Science.gov

Sample records for nord barcelona 1993-2002

  1. Aircraft-assisted pilot suicides in the United States, 1993-2002.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Russell J; Johnson, Robert D; Whinnery, James E; Forster, Estrella M

    2007-01-01

    Our laboratory was interested in epidemiological and toxicological findings from aircraft-assisted pilot suicides. Between 1993-2002 there were 3,648 fatal aviation accidents. The NTSB determined that 16 were aircraft-assisted suicides; 15 from intentional crashing of an aircraft and 1 from exiting the aircraft while in-flight. All pilots involved in these aircraft-assisted suicides were male, with a median age of 40 years. Seven of the 14 pilots for which specimens were available were positive for disqualifying substances. Based on the few cases conclusively attributed to suicide, death by the intentional crashing of an aircraft appears to be an infrequent and uncommon event. PMID:17453693

  2. Spatial and temporal distribution of rabies in northern Tanzania in the period of 1993-2002.

    PubMed

    Swai, E S; Moshy, W E; Kaaya, J E; Mtui, P F

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the occurrence and distribution patterns of rabies cases in northern Tanzania. Data on laboratory confirmed brain samples and associated case reports submitted to the Arusha Veterinary Investigation Centre, for a period of ten years (1993-2002) was retrieved and reviewed. A total of 98 suspected rabies brain specimens from different animal species and geographical areas were submitted and processed during the period under review. Rabies was confirmed using Fluorescent Antibody Technique test. Of the 98 brain specimens processed, 65 (66.3%) were confirmed to be rabies cases. Canine rabies accounted for 73.8% of the cases and was diagnosed in dogs (43), jackals (4) and hyenas (1). Rabies in wildlife accounted for 5 out of 48 canine confirmed cases. Most of the cases were from Arusha Municipality (20) followed by Arumeru (19), Ngorongoro (9) and Moshi (8) districts. Rabies positive cases in other animal species were in the following order of frequencies: bovine (9 out of 11); feline (5 out of 10); equine (1 out of 2); caprine (2 out of 2). One porcine brain specimen was rabies negative. The high proportion of rabies positive cases confirmed suggests the level of their endemicity in the northern regions of Tanzania. Moreover, the findings highlights the need for sustained surveillance and institution of control measures among dog population and awareness creation particularly among general public and children whom are at high risk of contracting rabies because of their close contact with dogs. PMID:20737833

  3. Physical Science in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca-Rosell, Antoni; Roqué, Xavier

    2013-12-01

    We provide a tour of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, following four routes through the city and one elsewhere in the city and beyond, focusing on sites of importance in physics. Route 1 covers the Old Town, its Gothic Quarter, Plaça del Rei, Plaça de Sant Jaume, and Jewish Quarter. Route 2 identifies sites on and close to La Rambla, the main promenade in the city. Route 3 goes from the medieval shipyards to the Board of Commerce to Citadel Park. Route 4 concentrates on the Extension ( Eixample) and covers the restored University, the Industrial University, and the new campus of the University of Barcelona. Elsewhere in the city and beyond are the Fabra Observatory; the Plaça de les Glòries with its large steel sculpture depicting the meridian arc from Dunkirk to Barcelona; Montjuïc, the site of the National Art Museum of Catalonia; and the National Museum of Science and Technology in Terrassa.

  4. NEWS: GIREP in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    2000-11-01

    The 18th biannual conference of GIREP was held in Barcelona from 27 August to 1 September 2000. GIREP stands for Groupe International de Recherche sur l'Enseignement de la Physique. Some 400 delegates from 53 countries attended the conference, whose main concern was Physics Teacher Education beyond 2000. All contributions had to made in English. A conference like this needs to be singularly interesting to keep delegates away from the sunsoaked attractions and delights of one of the most exciting cities in the world - even if some of the excitement comes from wondering whether or not you are going to get your pocket picked. A typical conference day begins with two or three plenary lectures in the morning, with the afternoon given over to a set of nine parallel sessions. These sessions consisted of tightly timetabled 20 minute talks or other types of presentation. This meant that even the most dedicated delegate could get to little more than 10% of the over 200 sessions that were on offer in the afternoons. The event was organized by Catalonian locals working at the conference site, the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, and was superbly smooth. The list of organizations supporting the conference is too long to record, but ranged from the European Commission to Barcelona Science Museum. The UK can boast (if that is the right word) just 11 paid-up members of GIREP, which at about £10 per annum is hardly an expensive club - next year it goes up to 20 Euros - and the fee is worth it for the excellently produced book or CD-ROM of the conference proceedings. These contain a great deal of wisdom, plus the fair amount of infuriating rubbish that tends to be generated by educational research. I write here with all the prejudices of an aged ex-teacher, of course. The first morning lecture was given by Jon Ogborn, who used his recent work as organizer of the IoP post-16 Initiative to give some details of the Advancing Physics AS and A2 and make some general points about

  5. First Barcelona Conference on Epigenetics and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Palau, Anna; Perucho, Manuel; Esteller, Manel; Buschbeck, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The Barcelona Conference on Epigenetics and Cancer (BCEC) entitled “Challenges, opportunities and perspectives” took place November 21–22, 2013 in Barcelona. The 2013 BCEC is the first edition of a series of annual conferences jointly organized by five leading research centers in Barcelona. These centers are the Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer (IMPPC), the Biomedical Campus Bellvitge with its Program of Epigenetics and Cancer Biology (PEBC), the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), the Institute for Biomedical Research (IRB), and the Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona (IBMB). Manuel Perucho and Marcus Buschbeck from the Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer put together the scientific program of the first conference broadly covering all aspects of epigenetic research ranging from fundamental molecular research to drug and biomarker development and clinical application. In one and a half days, 23 talks and 50 posters were presented to a completely booked out audience counting 270 participants. PMID:24413145

  6. Multiprocessor data acquisition for NordBall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerrestam, Dan; Forycki, A.; Holm, A.; Høy-Christensen, P.; Jian Shen, T.

    1989-12-01

    For the NordBall multidetector system a versatile data acquisition system has been developed around the VME bus utilizing 68010 processors. The readout of the instrument is based on a generalized READER concept. READERs are CPU boards reading hardware in parallel for each event. In the FERA bus the final fast logical decision is made before an event is to be considered as being present for readout. Synchronization with the trigger for readout, coming from the FERA bus system, is performed by a special hardware unit. Synchronization on event level between the READERs is done by the same hardware unit monitored by a master CPU.

  7. Royal Academy of Sciences and Arts of Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, Ramon

    2013-05-01

    In 1764 (almost 250 years ago), a group of educated citizen of Barcelona decided to organize a "Physico-Mathematical Conference" to follow the progress of science and technology. Several years earlier, in 1717, and as a consequence of the Catalonia's stance against King Philip V at the beginning of the 18th century, the Catalan universities (including the University of Barcelona) were moved to Cervera, a town in the interior of Catalonia, where they remained until 1842.

  8. Teaching Religion in Public Schools: Review of Warren A. Nord, "Does God Make a Difference?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In this review of Warren Nord's "Does God Make a Difference? Taking Religion Seriously in Our Schools and Universities," Walter Feinberg provides a detailed analysis of Nord's argument that the study of religion should be constitutionally mandated as a corrective to the overwhelmingly secular course of study offered in…

  9. [Nurses helping nurses with psychological disorders in Barcelona].

    PubMed

    Quintanilla, Galo

    2016-05-01

    In Barcelona, in Spain, the Retorn programme is breaking a taboo. It has been especially designed to help practising nurses suffering from addiction or psychological disorders. The care and follow-up are provided by a multi-disciplinary team in a clinic which caters for all types of health professionals, in complete confidentiality. PMID:27155277

  10. Geodetic infrastructure at the Barcelona harbour for sea level monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, Juan Jose; Gili, Josep; Lopez, Rogelio; Tapia, Ana; Pros, Francesc; Palau, Vicenc; Perez, Begona

    2015-04-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual geodetic infrastructure of Barcelona harbour with three tide gauges of different technologies for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise and understanding past and present sea level rise in the Barcelona harbour. It is intended that the overall system will constitute a CGPS Station of the ESEAS (European Sea Level) and TIGA (GPS Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring) networks. At Barcelona harbour there is a MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours).The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. The information includes wave forescast (mean period, significant wave height, sea level, etc.This sensor also measures agitation and sends wave parameters each 20 min. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna AX 1202 GG. The Control Tower of the Port of Barcelona is situated in the North dike of the so-called Energy Pier in the Barcelona harbor (Spain). This tower has different kind of antennas for navigation monitoring and a GNSS permanent station. As the tower is founded in reclaimed land, and because its metallic structure, the 50 m building is subjected to diverse movements, including periodic fluctuations due to temperature changes. In this contribution the 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 the necessary monitoring campaigns are described. In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica S.L. in June 2014 near an acoustic tide gauge from the Barcelona Harbour installed in 2013. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land and

  11. Requirement of norD for Brucella suis Virulence in a Murine Model of In Vitro and In Vivo Infection

    PubMed Central

    Loisel-Meyer, Séverine; Jiménez de Bagüés, Maria Pilar; Bassères, Eugénie; Dornand, Jacques; Köhler, Stephan; Liautard, Jean-Pierre; Jubier-Maurin, Véronique

    2006-01-01

    A mutant of Brucella suis bearing a Tn5 insertion in norD, the last gene of the operon norEFCBQD, encoding nitric oxide reductase, was unable to survive under anaerobic denitrifying conditions. The norD strain exhibited attenuated multiplication within nitric oxide-producing murine macrophages and rapid elimination in mice, hence demonstrating that norD is essential for Brucella virulence. PMID:16495577

  12. Evidence of earliest human occurrence in Europe: the site of Pirro Nord (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzarello, Marta; Marcolini, Federica; Pavia, Giulio; Pavia, Marco; Petronio, Carmelo; Petrucci, Mauro; Rook, Lorenzo; Sardella, Raffaele

    2007-02-01

    Some flint lithic artifacts were discovered in the fissure fillings of the well-known Pirro Nord site (Apulia, Southern Italy). The lithic industry, composed by three cores and some flakes, has been found to be associated to an Early Pleistocene vertebrate fossil assemblage. The fossil association contains a wide range of micromammals, including Allophaiomys ruffoi and Episoriculus gibberodon and large mammals including Bison degiulii and Equus altidens together with African elements as the gelada baboon Theropithecus and the saber-toothed cat Megantereon whitei. It defines the latest Villafranchian chronological unit (Pirro Nord Faunal Unit) in the Western European mammal biochronology. The lithic industry of Pirro Nord represents the oldest occurrence of the genus Homo in Europe as it is attributable to a chronological interval between 1.3 and 1.7 Ma. This supports the hypothesis that the genus Homo, with Oldowaian technology, extended its range in Europe, probably from western Asia, during the first half of the Early Pleistocene. The new discovery from Pirro Nord changes the chronology of the first arrival of hominids in Europe and offers new perspectives in the debate about the human dispersal in the Early Pleistocene.

  13. Improving irrigation management in L'Horta Nord (Valencia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Seva, Nuria; San Bautista, Alberto; López-Galarza, Salvador; Maroto, Jose Vicente; Pascual, Bernardo

    2014-05-01

    L'Horta Nord is an important irrigation district in Valencia (Spain), especially for vegetable crops. The traditional cropping pattern in the region consists of a rotation of chufa with crops such as potato, onion, lettuce, escarole and red cabbage, being all these crops furrow irrigated. Currently, the quality of the water used is acceptable, water is not expensive and there are no limitations on supply. Consequently, growers are not aware of the volumes of water used, application efficiencies, nor water productivity for any of the crops cited. The European Framework Directive 2000/60, based on the precautionary principle, considers preventive action for measures to be taken; moreover, drought periods are becoming more frequent and extended, and water is being diverted to other uses. Thus, water use is an issue to improve. In this sense, the current situation of the irrigation in the area is analysed using chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus Boeck.) as representative of the crops, since most of the crops in the area have shallow root systems, as chufa, which are irrigated in similar patterns. In order to analyse the irrigation performance of the traditional chufa crop as well as to achieve more sustainable results, different studies have been carried out, during the last decade. Efforts have been directed to increase water productivity, increasing yield and minimising the volumes of water applied. Different planting configurations and different irrigation thresholds, not only in furrow irrigation but also in drip irrigation, are examples of how the irrigation performance could be improved. Herein is presented a two-year study, comparing, in both furrow and drip irrigation, two irrigation schedules based on the volumetric soil water content, which was continuously monitored using capacitance sensors. Yield was significantly affected by the growing season, the irrigation system and by the irrigation schedule, and by the second order interactions of the

  14. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Congenital Anomalies in Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Salvador, Joaquin; de Nazelle, Audrey; Cirach, Marta; Dadvand, Payam; Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Basagaña, Xavier; Vrijheid, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Background: A recent meta-analysis suggested evidence for an effect of exposure to ambient air pollutants on risk of certain congenital heart defects. However, few studies have investigated the effects of traffic-related air pollutants with sufficient spatial accuracy. Objectives: We estimated associations between congenital anomalies and exposure to traffic-related air pollution in Barcelona, Spain. Method: Cases with nonchromosomal anomalies (n = 2,247) and controls (n = 2,991) were selected from the Barcelona congenital anomaly register during 1994–2006. Land use regression models from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), were applied to residential addresses at birth to estimate spatial exposure to nitrogen oxides and dioxide (NOx, NO2), particulate matter with diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), 10–2.5 μm (PMcoarse), ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), and PM2.5 absorbance. Spatial estimates were adjusted for temporal trends using data from routine monitoring stations for weeks 3–8 of each pregnancy. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for 18 congenital anomaly groups associated with an interquartile-range (IQR) increase in exposure estimates. Results: In spatial and spatiotemporal exposure models, we estimated statistically significant associations between an IQR increase in NO2 (12.2 μg/m3) and coarctation of the aorta (ORspatiotemporal = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.31) and digestive system defects (ORspatiotemporal = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.23), and between an IQR increase in PMcoarse (3.6 μg/m3) and abdominal wall defects (ORspatiotemporal = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.73). Other statistically significant increased and decreased ORs were estimated based on the spatial model only or the spatiotemporal model only, but not both. Conclusions: Our results overall do not indicate an association between traffic-related air pollution and most groups of congenital anomalies. Findings for coarctation of the aorta are consistent with

  15. Kepler in Curricula of the Agrarian Engineering School of Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillet, Jaume Fabregat

    In the Agrarian Engineering school of Barcelona, within the subject of Mathematics some references to history are included, particularly about several great scientists, like Kepler who is famous for his astronomical laws, but he was occupied by other subjects for example he wrote about wine barrels. It is interesting to introduce students to dynamic aspects of science and not only to program an ordered mathematical knowledge of physical systems or, worse, only to offer a collection of numerical recipes or only presenting the foundation of theory; it is important to promote relationships between technical topics and other lateral matters. To instigate an integral education, students did a brief study entitled "Kepler, mathematics and agriculture"; students were guided to link Kepler with agriculture through astronomy.

  16. A thorny question: the taxonomic identity of the Pirro Nord cervical vertebrae revisited.

    PubMed

    Alba, David M; Colombero, Simone; Delfino, Massimo; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Pavia, Marco; Rook, Lorenzo

    2014-11-01

    The past geographic distribution of the genus Theropithecus (Primates: Cercopithecidae) is mainly restricted to Africa. Outside that continent, the earliest reported records of this genus consist of a calcaneus of cf. Theropithecus sp. from 'Ubeidiya (Israel, 1.6-1.2 Ma [millions of years ago]), as well as three associated cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord (Italy, 1.7-1.3 Ma) attributed to Theropithecus sp. The attribution of the Pirro Nord vertebrae to this genus has been disputed on morphometric grounds, although their assignment to a large-bodied cercopithecid has remained undisputed. Here we report unpublished cervical vertebral specimens with a similar morphology and, given their significance for the paleobiogeography of Theropithecus (purportedly representing its earliest European record), we re-evaluate their taxonomic attribution. In particular, we reconsider the possibility that they belong to another non-primate mammal recorded at this site. Based on both qualitative and metric morphological comparisons, we strongly favor an alternative attribution of the cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord to the large porcupine Hystrix refossa, which is widely documented at the site by both dentognathic and other postcranial remains. We therefore conclude that the dispersal of Theropithecus out of Africa before ca. 1 Ma (when it is recorded by dental remains from Cueva Victoria, Spain) is currently based only on the calcaneus from 'Ubeidiya tentatively attributed to this genus. PMID:25042286

  17. Drugs of abuse in urban groundwater. A case study: Barcelona.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, A.; Mastroianni, N.; Vazquez-Suñe, E.; Carrera, J.; Tubau, I.; Pujades, E.; Postigo, C.; Lopez de Alda, M.; Barceló, D.

    2012-04-01

    This study is concerned with drugs of abuse (DAs) and their metabolites in urban groundwater at field scale in relation to (1) the spatial distribution of the groundwater samples, (2) the depth of the groundwater sample, (3) the presence of DAs in recharge sources, and (4) the identification of processes affecting the fate of DAs in groundwater. To this end, urban groundwater samples were collected in the city of Barcelona and a total of 21 drugs were analyzed including cocainics, amphetamine-like compounds, opioids, lysergics and cannabinoids and the prescribed drugs benzodiazepines. Overall, the highest groundwater concentrations and the largest number of detected DAs were found in zones basically recharged by a river that receives large amounts of effluents from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). In contrast, the urbanized areas yielded not only lower concentrations but also a much smaller number of drugs, which suggests a local origin. In fact, cocaine and its metabolite were dominant in more prosperous neighbourhoods, whereas the cheaper (MDMA) was the dominant DA in poorer districts. Concentrations of DAs estimated mainly from the waste water fraction in groundwater samples were consistently higher than the measured ones, suggesting that DAs undergo removal processes in both reducing and oxidizing conditions.

  18. Air pollution and urinary thioether excretion in children of Barcelona

    SciTech Connect

    Mallol, J.; Nogues, M.R. )

    1991-06-01

    The polluted environment found in highly industrialized areas and in big cities contains a great quantity of electrophilic (EC) and proelectrophilic (PEC) compounds, which largely contribute to the development of several pathological processes in humans. EC and PEC can be coupled to the cysteine moiety of glutathione spontaneously or by the glutathione S-transferase system (GST), giving nontoxic metabolites that can be eliminated as urinary thioethers (UT). Therefore one approach to establishing the degree of impact of EC and PEC on the human body is the analysis of UT in the population living in polluted environments. The work presented here has been carried out in the city of Barcelona with a group of 50 children living in a polluted area, over a 12-mo period. Our results demonstrate that UT are significantly higher when the amounts of air pollutants (AP) increase; although the level of contamination never exceeded the established safe limits, UT reached values similar to those found in people smoking more than 10 cigarettes/d. These results may contribute to establishing the maximal levels of contamination compatible with a healthy life, on the basis of patterns of true salubrity rather than on political and economic criteria.

  19. A radar-based monitoring of the Collserola tower (Barcelona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzi, G.; Crosetto, M.; Cuevas-González, M.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports a set of experiments aiming at evaluating the capability of an innovative radar technique to measure the dynamic response of a 268 m high tower, the Collserola tower located in Barcelona, and its guys; the tension force of some guys is also estimated from the obtained vibration frequencies. The applied procedure was based on the use of a coherent radar system: temporal samples acquired using different observation geometries were processed to retrieve the vibration characteristics of both the tower and its guys. This was attained by observing the tower in a fully remote sensing mode, i.e. several hundred metres from the object, without installing any reflector on the tower, and under micro-tremor and wind-induced excitation. During the campaigns, which were spread over three years, the investigated technique demonstrated its capability to measure the dynamic response for a number of different points of the tower with high repeatability. The performed experiments also allowed distinguishing and characterizing the different contributions of the tower and the guys.

  20. French validation of the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Joe; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Marco-Pallares, Josep; Tillmann, Barbara; Zeitouni, Anthony; Lehmann, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (BMRQ) questionnaire investigates the main facets of music experience that could explain the variance observed in how people experience reward associated with music. Currently, only English and Spanish versions of this questionnaire are available. The objective of this study is to validate a French version of the BMRQ. Methods. The original BMRQ was translated and adapted into an international French version. The questionnaire was then administered through an online survey aimed at adults aged over 18 years who were fluent in French. Statistical analyses were performed and compared to the original English and Spanish version for validation purposes. Results. A total of 1,027 participants completed the questionnaire. Most responses were obtained from France (89.4%). Analyses revealed that congruence values between the rotated loading matrix and the ideal loading matrix ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. Factor reliabilities of subscales (i.e., Musical Seeking, Emotion Evocation, Mood Regulation, Social Reward and Sensory-Motor) also ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. In addition, reliability of the overall factor score (i.e., Music reward) was 0.91. Finally, the internal consistency of the overall scale was 0.85. The factorial structure obtained in the French translation was similar to that of the original Spanish and English samples. Conclusion. The French version of the BMRQ appears valid and reliable. Potential applications of the BMRQ include its use as a valuable tool in music reward and emotion research, whether in healthy individuals or in patients suffering from a wide variety of cognitive, neurologic and auditory disorders. PMID:27019776

  1. Asbestosis in the industries of the Barcelona area

    SciTech Connect

    Segarra, F.; Monte, M.B.; Ibanez, P.L.; Gonzalez, A.G.; Nicolas, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    This presentation is the result of the survey of eight industries with asbestosis risk in the Barcelona area (two of fibro-cement, three of auto brakes, two of textiles, and one of insulation materials). Of 1,472 workers, 271 or 18.5% have asbestosis. Pleural involvement in asbestosis is twice as common as that of the lung, 15.7% versus 8.5%. Pulmonary asbestosis without pleural participation is seen in only 2.6% of cases. Pleural plaques, calcified and not calcified, are detected in only a few cases. There is a definite correlation between the incidence of asbestosis and the exposure time: from 1% in the group of workers with less than five years of exposure up to 64.58% for those with 30 or more years of exposure. Clinical symptoms (cough, and/or expectoration, and/or dyspnea) were present in 68% of the studied population. Pulmonary crepitations are the most significant physical sign detected, observed in one quarter to one third of the patients. Pulmonary function tests in asbestos workers revealed restrictive and mixed type syndromes in 17% of the cases and obstructive syndrome in 36%. The percentages for those workers without asbestosis are 9% and 16%, respectively. It seems, therefore, that a bronchial factor plays a role in asbestosis. The bronchial pathology would be manifested clinically by the appearance or the exaggeration of the chronic bronchitis symptoms, and physiologically by the presence of the obstructive syndrome. There is no doubt that smoking enhances the incidence of asbestosis, aggravates the respiratory symptoms in those affected, and is a cause of further deterioration of pulmonary function.

