation. In endoscopic evaluations detected a sigmoid tumor and rectosigmoid tumor respectively, which apparently corresponds to stenosing colorectal cancer of epithelial origin. PMID:23307093

  6. Microbial quality and nutritional aspects of Norwegian brand waters.

    PubMed

    Otterholt, Eli; Charnock, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The microbiological quality of the five leading brands of Norwegian bottled still waters was investigated. All brands were free for the enteric indicator organisms and named pathogens whose absence is demanded in current quality directives. The relatively nutrient-poor agar R₂A revealed large heterogeneous bacterial populations which grew slowly, or not at all, on clinical media specified for use in substrate-utilization approaches to identification. The main approach used for identification was cultivation of microbes on R₂A, followed by amplification and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA genes. The identity of the heterotrophic plate count of the brands differed significantly to that found in many other similar studies with respect to the dominating species. The bacterial flora was dominated by beta- and alphaproteobacteria most of which were psychrotolerant. Several brands contained Sphingomonas and large populations of Methylobacterium species which have been associated with a variety of opportunistic infections of immunocompromised hosts. Analysis of the isolated strains' nutritional capabilities using the Biolog GN2® system, gave in most instances low positive scores, and strain identifications using the system were generally inconclusive. Measures of assimilable organic carbon in the water revealed that some brands contained levels higher than those which have been associated with biological stability and restricted or no growth of heterotrophs in distribution systems. The relationship between assimilable organic carbon and R₂A plate counts was significant and moderately positive for bottled waters. Assimilable organic carbon correlated strongly with the survival time of Escherichia coli when introduced into bottles as a contaminant. Those brands having high values (~100 μg/L) supported protracted survival, but not growth of E. coli, whereas E. coli quickly became nonculturable in brands with low values. Thus measures of assimilable organic carbon may

  7. Crustal structure from the Faroes Shelf to the Norwegian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, A. W.; White, R. S.; Kusznir, N. J.; Christie, P.; Roberts, A. M.; Isimm Team

    2003-04-01

    We show the crustal structure along a 400km seismic profile extending across a prime example of a volcanically rifted margin, from the Faroes shelf across the continent-ocean boundary northeast of the Faroe Islands, and 100km into oceanic crust of the Norwegian Sea formed immediately after continental break-up. 85 4-component OBS were used for the survey, giving wide-angle arrivals visible to beyond 120km offset. The survey was complemented by a 12 km Q-streamer profile along the same line. Integration of the normal incidence through wide-angle arrivals for the OBS and streamer data allow us to make a constrained velocity model through the active crust and into the upper mantle. We used a large airgun source comprising 14 guns with a total volume of 6,360 cu. in. towed at 20m depth. The resulting output was dominated by low frequencies (peak at 9Hz) to allow improved imaging through the basalts. A thickened oceanic crust is found, indicative of high temperatures caused by the Iceland mantle plume, and the presence of clear seaward dipping reflectors is evidence of extrusive lavas. Underplating is also inferred on the margin from the high seismic velocities in the lower crust. Academia and industry seek to understand magmatic margin evolution for its impact on deep water hydrocarbon prospecting. The NE Atlantic has been chosen as our research area because of its accessibility, wealth of related data and current exploration on the Atlantic margin. The iSIMM programme's long term goals are to characterise volcanically rifted margins and to develop theoretical models of the formation and subsidence of rifted margins. iSIMM investigators are: R.S. White (1), N.J. Kusznir (2), P.A.F. Christie (3), A.M. Roberts (4), N. Hurst (2), Z.C. Lunnon (1,3), C.J. Parkin (1), A.W. Roberts (1), L.K. Smith (1), R. Spitzer (1), V. Tymms (2), A. Davies (1), A. Surendra (1), with funding from NERC, Agip UK, BP, Amerada Hess Ltd., Anadarko, Conoco, Phillips, Shell, Statoil, and WesternGeco.

  8. Diversity and antifungal susceptibility of Norwegian Candida glabrata clinical isolates

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Kari-Mette; Kristoffersen, Anne Karin; Ingebretsen, André; Vikholt, Katharina Johnsen; Örtengren, Ulf Thore; Olsen, Ingar; Enersen, Morten; Gaustad, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of immunocompromised patients have resulted in greater incidence of invasive fungal infections with high mortality. Candida albicans infections dominate, but during the last decade, Candida glabrata has become the second highest cause of candidemia in the United States and Northern Europe. Reliable and early diagnosis, together with appropriate choice of antifungal treatment, is needed to combat these challenging infections. Objectives To confirm the identity of 183 Candida glabrata isolates from different human body sites using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and VITEK®2, and to analyze isolate protein profiles and antifungal susceptibility. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of seven antifungal drugs was determined for the isolates to elucidate susceptibility. Design A total of 183 C. glabrata isolates obtained between 2002 and 2012 from Norwegian health-care units were analyzed. For species verification and differentiation, biochemical characterization (VITEK®2) and mass spectrometry (MALDI–TOF) were used. MIC determination for seven antifungal drugs was undertaken using E-tests®. Results Using VITEK®2, 92.9% of isolates were identified as C. glabrata, while all isolates (100%) were identified as C. glabrata using MALDI-TOF. Variation in protein spectra occurred for all identified C. glabrata isolates. The majority of isolates had low MICs to amphotericin B (≤1 mg/L for 99.5%) and anidulafungin (≤0.06 mg/L for 98.9%). For fluconazole, 18% of isolates had MICs >32 mg/L and 82% had MICs in the range ≥0.016 mg/L to ≤32 mg/L. Conclusions Protein profiles and antifungal susceptibility characteristics of the C. glabrata isolates were diverse. Clustering of protein profiles indicated that many azole resistant isolates were closely related. In most cases, isolates had highest susceptibility to amphotericin B and anidulafungin. The results confirmed previous observations of high

  9. The importance of the macroscopic classification of colorectal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yasushi; Iwadate, Mineo

    2010-07-01

    The importance and prevalence of the superficial lesions in the colon and rectum caught worldwide public attention in 2008 when Soetikno and colleagues reported the prevalence of non-polypoid (flat and depressed) colorectal neoplasms in asymptomatic and symptomatic adults in North America and the public media disseminated their findings. The publication put to rest the question of whether or not the flat and depressed colorectal neoplasms exist in Western countries; flat and depressed colorectal neoplasms can be found throughout the world. In this article, the author highlights the importance of the macroscopic classification of the colorectal neoplasm and emphasizes the distinction between so-called flat lesions (IIa and IIb) and 0-IIc (superficial depressed) neoplastic colorectal lesions. PMID:20656244

  10. [Progress of endoscopic screening and differentiation of colorectal polyps].

    PubMed

    Gao, Xianchun; Liu, Jun; Ren, Hongyu

    2016-04-25

    The incidence of colorectal cancer is rising year by year, thus screening of neoplastic colorectal polyps is very important for the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. In recent years, endoscopic techniques have advanced dramatically, such as high definition endoscopy, magnified endoscopy, conventional or virtual chromoendoscopy. Some of these technologies not only can improve the adenoma detection rate, but also may help to enable real-time endoscopic diagnosis and thereby guide decisions about endoscopic resection. The second generation colon capsule endoscopy provides a new and relative reliable noninvasive tool for colorectal diseases screening and diagnosis. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review of advanced imaging techniques available for the detection and differentiation of colorectal polyps. PMID:27112483

  11. Perceived religiousness is protective for colorectal cancer: data from the Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study.

    PubMed Central

    Kune, G A; Kune, S; Watson, L F

    1993-01-01

    The perceived or self-reported degree of 'religiousness' was obtained by interview from 715 colorectal cancer patients and 727 age/sex matched community controls, as part of a large, comprehensive population-based study of colorectal cancer incidence, aetiology and survival (The Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study) conducted in Melbourne, Australia. Self-reported or perceived 'religiousness', as defined in the study, was a statistically significant protective factor [relative risk (RR) = 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.6-0.9, P = 0.002]. This statistically significant protection remained after the previously determined major risk factors found in the study, namely a family history of colorectal cancer, dietary risk factors, beer consumption, number of children and age at birth of the first child, were statistically corrected for (P = 0.004). There was no association between Dukes' staging of the cancer and perceived degree of 'religiousness' (P = 0.42). Although self-reported or perceived 'religiousness' was associated with a median survival time of 62 months compared with 52 months in those self-reporting as being 'non-religious', this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.64). PMID:8258800

  12. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer. The WHO Collaborating Centre for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Shike, M.; Winawer, S. J.; Greenwald, P. H.; Bloch, A.; Hill, M. J.; Swaroop, S. V.

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide. Epidemiological and laboratory animal studies have established a link between various nutritional factors and the etiology of this cancer. Recent studies in genetic epidemiology and molecular biology have shown that inherited genetic factors also play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Thus, genetic-nutritional interactions may form the basis for the development of this cancer. Nutritional factors that appear to promote or attenuate the carcinogenic process in the colon include fat, excess calories, fibre, calcium, selenium, and various vitamins. Strategies for primary prevention of colorectal cancer should therefore be targeted to all populations who are at risk because of dietary and hereditary predisposition. Based on current knowledge, recommended nutrition guidelines for reducing the risk of colon cancer include decreased fat consumption, adequate amounts of fruits, vegetables, and calcium, and avoidance of overweight. Research to further elucidate the role of diet in colorectal carcinogenesis should include randomized studies in humans, testing of various nutritional regimens, and the use of colonic adenomas and markers of cell proliferation and differentiation as end-points. PMID:2203551

  13. [Clinicopathological characteristics of colorectal carcinoma in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Tao, Kaixiong; Gao, Jinbo; Wang, Guobin

    2016-05-01

    Elderly patients with colorectal cancer have different clincopathological characteristics from younger patients. Colorectal cancers tend to localize in the proximal colon, from cecum to the splenic flexure in the elderly patients. Changes in the stools, rectal bleeding or black stool, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss and anemia are the common symptoms. Analysis showed that age is one of independent risk factors for lower completion rates of colonoscopy. Therefore, the choice of diagnosis methods in elderly patients should be careful. Achieving a clear diagnosis and avoiding complications should be considered at the same time. Most colorectal cancers in elderly are highly and moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas and locally advanced, and have less lymphatic and blood metastasis. The proportion of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma increases with the increase of age, which should be concerned. Multiple colorectal cancers and colorectal cancer with extra-colorectal malignancy are not rare in the elderly patients. The common extra-colorectal tumors consist of gastric cancer, lung cancer, biliary carcinoma, pancreas cancer and malignancy from blood system. Molecular events, such as mutations of KARS, BRAF, TP53 and deficiency of DNA mismatch repair, are more frequent in elderly colorectal cancer patients. Many factors have impact on treatment decision in elderly patients with colorectal cancer, including age, comorbidities, physiological functions of organs and willingness of patients and their relatives. Although surgery is still the main treatment, the proportion of radical surgery is lower and emergency surgery is higher as compared to younger patients. With the development of minimally invasive surgical techniques and advances in anesthesia and perioperative management, laparoscopic surgery has become widespread in elderly patients with colorectal cancer. In addition, more attention should be paid to adjuvant therapy. Comprehensive individualized

  14. Better mental health in children of Vietnamese refugees compared with their Norwegian peers - a matter of cultural difference?

    PubMed Central

    Vaage, Aina Basilier; Tingvold, Laila; Hauff, Edvard; Van Ta, Thong; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2009-01-01

    Background There are conflicting results on whether immigrant children are at a heightened risk of mental health problems compared with native youth in the resettlement country. The objective of the study To compare the mental health of 94 Norwegian-born children from a community cohort of Vietnamese refugees, aged 4 - 18 years, with that of a Norwegian community sample. Methods The SDQ was completed by two types of informants; the children's self-reports, and the parents' reports, for comparison with Norwegian data from the Health Profiles for Children and Youth in the Akershus study. Results The self-perceived mental health of second-generation Vietnamese in Norway was better than that of their Norwegian compatriots, as assessed by the SDQ. In the Norwegian-Vietnamese group, both children and parents reported a higher level of functioning. Conclusion This surprising finding may result from the lower prevalence of mental distress in Norwegian-Vietnamese children compared with their Norwegian peers, or from biased reports and cultural differences in reporting emotional and behavioural problems. These findings may represent the positive results of the children's bi-cultural competencies. PMID:19845965

  15. The Norwegian Regional College System in the Context of Decentralization Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanisch, Thor Einar

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses efforts being made in Norway to decentralize policy decision making, allowing greater regional participation in educational policymaking. As an outcome of this process, the Norwegian Regional College System aims at achieving equal access to education, diffusing educational resources, and contributing to the cultural and…

  16. Do You /Ond 'taend? An Error Analysis of Norwegian Students' Pronunciation of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Thor Sigurd

    This preliminary report of an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) pronunciation test carried out at Telemark College in Norway is first of all a description of the difficulties Norwegian students have with regard to the pronunciation of Received Pronunciation (RP) vowels and consonants. An attempt also is made to predict areas of possible…

  17. The Role of Peer Review in Norwegian Quality Assurance: Potential Consequences for Excellence and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langfeldt, Liv; Stensaker, Bjorn; Harvey, Lee; Huisman, Jeroen; Westerheijden, Don F.

    2010-01-01

    The article analyses the role of peer review within broader external quality assurance schemes. Based on an analytical framework emphasising that modern quality assurance schemes are designed as a balancing act between standardised guidelines and professional judgement, the article uses data from a recent evaluation of NOKUT, the Norwegian Quality…

  18. Text Interpretation and Educational Design in Norwegian Textbooks of Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vestøl, Jon Magne

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on sociocultural perspectives on educational design, this article presents a qualitative study investigating how religious texts emerge as educational objects and mediating artefacts in Norwegian textbooks of religious and moral education. The article describes how the distribution of text references in textbooks influences the formation…

  19. The Newly Qualified Teacher: A Leader and a Professional? A Norwegian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimsath, Gerd; Nordvik, Grete; Bergsvik, Eli

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on a Norwegian study. The focus is two-fold, including the views of both new teachers and leaders on the issue of leadership and professionalism. First, the focus is on the way newly qualified teachers describe how they function in the school and kindergarten organizations. The discussion explores how new teachers' meetings…

  20. Learning-Conducive Work: A Survey of Learning Conditions in Norwegian Workplaces. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skule, Sveinung; Reichborn, Anders N.; Leren, Iver Jan, Ed.

    In this report, learning conditions in Norwegian workplaces were examined to identify ways of making workplaces more conducive to learning. Data were collected through interviews in 11 firms and a questionnaire survey of 1,300 private sector and 200 public sector employees. Opportunities to learn through work varied widely. Older women with little…

  1. No Place: Small Children in Norwegian Asylum-Seeker Reception Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeberg, Marie Louise; Bagge, Cecilie; Enger, Truls Andre

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on empirical material from fieldwork among young children living with their families in two Norwegian reception centres for asylum-seekers, this article compares their realities to the norms and realities for other children in Norway. Children's spatial and social situations within the centres stand out in stark contrast to Norwegian…

  2. Love It or Leave It: Norwegian Students' Motivations and Expectations for Postcompulsory Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Maria Vetleseter; Henriksen, Ellen Karoline

    2013-01-01

    In response to insufficient participation and female underrepresentation in physics education, this article uses questionnaire data from Norwegian physics students in upper secondary ("N" = 585) and first-year tertiary ("N" = 278) education to characterize the "physics choosers." An expectancy-value perspective is…

  3. Study Programmes for Engineers from Developing Countries at the Norwegian Institute of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasson, Axel; Hermansen, John

    1989-01-01

    Describes the background of the study and fellowship programs for graduates from the developing countries at the Norwegian Institute of Technology. Discusses some experiences with the programs. Includes a brief description of five courses: (1) "Pulp and Paper Technology"; (2) "Marine Civil Engineering"; (3) "Hydropower Development"; (4) "Electric…

  4. Increasing Completion Rates in Norwegian Doctoral Training: Multiple Causes for Efficiency Improvements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyvik, Svein; Olsen, Terje Bruen

    2014-01-01

    This article examines changes in completion rates and time-to-degree in Norwegian doctoral training over the last 30 years. A steadily increasing share of doctoral candidates holding a fellowship have been awarded their doctoral degree within five years; from 30% of those admitted in 1980 to 60% of those admitted 25 years later. Furthermore, the…

  5. Social Influence, Health Variables and Criminal Behaviours Associated with Substance Use among Rural Norwegian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordfjaern, Trond; Dahl, Hilde; Flemmen, Grete

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To investigate social influence, health, criminality and substance use in a sample of 1288 Norwegian rural adolescents. Relations between these factors and substance use were examined. Methods: Data were obtained from the "UngData" study. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among adolescents (n = 740) in nine secondary…

  6. Translating Knowledge into Action at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Trine; Francis, Charles; Pederson, Kristin; Lieblein, Geir; Rahman, Md. Hafizur

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores the impacts of action learning on graduates' abilities to use interdisciplinary knowledge to solve problems, practice teamwork on the job and become change agents through study in two MSc programmes at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB). Design/methodology/approach: Electronic questionnaires were…

  7. National Assessment of Writing Proficiency among Norwegian Students in Compulsory Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasting, Rolf B.; Thygesen, Ragnar; Berge, Kjell Lars; Evensen, Lars Sigfred; Vagle, Wenche

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports and discusses a government-initiated nationwide assessment of writing proficiency among Norwegian compulsory school students. A sample-study of 7th and 10th grade students are discussed and reported with regard to challenges in measuring writing skills in a valid and reliable manner. For the 7th graders the results showed a…

  8. Allocating Time Resources for Research between Academic Staff: The Case of Norwegian University Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyvik, Svein

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore how time resources for research are allocated among academic staff members in institutions where research qualifications differ much between individuals. Norwegian university colleges are used as a case. These resources, which can be regarded as scarce goods, are of two kinds: the share of working hours…

  9. Revisiting Instructional and Transformational Leadership: The Contemporary Norwegian Context of School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aas, Marit; Brandmo, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the taxonomy of two conceptual models of leadership roles for principals--instructional and transformational leadership (IL and TL)--can be traced empirically in a sample of Norwegian school leaders. Design/methodology/approach: The participants consisted of 149 school leaders attending a…

  10. Included as Excluded and Excluded as Included: Minority Language Pupils in Norwegian Inclusion Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilt, Line Torbjørnsen

    2015-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of four Norwegian policy documents on inclusion of minority language pupils. The main concepts of this policy will be reconstructed and re-described, applying Niklas Luhmann's systems theory at different levels of the analysis. Luhmann's theory about society as a conglomerate of self-referential social…

  11. Evaluation of the Norwegian Manifesto against Bullying, 2002-2004. A Summary of the Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikkanen, Tarja I.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarises the main results of the research-based evaluation of the Norwegian Manifesto against bullying. Besides schools, the evaluation was to include bullying also in kindergartens and publicly organised leisure activities. Furthermore, the work in Manifesto was to be covered on national, regional and local levels. The goal setting…

  12. Communication about Contraception and Knowledge of Oral Contraceptives amongst Norwegian High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2003-01-01

    Examines communication about contraception and specific knowledge of oral contraceptives (OCs) in a sample of Norwegian high school students. More females than males discussed contraception at least monthly. Discussions were predominantly held with peers and not adults. Females were far more knowledgeable about OCs than males. The most significant…

  13. Subsea template, pipeline anchor Troll-Oseberg gas-injection scheme in Norwegian North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Weibye, B.S.

    1988-01-18

    The author discusses the subsea, gas production template and the 30-mile pipeline that are key elements in supplying as from the Troll field for injection into Oseberg field in the Norwegian North Sea by 1991. The author discusses the design basis and philosophies as well as the production system, template installation and control pods.

  14. Prediction of Attitudes towards Child Sexual Abuse among Three Different Norwegian Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennfjord, Oddfrid Skorpe

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to reveal attitudes towards child sexual abuse and investigate predictors of such attitudes. A random sample of the Norwegian adult population (n = 296), active Christians (n = 125) and prisoners convicted of child sexual abuse (n = 36) were included in the study. The results show that women were more negative…

  15. Early Career Teachers' Emotional Experiences and Development--A Norwegian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakhelln, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Emotional experiences that are an integral part of the process of becoming teachers have been insufficiently explored in the research literature. The early experiences of three new teachers in a Norwegian upper secondary school are analysed using a collective case-study design and a socio-cultural theoretical framework. Emotions arising in the…

  16. Competition and Leadership as Drivers in German and Norwegian University Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleiklie, Ivar; Lange, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The article analyses how steering and organisation of German and Norwegian universities have developed after both countries with Humboldtian university traditions introduced New Public Management-inspired governance reforms during the first decade of the 21st century. The article outlines different organisation ideals and values involved in…

  17. Norwegian Salmon Goes to Market: The Case of the Austevoll Seafood Cluster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phyne, John; Hovgaard, Gestur; Hansen, Gard

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the globalisation of the farmed salmon commodity chain upon farmed salmon production in the western Norwegian municipality of Austevoll. On the basis of field research conducted in 2002 and 2003, we conclude that salmon farming in Austevoll has responded to the challenges of "buyer-driven" food chains by virtue of…

  18. The Structural Disempowerment of Eastern European Migrant Farm Workers in Norwegian Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, Johan Fredrik; Andrzejewska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Since the 2004 EU enlargement established one European common labour market, a large number of Eastern Europeans have taken up seasonal employment as hired farm workers in Norwegian agriculture. Much attention in the public has been given to the potential for "social dumping" of these migrating workers, as they are considered prone to exploitation…

  19. Preschool Teachers' Approaches to Science: A Comparison of a Chinese and a Norwegian Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Anne Synnøve Ekrene; He, Min

    2016-01-01

    This comparative study examines the way in which preschool teachers support children's science learning in a Chinese and a Norwegian kindergarten. The study takes an ethnographic approach. Preschool teachers from one kindergarten in Shanghai and one in Bergen were asked to videotape educational activities that focused on science in their…

  20. Modernising Education: New Public Management Reform in the Norwegian Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Møller, Jorunn; Skedsmo, Guri

    2013-01-01

    Since the end of the 1980s, the Norwegian education system has gone through major reform, influenced largely by new managerialist ideas. Strategies to renew the public sector were promoted as the new public management (NPM). This paper investigates the way ideas connected to NPM reforms have been introduced and interpreted in the Norwegian…

  1. Comparability of the Social Skills Improvement System to the Social Skills Rating System: A Norwegian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamst-Klaussen, Thor; Rasmussen, Lene-Mari P.; Svartdal, Frode; Strømgren, Børge

    2016-01-01

    The Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS) is a multi-informant instrument assessing social skills and problem behavior in children and adolescents. It is a revised version of the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS). A Norwegian translation of the SSRS has been validated, but this has not yet been done for the Norwegian…

  2. Principal Self-Efficacy and Work Engagement: Assessing a Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federici, Roger A.; Skaalvik, Einar M.