  2. Outdoor and indoor UFP in primary schools across Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Reche, C; Viana, M; Rivas, I; Bouso, L; Àlvarez-Pedrerol, M; Alastuey, A; Sunyer, J; Querol, X

    2014-09-15

    Indoor and outdoor measurements of real-time ultrafine particles (UFP; N10-700 in this study) number concentration and average diameter were collected twice at 39 primary schools located in Barcelona (Spain), with classrooms naturally ventilated under warm weather conditions. Simultaneous outdoor N concentration measurements at schools under different traffic exposures showed the important role of this source, with higher levels by 40% on average at schools near heavy traffic, highlighting thus the increased exposure of children due to urban planning decisions. A well-defined spatial pattern of outdoor UFP levels was observed. Midday increases in outdoor N levels mainly attributed to nucleation processes have been recorded both at high and low temperatures in several of the outdoor school sites (increasing levels by 15%-70%). The variation of these increases also followed a characteristic spatial pattern, pointing at schools' location as a key variable in terms of UFP load owing to the important contribution of traffic emissions. Indoor N concentrations were to some extent explained by outdoor N concentrations during school hours, together with average temperatures, related with natural ventilation. Outdoor midday increases were generally mimicked by indoor N concentrations, especially under warm temperatures. At specific cases, indoor concentrations during midday were 30%-40% higher than outdoor. The time scale of these observations evidenced the possible role of: a) secondary particle formation enhanced by indoor precursors or conditions, maybe related with surface chemistry reactions mediated by O3, and/or b) UFP from cooking activities. Significant indoor N increases were detected after school hours, probably associated with cleaning activities, resulting in indoor N concentrations up to 3 times higher than those in outdoor. A wide variability of indoor/outdoor ratios of N concentrations and mean UFP sizes was detected among schools and measurement periods

  3. French validation of the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Marco-Pallares, Josep; Tillmann, Barbara; Zeitouni, Anthony; Lehmann, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (BMRQ) questionnaire investigates the main facets of music experience that could explain the variance observed in how people experience reward associated with music. Currently, only English and Spanish versions of this questionnaire are available. The objective of this study is to validate a French version of the BMRQ. Methods. The original BMRQ was translated and adapted into an international French version. The questionnaire was then administered through an online survey aimed at adults aged over 18 years who were fluent in French. Statistical analyses were performed and compared to the original English and Spanish version for validation purposes. Results. A total of 1,027 participants completed the questionnaire. Most responses were obtained from France (89.4%). Analyses revealed that congruence values between the rotated loading matrix and the ideal loading matrix ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. Factor reliabilities of subscales (i.e., Musical Seeking, Emotion Evocation, Mood Regulation, Social Reward and Sensory-Motor) also ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. In addition, reliability of the overall factor score (i.e., Music reward) was 0.91. Finally, the internal consistency of the overall scale was 0.85. The factorial structure obtained in the French translation was similar to that of the original Spanish and English samples. Conclusion. The French version of the BMRQ appears valid and reliable. Potential applications of the BMRQ include its use as a valuable tool in music reward and emotion research, whether in healthy individuals or in patients suffering from a wide variety of cognitive, neurologic and auditory disorders. PMID:27019776

  4. Barcelona conference on epigenetics and cancer 2015: Coding and non-coding functions of the genome.

    PubMed

    Corujo, David; Mas, Gloria; Malinverni, Roberto; Di Croce, Luciano; Buschbeck, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    The Barcelona Conference on Epigenetics and Cancer (BCEC) entitled "Coding and Non-Coding functions of the Genome" took place October 29-30, 2015 in Barcelona. The 2015 BCEC was the third edition of a series of annual conferences jointly organized by 5 leading research centers in Barcelona together with B-Debate, an initiative of BioCat. Luciano Di Croce from the Center for Genomic Regulation and Marcus Buschbeck from the Josep Carreras Leukemia Research Institute put together the scientific program with a particular focus on the role of non-coding RNAs in enhancer regulation, epigenetic control by Polycomb complexes, histone variants, and nuclear organization. In one and a half days, 22 talks and 56 posters were presented to an audience of 215 participants. PMID:26996885

  5. Physical Activity Promotion in General Practices of Barcelona: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puig Ribera, Anna; McKenna, Jim; Riddoch, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This case study aimed to generate explanations for the lack of integration of physical activity (PA) promotion in general practices of Barcelona, the capital of Catalonia. This explanatory study adopted a qualitative approach, based on three techniques; focus groups (n = 3), semi-structured (n = 25) and short individual interviews (n = 5). These…

  6. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in Barcelona: 1992–2003

    PubMed Central

    Puigpinós, Rosa; Borrell, Carme; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Azlor, Enric; Pasarín, M Isabel; Serral, Gemma; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess trends in cancer mortality by educational level in Barcelona from 1992 to 2003. Methods The study population comprised Barcelona inhabitants aged 20 years or older. Data on cancer deaths were supplied by the system of information on mortality. Educational level was obtained from the municipal census. Age-standardized rates by educational level were calculated. We also fitted Poisson regression models to estimate the relative index of inequality (RII) and the Slope Index of Inequalities (SII). All were calculated for each sex and period (1992–1994, 1995–1997, 1998–2000, and 2001–2003). Results Cancer mortality was higher in men and women with lower educational level throughout the study period. Less-schooled men had higher mortality by stomach, mouth and pharynx, oesophagus, larynx and lung cancer. In women, there were educational inequalities for cervix uteri, liver and colon cancer. Inequalities of overall and specific types of cancer mortality remained stable in Barcelona; although a slight reduction was observed for some cancers. Conclusion This study has identified those cancer types presenting the greatest inequalities between men and women in recent years and shown that in Barcelona there is a stable trend in inequalities in the burden of cancer. PMID:19166582

  7. Rationality as Rhetorical Strategy at the Barcelona Disputation, 1263: A Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bizzell, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Often, composition teachers present public debate as if it occurs on a rhetorically level playing field, with victory going to the person who argues most logically. Real-world contestants are seldom so equal in power. We can enrich our pedagogy by studying such encounters; example: the 1263 disputation at Barcelona between Rabbi Nachmanides and…

  8. Schooling Effects on Undergraduate Performance: Evidence from the University of Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Toni; Escardibul, Josep-Oriol

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of several factors related to high school, such as the kind of school (public or private), the type of education (general or vocational), school location and peers on undergraduate performance from students of the University of Barcelona (Spain). Particular attention is given to the functional form and to the…

  9. Latino Trajectories in Barcelona: A Longitudinal Ethnographic Study of Latin American Adolescents in Catalonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    The ethnographic research presented in this paper consists of two parts developed chronologically. The first part is based on a study (Corona, V., Nussbaum, L., & Unamuno, V. [2012]. The emergence of new linguistic repertoires among Barcelona's youth of Latin American origin. "International Journal of Bilingual Education and…

  10. Teaching and Learning in the Virtual Campus: The Case of the University of Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Juana M. Sancho; Sanchez, Joan-Anton

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a research project aimed at analysing the teaching and learning models explicit and implicit in the different uses of e-learning platforms. From qualitative analysis of the interview with the coordinator of the Virtual Campus of the University of Barcelona (VC-UB) and the focus group with the 8 lecturers, emerged both the…

  11. Self-Regulated Learning and New Literacies: An Experience at the University of Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willem, Cilia; Aiello, Martin; Bartolome, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    This article summarises the findings from an evaluation of a Media Literacy course at the University of Barcelona. It focuses on some aspects of Self-Regulation and on the learning environment used by students. The students' learning processes were embedded in an eLearning project, in which students analysed the representation of immigrants and…

  12. [Evaluation of the website of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais regional pharmacovigilance center].

    PubMed

    Rochoy, Michaël; Béné, Johana; Messaadi, Nassir; Auffret, Marine; Gautier, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    We posted the Nord-Pas-de-Calais regional pharmacovigilance center website and distributed a survey to its potential users between August 2014 and October 2014 (135 general practitioners, 45 pharmacists, 14 patients). Satisfaction was 7.3±1.6 out of 10 points for the visual aspect, 7.8±1.5 out of 10 points for navigation and 7.6±1.4 out of 10 points for content. The website was declared useful by 98% respondents, particularly for the reporting of adverse drugs reactions (89%). PMID:27235657

  13. Comparison of UV erythemal doses from surface and satellite observations in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Joan; Sola, Yolanda; Albert, Ossó; Lorente, Jerónimo

    2015-04-01

    In this study we present a comparison of UV erythemal doses from ground-based broadband radiometer observations and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite estimations. We consider a large data set ranging from 2005 to 2012 from a YES UVB-1 instrument belonging to the Spanish Radiometer Network of the Spanish Meteorological Agency AEMET. These data are completed also with cloud type and cover manual observations from the Fabra observatory in Barcelona city. Based upon a previous climatology of UV index observations in Barcelona (Bech et al. 2015), the objective of this research is to characterize the average and extreme dose values at different time periods (annual, seasonal, monthly, daily and midday hours) considering the satellite overpass time retrievals and ground observations. Results will contribute to the validation of satellite retrievals with special consideration of the cloud conditions given the importance of biological effects of UV radiation. Reference Bech, J., Sola, Y., Ossó, A. and Lorente, J. (2015), Analysis of 14 years of broadband ground-based solar UV index observations in Barcelona. International Journal of Climatology, 35: 45-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.3961

  14. The Nordic long-term OCD treatment study (NordLOTS): rationale, design, and methods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper describes and discusses the methodology of the Nordic long-term OCD-treatment study (NordLOTS). The purpose of this effectiveness study was to study treatment outcome of CBT, to identify CBT non- or partial responders and to investigate whether an increased number of CBT-sessions or sertraline treatment gives the best outcome; to identify treatment refractory patients and to investigate the outcome of aripiprazole augmentation; to study the outcome over a three year period for each responder including the risk of relapse, and finally to study predictors, moderators and mediators of treatment response. Methods Step 1 was an open and uncontrolled clinical trial with CBT, step 2 was a controlled, randomised non-blinded study of CBT non-responders from step 1. Patients were randomized to receive either sertraline plus CBT-support or continued and modified CBT. In step 3 patients who did not respond to either CBT or sertraline were treated with aripiprazole augmentation to sertraline. Conclusions This multicenter trial covering three Scandinavian countries is going to be the largest CBT-study for paediatric OCD to date. It is not funded by industry and tries in the short and long-term to answer the question whether further CBT or SSRI is better in CBT non-responders. PMID:24354717

  15. A report from the European Society of Cardiology Congress 2014 (August 30-September 3 - Barcelona, Spain).

    PubMed

    Dulsat, C

    2014-09-01

    The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Annual Congress is the largest cardiology conference in the world and this year ran in Barcelona from August 30 to September 3. During the meeting, more than 30,000 cardiologists from over 100 countries met to share their knowledge in all cardiovascular fields, from basic science to management and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Apart from more than 4,500 interesting abstracts presented in posters and oral sessions, five new ESC Clinical Practice Guidelines were presented among the latest clinical trial results, updates and registries. PMID:25313372

  16. Epidemiology of imported malaria among children and young adults in Barcelona (1990-2008)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing international travel and migration is producing changes in trends in infectious diseases, especially in children from many European cities. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology and determine the trends of imported malaria in patients under 20 years old in the city of Barcelona, Spain, during an 18-year period. Methods The study included malaria cases that were laboratory confirmed and reported to the malaria register at the Public Health Agency of Barcelona from 1990 to 2008, residing in Barcelona and less than 20 years old. Patients were classified as natives (born in Spain) or immigrants. Differences in the distribution of demographic, clinical characteristics, and incidence per 100,000 person-year evolution were analysed. Natives and immigrants were compared by logistic regression by calculating the odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) and Chi-square for a linear trend (p < 0.05). Results Of the total 174 cases, 143 (82.1%) were immigrants, 100 (57.5%) were female, 121 (69.5%) Plasmodium falciparum, and 108 (62.1%) were visiting friends and relatives (VFR) as the reason for travel. Among the immigrants, 99 (67.8%) were from Equatorial Guinea. Immigrant cases more frequently travelled to Africa than natives (p = 0.02). The factors associated with imported malaria among immigrant residents was travelling for VFR (OR: 6.2 CI 1.9-20.2) and age 15-19 (OR: 3.7 CI 1-13.3). The incidence increased from 1990 to 1999 (p < 0.001) and decreased from 2000 to 2008 (p = 0.01), although the global linear trend was not statistically significant (p = 0.41). The fatality rate was 0.5%. Conclusions The majority of cases of malaria in population less than 20 years in Barcelona were immigrants, travelling to Africa for VFR and Plasmodium falciparum was most frequently detected. The trend analysis of the entire study period did not show a statistically significant decline. It is recommended to be aware of malaria, especially

  17. PCB residues in the adipose tissue of the population of Barcelona (Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Catalan, J.; Sabroso, M.; To-Figueras, J.; Planas, J.; Corbella, J. )

    1991-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of aryl halides widely distributed in the environment. Although production has virtually ceased, and most industrial applications (capacitors, transformers, hydraulic fluids, lubricants, etc) are severely restricted, they are one of the most ubiquitous and persistent environmental pollutants. Several toxic effects caused by PCBs have been described including: liver enlargement, hepatomegalocytosis, acne, lymphoid atrophy, immunosuppression, tumor promotion, porphyria. This work continues the authors' previous reports about organochlorine residues in human tissues of some Spanish populations, that showed high levels of some residues, specially of hexachlorobenzene (HCB). PCBs pattern and concentration in the adipose tissue of the inhabitants of an urban and industrial area (Barcelona) were determined.

  18. Child exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants in schools in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rivas, I; Viana, M; Moreno, T; Pandolfi, M; Amato, F; Reche, C; Bouso, L; Àlvarez-Pedrerol, M; Alastuey, A; Sunyer, J; Querol, X

    2014-08-01

    Proximity to road traffic involves higher health risks because of atmospheric pollutants. In addition to outdoor air, indoor air quality contributes to overall exposure. In the framework of the BREATHE study, indoor and outdoor air pollution was assessed in 39 schools in Barcelona. The study quantifies indoor and outdoor air quality during school hours of the BREATHE schools. High levels of fine particles (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), equivalent black carbon (EBC), ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentration and road traffic related trace metals were detected in school playgrounds and indoor environments. PM2.5 almost doubled (factor of 1.7) the usual urban background (UB) levels reported for Barcelona owing to high school-sourced PM2.5 contributions: [1] an indoor-generated source characterised mainly by organic carbon (OC) from organic textile fibres, cooking and other organic emissions, and by calcium and strontium (chalk dust) and; [2] mineral elements from sand-filled playgrounds, detected both indoors and outdoors. The levels of mineral elements are unusually high in PM2.5 because of the breakdown of mineral particles during playground activities. Moreover, anthropogenic PM components (such as OC and arsenic) are dry/wet deposited in this mineral matter. Therefore, PM2.5 cannot be considered a good tracer of traffic emissions in schools despite being influenced by them. On the other hand, outdoor NO2, EBC, UFP, and antimony appear to be good indicators of traffic emissions. The concentrations of NO2 are 1.2 times higher at schools than UB, suggesting the proximity of some schools to road traffic. Indoor levels of these traffic-sourced pollutants are very similar to those detected outdoors, indicating easy penetration of atmospheric pollutants. Spatial variation shows higher levels of EBC, NO2, UFP and, partially, PM2.5 in schools in the centre than in the outskirts of Barcelona, highlighting the influence of traffic emissions. Mean child exposure to

  19. Two simultaneous botulism outbreaks in Barcelona: Clostridium baratii and Clostridium botulinum.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, S; Nolla, J; Valdezate, S; Tortajada, C; Vargas-Leguas, H; Parron, I; Sáez-Nieto, J A; Portaña, S; Carrasco, G; Moguel, E; Sabate, S; Argelich, R; Caylà, J A

    2013-09-01

    Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disorder that can be potentially life-threatening. In Barcelona, Spain, no outbreaks had been reported in the past 25 years. However, in September 2011, two outbreaks occurred involving two different families. A rare case of Clostridium baratii which produced a neurotoxin F outbreak was detected in five family members who had shared lunch, and several days before that another family was affected by C. botulinum toxin A which was probably present in homemade pâté. PMID:23158693

  20. Indoor and outdoor BTX levels in Barcelona City metropolitan area and Catalan rural areas.

    PubMed

    Gallego, E; Roca, F X; Guardino, X; Rosell, M G

    2008-01-01

    Five aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, and three isomeric xylenes) were monitored in indoor and outdoor air of 7 public buildings and 54 private homes, located in Barcelona City metropolitan area and in several rural areas of Catalonia. The sampling was carried out over four periods: spring-summer and winter of 2000, and summer and winter of 2001. Passive ORSA 5 Dräger samplers were used for benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) adsorption. BTX were extracted with carbon disulphide and analysed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a FID detector. In Barcelona metropolitan area the outdoor average concentrations of BTX were 3.5, 34.2, and 31.3 microg/m3 in urban areas, and 1.4, 9.2, and 9.2 microg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. Average indoor air concentrations of BTX were respectively 4.3, 64.8, and 47.6 microg/m3 in urban areas and 5.8, 67.0, and 51.4 microg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. A direct connection between the house and garage was one of the most influential factors for indoor BTX concentrations in rural areas. In urban areas, diffuse traffic sources were the predominant BTX source, slightly influenced by tobacco smoke in indoor air. PMID:19143312

  1. Barcelona conference on epigenetics and cancer: 50 years of histone acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Salvia, Montserrat; Simó-Riudalbas, Laia; Ausió, Juan; Esteller, Manel

    2015-01-01

    The Barcelona Conference on Epigenetics and Cancer (BCEC) was held in Barcelona, Spain, on October 1st and 2nd, 2014. The meeting was co-organized by the Cancer Epigenetics and Biology Program (PEBC-IDIBELL) and B·Debate, an initiative of Biocat, with the support of "la Caixa" Foundation. The scientific committee was comprised of leading scientists in the field of epigenetics: Dr. Manel Esteller, director of PEBC-IDIBELL, Dr. Alejandro Vaquero and Dr. Esteban Ballestar, from PEBC-IDIBELL, Juan Ausió from the University of Victoria (Canada), and Marcus Buschbeck, from the Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer (IMPPC), as BCEC series coordinator. This meeting was the second edition of the BCEC series, which was launched by 5 leading Barcelonan institutes to bring together leading investigators in the fields of epigenetics and chromatin research. The topics discussed during the meeting included the current challenges, opportunities, and perspectives surrounding the study of histone modifications (focusing in acetylation), chromatin structure and gene expression, and the involvement of histone acetylation in physiology and diseases, such as cancer or neurological diseases. PMID:25942103

  2. [Thirty Years of Health Surveillance of Foods in Barcelona: The "ICSA" Food Quality Research Program].

    PubMed

    Fontcuberta-Famadas, Mireia; Rodellar-Torras, Santiago; Portaña-Tudela, Samuel; Durán-Neira, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The Food Health Quality Research Program (Investigación de la Calidad Sanitaria de los Alimentos [ICSA]) of the Public Health Agency of Barcelona (Agencia de Salud Pública de Barcelona [ASPB]) was initiated in 1984 to carry out surveillance of certain chemical and microbiological parameters related to the sanitary and safety of foods sold in the city. The present article analyzes the importance of health surveillance and provides details of the uses of the ICSA program. The main aim of this program is to evaluate whether marketed foods comply with the absence and/or established tolerance levels of specific parameters. Nevertheless, the program is able to incorporate or suppress parameters or foods that pose emerging dangers or interests not represented in current legislation. Besides, the program not only obtains a view of the parameters studied at a specific time period in each report, but also accumulates data over time, allowing risk assessment, calculation of dietary intake of contaminants, analysis of tendencies, and evaluation of the effectiveness of regulations to reduce contaminants. The program can also help in the planning of food control programs. The information obtained is disseminated nationally and internationally and is included in dossiers of contaminants issued by national and European health agencies. This demonstrates that a locally-developed surveillance system can have a wider scope and broader objectives and can provide useful information for managers, administrations, economic operators and consumers. PMID:26388339

  3. Quantification of thermal bioclimate for the management of urban design in Mediterranean climate of Barcelona, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    In order to contribute to the sustainability of the outdoor environment, knowledge about the urban thermal bioclimate should be transferred into climatic guidelines for planning. The general framework of this study responds to the need of analyzing thermal bioclimate in Mediterranean climate regions and its influence as an urban design factor. The paper analyzes the background of the urban climate and thermal bioclimate conditions in Barcelona (Spain), through the effect of shade conditions and wind speed variations. Simulations of shade and wind speed variations were performed to evaluate changes in thermal bioclimate due to modifications in urban morphology. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation for the period from January, 2001 to January, 2015 were used to calculate physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the RayMan model. The results demonstrate that shade is the most important strategy to improve urban microclimatic conditions. In Barcelona, human thermal comfort conditions can be improved by shade and wind speed increase in terms of PET above 23 °C and by a wind speed decrease for thresholds of PET below 18 °C. Heat stress situations can be mitigated by shade and wind speed increase in conditions above 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The results of the study are an important contribution for urban planners, due to their possibilities and potential for the description of microclimatic conditions in Mediterranean climate regions. The knowledge is useful for improved human thermal comfort conditions, from the suitable configuration of urban form and architecture.