    2011-01-01

    One purpose of the present study was to develop and test the factor structure of a multidimensional and hierarchical Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (NPSES). Another purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between principal self-efficacy and work engagement. Principal self-efficacy was measured by the 22-item NPSES. Work…

  3. Wisdom in the Open Air: The Norwegian Roots of Deep Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Peter, Ed.; Rothenberg, David, Ed.

    This book traces the Norwegian roots of "deep ecology": the search for solutions to environmental problems by examining fundamental tenets of culture. Deep ecology contributes to the philosophical foundations of environmental education and outdoor education, and much writing in this area has focused on promoting awareness of the human relationship…

  4. "Friendship in All Directions": Norwegian Children with Physical Disabilities Experiencing Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asbjornslett, Mona; Engelsrud, Gunn H.; Helseth, Solvi

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how Norwegian children with physical disabilities experience friendship during the transition between primary and secondary school. The research was based on 38 life mode interviews with 15 children. Two themes were explored: (1) different kinds of friends: friends with disabilities, friends without disabilities and…

  5. The Outdoor Environment in Norwegian Kindergartens as Pedagogical Space for Toddlers' Play, Learning and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Thomas; Martinsen, Marianne T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines some characteristics of the outdoor environment in Norwegian kindergartens. Understood as pedagogical space, outdoor conditions may enhance or restrict the youngest children's possibilities for play, learning and development. In 117 of 133 kindergartens (response rate: 87 %) participating in a longitudinal study, the heads of…

  6. Transferring and Transforming Technology Education: A Study of Norwegian Teachers' Perceptions of Ideas from Design & Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bungum, Berit

    2006-01-01

    What happens when educational ideas cross national and cultural borders? How do teachers respond to ideas originating in a different school system and a different national culture? This article reports on an empirical study investigating the transfer of ideas from Design & Technology as a subject in England and Wales into Norwegian schools. A…

  7. Perceived Motivational Climates and Self-Reported Emotional and Behavioural Problems among Norwegian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stornes, Tor; Bru, Edvin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between perceived motivational climates and self-reported emotional and behavioural problems (EBP: symptoms of depression, lack of on-task-orientation and disruptive behaviour), among 1171 Norwegian 8th grade secondary school students from 65 school classes. Statistical analyses showed significant…

  8. Selective Critical Thinking: A Textbook Analysis of Education for Critical Thinking in Norwegian Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Børhaug, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    Current Norwegian curricular guidelines oblige schools to educate citizens with a critical perspective on society. From a discourse theoretical perspective, this obligation implies that various school subjects, and in particular social studies, offer discourses on social issues that allow for different points of view and critical evaluation.…

  9. New Management Systems in Norwegian Universities: The Interface Between Reform and Institutional Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ingvild Marheim; Gornitzka, Ase

    1995-01-01

    Implementation and results of government-mandated "results-oriented planning" in Norwegian universities are analyzed using two approaches: the first looks at the effects of the initiative, and the second views the management reforms as cosmetic. It is found that while academic staff are involved in the new planning system, little effect has been…

  10. Imageability of Norwegian Nouns, Verbs and Adjectives in a Cross-Linguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Lind, Marianne; Hansen, Pernille; Holm, Elisabeth; Mevik, Bjorn-Helge

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a study of imageability ratings for a set of 1599 Norwegian words (896 nouns, 483 verbs and 220 adjectives) from a web-based survey. To a large extent, the results are in accordance with previous studies of other languages: high imageability scores in general, higher imageability scores for nouns than for verbs, and an…

  11. Becoming a Learning Organization: The Espoused Values of Police Managers from Two Norwegian Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filstad, Cathrine; Gottschalk, Petter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent to which espoused values among police managers in the Norwegian police force are compatible with those of a learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire was developed and administered to police managers in two police districts in Norway. A set of values was…

  12. "Omdefinerer En Norsk Norge": The Influence of Changing Demographics on Norwegian Schooling for Social Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Wendy J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how Norwegian compulsory education, both philosophically and practically, reflects the institutionalized democratic values of the larger social and political community of Norway. It examines, through the application of collective and structural lenses of analysis, how shifting demographics in this social and political…

  13. How Pupils with Severe Visual Impairment Describe Coping with Reading Activities in the Norwegian Inclusive School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vik, Astrid Kristin; Lassen, Liv M.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how 11 pupils with severe visual impairment cope with reading activities in inclusive Norwegian schools. All pupils received instruction in braille and print, and used an audio-text format. Having multiple reading options provided possibilities for pupils to achieve reading skills, but also generated stress. Theories of…

  14. Exploring Antecedents of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour among Teachers at Norwegian Folk High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elstad, Eyvind; Christophersen, Knut Andreas; Turmo, Are

    2012-01-01

    The folk high school (FHS) is a Nordic contribution to global education and is a unique approach to non-university adult education. Because expanded tuition is the true nature of Norwegian FHS, it is important for FHS that its teachers perform discretionary individual extra-role behaviour advantageous to the school organization, a phenomenon…

  15. Mediating National Language Management: The Discourse of Citizenship Categorization in Norwegian Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Pia

    2009-01-01

    The dimension of language policing that is the focus in this article refers to the management of micro-level language use by a macro-level institution, in this context the Norwegian Language Council, co-constructed with media actors. An important aspect of language policing is the official definition of terms, carried out by bodies like the…

  16. What Characterizes the Algebraic Competence of Norwegian Upper Secondary School Students? Evidence from TIMSS Advanced

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Ida Friestad

    2015-01-01

    Algebra is the fundamental language of mathematics, and a profound understanding of school algebra is an important prerequisite for further studies in mathematical sciences. The aim of this study is to characterize the algebraic competence of the Norwegian upper secondary school students participating in Trends in International Mathematics and…

  17. Some Health Effects of Implementing School Nursing in a Norwegian High School: A Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svebak, Sven; Jensen, Eva Naper; Gotestam, K. Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a school nursing service on health complaints and mood were investigated in a Norwegian high school. The school nursing service was delivered to students in 1 high school, and students in a comparable high school served as the comparison group. There were 41 students in the treatment group and 63 in the comparison group. All…

  18. Student Psychological Distress: A Psychometric Study of 1750 Norwegian 1st-Year Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Ronnestad, Michael H.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence which suggests that university and college students are more vulnerable to psychological distress than the general population has generated increasing public concern. This study presents psychometric data on Norwegian undergraduate students' psychological distress (N= 1750). Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item…

  19. Academic Achievement in Norwegian Secondary Schools: The Impact of Violence during Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Lihong; Mossige, Svein

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a national survey (N = 6,979) of young people in their last year in Norwegian secondary schools in 2007 (aged 18 and 19), this paper examines the effect of experience of violence including sexual abuse during childhood (before the age of 13) on the later academic achievement of young people. This investigation includes three types…

  20. The Norwegian Communicative Development Inventories: Reliability, Main Developmental Trends and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Kristoffersen, Kristian E.; Bleses, Dorthe; Wehberg, Sonja; Jørgensen, Rune N.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents results from a large population-based study of early communicative development in Norwegian children using an adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories, comprising 6574 children between 8 and 36 months. Data were collected via the Internet. In accordance with similar studies from other languages,…

  1. An Econometric Examination of the Behavioral Perspective Model in the Context of Norwegian Retailing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Kahamseh, Saeed; Gunnarsson, Didrik; Larsen, Nils Magne; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral perspective model's (BPM; Foxall, 1990) retailing literature is built on extensive empirical research and techniques that were originally refined in choice experiments in behavioral economics and behavior analysis, and then tested mostly on British consumer panel data. We test the BPM in the context of Norwegian retailing. This…

  2. "I Am Not Angry in the Kindergarten!" Interruptive Anger as Democratic Participation in Norwegian Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grindheim, Liv Torunn

    2014-01-01

    This article calls into question the idyllic picture of Norwegian kindergartens where harmonious and joyful interaction is the preferred and normal way to participate. If taking children's right to democratic participation and freedom of expression seriously, anger can also be seen as a legitimate way of participating. Conflicts of interest,…

  3. Validation of an Eulerian population model for the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alver, Morten Omholt; Broch, Ole Jacob; Melle, Webjørn; Bagøien, Espen; Slagstad, Dag

    2016-08-01

    Calanus finmarchicus is an important zooplankton species in the Norwegian Sea, as a dominant food organism for pelagic fish larvae, and a potentially large source of marine lipids and proteins. Its position in the marine food web also makes it an important model species in assessing the risk posed by oil spills in the Norwegian and Arctic Seas. In this study, an Eulerian population model for C.finmarchicus, coupled to the physical and ecological model SINMOD, is presented. The model includes the full life cycle of C. finmarchicus with a representation of all developmental stages. The model has been validated against field measurements made in different areas of the Norwegian Sea in 1997 and 1998. The model displays geographical and temporal distributions of development stages that is in line with observed patterns. When comparing time series for selected regions, we see a high degree of variability both in the field samples and model output. On average, the model deviations are near half of the summed variability of the field data and model estimates. The model has applications within assessment of ecological production, and the potential for harvesting in the Norwegian and Arctic Seas, but in combination with other models, also for the assessment of ecological effects of oil spills and other types of pollution.

  4. Educational Attainment of 25 Year Old Norwegians According to Birth Order and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristensen, Petter; Bjerkedal, Tor

    2010-01-01

    This register-based longitudinal study of 392 969 Norwegians examined associations between birth order, gender and educational attainment at age 25 years within families (fixed effects regression) and between families (ordinary OLS regression). Data were retrieved from national registers for births of mothers with single births only and a first…

  5. Personal Epistemology across Cultures: Exploring Norwegian and Spanish University Students' Epistemic Beliefs about Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braten, Ivar; Gil, Laura; Stromso, Helge I.; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim was to explore and compare the dimensionality of personal epistemology with respect to climate change across the contexts of Norwegian and Spanish students. A second aim was to examine relationships between topic-specific epistemic beliefs and the variables of gender, topic knowledge, and topic interest in the two contexts.…

  6. An Effective Introduction to Technology and Design in Norwegian Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkeby, Pal J.

    2010-01-01

    How can young pupils get "An effective introduction" to technology and design at the primary level in the Norwegian context? This question is highlighted with examples based on case studies at five classes in two schools doing their first technology and design project at grades 1 or 2 (age 6-8 years). The project was about air rockets. The…

  7. Intelligence Test Scores and Birth Order among Young Norwegian Men (Conscripts) Analyzed within and between Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerkedal, Tor; Kristensen, Petter; Skjeret, Geir A.; Brevik, John I.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984-2004. Conscripts, mostly 18-19 years of age, were born to women for…

  8. Changes and Challenges in Music Education: Reflections on a Norwegian Arts-in-Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophersen, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    With a recent research study on a Norwegian arts-in-education programme "The Cultural Rucksack" as its starting point, this article addresses policy changes in the fields of culture and education and possible implications these could have on music education in schools. Familiar debates on the quality of education and the political…

  9. Mitochondrial D310 mutations in colorectal adenomas: an early but not causative genetic event during colorectal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Legras, Antoine; Lièvre, Astrid; Bonaiti-Pellié, Catherine; Cottet, Vanessa; Pariente, Alexandre; Nalet, Bernard; Lafon, Jacques; Faivre, Jean; Bonithon-Kopp, Claire; Goasguen, Nicolas; Penna, Christophe; Olschwang, Sylviane; Laurent-Puig, Pierre

    2008-05-15

    Somatic mutations of the D310 sequence of the mitochondrial DNA are reported in human cancers, including colorectal cancers (CRC). The presence of these mutations at early or late steps of colorectal carcinogenesis is unknown. Their prevalence increased significantly with the number of cytosines in the D310 sequence of the matched normal tissue (D310 polymorphism), suggesting that this polymorphism could be a risk factor for CRC. The aim of this study was (i) to investigate the prevalence of D310 mutations in 64 colorectal adenomas and 36 liver metastases from 15 CRC patients, (ii) to assess the relation between D310 polymorphism and the risk of colorectal adenoma in a case-control study including 613 cases with colorectal adenoma and 572 polyp-free (PF) controls. D310 mutations were found in colorectal adenomas and liver metastases from CRC patients in 27 and 33%, respectively and so are an early genetic event in colorectal carcinogenesis. The frequency of the mutations increased significantly with the number of cytosines in the matched normal tissue D310 sequence (p < 0.001) but the distribution of D310 polymorphisms was not significantly different between adenoma cases (large (>9 mm) and small (<5 mm) adenomas) and PF controls (C(4)-C(7)TC(6): 47, 52 and 49%; C(8)TC(6): 44, 39 and 41%; C(9)-C(10)TC(6): 9, 9 and 10%, respectively; p > 0.05), suggesting that germline D310 polymorphism is not a risk factor for colorectal adenomas. Considering their high frequency in colorectal adenomas, mitochondrial D310 mutations could represent a biomarker for early detection of CRC although their causative role in colorectal carcinogenesis remains uncertain. PMID:18224678

  10. Iron homeostasis and distal colorectal adenoma risk in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial.

    PubMed

    Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi; Wood, Richard J; Xue, Xiaonan; Huang, Wen-Yi; Yeager, Meredith; Hayes, Richard B; Gunter, Marc J

    2011-09-01

    Red meat consumption has been positively associated with colorectal cancer; however, the biological mechanism underlying this relationship is not understood. Red meat is a major source of iron, which may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis via increased crypt cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, and endogenous N-nitrosation. In a nested case-control study within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, we prospectively evaluated multiple iron exposure parameters, including dietary intake and serum measures of iron, ferritin, transferrin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC) in relation to incident colorectal adenoma in 356 cases and 396 matched polyp-free controls. We also investigated variation in eight key genes involved in iron homeostasis in relation to colorectal adenoma in an additional series totaling 1,126 cases and 1,173 matched controls. We observed a positive association between red meat intake and colorectal adenoma [OR comparing extreme quartiles (OR(q4-q1)) = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.02-2.49, P(trend) = 0.03]. Serum TIBC and UIBC were inversely associated with colorectal adenoma (OR(q4-q1) = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.37-0.88, P(trend) = 0.03; and OR(q4-q1) = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.40-0.95, P(trend) = 0.04, respectively). Colorectal adenoma was not associated with serum ferritin, iron, or transferrin saturation or with polymorphisms in genes involved in iron homeostasis. Serum TIBC and UIBC, parameters that have a reciprocal relationship with overall iron load, were inversely related to colorectal adenoma, suggesting that individuals with lower iron status have a reduced risk of developing colorectal adenoma. PMID:21685236

  11. Cold seep carbonates along the Norwegian margin, insights into U-Th geochronology and S geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremiere, A.; Lepland, A.; Wing, B. A.; Sahy, D.; Condon, D. J.; Chand, S.; Noble, S. R.; Bui, T. H.; Thorsnes, T.; Brunstad, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cold seep carbonates along the Norwegian margin, insights into U-Th geochronology and S geochemistryAuthigenic carbonate crusts form in shallow subsurface of marine sediments due to the microbial anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). As a result they are unique archives of the locus and intensity of past methane seepage that can be dated by using U-daughter decay affording the unique opportunity to constrain the absolute timing of methane release events. Because AOM is mainly driven by the microbial reduction of seawater sulfate, multiple sulfur isotope compositions of paired carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) and pyrite in seep carbonates taken as proxies for porewater sulfate and sulfide, respectively, have the potential to reconstruct the biogeochemical conditions under which seep carbonates precipitate. Methane-derived carbonate crusts were collected from several seepage sites on the Norwegian continental shelf, including sites in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea. The U-Th dating results constrain the main episode of carbonate crust formation in the Barents and Norwegian seas during the time interval between 14 and 7 ka. Such ages suggest that the methane seepage along the northern Norwegian margin was most active after the collapse of the Scandinavian ice sheet and deglaciation of the area that took place at about 15 ka. The methane flux for the carbonate crust formation was likely provided by the dissociation of methane hydrates that extensively formed in underlying sediments during the last glacial period, but became unstable due to depressuring effects of retreating ice sheet. The precipitation of studied North Sea carbonate crusts occurred more recently, from 6 to 1 ka, suggesting that their formation is unrelated to the glacial history of the area. The paired sulfur stable isotope compositions of pyrite-CAS record a large range of fractionation factors (from 30 to 70 ‰) reflecting change of sulfate-reduction rates possibly controlled

  12. Are the High Hip Fracture Rates Among Norwegian Women Explained by Impaired Bone Material Properties?

    PubMed

    Duarte Sosa, Daysi; Vilaplana, Laila; Güerri, Roberto; Nogués, Xavier; Wang-Fagerland, Morten; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; F Eriksen, Erik

    2015-10-01

    Hip fracture rates in Norway rank among the highest in the world, more than double that of Spanish women. Previous studies were unable to demonstrate significant differences between the two populations with respect to bone mass or calcium metabolism. In order to test whether the difference in fracture propensity between both populations could be explained by differences in bone material quality we assessed bone material strength using microindentation in 42 Norwegian and 46 Spanish women with normal BMD values, without clinical or morphometric vertebral fractures, no clinical or laboratory signs of secondary osteoporosis, and without use of drugs with known influence on bone metabolism. Bone material properties were assessed by microindentation of the thick cortex of the mid tibia following local anesthesia of the area using the Osteoprobe device (Active Life Scientific, Santa Barbara, CA, USA). Indentation distance was standardized against a calibration phantom of methylmethacrylate and results, as percentage of this reference value, expressed as bone material strength index units (BMSi). We found that the bone material properties reflected in the BMSi value of Norwegian women was significantly inferior when compared to Spanish women (77 ± 7.1 versus 80.7 ± 7.8, p < 0.001). Total hip BMD was significantly higher in Norwegian women (1.218 g/cm(2) versus 0.938 g/cm(2) , p < 0.001) but regression analysis revealed that indentation values did not vary with BMD r(2)  = 0.03 or age r(2)  = 0.04. In conclusion Norwegian women show impaired bone material properties, higher bone mass, and were taller than Spanish women. The increased height will increase the impact on bone after falls, and impaired bone material properties may further enhance the risk fracture after such falls. These ethnic differences in bone material properties may partly explain the higher propensity for fracture in Norwegian women. PMID:25900016

  13. Endoscopic resection of colorectal granular cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Take, Iri; Shi, Qiang; Qi, Zhi-Peng; Cai, Shi-Lun; Yao, Li-Qing; Zhou, Ping-Hong; Zhong, Yun-Shi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of endoscopic resection for the treatment of colorectal granular cell tumors (GCTs). METHODS: This was a retrospective study performed at a single institution. From January 2008 to April 2015, we examined a total of 11 lesions in 11 patients who were treated by an endoscopic procedure for colorectal GCTs in the Endoscopy Center, Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Either endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was performed by three surgeons with expertise in endoscopic treatment. The pre- and post-operative condition and follow-up of these patients were evaluated by colonoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). RESULTS: Of these 11 lesions, 2 were located in the cecum, 3 were in the ileocecal junction, 5 were in the ascending colon, and 1 was in the rectum. The median maximum diameter of the tumors was 0.81 cm (range 0.4-1.2 cm). The en bloc rate was 100%, and the complete resection rate was 90.9% (10/11). Post-operative pathology in one patient showed a tumor at the cauterization margin. However, during ESD, this lesion was removed en bloc, and no tumor tissue was seen in the wound. No perforations or delayed perforations were observed and emergency surgery was not required for complications. All patients were followed up to May 2015, and none had recurrence, metastasis, or complaints of discomfort. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic treatment performed by endoscopists with sufficient experience appears to be feasible and effective for colorectal GCTs. PMID:26730166

  14. Outcome of Colorectal Surgery in Elderly Populations

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Nicola; Franceschilli, Luana; Perrone, Federico; Angelucci, Giulio P.; Quareisma, Silvia; Gaspari, Achille L.; Sileri, Pierpaolo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of age on short-term outcomes after colorectal surgery in terms of the 30-day postoperative morbidity and mortality rates. Methods The subjects for the study were patients who had undergone colorectal surgery. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to age; groups A and B patients were ≥80 and <80 years old of age, respectively. Both groups were manually matched for body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, Charlson Comorbidity Index and procedure performed. Results A total of 200 patients, 91 men (45.5%) and 109 women (54.5%), were included in this retrospective study. These patients were equally divided into 2 groups. The mean ages were 85 years in group A (range, 80 to 104 years) and 55.3 years in group B (range, 13 to 79 years). The overall 30-day postoperative mortality rate was 1% of total 200 patients; both of these 2 patients were in group A. However, this observation had no statistical significance. No intraoperative complications were encountered in either group. The overall 30-day postoperative morbidity rate was 27% (54 of 200) for both groups. The 30-day postoperative morbidity rates in groups A and B were 28% (28 of 100) and 26% (26 of 100), respectively. However, these differences between the groups had no statistical significance importance. Conclusion Age alone should not be considered to be more of a contraindication or a worse predictor than other factors for the outcome after colorectal surgery on elderly patients. PMID:27626024

  15. Biomechanical investigation of colorectal cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmieri, Valentina; Lucchetti, Donatella; Maiorana, Alessandro; Papi, Massimiliano; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Ciasca, Gabriele; Svelto, Maria; De Spirito, Marco; Sgambato, Alessandro

    2014-09-01

    The nanomechanical properties of SW480 colon cancer cells were investigated using Atomic Force Microscopy. SW480 cells are composed of two sub-populations with different shape and invasiveness. These two cells populations showed similar adhesion properties while appeared significantly different in term of cells stiffness. Since cell stiffness is related to invasiveness and growth, we suggest elasticity as a useful parameter to distinguish invasive cells inside the colorectal tumor bulk and the high-resolution mechanical mapping as a promising diagnostic tool for the identification of malignant cells.