  4. Quantification of thermal bioclimate for the management of urban design in Mediterranean climate of Barcelona, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    In order to contribute to the sustainability of the outdoor environment, knowledge about the urban thermal bioclimate should be transferred into climatic guidelines for planning. The general framework of this study responds to the need of analyzing thermal bioclimate in Mediterranean climate regions and its influence as an urban design factor. The paper analyzes the background of the urban climate and thermal bioclimate conditions in Barcelona (Spain), through the effect of shade conditions and wind speed variations. Simulations of shade and wind speed variations were performed to evaluate changes in thermal bioclimate due to modifications in urban morphology. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation for the period from January, 2001 to January, 2015 were used to calculate physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the RayMan model. The results demonstrate that shade is the most important strategy to improve urban microclimatic conditions. In Barcelona, human thermal comfort conditions can be improved by shade and wind speed increase in terms of PET above 23 °C and by a wind speed decrease for thresholds of PET below 18 °C. Heat stress situations can be mitigated by shade and wind speed increase in conditions above 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The results of the study are an important contribution for urban planners, due to their possibilities and potential for the description of microclimatic conditions in Mediterranean climate regions. The knowledge is useful for improved human thermal comfort conditions, from the suitable configuration of urban form and architecture.

  5. Widening social inequalities in mortality: the case of Barcelona, a southern European city.

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, C; Plasència, A; Pasarin, I; Ortún, V

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse trends in mortality inequalities in Barcelona between 1983 and 1994 by comparing rates in those electoral wards with a low socioeconomic level and rates in the remaining wards. DESIGN: Mortality trends study. SETTING: The city of Barcelona (Spain). SUBJECTS: The study included all deaths among residents of the two groups of city wards. Details were obtained from death certificates. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age standardised mortality rates, age standardised rates of years of potential life lost, and age specific mortality rates in relation to cause of death, sex, and year were computed as well as the comparative mortality figure and the ratio of standardised rates of years of potential life lost. RESULTS: Rates of premature mortality increased from 5691.2 years of potential life lost per 100,000 inhabitants aged 1 to 70 years in 1983 to 7606.2 in 1994 in the low socioeconomic level wards, and from 3731.2 to 4236.9 in the other wards, showing an increase in inequalities over the 12 years, mostly due to AIDS and drug overdose as causes of death. Conversely, cerebrovascular disease showed a reduction in inequality over the same period. Overall mortality in the 15-44 age group widened the gap between both groups of wards. CONCLUSION: AIDS and drug overdose are emerging as the causes of death that are contributing to a substantial increase in social inequality in terms of premature mortality, an unreported observation in European urban areas. PMID:9519129

  6. Nuclear Power for Catalonia: The Role of the Official Chamber of Industry of Barcelona, 1953-1962

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salom, Francesc X. Barca

    2005-01-01

    Between 1939 and 1959, the regime led by General Franco pursued a policy of economic self-sufficiency. This policy inflicted great injury on Spanish science and industry, not least in Catalonia, and in its capital, Barcelona. In response, Catalan industry looked to a future made more promising by the advent of nuclear power. This paper describes…

  7. "The Best School for My Child?" Positions, Dispositions and Inequalities in School Choice in the City of Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegre, Miquel Angel; Benito, Ricard

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the discourses and practices employed by families involved in school choice processes in the city of Barcelona (Spain). It draws upon a study conducted by the authors in 2008/09, and it is based on surveys completed by a representative sample made up of 3245 families, as well as 60 in-depth interviews with families with…

  8. Regulating the Writing Process in the Teacher Training Practicum Guided by Feedback at the University of Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidiella, Maria-Cinta Portillo; Garcia, Elena Cano

    2016-01-01

    This is a longitudinal study that focuses on blog-writing for the purpose of self-assessing competencies, and which was carried out within the practicum of a degree course in Primary Education Teaching at the University of Barcelona. Over the course of three academic years, students and a teacher have used a Platform 2.0 program, specially created…

  9. Virtual University Teaching: Contributions to Innovation in Higher Education. The Case of "Online Geography" at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosco, Alejandra; Rodriguez-Gomez, David

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a case study, "Online Geography," carried out at the "Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona" (UAB), the basic feature of which was to implement a Learning Management System for university teaching. This experience resulted in the incorporation of curricular improvements which could be considered compatible with the processes of…

  10. Quality Assessment for Placement Centres: A Case Study of the University of Barcelona's Faculty of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freixa Niella, Montse; Vilà Baños, Ruth; Rubio Hurtado, M. José

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify the factors that could be used for quality assessments of the placement centres used by the University of Barcelona's Faculty of Education. To achieve this, a multiple case study method (bachelor's degrees in Education, Social Education and Social Work) was used, which was based on a survey…

  11. Final Documents of the International Congress of Educating Cities (1st, Barcelona, Spain, November 26-30, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcelona Council (Spain).

    The First International Congress of Educating Cities in Barcelona (Spain) considered education in its broadest sense, beyond the school system. An introduction by P. Figueras Bellot is provided. The following are the English translations of the Spanish titles of the presentations given by representatives of international and government…

  12. La tectonique active de la région nord-algérienne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelles-Chaouche, AbdelKrim; Boudiaf, Azzedine; Djellit, Hamou; Bracene, Rabah

    2006-01-01

    En Algérie, la tectonique active est localisée dans la région nord du pays, essentiellement dans le Tell. Dans cette région, frontière entre les plaques Africaine et Eurasiatique, la déformation tectonique est l'expression de la convergence actuelle des ces deux plaques et se traduit par la fermeture progressive des bassins néogènes et par la poursuite de l'édification de la chaîne. Le long de la marge, la déformation s'exprime dans la partie de la plaine abyssale proche du continent, par le plissement de la couverture plio-quaternaire. Au niveau de la pente et sur le plateau continental, la sismicité est générée par des accidents qui se prolongent parfois à terre. Cette tectonique littorale active est à l'origine de la surrection de la côte, comme cela fut le cas lors du dernier séisme de Boumerdes du 21 mai 2003, où le soulèvement cosismique a été estimé en moyenne à 0,50 m. À terre, la sismicité s'exprime surtout le long des bordures des bassins néogènes qui longent la côte. Ces bassins se déforment en donnant des structures plicatives (synclinaux, anticlinaux) et parfois cassantes (pli-failles, failles inverses, chevauchements) orientées NE-SW à NNE-SSW. Ces dernières sont le plus souvent à l'origine des violents tremblements de terre que connaît l'Algérie. Plus au sud, la sismicité s'exprime, tout le long du Tell, le long des faisceaux de plis de direction NE-SW. Actuellement, dans les régions des Hauts Plateaux et la région de l'Atlas saharien, l'activité sismique est faible. Pour citer cet article : A. Yelles-Chaouche et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  13. Geodetic Infrastructure in the Ibiza and Barcelona Harbours for Sea Level Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Gili, J.; Lopez, R.; Tapia, A.; Perez, B.; Pros, F.

    2013-12-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual situation and relevant information of the geodetic infrastructure of Ibiza and Barcelona sites for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise. Time series are being analysed for mean sea level variations www.puertos.es. .In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica s.l. near an acoustic tide gauge. Puertos del Estado installed in 2007 a MIROS radar tide gauge and the Barcelona Harbour Authority a GPS referente station in the roof of the new Control Tower situated in the Energy Pier. The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna 1202. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land. The measured settlement rate is about 1cm/year that may be could mask the values registered by the tide gauge. A description of the actual infrastructure at Ibiza harbour at Marina de Botafoch, is presented and its applications to sea level monitoring and altimeter calibration in support of the main CGPS at Ibiza harbour. It is described the geometrical precision levelling made in June 2013 between the radar tide gauge and the GPS station. In particular, the CGPS located at Ibiza harbour is essential for its application to the marine campaign Baleares 2013, near Ibiza island. The main objective is to determine the altimeter bias for Jason-2, about 9:09 UTC September 15, 2013, and Saral/AltiKa, about 05:30 UTC September 16, UTC. These activities has been received funding of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion under Spanish

  14. A management system for accidental water pollution risk in a harbour: The Barcelona case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifoll, Manel; Jordà, Gabriel; Espino, Manuel; Romo, Javier; García-Sotillo, Marcos

    2011-10-01

    Water quality degradation in harbour domains can have an important negative impact from an economic, touristic and environmental point of view. In that sense, water quality management is becoming a main concern for harbour managers. In this paper, we present the research behind the initiative started in Spanish harbours to control water quality degradation due to accidental pollution. This management system is already operationally running in the Barcelona harbour (NW Mediterranean Sea). The system is based on a recent published risk assessment, which takes into account not only the different activities in the harbour and their inherent risk of accident but also the physical behaviour of harbour waters. In this methodology, a key element is to get hydrodynamic forecasts. Thus, the system is composed of a hierarchy of nested hydrodynamic models covering from the basin scale to the harbour scale and a module that computes the different parameters needed for risk assessment. Special emphasis is made on describing the steps followed for system implementation because such implementation is far from a mere technical problem. The first step is to identify the main forcing factors for the harbour hydrodynamics from both field data and numerical experiments, which has never been done before for the Barcelona harbour. Wind and shelf currents are suggested as the main forcing factors for the harbour circulation. The second step is to identify the requirements that a numerical model must fulfil in order to properly solve the Barcelona harbour's hydrodynamics. A high resolution (< 50 m) three dimensional model able to prognostically calculate temperature and salinity evolution; full air-sea coupling is needed as well. The third step is to investigate the best operational strategy. We have found that small errors in the initial density profiles are acceptable for surface current forecasts but not for deep circulation. A cold start must be avoided and a 72 h spin-up is

  15. Implementation of CGPS at Estartit, Ibiza and Barcelona harbours for sea level monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Ortiz Castellon, M.; Martinez-Garcia, M.; Perez, B.; Bosch, E.; Termens, A.; Martinez de Oses, X.

    2009-12-01

    The determination of global and regional mean sea level variations with accura-cies better than 1 mm/yr is a critical problem, the resolution of which is central to the current debate on climate change and its impact on the environment. Highly accurate time series from both satellite altimetry and tide gauges are needed. Measuring the sea surface height with in-situ tide gauges and GPS receivers pro-vides an efficient way to control the long term stability of the radar altimeters and other applications as the vertical land motion and studies of sea level change. L’Estartit tide gauge is a classical floating tide gauge set up in l’Estartit harbour (NE Spain) in 1990. Data are taken in graphics registers from which each two hours the mean value is recorded in an electronic support and delivered to the Permanent Service for Mean Sea level (PSMSL). Periodic surveying campaigns along the year are carried out for monitoring possible vertical movement of the geodetic benchmark adjacent to the tide gauge. Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours) installed the tide gauge station at Ibiza har-bour in January 2003 and a near GPS reference station. The station belongs to the REDMAR network, composed at this moment by 21 stations distributed along the whole Spanish waters, including also the Canary islands (http://www.puertos.es). The tide gauge also belongs to the ESEAS (European Sea Level) network. A description of the actual infrastructure at Ibiza, Barcelona and l’Estartit har-bours is presented.The main objective is the implementation of these harbours as a precise geodetic areas for sea level monitoring and altimeter calibration. Actually is a CGPS with a radar tide gauge from Puertos del Estado and a GPS belonging to Puerto de Barcelona. A precise levelling has been made by the Cartographic Insti-tute of Catalonia, ICC. The instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 3000C device and a

  16. The Barcelona Sleepiness Index: A New Instrument to Assess Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Sleep Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Guaita, Marc; Salamero, Manel; Vilaseca, Isabel; Iranzo, Alex; Montserrat, Josep M.; Gaig, Carles; Embid, Cristina; Romero, Montserrat; Serradell, Mònica; León, Carme; de Pablo, Joan; Santamaria, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To develop the Barcelona Sleepiness Index (BSI), an interviewer-administered instrument for assessing excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) that correlates well with objective measures of EDS and which is sensitive to change with treatment. Methods: (1) Generation of a preliminary item list: Fifty-three consecutive SDB patients complaining of EDS and their bed partners were interviewed using a focus group methodology to generate a list of situations prone to cause sleepiness. Sixty different consecutive SDB patients were then evaluated using cognitive interviews to refine this list. (2) Construct validity: The maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT), the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and the sustained attention to response task (SART) test were used in an additional 98 consecutive SDB patients with and without EDS. The item combination that best correlated with the objective tests constituted the BSI. Cutoff values were determined to differentiate between patients with and without EDS. (3) Sensitivity to change: Thirty patients requiring continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) were evaluated after satisfactory treatment. Results: A combination of two items, “in the morning, when relaxing” and “in the afternoon, standing inactive, in a public place,” presented the highest correlations with the MWT (r: −0.50, p < 0.001), the MSLT (r: −0.21, p = 0.07), and the SART (r: 0.27, p < 0.02) and constituted the BSI. The BSI significantly correlated with oxyhemoglobin saturation measures (nadir SpO2: r: −0.28, p = 0.01; CT 85: r: 0.23, p = 0.04) and showed a high sensitivity to change with CPAP treatment (t: 3.4, p = 0.002). A score of 2 or more identified patients with objective EDS (sensitivity = 64.9%, specificity = 72.1%). Conclusion: The Barcelona Sleepiness Index is a simple, brief instrument for measuring subjective EDS in SDB. Citation: Guaita M, Salamero M, Vilaseca I, Iranzo A, Montserrat JM

  17. Hospital emergency department utilisation rates among the immigrant population in Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Buron, Andrea; Cots, Francesc; Garcia, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Castells, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Background The recent increase in the number of immigrants of Barcelona represents a challenge for the public healthcare system, the emergency department being the most used healthcare service by this group. However, utilisation rates in our environment have not yet been studied. We aimed to compare emergency department utilisation rates between Spanish-born and foreign-born residents in a public hospital of Barcelona. Methods The study population included all adults residing in the area of study and visiting the emergency department of Hospital del Mar in 2004. The emergency care episodes were selected from the Emergency Department register, and the population figures from the Statistics Department of Barcelona. Emergency care episodes were classified into five large clinical categories. Adjusted rate ratios (RR) of utilisation among foreign-born vs. Spanish-born residents were assessed through negative binomial regression. Results The overall utilisation rate was 382 emergency contacts per 1,000 persons-years. The RR for foreign-born versus Spanish-born residents was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.52; 0.74%). The RR was also significantly below one in surgery (0.51, 95% CI: 0.42; 0.63), traumatology (0.47, 95% CI: 0.38; 0.59), medicine (0.48, 95% CI: 0.38; 0.59) and psychiatry (0.42, 95% CI: 0.18; 0.97). No differences were found in utilisation of gynaecology and minor emergency services. Conclusion The overall lower utilisation rates obtained for foreign-born residents is consistent with previous studies and is probably due to the "healthy immigrant effect". Thus, the population increase due to immigration does not translate directly into a corresponding increase in the number of emergency contacts. The lack of differences in minor and gynaecological emergency care supports the hypothesis that immigrants overcome certain barriers by using the emergency department to access to health services. The issue of healthcare barriers should therefore be addressed, especially among

  18. Ten Talks: Celebrating the Creative Process. Friends of the Library Annual Lecture Series, 1993-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Linda, Ed.

    Each spring, the Friends of the Library of the University of Waterloo Library invite the campus community to join in an event celebrating the creative process. The event reflects the day-to-day work of the library staff: bringing together information from a diverse range of disciplines for the purpose of creating new knowledge. This book includes…

  19. Clinical and genetic features of human prion diseases in Catalonia: 1993-2002.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Valle, R; Nos, C; Yagüe, J; Graus, F; Domínguez, A; Saiz, A

    2004-10-01

    We describe the clinical and genetic characteristics of the 85 definite or probable human prion diseases cases died between January 1993 and December 2002 in Catalonia (an autonomous community of Spain, 6 million population). Seventy-three (86%) cases were sporadic Creutzfeld-Jakob diseases (sCJD) (49 definite, 24 probable), with a median age at onset of 66 years. The clinical presentation was dementia in 29 cases, ataxia in 14 and visual symptoms in five. The median survival was 3 months. The 14-3-3 assay was positive in 93% cases, 62% presented periodic sharp wave complexes (PSWC) in EEG but only 18% the typical signs on MRI. Forty-eight sCJD were studied for codon 129 PRNP polymorphism: 69% were methionine/methionine (M/M), 14.5% valine/valine (V/V) and 16.5% M/V. Six out of seven V/V cases did not present PSWC and in two survival was longer than 20 months. Eleven cases (13%) were genetic: five familial fatal insomnia and six familial CJD (fCJD). Up to four (67%) fCJD lacked family history of disease, two presented seizures early at onset and one neurosensorial deafness. The only iatrogenic case was related to a dura mater graft. No case of variant CJD was registered. The study confirms in our population the consistent pattern reported worldwide on human prion diseases. Atypical features were seen more frequently in sporadic 129 V/V CJD and fCJD cases. PMID:15469448

  20. Metaevaluation of National Weatherization Assistance Program Based on State Studies, 1993-2002

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, L

    2003-04-02

    The National Weatherization Assistance Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and implemented by state and local agencies throughout the United States, weatherizes homes for low-income residents in order to increase their energy efficiency and lower utility bills. Research staff members at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have performed two previous metaevaluations of this program (Berry, 1997; Schweitzer and Berry, 1999). Both of these earlier metaevaluations involved synthesizing the results from individual studies of state weatherization efforts completed during a several year period. This report is the third in a series of metaevaluations of state-level studies. It is built on the foundation developed by the previous two metaevaluations. The purpose of this report, like that of the two earlier ORNL metaevaluations, is to provide a current estimate of the average national energy savings per home weatherized for the Weatherization Assistance Program based on the relevant state-level studies. All three of the metaevaluations, including this one, were designed to be updates to the findings of a national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program, which examined a representative national sample of several thousand structures weatherized in 1989 (Brown, Berry, Balzer, and Faby 1993). Although the first and second metaevaluations used separate sets of state-level studies, completed during different time periods, there was little difference in their findings about the typical national energy savings per weatherized home for homes that heat with natural gas. Our initial analysis efforts for this report involved repeating the same procedures that had been used in the previous two reports. In particular, we collected and examined only the state-level evaluations that had become available between September of 1998 and August of 2002. Once again, we found little difference in the average energy savings estimates per weatherized home that were produced with this third set of the most recently available state-level evaluations.

  1. Papillomavirus research update: highlights of the Barcelona HPV 2000 international papillomavirus conference

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, F; Rohan, T; Schneider, A; Frazer, I; Pfister, H; Castellsague, X; de Sanjose, S; Moreno, V; Puig-Tintore, L; Smith, P; Munoz, N; zur Hausen, H

    2001-01-01

    The 18th international papillomavirus conference took place in Barcelona, Spain in July 2000. The HPV clinical workshop was jointly organised with the annual meeting of the Spanish Association of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy. The conference included 615 abstracts describing ongoing research in epidemiology, diagnosis/screening, treatment/prognosis, immunology/human immunodeficiency virus, vaccine development/trials, transformation/progression, replication, transcription/translation, viral protein functions, and viral and host interactions. This leader summarises the highlights presented at the conference (the full text of the abstracts and lectures can be found at www.hpv2000.com). Relevant material in Spanish can be found at www.aepcc.org. Key Words: papillomavirus • epidemiology • immunology • biology • screening PMID:11253126

  2. An observational study of the 7 September 2005 Barcelona tornado outbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, J.; Pascual, R.; Rigo, T.; Pineda, N.; López, J. M.; Arús, J.; Gayà, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an observational study of the tornado outbreak that took place on the 7 September 2005 in the Llobregat delta river, affecting a densely populated and urbanised area and the Barcelona International airport (NE Spain). The site survey confirmed at least five short-lived tornadoes. Four of them were weak (F0, F1) and the other one was significant (F2 on the Fujita scale). They started mostly as waterspouts and moved later inland causing extensive damage estimated in 9 million Euros, three injured people but fortunately no fatalities. Large scale forcing was provided by upper level diffluence and low level warm air advection. Satellite and weather radar images revealed the development of the cells that spawned the waterspouts along a mesoscale convergence line in a highly sheared and relatively low buoyant environment. Further analysis indicated characteristics that could be attributed indistinctively to non-supercell or to mini-supercell thunderstorms.