  16. Immune cell interplay in colorectal cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Samuel E; Ward-Hartstonge, Kirsten A; Taylor, Edward S; Kemp, Roslyn A

    2015-01-01

    The immune response to colorectal cancer has proven to be a reliable measure of patient outcome in several studies. However, the complexity of the immune response in this disease is not well understood, particularly the interactions between tumour-associated cells and cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. This review will discuss the relationship between cancer associated fibroblasts and macrophages, as well as between macrophages and T cells, and demonstrate how each population may support or prevent tumour growth in a different immune environment. PMID:26483876

  17. Metabolic predispositions and increased risk of colorectal adenocarcinoma by anatomical location: a large population-based cohort study in Norway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yunxia; Ness-Jensen, Eivind; Hveem, Kristian; Martling, Anna

    2015-11-15

    Whether different definitions of metabolic syndrome (MetS) are differently associated with colorectal adenocarcinoma (CA) by anatomical location is unclear. A population-based cohort study, the Cohort of Norway (CONOR) Study, was conducted in Norway from 1995 to 2010. Anthropometric measurements, blood samples, and lifestyle data were collected at recruitment. CAs were identified through linkage to the Norwegian Cancer Register. A composite index of MetS as defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) or/and the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) and single components of MetS, including anthropometric factors, blood pressure, lipids, triglycerides, and glucose, were analyzed. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Significant associations between single MetS components and CA, except for reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and nonfasting glucose levels, were observed. MetS defined by 2 criteria separately showed a similar association with CA in general, and MetS defined by both the IDF and ATP III showed consistent results. Stronger associations were observed in the proximal colon among men (IDF: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24, 1.84; ATP III: HR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.70) and in the rectum among women (IDF: HR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.89; ATP III: HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.90). PMID:26511906

  18. Anti-metastatic treatment in colorectal cancer: targeting signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Clara; Sack, Ulrike; Schmid, Felicitas; Juneja, Manisha; Stein, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the Western world. Tumor progression towards metastasis affects a large number of patients with colorectal cancer and seriously affects their clinical outcome. Therefore, considerable effort has been made towards the development of therapeutic strategies that can decrease or prevent colorectal cancer metastasis. Standard treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer with chemotherapy has been improved in the last 10 years by the addition of new targeted agents. The currently used antibodies bevacizumab, cetuximab and panitumumab target the VEGF and EGFR signaling pathways, which are crucial for tumor progression and metastasis. These antibodies have shown relevant efficacy in both first- and second-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Additionally, other signaling pathways, including the Wnt and HGF/Met pathways, have a well-established role in colorectal cancer progression and metastasis and constitute, therefore, promising targets for new therapeutic approaches. Several new drugs targeting these pathways, including different antibodies and small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, are currently being developed and tested in clinical trials. In this review, we summarize the new developments in this field, focusing on the inhibitors that show more promising results for use in colorectal cancer patients. PMID:22973955

  19. The association between serum ferritin with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhe; Chen, Ji-Wei; Feng, Jian-Hua; Shen, Fei; Cai, Wen-Song; Cao, Jie; Xu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    There are conflicting reports on the correlation between serum levels of ferritin with colorectal cancer. The purpose of the present study is to clarify the association between serum ferritin with colorectal cancer using a meta-analysis approach. We searched articles indexed in Pubmed published as of July 2015 that met our predefined criteria. Six eligible articles involving 927 subjects were identified. Overall, pooled analysis indicated that subjects with colorectal cancer had lower serum level of ferritin than the healthy controls (SMD=-1.569, 95% CI=[-2.718, -0.420], P= 0.007). Further subgroup analysis found lower serum level of ferritin among patients with colorectal cancer in eastern country (SMD=-1.956, 95% CI=[-3.750, -0.162], P=0.033), but not in western country (SMD=-1.285, 95% CI=[-2.778, 0.207], P=0.091). In conclusion, this meta-analysis supports a significant association between serum ferritin with colorectal cancer. However, the subgroup analysis found that there was significant effect modification of ferritin level by ethnic. Thus this finding needs further confirmation by trans-regional multicenter, long-term observation in a cohort design to obtain better understanding of causal relationships between serum ferrintin levels and colorectal cancer, through measuring ferritin at baseline to investigate whether the highest ferritin category versus lowest is associated with colorectal cancer risk. PMID:26885206

  20. Temporal Trends in Colorectal Cancer Screening among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Fedewa, Stacey A; Sauer, Ann Goding; Siegel, Rebecca L; Smith, Robert A; Torre, Lindsey A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-06-01

    Asian Americans (AA) are less likely to be screened for colorectal cancer compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), with a widening disparity for some AA subgroups in the early 2000s. Whether these patterns have continued in more recent years is unknown. We examined temporal trends in colorectal cancer screening among AA overall compared with NHWs and by AA subgroup (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, South Asian, Vietnamese) using data from the 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2009 California Health Interview Surveys. Unadjusted (PR) and adjusted (aPR) prevalence ratios for colorectal cancer screening, accounting for sociodemographic, health care, and acculturation factors, were calculated for respondents ages 50 to 75 years (NHW n = 60,125; AA n = 6,630). Between 2003 and 2009, colorectal cancer screening prevalence increased from 43.3% to 64.6% in AA (P ≤ 0.001) and from 58.1% to 71.4% in NHW (P ≤ 0.001). Unadjusted colorectal cancer screening was significantly lower among AA compared with NHW in 2003 [PR = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.68-0.82], 2005 (PR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.72-0.84), 2007 (PR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96), and 2009 (PR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.84-0.97), though disparities narrowed over time. After adjustment, there were no significant differences in colorectal cancer screening between the two groups, except in 2003. In subgroup analyses, between 2003 and 2009, colorectal cancer screening significantly increased by 22% in Japanese, 56% in Chinese, 47% in Filipino, and 94% in Koreans. In our study of California residents, colorectal cancer screening disparities between AA and NHW narrowed, but were not eliminated and screening prevalence among AA remains below nationwide goals, including the Healthy People 2020 goal of increasing colorectal cancer screening prevalence to 70.5%. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(6); 995-1000. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197273

  1. Circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines and risk of colorectal adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangmi; Keku, Temitope O.; Martin, Christopher; Galanko, Joseph; Woosley, John T.; Schroeder, Jane C.; Satia, Jessie A.; Halabi, Susan; Sandler, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    The association between obesity and colorectal neoplasia may be mediated by inflammation. Circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are elevated in the obese. Adipose tissue can produce and release the inflammatory cytokines that are potentially procarcinogenic. We examined circulating levels of CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α in relation to risk factors and the prevalence of colorectal adenomas. Plasma levels of CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α were quantified in 873 participants (242 colorectal adenoma cases and 631 controls) in a colonoscopy-based cross-sectional study conducted between 1998 and 2002. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate associations between levels of inflammatory cytokines, colorectal adenomas, and known risk factors. Several known risk factors for colorectal neoplasia were associated with higher levels of inflammatory cytokines such as older age, current smoking, and increasing adiposity. The prevalence of colorectal adenomas was associated with higher concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α, and to a lesser degree, with CRP. For IL-6, adjusted odds ratios for colorectal adenomas were 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18–2.68) for the second highest plasma level, and 1.84 (95% CI: 1.24– 2.74) for the highest level compared with the reference level. A similar association was found with TNF-α, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.54 (95% CI: 1.02–2.33) and 1.65 (95% CI: 1.09–2.50), respectively. Our findings indicate that inflammation might be involved in the early development of colorectal neoplasia, and suggest that systemic inflammatory cytokines might be an indicator of obesity and other risk factors for colorectal neoplasia. PMID:18172326

  2. Refractory ulcerative colitis and iatrogenic colorectal Kaposi's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Girelli, C M; Serio, G; Rocca, E; Rocca, F

    2009-02-01

    Colorectal Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpes virus-8 associated mesenchymal tumour, is exceedingly rare in human immunodeficiency virus-negative subjects and almost always reported in association with severe, refractory, inflammatory bowel disease. In this paper we report a case--the second from Italy--of a colorectal Kaposi's sarcoma in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative, heterosexual man with severe refractory ulcerative colitis. Kaposi's sarcoma developed after starting glucocorticosteroid therapy, supporting the theory that colorectal Kaposi's sarcoma associated with ulcerative colitis is iatrogenic. PMID:18054849

  3. Colorectal clinical trials: what is on the horizon?

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Daniel H; Goldberg, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of colorectal cancer, where more effective therapies have led to improved outcomes in patients with advanced disease. However, the 5-year overall survival rate remains poor. Genomic sequencing has allowed us to understand that colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease, where tumor-specific variants affect the prognosis and outcomes in patients. This has shaped the future directions of treatment and the development of clinical trials, including the incorporation of novel targeted therapies and investigations into the role of immunotherapy in colorectal cancer. PMID:26777152

  4. Colorectal polyp incidence among polypropylene manufacturing workers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R J; Lerman, S E; Schnatter, A R; Hughes, J I; Vernon, S W

    1994-02-01

    To follow up earlier findings of increased colorectal cancer and polyp risk among a group of Texas polypropylene manufacturing workers, a second company-sponsored colorectal cancer screening program was conducted. Ninety-four (64%) of the 147 male workers negative for polyps in the first screening were rescreened. Age- and examiner-adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were modestly elevated for polypropylene manufacturing workers compared with patients screened at the same clinic for total (IRR = 1.31; 90% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84 to 2.03) and adenomatous (IRR = 1.80; 90% CI = 0.68 to 4.78) polyps. However, risk of adenomas among the highest exposed group (early term process/mechanical workers: IRR = 1.77; 90% CI = 0.51 to 6.18) was similar to risk in the least-exposed group (engineer/chemist/administrative workers: IRR = 2.02; 90% CI = 0.56 to 7.31). The modest, nonsignificant excesses and the similarity in risk across job categories does not suggest an occupationally related risk, although small numbers and potential biases preclude making definitive conclusions. PMID:8176517

  5. Core value of laparoscopic colorectal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Xiang; Wang, Ren-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Since laparoscopy was first used in cholecystectomy in 1987, it has developed quickly and has been used in most fields of traditional surgery. People have now accepted its advantages like small incision, quick recovery, light pain, beauty and short hospital stays. In early times, there are still controversies about the application of laparoscopy in malignant tumor treatments, especially about the problems of oncology efficacy, incision implantation and operation security. However, these concerns have been fully eliminated by evidences on the basis of evidence-basis medicine. In recent years, new minimally invasive technologies are appearing continually, but they still have challenges and may increase the difficulties of radical dissection and the risks of potential complications, so they are confined to benign or early malignant tumors. The core value of the laparoscopic technique is to ensure the high quality of tumor’s radical resection and less complications. On the basis of this, it is allowed to pursue more minimally invasive techniques. Since the development of laparoscopic colorectal surgery is rapid and unceasing, we have reasons to believe that laparoscopic surgery will become gold standard for colorectal surgery in the near future. PMID:26676111

  6. Enhanced recovery for non-colorectal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gravante, Gianpiero; Elmussareh, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the advent of programs for enhanced recovery after major surgery (ERAS) has led to modifications of long-standing and well-established perioperative treatments. These programs are used to target factors that have been shown to delay postoperative recovery (pain, gut dysfunction, immobility) and combine a series of interventions to reduce perioperative stress and organ dysfunction. With due differences, the programs of enhanced recovery are generally based on the preoperative amelioration of the patient’s clinical conditions with whom they present for the operation, on the intraoperative and postoperative avoidance of medications that could slow the resumption of physiological activities, and on the promotion of positive habits in the early postoperative period. Most of the studies were conducted on elective patients undergoing colorectal procedures (either laparotomic or laparoscopic surgery). Results showed that ERAS protocols significantly improved the lung function and reduced the time to resumption of oral diet, mobilization and passage of stool, hospital stay and return to normal activities. ERAS’ acceptance is spreading quickly among major centers, as well as district hospitals. With this in mind, is there also a role for ERAS in non-colorectal operations? PMID:22294823

  7. Nomograms for colorectal cancer: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Kazushige; Sunami, Eiji; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Ishihara, Soichiro; Kazama, Shinsuke; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Hata, Keisuke; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Tanaka, Junichiro; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Kitayama, Joji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assist in the selection of suitable nomograms for obtaining desired predictions in daily clinical practice. METHODS: We conducted electronic searches for journal articles on colorectal cancer (CRC)-associated nomograms using the search terms colon/rectal/colorectal/nomogram. Of 174 articles initially found, we retrieved 28 studies in which a nomogram for CRC was developed. RESULTS: We discuss the currently available CRC-associated nomograms, including those that predict the oncological prognosis, the short-term outcome of treatments, such as surgery or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, and the future development of CRC. Developing nomograms always presents a dilemma. On the one hand, the desire to cover as wide a patient range as possible tends to produce nomograms that are too complex and yet have C-indexes that are not sufficiently high. Conversely, confining the target patients might impair the clinical applicability of constructed nomograms. CONCLUSION: The information provided in this review should be of use in selecting a nomogram suitable for obtaining desired predictions in daily clinical practice. PMID:26557011

  8. [Panitumumab-treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Pikó, Béla

    2009-06-01

    In the molecular target treatment strategy of metastatic colorectal cancer patients panitumumab represents a new class of drugs due to its fully human nature, and no need for premedication and loading dose. Panitumumab binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) selectively. In registration pivotal studies the analysis of patient subgroups for KRAS status gives strong evidence for the important role of RAS oncogene: median progression-free survival was 16 weeks on panitumumab arm in KRAS wild-type patients (8 weeks in best supportive care), while in KRAS mutant patients panitumumab showed no efficacy, however adverse events were more frequent and severe. According to SmPC, panitumumab is indicated as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with EGFR expressing metastatic colorectal carcinoma with non-mutated (wild-type) KRAS after failure of fluoropyrimidine-, oxaliplatin- , and irinotecan-containing chemotherapy regimens. Adverse events are similar as with other EGFR inhibitors: skin symptoms (rash), lung infiltrates, diarrhoea, ion abnormalities of renal origin. The drug was formerly available via named patient reimbursement, and now is financed by diagnosis-related group (DRG) system. PMID:19581179

  9. Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Metastasis to the Tongue

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Kurren S.; Frattali, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    This case presentation examines a rare clinical entity: colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) metastasis to the tongue. CRC is among the least common tumors to metastasize to the oral cavity. Objectives for this case report are to (1) maintain a high index of suspicion for oral cavity tumors representing metastatic disease, (2) consider appropriate surgical and adjunctive interventions, and (3) recognize the significance of identifying the primary tumor via immunohistochemical staining. We present a case of a 57-year-old male with a history of stage IV rectal adenocarcinoma metastatic to the lung who presented to our clinic with a painful mass of the right lateral tongue that he noticed one month before. MRI of the neck revealed a mass involving the anterior two-thirds of the right tongue with irregular margins and an ipsilateral enlarged right jugulodigastric lymph node. The patient underwent right partial glossectomy with primary reconstruction and right modified radical neck dissection. Pathology confirmed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma consistent with a colorectal primary with lymphovascular and perineural invasion. The tumor was staged as T2N1, and the patient was referred for chemoradiation. In this report, we discuss the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this uncommon disease, with a thorough review of the world literature. PMID:26759728

  10. Radiotherapy and brachytherapy for recurrent colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nag, S. )

    1991-05-01

    Radical surgical excision of locoregional recurrence of colorectal carcinoma usually produces the best survival and should be attempted whenever possible. However, recurrences are often unresectable; hence palliative local therapy may be indicated. There are several options for the radiation therapy of local, unresectable, recurrent, or metastatic colorectal cancer. Whole pelvis irradiation of 4,000-5,000 cGy followed by a coned-down boost of 1,000-1,500 cGy generally provides good symptomatic palliation in 80-90% of patients, but long-term control or cure is rarely achieved. External beam irradiation of 2,000-3,000 cGy to the whole liver with or without concurrent chemotherapy may be used for palliation of metastatic disease to the liver. A combination of intraoperative radiation therapy applied directly to the tumor bed and external beam irradiation may improve local control and survival rates. Multiple options are available for the intraoperative use of brachytherapy which can deliver high radiation doses to the residual tumor, or tumor bed, sparing normal tissue.

  11. Development and progression of colorectal neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Upender; Shanmugam, Chandrakumar; Katkoori, Venkat R.; Bumpers, Harvey L.; Grizzle, William E.

    2012-01-01

    A variety of genetic and molecular alterations underlie the development and progression of colorectal neoplasia (CRN). Most of these cancers arise sporadically due to multiple somatic mutations and genetic instability. Genetic instability includes chromosomal instability (CIN) and microsatellite instability (MSI), which is observed in most hereditary non-polyposis colon cancers (HNPCCs) and accounts for a small proportion of sporadic CRN. Although many biomarkers have been used in the diagnosis and prediction of the clinical outcomes of CRNs, no single marker has established value. New markers and genes associated with the development and progression of CRNs are being discovered at an accelerated rate. CRN is a heterogeneous disease, especially with respect to the anatomic location of the tumor, race/ethnicity differences, and genetic and dietary interactions that influence its development and progression and act as confounders. Hence, efforts related to biomarker discovery should focus on identification of individual differences based on tumor stage, tumor anatomic location, and race/ethnicity; on the discovery of molecules (genes, mRNA transcripts, and proteins) relevant to these differences; and on development of therapeutic approaches to target these molecules in developing personalized medicine. Such strategies have the potential of reducing the personal and socio-economic burden of CRNs. Here, we systematically review molecular and other pathologic features as they relate to the development, early detection, diagnosis, prognosis, progression, and prevention of CRNs, especially colorectal cancers (CRCs). PMID:22112479

  12. Colorectal cancer prognosis twenty years later

    PubMed Central

    Bujanda, Luis; Sarasqueta, Cristina; Hijona, Elisabeth; Hijona, Lander; Cosme, Angel; Gil, Ines; Elorza, Jose Luis; Asensio, Jose I; Larburu, Santiago; Enríquez-Navascués, José M; Jover, Rodrigo; Balaguer, Francesc; Llor, Xavier; Bessa, Xavier; Andreu, Montserrat; Paya, Artemio; Castells, Antoni; Association, Gastrointestinal Oncology Group of the Spanish Gastroenterological

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate changes in colorectal cancer (CRC) survival over the last 20 years. METHODS: We compared two groups of consecutive CRC patients that were prospectively recruited: Group I included 1990 patients diagnosed between 1980 and 1994. Group II included 871 patients diagnosed in 2001. RESULTS: The average follow up time was 21 mo (1-229) for Group I and 50 mo (1-73.4) for Group II. Overall median survival was significantly longer in Group II than in Group I (73 mo vs 25 mo, P < 0.001) and the difference was significant for all tumor stages. Post surgical mortality was 8% for Group Iand 2% for Group II (P < 0.001). Only 17% of GroupI patients received chemotherapy compared with 50% of Group II patients (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Survival in colorectal cancer patients has doubled over the past 20 years. This increase seems to be partly due to the generalization in the administration of chemotherapy and to the decrease of post surgical mortality. PMID:20143465

  13. A systematic review of a liver-first approach in patients with colorectal cancer and synchronous colorectal liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Vincent WT; Laurence, Jerome M; Pang, Tony; Johnston, Emma; Hollands, Michael J; Pleass, Henry CC; Richardson, Arthur J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since the liver metastases rather than the colorectal cancer itself is the main determinant of patient’s survival, the ‘Liver-First Approach (LFA)’ with upfront chemotherapy followed by a hepatic resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) and finally a colorectal cancer resection was proposed. The aim of this review was to analyse the evidence for LFA in patients with colorectal cancer and synchronous CLM. Methods: A literature search of databases (MEDLINE and EMBASE) to identify published studies of LFA in patients with colorectal cancer and synchronous CLM was undertaken focussing on the peri-operative regimens of LFA and survival outcomes. Results: Three observational studies and one retrospective cohort study were included for review. A total of 121 patients with colorectal cancer and synchronous CLM were selected for LFA. Pre-operative chemotherapy was used in 99% of patients. One hundred and twelve of the initial 121 patients (93%) underwent a hepatic resection of CLM. In total, 60% had a major liver resection and the R0 resection rate was 93%. Post-operative morbidity and mortality after the hepatic resection were 20% and 1%, respectively. Ultimately, 89 of the initial 121 (74%) patients underwent a colorectal cancer resection. Post-operative morbidity and mortality after a colorectal resection were 50% and 6%, respectively. The median overall survival was 40 months (range 19–50) with a recurrence rate of 52%. Conclusions: Current evidence suggests that LFA is safe and feasible in selected patients with colorectal cancer and synchronous CLM. Future studies are required to further define patient selection criteria for LFA and the exact role of LFA in the management of synchronous CLM. PMID:23509899

  14. Loss of nuclear localization of TET2 in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuji; Wang, Guanghui; Liang, Zhonglin; Yang, Yili; Cui, Long; Liu, Chen-Ying

    2016-01-01

    5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is lost in multiple human cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Decreased ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) messenger RNA (mRNA), but not other two TET family members, has been observed in the colorectal cancer and is crucial for colorectal cancer initiation. Here, we show that nuclear localization of TET2 was lost in a significant portion of CRC tissues, in association with metastasis. In CRC cells, nuclear expression of TET2 were absent but not TET3. Nuclear export inhibitor can increase the 5hmC level in CRC cells, probably through regulating TET2. Our results indicate a new mechanism of TET2 dysregulation in colorectal cancer. PMID:26816554

  15. [Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. Report of four siblings].

    PubMed

    Zárate, Alejandro; Alvarez, Karin; Wielandt, Ana María; Hevia, Montserrat; De la Fuente, Marjorie; Carvallo, Pilar; López-Köstner, Francisco

    2008-06-01

    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch Syndrome is an autosomic dominant syndrome involving 596-1096 of colorectal cancer patients. Mutations in MLH1 and MSH2 genes account for most cases. These two genes participate in the DNA mismatch repair pathway. Therefore mutation carriers show microsatellite instability (MSI) in tumors. This syndrome is characterized by the early development of colorectal cancer (before 50 years) and an increased incidence of cancer in other organs. We report four siblings from a family diagnosed with HNPCC. All of them were subjected to colonic surgery for colorectal cancer Moreover, one patient developed an ampulloma after her colon surgery. The molecular-genetic analysis revealed three brothers with microsatellite instability in the tumor tissue, the absence of the MLH1 protein, and the presence of a germ line mutation localized in introm 15 of the MLH1 gene. PMID:18769833

  16. Immune reaction and colorectal cancer: Friends or foes?

    PubMed Central

    Formica, Vincenzo; Cereda, Vittore; Nardecchia, Antonella; Tesauro, Manfredi; Roselli, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The potential clinical impact of enhancing antitumor immunity is increasingly recognized in oncology therapeutics for solid tumors. Colorectal cancer is one of the most studied neoplasms for the tumor-host immunity relationship. Although immune cell populations involved in such a relationship and their prognostic role in colorectal cancer development have clearly been identified, still no approved therapies based on host immunity intensification have so far been introduced in clinical practice. Moreover, a recognized risk in enhancing immune reaction for colitis-associated colorectal cancer development has limited the emphasis of this approach. The aim of the present review is to discuss immune components involved in the host immune reaction against colorectal cancer and analyze the fine balance between pro-tumoral and anti-tumoral effect of immunity in this model of disease. PMID:25253941

  17. Colorectal cancer in asbestos cement workers in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Raffn, E; Villadsen, E; Lynge, E

    1996-09-01

    Recent data on the risk of colorectal cancer following exposure to chrysotile are conflicting. We report on colorectal cancer morbidity in a large cohort of asbestos cement workers from Denmark mainly exposed to chrysotile. The total cohort had an SIR of 1.23 (95% CI 1.01-1.48). With a latency period of 15 years, men employed in the early (1928-1950) production period had an SIR of 1.47 (95% CI 1.05-2.01). With the observation of excess risks of colorectal cancer morbidity among chrysotile exposed asbestos cement workers in both Sweden and Denmark the question on the role of chrysotile in the etiology of colorectal cancer remains open. PMID:8876793

  18. Integrated proteomic and genomic analysis of colorectal cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators who analyzed 95 human colorectal tumor samples have determined how gene alterations identified in previous analyses of the same samples are expressed at the protein level. The integration of proteomic and genomic data, or proteogenomics, pro

  19. Strong correlation between diet and development of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cappellani, Alessandro; Zanghì, Antonio; Di Vita, Maria; Cavallaro, Andrea; Piccolo, Gaetano; Veroux, Pierfrancesco; Lo Menzo, Emanuele; Cavallaro, Vincenzo; de Paoli, Paolo; Veroux, Massimiliano; Berretta, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Multiple factors have been described among the causes of non-hereditary colorectal cancer. In Western countries, the most common risk factors include upper-middle socioeconomic status and dietary regimens rich in proteins and animal fats. High consumption of red meats, smoked foods, cold cuts, or canned foods is believed to contribute to carcinogenesis as they directly affect epithlial turnover and cause metabolism of biliary acids. Dietary fibers have protective effects in that they capture the fats and biliary acids, thereby inhibiting their activity. Tobacco smoking acts both locally and systemically on the colorectal mucosa through the production of carcinogenic agents. Finally, the action of alcohol, in association with nicotine addiction, also increases the risk of developing colorectal tumors. Knowledge of dietary and environmental factors is of paramount importance in implementing preventive strategies for colorectal cancer. PMID:23276917

  20. Cytoreductive Surgery plus HIPEC for Peritoneal Metastases from Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Aditi; Goéré, Diane

    2016-06-01

    Occurring either synchronously or metachronously to the primary tumor, peritoneal metastases (PM) are diagnosed in 8 to 20 % of the patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Prognosis of these patients appears to be worse than those with other sites of metastases. While systemic therapy has shown significant prolongation of survival in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer, the outcomes in the subset of patients with PM has been much inferior. Over the last 2 decades, cytoreductive surgery (CRS) followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have been effective in substantially prolonging survival in patients with colorectal PM and have the potential to cure certain patients as well. This article reviews the current evidence for CRS and HIPEC to treat colorectal PM as well as future research going on in this form of locoregional treatment. PMID:27065708

  1. The Struggle Within: Microbial Influences on Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Janelle C.; Jobin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Recently, an unprecedented effort has been directed at understanding the interplay between chronic inflammation and development of cancer, with the case of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated colorectal cancer at the forefront of this research endeavor. The last decade has been particularly fertile, with the discovery of numerous innovative paradigms linking various inflammatory, proliferative, and innate and adaptive immune signaling pathways to the development of colorectal cancer. Because of the preponderant role of the intestinal microbiota in the initiation and progression of IBD, recent efforts have been directed at understanding the relationship between bacteria and colorectal cancer. The microbiota and its collective genome, the microbiome, form a diverse and complex ecological community that profoundly impacts intestinal homeostasis and disease states. This review will discuss the differential influence of the microbiota on the development of IBD-associated colorectal cancer and highlight the role of innate immune sensor-dependent as well as -independent mechanisms in this pathology. PMID:20848537

  2. Estrogen Plus Progestin and Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Michael S.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Johnson, Karen C.; Muskovitz, Andrew; Kato, Ikuko; Young, Alicia; Hubbell, F. Allan; Prentice, Ross L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose During the intervention phase in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial, use of estrogen plus progestin reduced the colorectal cancer diagnosis rate, but the cancers were found at a substantially higher stage. To assess the clinical relevance of the findings, analyses of the influence of combined hormone therapy on colorectal cancer incidence and colorectal cancer mortality were conducted after extended follow-up. Patients and Methods The WHI study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial involving 16,608 postmenopausal women with an intact uterus who were randomly assigned to daily 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogen plus 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (n = 8,506) or matching placebo (n = 8,102). Colorectal cancer diagnosis rates and colorectal cancer mortality were assessed. Results After a mean of 5.6 years (standard deviation [SD], 1.03 years) of intervention and 11.6 years (SD, 3.1 years) of total follow-up, fewer colorectal cancers were diagnosed in the combined hormone therapy group compared with the placebo group (diagnoses/year, 0.12% v 0.16%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.72; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.94; P = .014). Bowel screening examinations were comparable between groups throughout. Cancers in the combined hormone therapy group more commonly had positive lymph nodes (50.5% v 28.6%; P < .001) and were at higher stage (regional or distant, 68.8% v 51.4%; P = .003). Although not statistically significant, there was a higher number of colorectal cancer deaths in the combined hormone therapy group (37 v 27 deaths; 0.04% v 0.03%; HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.78 to 2.11; P = .320). Conclusion The findings, suggestive of diagnostic delay, do not support a clinically meaningful benefit for combined hormone therapy on colorectal cancer. PMID:23008295

  3. Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of stomach and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Jeongseon

    2013-01-01

    Stomach and colorectal cancers are common cancers and leading causes of cancer deaths. Because the alimentary tract can interact directly with dietary components, stomach and colorectal cancer may be closely related to dietary intake. We systematically searched published literature written in English via PubMed by searching for terms related to stomach and colorectal cancer risk and dietary flavonoids up to June 30, 2012. Twenty-three studies out of 209 identified articles were finally selected for the analysis. Log point effect estimates and the corresponding standard errors were calculated using covariate-adjusted point effect estimates and 95%CIs from the selected studies. Total dietary flavonoid intake was not associated with a reduced risk of colorectal or stomach cancer [odds ratio (OR) (95%CI) = 1.00 (0.90-1.11) and 1.07 (0.70-1.61), respectively]. Among flavonoid subclasses, the intake of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidins, and proanthocyanidins showed a significant inverse association with colorectal cancer risk [OR (95%CI) = 0.71 (0.63-0.81), 0.88 (0.79-0.97), 0.68 (0.56-0.82), and 0.72 (0.61-0.85), respectively]. A significant association was found only between flavonols and stomach cancer risk based on a limited number of selected studies [OR (95%CI) = 0.68 (0.46-0.99)]. In the summary estimates from case-control studies, all flavonoid subclasses except flavones and flavanones were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, whereas neither total flavonoids nor any subclasses of flavonoids were associated with colorectal cancer risk in the summary estimates based on the cohort studies. The significant association between flavonoid subclasses and cancer risk might be closely related to bias derived from the case-control design. There was no clear evidence that dietary flavonoids are associated with reduced risk of stomach and colorectal cancer. PMID:23467443

  4. Germline EPHB2 Receptor Variants in Familial Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zogopoulos, George; Jorgensen, Claus; Bacani, Julinor; Montpetit, Alexandre; Lepage, Pierre; Ferretti, Vincent; Chad, Lauren; Selvarajah, Subani; Zanke, Brent; Hudson, Thomas J.; Pawson, Tony; Gallinger, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Familial clustering of colorectal cancer occurs in 15–20% of cases, however recognized cancer syndromes explain only a small fraction of this disease. Thus, the genetic basis for the majority of hereditary colorectal cancer remains unknown. EPHB2 has recently been implicated as a candidate tumor suppressor gene in colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of EPHB2 to hereditary colorectal cancer. We screened for germline EPHB2 sequence variants in 116 population-based familial colorectal cancer cases by DNA sequencing. We then estimated the population frequencies and characterized the biological activities of the EPHB2 variants identified. Three novel nonsynonymous missense alterations were detected. Two of these variants (A438T and G787R) result in significant residue changes, while the third leads to a conservative substitution in the carboxy-terminal SAM domain (V945I). The former two variants were found once in the 116 cases, while the V945I variant was present in 2 cases. Genotyping of additional patients with colorectal cancer and control subjects revealed that A438T and G787R represent rare EPHB2 alleles. In vitro functional studies show that the G787R substitution, located in the kinase domain, causes impaired receptor kinase activity and is therefore pathogenic, whereas the A438T variant retains its receptor function and likely represents a neutral polymorphism. Tumor tissue from the G787R variant case manifested loss of heterozygosity, with loss of the wild-type allele, supporting a tumor suppressor role for EPHB2 in rare colorectal cancer cases. Rare germline EPHB2 variants may contribute to a small fraction of hereditary colorectal cancer. PMID:18682749

  5. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity The Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research (SERAF).

    PubMed

    Bramness, Jørgen G; Clausen, Thomas; Duckert, Fanny; Ravndal, Edle; Waal, Helge

    2011-08-01

    The Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research (SERAF) at the University of Oslo is a newly established, clinical addiction research centre. It is located at the Oslo University Hospital and has a major focus on opioid dependency, investigating Norwegian opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), with special interest in OMT during pregnancy, mortality, morbidity and criminality before, during and after OMT and alternatives to OMT, such as the use of naltrexone implants. The well-developed health registries of Norway are core assets that also allow the opportunity for other types of substance abuse research. This research includes health services, abuse of prescription drugs and drugs of abuse in connection with traffic. The centre also focuses upon comorbidity, investigating the usefulness and limitations of psychometric instruments, drug abuse in different psychiatric treatment settings and internet-based interventions for hazardous alcohol consumption. PMID:20735364

  6. Mental readiness for maritime international operation: procedures developed by Norwegian navy.

    PubMed

    Sanden, Sverre; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Eid, Jarle; Sommerfelt-Pettersen, Jan; Koefoed, Vilhelm; Størksen, Roar; Røsseland, Atle; Neteland, Hans Olav; Wetteland, Per Inge; Wilhelmsen, Eirik Veum

    2014-01-01

    Seafarer's mental health is vital for a well-functioning organisation. Neglecting mental health status on board could be extremely costly for both the crew affected as well as the company. The present article outlines an extensive programme implemented in the Royal Norwegian Navy for personnel deployed in international operations. The challenges involved in international operations bare similarities to onboard personnel in civilian maritime operations. The program utilised by the Royal Norwegian Navy is extensive and not immediately applicable to civilian maritime companies. However, elements of this program could be used with limited resources. Questionnaire based screening, before, during and at the end of a contract period could result in early detections of mental health problems and increased retaining of personnel. This should be done by health professionals. Early targeting of at risk personnel could prevent serious costs for the individual as well as the company. PMID:25231333

  7. An investigation of the role nurses play in Norwegian home care.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Edda; Fagerström, Lisbeth

    2010-10-01

    Registered nurses' (RNs') role in Norwegian home care services exists in a state of flux owing to the early discharge of patients from hospitals, more time-consuming and complex care for young patients, and a growing number of older care recipients. The aim of this study was to investigate the RN role through an integrative research review, with a focus on nursing activities and competence. This study found that RNs and assistant nurses often perform the same tasks, providing assistance with personal hygiene, medication and wound management. The change towards more medicalized and complex home care entails that requirements pertaining to RNs' competence, the allocation of RNs' time and skills to those in most need of nursing care, and the assignment of assistant nurses to lower care levels activities must be delineated. Norwegian home care must examine how care activities can be better allocated between RNs, social educators, assistant nurses, and informal care-givers. PMID:20966846

  8. The Norwegian Danish Basin: A key to understanding the Cenozoic in the eastern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Thomas L.; Clausen, Ole R.; Andresen, Katrine J.; Goledowski, Bartosz

    2015-04-01

    The Danish part of Norwegian-Danish Basin, which constitutes the eastern part of the North Sea Basin, has been the key area for sequence stratigraphic subdivision and analysis of the Cenozoic succession since the mid 1990's. Widespread 3D seismic data, in the central parts of the North Sea Basin, as well as more scattered 3D seismic data in the Danish part of the Norwegian-Danish Basin, have given a more detailed understanding of the sequences and indicate that climate is tenable for the origin of Cenozoic sequence boundaries. The previous sequence stratigraphic interpretations have been an integrated part of an ongoing debate concerning vertical movements of the Fennoscandian shield versus the impact of climate and erosion. A newly accessed coherent regional 2D and reprocessed 3D seismic data set, in the Norwegian part of the Norwegian-Danish Basin, constitute the database for a new sequence stratigraphic analysis of the entire area. The objective of the new study is to test previous subdivisions and introduce a coherent 3D sequence stratigraphic analysis and depositional model for the entire Norwegian-Danish Basin. This analysis is necessary to get out of the stalemate with the uplift discussion. The study shows that the original subdivision by Michelsen et al. (1995, 1998) stands. However, revision of few a sequence boundaries may have to be adjusted due to new biostratigraphic information published. Furthermore, high-angle clinoforms and geomorphological transport complexes observed in the Danish North Sea Basin can be traced into the Norwegian sector. This together with the recognition of several other high-angle clinoform complexes, and their associated seismic facies distribution maps and thickness-maps, enhances the level of detail and constrains the previous published paleogeographic reconstructions of the Cenozoic. The geometry of the Cenozoic infill, in the Norwegian part of the Norwegian-Danish Basin, is here interpreted to be controlled by relative sea

  9. Climate for work group creativity and innovation: Norwegian validation of the team climate inventory (TCI).

    PubMed

    Mathisen, Gro Ellen; Einarsen, Ståle; Jørstad, Kari; Brønnick, Kolbjørn S

    2004-11-01

    The present study assessed the psychometric properties and the validity of the Norwegian translation of the Team Climate Inventory (TCI). The TCI is a measure of climate for innovation within groups at work and is based on the four-factor theory of climate for innovation (West, 1990). Cronbach's alpha revealed satisfactory reliabilities and exploratory factor analysis successfully extracted the four original factors as well as a fifth factor that has also been reported in other studies (N = 195 teams from a wide range of professions). Results from confirmatory factor analysis, using a different sample (N = 106 teams from the Norwegian public postal service), suggested that the five-factor solution had the most parsimonious fit. Criterion validity was explored by correlating TCI scores from 92 post offices and 395 postal distribution teams with customer satisfaction scores. Significant positive relationships were found between three of four TCI scales and customer satisfaction. PMID:15535807

  10. Compression anastomoses in colorectal surgery: a review.

    PubMed

    Zbar, A P; Nir, Y; Weizman, A; Rabau, M; Senagore, A

    2012-06-01

    The main serious risks of anastomotic construction in the colon and rectum include dehiscence and stricture formation. There is a resurgence of interest in sutureless anastomoses formed by compression elements since the introduction of shape memory alloy (SMA) systems, which evoke minimal early inflammatory response whilst maintaining anastomotic integrity. Currently, the most commonly used SMA is the nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy that is highly biocompatible, returning to its pre-deformed stable (austenite) shape under different mechanical and thermal loads for use in humans. Pre-clinical data for shape memory alloy systems in colorectal anastomoses are limited, but it appears to be safe in porcine and canine models with limited leakage and reduced stricture formation. There does not appear to be any difference in tissue biochemistry of inflammatory markers when compared with conventional stapled techniques, although the few studies available show a markedly reduced early inflammatory response at the anastomotic site with the NiTi device. The majority of the clinical data concerning compression anastomoses are derived from the biofragmentable anastomotic ring device. This device has fallen out of use because of reported leaks, instrumental failure and problems with device expulsion. A novel SMA device, the NiTi anastomotic ring, permits construction of a low rectal anastomosis construction during open or laparoscopic procedures. The preliminary data demonstrate a safety comparable to conventional staple technology. This device also provides the potential of benefit of reduced anastomotic inflammation, because the compression ring results in direct serosa-to-serosa (or alternatively serosa-to-muscularis propria) apposition without the persistence of residual foreign material. This type of construction could lead to a reduced incidence of early anastomotic leakage and/or the development of anastomotic stenosis. Randomized clinical trials employing a NiTi arm for

  11. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma - a study based on the Norwegian canine cancer register

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The aim of the study was to retrospectively investigate the proportion and possible breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma using the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register for calculations of proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) for the period 1998–2009. Results Histologically verified tumours recorded in the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register were studied (n = 19,715). A total of 31 (0.16%) cases of canine gastric carcinomas were identified. The median age of affected dogs was 10 years. The most commonly reported clinical signs were vomiting, anorexia, and weight loss. Males had significantly higher odds of gastric carcinoma than females (P = 0.02). The PMR with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated for each breed, and a breed predisposition was identified. Individuals of the breeds Tervuren (PMR 56.1), Bouvier des Flandres (PMR 36.5), Groenendael (PMR 34.5), Collie (PMR 26.1), Standard poodle (PMR 7.6), and Norwegian elkhound (PMR 6.1) had a significantly increased risk of developing gastric carcinoma. Discussion and conclusion The proportion of cases of gastric carcinoma recorded in the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register was found to be 0.16%, and a breed predisposition was identified. The breed predisposition observed in the current study indicates a genetic susceptibility to gastric carcinoma. PMID:23514604

  12. Role of self expandable stents in management of colorectal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Cetinkaya, Erdinc; Dogrul, Ahmet Bulent; Tirnaksiz, Mehmet Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Acute malignant colorectal obstruction is a complication of colorectal cancer that can occur in 7%-29% of patients. Self-expanding metallic stent placement for malignant colorectal obstruction has gained popularity as a safe and effective procedure for relieving obstruction. This technique can be used in the palliation of malignant colorectal obstruction, as a bridge to elective surgery for resectable colorectal cancers, palliation of extracolonic malignant obstruction, and for nonmalignant etiologies such as anastomotic strictures, Crohn’s disease, radiation therapy, and diverticular diseases. Self-expanding metallic stent has its own advantages and disadvantages over the surgery in these indications. During the insertion of the self-expanding metallic stent, and in the follow-up, short term and long term morbidities should be kept in mind. The most important complications of the stents are perforation, stent obstruction, stent migration, and bleeding. Additionally, given the high risk of perforation, if a patient is treated or being considered fortreatmentwith antiangiogenic agents such as bevacizumab, it is not recommended to use self-expanding metallic stent as a palliative treatment for obstruction. Therefore, there is a need for careful clinical evaluation for each patient who is a candidate for this procedure. The purpose of this review was to evaluate self-expanding metallic stent in the management of the obstruction of the colon due to the colorectal and extracolonic obstruction. PMID:26798442

  13. Plasma selenium levels and the risk of colorectal adenomas.

    PubMed

    Russo, M W; Murray, S C; Wurzelmann, J I; Woosley, J T; Sandler, R S

    1997-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that selenium may protect against the development of colorectal neoplasia. We examined the potential chemopreventive properties of selenium against colorectal adenomas while controlling for a number of dietary and life-style factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study among patients referred for colonoscopy to University of North Carolina Hospitals. Cases had one or more pathologically confirmed adenomas, and noncases had none. Plasma selenium levels were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction and platform technique. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. The mean plasma selenium concentrations for cases (n = 37) and noncases (n = 36) were 107 and 120 micrograms/l, respectively (p = 0.06). Those in the fourth quartile of plasma selenium level had 0.24 times the risk (95% confidence interval = 0.06-1.04) for colorectal adenomas of those in the first quartile. The adjusted odds ratio for colorectal adenomas was 0.58 (95% confidence interval = 0.31-1.08) for a 30 microgram/l increase in plasma selenium level. Lower plasma selenium levels were associated with multiple adenomas but not with adenoma size or location. These data support a protective effect of selenium against colorectal adenomas after adjustment for possible confounders. Selenium might be a potentially useful chemopreventive agent for colorectal neoplasia. PMID:9290116

  14. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Stool DNA and Other Noninvasive Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, James R.; Aggarwal, Ashish; Imperiale, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer screening dates to the discovery of pre-cancerous adenomatous tissue. Screening modalities and guidelines directed at prevention and early detection have evolved and resulted in a significant decrease in the prevalence and mortality of colorectal cancer via direct visualization or using specific markers. Despite continued efforts and an overall reduction in deaths attributed to colorectal cancer over the last 25 years, colorectal cancer remains one of the most common causes of malignancy-associated deaths. In attempt to further reduce the prevalence of colorectal cancer and associated deaths, continued improvement in screening quality and adherence remains key. Noninvasive screening modalities are actively being explored. Identification of specific genetic alterations in the adenoma-cancer sequence allow for the study and development of noninvasive screening modalities beyond guaiac-based fecal occult blood testing which target specific alterations or a panel of alterations. The stool DNA test is the first noninvasive screening tool that targets both human hemoglobin and specific genetic alterations. In this review we discuss stool DNA and other commercially available noninvasive colorectal cancer screening modalities in addition to other targets which previously have been or are currently under study. PMID:26934885

  15. Coffee Consumption and the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in Women

    PubMed Central

    Groessl, Erik J.; Allison, Matthew A.; Larson, Joseph C.; Ho, Samuel B.; Snetslaar, Linda G.; Lane, Dorothy S.; Tharp, Katie M.; Stefanick, Marcia L.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Higher coffee consumption has been associated with decreased incidence of colorectal cancer. Our objective was to examine the relationship of coffee intake to colorectal cancer incidence in a large observational cohort of postmenopausal US women. Methods. Data were collected for the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study providing a follow-up period of 12.9 years. The mean age of our sample (N = 83,778 women) was 63.5 years. Daily coffee intake was grouped into 3 categories: None, moderate (>0–<4 cups), and high (4+ cups). Proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between coffee intake and colorectal cancer. Results. There were 1,282 (1.53%) new cases of colorectal cancer during follow-up. Compared to nondrinkers, moderate and high coffee drinkers had an increased incidence of colorectal cancer in multivariate analysis (HR 1.15, 1.02–1.29; HR 1.14, 0.93–1.38). Moderate drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.20, 1.05–1.36) and high nondrip brew coffee intake (HR 1.43, 1.01–2.02) were associated with increased odds. Conclusion. Our results suggesting increased incidence of colorectal cancer associated with higher coffee consumption contradict recent meta-analyses but agree with a number of other studies showing that coffee increases risk or has no effect. Brew method results are novel and warrant further research. PMID:27239197

  16. Preoperative thrombocytosis predicts prognosis in stage II colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Sun; Suh, Kwang Wook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Thrombocytosis is known to be a poor prognostic factor in several types of solid tumors. The prognostic role of preoperative thrombocytosis in colorectal cancer remains limited. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic role of preoperative thrombocytosis in stage II colorectal cancer. Methods Two hundred eighty-four patients with stage II colorectal cancer who underwent surgical resection between December 2003 and December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Thrombocytosis was defined as platelet > 450 × 109/L. We compared patients with thrombocytosis and those without thrombocytosis in terms of survival. Results The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were lower in patients with thrombocytosis compared to those without thrombocytosis in stage II colorectal cancer (73.3% vs. 89.6%, P = 0.021). Cox multivariate analysis demonstrated that thrombocytosis (hazard ratio, 2.945; 95% confidence interval, 1.127–7.697; P = 0.028) was independently associated with DFS in patients with stage II colorectal cancer. Conclusion This study showed that thrombocytosis is a prognostic factor predicting DFS in stage II colorectal cancer patients. PMID:27274508

  17. Symptoms of depression as reported by Norwegian adolescents on the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Lundervold, Astri J.; Breivik, Kyrre; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Hysing, Mari

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated sex-differences in reports of depressive symptoms on a Norwegian translation of the short version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). The sample comprised 9702 Norwegian adolescents (born 1993–1995, 54.9% girls), mainly attending highschool. A set of statistical analyses were run to investigate the dimensionality of the SMFQ. Girls scored significantly higher than boys on the SMFQ and used the most severe response-category far more frequently. Overall, the statistical analyses supported the essential unidimensionality of SMFQ. However, the items with the highest loadings according to the bifactor analysis, reflecting problems related to tiredness, restlessness and concentration difficulties, indicated that some of the symptoms may both be independent of and part of the symptomatology of depression. Measurement invariance analysis showed that girls scored slightly higher on some items when taking the latent variable into account; girls had a lower threshold for reporting mood problems and problems related to tiredness than boys, who showed a marginally lower threshold for reporting that no-one loved them. However, the effect on the total SMFQ score was marginal, supporting the use of the Norwegian translation of SMFQ as a continuous variable in further studies of adolescents. PMID:24062708

  18. Relation between liquid hydrocarbon reserves and geothermal gradients - Norwegian North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, R.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Comparison of average geothermal gradients and initial liquid hydrocarbon reserves for 28 Norwegian North Sea fields indicates that gradients in the largest North Sea oil fields cluster around 2.1F/100 feet. No reserves are found where gradients are lower than 1.8F/100 feet or higher than 2.3F/100 feet. At 6.89 billion barrels, reserves for 14 fields falling between 2.05 and 2.15/100 feet total over four times the reserves for all other fields put together. Reserves for seven fields at gradients lower than 2.05F/100 feet and for seven higher than 2.15F/100 feet total 594 and 991 million barrels, respectively. The conclusion is that 2.1F/100 feet is the optimum gradient for generation of liquid hydrocarbons in the Norwegian North Sea, given the depth, kerogen type, and source rock potential of the Kimmeridge Clay, the primary source rock there. Gradients lower than this have not stimulated maximum generation from the source rock. At higher gradients, increasing gas production from source rocks and thermal cracking of previously generated liquid hydrocarbons to gas are effective in limiting liquid hydrocarbon reserves. The 2.1F/100 feet gradient should be a useful pathfinder in the search for new oil reserves in the Norwegian North Sea. Determination of the optimum gradient should be a useful pathfinder in other regions as well.