  3. Cancer Therapeutic Resistance: Progress and Perspectives (April 7-8, 2016 - Barcelona, Spain).

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, E; Pujana, M A; Arribas, J

    2016-06-01

    At the Cancer Therapeutic Resistance: Progress and Perspectives conference, in Barcelona, Spain, April 7-8, 2016, researchers, clinicians and students gathered to discuss our current understanding of intrinsic and acquired resistance of tumors to cancer therapies and to explore how to translate strategies to predict risk or overcome resistance to the clinic. The sessions covered a wide range of topics, including cancer omics, molecular classification, clinically relevant tumor models, biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets, and personalized medicine, with talks from many international experts in the field. This report highlights the main presentations that demonstrate the progress being made in predicting and identifying drug resistance in patients with cancer, personalized approaches to direct treatment and understanding the mechanisms involved. With better models of human cancer and powerful high-throughput screening techniques, translation to the clinic leading to tangible benefits for patients is attainable. PMID:27458611

  4. The Barcelona International Symposium (21-23 April 2005). Synthesis reports.

    PubMed

    Basu, Kisalaya; Danon-Hersch, Nadia; Frisack, Johan; Kingma, Mireille; Martinez-Carretero, Josep Maria; Oberg, Klas; Pong, Raymond W

    2005-01-01

    The Symposium was held in Barcelona, Spain, with the Institut d'Estudis de la Salut acting as host. It gathered 51 participants working in 34 institutions based in 18 countries. The main objective of the Symposium was to create an opportunity for assessing the past trends and forecasting the future developments of health workforce within the various national health systems. The Symposium was composed of 5 sessions devoted to presentations of the papers freely contributed by the participants and 5 discussion sessions devoted to the following themes : (i) Supply of and demand for health workforce, (ii) Future trends and forecasting methods ; (iii) Strategies for managing and planning health workforce ; (iv) Health workforce in underserved areas; (v) International migration of health workers. Each discussion session was conducted by a discussion leader whose the synthesis report is displayed here below. PMID:16285408

  5. Climate Change and Health in the Urban Context: The Experience of Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Villalbí, Joan R; Ventayol, Irma

    2016-07-01

    Climate change poses huge challenges for public health, and cities are at the forefront of this process. The purpose of this paper is to present the issues climate change poses for public health in the city of Barcelona, how they are being addressed, and what are the current major challenges, trying to contribute to the development of a baseline understanding of the status of adaptation in cities from a public health perspective. The major issues related to climate change faced by the city are common to other urban centers in a Mediterranean climate: heat waves, water availability and quality, air quality, and diseases transmitted by vectors, and all are reviewed in detail with empirical data. They are not a potential threat for the future, but have actually challenged the city services and infrastructure over the last years, requiring sustainable responses and rigorous planning. PMID:27387343

  6. Group B Streptococci Causing Neonatal Infections in Barcelona Are a Stable Clonal Population: 18-Year Surveillance▿

    PubMed Central

    Martins, E. R.; Andreu, A.; Correia, P.; Juncosa, T.; Bosch, J.; Ramirez, M.; Melo-Cristino, J.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed 212 group B streptococci (GBS) from newborns with invasive infections in the area of Barcelona, Spain, between 1992 and 2009, with the aim of documenting changes in the prevalences of serotypes, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic lineages and evaluating their associations with either early-onset disease (EOD) or late-onset disease (LOD). Serotypes III (n = 118) and Ia (n = 47) together accounted for nearly 78% of the isolates. All isolates carried an alpha or alpha-like protein gene, and specific associations between genes and serotypes, such as serotype Ib and bca, serotype II and bca, serotype III and rib, and serotype V and alp3, reflected the presence of particular genetic lineages. Macrolide resistance (14.2%) was significantly associated with serotype V. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) clustering was an excellent predictor of serotype and antibiotic resistance. The combination of PFGE and multilocus sequence typing revealed a large number of genetically distinct lineages. Still, specific lineages were dominant in our collection, particularly the serotype III/ST17/rib lineage, which had enhanced potential to cause LOD. Serotype Ia was concentrated in a single PFGE cluster composed of two genetic lineages: ST23/eps and ST24/bca. The ST24/bca sublineage of serotype Ia, which is found infrequently elsewhere, may be emerging as an important cause of neonatal invasive infections in the Mediterranean region. In spite of the introduction of prophylaxis, resulting in a pronounced decline in the frequency of EOD, the study revealed a remarkably stable clonal structure of GBS causing neonatal infections in Barcelona over a period of 18 years. PMID:21697333

  7. Quantification of thermal bioclimate for the management of urban design in Mediterranean climate of Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    In order to contribute to the sustainability of the outdoor environment, knowledge about the urban thermal bioclimate should be transferred into climatic guidelines for planning. The general framework of this study responds to the need of analyzing thermal bioclimate in Mediterranean climate regions and its influence as an urban design factor. The paper analyzes the background of the urban climate and thermal bioclimate conditions in Barcelona (Spain), through the effect of shade conditions and wind speed variations. Simulations of shade and wind speed variations were performed to evaluate changes in thermal bioclimate due to modifications in urban morphology. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation for the period from January, 2001 to January, 2015 were used to calculate physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the RayMan model. The results demonstrate that shade is the most important strategy to improve urban microclimatic conditions. In Barcelona, human thermal comfort conditions can be improved by shade and wind speed increase in terms of PET above 23 °C and by a wind speed decrease for thresholds of PET below 18 °C. Heat stress situations can be mitigated by shade and wind speed increase in conditions above 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The results of the study are an important contribution for urban planners, due to their possibilities and potential for the description of microclimatic conditions in Mediterranean climate regions. The knowledge is useful for improved human thermal comfort conditions, from the suitable configuration of urban form and architecture. PMID:26694490

  8. UPC BarcelonaTech Platform. Innovative aerobatic parabolic flights for life sciences experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni; Gonzalez, Daniel

    We present an innovative method of performing parabolic flights with aerobatic single-engine planes. A parabolic platform has been established in Sabadell Airport (Barcelona, Spain) to provide an infraestructure ready to allow Life Sciences reduced gravity experiments to be conducted in parabolic flights. Test flights have demonstrated that up to 8 seconds of reduced gravity can be achieved by using a two-seat CAP10B aircraft, with a gravity range between 0.1 and 0.01g in the three axis. A parabolic flight campaign may be implemented with a significant reduction in budget compared to conventional parabolic flight campaigns, and with a very short time-to-access to the platform. Operational skills and proficiency of the pilot controling the aircraft during the maneuvre, sensitivity to wind gusts, and aircraft balance are the key issues that make a parabola successful. Efforts are focused on improving the total “zero-g” time and the quality of reduced gravity achieved, as well as providing more space for experiments. We report results of test flights that have been conducted in order to optimize the quality and total microgravity time. A computer sofware has been developed and implemented to help the pilot optimize his or her performance. Finally, we summarize the life science experiments that have been conducted in this platform. Specific focus is given to the very successful 'Barcelona ZeroG Challenge', this year in its third edition. This educational contest gives undergraduate and graduate students worldwide the opportunity to design their research within our platform and test it on flight, thus becoming real researchers. We conclude that aerobatic parabolic flights have proven to be a safe, unexpensive and reliable way to conduct life sciences reduced gravity experiments.

  9. Barcelona Rocks, a mobile app to learn geology in your city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Adelina; Cabrera, Lluis; Alias, Gemma; Aulinas, Meritxell; Becerra, Margarita; Casadellà, Jordi; Clotet, Roger; Delclós, Xavier; Fernández-Turiel, José-Luis; Tarragó, Marta; Travé, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Barcelona Rocks is an application for personal mobile devices suitable for secondary and high school students as well as the general public without a solid background in Earth Sciences. The main objective of this app is to teach Geology using as learning resource our city façades and pavements. Additionally, Barcelona Rocks provides a short explanation about the significance of the appearance of the different rock types at the different historical periods of the city. Although it has been designed as a playful learning resource for secondary school students, the level of knowledge also allows bringing some basic concepts and principles of Earth Sciences to the general public, irrespective of age. This app is intended to provide the degree of interactivity and entertainment required by the different individual users and aims to: (i) Explain the techniques and experiments that allow the user to identify the different rocks, as well as their genesis. (ii) Introduce geology to the youngest users in a more attractive and entertaining way, providing also some information regarding the use of the different ornamental rocks during the different historical periods of the city: roman, medieval, etc. (iii) Provide historical and architectural information of the selected buildings in order to improve the city's historical architectural knowledge of the users. (iv) Show the non-expert public the importance of their country's geology. (v) Develop of outreach and dissemination resources taking advantage of the versatile and potent mobile application format using also the content as support material for science courses, seminars, or social learning events. (vi) Encourage new generations of Earth Scientists (vii) Promote science and scientific culture of the society, integrating culture and innovation as essential for the emergence of new scientific and technological vocations, promoting critical thinking, understanding of the scientific method and the social interest in science

  10. Source apportionment of particles at Station Nord, North East Greenland during 2008-2010 using COPREM and PMF analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Q. T.; Skov, H.; Sørensen, L. L.; Jensen, B. J.; Grube, A. G.; Massling, A.; Glasius, M.; Nøjgaard, J. K.

    2012-09-01

    In order to develop strategies for controlling and reducing Arctic air pollution, there is a need to understand the basic mechanisms for determining the fate of air pollution in the Arctic. Sources of atmospheric particles at Station Nord (81°36' N, 16°40' W) in North East Greenland were evaluated for a two-year period from March 2008 to February 2010. Source apportionment using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and COnstrained Physical Receptor Model (COPREM) was based on measurements of black carbon, elements (Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Pb) and inorganic ions (SO2, SO42-, Na+, NH4+, NO3-, Cl-). In general, source apportionment results by PMF and COPREM showed good agreement. Five sources adequately explained the measurements, which included a Marine and a Soil source of natural origin and three additional anthropogenic sources, which were all influenced by metal industries. One anthropogenic source was dominated by Zn of which air mass back trajectories using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model suggested a Canadian Arctic origin, despite certain influences from southern and eastern origins. Another anthropogenic source was characterised by high concentrations of Pb and As, which has been historically referred to as a Combustion source at Station Nord. The impacts of large-scale industry in Siberia, Russia were evident through high Cu concentrations in both the Combustion source and an additional Cu/Ni source. Br correlated well with the anthropogenic species S and Pb though the elements are unlikely to have a common origin. More likely, sulphuric acid aerosols serve as transport containers for Br species of marine or local origin. Of particular relevance to climate, sources of black carbon were identified to be mainly anthropogenic and most probably of Siberian origin (80-98%).

  11. Source apportionment of particles at Station Nord, North East Greenland during 2008-2010 using COPREM and PMF analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Q. T.; Skov, H.; Sørensen, L. L.; Jensen, B. J.; Grube, A. G.; Massling, A.; Glasius, M.; Nøjgaard, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop strategies for controlling and reducing Arctic air pollution, there is a need to understand the basic mechanisms for determining the fate of air pollution in the Arctic. Sources of atmospheric particles at Station Nord (81° 36' N, 16° 40' W) in North East Greenland were evaluated for a two-year period from March 2008 to February 2010. Source apportionment using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and COnstrained Physical REceptor Model (COPREM) was based on measurements of black carbon, elements (Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Pb) and inorganic ions (SO2, SO42-, Na+, NH4+, NO3-, Cl2-. In general, source apportionment results by PMF and COPREM showed good agreement. Five sources adequately explained the measurements, which included a Marine and a Soil source of natural origin and three additional anthropogenic sources, which were all influenced by metal industries. One anthropogenic source was dominated by Zn of which air mass back trajectories using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model suggested a Canadian Arctic origin, despite certain influences from Southern and Eastern origins. Another anthropogenic source was characterised by high concentrations of Pb and As, which has been historically referred to as a Combustion source at Station Nord. The impacts of large-scale industry in Siberia, Russia were evident through high Cu concentrations in both the Combustion source and an additional Cu/Ni source. Br correlated well with the anthropogenic species S and Pb though the elements are unlikely to have a common origin. More likely, sulphuric acid aerosols serve as transport containers for Br species of marine origin. Of particular relevance to climate, sources of black carbon were identified to be mainly anthropogenic and most probably of Siberian origin (80-98%).

  12. Twenty years of socioeconomic inequalities in premature mortality in Barcelona: The influence of population and neighbourhood changes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Gotsens, Mercè; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Mehdipanah, Roshanak; Borrell, Carme

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse trends in socioeconomic inequalities in premature mortality in Barcelona from 1992 to 2011, accounting for population changes. We conducted a repeated cross-sectional study of the Barcelona population (25-64 years) using generalized linear mixed models for trend analysis, and found that socioeconomic inequalities in premature mortality persisted between neighbourhoods, but tended to diminish. However, the reduction in inequality was related to an increase in the number of foreign-born individuals mainly in socioeconomic disadvantaged neighbourhoods, in which the decrease in premature mortality was more marked. To study trends in geographical inequalities in mortality, it is essential to understand demographic changes occurred in different places related to local levels of deprivation. PMID:27105035

  13. Characterization of Invasive Pneumococci of Serogroup 6 from Adults in Barcelona, Spain, in 1994 to 2008▿

    PubMed Central

    Rolo, Dora; Ardanuy, Carmen; Calatayud, Laura; Pallares, Román; Grau, Immaculada; García, Ernesto; Fenoll, Asunción; Martín, Rogelio; Liñares, Josefina

    2011-01-01

    A total of 91 of 1,480 invasive isolates (6.1%) collected from adults in Barcelona, Spain, in the period of 1994 to 2008 were of serogroup 6 (6B, 47 isolates; 6A, 28; and 6C, 16). Throughout this period, serotype 6B (Spain6B-ST90) decreased, and serotype 6A remained stable. An increase in serotype 6C (ST224) in the 2004-2008 period was observed. PMID:21450964

  14. Risk perception of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Nigerian commercial sex workers in Barcelona: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine in detail the risk perception of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, and the contextual circumstances, in Nigerian commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Barcelona. Design A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. Setting Raval area in Barcelona. Participants 8 CSWs working in Barcelona. Methods A phenomenological study was carried out with Nigerian CSWs in Barcelona. Sampling was theoretical, taking into account: different age ranges; women with and without a partner; women with and without children; and women participating or not in STI/HIV-prevention workshops. Information was obtained by means of eight semistructured individual interviews. An interpretative content analysis was conducted by four analysts. Results Illegal immigrant status, educational level, financial situation and work, and cultural context had mixed effects on CSW knowledge of, exposure to, and prevention and treatment of STI and HIV. CSWs were aware of the higher risk of STI associated with their occupation. They identified condoms as the best preventive method and used them during intercourse with clients. They also implemented other preventive behaviours such as personal hygiene after intercourse. Control of sexual services provided, health education and healthcare services had a positive effect on decreasing exposure and better management of STI/HIV. Conclusions Nigerian CSWs are a vulnerable group because of their poor socioeconomic status. The perception of risk in this group and their preventive behaviours are based on personal determinants, beliefs and experiences from their home country and influences from the host country. Interventions aimed at CSWs must address knowledge gaps, risk behaviours and structural elements. PMID:26078307

  15. Detection of mcr-1 colistin resistance gene in polyclonal Escherichia coli isolates in Barcelona, Spain, 2012 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Prim, Núria; Rivera, Alba; Rodríguez-Navarro, Judith; Español, Montserrat; Turbau, Miquel; Coll, Pere; Mirelis, Beatriz

    2016-03-31

    Colistin resistance was detected in 53 of 10,011 Escherichia coli (0.5%) by prospective phenotypic testing of consecutive clinical isolates in a single hospital in Barcelona, Spain (2012-15). The mcr-1 gene was retrospectively identified by PCR and sequencing in 15 of 50 available isolates. Each isolate had a unique PFGE pattern except for two. This clonal diversity supports the hypothesis of horizontal dissemination of the mcr-1 gene in the local study population. PMID:27055477

  16. A Mediterranean case study of flood evolution: the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llasat, Maria Carmen; Gilabert, Joan; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Cortès, Maria; Marcos, Raül; Martín-Vide, Juan Pedro; Turco, Marco; Falcón, Lluis

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk changes in Mediterranean Region integrate multiple factors, some of them related with the hazard (i.e. rainfall intensity), the vulnerability and exposure (i.e. population or assets), feedback processes that affect both hazard and vulnerability (i.e. urbanization of flood prone areas), mitigation and adaptation measures (i.e. rainwater tanks or early warning systems), and the available information used to estimate flood events (i.e. newspapers or gauged data). Flood events in the West Mediterranean region are usually produced as a consequence of very intense and local precipitation, mainly recorded on late summer and autumn that can give place to flash-floods in little torrential rivers (usually non-permanent flows) or urban floods. The Metropolitan Area of Barcelona (AMB), Spain, constitutes a good paradigm of a Mediterranean coast region, with strong urbanization of flood prone areas and high population density in an area crossed by numerous streams. The AMB is constituted by 36 municipalities with a total population above 3.200.000 inhabitants in an extension of 636 km². The major part of the population is concentrated between the Besós River and the Llobregat River, the Littoral Range and the Mediterranean Sea. Although both rivers have experienced catastrophic flood events (i.e. 25 September 1962, 815 deaths; 19-23 September 1971, 19 deaths; October 1987, 8 deaths), the most frequent situation is related with floods in non-permanent streams. Their main impacts are consequence of drainage and runoff problems and can affect both urban and rural areas. This contribution explores the evolution of land uses, population and precipitation from the middle of the 20th century until now, and how these changes have affected (or not), the flood risk. To do it, daily and sub-daily rainfall series, discharge series for the Llobregat and Besós Rivers, population data and land use changes have been analyzed. Future precipitation projections provided by an

  17. Long term effects of traffic noise on mortality in the city of Barcelona, 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    Barceló, Maria Antònia; Varga, Diego; Tobias, Aurelio; Diaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Saez, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Numerous studies showing statistically significant associations between environmental noise and adverse health effects already exist for short-term (over one day at most) and long-term (over a year or more) noise exposure, both for morbidity and (albeit to a lesser extent) mortality. Recently, several studies have shown this association to be independent from confounders, mainly those of air pollutants. However, what has not been addressed is the problem of misalignment (i.e. the exposure data locations and health outcomes have different spatial locations). Without any explicit control of such misalignment inference is seriously compromised. Our objective is to assess the long-term effects of traffic noise on mortality in the city of Barcelona (Spain) during 2004-2007. We take into account the control of confounding, for both air pollution and socioeconomic factors at a contextual level and, in particular, we explicitly address the problem of misalignment. We employed a case-control design with individual data. We used deaths resulting from myocardial infarction, hypertension, or Type II diabetes mellitus in Barcelona between 2004 and 2007 as cases for the study, while for controls we used deaths (likewise in Barcelona and over the same period of time) resulting from AIDS or external causes (e.g. accidental falls, accidental poisoning by psychotropic drugs, drugs of abuse, suicide and self-harm, or injuries resulting from motor vehicle accidents). The controls were matched with the cases by sex and age. We used the annual average equivalent A-weighted sound pressure levels for daytime (7-21h), evening-time (21-23h) and night-time (23-7h), and controlled for the following confounders: i) air pollutants (NO2, PM10 and benzene), ii) material deprivation (at a census tract level) and iii) land use and other spatial variables. We explicitly controlled for heterogeneity (uneven distribution of both response and environmental exposures within an area), spatial dependency

  18. The Geographic Information System techniques impact analyze of Office's Properties in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, P. A.; Biere, R. A.; Moix, M. B.

    2007-05-01

    The changes in the characteristics and needs in the cities structures means new challenges in the space to the economics activities. The increasing predominance of the tertiary industry, of offices or I+D buildings, like an effect of the economic transformation implies new forms, new technical characteristics and similar alternatives locations accordant with a changing demand. The project that is presented here, is developed by the Centre of Land Policy and Valuations of the University Polytechnic of Catalonia for the company "Servicios de Geo-marketing Inmobiliario S.L.' (SGMI, Real State Geo- marketing Services S.L.) The process consists in the generation of a geographic information system to the analyses of the characteristics office's buildings of Barcelona in the sense to introduce the property office's buildings of Barcelona into a database for the geo-marketing. This application allows the access to the necessary information of technical and constructive characteristics of the office's buildings, summoned by the most emblematic or central locations to the best technical level in their constructions towards facilitating the maximum knowledge the citizen in order to assure the choice according to the needs for every profile of demand. The work has consisted basically in defining the technical criteria of evaluation of the building, to systematize those characteristics in some indicators (variable) capable of expressing the level of quality of every variable, to establish a system measurement of greater to smaller value explained to the quality. Systematizing the collection of information of a total of 683 buildings of Barcelona and of some municipalities of its periphery, through a visit to every building, to process the data obtained to a database and to standardize the value of quality for every indicator and set of indicators towards determining a final qualification, obtained from the different physical, constructive and qualitative characteristics of

  19. Structural characteristics of internally mixed carbonaceous aggregates from Barcelona (Spain) during DAURE winter campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coz, Esther; Casuccio, Gary S.; Robinson, Allen L.; Moreno, Teresa; Mohr, Claudia; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Artíñano, Begoña.

    2010-05-01

    Particle structure, understood as the characterization of size, morphology, texture and the spatial distribution of the different compounds at an individual particle level, influences carbonaceous aggregates behavior in the atmosphere and the respiratory system. Additionally, the absorption and scattering of light is modified by the particle structure and also influences water absorption and water vapor nucleation and, hence cloud formation, residence time in the atmosphere and removal processes. Two factors seem determinant in these processes: quantity of scattering material adsorbed onto the light absorbing core during the residence in the atmosphere and subsequent aging, and the spatial distribution of this condensed matter (commonly discussed as internally/externally mixtures). Morning, noon, afternoon, and evening samples were collected for electron microscopy analyses during 3 consecutive days during an atmospheric episode of thermal inversion in February 2009 in an urban background area within the city of Barcelona. The main goal of this study was to quantify the variations in morphology and state of mixture of carbonaceous soot-like aggregate structures observed during different times of the day. The study was part of the winter campaign: "Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean" (DAURE, February/March 2009). The analysis of the aggregate structure was conducted by digital image analysis of several thousand particles to determine variations on size, shape and texture by means of several different mathematical descriptors such as aspect ratio/elongation, compactness and roughness through fractal dimension analysis, textural energy and entropy. Results indicate that carbon aggregates were mostly within 200-400 nm of geometric size, with slightly smaller sizes during time intervals associated to traffic peaks compared to the daily average. The morphological parameters obtained for these

  20. Implementation of Barcelona, L'estartit and Ibiza Sites for Altimeter Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Gili, J.; Lopez, R.; Tapia, A.; Bosch, E.; Perez, B.; Pros, F.

    2012-12-01

    A marine campaign to compute the sea surface data along the Spanish Mediterranean coastline and Balearic Islands is being prepared for 2013. Jason-2 (period ~10 days) and Saral/AltiKa (period of 35 days and expected launch in 2012) altimetric data and on-board GPS data will be used. Many GPS Buoy sessions along the ship route will be performed.Sea height estimates (instantaneous and mean sea levels) will be compared. Recently some geodetic improvements has been made in specific coastal spanish sites in the NW Mediterranean Sea for monitoring sea level. The goal is to maintain and improve the quality of the observation of the sea level change in the three sites. The information is coming from Puertos del Estado www.puertos.es L'Estartit tide gauge has been co-located with geodetic techniques (GPS measurements of XU, Utilitary Network, and XdA, Levelling Network,) and it is tied to the SPGIC (Integrated Geodetic Positioning System of Catalonia) project of the Cartographic Institute of Catalunya (ICC). In the past three calibration campaigns for Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 in March 1999, August 2000 and July 2002 near Cape of Begur. At Barcelona harbour there is one MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours).The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. The information includes wave forescast (mean period, significant wave height, sea level, etc.This sensor also measures agitation and sends wave parameters each 20 min. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna 1202. Bathymetric campaigns inside the harbour have been made. At Ibiza site new measurements and levelling between the GPS reference station and a Radar MIROS, both from Puertos del Estado, has been made recently. A calibration campaign for Jason-1 was made in

  1. Grey zone in the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Classification for hepatocellular carcinoma: Surgeons' perspective.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tian; Lau, Wan-Yee; Zhang, Han; Huang, Bin; Lu, Jun-Hua; Wu, Meng-Chao

    2015-07-21

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification has been endorsed as the optimal staging system and treatment algorithm for HCC by the European Association for the Study of Liver Disease and the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease. However, in real life, the majority of patients who are not considered ideal candidates based on the BCLC guideline still were performed hepatic resection nowadays, which means many hepatic surgeons all around the world do not follow the BCLC guidelines. The accuracy and application of the BCLC classification has constantly been challenged by many clinicians. From the surgeons' perspectives, we herein put forward some comments on the BCLC classification concerning subjectivity of the assessment criteria, comprehensiveness of the staging definition and accuracy of the therapeutic recommendations. We hope to further discuss with peers and colleagues with the aim to make the BCLC classification more applicable to clinical practice in the future. PMID:26217077

  2. Predictive optimal control of sewer networks using CORAL tool: application to Riera Blanca catchment in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Puig, V; Cembrano, G; Romera, J; Quevedo, J; Aznar, B; Ramón, G; Cabot, J

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the global control of the Riera Blanca catchment in the Barcelona sewer network using a predictive optimal control approach. This catchment has been modelled using a conceptual modelling approach based on decomposing the catchments in subcatchments and representing them as virtual tanks. This conceptual modelling approach allows real-time model calibration and control of the sewer network. The global control problem of the Riera Blanca catchment is solved using a optimal/predictive control algorithm. To implement the predictive optimal control of the Riera Blanca catchment, a software tool named CORAL is used. The on-line control is simulated by interfacing CORAL with a high fidelity simulator of sewer networks (MOUSE). CORAL interchanges readings from the limnimeters and gate commands with MOUSE as if it was connected with the real SCADA system. Finally, the global control results obtained using the predictive optimal control are presented and compared against the results obtained using current local control system. The results obtained using the global control are very satisfactory compared to those obtained using the local control. PMID:19700825

  3. The impact of future summer temperature on public health in Barcelona and Catalonia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, Bart; Barrera-Gómez, Jose; Ballester, Joan; Basagaña, Xavier; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-11-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported associations between increases in summer temperatures and risks of premature mortality. The quantitative implications of predicted future increases in summer temperature, however, have not been extensively characterized. We have quantified these effects for the four main cities in Catalonia, Spain (Barcelona, Tarragona, Lleida, Girona). We first used case-crossover analysis to estimate the association between temperature and mortality for each of these cities for the period 1983 to 2006. These exposure-response (ER) functions were then combined with local measures of current and projected changes in population, mortality and temperature for the years 2025 and 2050. Predicted daily mean temperatures were based on the A1B greenhouse gas emission, "business-as-usual" scenario simulations derived from the ENSEMBLES project. Several different ER functions were examined and significant associations between temperature and mortality were observed for all four cities. For these four cities, the age-specific piecewise linear model predicts 520 (95%CI 340, 720) additional annual deaths attributable to the change in temperature in 2025 relative to the average from the baseline period of 1960-1990. For 2050, the estimate increases to 1,610 deaths per year during the warm season. For Catalonia as a whole, the point estimates for those two years are 720 and 2,330 deaths per year, respectively, or about 2 and 3% of the warm season. In comparing these predicted impacts with current causes of mortality, they clearly represent significant burdens to public health in Catalonia.

  4. Salivary cotinine concentrations in daily smokers in Barcelona, Spain: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Marcela; Fernandez, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Pascual, José A; Schiaffino, Anna; Agudo, Antoni; Ariza, Carles; Borràs, Josep M; Samet, Jonathan M

    2009-01-01

    Background Characterizing and comparing the determinant of cotinine concentrations in different populations should facilitate a better understanding of smoking patterns and addiction. This study describes and characterizes determinants of salivary cotinine concentration in a sample of Spanish adult daily smoker men and women. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between March 2004 and December 2005 in a representative sample of 1245 people from the general population of Barcelona, Spain. A standard questionnaire was used to gather information on active tobacco smoking and passive exposure, and a saliva specimen was obtained to determine salivary cotinine concentration. Two hundred and eleven adult smokers (>16 years old) with complete data were included in the analysis. Determinants of cotinine concentrations were assessed using linear regression models. Results Salivary cotinine concentration was associated with the reported number of cigarettes smoked in the previous 24 hours (R2 = 0.339; p < 0.05). The inclusion of a quadratic component for number of cigarettes smoked in the regression analyses resulted in an improvement of the fit (R2 = 0.386; p < 0.05). Cotinine concentration differed significantly by sex, with men having higher levels. Conclusion This study shows that salivary cotinine concentration is significantly associated with the number of cigarettes smoked and sex, but not with other smoking-related variables. PMID:19728886

  5. Octupole deformation properties of the Barcelona-Catania-Paris energy density functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Robledo, L. M.; Baldo, M.; Schuck, P.; Vinas, X.

    2010-03-15

    We discuss the octupole deformation properties of the recently proposed Barcelona-Catania-Paris (BCP) energy density functionals for two sets of isotopes, those of radium and barium, in which it is believed that octupole deformation plays a role in the description of the ground state. The analysis is carried out in the mean field framework (Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximation) by using the axially symmetric octupole moment as a constraint. The main ingredients entering the octupole collective Hamiltonian are evaluated and the lowest-lying octupole eigenstates are obtained. In this way we restore, in an approximate way, the parity symmetry spontaneously broken by the mean field and also incorporate octupole fluctuations around the ground-state solution. For each isotope the energy of the lowest lying 1{sup -} state and the B(E1) and B(E3) transition probabilities have been computed and compared to both the experimental data and the results obtained in the same framework with the Gogny D1S interaction, which are used here as a well-established benchmark. Finally, the octupolarity of the configurations involved in the way down to fission of {sup 240}Pu, which is strongly connected to the asymmetric fragment mass distribution, is studied. We confirm with this thorough study the suitability of the BCP functionals to describe octupole-related phenomena.

  6. A new Lower Pleistocene archeological site in Europe (Vallparadís, Barcelona, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Kenneth; Garcia, Joan; Carbonell, Eudald; Agustí, Jordi; Bahain, Jean-Jaques; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Burjachs, Francesc; Cáceres, Isabel; Duval, Mathieu; Falguères, Christophe; Gómez, Manuel; Huguet, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the discovery of a new late Lower Pleistocene site named Vallparadís (Barcelona, Spain) that produced a rich archeological and paleontological sequence dated from the upper boundary of the Jaramillo subchron to the early Middle Pleistocene. This deposit contained a main archeological layer with numerous artifacts and a rich macromammalian assemblage, some of which bore cut marks, that could indicate that hominins had access to carcasses. Paleomagnetic analysis, electron spin resonance-uranium series (ESR-US), and the biostratigraphic chronological position of the macro- and micromammal and lithic assemblages of this layer reinforce the proposal that hominins inhabited Europe during the Lower Pleistocene. The archeological sequence provides key information on the successful adaptation of European hominins that preceded the well-known fossil population from Atapuerca and succeeded the finds from Orce basin. Hence, this discovery enables us to close a major chronological gap in the early prehistory of Iberia. According to the information in this paper and the available data from these other sites, we propose that Mediterranean Western Europe was repeatedly and perhaps continuously occupied during the late Matuyama chron. PMID:20231433

  7. Hepatic resection beyond barcelona clinic liver cancer indication: When and how

    PubMed Central

    Garancini, Mattia; Pinotti, Enrico; Nespoli, Stefano; Romano, Fabrizio; Gianotti, Luca; Giardini, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the main common primary tumour of the liver and it is usually associated with cirrhosis. The barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) classification has been approved as guidance for HCC treatment algorithms by the European Association for the Study of Liver and the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease. According to this algorithm, hepatic resection should be performed only in patients with small single tumours of 2-3 cm without signs of portal hypertension (PHT) or hyperbilirubinemia. BCLC classification has been criticised and many studies have shown that multiple tumors and large tumors, as wide as those with macrovascular infiltration and PHT, could benefit from liver resection. Consequently, treatment guidelines should be revised and patients with intermediate/advanced stage HCC, when technically resectable, should receive the opportunity to be treated with radical surgical treatment. Nevertheless, the surgical treatment of HCC on cirrhosis is complex: The goal to be oncologically radical has always to be balanced with the necessity to minimize organ damage. The aim of this review was to analyze when and how liver resection could be indicated beyond BCLC indication. In particular, the role of multidisciplinary approach to assure a proper indication, of the intraoperative ultrasound for intra-operative restaging and resection guidance and of laparoscopy to minimize surgical trauma have been enhanced. PMID:27099652

  8. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 7th International LISA Symposium, Barcelona, Spain, 16-20 June 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Alberto; Sopuerta, Carlos F.

    2009-07-01

    In June 2006 the LISA International Science Team (LIST) accepted the bid presented by the Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC) to host the 7th International LISA Symposium. This was during its 11th meeting at the University of Maryland, just before the 6th edition of the Symposium started in NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The 7th International LISA Symposium took place at the city of Barcelona, Spain, from 16-20 June 2008, in the premises of CosmoCaixa, a modern Science Museum located in the hills near Tibidabo. Almost 240 delegates registered for the event, a record breaking figure compared to previous editions of the Symposium. Many of the most renowned world experts in LISA, Gravitational Wave Science, and Astronomy, as well as Engineers, attended LISA 7 and produced state-of-the-art presentations, while everybody benefited from the opportunity to have live discussions during the week in a friendly environment. The programme included 31 invited plenary lectures in the mornings, and 8 parallel sessions in the afternoons. These were classified into 7 major areas of research: LISA Technology, LISA PathFinder, LISA PathFinder Data Analysis, LISA Data Analysis, Gravitational Wave sources, Cosmology and Fundamental Physics with LISA and Other Gravitational Wave Detectors. 138 abstracts for communications were received, of which a selection was made by the session convenors which would fit time constraints. Up to 63 posters completed the scientific programme. More details on the programme, including some of the talks, can be found at the Symposium website: http://www.ice.cat/research/LISA_Symposium. There was however a remarkable add-on: Professor Clifford Will delivered a startling presentation to the general public, who completely filled the Auditori—the main Conference Room, 320 seats—and were invited to ask questions to the speaker who had boldly guided them through the daunting world of Black Holes, Waves of Gravity, and other Warped Ideas of

  9. [Contribution to the knowledge of intestinal protozoa infestation in the hospital population of Barcelona (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Portús, M; Prats, G

    1981-03-10

    This report concerns the analysis of 650 fecal samples submitted for parasitic investigation to the Microbiology Service of the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau of Barcelona. The samples were analyzed by the technique of fixation and direct observation of Sapero and Lawless (MIFD), and with the biphasic concentration method of Blagg et al (MIFC). Intestinal protozoa were detected in 183 samples (28.2%), with a total of 232 protozoosis uncovered. The specific analysis gave the following results: Giardia lamblia, 10.9%; Dientamoeba fragilis, 7.8%; Entamoeba coli, 4.6%; Endolimax nana, 4.5%; Entamoeba hartmanni, 4.0%; Iodamoeba buetschlii, 2.9%; Entamoeba histolytica, 0.7%; Chilomastix mesnili, 0.2%; Trichomonas hominis, 0.2%. The results obtained by the two methods have been compared, observing the highest number of positive results with MIFD technique. Especial mention is made of the higher incidence of Dientamoeba fragilis in samples positive for Oxyuris further studies being needed to establish the basis for the relationship between both species of parasites. PMID:7206888

  10. IFDAT-International forum for drug and alcohol testing, 12-14 April 2010, Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Kenney J D, Josephine Elizabeth; Björklöv, Per

    2011-03-01

    The second programme of its kind globally, the highly successful, collaborative, productive and energizing IFDAT-International Forum for Drug and Alcohol Testing, was held in Barcelona, Spain, from 12-14 April. IFDAT was attended by over 100 delegates, conference sponsors and exhibitors from the international workplace drug and alcohol testing industry. Representing over 20 countries, the delegate professionals, speakers, and presenters included employers, service agents, an international publisher, and workplace testing suppliers. The purpose of the forum was to exchange knowledge, learn about new technology, and support the evolution and growth of the emerging international workplace drug and alcohol testing industry. This purpose was accomplished. Delegates from around the globe exchanged their experiences and thoughts about effective workplace drug testing programmes over two days of intensive presentations and panel discussions. The presenters and panelists included drug and alcohol testing professionals, authorities, and intellectuals from around the world. IFDAT conferences are planned for every 18 months, and the next Forum, to be held in Houston, Texas, USA is in the planning process for 2011. PMID:20967900

  11. Application of the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer therapeutic strategy and impact on survival

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Camba, Alejandro; Turnes, Juan; Ramos, Luis Martin; Arranz, Laura; Mera, José; Crespo, Javier; Quintero, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Background The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has proved useful in the management of HCC patients. However, BCLC-recommended first-line treatment is not always applicable in clinical practice. Objective We performed a multicentre retrospective analysis of reasons for deviation from first-line treatment in 2008–2012. Methods One to three-year survival data were analysed using Kaplan-Meier method. Results A total of 407 consecutive HCC patients (66.6 ± 3 years, 83% male) with cirrhosis were included. Tumours were detected during surveillance in 53% of patients, grouped as Child-Pugh A (67%), B (25%) and C (8%); and BCLC A (including stage 0, 44%), B (26%), C (15%) and D (15%). In 31% of patients, first-line treatment was not feasible (51% in early stages) due to: technical reasons (74%); patient non-conformity (20%); medical decision (3%); and disease progression (3%). One to three-year survival of patients not receiving the recommended first-line treatment was similar to that of patients treated according to BCLC recommendations (log-rank, p = 0.229). Conclusion In real-life practice one-third of HCC patients could not receive first-line BCLC treatment. In our cohort of patients, similar short and medium-term survival was observed. Long-term prospective studies are required to determine the best alternative treatment option when BCLC first-line treatment is not feasible. PMID:26279838

  12. Biomedical practices from a patient perspective. Experiences of Polish female migrants in Barcelona, Berlin and London.

    PubMed

    Main, Izabella

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on the diversity in patients' experience of bio-medicine and contrasts it with the normative view characteristic of health professionals. Ethnographic fieldwork among Polish migrant women in London, Barcelona and Berlin included interviews about their experiences with local healthcare and health professionals. Themes drawn from the narratives are differences between the cities in terms of communication between patients and health professionals, respect for patients' choices and dignity, attitudes to pregnancy and birth (different levels of medicalization), and paediatric care. It is argued that patients continuously negotiate among their own views and expectations based on previous experiences and knowledge from personal communication; internet forums and publications; and the offer of medical services in the countries of their settlement. Patients experience pluralism of therapeutic traditions within and outside bio-medicine. In turn, representatives of bio-medicine are rarely aware of other medical practices and beliefs and this leads to various misunderstandings. By highlighting the pluralism of medical practices in European countries and the increasing mobility of patients, this case study has useful implications for medical anthropologists and health professionals in a broader Western context, such as raising sensitivity to different communication strategies and a diversity of curing traditions and expectations. PMID:27258327

  13. SMOS validation using SSS data from Barcelona World Race and Argo profilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umbert, M.; Ballabrera, J.; Fernandez, P.; Salat, J.; Salvador, J.

    2012-04-01

    The organisers of the Barcelona World Race (BWR), the Institute of Marine Sciences (ICM-CSIC) and the Maritime Catalan Forum (FMC) agreed on equiping the FMC boat, participating in the race, with a SeaBird MiniCTD. The idea was for the first time to explore how such oceanic races could help to monitor surface temperature and salinity all around the world ocean in real time. The boat spent 112 days to complete the rond trip, sending 12-30 real-time samples/day via ARGOS satellites, using a transmitter developed at the ICM. Data was also stored in the instrument, at 192 samples/day to allow further final global analyses. In the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) satellite mission processing chain, sea surface salinity (SSS) values are retrieved from brightness temperature data at level 2 (L2). Global maps of SSS are being generated at level 3 (L3) using spatial and temporal weighted averages. Finally, improved representations of the SSS field are obtained at level 4 (L4) where satellite data is blended with data from other sensors. In the present study, validation of L2, L3 and L4 products using data from BWR and ARGO buoys is presented, covering the race period from January to April 2011. Differences between these two sets of data are also investigated as the uppermost robust measurements from Argo profilers have larger depths than the ones associated to the BWR boat.

  14. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in airborne particulate samples collected in Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Vallés, I; Camacho, A; Ortega, X; Serrano, I; Blázquez, S; Pérez, S

    2009-02-01

    Results for naturally occurring (7)Be, (210)Pb, (40)K, (214)Bi, (214)Pb, (212)Pb, (228)Ac and (208)Tl and anthropogenic (137)Cs in airborne particulate matter in the Barcelona area during the period from January 2001 to December 2005 are presented and discussed. The (212)Pb and (208)Tl, (214)Bi and (214)Pb, (7)Be and (210)Pb radionuclide levels showed a significant correlation with each other, with correlation coefficients of 0.99, 0.78 and 0.69, respectively, suggesting similar origin/behaviour of these radionuclides in the air. Caessium-137 and Potassium-40 were transported to the air as resuspended particle from the soil. The (7)Be and (210)Pb concentrations showed similar seasonal variations, with a tendency for maximum concentrations during the summer months. An inverse relationship was observed between the (7)Be, (210)Pb, (40)K and (137)Cs concentrations and weekly rainfall, indicating washout of atmospheric aerosols carrying these radionuclides. PMID:19027201

  15. The psychological impact of a false-positive screening mammogram in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Espasa, Rebecca; Murta-Nascimento, Cristiane; Bayés, Ramón; Sala, Maria; Casamitjana, Montserrat; Macià, Francesc; Castells, Xavier

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the psychological impact of mammographic screening for women who receive negative results and for those who need additional non-invasive and invasive complementary investigations to exclude breast cancer (false positives). One hundred fifty women who attended a breast cancer screening programme in Barcelona, aged 50-69 years, were included in this study: 50 with negative results and 100 with false positive mammograms (50 underwent non-invasive and 50 underwent invasive complementary investigations). Participants worried little until they underwent mammography, but worries increased when a telephone call notified the women of the need for further testing. A substantial proportion of women requiring further assessment reported that they were at least somewhat worried about having breast cancer throughout the screening process (P < 0.0001). Nevertheless, levels of anxiety and depression, measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, showed no statistically significant differences among the three groups. In conclusion, although the women showed no psychological morbidity, there is a substantial psychological response in those with an abnormal screening mammogram. PMID:22477233

  16. Jan Mayen revisited, the sister volcanoes Sør-Jan and Nord-Jan (Beerenberg) and their evolution through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskuldsson, A.; Gjerlxw, E.; Pedersen, R. B.; Thorseth, I. H.