  19. Sleep Difficulties and Insomnia Symptoms in Norwegian Musicians Compared to the General Population and Workforce.

    PubMed

    Vaag, Jonas; Saksvik-Lehouillier, Ingvild; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Bjerkeset, Ottar

    2016-01-01

    Sleep problems are reported as common among performing artists and musicians. However, epidemiological research comparing musicians to different groups of the general population is lacking. For this study, 4,168 members of the Norwegian Musician's Union were invited to an online survey regarding work and health. Of the 2,121 (51%) respondents, 1,607 were active performing musicians. We measured prevalence of insomnia symptoms using the Bergen Insomnia Scale (BIS), and compared this sample to a representative sample of the general Norwegian population (n = 2,645). Overall, musicians had higher prevalence of insomnia symptoms compared to the general population (Prevalence Difference 6.9, 95% Confidence Interval 3.9-10.0). Item response analysis showed that this difference was mainly explained by nonrestorative sleep and dissatisfaction with sleep among musicians. An additional analysis, comparing musicians to the general Norwegian workforce (n = 8,518) on sleep difficulties, confirmed this tendency (Prevalence Difference 6.2, 95% Confidence Interval 4.3-8.1). Musicians performing classical, contemporary, rock, and country music reported the highest prevalence of insomnia, and these genres might be of special interest when developing preventative measures, treatment strategies, and further research on sleep difficulties among musicians. PMID:26337077

  20. Symptoms of depression as reported by Norwegian adolescents on the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Lundervold, Astri J; Breivik, Kyrre; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Hysing, Mari

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated sex-differences in reports of depressive symptoms on a Norwegian translation of the short version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). The sample comprised 9702 Norwegian adolescents (born 1993-1995, 54.9% girls), mainly attending highschool. A set of statistical analyses were run to investigate the dimensionality of the SMFQ. Girls scored significantly higher than boys on the SMFQ and used the most severe response-category far more frequently. Overall, the statistical analyses supported the essential unidimensionality of SMFQ. However, the items with the highest loadings according to the bifactor analysis, reflecting problems related to tiredness, restlessness and concentration difficulties, indicated that some of the symptoms may both be independent of and part of the symptomatology of depression. Measurement invariance analysis showed that girls scored slightly higher on some items when taking the latent variable into account; girls had a lower threshold for reporting mood problems and problems related to tiredness than boys, who showed a marginally lower threshold for reporting that no-one loved them. However, the effect on the total SMFQ score was marginal, supporting the use of the Norwegian translation of SMFQ as a continuous variable in further studies of adolescents. PMID:24062708

  1. Changes in screen time activity in Norwegian children from 2001 to 2008: two cross sectional studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been an increase in screen-based communication, leading to concerns about the negative health effects of screen-based activities in children and adolescents. The present study aimed to (1) analyze changes in screen time activity in Norwegian children from 2001 to 2008, and (2) to analyze associations between the changes in screen time activity over time and sex, grade level and parental educational level. Methods Within the project Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM), 1488 6th and 7th grade pupils from 27 Norwegian elementary schools completed a questionnaire including a question about time spent on television viewing and personal computer use in 2001 and 1339 pupils from the same schools completed the same questionnaire in 2008. Data were analyzed by multilevel linear mixed models. Results The proportions of 6th and 7th grade pupils at the 27 schools that reported screen time activity outside school of 2 hours/day or more decreased from 55% to 45% (p<0.001) from 2001 to 2008 when adjusting for sex, grade level and parental education. The decrease was most evident in 6th graders (51% to 37%) and in children with highly educated parents (54% to 39%). Conclusion The present study shows that there has been a marked reduction in screen time activity outside school in this group of Norwegian 10–12 year olds from 2001 to 2008. PMID:23356930

  2. Colorectal cancer development and advances in screening.

    PubMed

    Simon, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Most colon tumors develop via a multistep process involving a series of histological, morphological, and genetic changes that accumulate over time. This has allowed for screening and detection of early-stage precancerous polyps before they become cancerous in individuals at average risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), which may lead to substantial decreases in the incidence of CRC. Despite the known benefits of early screening, CRC remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Hence, it is important for health care providers to have an understanding of the risk factors for CRC and various stages of disease development in order to recommend appropriate screening strategies. This article provides an overview of the histological/molecular changes that characterize the development of CRC. It describes the available CRC screening methods and their advantages and limitations and highlights the stages of CRC development in which each screening method is most effective. PMID:27486317

  3. Local excision for selected colorectal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, M A; Goldberg, S M

    1989-07-01

    In summary, local excision is a useful tool in the management of selected colorectal carcinomas. The advent of the fibreoptic colonoscope has revised the concept of local excision when dealing with carcinoma-containing polyps of the colon. The clinician now has the means of locally excising certain carcinomas which would have required laparotomy in the not so distant past. In dealing with carcinoma of the rectum, local excision is not advocated for all rectal carcinomas. In fact, when the previously discussed tumour related factors are considered, local excision should be the ultimate procedure in less than 5% of operations performed for rectal carcinomas. However, when appropriately used, local excision provides a less morbid alternative to more radical procedures without compromising patient survival rates or local recurrence rates. PMID:2692739

  4. The gastrointestinal microbiota and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dulal, Santosh; Deveaux, April; Jovov, Biljana; Han, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    The human gut is home to a complex and diverse microbiota that contributes to the overall homeostasis of the host. Increasingly, the intestinal microbiota is recognized as an important player in human illness such as colorectal cancer (CRC), inflammatory bowel diseases, and obesity. CRC in itself is one of the major causes of cancer mortality in the Western world. The mechanisms by which bacteria contribute to CRC are complex and not fully understood, but increasing evidence suggests a link between the intestinal microbiota and CRC as well as diet and inflammation, which are believed to play a role in carcinogenesis. It is thought that the gut microbiota interact with dietary factors to promote chronic inflammation and CRC through direct influence on host cell physiology, cellular homeostasis, energy regulation, and/or metabolism of xenobiotics. This review provides an overview on the role of commensal gut microbiota in the development of human CRC and explores its association with diet and inflammation. PMID:25540232

  5. Familial Colorectal Cancer: Understanding the Alphabet Soup.

    PubMed

    Giglia, Matthew D; Chu, Daniel I

    2016-09-01

    While most colorectal cancers (CRCs) originate from nonhereditary spontaneous mutations, one-third of cases are familial or hereditary. Hereditary CRCs, which account for < 5% of all CRCs, have identifiable germline mutations and phenotypes, such as Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Familial CRCs, which account for up to 30% of CRCs, have no identifiable germline mutation or specific pattern of inheritance, but higher-than-expected incidence within a family. Since the discovery that certain genotypes can lead to development of CRC, thousands of mutations have now been implicated in CRC. These new findings have enhanced our ability to identify at-risk patients, initiate better surveillance, and take preventative measures. Given the large number of genes now associated with hereditary and familial CRCs, clinicians should be familiar with the alphabet soup of genes to provide the highest quality of care for patients and families. PMID:27582643

  6. Biomarkers of Angiogenesis in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Luay; Salem, Mohamed E.; Mikhail, Sameh

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and accounts for 10% of all new cancer diagnoses. Angiogenesis is a tightly regulated process that is mediated by a group of angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors. Given the widespread use of antiangiogenic agents in CRC, there has been considerable interest in the development of methods to identify novel markers that can predict outcome in the treatment of this disease with angiogenesis inhibitors. Multiple biomarkers are in various phases of development and include tissue, serum, and imaging biomarkers. The complexity of the angiogenesis pathway and the overlap between the various angiogenic factors present a significant challenge to biomarker discovery. In our review, we discuss the angiogenesis pathway and the most promising evolving concepts in biomarker discovery, as well as highlight the landmark studies that identify subgroups of patients with CRC who may preferentially benefit from angiogenesis inhibitors. PMID:26543385

  7. MicroRNA Methylation in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sippy; Lotsari-Salomaa, Johanna E; Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta; Peltomäki, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNA (including microRNA) associated gene silencing have been identified as a major characteristic in human cancers. These alterations may occur more frequently than genetic mutations and play a key role in silencing tumor suppressor genes or activating oncogenes, thereby affecting multiple cellular processes. In recent years, studies have shown that microRNAs, that act as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression are frequently deregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC), via aberrant DNA methylation. Over the past decade, technological advances have revolutionized the field of epigenetics and have led to the identification of numerous epigenetically dysregulated miRNAs in CRC, which are regulated by CpG island hypermethylation and DNA hypomethylation. In addition, aberrant DNA methylation of miRNA genes holds a great promise in several clinical applications such as biomarkers for early screening, prognosis, and therapeutic applications in CRC. PMID:27573897

  8. Colorectal Cancer Screening in 3 Racial Groups

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kimberly M.; Dickinson, Stephanie L.; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia R.; Tatum, Cathy M.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To understand predictors of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in African Americans, European Americans, and Native Americans as these groups differ in CRC incidence and mortality. Methods Participants were surveyed for knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors related to CRC. Results Predictive regression modeling found, after adjusting for race, CRC risk, and CRC worry, the odds of screening within guidelines were increased for men, those receiving doctor’s recommendation, those with polyp/tumor history, those under 70, those with more knowledge about CRC, and those with fewer barriers to screening. CRC screening rates did not differ by race. Conclusions These results reiterate the importance of knowledge, barriers, and physician recommendation for CRC screening in all racial groups. PMID:17555381

  9. Targeting Notch Signaling in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suman, Suman; Das, Trinath P.; Ankem, Murali K.; Damodaran, Chendil

    2014-01-01

    The activation of Notch signaling is implicated in tumorigenesis in the colon due to the induction of pro-survival signaling in colonic epithelial cells. Chemoresistance is a major obstacle for treatment and for the complete eradication of colorectal cancer (CRC), hence, the inhibition of Notch is an attractive target for CRC and several groups are working to identify small molecules or monoclonal antibodies that inhibit Notch or its downstream events; however, toxicity profiles in normal cells and organs often impede the clinical translation of these molecules. Dietary agents have gained momentum for targeting several pro-survival signaling cascades, and recent studies demonstrated that agents that inhibit Notch signaling result in growth inhibition in preclinical models of CRC. In this review, we focus on the importance of Notch as a preventive and therapeutic target for colon cancer and on the effect of WA on this signaling pathway in the context of colon cancer. PMID:25395896

  10. Targeting Notch Signaling in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Suman, Suman; Das, Trinath P; Ankem, Murali K; Damodaran, Chendil

    2014-12-01

    The activation of Notch signaling is implicated in tumorigenesis in the colon due to the induction of pro-survival signaling in colonic epithelial cells. Chemoresistance is a major obstacle for treatment and for the complete eradication of colorectal cancer (CRC), hence, the inhibition of Notch is an attractive target for CRC and several groups are working to identify small molecules or monoclonal antibodies that inhibit Notch or its downstream events; however, toxicity profiles in normal cells and organs often impede the clinical translation of these molecules. Dietary agents have gained momentum for targeting several pro-survival signaling cascades, and recent studies demonstrated that agents that inhibit Notch signaling result in growth inhibition in preclinical models of CRC. In this review, we focus on the importance of Notch as a preventive and therapeutic target for colon cancer and on the effect of WA on this signaling pathway in the context of colon cancer. PMID:25395896

  11. Interval colorectal carcinoma: An unsolved debate.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Mark; Galvao Neto, Antonio; Zhang, Xuchen

    2015-12-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC), as the third most common new cancer diagnosis, poses a significant health risk to the population. Interval CRCs are those that appear after a negative screening test or examination. The development of interval CRCs has been shown to be multifactorial: location of exam-academic institution versus community hospital, experience of the endoscopist, quality of the procedure, age of the patient, flat versus polypoid neoplasia, genetics, hereditary gastrointestinal neoplasia, and most significantly missed or incompletely excised lesions. The rate of interval CRCs has decreased in the last decade, which has been ascribed to an increased understanding of interval disease and technological advances in the screening of high risk individuals. In this article, we aim to review the literature with regard to the multifactorial nature of interval CRCs and provide the most recent developments regarding this important gastrointestinal entity. PMID:26668498

  12. Colorectal cancer: Metastases to a single organ

    PubMed Central

    Vatandoust, Sina; Price, Timothy J; Karapetis, Christos S

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy worldwide. In CRC patients, metastases are the main cause of cancer-related mortality. In a group of metastatic CRC patients, the metastases are limited to a single site (solitary organ); the liver and lungs are the most commonly involved sites. When metastatic disease is limited to the liver and/or lungs, the resectability of the metastatic lesions will dictate the management approach and the outcome. Less commonly, the site of solitary organ CRC metastasis is the peritoneum. In these patients, cytoreduction followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy may improve the outcome. Rarely, CRC involves other organs, such as the brain, bone, adrenals and spleen, as the only site of metastatic disease. There are limited data to guide clinical practice in these cases. Here, we have reviewed the disease characteristics, management approaches and prognosis based on the metastatic disease site in patients with CRC with metastases to a single organ. PMID:26557001

  13. Probiotics, prebiotics and colorectal cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Ambalam, Padma; Raman, Maya; Purama, Ravi Kiran; Doble, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third major cause of mortality among various cancer types in United States, has been increasing in developing countries due to varying diet and dietary habits and occupational hazards. Recent evidences showed that composition of gut microbiota could be associated with the development of CRC and other gut dysbiosis. Modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics, either alone or in combination could positively influence the cross-talk between immune system and microbiota, would be beneficial in preventing inflammation and CRC. In this review, role of probiotics and prebiotics in the prevention of CRC has been discussed. Various epidemiological and experimental studies, specifically gut microbiome research has effectively improved the understanding about the role of probiotics and microbial treatment as anticarcinogenic agents. A few human studies support the beneficial effect of probiotics and prebiotics; hence, comprehensive understanding is urgent to realize the clinical applications of probiotics and prebiotics in CRC prevention. PMID:27048903

  14. The Consensus Molecular Subtypes of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guinney, Justin; Dienstmann, Rodrigo; Wang, Xin; de Reyniès, Aurélien; Schlicker, Andreas; Soneson, Charlotte; Marisa, Laetitia; Roepman, Paul; Nyamundanda, Gift; Angelino, Paolo; Bot, Brian M.; Morris, Jeffrey S.; Simon, Iris M.; Gerster, Sarah; Fessler, Evelyn; de Sousa e Melo, Felipe; Missiaglia, Edoardo; Ramay, Hena; Barras, David; Homicsko, Krisztian; Maru, Dipen; Manyam, Ganiraju C.; Broom, Bradley; Boige, Valerie; Perez-Villamil, Beatriz; Laderas, Ted; Salazar, Ramon; Gray, Joe W.; Hanahan, Douglas; Tabernero, Josep; Bernards, Rene; Friend, Stephen H.; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Medema, Jan Paul; Sadanandam, Anguraj; Wessels, Lodewyk; Delorenzi, Mauro; Kopetz, Scott; Vermeulen, Louis; Tejpar, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a frequently lethal disease with heterogeneous outcomes and drug responses. To resolve inconsistencies among the reported gene expression–based CRC classifications and facilitate clinical translation, we formed an international consortium dedicated to large-scale data sharing and analytics across expert groups. We show marked interconnectivity between six independent classification systems coalescing into four consensus molecular subtypes (CMS) with distinguishing features: CMS1 (MSI Immune, 14%), hypermutated, microsatellite unstable, strong immune activation; CMS2 (Canonical, 37%), epithelial, chromosomally unstable, marked WNT and MYC signaling activation; CMS3 (Metabolic, 13%), epithelial, evident metabolic dysregulation; and CMS4 (Mesenchymal, 23%), prominent transforming growth factor β activation, stromal invasion, and angiogenesis. Samples with mixed features (13%) possibly represent a transition phenotype or intra-tumoral heterogeneity. We consider the CMS groups the most robust classification system currently available for CRC – with clear biological interpretability – and the basis for future clinical stratification and subtype–based targeted interventions. PMID:26457759

  15. Immune checkpoints and immunotherapy for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Preet Paul; Sharma, Piyush K.; Krishnan, Gayathri; Lockhart, A. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the major causes of death worldwide, despite steady improvement in early detection and overall survival over the past decade. Current treatment paradigms, with chemotherapy and biologics, appear to have reached their maximum benefit. Immunotherapy, especially with checkpoint inhibitors, has shown considerable clinical benefit in various cancers, including mismatch-repair-deficient CRC. This has led to the planning and initiation of several clinical trials evaluating novel immunotherapy agents—as single agents, combinations and in conjunction with chemotherapy—in patients with CRC. This article reviews biological and preclinical data for checkpoint inhibitors and discusses various immunotherapy trials in CRC, as well as current efforts in CRC immunotherapy. PMID:26510455

  16. Pharmacologic resistance in colorectal cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, William A.; Swaika, Abhisek; Mody, Kabir

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) persists as one of the most prevalent and deadly tumor types in both men and women worldwide. This is in spite of widespread, effective measures of preventive screening, and also major advances in treatment options. Despite advances in cytotoxic and targeted therapy, resistance to chemotherapy remains one of the greatest challenges in long-term management of incurable metastatic disease and eventually contributes to death as tumors accumulate means of evading treatment. We performed a comprehensive literature search on the data available through PubMed, Medline, Scopus, and the ASCO Annual Symposium abstracts through June 2015 for the purpose of this review. We discuss the current state of knowledge of clinically relevant mechanisms of resistance to cytotoxic and targeted therapies now in use for the treatment of CRC. PMID:26753006

  17. Colorectal cancer carcinogenesis: a review of mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Kanwal; Ghias, Kulsoom

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in women and the third most common in men globally. CRC arises from one or a combination of chromosomal instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, and microsatellite instability. Genetic instability is usually caused by aneuploidy and loss of heterozygosity. Mutations in the tumor suppressor or cell cycle genes may also lead to cellular transformation. Similarly, epigenetic and/or genetic alterations resulting in impaired cellular pathways, such as DNA repair mechanism, may lead to microsatellite instability and mutator phenotype. Non-coding RNAs, more importantly microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs have also been implicated at various CRC stages. Understanding the specific mechanisms of tumorigenesis and the underlying genetic and epigenetic traits is critical in comprehending the disease phenotype. This paper reviews these mechanisms along with the roles of various non-coding RNAs in CRCs. PMID:27144067

  18. [Biotherapies in metastatic colorectal cancers in 2014].

    PubMed

    Jouinot, Anne; Coriat, Romain; Huillard, Olivier; Goldwasser, François

    2014-10-01

    The treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer has been transformed during the last decade with biotherapies, two of them were marketed in 2013. Four agents are monoclonal antibodies, while the fifth agent is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Two agents are inhibitors of the EGF-receptor pathway, cetuximab and panitumumab, and have as class-toxicity, cutaneous toxicity. The other three agents are bevacizumab, aflibercept and regorafenib, and interact with angiogenesis, they are associated with a risk of vascular toxicity, mainly hypertension. These agents participate to an improvement of disease control at the metastatic stage, and in some cases, favour the curative surgical resection of metastases. Their use is discussed in multidisciplinary meetings dedicated to gastrointestinal cancers, in the presence of liver surgeons. PMID:25065664

  19. Dendritic cell defects in the colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Legitimo, Annalisa; Consolini, Rita; Failli, Alessandra; Orsini, Giulia; Spisni, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) results from the accumulation of both genetic and epigenetic alterations of the genome. However, also the formation of an inflammatory milieu plays a pivotal role in tumor development and progression. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a relevant role in tumor by exerting differential pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic functions, depending on the local milieu. Quantitative and functional impairments of DCs have been widely observed in several types of cancer, including CRC, representing a tumor-escape mechanism employed by cancer cells to elude host immunosurveillance. Understanding the interactions between DCs and tumors is important for comprehending the mechanisms of tumor immune surveillance and escape, and provides novel approaches to therapy of cancer. This review summarizes updated information on the role of the DCs in colon cancer development and/or progression. PMID:25483675

  20. Colorectal Cancer in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Potack, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Patients with long-standing inflammatory bowel disease have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). CRC risk increases with longer duration of colitis, greater anatomic extent of colitis, the presence of primary sclerosing cholangitis, family history of CRC and severity of inflammation of the colon. Chemoprevention includes aminosalicylates, ursodeoxycholic acid, and possibly folic acid. To reduce CRC mortality in IBD, colonoscopic surveillance remains the major way to detect early mucosal dysplasia. When dysplasia is confirmed, proctocolectomy is considered for these patients. Ulcerative colitis patients with total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal-anastomosis have a rather low risk of dysplasia in the ileal pouch, but the anal transition zone should be monitored periodically. New endoscopic and molecular screening approaches may further refine our current surveillance guidelines and our understanding of the natural history of dysplasia. PMID:20485613

  1. Prognostic Value of Colorectal Cancer Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Paolo; Laghi, Luigi; Delconte, Gabriele; Malesci, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Despite the large amount of data in cancer biology and many studies into the likely survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, knowledge regarding the issue of CRC prognostic biomarkers remains poor. The Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) staging system continues to be the most powerful and reliable predictor of the clinical outcome of CRC patients. The exponential increase of knowledge in the field of molecular genetics has lead to the identification of specific alterations involved in the malignant progression. Many of these genetic alterations were proposed as biomarkers which could be used in clinical practice to estimate CRC prognosis. Recently there has been an explosive increase in the number of putative biomarkers able to predict the response to specific adjuvant treatment. In this review we explore and summarize data concerning prognostic and predictive biomarkers and we attempt to shed light on recent research that could lead to the emergence of new biomarkers in CRC. PMID:24212797

  2. Role of phytochemicals in colorectal cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Hua; Niu, Yin-Bo; Sun, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Chang-Xu; Fan, Lei; Mei, Qi-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Although the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been declining in recent decades, it remains a major public health issue as a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity worldwide. Prevention is one milestone for this disease. Extensive study has demonstrated that a diet containing fruits, vegetables, and spices has the potential to prevent CRC. The specific constituents in the dietary foods which are responsible for preventing CRC and the possible mechanisms have also been investigated extensively. Various phytochemicals have been identified in fruits, vegetables, and spices which exhibit chemopreventive potential. In this review article, chemopreventive effects of phytochemicals including curcumin, polysaccharides (apple polysaccharides and mushroom glucans), saponins (Paris saponins, ginsenosides and soy saponins), resveratrol, and quercetin on CRC and the mechanisms are discussed. This review proposes the need for more clinical evidence for the effects of phytochemicals against CRC in large trials. The conclusion of the review is that these phytochemicals might be therapeutic candidates in the campaign against CRC. PMID:26309353

  3. Colorectal cancer development and advances in screening

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Most colon tumors develop via a multistep process involving a series of histological, morphological, and genetic changes that accumulate over time. This has allowed for screening and detection of early-stage precancerous polyps before they become cancerous in individuals at average risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), which may lead to substantial decreases in the incidence of CRC. Despite the known benefits of early screening, CRC remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Hence, it is important for health care providers to have an understanding of the risk factors for CRC and various stages of disease development in order to recommend appropriate screening strategies. This article provides an overview of the histological/molecular changes that characterize the development of CRC. It describes the available CRC screening methods and their advantages and limitations and highlights the stages of CRC development in which each screening method is most effective. PMID:27486317

  4. Management of recurrent and metastatic colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Asbun, H J; Hughes, K S

    1993-02-01

    When metastatic or recurrent disease from colorectal carcinoma is detected, the surgeon must decide whether a patient is a candidate for resection. Although long-term survival after resection is not optimal, the relegation of patients to nonresective treatment means denying them the only chance for cure currently available. When isolated disease involving the liver, lung, or region of the primary carcinoma is documented, curative resection must be considered. Symptomatic patients may also obtain maximal palliation from resection, diversion, or a bypass procedure. Chemotherapy for the treatment of recurrent disease is palliative and probably should be considered only within clinical trials. Future alternative methods of treatment or new chemotherapeutic regimens need to be studied to improve survival and quality of life. PMID:8426994

  5. Interval colorectal carcinoma: An unsolved debate

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Mark; Neto, Antonio Galvao; Zhang, Xuchen

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC), as the third most common new cancer diagnosis, poses a significant health risk to the population. Interval CRCs are those that appear after a negative screening test or examination. The development of interval CRCs has been shown to be multifactorial: location of exam-academic institution versus community hospital, experience of the endoscopist, quality of the procedure, age of the patient, flat versus polypoid neoplasia, genetics, hereditary gastrointestinal neoplasia, and most significantly missed or incompletely excised lesions. The rate of interval CRCs has decreased in the last decade, which has been ascribed to an increased understanding of interval disease and technological advances in the screening of high risk individuals. In this article, we aim to review the literature with regard to the multifactorial nature of interval CRCs and provide the most recent developments regarding this important gastrointestinal entity. PMID:26668498

  6. Eastern Canadian Colorectal Cancer Consensus Conference 2013: emerging therapies in the treatment of pancreatic, rectal, and colorectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Di Valentin, T; Asmis, T; Asselah, J; Aubin, F; Aucoin, N; Berry, S; Biagi, J; Booth, C M; Burkes, R; Coburn, N; Colwell, B; Cripps, C; Dawson, L A; Dorreen, M; Frechette, D; Goel, R; Gray, S; Hammad, N; Jonker, D; Kavan, P; Maroun, J; Nanji, S; Roberge, D; Samson, B; Seal, M; Shabana, W; Simunovic, M; Snow, S; Tehfe, M; Thirlwell, M; Tsvetkova, E; Vickers, M; Vuong, T; Goodwin, R

    2016-02-01

    The annual Eastern Canadian Colorectal Cancer Consensus Conference held in Montreal, Quebec, 17-19 October 2013, marked the 10-year anniversary of this meeting that is attended by leaders in medical, radiation, and surgical oncology. The goal of the attendees is to improve the care of patients affected by gastrointestinal malignancies. Topics discussed during the conference included pancreatic cancer, rectal cancer, and metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:26966404

  7. Eastern Canadian Colorectal Cancer Consensus Conference 2013: emerging therapies in the treatment of pancreatic, rectal, and colorectal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Di Valentin, T.; Asmis, T.; Asselah, J.; Aubin, F.; Aucoin, N.; Berry, S.; Biagi, J.; Booth, C.M.; Burkes, R.; Coburn, N.; Colwell, B.; Cripps, C.; Dawson, L.A.; Dorreen, M.; Frechette, D.; Goel, R.; Gray, S.; Hammad, N.; Jonker, D.; Kavan, P.; Maroun, J.; Nanji, S.; Roberge, D.; Samson, B.; Seal, M.; Shabana, W.; Simunovic, M.; Snow, S.; Tehfe, M.; Thirlwell, M.; Tsvetkova, E.; Vickers, M.; Vuong, T.; Goodwin, R.

    2016-01-01

    The annual Eastern Canadian Colorectal Cancer Consensus Conference held in Montreal, Quebec, 17–19 October 2013, marked the 10-year anniversary of this meeting that is attended by leaders in medical, radiation, and surgical oncology. The goal of the attendees is to improve the care of patients affected by gastrointestinal malignancies. Topics discussed during the conference included pancreatic cancer, rectal cancer, and metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:26966404

  8. A Colorectal “Care Bundle” to Reduce Surgical Site Infections in Colorectal Surgeries: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Lutfiyya, Waleed; Parsons, David; Breen, Juliann

    2012-01-01

    Background: Kaiser Sunnyside Medical Center has participated in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) since January 2006. Data on general and colorectal surgical site infections (SSIs) demonstrated a need for improvement in SSI rates. Objective: To evaluate application of a “care bundle” for patients undergoing colorectal operations, with the goal of reducing overall SSI rates. Methods: We prospectively implemented multiple interventions, with retrospective analysis of data using the NSQIP database. The overall, superficial, deep, and organ/space SSI rates were compared before and after implementation of this colorectal care bundle. Results: Between January 2006 and December 2009, there were 430 colorectal cases in our NSQIP report with 91 infections, an overall rate of 21.16%. Between January 2010, when the colorectal care bundle was implemented, and June 2011, there were 195 cases and 13 infections, a 6.67% overall rate. The absolute decrease of 14.49% is significant (p < 0.0001). The rate of superficial SSI decreased from 15.12% to 3.59% (p < 0.0001). The rates for deep and organ/space SSI also showed a decrease; however, this was not statistically significant. The NSQIP observed-to-expected ratio for colorectal SSI decreased from a range of 1.27 to 1.83 before implementation to 0.54 after implementation (fiscal year 2010). Conclusions: Our institution was a NSQIP high outlier in general surgery SSIs and had a high proportion of these cases represented in colorectal cases. By instituting a care bundle composed of core and adjunct strategies, we significantly decreased our rate of colorectal SSIs. PMID:23012593

  9. Colorectal carcinogenesis-update and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Raskov, Hans; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a very common malignancy in the Western World and despite advances in surgery, chemotherapy and screening, it is still the second leading cause of cancer deaths in this part of the world. Numerous factors are found important in the development of CRC including colonocyte metbolism, high risk luminal environment, inflammation, as well as lifestyle factors such as diet, tobacco, and alchohol consumption. In recent years focus has turned towards the genetics and molecular biology of CRC and several interesting and promising correlations and pathways have been discovered. The major genetic pathways of CRC are the Chromosome Instability Pathway representing the pathway of sporadic CRC through the K-ras, APC, and P53 mutations, and the Microsatellite Instability Pathway representing the pathway of hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer through mutations in mismatch repair genes. To identify early cancers, screening programs have been initiated, and the leading strategy has been the use of faecal occult blood testing followed by colonoscopy in positive cases. Regarding the treatment of colorectal cancer, significant advances have been made in the recent decade. The molecular targets of CRC include at least two important cell surface receptors: the epidermal growth factor receptor and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. The genetic and molecular knowledge of CRC has widen the scientific and clinical perspectives of diagnosing and treatment. However, despite significant advances in the understanding and treatment of CRC, results from targeted therapy are still not convincing. Future studies will determine the role for this new treatment modality. PMID:25561783

  10. Inflammation and chemerin in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Serpil; Yilmaz, Fatma Meric; Yazici, Ozan; Yozgat, Ahmet; Sezer, Sevilay; Ozdemir, Nuriye; Uysal, Sema; Purnak, Tugrul; Sendur, Mehmet Ali; Ozaslan, Ersan

    2016-05-01

    Chemerin is expressed mainly in the adipose tissue. It is an agonist of chemokine-like receptor-1, which is expressed by the immune system cells. Chemerin stimulates the chemotaxis of the immune system cells, and this indicates the function of chemerin and chemokine-like receptor-1 in the immune response. The tumor microenvironment is very important for determining cancer cell growth and spreading. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between colorectal cancer, inflammation, and adipokines including chemerin, adiponectin, and vaspin. The study group consisted of patients with colon cancer, whereas the control subjects consisted of patients with benign conditions, diagnosed with colonoscopy. The two groups were compared in terms of the C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen, adiponectin, chemerin, and vaspin. A total of 41 (28 men, 13 women) patients with confirmed colon cancer, and 27 (15 men, 12 women) controls without, confirmed by colonoscopy, were enrolled. The median chemerin levels were found significantly higher in the study group than the controls (390 vs. 340 ng/mL, p = 0.032), whereas the mean vaspin and adiponectin levels were not significantly different. The median values for the CRP, fibrinogen, and ESR were significantly higher in the patients with colon cancer, when compared to the control group (6.08 vs. 1.4 mg/L, p < 0.0001; 408 vs. 359 mg/dL, p = 0.002; and 30 vs. 8 mm/h, p < 0.0001, respectively). Our results show that higher levels of circulating chemerin, CRP, fibrinogen, and ESR are associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. PMID:26628300

  11. Innate immunity gene polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cindy M; Chia, Victoria M; Gunter, Marc J; Zanetti, Krista A; Ryan, Bríd M; Goodman, Julie E; Harris, Curtis C; Weissfeld, Joel; Huang, Wen-Yi; Chanock, Stephen; Yeager, Meredith; Hayes, Richard B; Berndt, Sonja I

    2013-11-01

    Inherited variation in genes that regulate innate immunity and inflammation may contribute to colorectal neoplasia risk. To evaluate this association, we conducted a nested case-control study of 451 colorectal cancer cases, 694 colorectal advanced adenoma cases and 696 controls of European descent within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. A total of 935 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 98 genes were evaluated. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association with colorectal neoplasia. Sixteen SNPs were associated with colorectal neoplasia risk at P < 0.01, but after adjustment for multiple testing, only rs2838732 (ITGB2) remained suggestively associated with colorectal neoplasia (OR(per T allele) = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.57-0.83, P = 7.7 × 10(-5), adjusted P = 0.07). ITGB2 codes for the CD18 protein in the integrin beta chain family. The ITGB2 association was stronger for colorectal cancer (OR(per T allele) = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.30-0.55, P = 2.4 × 10(-) (9)) than for adenoma (OR(per T allele) = 0.84, 95%CI: 0.69-1.03, P = 0.08), but it did not replicate in the validation study. The ITGB2 rs2838732 association was significantly modified by smoking status (P value for interaction = 0.003). Among never and former smokers, it was inversely associated with colorectal neoplasia (OR(per T allele) = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.37-0.69 and OR(per T allele) = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54-0.95, respectively), but no association was seen among current smokers. Other notable findings were observed for SNPs in BPI/LBP and MYD88. Although the results need to be replicated, our findings suggest that genetic variation in inflammation-related genes may be related to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. PMID:23803696

  12. Innate immunity gene polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, Sonja I.

    2013-01-01

    Inherited variation in genes that regulate innate immunity and inflammation may contribute to colorectal neoplasia risk. To evaluate this association, we conducted a nested case–control study of 451 colorectal cancer cases, 694 colorectal advanced adenoma cases and 696 controls of European descent within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. A total of 935 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 98 genes were evaluated. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association with colorectal neoplasia. Sixteen SNPs were associated with colorectal neoplasia risk at P < 0.01, but after adjustment for multiple testing, only rs2838732 (ITGB2) remained suggestively associated with colorectal neoplasia (ORper T allele = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.57–0.83, P = 7.7 × 10–5, adjusted P = 0.07). ITGB2 codes for the CD18 protein in the integrin beta chain family. The ITGB2 association was stronger for colorectal cancer (ORper T allele = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.30–0.55, P = 2.4 × 10− 9) than for adenoma (ORper T allele = 0.84, 95%CI: 0.69–1.03, P = 0.08), but it did not replicate in the validation study. The ITGB2 rs2838732 association was significantly modified by smoking status (P value for interaction = 0.003). Among never and former smokers, it was inversely associated with colorectal neoplasia (ORper T allele = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.37–0.69 and ORper T allele = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54–0.95, respectively), but no association was seen among current smokers. Other notable findings were observed for SNPs in BPI/LBP and MYD88. Although the results need to be replicated, our findings suggest that genetic variation in inflammation-related genes may be related to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. PMID:23803696

  13. A randomized trial on folic acid supplementation and risk of recurrent colorectal adenoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Evidence from observational studies suggests that inadequate folate status enhances colorectal carcinogenesis, but results from some randomized trials do not support this hypothesis. Objective: To assess the effect of folic acid supplementation on recurrent colorectal adenoma, we conduc...

  14. Exposure to Fibres, Crystalline Silica, Silicon Carbide and Sulphur Dioxide in the Norwegian Silicon Carbide Industry

    PubMed Central

    Føreland, S.; Bye, E.; Bakke, B.; Eduard, W.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess personal exposure to fibres, crystalline silica, silicon carbide (SiC) and sulphur dioxide in the Norwegian SiC industry. Methods: Approximately 720 fibre samples, 720 respirable dust samples and 1400 total dust samples were collected from randomly chosen workers from the furnace, processing and maintenance departments in all three Norwegian SiC plants. The respirable dust samples were analysed for quartz, cristobalite and non-fibrous SiC content. Approximately 240 sulphur dioxide samples were collected from workers in the furnace department. Results: The sorting operators from all plants, control room and cleaning operators in Plant A and charger, charger/mix and payloader operators in Plant C had a geometric mean (GM) of fibre exposure above the Norwegian occupational exposure limit (OEL) (0.1 fibre cm−3). The cleaner operators in Plant A had the highest GM exposure to respirable quartz (20 μg m−3). The charger/mix operators in Plant C had the highest GM exposure to respirable cristobalite (38 μg m−3) and the refinery crusher operators in Plant A had the highest GM exposure to non-fibrous SiC (0.65 mg m−3). Exposure to the crystalline silica and non-fibrous SiC was generally low and between 0.4 and 2.1% of the measurements exceeded the OELs. The cleaner operators in Plant A had the highest GM exposure to respirable dust (1.3 mg m−3) and total dust (21 mg m−3). GM exposures for respirable dust above the Norwegian SiC industry-specific OEL of 0.5 mg m−3 were also found for refinery crusher operators in all plants and mix, charger, charger/mix and sorting operators in Plant C. Only 4% of the total dust measurements exceeded the OEL for nuisance dust of (10 mg m−3). Exposure to sulphur dioxide was generally low. However, peaks in the range of 10–100 p.p.m. were observed for control room and crane operators in Plants A and B and for charger and charger/mix operators in Plant C. Conclusion: Workers in

  15. Disintegration of a marine-based ice stream - evidence from the Norwegian Channel, north-eastern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morén, Björn M.; Petter Sejrup, Hans; Hjelstuen, Berit O.; Haflidason, Haflidi; Schäuble, Cathrina; Borge, Marianne

    2014-05-01

    The Norwegian Channel Ice Stream repeatedly drained large part of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet through Mid and Late Pleistocene glacial stages. During parts of Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3, glacial ice from Fennoscandia and the British Isles coalesced in the central North Sea and the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream reached the shelf edge on multiple occasions. Through the last decades a large amount of acoustic and sediment core data have been collected from the Norwegian Channel, providing a good background for studies focussing on stability- and development-controlling parameters for marine-based ice streams, the retreat rate of the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream, and the behaviour of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. Further, this improved understanding can be used to develop more accurate numerical climate models and models which can be used to model ice-sheet behaviour of the past as well as the future. This study presents new acoustic records and data from sediment cores which contribute to a better understanding of the retreat pattern and the retreat rate of the last ice stream that occupied the Norwegian Channel. From bathymetric and TOPAS seismic data, mega-scale glacial lineations, grounding-zone wedges, and end moraines have been mapped, thereby allowing us to reconstruct the pro- and subglacial conditions at the time of the creation of these landforms. It is concluded that the whole Norwegian Channel was deglaciated in just over 1 000 years and that for most of this time the ice margin was located at positions reflected by depositional grounding-zone wedges. Further work will explore the influence of channel shape and feeding of ice from western Norwegian fjords on this retreat pattern through numerical modelling.

  16. Metabolites of tobacco smoking and colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Cross, Amanda J; Boca, Simina; Freedman, Neal D; Caporaso, Neil E; Huang, Wen-Yi; Sinha, Rashmi; Sampson, Joshua N; Moore, Steven C

    2014-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is not strictly considered a tobacco-related malignancy, but modest associations have emerged from large meta-analyses. Most studies, however, use self-reported data, which are subject to misclassification. Biomarkers of tobacco exposure may reduce misclassification and provide insight into metabolic variability that potentially influences carcinogenesis. Our aim was to identify metabolites that represent smoking habits and individual variation in tobacco metabolism, and investigate their association with colorectal cancer. In a nested case-control study of 255 colorectal cancers and 254 matched controls identified in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian cancer screening trial, baseline serum was used to identify metabolites by ultra-high-performance liquid-phase chromatography and mass spectrometry, as well as gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by logistic regression. Self-reported current smoking was associated with serum cotinine, O-cresol sulfate and hydroxycotinine. Self-reported current smoking of any tobacco (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.02-3.54) and current cigarette smoking (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 0.75-3.04) were associated with elevated colorectal cancer risks, although the latter was not statistically significant. Individuals with detectable levels of hydroxycotinine had an increased colorectal cancer risk compared with those with undetectable levels (OR = 2.68, 95% CI: 1.33-5.40). Although those with detectable levels of cotinine had a suggestive elevated risk of this malignancy (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 0.98-3.33), those with detectable levels of O-cresol sulfate did not (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.57-2.37). Biomarkers capturing smoking behavior and metabolic variation exhibit stronger associations with colorectal cancer than self-report, providing additional evidence for a role for tobacco in this malignancy. PMID:24648381

  17. Participation and barriers to colorectal cancer screening in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Harmy Mohamed; Daud, Norwati; Noor, Norhayati Mohd; Rahim, Amry Abdul

    2012-01-01

    In Malaysia, colorectal cancer is the most common cancer in males and the third most common in females. Mortality due to colorectal cancer can be effectively reduced with early diagnosis. This study was designed to look into colorectal cancer screening participation and its barriers among average risk individuals in Malaysia. A cross sectional study was conducted from August 2009 till April 2010 involving average risk individuals from 44 primary care clinics in West Malaysia. Each individual was asked whether they have performed any of the colorectal cancer screening methods in the past five years. The barrier questions had three domains: patient factors, test factors and health care provider factors. Descriptive analysis was achieved using Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 12.0. A total of 1,905 average risk individuals responded making a response rate of 93.8%. Only 13 (0.7%) respondents had undergone any of the colorectal cancer screening methods in the past five years. The main patient and test factors for not participating were embarrassment (35.2%) and feeling uncomfortable (30.0%), respectively. There were 11.2% of respondents who never received any advice to do screening. The main reason for them to undergo screening was being advised by health care providers (84.6%). The study showed that participation in colorectal cancer screening in Malaysia is extremely low and multiple factors contribute to this situation. Given the importance of the disease, efforts should be made to increase colorectal cancer screening activities in Malaysia. PMID:23098504

  18. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  19. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  20. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  1. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  2. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  3. Altered Purinergic Signaling in Colorectal Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Contributes to Colorectal Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    La, Jun-Ho; Bielefeldt, Klaus; Gebhart, G. F.