    2011-12-01

    The Island of Jan Mayen is situated at 71°N and 8.3°W in the north Atlantic at the southern edge of the Jan Mayen fracture zone. It is a volcanic island extending for about 53 km from SW towards NE. Maximum width of the island is 15.8 km at its northern tip, while minimum width is only 2.5 km at its centre. The island is built up by two main edifices that have erupted repeatedly, namely Sør-Jan and Nord-Jan or Beerenberg. Petrology of the two edifices is strikingly different. In the south volcanic products are characterized by evolved basalts and trackites to rhyolites. Crystals of ol, cpx, opx are small and in low portions in the rocks. Plg is however common. A 220 m thick plinian formation is found at Borga location in Sør Jan resting on top of a palaeo beach at the altitude of some 170-200 m. This we interpret as caldera formation on Sør Jan and the beach uplift a later stage resurgent activity within the caldera. Further the post caldera volcanic activity all indicates that magma has been stored for shorter or longer time before eruption on surface. Nord Jan or Beerenberg on the other hand shows more primitive magma evolution indicating its younger age. At the flanks of Beerenberg (e.g. Esk krater and Kapp Fishburn) volcanic activity is characterized by ankaramitic magma, with ol, opx and cpx (to lesser extent) in the size range of 1-4 cm and portions up 30% of the whole rock. Plg is absent in these rocks. Volcanic vents closer to the summit area of Beerenberg have smaller ol, cpx and opx (to a lesser extent) and in much lower portion than at the flank eruption sites. These rocks also all carry plg, indicating magma reservoir development and shallow magma residence towards the centre of Beerenberg. We will present a model for the evolution of the Jan Mayen Island, as a migrating volcanism from South towards North. At first the volcanism is characterized by mantle derived magma, namely ankaramites. Prolonged activity forms magma chambers in the crust that

  17. Vertical and horizontal variability of PM10 source contributions in Barcelona during SAPUSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brines, M.; Dall'Osto, M.; Amato, F.; Minguillón, M. C.; Karanasiou, A.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2015-11-01

    During the SAPUSS campaign (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies) PM10 samples at twelve hours resolution were simultaneously collected at four monitoring sites located in the urban agglomerate of Barcelona (Spain). A total of 221 samples were collected from 20 September to 20 October 2010. The Road Site (RS) site and the Urban Background (UB) site were located at street level, whereas the Torre Mapfre (TM) and the Torre Collserola (TC) sites were located at 150 m a.s.l. by the sea side within the urban area and at 415 m a.s.l. 8 km inland, respectively. For the first time, we are able to report simultaneous PM10 aerosol measurements allowing us to study aerosol gradients at both horizontal and vertical levels. The complete chemical composition of PM10 was determined on the 221 samples, and factor analysis (Positive Matrix Factorisation, PMF) was applied. This resulted in eight factors which were attributed to eight main aerosol sources affecting PM10 concentrations in the studied urban environment: (1) vehicle exhaust and wear (2-9 μg m-3, 10-27 % of PM10 mass on average), (2) road dust (2-4 μg m-3, 8-12 %), (3) mineral dust (5 μg m-3, 13-26 %), (4) aged marine (3-5 μg m-3, 13-20 %), (5) heavy oil (0.4-0.6 μg m-3, 2 %), (6) industrial (1 μg m-3, 3-5 %), (7) sulphate (3-4 μg m-3, 11-17 %) and (8) nitrate (4-6 μg m-3, 17-21 %). Three aerosol sources were found enhanced at the ground levels (confined within the urban ground levels of the city) relative to the upper levels: (1) vehicle exhaust and wear (2.8 higher), (2) road dust (1.8 higher) and (3) local urban industries/crafts workshops (1.6 higher). Surprisingly, the other aerosol sources were relatively homogeneous at both horizontal and vertical levels. However, air mass origin and meteorological parameters also played a key role in influencing the variability of the factors concentrations. The mineral dust and aged marine factors were found to be a mixture of natural and

  18. Vertical and horizontal variability of PM10 source contributions in Barcelona during SAPUSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brines, Mariola; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Amato, Fulvio; Cruz Minguillón, María; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2016-06-01

    During the SAPUSS campaign (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies) PM10 samples at 12-hour resolution were simultaneously collected at four monitoring sites located in the urban agglomerate of Barcelona (Spain). A total of 221 samples were collected from 20 September to 20 October 2010. The Road Site (RS) site and the Urban Background (UB) site were located at street level, whereas the Torre Mapfre (TM) and the Torre Collserola (TC) sites were located at 150 m a.s.l. by the sea side within the urban area and at 415 m a.s.l. 8 km inland, respectively. For the first time, we are able to report simultaneous PM10 aerosol measurements, allowing us to study aerosol gradients at both horizontal and vertical levels. The complete chemical composition of PM10 was determined on the 221 samples, and factor analysis (positive matrix factorisation, PMF) was applied. This resulted in eight factors which were attributed to eight main aerosol sources affecting PM10 concentrations in the studied urban environment: (1) vehicle exhaust and wear (2-9 µg m-3, 10-27 % of PM10 mass on average), (2) road dust (2-4 µg m-3, 8-12 %), (3) mineral dust (5 µg m-3, 13-26 %), (4) aged marine (3-5 µg m-3, 13-20 %), (5) heavy oil (0.4-0.6 µg m-3, 2 %), (6) industrial (1 µg m-3, 3-5 %), (7) sulfate (3-4 µg m-3, 11-17 %) and (8) nitrate (4-6 µg m-3, 17-21 %). Three aerosol sources were found to be enhanced at the ground levels (confined within the urban ground levels of the city) relative to the upper levels: (1) vehicle exhaust and wear (2.8 higher), (2) road dust (1.8 higher) and (3) local urban industries/crafts workshops (1.6 higher). Surprisingly, the other aerosol sources were relatively homogeneous at both horizontal and vertical levels. However, air mass origin and meteorological parameters also played a key role in influencing the variability of the factor concentrations. The mineral dust and aged marine factors were found to be a mixture of natural and

  19. Monitoring Sea Level by Tide Gauges and GPS at Barcelona and Estartit Harbours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Benjamin, J. J.; Gili, J.; Lopez, R.; Tapia, A.; Bosch, E.; Perez, B.; Pros, F.

    2012-04-01

    Sea level is an environmental variable which is widely recognised as being important in many scientific disciplines as a control parameter for coastal dynamical processes or climate processes in the coupled atmosphere-ocean systems, as well as engineering applications. A major source of sea-level data are the national networks of coastal tide gauges, in Spain belonging to different institutions as the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN), Puertos del Estado (PE), Instituto Hidrográfico de la Marina (IHM), etc. The tide gauge of l'Estartit is a traditional floating gauge placed 21 years ago and has an accuracy of ± 2 mm. Since 1996, l'Estartit tide gauge has been co-located with geodetic techniques (GPS measurements of XU, Utilitary Network, and XdA, Levelling Network,) and it is tied to the SPGIC (Integrated Geodetic Positioning System of Catalonia) project of the Cartographic Institute of Catalunya (ICC). In 2006, due to the work for the expansion of the harbour, the tide gauge had to be moved. Before the work started, appropiate GPS measurements were carried out in order to ensure the connection of the tide gauge data. During October 2006 and May 2008, the tide gauge was inactive and it has been moved on to a new location inside the harbour. In June 2008, new GPS and levelling measures have been done in order to tie the new location into SPGIC project and to co-locate old data respect the new one. Although l'Estartit does not have a GPS permanent station, it is possible to build a virtual one from the service "CATNET web" of the ICC. "CATNET web" is a data distribution system of a virtual GPS permanent station via web. From the coordinates where you want to place the virtual station, the time interval and the measurement rate, the system generates a RINEX file under the requested conditions. At Barcelona harbour there is one MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours). It is placed at the dock 140 of the ENAGAS Building.The radar

  20. The integration of information and communication technology into community pharmacists practice in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco; Hardey, Michael; Lluch, Maria

    2014-03-01

    The study aims to identify community pharmacists' (CPs) utilization of information and communication technology (ICT); to develop and characterize a typology of CPs' utilization of ICT and to identify factors that can enhance or inhibit the use of these technologies. An online survey of the 7649 members of the Pharmacist Association of Barcelona who had a registered email account in 2006 was carried out. Factor analysis, cluster analysis and binomial logit modelling were undertaken. Multivariate analysis of the CPs' responses to the survey (648) revealed two profiles of adoption of ICT. The first profile (40.75%) represents those CPs who place high emphasis on ICT within their practice. This group is therefore referred to as 'integrated CPs'. The second profile (59.25%) represents those CPs who make less use of ICT and so are consequently labelled 'non-integrated CPs'. Statistical modelling was used to identify variables that were important in predisposing CPs to integrate ICT with their work. From the analysis it is evident that responses to questions relating to 'recommend patients going on line for health information'; 'patients discuss or share their Internet health information findings'; 'emphasis on the Internet for communication and dissemination' and 'Pharmacists Professional Association information' play a positive and significant role in the probability of being an 'integrated CP'. The integration of ICT within CPs' practices cannot be adequately understood and appreciated without examining how CPs are making use of ICT within their own practice, their organizational context and the nature of the pharmacists-client relationship. PMID:23086895

  1. Barcelona clinic liver cancer stage B hepatocellular carcinoma: transarterial chemoembolization or hepatic resection?

    PubMed

    Jianyong, Lei; Lunan, Yan; Wentao, Wang; Yong, Zeng; Bo, Li; Tianfu, Wen; Minqing, Xu; Jiaying, Yang

    2014-11-01

    According to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) guidelines, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is recommended for BCLC stage B hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, an investigation of the use of resection for BCLC stage B is needed. Therefore, we compared the efficacy and safety of hepatic resection (HR) with that of TACE in treating intermediate HCC.We retrospectively enrolled 923 patients with BCLC stage B HCC who underwent TACE (490 cases) or HR (433 cases). The baseline characteristics, postoperative recoveries, and long-term overall survival rates of the patients in these 2 groups were compared. Subgroup analyses and comparisons were also performed between the 2 groups.The baseline demographic and tumor characteristics, in-hospital mortality rate, and 30-day mortality rate were comparable between the 2 groups. However, the patients in the resection group suffered from more serious complications compared with those in the TACE group (11.1% vs 4.7%, respectively, P < 0.01) as well as longer hospital stays (P < 0.05). The resection patients had significantly better overall survival rates than the TACE patients (P < 0.01). In the TACE group, patients with Lipiodol retention showed much higher 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates than those in the noncompact Lipiodol retention group (P < 0.01). Subgroup analyses revealed that patients with 1 to 3 tumor targets showed much better 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates in the resection group (P < 0.01), but no difference was observed for the patients with >3 targets.Our clinical analysis suggests that patients with BCLC stage B HCC should be recommended for resection when 1 to 3 targets are present, whereas TACE should be recommended when >3 targets are present. PMID:25474433

  2. Imaging the Shallow Subsurface for a New Underground Subway Line in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, D.; Flecha, I.; Palomeras, I.; Vazquez-Sune, E.; Font-Capo, J.; Carbonell, R.; Perez-Estaun, A.

    2006-12-01

    A detailed characterization of the shallow subsurface by seismic techniques has been used to aid horizontal drilling of tunnels for a new subway line in Barcelona (Spain). Seismic data acquisition in densely populated cities is very difficult. The street layout determines the geometry of the seismic data acquisition experiments. The instrumentation (source and receivers) can not always be located on the surface projection of the tunnel trace, therefore, pseudo 3D acquisition is required deploying the instrumentation were it is possible. Furthermore, the shallow subsurface features extremely heterogeneous "weathered" layer of variable thickness (building foundations, sewage system, water supply conductions, etc), and the background noise is very high (car traffic, electricity lines, etc). Relatively old cities also lack a detailed geological control of the subsurface. The seismic data was acquired using as source a 8 s long Vibroseis sweep which provided relatively good S/N ratio. The shallow subsurface featured an extremely heterogeneous weathered layer characterized by very low seismic velocities (1000-1300 m/s) of variable thickness that made difficult to interpret the seismic reflection images at target depth. The first-arrival seismic tomography revealed as a key tool to clearly differentiate the different rock volumes characterized by different physical properties, especially the contact between the weathered layer and the more competent rock. Several high velocity anomalies (up to 5500 m/s) were observed at tunnel depth that were correlated with sub vertical porphyric dykes. This were surrounded by low velocity anomalies that correspond to fault systems that cut and displace dykes. The tomographic velocity models also provide a new image of an important Miocene fault, quite different to the previous geological section derived from the core interpretation.

  3. Urban air quality comparison for bus, tram, subway and pedestrian commutes in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Teresa; Reche, Cristina; Rivas, Ioar; Cruz Minguillón, Maria; Martins, Vânia; Vargas, Concepción; Buonanno, Giorgio; Parga, Jesus; Pandolfi, Marco; Brines, Mariola; Ealo, Marina; Sofia Fonseca, Ana; Amato, Fulvio; Sosa, Garay; Capdevila, Marta; de Miguel, Eladio; Querol, Xavier; Gibbons, Wes

    2015-10-01

    Access to detailed comparisons in air quality variations encountered when commuting through a city offers the urban traveller more informed choice on how to minimise personal exposure to inhalable pollutants. In this study we report on an experiment designed to compare atmospheric contaminants inhaled during bus, subway train, tram and walking journeys through the city of Barcelona. Average number concentrations of particles 10-300 nm in size, N, are lowest in the commute using subway trains (N<2.5×10(4) part. cm(-3)), higher during tram travel and suburban walking (2.5×10(4) cm(-3)5.0×10(4) cm(-3)), with extreme transient peaks at busy traffic crossings commonly exceeding 1.0×10(5) cm(-3) and accompanied by peaks in Black Carbon and CO. Subway particles are coarser (mode 90 nm) than in buses, trams or outdoors (<70 nm), and concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and Black Carbon are lower in the tram when compared to both bus and subway. CO2 levels in public transport reflect passenger numbers, more than tripling from outdoor levels to >1200 ppm in crowded buses and trains. There are also striking differences in inhalable particle chemistry depending on the route chosen, ranging from aluminosiliceous at roadsides and near pavement works, ferruginous with enhanced Mn, Co, Zn, Sr and Ba in the subway environment, and higher levels of Sb and Cu inside the bus. We graphically display such chemical variations using a ternary diagram to emphasise how "air quality" in the city involves a consideration of both physical and chemical parameters, and is not simply a question of measuring particle number or mass. PMID:26277386

  4. Adjuvant sorafenib after heptectomy for Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer-stage C hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Feng; Wu, Li-Li; Lau, Wan-Yee; Huan, Hong-Bo; Wen, Xu-Dong; Ma, Kuan-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Wu; Bie, Ping

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety of adjuvant sorafenib after curative resection for patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC)-stage C hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Thirty-four HCC patients, classified as BCLC-stage C, received adjuvant sorafenib for high-risk of tumor recurrence after curative hepatectomy at a tertiary care university hospital. The study group was compared with a case-matched control group of 68 patients who received curative hepatectomy for HCC during the study period in a 1:2 ratio. RESULTS: The tumor recurrence rate was markedly lower in the sorafenib group (15/34, 44.1%) than in the control group (51/68, 75%, P = 0.002). The median disease-free survival was 12 mo in the study group and 10 mo in the control group. Tumor number more than 3, macrovascular invasion, hilar lymph nodes metastasis, and treatment with sorafenib were significant factors of disease-free survival by univariate analysis. Tumor number more than 3 and treatment with sorafenib were significant risk factors of disease-free survival by multivariate analysis in the Cox proportional hazards model. The disease-free survival and cumulative overall survival in the study group were significantly better than in the control group (P = 0.034 and 0.016, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our study verifies the potential benefit and safety of adjuvant sorafenib for both decreasing HCC recurrence and extending disease-free and overall survival rates for patients with BCLC-stage C HCC after curative resection. PMID:27340354

  5. Validation of DEMs Derived from High Resolution SAR Data: a Case Study on Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sefercik, U. G.; Schunert, A.; Soergel, U.; Watanabe, K.

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data have been widely used for scientific applications and several SAR missions were realized. The active sensor principle and the signal wavelength in the order of centimeters provide all-day and all-weather capabilities, respectively. The modern German TerraSAR-X (TSX) satellite provides high spatial resolution down to one meter. Based on such data SAR Interferometry may yield high quality digital surface models (DSMs), which includes points located on 3d objects such as vegetation, forest, and elevated man-made structures. By removing these points, digital elevation model (DEM) representing the bare ground of Earth is obtained. The primary objective of this paper is the validation of DEMs obtained from TSX SAR data covering Barcelona area, Spain, in the framework of a scientific project conducted by ISPRS Working Group VII/2 "SAR Interferometry" that aims the evaluation of DEM derived from data of modern SAR satellite sensors. Towards this purpose, a DSM was generated with 10 m grid spacing using TSX StripMap mode SAR data and converted to a DEM by filtering. The accuracy results have been presented referring the comparison with a more accurate (10 cm-1 m) digital terrain model (DTM) derived from large scale photogrammetry. The results showed that the TSX DEM is quite coherent with the topography and the accuracy is in between ±8-10 m. As another application, the persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) was conducted using TSX data and the outcomes were compared with a 3d city model available in Google Earth, which is known to be very precise because it is based on LIDAR data. The results showed that PSI outcomes are quite coherent with reference data and the RMSZ of differences is around 2.5 m.

  6. Impact of immigration on the cost of emergency visits in Barcelona (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Cots, Francesc; Castells, Xavier; García, Oscar; Riu, Marta; Felipe, Aida; Vall, Oriol

    2007-01-01

    Background The impact of immigration on health services utilisation has been analysed by several studies performed in countries with lower levels of immigration than Spain. These studies indicate that health services utilisation is lower among the immigrant population than among the host population and that immigrants tend to use hospital emergency services at the expense of primary care. We aimed to quantify the relative over-utilisation of emergency services in the immigrant population. Methods Emergency visits to Hospital del Mar in Barcelona in 2002 and 2003 were analysed. The country of origin, gender, age, discharge-related circumstances (hospital admission, discharge to home, or death), medical specialty, and variable cost related to medical care were registered. Immigrants were grouped into those from high-income countries (IHIC) and those from low-income countries (ILIC) and the average direct cost was compared by country of origin. A multivariate linear mixed model of direct costs was adjusted by country of origin (classified in five groups) and by the individual variables of age, gender, hospital admission, and death as a cause of discharge. Medical specialty was considered as a random effect. Results With the exception of gynaecological emergency visits, costs resulting from emergency visits by both groups of immigrants were lower than those due to visits by the Spanish-born population. This effect was especially marked for emergency visits by adults. Conclusion Immigrants tend to use the emergency department in preference to other health services. No differences were found between IHIC and ILIC, suggesting that this result was due to the ease of access to emergency services and to lack of knowledge about the country's health system rather than to poor health status resulting from immigrants' socioeconomic position. The use of costs as a variable of complexity represents an opportunistic use of a highly exhaustive registry, which is becoming ever more

  7. Everyday politics, social practices and movement networks: daily life in Barcelona's social centres.

    PubMed

    Yates, Luke

    2015-06-01

    The relations between everyday life and political participation are of interest for much contemporary social science. Yet studies of social movement protest still pay disproportionate attention to moments of mobilization, and to movements with clear organizational boundaries, tactics and goals. Exceptions have explored collective identity, 'free spaces' and prefigurative politics, but such processes are framed as important only in accounting for movements in abeyance, or in explaining movement persistence. This article focuses on the social practices taking place in and around social movement spaces, showing that political meanings, knowledge and alternative forms of social organization are continually being developed and cultivated. Social centres in Barcelona, Spain, autonomous political spaces hosting cultural and educational events, protest campaigns and alternative living arrangements, are used as empirical case studies. Daily practices of food provisioning, distributing space and dividing labour are politicized and politicizing as they unfold and develop over time and through diverse networks around social centres. Following Melucci, such latent processes set the conditions for social movements and mobilization to occur. However, they not only underpin mobilization, but are themselves politically expressive and prefigurative, with multiple layers of latency and visibility identifiable in performances of practices. The variety of political forms - adversarial, expressive, theoretical, and routinized everyday practices, allow diverse identities, materialities and meanings to overlap in movement spaces, and help explain networks of mutual support between loosely knit networks of activists and non-activists. An approach which focuses on practices and networks rather than mobilization and collective actors, it is argued, helps show how everyday life and political protest are mutually constitutive. PMID:25597324

  8. Barcelona 2002: law, ethics, and human rights. Using the law to improve access to treatments.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Richard; Parmar, Sharan; Divan, Vivek; Berger, Jonathan

    2002-12-01

    The XIII International AIDS Conference in Durban, South Africa in July 2000 focused worldwide attention on the problem of accessing treatments in developing countries. In the interim, thanks to the work of activists - from demonstrations to court cases, and from acts of public courage by people living with HIV/AIDS to ongoing lobbying of politicians and trade negotiators - some very significant developments have occurred. But the reality is that the vast majority of people living with HIV/AIDS still lack access to affordable, quality medicines. This article, a summary of a paper presented at "Putting Third First: Vaccines, Access to Treatments and the Law," a satellite meeting held at Barcelona on 5 July 2002 and organized by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, the AIDS Law Project, South Africa, and the Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit, India, explores three approaches for improving access. In the first part, Richard Elliott provides an overview of the state of the right to health as embodied in international human rights law; comments on the experience to date in litigating claims to the right to health; and identifies potential strategies activists can adopt to advance recognition of the right to health. In the second part, Sharan Parmar and Vivek Divan describe price-control and drug-financing mechanisms used by industrialized countries to increase the affordability of medicines; and discuss how some of these mechanisms could be adapted for use in developing countries. Finally, Jonathan Berger describes the use of litigation in the courts by the Treatment Action Campaign in South Africa. PMID:14743817

  9. Different exposure of infants and adults to ultrafine particles in the urban area of Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Canchucaja, Lizzeth; d'Orazzio, Valentina; Manich, Andrea; Joya, Xavier; Vall, Oriol

    2015-01-01

    Air pollutants have been linked with a number of adverse health effects. Children are especially sensitive, particularly when they get close to the exhaust emissions of the vehicles on the street. The objective of this study was to measure the different exposure of infants and adults to ultrafine particles (UFP) as a surrogate marker of air pollution and of risk of deleterious health effects. Two different portable P-TRAK were used to measure simultaneously exposure to UFPs at different heights, one corresponding to the height of an infant in a stroller (0.55 m) and the other one to the height of the face of an adult pedestrian (1.70 m). Measurements were taken on three different streets with high traffic density in Barcelona, in 10 consecutive days during spring, with two sampling sessions of 1 h each day, moving afoot and taking into account temperature, humidity, and wind speed. Fifty-two thousand and eight (52,008) paired values were obtained, and the results showed about 10% higher levels of UFP concentration at 0.55 m (48,198 ± 25,296 pt/cm(3)) compared to 1.70 m (43,151 ± 22,517 pt/cm(3)). Differences between working and nonworking days were observed. Concentration patterns and variation by days of the week and time periods were related to traffic intensity. This study revealed that infants transported by stroller in urban areas are more exposed to air pollution than walking adults. As infants are more vulnerable and UFP have more effects on their health, measures should be taken to protect this population when it is transported in the street. PMID:25433547

  10. A travel mode comparison of commuters' exposures to air pollutants in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Fruin, Scott; Westerdahl, Dane; Martinez, David; Ripoll, Anna; Kubesch, Nadine; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Daily commutes may contribute disproportionately to overall daily inhalations of urban air contaminants. Understanding factors that explain variability of exposures during travel, and especially differences across transportation modes, is essential to accurately assess health impacts of traffic emissions and to develop effective mitigating measures. We evaluated exposures and inhaled doses of air pollution and assessed factors that contributed to their variability in different travel modes in Barcelona. Black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (UFP), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particle mass (PM2.5) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured and compared across walk, bike, bus, and car modes for a total of 172 trips made on two different round trip routes. On average, the car mode experienced highest concentrations for all contaminants. In pairwise t-tests between concurrent mode runs, statistically significant differences were found for cars compared to walking and biking. Car-to-walk or car-to-bike concentration ratios ranged from 1.3 for CO2 to 25 for CO and were 2-3 for PM2.5, BC, and UFP. In multivariate analyses, travel mode explained the greatest variability in travel exposures, from 8% for PM2.5 to 70% for CO. Different modal patterns emerged when estimating daily inhaled dose, with active commuters' two to three times greater total inhalation volume during travel producing about equal UFP and BC daily inhaled doses to car commuters and 33-50% higher UFP and BC doses compared to bus commuters. These findings, however, are specific to the bike and pedestrian lanes in this study being immediately adjacent to the roadways measured. Dedicated bike or pedestrian routes away from traffic would lead to lower active travel doses.