    2010-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by pain and hypersensitivity in the relative absence of colon inflammation or structural changes. To assess the role of P2X receptors expressed in colorectal dorsal root ganglion (c-DRG) neurons and colon hypersensitivity, we studied excitability and purinergic signaling of retrogradely labeled mouse thoracolumbar (TL) and lumbosacral (LS) c-DRG neurons after intracolonic treatment with saline or zymosan (which reproduces 2 major features of IBS—persistent colorectal hypersensitivity without inflammation) using patch-clamp, immunohistochemical, and RT-PCR techniques. Although whole cell capacitances did not differ between LS and TL c-DRG neurons and were not changed after zymosan treatment, membrane excitability was increased in LS and TL c-DRG neurons from zymosan-treated mice. Purinergic agonist adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) and α,β-methylene ATP [α,β-meATP] produced inward currents in TL c-DRG neurons were predominantly P2X3-like fast (∼70% of responsive neurons); P2X2/3-like slow currents were more common in LS c-DRG neurons (∼35% of responsive neurons). Transient currents were not produced by either agonist in c-DRG neurons from P2X3−/− mice. Neither total whole cell Kv current density nor the sustained or transient Kv components was changed in c-DRG neurons after zymosan treatment. The number of cells expressing P2X3 protein and its mRNA and the kinetic properties of ATP- and α,β-meATP-evoked currents in c-DRG neurons were not changed by zymosan treatment. However, the EC50 of α,β-meATP for the fast current decreased significantly in TL c-DRG neurons. These findings suggest that colorectal hypersensitivity produced by intracolonic zymosan increases excitability and enhances purinergic signaling in c-DRG neurons. PMID:20861433

  4. Altered purinergic signaling in colorectal dorsal root ganglion neurons contributes to colorectal hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Masamichi; La, Jun-Ho; Bielefeldt, Klaus; Gebhart, G F

    2010-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by pain and hypersensitivity in the relative absence of colon inflammation or structural changes. To assess the role of P2X receptors expressed in colorectal dorsal root ganglion (c-DRG) neurons and colon hypersensitivity, we studied excitability and purinergic signaling of retrogradely labeled mouse thoracolumbar (TL) and lumbosacral (LS) c-DRG neurons after intracolonic treatment with saline or zymosan (which reproduces 2 major features of IBS-persistent colorectal hypersensitivity without inflammation) using patch-clamp, immunohistochemical, and RT-PCR techniques. Although whole cell capacitances did not differ between LS and TL c-DRG neurons and were not changed after zymosan treatment, membrane excitability was increased in LS and TL c-DRG neurons from zymosan-treated mice. Purinergic agonist adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and α,β-methylene ATP [α,β-meATP] produced inward currents in TL c-DRG neurons were predominantly P2X(3)-like fast (∼70% of responsive neurons); P2X(2/3)-like slow currents were more common in LS c-DRG neurons (∼35% of responsive neurons). Transient currents were not produced by either agonist in c-DRG neurons from P2X(3)(-/-) mice. Neither total whole cell Kv current density nor the sustained or transient Kv components was changed in c-DRG neurons after zymosan treatment. The number of cells expressing P2X(3) protein and its mRNA and the kinetic properties of ATP- and α,β-meATP-evoked currents in c-DRG neurons were not changed by zymosan treatment. However, the EC(50) of α,β-meATP for the fast current decreased significantly in TL c-DRG neurons. These findings suggest that colorectal hypersensitivity produced by intracolonic zymosan increases excitability and enhances purinergic signaling in c-DRG neurons. PMID:20861433

  5. Helicobacter pylori and colorectal neoplasia: Is there a causal link?

    PubMed

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Karatapanis, Stylianos; Georgopoulos, Sotirios D

    2016-01-14

    Ever since Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was recognized as an infectious cause of gastric cancer, there has been increasing interest in examining its potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Data from case-control and cross-sectional studies, mostly relying on hospital-based samples, and several meta-analyses have shown a positive statistical relationship between H. pylori infection and colorectal neoplasia. However, the possibility exists that the results have been influenced by bias, including the improper selection of patients and disparities with respect to potential confounders. While the evidence falls short of a definitive causal link, it appears that infection with H. pylori/H. pylori-related gastritis is associated with an increased, although modest, risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer. The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for this association remain uncertain. H. pylori has been detected in colorectal malignant tissues; however, the possibility that H. pylori is a direct activator of colonic carcinogenesis remains purely hypothetical. On the other hand, experimental data have indicated a series of potential oncogenic interactions between these bacteria and colorectal mucosa, including induction and perpetuation of inflammatory responses, alteration of gut microflora and release of toxins and/or hormonal mediators, such as gastrin, which may contribute to tumor formation. PMID:26811614

  6. Helicobacter pylori and colorectal neoplasia: Is there a causal link?

    PubMed Central

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Karatapanis, Stylianos; Georgopoulos, Sotirios D

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was recognized as an infectious cause of gastric cancer, there has been increasing interest in examining its potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Data from case-control and cross-sectional studies, mostly relying on hospital-based samples, and several meta-analyses have shown a positive statistical relationship between H. pylori infection and colorectal neoplasia. However, the possibility exists that the results have been influenced by bias, including the improper selection of patients and disparities with respect to potential confounders. While the evidence falls short of a definitive causal link, it appears that infection with H. pylori/H. pylori-related gastritis is associated with an increased, although modest, risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer. The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for this association remain uncertain. H. pylori has been detected in colorectal malignant tissues; however, the possibility that H. pylori is a direct activator of colonic carcinogenesis remains purely hypothetical. On the other hand, experimental data have indicated a series of potential oncogenic interactions between these bacteria and colorectal mucosa, including induction and perpetuation of inflammatory responses, alteration of gut microflora and release of toxins and/or hormonal mediators, such as gastrin, which may contribute to tumor formation. PMID:26811614

  7. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Yasumitsu; Hattori, Masakazu; Douden, Kenji; Ishiyama, Yasuhiro; Hashizume, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of single-incision laparoscopic colectomy (SILC) for colorectal cancer on short-term clinical and oncological outcomes by comparison with multiport conventional laparoscopic colectomy (CLC). METHODS: A systematic review was performed using MEDLINE for the time period of 2008 to December 2014 to retrieve all relevant literature. The search terms were “laparoscopy”, “single incision”, “single port”, “single site”, “SILS”, “LESS” and “colorectal cancer”. Publications were included if they were randomized controlled trials, case-matched controlled studies, or comparative studies, in which patients underwent single-incision (SILS or LESS) laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Studies were excluded if they were non-comparative, or not including surgery involving the colon or rectum. A total of 15 studies with 589 patients who underwent SILC for colorectal cancer were selected. RESULTS: No significant differences between the groups were noted in terms of mortality or morbidity. The benefit of the SILC approach included reduction in conversion rate to laparotomy, but there were no significant differences in other short-term clinical outcomes between the groups. Satisfactory oncological surgical quality was also demonstrated for SILC for the treatment of colorectal cancer with a similar average lymph node harvest and proximal and distal resection margin length as multiport CLC. CONCLUSION: SILC can be performed safely with similar short-term clinical and oncological outcomes as multiport CLC. PMID:26843918

  8. MicroRNAs: Clinical Relevance in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Joe; Ohtsuka, Masahisa; Pichler, Martin; Ling, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancer diagnoses and causes of mortality worldwide. MicroRNAs are a class of small, non-coding regulatory RNAs that have shown strong associations with colorectal cancer. Through the repression of target messenger RNAs, microRNAs modulate many cellular pathways, such as those involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. The utilization of microRNAs has shown significant promise in the diagnosis and prognosis of colorectal cancer, owing to their unique expression profile associations with cancer types and malignancies. Moreover, microRNA therapeutics with mimics or antagonists show great promise in preclinical studies, which encourages further development of their clinical use for colorectal cancer patients. The unique ability of microRNAs to affect multiple downstream pathways represents a novel approach for cancer therapy. Although still early in its development, we believe that microRNAs can be used in the near future as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for colorectal cancer. PMID:26602923

  9. Expression and clinical significance of Sirt1 in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    YU, DENG-FENG; JIANG, SU-JUAN; PAN, ZHI-PENG; CHENG, WEI-DONG; ZHANG, WEN-JUN; YAO, XIAO-KUN; LI, YU-CHENG; LUN, YONG-ZHI

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the expression of Silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1) in colorectal cancer and peritumoral normal mucosa tissue, and therefore analyze the role and molecular mechanism of Sirt1 in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer tissue specimens were employed as the experimental group, and adjacent normal mucosa tissues >5 cm from tumor lesions were used as the control group. The expression of Sirt1 was detected by the immunohistochemical streptavidin peroxidase detection method in paraffin-embedded sections, whilst Sirt1 protein expression was examined by western blot analysis in the fresh tissues. Sirt1 protein was primarily expressed in the nuclei of the tumor cells, and positive staining was brownish-yellow in color. The relative expression quantities of Sirt1 in the peritumoral normal rectal mucosa and rectal carcinoma were 1.15 and 2.62, and the differences between the two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). The expression level of Sirt1 in colorectal carcinoma was significantly associated with the depth of tumor invasion, differentiation and tumor size (P<0.05). Sirt1 expression was also found to be associated with tumor tissue type, lymph node metastasis, Duke's stage and patient age. These characteristics combined may therefore be used as markers for the early diagnosis of colorectal cancer pathogenesis. PMID:26893713

  10. crcTRP: A Translational Research Platform for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ning; Zheng, Ling; Liu, Fang; Wang, Li; Duan, Huilong

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality in both developed and developing countries. Transforming basic research results into clinical practice is one of the key tasks of translational research, which will greatly improve the diagnosis and treatments of colorectal cancer. In this paper, a translational research platform for colorectal cancer, named crcTRP, is introduced. crcTRP serves the colorectal cancer translational research by providing various types of biomedical information related with colorectal cancer to the community. The information, including clinical data, epidemiology data, individual omics data, and public omics data, was collected through a multisource biomedical information collection solution and then integrated in a clinic-omics database, which was constructed with EAV-ER model for flexibility and efficiency. A preliminary exploration of conducting translational research on crcTRP was implemented and worked out a set of clinic-genomic relations, linking clinical data with genomic data. These relations have also been applied to crcTRP to make it more conductive for cancer translational research. PMID:23431356

  11. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Asymptomatic Colorectal Polyps in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fu-Wei; Hsu, Ping-I; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Tu, Ming-Shium; Mar, Guang-Yuan; King, Tai-Ming; Wang, Jui-Ho; Hsu, Chao-Wen; Chang, Chiu-Hua; Chen, Hui-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of hyperplastic and adenomatous colorectal polyps in a Taiwanese general population. Methods. From January 2009 to December 2011, consecutive asymptomatic subjects undergoing a routine health check-up were evaluated by colonoscopy. The colorectal polyps were assessed, and medical history and demographic data were obtained from each patient. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to search the independent risk factors for asymptomatic hyperplastic and adenomatous colorectal polyps. Results. Of the 1899 asymptomatic subjects, the prevalences of hyperplastic polyps and adenomatous polyps were 11.1% and 16.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that high body mass index (BMI > 25: OR, 1.32, 95% CI, 1.05–1.71) and current smoking (OR, 1.87, 95% CI, 1.42–2.71) were independent predictors for hyperplastic colorectal polyps. Age over 60 years old (OR, 3.49, 95% CI, 1.86–6.51), high body mass index (BMI > 25: OR, 1.75, 95% CI, 1.21–2.71), heavy alcohol consumption (OR, 2.01, 95% CI, 1.02–3.99), and current smoking (OR, 1.31, 95% CI, 1.04–1.58) were independent predictors for adenomatous colorectal polyps. Conclusion. High BMI and smoking are common risk factors for both adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. Old age and alcohol consumption are additional risk factors for the development of adenomatous polyps. PMID:25050119

  12. Apoptotic pathways as a therapeutic target for colorectal cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abraha, Aman M; Ketema, Ezra B

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer among adults. The disease begins as a benign adenomatous polyp, which develops into an advanced adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and then progresses to an invasive cancer. Appropriate apoptotic signaling is fundamentally important to preserve a healthy balance between cell death and cell survival and in maintaining genome integrity. Evasion of apoptotic pathway has been established as a prominent hallmark of several cancers. During colorectal cancer development, the balance between the rates of cell growth and apoptosis that maintains intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis gets progressively disturbed. Evidences are increasingly available to support the hypothesis that failure of apoptosis may be an important factor in the evolution of colorectal cancer and its poor response to chemotherapy and radiation. The other reason for targeting apoptotic pathway in the treatment of cancer is based on the observation that this process is deregulated in cancer cells but not in normal cells. As a result, colorectal cancer therapies designed to stimulate apoptosis in target cells would play a critical role in controlling its development and progression. A better understanding of the apoptotic signaling pathways, and the mechanisms by which cancer cells evade apoptotic death might lead to effective therapeutic strategies to inhibit cancer cell proliferation with minimal toxicity and high responses to chemotherapy. In this review, we analyzed the current understanding and future promises of apoptotic pathways as a therapeutic target in colorectal cancer treatment. PMID:27574550

  13. Iranian Dietary Patterns and Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Hosein; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Davtalab Esmaeili, Elham; Mirzapoor, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Role of diet on colorectal cancer (CRC) has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the association between Iranian dietary patterns and CRC. Methods: This case–control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tabriz City of Iran including 414 participants aged 35–75 years:207 cases with CRC confirmed by pathology and colonoscopy findings were selected and 207 controls free of neoplastic conditions and diet-related chronic diseases (from the same hospital at the same period for the cases). Dietary data were assessed using a 123-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns were found by using of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method;“Healthy pattern”and “Iranian pattern”. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for relationship between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer. Results: After adjusting for confounding factors, the Iranian dietary pattern was significantly associated with an increased odds of colorectal cancer (OR= 1.46; 95% Confidenec Interval (CI)=1.05–2.19) while a reduced odds of colorectal cancer was observed with the Healthy dietary pattern (OR=0.18; 95% CI= 0.091-0.47). Conclusion: Iranian dietary pattern (IDP) seems to increase the odds of colorectal cancer and protective effect of Healthy dietary pattern. PMID:26000248

  14. Macroscopic serosal classification of colorectal cancer and its clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong-Peng; Guo, Peng-Tao; Zhu, Zhi; Zhang, Hao; Xu, Yan; Ma, Si-Ping; Wang, Zhen-Ning; Xu, Hui-Mian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Macroscopic serosal classification of gastric cancer has been reported in previous studies, but rarely reported about it of colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to propose a macroscopic serosal classification of colorectal cancer and to investigate clinical significance of this classification. Materials and methods: Morphologic features of colorectal cancer were analyzed according to the macroscopic serosal appearance and clinicopathologic characteristics of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Microscopic serosal structure was compared between different types under light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Results: Macroscopic serosal classification was divided into normal type, reactive type, nodular type and colloid type according to the macroscopic serosal appearance and microscopic structure. There were significant differences in tumor size, tumor gross type, histological type, histological grade, tumor necrosis, pT stage, number of nodes metastasis, lymph node metastasis ratio, pN stage, M stage and peritoneal metastasis between patients with different serosal types. Univariate analysis of prognosis revealed macroscopic serosal classification as one of factors significantly correlated with patient survival. However, multivariate analysis only revealed TNM stage significantly correlated with patient survival, while macroscopic serosal classification did not, maybe due to insufficient samples. Conclusions: Macroscopic serosal classification of colorectal cancer is preliminarily defined and divided into four types. Different macroscopic serosal types indicate different clinicopathologic features and correlate with prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer, but still cannot be proven as an independent factor. PMID:26884925

  15. Differential colorectal carcinogenesis: Molecular basis and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Morán, Alberto; Ortega, Paloma; de Juan, Carmen; Fernández-Marcelo, Tamara; Frías, Cristina; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres, Antonio José; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; Iniesta, Pilar; Benito, Manuel

    2010-03-15

    Colorectal cancer (CCR) is one of the most frequent cancers in developed countries. It poses a major public health problem and there is renewed interest in understanding the basic principles of the molecular biology of colorectal cancer. It has been established that sporadic CCRs can arise from at least two different carcinogenic pathways. The traditional pathway, also called the suppressor or chromosomal instability pathway, follows the Fearon and Vogelstein model and shows mutation in classical oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes, such as K-ras, adenomatous polyposis coli, deleted in colorectal cancer, or p53. Alterations in the Wnt pathway are also very common in this type of tumour. The second main colorectal carcinogenesis pathway is the mutator pathway. This pathway is present in nearly 15% of all cases of sporadic colorectal cancer. It is characterized by the presence of mutations in the microsatellite sequences caused by a defect in the DNA mismatch repair genes, mostly in hMLH1 or hMSH2. These two pathways have clear molecular differences, which will be reviewed in this article, but they also present distinct histopathological features. More strikingly, their clinical behaviours are completely different, having the "mutator" tumours a better outcome than the "suppressor" tumours. PMID:21160823

  16. Apoptotic pathways as a therapeutic target for colorectal cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Abraha, Aman M; Ketema, Ezra B

    2016-08-15

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer among adults. The disease begins as a benign adenomatous polyp, which develops into an advanced adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and then progresses to an invasive cancer. Appropriate apoptotic signaling is fundamentally important to preserve a healthy balance between cell death and cell survival and in maintaining genome integrity. Evasion of apoptotic pathway has been established as a prominent hallmark of several cancers. During colorectal cancer development, the balance between the rates of cell growth and apoptosis that maintains intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis gets progressively disturbed. Evidences are increasingly available to support the hypothesis that failure of apoptosis may be an important factor in the evolution of colorectal cancer and its poor response to chemotherapy and radiation. The other reason for targeting apoptotic pathway in the treatment of cancer is based on the observation that this process is deregulated in cancer cells but not in normal cells. As a result, colorectal cancer therapies designed to stimulate apoptosis in target cells would play a critical role in controlling its development and progression. A better understanding of the apoptotic signaling pathways, and the mechanisms by which cancer cells evade apoptotic death might lead to effective therapeutic strategies to inhibit cancer cell proliferation with minimal toxicity and high responses to chemotherapy. In this review, we analyzed the current understanding and future promises of apoptotic pathways as a therapeutic target in colorectal cancer treatment. PMID:27574550

  17. Colorectal cancer: From prevention to personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Binefa, Gemma; Rodríguez-Moranta, Francisco; Teule, Àlex; Medina-Hayas, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a very heterogeneous disease that is caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. CRC develops through a gradual accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes, leading to the transformation of normal colonic mucosa into invasive cancer. CRC is one of the most prevalent and incident cancers worldwide, as well as one of the most deadly. Approximately 1235108 people are diagnosed annually with CRC, and 609051 die from CRC annually. The World Health Organization estimates an increase of 77% in the number of newly diagnosed cases of CRC and an increase of 80% in deaths from CRC by 2030. The incidence of CRC can benefit from different strategies depending on its stage: health promotion through health education campaigns (when the disease is not yet present), the implementation of screening programs (for detection of the disease in its early stages), and the development of nearly personalized treatments according to both patient characteristics (age, sex) and the cancer itself (gene expression). Although there are different strategies for screening and although the number of such strategies is increasing due to the potential of emerging technologies in molecular marker application, not all strategies meet the criteria required for screening tests in population programs; the three most accepted tests are the fecal occult blood test (FOBT), colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy. FOBT is the most used method for CRC screening worldwide and is also the primary choice in most population-based screening programs in Europe. Due to its non-invasive nature and low cost, it is one of the most accepted techniques by population. CRC is a very heterogeneous disease, and with a few exceptions (APC, p53, KRAS), most of the genes involved in CRC are observed in a small percentage of cases. The design of genetic and epigenetic marker panels that are able to provide maximum coverage in the diagnosis of colorectal neoplasia seems a reasonable strategy

  18. Do Type of Childcare and Age of Entry Predict Behavior Problems during Early Childhood? Results from a Large Norwegian Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekhal, Ratib

    2012-01-01

    Associations between type and age of entry into Norwegian universally-accessible childcare and children's behavior problems at age 3 years were examined in this study. Data from 73,068 children in the large population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) were used, and included information about childcare arrangements,…

  19. Characterisation of Familial Colorectal Cancer Type X, Lynch syndrome, and non-familial colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shiovitz, S; Copeland, W K; Passarelli, M N; Burnett-Hartman, A N; Grady, W M; Potter, J D; Gallinger, S; Buchanan, D D; Rosty, C; Win, A K; Jenkins, M; Thibodeau, S N; Haile, R; Baron, J A; Marchand, L L; Newcomb, P A; Lindor, N M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Familial Colorectal Cancer Type X (FCCTX) is defined as individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC) who families meet Amsterdam Criteria-1 (AC1), but whose tumours are DNA-mismatch-repair-proficient, unlike Lynch syndrome (LS). FCCTX does not have an increased risk of extra-colonic cancers. This analysis compares epidemiologic and clinicopathologic features among FCCTX, LS, and ‘non-familial' (non-AC1) CRC cases. Methods: From the Colon Cancer Family Registry, FCCTX (n=173), LS (n=303), and non-AC1 (n=9603) CRC cases were identified. Questionnaire-based epidemiologic information and CRC pathologic features were compared across case groups using polytomous logistic regression. Results: Compared with LS, FCCTX cases were less likely to be current (vs never) smokers; have a proximal subsite (vs rectal) tumour; or have mucinous histology, poor differentiation, or tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes. There were no observed differences in co-morbidities or medication usage. Conclusions: FCCTX were less likely to be current tobacco users; other exposures were similar between these groups. Histopathologic differences highly suggestive of LS CRCs do not appear to be shared by FCCTX. PMID:24918813

  20. Removal of paper-based health records from Norwegian hospitals: effects on clinical workflow.

    PubMed

    Lium, Jan Tore; Faxvaag, Arild

    2006-01-01

    Several Norwegian hospitals have, plan, or are in the process of removing the paper-based health record from clinical workflow. To assess the impact on usage and satisfaction of electronic health record (EHR) systems, we conducted a survey among physicians, nurses and medical secretaries at selected departments from six Norwegian hospitals. The main feature of the questionnaire is the description of a set of tasks commonly performed at hospitals, and respondents were asked to rate their usage and change of ease compared to previous routines for each tasks. There were 24 tasks for physicians, 19 for nurses and 23 for medical secretaries. In total, 64 physicians, 128 nurses and 57 medical secretaries responded, corresponding to a response rate of 68%, 58% and 84% respectively. Results showed a large degree of use among medical secretaries, while physicians and nurses displayed a more modest degree of use. Possibly suggesting that the EHR systems among clinicians still is considered more of an administrative system. Among the two latter groups, tasks regarding information retrieval were used more extensively than tasks regarding generating and storing information. Also, we observed large differences between hospitals and higher satisfaction with the part of the system handling regular electronic data than scanned document images. Even though the increase in use among clinicians after removing the paper based record were mainly in tasks where respondents had no choice other than use the electronic health record, the attitude towards EHR-systems were mainly positive. Thus, while removing the paper based record has yet to promote new ways of working, we see it as an important step towards the EHR system of tomorrow. Several Norwegian hospitals have shown that it is possible. PMID:17108645

  1. Norwegian remote sensing spectrometry for mapping and monitoring of algal blooms and pollution - NORSMAP-89

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersson, L.H.; Johannessen, O.M.; Frette, O. )

    1990-01-09

    During the late spring of 1988 an extensive bloom of the toxic algae Chrysocromulina polylepis occurred in the Skagerrak region influencing most life in the upper 30 meter of the ocean. The algal front was advected northward with the Norwegian Coastal Current along the coast of southern Norway, where it became a severe threat to the Norwegian seafarming industry. An ad-hoc expert team was established to monitor and forecast the movement of the algae front. Remote sensing of sea surface temperature from the operational US NOAA satellites monitored the movement of the algal front, consistent with a warm ocean front. The lack of any optical remote sensing instrumentation was recognized as a major de-efficiency during this algal bloom. To prepare for similar events in the future Nansen Remote Sensing Center initiated a three week pilot study in the Oslofjord and Skagerrak region, during May 1989. The Canadian Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) was installed in the surveillance aircraft. Extensive in situ campaigns was also carried out by the Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Institute of Marine Research. A ship-borne non-imaging spectrometer was operated from the vessels participating in the field campaign. As a contribution from a joint campaign (EISAC '89) between the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Community and the European Space Agency (ESA) both the Canadian Fluorescence Line Imager (FLI) and the US 64-channel GER scanner was operated simultaneously at the NORSMAP 89 test site. Regions of different biological and physical conditions were covered during the pilot study and preliminary analysis are obtained from oil slicks, suspended matter from river, as well as minor algal bloom. The joint analysis of the data collected during the NORSMAP 89 campaign and conclussions will be presented, as well as suggestions for future utilization of airborne spectroscopy systems for operational monitoring of algal bloom and water pollution.

  2. Real-Time Ichthyoplankton Drift in Northeast Arctic Cod and Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring

    PubMed Central

    Vikebø, Frode B.; Ådlandsvik, Bjørn; Albretsen, Jon; Sundby, Svein; Stenevik, Erling Kåre; Huse, Geir; Svendsen, Einar; Kristiansen, Trond; Eriksen, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Background Individual-based biophysical larval models, initialized and parameterized by observations, enable numerical investigations of various factors regulating survival of young fish until they recruit into the adult population. Exponentially decreasing numbers in Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian Spring Spawning herring early changes emphasizes the importance of early life history, when ichthyoplankton exhibit pelagic free drift. However, while most studies are concerned with past recruitment variability it is also important to establish real-time predictions of ichthyoplankton distributions due to the increasing human activity in fish habitats and the need for distribution predictions that could potentially improve field coverage of ichthyoplankton. Methodology/Principal Findings A system has been developed for operational simulation of ichthyoplankton distributions. We have coupled a two-day ocean forecasts from the Norwegian Meteorological Institute with an individual-based ichthyoplankton model for Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian Spring Spawning herring producing daily updated maps of ichthyoplankton distributions. Recent years observed spawning distribution and intensity have been used as input to the model system. The system has been running in an operational mode since 2008. Surveys are expensive and distributions of early stages are therefore only covered once or twice a year. Comparison between model and observations are therefore limited in time. However, the observed and simulated distributions of juvenile fish tend to agree well during early fall. Area-overlap between modeled and observed juveniles September 1st range from 61 to 73%, and 61 to 71% when weighted by concentrations. Conclusions/Significance The model system may be used to evaluate the design of ongoing surveys, to quantify the overlap with harmful substances in the ocean after accidental spills, as well as management planning of particular risky operations at sea. The modeled

  3. Late Triassic uplift of southern Norway revealed by detrital zircons in the Norwegian-Danish Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivarius, Mette; Nielsen, Lars H.; Weibel, Rikke; Kristensen, Lars; Thomsen, Tonny B.

    2016-04-01

    Zircon U/Pb geochronometry is used to identify the sediment source areas of the Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic shallow marine to paralic Gassum Formation in the Norwegian-Danish Basin. The analyses of zircon grains from geographically and stratigraphically widely distributed cores take advantage of the detailed sequence stratigraphic framework existing for the succession. The zircon ages indicate that the sediment in the lower part of the Gassum Formation in the northern and central parts of the basin was supplied solely from the Telemarkia Terrane in the southern part of southern Norway. However, age signatures from other basement terranes were added during periods of transgression presumably as a result of longshore reworking. The sediment in the eastern part of the basin has a different provenance signature that reflects supply from various sources of which some or all seemingly include older sediments. The basinwide fluvial incision that occurred during a relative sea-level fall in the Rhaetian is interpreted to be related to uplift of southern Norway since a pronounced content of zircon grains with U/Pb ages of 1.65 Ga were introduced in the Norwegian-Danish Basin at the time. This age is dominant in the upper part of the Gassum Formation and is present in all studied younger sediments in the Norwegian-Danish Basin, whereas it is missing in older sediments in the basin. Rocks with corresponding ages are presently exposed in the Jotun Nappe Complex and the Western Gneiss Complex in the central and northern parts of southern Norway. Thus, major faulting activity must have occurred in southern Norway during the Late Triassic that made such rocks available for erosion with permanent southeastwards drainage.

  4. Unhappy doctors? A longitudinal study of life and job satisfaction among Norwegian doctors 1994 – 2002

    PubMed Central

    Nylenna, Magne; Gulbrandsen, Pål; Førde, Reidun; Aasland, Olaf G

    2005-01-01

    Background General opinion is that doctors are increasingly dissatisfied with their job, but few longitudinal studies exist. This study has been conducted to investigate a possible decline in professional and personal satisfaction among doctors by the turn of the century. Methods We have done a survey among a representative sample of 1 174 Norwegian doctors in 2002 (response rate 73 %) and compared the findings with answers to the same questions by (most of) the same doctors in 1994 and 2000. The main outcome measures were self reported levels of life satisfaction and job satisfaction according to the Job Satisfaction Scale (JSS). Results Most Norwegian doctors are happy. They reported an average life satisfaction of 5.21 in 1994 and 5.32 in 2002 on a scale from 1 (extremely dissatisfied) to 7 (extremely satisfied). Half of the respondents reported a very high level of general life satisfaction (a score of 6 or 7) while only one third said they would have reported this high level of satisfaction five years ago. The doctors thought that they had a higher level of job satisfaction than other comparable professional groups. The job satisfaction scale among the same doctors showed a significant increase from 1994 to 2002. Anaesthesiologists and internists reported a lower and psychiatrists and primary care doctors reported a higher level of job satisfaction than the average. Conclusion Norwegian doctors seem to have enjoyed an increasing level of life and job satisfaction rather than a decline over the last decade. This challenges the general impression of unhappy doctors as a general and worldwide phenomenon. PMID:15943859

  5. Molecular pathogenesis of sporadic colorectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Hidetsugu; Kuroda, Hajime; Imai, Yasuo; Hiraishi, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) results from the progressive accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations that lead to the transformation of normal colonic mucosa to adenocarcinoma. Approximately 75% of CRCs are sporadic and occur in people without genetic predisposition or family history of CRC. During the past two decades, sporadic CRCs were classified into three major groups according to frequently altered/mutated genes. These genes have been identified by linkage analyses of cancer-prone families and by individual mutation analyses of candidate genes selected on the basis of functional data. In the first half of this review, we describe the genetic pathways of sporadic CRCs and their clinicopathologic features. Recently, large-scale genome analyses have detected many infrequently mutated genes as well as a small number of frequently mutated genes. These infrequently mutated genes are likely described in a limited number of pathways. Gene-oriented models of CRC progression are being replaced by pathway-oriented models. In the second half of this review, we summarize the present knowledge of this research field and discuss its prospects. PMID:26738600

  6. PIK3CA in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cathomas, Gieri

    2014-01-01

    PIK3CA, the catalytic subunit of PI3K, is mutated in many different tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Mutations of PIK3CA have been reported in 10–20% of CRC, about 80% of mutations found in two hot spots in exon 9 and exon 20. In RAS wild-type CRC, PIK3CA mutations have been associated with a worse clinical outcome and with a negative prediction of a response to targeted therapy by anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. However, these findings have not been confirmed in all studies and subsequent more detailed analysis has revealed that these effects may be restricted to mutations in Exon 20. Finally, mutations in PIK3CA may be the long sought biomarker for successful adjuvant therapy with aspirin in patients with CRC. Therefore, PIK3CA mutations appear to be a promising predictive biomarker; however, further data are needed to conclusively define the impact of somatic mutations in the PIK3CA gene for the management of patients with CRC. PMID:24624362

  7. Eicosanoid pathway in colorectal cancer: Recent updates

    PubMed Central

    Tuncer, Sinem; Banerjee, Sreeparna

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic metabolism of the 20C polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) arachidonic acid (AA) occurs via the cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways, and leads to the production of various bioactive lipids termed eicosanoids. These eicosanoids have a variety of functions, including stimulation of homeostatic responses in the cardiovascular system, induction and resolution of inflammation, and modulation of immune responses against diseases associated with chronic inflammation, such as cancer. Because chronic inflammation is essential for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC), it is not surprising that many eicosanoids are implicated in CRC. Oftentimes, these autacoids work in an antagonistic and highly temporal manner in inflammation; therefore, inhibition of the pro-inflammatory COX-2 or 5-LOX enzymes may subsequently inhibit the formation of their essential products, or shunt substrates from one pathway to another, leading to undesirable side-effects. A better understanding of these different enzymes and their products is essential not only for understanding the importance of eicosanoids, but also for designing more effective drugs that solely target the inflammatory molecules found in both chronic inflammation and cancer. In this review, we have evaluated the cancer promoting and anti-cancer roles of different eicosanoids in CRC, and highlighted the most recent literature which describes how those molecules affect not only tumor tissue, but also the tumor microenvironment. Additionally, we have attempted to delineate the roles that eicosanoids with opposing functions play in neoplastic transformation in CRC through their effects on proliferation, apoptosis, motility, metastasis, and angiogenesis. PMID:26557000

  8. Cell Surface Markers in Colorectal Cancer Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Belov, Larissa; Zhou, Jerry; Christopherson, Richard I.

    2011-01-01

    The classification of colorectal cancers (CRC) is currently based largely on histologically determined tumour characteristics, such as differentiation status and tumour stage, i.e., depth of tumour invasion, involvement of regional lymph nodes and the occurrence of metastatic spread to other organs. These are the conventional prognostic factors for patient survival and often determine the requirement for adjuvant therapy after surgical resection of the primary tumour. However, patients with the same CRC stage can have very different disease-related outcomes. For some, surgical removal of early-stage tumours leads to full recovery, while for others, disease recurrence and metastasis may occur regardless of adjuvant therapy. It is therefore important to understand the molecular processes that lead to disease progression and metastasis and to find more reliable prognostic markers and novel targets for therapy. This review focuses on cell surface proteins that correlate with tumour progression, metastasis and patient outcome, and discusses some of the challenges in finding prognostic protein markers in CRC. PMID:21339979

  9. Modeling and Control of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Li-Peng; Wang, Hao-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is becoming a major threat to people’s life in China. Screening methods adopted by many other countries as effective counter-cancer methods have not been explicitly explored for people there. Thus, we present a Markov model with detailed precancerous adenoma states and then evaluate various screening strategies in this paper. Different from current researches, our model considers the population’s heterogeneous risk of developing adenomas and observation-based screening strategies. Furthermore, we also give a new cost-effectiveness metric. After calibrating, the model is simulated using the Monte Carlo method. Numerical results show that there are threshold values of compliance rates below which strategy with every ten-year colonoscopy becomes the most cost-effective method; otherwise, an observation-based screening strategy is the most cost-effective. We also find that strategy with single colonoscopy for adenoma-free individuals and every three-year colonoscopy for those with adenoma is recommended when the observation-based strategy is not considered. Our findings give an explicit and complete instruction in CRC screening protocol in average-risk Chinese. PMID:27536786

  10. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Tests, Strategies, and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stracci, Fabrizio; Zorzi, Manuel; Grazzini, Grazia

    2014-01-01

    Screening has a central role in colorectal cancer (CRC) control. Different screening tests are effective in reducing CRC-specific mortality. Influence on cancer incidence depends on test sensitivity for pre-malignant lesions, ranging from almost no influence for guaiac-based fecal occult blood testing (gFOBT) to an estimated reduction of 66–90% for colonoscopy. Screening tests detect lesions indirectly in the stool [gFOBT, fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), and fecal DNA] or directly by colonic inspection [flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, CT colonography (CTC), and capsule endoscopy]. CRC screening is cost-effective compared to no screening but no screening strategy is clearly better than the others. Stool tests are the most widely used in worldwide screening interventions. FIT will soon replace gFOBT. The use of colonoscopy as a screening test is increasing and this strategy has superseded all alternatives in the US and Germany. Despite its undisputed importance, CRC screening is under-used and participation rarely reaches 70% of target population. Strategies to increase participation include ensuring recommendation by physicians, introducing organized screening and developing new, more acceptable tests. Available evidence for DNA fecal testing, CTC, and capsule endoscopy is reviewed. PMID:25386553

  11. Genomic landscape of metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Haan, Josien C.; Labots, Mariette; Rausch, Christian; Koopman, Miriam; Tol, Jolien; Mekenkamp, Leonie J. M.; van de Wiel, Mark A.; Israeli, Danielle; van Essen, Hendrik F.; van Grieken, Nicole C. T.; Voorham, Quirinus J. M.; Bosch, Linda J. W.; Qu, Xueping; Kabbarah, Omar; Verheul, Henk M. W.; Nagtegaal, Iris D.; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; Ylstra, Bauke; Meijer, Gerrit A.

    2014-01-01

    Response to drug therapy in individual colorectal cancer (CRC) patients is associated with tumour biology. Here we describe the genomic landscape of tumour samples of a homogeneous well-annotated series of patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) of two phase III clinical trials, CAIRO and CAIRO2. DNA copy number aberrations of 349 patients are determined. Within three treatment arms, 194 chromosomal subregions are associated with progression-free survival (PFS; uncorrected single-test P-values <0.005). These subregions are filtered for effect on messenger RNA expression, using an independent data set from The Cancer Genome Atlas which returned 171 genes. Three chromosomal regions are associated with a significant difference in PFS between treatment arms with or without irinotecan. One of these regions, 6q16.1–q21, correlates in vitro with sensitivity to SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan. This genomic landscape of mCRC reveals a number of DNA copy number aberrations associated with response to drug therapy. PMID:25394515

  12. Colorectal cancer detection in a rural community

    PubMed Central

    Cotterill, Mike; Gasparelli, Rudy; Kirby, Erle

    2005-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a substantial cause of death and morbidity in Canada. Endoscopy screening by colonoscopy has been recommended, but widespread implementation is impossible because it is difficult to obtain, especially in rural areas. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM To screen for CRC safely and effectively using colonoscopy performed by non-specialist endoscopists in rural areas. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Health providers and community organizations were informed about the screening program. Patients between the ages of 50 and 75 and those at high risk of CRC based on family history were screened. Measures of safety and effectiveness were monitored. In 2 years of screening, one of 152 patients was found to have CRC, and 23.7% had adenomatous polyps. There were no complications. Rates of CRC and adenoma detection and cecal intubation were similar to rates found in other screening studies. CONCLUSION It was not difficult to design and implement a CRC screening program in our small rural community. Colonoscopies performed by family physicians have been effective, and there have been no serious complications. PMID:16190175

  13. Genomic landscape of metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Haan, Josien C; Labots, Mariette; Rausch, Christian; Koopman, Miriam; Tol, Jolien; Mekenkamp, Leonie J M; van de Wiel, Mark A; Israeli, Danielle; van Essen, Hendrik F; van Grieken, Nicole C T; Voorham, Quirinus J M; Bosch, Linda J W; Qu, Xueping; Kabbarah, Omar; Verheul, Henk M W; Nagtegaal, Iris D; Punt, Cornelis J A; Ylstra, Bauke; Meijer, Gerrit A

    2014-01-01

    Response to drug therapy in individual colorectal cancer (CRC) patients is associated with tumour biology. Here we describe the genomic landscape of tumour samples of a homogeneous well-annotated series of patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) of two phase III clinical trials, CAIRO and CAIRO2. DNA copy number aberrations of 349 patients are determined. Within three treatment arms, 194 chromosomal subregions are associated with progression-free survival (PFS; uncorrected single-test P-values <0.005). These subregions are filtered for effect on messenger RNA expression, using an independent data set from The Cancer Genome Atlas which returned 171 genes. Three chromosomal regions are associated with a significant difference in PFS between treatment arms with or without irinotecan. One of these regions, 6q16.1-q21, correlates in vitro with sensitivity to SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan. This genomic landscape of mCRC reveals a number of DNA copy number aberrations associated with response to drug therapy. PMID:25394515

  14. Cytokine-Induced Modulation of Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mager, Lukas F; Wasmer, Marie-Hélène; Rau, Tilman T; Krebs, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of novel immunomodulatory cancer therapies over the last decade, above all immune checkpoint blockade, has significantly advanced tumor treatment. For colorectal cancer (CRC), a novel scoring system based on the immune cell infiltration in tumors has greatly improved disease prognostic evaluation and guidance to more specific therapy. These findings underline the relevance of tumor immunology in the future handling and therapeutic approach of malignant disease. Inflammation can either promote or suppress CRC pathogenesis and inflammatory mediators, mainly cytokines, critically determine the pro- or anti-tumorigenic signals within the tumor environment. Here, we review the current knowledge on the cytokines known to be critically involved in CRC development and illustrate their mechanisms of action. We also highlight similarities and differences between CRC patients and murine models of CRC and point out cytokines with an ambivalent role for intestinal cancer. We also identify some of the future challenges in the field that should be addressed for the development of more effective immunomodulatory therapies. PMID:27148488

  15. Chemotherapy for colorectal cancer in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Han

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the elderly. However, elderly patients with CRC tend to be under-presented in clinical trials and undertreated in clinical practice. Advanced age alone should not be the only criteria to preclude effective therapy in elderly patients with CRC. The best guide about optimal cancer treatment can be provided by comprehensive geriatric assessment. Elderly patients with stage III colon cancer can enjoy the same benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin or capecitabine as younger patients, without a substantial increase in toxicity. With conflicting results of retrospective studies and a lack of data available from randomized studies, combined modality treatment should be used with great caution in elderly patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Combination chemotherapy can be considered for older patients with metastatic CRC. For elderly patients who are frail or vulnerable, however, monotherapy or a stop-and-go strategy may be desirable. The use of targeted therapies in older patients with metastatic CRC appears to be promising in view of their better efficacy and toxicity. Treatment should be individualized based on the nature of the disease, the physiologic or functional status, and the patient’s preference. PMID:25954089

  16. Cytokine-Induced Modulation of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mager, Lukas F.; Wasmer, Marie-Hélène; Rau, Tilman T.; Krebs, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of novel immunomodulatory cancer therapies over the last decade, above all immune checkpoint blockade, has significantly advanced tumor treatment. For colorectal cancer (CRC), a novel scoring system based on the immune cell infiltration in tumors has greatly improved disease prognostic evaluation and guidance to more specific therapy. These findings underline the relevance of tumor immunology in the future handling and therapeutic approach of malignant disease. Inflammation can either promote or suppress CRC pathogenesis and inflammatory mediators, mainly cytokines, critically determine the pro- or anti-tumorigenic signals within the tumor environment. Here, we review the current knowledge on the cytokines known to be critically involved in CRC development and illustrate their mechanisms of action. We also highlight similarities and differences between CRC patients and murine models of CRC and point out cytokines with an ambivalent role for intestinal cancer. We also identify some of the future challenges in the field that should be addressed for the development of more effective immunomodulatory therapies. PMID:27148488

  17. Irreversible Electroporation for Colorectal Liver Metastases.

    PubMed

    Scheffer, Hester J; Melenhorst, Marleen C A M; Echenique, Ana M; Nielsen, Karin; van Tilborg, Aukje A J M; van den Bos, Willemien; Vroomen, Laurien G P H; van den Tol, Petrousjka M P; Meijerink, Martijn R

    2015-09-01

    Image-guided tumor ablation techniques have significantly broadened the treatment possibilities for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. A new ablation technique, irreversible electroporation (IRE), was recently added to the treatment armamentarium. As opposed to thermal ablation, cell death with IRE is primarily induced using electrical energy: electrical pulses disrupt the cellular membrane integrity, resulting in cell death while sparing the extracellular matrix of sensitive structures such as the bile ducts, blood vessels, and bowel wall. The preservation of these structures makes IRE attractive for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) that are unsuitable for resection and thermal ablation owing to their anatomical location. This review discusses different technical and practical issues of IRE for CRLM: the indications, patient preparations, procedural steps, and different "tricks of the trade" used to improve safety and efficacy of IRE. Imaging characteristics and early efficacy results are presented. Much is still unknown about the exact mechanism of cell death and about factors playing a crucial role in the extent of cell death. At this time, IRE for CRLM should only be reserved for small tumors that are truly unsuitable for resection or thermal ablation because of abutment of the portal triad or the venous pedicles. PMID:26365546

  18. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  19. Genetic reconstruction of individual colorectal tumor histories

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Jen-Lan; Yatabe, Yasushi; Salovaara, Reijo; Järvinen, Heikki J.; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Aaltonen, Lauri A.; Tavaré, Simon; Shibata, Darryl

    2000-01-01

    It is difficult to observe human tumor progression as precursor lesions are systematically removed. Alternatives to direct observations, commonly used to reveal the hidden past of species and populations, are sequence comparisons or molecular clocks. Noncoding microsatellite (MS) loci were employed as molecular tumor clocks in 13 human mutator phenotype (MSI+) colorectal tumors. Quantitative analysis revealed that specific patterns of somatic MS mutations accumulate with division after loss of mismatch repair (MMR). Tumors had unique patterns of MS mutation, and, therefore, based on this model, each tumor had its own unique history. Loss of MMR occurred very early relative to terminal clonal expansion, with an estimated average of 2,300 divisions since loss of MMR and 280 divisions since expansion. Contrary to the classical adenoma-cancer sequence, MSI+ adenomas were nearly as old as cancers (2,000 versus 2,400 divisions since loss of MMR). Negative clinical examinations preceded six tumors, independently documenting an absence of visible precursors during early MSI+ adenoma or cancer progression. These findings further extend a window beyond visible progression since loss of MMR appears to start a genetic phase involving clone sizes or phenotypes below a threshold of clinical detection. This previously occult prologue before visible neoplasia is longer and therefore likely more important than generally appreciated. PMID:10655514

  20. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update.

    PubMed

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183