  11. The potential impacts of electric vehicles on air quality in the urban areas of Barcelona and Madrid (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soret, A.; Guevara, M.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    This work analyses the potential air quality improvements resulting from three fleet electrification scenarios (∼13, 26 and 40%) by replacing conventional vehicles with Electric Battery Vehicles (EBVs), Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). This study has been performed for the cities of Barcelona and Madrid (Spain), where road transport is the primary emission source. In these urban areas, several air quality problems are present, mainly related to NO2 and particulate matter. The WRF-ARW/HERMESv2/CMAQ model system has been applied at high spatial (1 × 1 km2) and temporal (1 h) resolution. The results show that fleet electrification offers a potential for emission abatement, especially related to NOx and CO. Regarding the more ambitious scenario (∼40% fleet electrification), reductions of 11% and 17% of the total NOx emissions are observed in Barcelona and Madrid respectively. These emissions reductions involve air quality improvements in NO2 maximum hourly values up to 16%: reductions up to 30 and 35 μg m-3 in Barcelona and Madrid, respectively. Furthermore, an additional scenario has been defined considering electric generation emissions associated with EBVs and PHEVs charging from a combined-cycle power plant. These charging emissions would produce slight NO2 increases in the downwind areas of <3 μg m-3. Thus, fleet electrification would improve urban air quality even when considering emissions associated with charging electric vehicles. However, two further points should be considered. First, fleet electrification cannot be considered a unique solution, and other management strategies may be defined. This is especially important with respect to particulate matter emissions, which are not significantly reduced by fleet electrification (<5%) due to the high weight of non-exhaust emissions. Second, a significant introduction of electric vehicles (26-40%) involving all vehicle categories is required to improve urban

  12. Risk perception of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Nigerian commercial sex workers living in Barcelona: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Mayans, Martí Vall; Lasagabaster, Maider Arando; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV are a serious global public health issue. These diseases are largely preventable, as they are directly and indirectly associated with potentially modifiable factors, including socioeconomic conditions. Sexual transmission is responsible for over 75% of new HIV infections worldwide. Moreover, commercial sex workers and their clients are two of the groups at the highest risk of acquiring and transmitting these infectious diseases, due to an extensive number of sexual encounters and the various factors related to commercial sex situations. This qualitative study aims to deepen the understanding of the risk perception of STIs and HIV and their associated factors in Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Methods and analysis This is a qualitative, descriptive, interpretive study based on a social constructivist and phenomenological perspective conducted on a saturated sample of Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Data will be collected through semistructured individual and triangular group interviews. Information will be examined using a sociological discourse analysis, allowing us to understand the social and individual factors related to the risk perception of STIs and HIV in commercial sex workers. Discussion Qualitative studies are an important element in identifying individual, social and contextual factors directly or indirectly related to the health/disease process. This qualitative study will provide essential knowledge to improve health promotion, prevention strategies and effective management of STIs both for commercial sex workers and their clients. Ethics This study has been approved by the clinical research ethics committee (CEIC) of IDIAP Jordi Gol in Barcelona, 2012. PMID:23901029

  13. CGPS Implementation and Lidar/Laser Altimeter Experiences at l'Estartit, Ibiza and Barcelona Harbours for Sea Level Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J.; Schutz, B.; Urban, T.; Ortiz Castellon, M.; Martinez-Garcia, M.; Ruiz, A.; Perez, B.; Rodriguez-Velasco, G.

    2008-12-01

    In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge and with a continuous GPS station nearby. The radar tide gauge is a Datamar 3000C device and a Thales Navigation Internet-Enabled GPS Continuous Geodetic Reference Station (iCGRS) with a choke ring antenna. It is intended that the overall system will constitute a CGPS Station of the ESEAS (European Sea Level) and TIGA (GPS Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring) networks. Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours) installed the tide gauge station at Ibiza harbour in January 2003. The station belongs to the REDMAR network, composed at this moment by 21 stations distributed along the whole Spanish waters, including also the Canary islands. The tide gauge also belongs to the ESEAS (European Sea Level) network. At the Barcelona harbour they have installed a radar tide gauge near a GPS station belonging to Puerto de Barcelona. L'Estartit floating tide gauge was set up in 1990. Data are taken in graphics registers from each two hours the mean value is recorded in an electronic support. L'Estartit tide gauge series provides good quality information about the changes in the sea heights at centimeter level, that is the magnitude of the common tides in the Mediterranean. Two airborne calibration campaigns carrying an Optech Lidar ALTM-3025 (ICC) were made on June 16, 2007 with a Partenavia P-68 and October 12, 2007, with a Cessna Caravan 208B flying along two ICESat target tracks including crossover near l'Estartit. The validation of this new technology LIDAR may be useful to fill coastal areas where satellite radar altimeters are not measuring due to the large footprint and the resulting gaps of about 15-30 km within the coastline. Measurements with a GPS Buoy at l'Estartit harbour were made during the June experience and a GPS reference station was installed in Aiguablava. On October 12, 2007, another LIDAR campaign was

  14. Variability of levels and composition of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Barcelona metro system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Moreno, T.; Karanasiou, A.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Viana, M.; Font, O.; Gil, J.; de Miguel, E.; Capdevila, M.

    2012-06-01

    From an environmental perspective, the underground metro system is one of the cleanest forms of public transportation in urban agglomerations. Current studies report contradicting results regarding air quality in the metro systems: whereas some reveal poor air quality, others report PM levels which are lower or of the same order of magnitude than those measured in traffic sites above ground level. The present work assesses summer and winter indoor air quality and passenger exposure in the Barcelona metro, focusing on PM levels and their metal contents. In addition, the impact on indoor air quality of platform screen door systems (automated systems consisting of closed rail track and platforms) is evaluated, to determine whether these systems reduce passenger exposure to PM when compared with conventional systems (open tracks and platforms). In the Barcelona metro PM levels inside the trains in summer are amongst the lowest reported for worldwide metro systems (11-32 μg m-3 PM2.5). This is most likely due to the air conditioning system working in all carriages of the Barcelona metro during the whole year. Levels were considerably higher on the platforms, reaching mean levels of 46 and 125 μg m3 in the new (L9) and old (L3) lines, respectively. PM10 data are also reported in the present study, but comparison with other metro systems is difficult due to the scarcity of data compared with PM2.5. Results showed distinct PM daily cycles, with a drastic increase from 06:00 to 07:00 a.m., a diurnal maximum from 07:00 to 10:00 p.m., and marked decrease between 10:00 p.m. and 05:00 a.m. The elements with the highest enrichment were those associated with wheel or brake abrasion products (Ba, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, Sb, As, Mo, Co, Sr, among others). Laminar hematite (Fe2O3) was the dominant particle type, being mainly originated by mechanical abrasion of the rail track and wheels. Regarding passenger exposure to PM, the contribution of commuting by metro was estimated to account

  15. Variability of levels and composition of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Barcelona metro system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Moreno, T.; Karanasiou, A.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Viana, M.; Font, O.; Gil, J.; de Miguel, E.; Capdevila, M.

    2012-03-01

    From an environmental perspective, the underground metro system is one of the cleanest forms of public transportation in urban agglomerations. Current studies report contradicting results regarding air quality in the metro systems: whereas some reveal poor air quality, others report PM levels which are lower or of the same order of magnitude than those measured in traffic sites above ground level. The present work assesses summer indoor air quality and passenger exposure in the Barcelona metro, focusing on PM levels and their metal contents. In addition, the impact on indoor air quality of platform screen door systems (automated systems consisting of closed rail track and platforms) is evaluated, to determine whether these systems reduce passenger exposure to PM when compared with conventional systems (open tracks and platforms). In the Barcelona metro, PM levels inside the trains in summer are amongst the lowest reported for worldwide metro systems (11-32 μPM2.5 m-3). This is most probably due to the air conditioning system working in all carriages of the Barcelona metro during the whole year. On the platforms, levels were considerably higher, reaching mean levels of 59 and 88 μgPM2.5 m-3 in the new (L9) and old (L3) lines, respectively. PM10 data are also reported in the present study, but comparison with other metro systems is more difficult due to the scarcity of data compared with PM2.5. Results showed clear PM daily cycles, with a drastic increase from 06:00 to 07:00 a.m., a diurnal maximum from 07:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m., and marked decreases between 10:00 p.m. and 05:00 a.m. The elements with the highest enrichment are those associated with wheel or brake abrasion products (Ba, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, Sb, As, Mo, Co, Sr, among others). Laminar hematite (Fe2O3) was the dominant particle type, being mainly originated by mechanical abrasion of the rail track and wheels. Regarding passenger exposure to PM inside the metro system, the contribution of commuting by metro

  16. Developpement D'un Modele Climatique Regional: Fizr Simulation des Conditions de Janvier de la Cote Ouest Nord Americaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyette, Stephane

    1995-11-01

    Le sujet de cette these concerne la modelisation numerique du climat regional. L'objectif principal de l'exercice est de developper un modele climatique regional ayant les capacites de simuler des phenomenes de meso-echelle spatiale. Notre domaine d'etude se situe sur la Cote Ouest nord americaine. Ce dernier a retenu notre attention a cause de la complexite du relief et de son controle sur le climat. Les raisons qui motivent cette etude sont multiples: d'une part, nous ne pouvons pas augmenter, en pratique, la faible resolution spatiale des modeles de la circulation generale de l'atmosphere (MCG) sans augmenter a outrance les couts d'integration et, d'autre part, la gestion de l'environnement exige de plus en plus de donnees climatiques regionales determinees avec une meilleure resolution spatiale. Jusqu'alors, les MCG constituaient les modeles les plus estimes pour leurs aptitudes a simuler le climat ainsi que les changements climatiques mondiaux. Toutefois, les phenomenes climatiques de fine echelle echappent encore aux MCG a cause de leur faible resolution spatiale. De plus, les repercussions socio-economiques des modifications possibles des climats sont etroitement liees a des phenomenes imperceptibles par les MCG actuels. Afin de circonvenir certains problemes inherents a la resolution, une approche pratique vise a prendre un domaine spatial limite d'un MCG et a y imbriquer un autre modele numerique possedant, lui, un maillage de haute resolution spatiale. Ce processus d'imbrication implique alors une nouvelle simulation numerique. Cette "retro-simulation" est guidee dans le domaine restreint a partir de pieces d'informations fournies par le MCG et forcee par des mecanismes pris en charge uniquement par le modele imbrique. Ainsi, afin de raffiner la precision spatiale des previsions climatiques de grande echelle, nous developpons ici un modele numerique appele FIZR, permettant d'obtenir de l'information climatique regionale valide a la fine echelle spatiale

  17. Polymorphisme de l'apolipoprotéine E dans la population du nord du Maroc: fréquence et influence sur les paramètres lipidiques

    PubMed Central

    Benyahya, Fatiha; Barakat, Amina; Ghailani, Naima; Bennani, Mohcine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail est de déterminer les fréquences alléliques et génotypiques des sites polymorphes situés dans le gène de l'apolipoprotéine E (apo E) ainsi que leur impact sur les paramètres cliniques et lipidiques dans un échantillon de la population du nord du Maroc cliniquement diagnostiqué ADH. Méthodes Le génotype de l'apo E a été analysé par séquençage direct chez 46 patients cliniquement diagnostiqués ADH selon les critères standards. Résultats Les fréquences des allèles epsilon 3, epsilon 2 et epsilon 4 ont été respectivement 78.3%, 2.2% et 19.6%. La fréquence de l'allèle epsilon 4 est très élevée chez la population du nord du Maroc en comparaison avec les populations des autres régions marocaines. Elle est similaire à celle rapportée dans les pays de l'Europe du nord. Les taux du cholestérol total, du cholestérol LDL ainsi que la présence des xanthomes et les maladies cardiovasculaires ne différent pas entre les génotypes de l'apoE. En revanche, les résultats ont montré une influence de l'allèle epsilon4 sur le taux des triglycérides chez les sujets obèses. Conclusion Le génotype de l'apoE ne peut expliquer le phénotype clinique et biochimique présenté par des patients du Nord du Maroc cliniquement diagnostiqués ADH. PMID:24396563

  18. Community health workers improve contact tracing among immigrants with tuberculosis in Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The important increase in immigration during recent years has changed the epidemiology and control strategies for tuberculosis (TB) in many places. This study evaluates the effectiveness of intervention with community health workers (CHW) to improve contact tracing among immigrants. Methods The study included all TB cases detected by the Barcelona TB Program from 2000 to 2005 and compared a period without CHW intervention (2000-2002) to a period with CHW intervention (2003-2005). The influence on contact tracing of sex, age, hospital of diagnosis, district of residence, birthplace, HIV, homeless and CHW intervention was analysed by logistic regression. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results 960 foreign born TB cases were detected, 388 in the intervention period. Contact tracing was performed on 65,7% of 201 smear-positive cases during the pre-intervention period compared to 81.6% of 152 smear-positive TB cases during the intervention period (p < 0.001). Risk factors associated with incomplete contact tracing of smear-positive index cases included being diagnosed in two hospitals without contact tracing TB unit (OR = 3.5; CI:1.4-8.9) and (OR = 4.6; CI:1.6-13.5) respectively, birth place in India-Pakistan (OR = 4.4; CI:1.9-10.3) or North Africa (OR = 4.3; CI:1.8-10.5), having an unknown residence (OR = 5.4; CI:1.6-18.0), being HIV-infected (OR = 6.1; CI:2.5-14.8) or homeless (OR = 3.3; CI:1.3-8.2), and the absence of CHW intervention (OR = 2.4; CI:1.3-4.3). Conclusions The effectiveness of contact tracing for TB control in areas with high immigration can be improved by incorporating CHWs who act as translators, cultural mediators and facilitators who accompany cases and contacts through treatment and follow-up. PMID:22394990

  19. Spatial variability of trace elements and sources for improved exposure assessment in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillón, María Cruz; Cirach, Marta; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Tsai, Ming; de Hoogh, Kees; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Kooter, Ingeborg M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Querol, Xavier

    2014-06-01

    Trace and major elements concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 were measured at 20 sites spread in the Barcelona metropolitan area (1 rural background, 6 urban background, 13 road traffic sites) and at 1 reference site. Three 2-week samples per site and size fraction were collected during 2009 using low volume samplers, adding a total of 120 samples. Collected samples were analysed for elemental composition using Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF). EC, OC, and hopanes and steranes concentrations in PM2.5 were determined. Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) model was used for a source apportionment analysis. The work was performed as part of the ESCAPE project. Elements were found in concentrations within the usual range in Spanish urban areas. Mineral elements were measured in higher concentrations during the warm season, due to enhanced resuspension; concentrations of fueloil combustion elements were also higher in summer. Elements in higher concentration at the traffic sites were: Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sn, Zn and Zr. Spatial variations related to non-traffic sources were observed for concentrations of Br, Cl, K, and Na (sea salt origin) and Ni, V and S (shipping emissions), which were higher at the coastal sites, as well as for Zn and Pb, higher at sites closer to industrial facilities. Five common sources for PM10 and PM2.5 were identified by PMF: road traffic (with tracers Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo and Zn); fueloil combustion (Ni and V); secondary sulphate; industry (Pb and Zn); and mineral source (Al, Ca, Mg, Si, Sr and Ti). A marine aerosol source, a mixture of sea salt with aged anthropogenic aerosols, was found only in PM10. EC, hopanes and steranes concentrations correlate strongly with the PM10 road traffic source contributions, being hence all attributed to the same source. OC may arise from other sources in addition to road traffic and have a high contribution of secondary OC. Significant spatial and temporal variation in the PM2.5 and PM10 elemental

  20. Improving the modeling of road dust levels for Barcelona at urban scale and street level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Fulvio; Zandveld, Peter; Keuken, Menno; Jonkers, Sander; Querol, Xavier; Reche, Cristina; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Schaap, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Road dust emission is an emerging issue in air quality due to the lack of remediation measures in contrast to vehicle exhaust emissions. The evidence of receptor modeling studies allows for quantifying impact on a few receptors, but the high cost of PM chemical speciation data and the questionable representativeness of single monitoring sites, limit considerably the development of population exposure estimates and epidemiologic studies based on georeferenced data. This study attempts to initiate and promote urban-scale dispersion modeling for road dust emissions, which will allow for a more robust estimate of population exposure and health outcomes. The TNO URBIS (URBan Information System) model was applied in the city of Barcelona, implementing a Gaussian line source and a street canyon dispersion model, together with new experimental estimates of road dust emission factors and algorithm to describe the time variability. Annual, daily and hourly road dust contributions were simulated and validated against observation of PM10, mineral dust and hourly PM2.5-10 concentrations. Results show that road dust contributed 9-15% to PM10 levels at background sites, and 23-44% at traffic sites. Highest contributions were modeled in the commercial/residential district where most of population live and work (Eixample) structured by 120 m wide square blocks, separated by roads with >10,000 vehicles per day. Street level contributions rise up to 20 μg/m3 (96% of roads) and an additional 3% of roads within 20-40 μg/m3. Hourly simulations of road dust contributions revealed to benefit from the implementation of the new emission module (Amato et al., 2012), able to describe the exponential recovery of road dust emission potential after rain events, when compared to common approach such as the use of constant emission factor or an ON/OFF approach. Correlation coefficients with observed data varied from 0.61, 0.58 and 0.43 for annual, daily and hourly means, respectively, revealing

  1. Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in institutionalized elderly in Barcelona (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Glòria; de Lima, Kenio C.; Casals-Peidro, Elías; Borrell, Carme

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the oral health status and the factors associated with oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in people aged 65 and older institutionalized in Barcelona in 2009. Study Design: Cross sectional study in 194 elderly. The dependent variable was poor OHRQoL, according to the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). The independent variables were socio-demographic data, last dental visit, subjective and objective oral health status. Robust Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with OHRQoL as well as the strengths of association (Prevalence Ratios with respective confidence intervals at 95%). Results: According to GOHAI, 94 women (68.1%) and 36 men (64.3%) had poor OHRQoL. The average DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth) was 22.8, with mean 10.2 remaining teeth. According to the Community Periodontal Index only 1.9% were healthy. 33.8% of the sample (35.5% of women and 30.4% of men) presented edentulism, 54.2% needed upper dental prostheses (51.1% of women and 60.7% of men) and 64.7% needed lower ones (61.6% of women and 71.4% of men). Only 7.2% had visited a dentist in the past year (8.8% of women and 3.6% of men). After fitting several multivariate adjusted robust Poisson regression models, poor OHRQoL was found to be associated to self-reporting problems with teeth or gums, self-reporting poor opinion about teeth/gums/denture and also associated to functional edentulism, needing upper denture, but not to socio-demographic factors or time since last dental visit. Conclusions: The study population has poor objective oral health. A high percentage has poor OHRQoL associated to subjective and objective oral health conditions. Dental care is required and these services should be included in the Spanish National Health System. Key words:Oral health, homes for the aged, elderly, self-assessment, quality of life, geriatric oral health assessment index

  2. Oral health care activities performed by caregivers for institutionalized elderly in Barcelona-Spain

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo-Ovalle, Marco; Costa-de-Lima, Kenio; Pérez, Glória; Borrell, Carme; Casals-Peidro, Elías

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the frequency of brushing teeth and cleaning of dentures, performed by caregivers, for institutionalized elderly people. Methods: A cross-sectional study in a sample of 196 caregivers of 31 health centers in Barcelona. The dependent variables were frequency of dental brushing and frequency of cleaning of dentures of the elderly by caregivers. The independent variables were characteristics of caregivers and institutions. We performed bivariate and multivariate descriptive analyses. Robust Poisson regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with the dependent variables and to assess the strength of the association. Results: 83% of caregivers were women, 79% worked on more than one shift, 42% worked only out of necessity, 92% were trained to care for elderly persons, 67% were trained in oral hygiene care for the elderly, and 73% recognized the existence of institutional protocols on oral health among residents. The variables explaining the lower frequency of brushing teeth by caregivers for the elderly, adjusted for the workload, were: no training in the care of elderly persons (PRa 1.7 CI95%: 1.6-1.8), not fully agreeing with the importance of oral health care of the elderly (PRa 2.5 CI95%: 1.5-4.1) and not knowing of the existence of oral health protocols (PRa 1.8 CI95%: 1.2-2.6). The variables that explain the lower frequency of cleaning dentures, adjusted for the workload, were lack of training in elderly care (PRa 1.7 CI95%: 1.3-1.9) and not knowing of the existence of protocols (PRa 3.7 CI95%: 1.6-8.7). Conclusion: The majority of caregivers perform activities of oral health care for the elderly at least once per day. The frequency of this care depends mainly on whether caregivers are trained to perform these activities, the importance given to oral health, the workload of caregivers and the existence of institutional protocols on oral health of institutionalized elderly persons. Key words:Institutionalized elderly

  3. Building a panel data set on fuel stations located in the Spanish regional areas of Madrid and Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Balaguer, Jacint; Ripollés, Jordi

    2016-06-01

    The data described in this article were collected daily over the period June 10, 2010, to November 25, 2012, from the website of the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism. The database includes information about fuel stations regarding to their prices (both gross and net of taxes), brand, location (latitude and longitude), and postal code in the Spanish provinces of Madrid and Barcelona. Moreover, obtaining the postal codes has allowed us to select those stations that are operating within the metropolitan areas of Madrid and Barcelona. By considering those fuel stations that uninterruptedly provided prices during the entire period, the data can be especially useful to explore the dynamics of prices in fuel markets. This is the case of Balaguer and Ripollés (2016), "Asymmetric fuel price responses under heterogeneity" [1], who, taking into account the presence of the potential heterogeneity of the behaviour of fuel stations, used this statistical information to perform an analysis on asymmetric fuel price responses. PMID:26933671

  4. Bolivian migrants with Chagas disease in Barcelona, Spain: a qualitative study of dietary changes and digestive problems.

    PubMed

    Posada, Elizabeth; Pell, Christopher; Angulo, Nataly; Pinazo, María Jesús; Gimeno, Faust; Elizalde, Ignasi; Gysels, Marjolein; Muñoz, Jose; Pool, Robert; Gascón, Joaquim

    2011-12-01

    Due to international migration, Chagas disease, endemic in Latin America, has become more common in non-endemic areas. Chronic Chagas disease can cause damage to the digestive system leading to constipation. However, a range of factors influences constipation and a better understanding of the role of non-Chagas related factors is required to improve management of Chagas-related digestive problems. This study explores perceptions of constipation and changes in food and exercise habits amongst Bolivians in Barcelona, Spain. Bolivian migrants attending the Tropical Medicine Unit (Hospital Clínic, Barcelona) were interviewed about their food habits in Spain and Bolivia, migratory experience, work and leisure activities. Chagas seropositive participants also received radiological examinations. Bolivian migrants experienced dietary changes, influenced by work-related factors, which included reductions in quantities of food and liquid consumed. Almost half the participants reported changes in digestive rhythm since arriving in Spain. Constipation, which was common, in some cases was only recounted during interviews. Bolivian migrants' constipation may be associated with chronic Chagas disease or migration-related dietary changes. Careful questioning using the Rome III criteria is however required to ensure its diagnosis. Radiological studies are also required to confirm the role of Chagas disease and identify potentially serious intestinal damage. PMID:24038501

  5. Epidemiological voice health map of the teaching population of Granollers (Barcelona) developed from the EVES questionnaire and the VHI.

    PubMed

    Godall, Pere; Gassull, Cecília; Godoy, Anna; Amador, Miquel

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research project was to carry out an epidemiological study on the voice health of the teaching population in Granollers (Barcelona) using the EVES questionnaire and to relate the collected data to the VHI results. The study sample consisted of 233 teachers from Granollers (Barcelona). The EVES questionnaire, which includes the VHI-10, was conducted online. A high percentage of the teachers consulted suffered voice disorders, which ranged from minor to more serious cases. In regard to the data obtained using the VHI, in 28.77% of the cases there was a moderate or a serious perception of voice problems. Out of these cases only one person, who had a moderate perception of their problem, was undergoing voice therapy with a speech therapist. There are three questions in the EVES questionnaire that can efficiently indicate the existence of a voice disorder in a straightforward manner, and the results for these were similar to those recorded for the VHI group of questions. Therefore, it may be argued that questions that refer to the perception of the degree of pleasantness of one's own voice should be included, because they would provide a useful way to indicate whether there is a voice problem at a preliminary screening stage. PMID:25573301

  6. Retrospective space-time cluster analysis of whooping cough, re-emergence in Barcelona, Spain, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Solano, Rubén; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Simón, Fernando; Lafuente, Sarah; Simón, Pere; Rius, Cristina; Gorrindo, Pilar; Toledo, Diana; Caylà, Joan A

    2014-05-01

    A retrospective, space-time study of whooping cough cases reported to the Public Health Agency of Barcelona, Spain between the years 2000 and 2011 is presented. It is based on 633 individual whooping cough cases and the 2006 population census from the Spanish National Statistics Institute, stratified by age and sex at the census tract level. Cluster identification was attempted using space-time scan statistic assuming a Poisson distribution and restricting temporal extent to 7 days and spatial distance to 500 m. Statistical calculations were performed with Stata 11 and SatScan and mapping was performed with ArcGis 10.0. Only clusters showing statistical significance (P <0.05) were mapped. The most likely cluster identified included five census tracts located in three neighbourhoods in central Barcelona during the week from 17 to 23 August 2011. This cluster included five cases compared with the expected level of 0.0021 (relative risk = 2436, P <0.001). In addition, 11 secondary significant space-time clusters were detected with secondary clusters occurring at different times and localizations. Spatial statistics is felt to be useful by complementing epidemiological surveillance systems through visualizing excess in the number of cases in space and time and thus increase the possibility of identifying outbreaks not reported by the surveillance system. PMID:24893022

  7. Principal sequence pattern analysis of episodes of excess mortality due to heat in the Barcelona metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Juan Carlos; Aran, Montserrat; Raso, José Miguel; Pérez-Zanón, Nuria

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study is to classify the synoptic sequences associated with excess mortality during the warm season in the Barcelona metropolitan area. To achieve this purpose, we undertook a principal sequence pattern analysis that incorporates different atmospheric levels, in an attempt at identifying the main features that account for dynamic and thermodynamic atmospheric processes. The sequence length was determined by the short-term displacement between temperature and mortality. To detect this lag, we applied the cross-correlation function to the residuals obtained from the modelling of the daily temperature and mortality series of summer. These residuals were estimated by means of an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model. A 7-day sequence emerged as the basic temporal unit for evaluating the synoptic background that triggers the temperature related to excess mortality in the Barcelona metropolitan area. The principal sequence pattern analysis distinguished three main synoptic patterns: two dynamic configurations produced by southern fluxes related to an Atlantic low, which can be associated with heat waves recorded in southern Europe, and a third pattern identified by a stagnation situation associated with the persistence of a blocking anticyclone over Europe, related to heat waves recorded in northern and central western Europe.

  8. Building a panel data set on fuel stations located in the Spanish regional areas of Madrid and Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    Balaguer, Jacint; Ripollés, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The data described in this article were collected daily over the period June 10, 2010, to November 25, 2012, from the website of the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism. The database includes information about fuel stations regarding to their prices (both gross and net of taxes), brand, location (latitude and longitude), and postal code in the Spanish provinces of Madrid and Barcelona. Moreover, obtaining the postal codes has allowed us to select those stations that are operating within the metropolitan areas of Madrid and Barcelona. By considering those fuel stations that uninterruptedly provided prices during the entire period, the data can be especially useful to explore the dynamics of prices in fuel markets. This is the case of Balaguer and Ripollés (2016), “Asymmetric fuel price responses under heterogeneity” [1], who, taking into account the presence of the potential heterogeneity of the behaviour of fuel stations, used this statistical information to perform an analysis on asymmetric fuel price responses. PMID:26933671

  9. Spatial and temporal variability of PM levels and composition in a complex summer atmospheric scenario in Barcelona (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, M.; Pérez, C.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Nickovic, S.; Baldasano, J. M.

    Summer atmospheric coastal dynamics exert a significant influence on the levels and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the North-Eastern Iberian Peninsula. Summer atmospheric scenarios in this region present a high degree of complexity as they are characterised by the absence of synoptic-scale air mass advections, the development of breeze circulations, enhanced photochemistry, local mineral dust re-suspension and the occurrence of African dust outbreaks. Three sampling sites were selected in Barcelona (NE Spain), an urban coastal site surrounded by complex topography. Regional dust modelling (DREAM) and high resolution meteorological modelling (MM5) were used to interpret PM levels and composition at the three sites. The results outline the effect of breeze dynamics and thermal internal boundary layer formation as the main meteorological drivers of the hourly evolution of PM levels. Levels of crustal components, secondary inorganic and carbon species are higher during the night, and only the marine aerosol content is higher during the day. Nitrate levels are higher during the night due to the thermal stability on NH 4NO 3. Sulphate levels are higher during the night as a consequence of the drainage flows. Lidar measurements and model results signalled the occurrence of two African dust episodes during the study period which mainly affected the free troposphere over Barcelona.

  10. Alcohol use and spousal mental distress in a population sample: the nord-trøndelag health study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is a widely held notion that alcohol abuse is related to mental distress in the spouse. Research has substantiated this notion by showing a tendency for spouses of alcohol abusers to experience more mental distress than spouses of non-abusers. However, the picture seems to be more complex, as some results do not show a significant effect or even less mental distress among spouses of alcohol abusers with the highest alcohol consumption. The present study investigates the association between spousal mental distress and both a high consumption of alcohol and having experienced alcohol related problems. Methods Norwegian population-based questionnaire data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 2) were analyzed. In total 11,584 couples were eligible for analysis. Alcohol consumption was measured by numerical indicators of alcohol amount and frequency of drinking, whereas alcohol-related problems (i.e. having been criticized for excessive drinking) were measured by the CAGE Alcohol Screening Questionnaire. Multivariate hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Results Results revealed that alcohol consumption was significantly associated with a decrease in spousal mental distress, whereas alcohol-related problems were associated with an increase in spousal mental distress when adjusted for each other. Interaction effects indicated that couples discordant for drinking problems experienced more mental distress than spouses concordant for drinking problems. Conclusions The results of our study indicate that alcohol-related problems constitute a clear risk factor for spousal mental distress. On the other hand, a high consumption of alcohol per se was related to lower levels of spousal mental distress, after adjusting for the alcohol-related problems perceived by the alcohol consumer him/herself. All effect sizes were small, but the trends were clear, challenging the notion that a high consumption of alcohol is exclusively and under all

  11. Species of Root-knot Nematodes and Fungal Egg Parasites Recovered from Vegetables in Almería and Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Verdejo-Lucas, S.; Ornat, C.; Sorribas, F. J.; Stchiegel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Intensive vegetable production areas were surveyed in the provinces of Almería (35 sites) and Barcelona (22 sites), Spain, to determine the incidence and identity of Meloidogyne spp. and of fungal parasites of nematode eggs. Two species of Meloidogyne were found in Almería—M. javanica (63% of the samples) and M. incognita (31%). Three species were found in Barcelona, including M. incognita (50%), M. javanica (36%), and M. arenaria (14%). Solanaceous crops supported larger (P < 0.05) nematode numbers than cucurbit crops in Almería but not in Barcelona. Fungal parasites were found in 37% and 45% of the sites in Almería and Barcelona, respectively, but percent parasitism was never greater than 5%. Nine fungal species were isolated from single eggs of the nematode. The fungi included Verticillium chlamydosporium, V. catenulatum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Fusarium spp., Acremonium strictum, Gliocladium roseum, Cylindrocarpon spp., Engiodontium album, and Dactylella oviparasitica. Two sterile fungi and five unidentified fungi also were isolated from Meloidogyne spp. eggs. PMID:19265964

  12. Species of Root-knot Nematodes and Fungal Egg Parasites Recovered from Vegetables in Almería and Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Verdejo-Lucas, S; Ornat, C; Sorribas, F J; Stchiegel, A

    2002-12-01

    Intensive vegetable production areas were surveyed in the provinces of Almería (35 sites) and Barcelona (22 sites), Spain, to determine the incidence and identity of Meloidogyne spp. and of fungal parasites of nematode eggs. Two species of Meloidogyne were found in Almería-M. javanica (63% of the samples) and M. incognita (31%). Three species were found in Barcelona, including M. incognita (50%), M. javanica (36%), and M. arenaria (14%). Solanaceous crops supported larger (P < 0.05) nematode numbers than cucurbit crops in Almería but not in Barcelona. Fungal parasites were found in 37% and 45% of the sites in Almería and Barcelona, respectively, but percent parasitism was never greater than 5%. Nine fungal species were isolated from single eggs of the nematode. The fungi included Verticillium chlamydosporium, V. catenulatum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Fusarium spp., Acremonium strictum, Gliocladium roseum, Cylindrocarpon spp., Engiodontium album, and Dactylella oviparasitica. Two sterile fungi and five unidentified fungi also were isolated from Meloidogyne spp. eggs. PMID:19265964

  13. Mutual Learning for Sustainability: Relationships between the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) and Regional Centre of Expertise (RCE) Barcelona from a Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Balas, D.; Buckland, H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) and RCE-Barcelona in the context of two organisations with a strategic aim to further Education for Sustainable Development. A special emphasis is put in the role that UPC has had in the creation and development of this project,…

  14. Analytical considerations in the use of capture-recapture to estimate prevalence: case studies of the estimation of opiate use in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Domingo-Salvany, A; Hartnoll, R L; Maguire, A; Brugal, M T; Albertín, P; Caylà, J A; Casabona, J; Suelves, J M

    1998-10-15

    Capture-recapture, an indirect method widely used to estimate undetected populations, has been criticized because it causes problems due to a lack of compliance with several important assumptions and model selection strategies. This paper expands on the problems encountered when applying this methodology to drug abuse estimations, specifically the prevalence of opiate use in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain, in 1993. Three samples of opiate users (from hospital emergency rooms, treatment centers, and prisons) were available in the area studied; an additional sample (mortality data) was analyzed for the city of Barcelona. Log-linear models that provided a good fit were considered, to which further model selection strategies were applied. A total of 3,207 unique individuals aged 15-44 years were identified in the three samples from the greater Barcelona area; the mortality sample from the city of Barcelona contained an additional 83 individuals. Heterogeneity was observed in different age, sex, and residence area subgroups. Population estimates differed widely according to the log-linear model chosen. Minimum Akaike's information criterion model and saturated model estimates were used to produce population prevalence rates. The main problems the authors encountered in this study were related to population definition, source heterogeneity, and assessment of an adequate model, a problem associated with sample size. PMID:9786228

  15. Semi-open environmental conditions during phases of hominin occupation at the Eemian Interglacial basin site Neumark-Nord 2 and its wider environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Eduard; Bakels, Corrie

    2015-06-01

    Neandertal occupation of Eemian environments in Europe is well attested by several archaeological sites dating to this interglacial period. Does this mean that Neandertals were living in closed forest environments? Due to the potential variability of Eemian environments in space and time, it is necessary to study environmental records that can be correlated with phases of hominin presence, as reflected in the archaeological record. Such a perspective can be obtained from the small basin locality Neumark-Nord 2, as it contains an extensive and detailed environmental record, as well as a large archaeological record consisting of several distinct find levels. Analysis shows that hominin presence is predominantly associated with semi-open environmental conditions. A review of the data from the neighbouring Neumark-Nord 1 basin shows that semi-open environments were also characterizing the wider environment during phases of hominin presence at both basin localities. Large herbivores attracted to the water in these basins may have played an important role in the vegetation openness, probably in conjunction with (local) climatic conditions. The relationship between hominin presence and semi-open environments is explained as Neandertals exploiting the large herbivores aggregating around these freshwater localities, while the more varied vegetation would also have provided them with edible plant foods. Other Eemian sites from freshwater contexts provide evidence for semi-open conditions as well.

  16. Ozone attributed to Madrid and Barcelona on-road transport emissions: Characterization of plume dynamics over the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Víctor; Pay, María T; Baldasano, José M

    2016-02-01

    Despite the ~30% emission decrease of the main tropospheric ozone (O3) precursors in Spain in the 2001-2012 period, the O3 concentration in summer still exceeds the target value for the protection of the human health of the Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC). On-road transport is the main anthropogenic contributor to O3 precursor's emissions in Madrid and Barcelona metropolitan areas (65%/59% of NOx, 40%/33% of NMVOC, and 67%/85% of CO emissions) but this contribution to O3 formation is not well understood. The present work aims at increasing the understanding on the role of on-road transport emissions from main Spanish urban areas in O3 dynamics over Spain under typical circulation types. For that purpose, the Integrated Source Apportionment Method is used within the CALIOPE modelling system (WRF/CMAQ/HERMES/BSC-DREAM8b). The results indicate that the daily maximum O3 concentration attributed to the on-road transport emissions from Madrid (O3T-MAD) and Barcelona metropolitan areas (O3T-BCN) contribute up to 24% and 8% to total O3 concentration, respectively, within an area of influence of 200 km. The contribution of O3T-MAD and O3T-BCN is particularly significant (up to 80-100 μg m(-3) in an hour) to the O3 concentration peak during the central hours of the day in the high O3 concentration season (April-September). The maximum O3T-MAD concentration is calculated within the metropolitan area of Madrid but the plume, channelled by the Tajo and the Henares valleys, affects large areas of the Iberian Peninsula. The O3T-BCN plume is more driven by sea-land and mountain-valley breezes than by the synoptic advection and its maximum concentration is usually registered over the Mediterranean Sea. The O3 concentration transported long-range to the Iberian Peninsula is significant in the area of influence of Madrid and Barcelona, being maxima under cold (70-96%) and minima in warm circulation types (35-70%). PMID:26615485

  17. Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Noise at School, and Behavioral Problems in Barcelona Schoolchildren: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Forns, Joan; Dadvand, Payam; Foraster, Maria; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-Gonzalez, Elisabet; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Esnaola, Mikel; Cirach, Marta; Grellier, James; Basagaña, Xavier; Querol, Xavier; Guxens, Mònica; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The available evidence of the effects of air pollution and noise on behavioral development is limited, and it overlooks exposure at schools, where children spend a considerable amount of time. Objective: We aimed to investigate the associations of exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) and noise at school on behavioral development of schoolchildren. Methods: We evaluated children 7–11 years of age in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) during 2012–2013 within the BREATHE project. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), black carbon (BC), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured at schools in two separate 1-week campaigns. In one campaign we also measured noise levels inside classrooms. Parents filled out the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to assess child behavioral development, while teachers completed the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder criteria of the DSM-IV (ADHD-DSM-IV) list to assess specific ADHD symptomatology. Negative binomial mixed-effects models were used to estimate associations between the exposures and behavioral development scores. Results: Interquartile range (IQR) increases in indoor and outdoor EC, BC, and NO2 concentrations were positively associated with SDQ total difficulties scores (suggesting more frequent behavioral problems) in adjusted multivariate models, whereas noise was significantly associated with ADHD-DSM-IV scores. Conclusion: In our study population of 7- to 11-year-old children residing in Barcelona, exposure to TRAPs at school was associated with increased behavioral problems in schoolchildren. Noise exposure at school was associated with more ADHD symptoms. Citation: Forns J, Dadvand P, Foraster M, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Rivas I, López-Vicente M, Suades-Gonzalez E, Garcia-Esteban R, Esnaola M, Cirach M, Grellier J, Basagaña X, Querol X, Guxens M, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Sunyer J. 2016. Traffic-related air pollution, noise at school, and behavioral problems in Barcelona

  18. Characterization of the inorganic aerosol in Barcelona site during DAURE 2009 field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, Javier; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Aránzazu Revuelta, M.; Coz, Esther; Moreno, Natalia; Pujadas, Manuel; Artíñano, Begoña.

    2010-05-01

    Inorganic compounds account for a significant mass of the ambient aerosol. However this contribution varies with time and aerosol size fraction, depending on the influence of source emissions and ambient conditions, which can be relevant in the formation processes of secondary species. Time series of particulate nitrate, 10 m time resolution, have been obtained during the February-March and July 2009 DAURE (Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean) field campaigns in the urban area of Barcelona by means of an R&P8400N monitor. Meteorological conditions during these periods were relevant for the photochemical formation and accumulation of secondary species. Ambient concentrations were higher in winter, specially coinciding with development of atmospheric stagnant episodes that enhanced the accumulation of pollutants including particulate nitrate that reached concentrations of 25 µgm-3 in some occasions, day or night, under these conditions. High humidity periods favored in occasions the formation of nitrates at submicronic scale. Variations in wind direction resulted in transport of particulate nitrate from near emission areas. Size segregated aerosol was sampled during the winter campaign with a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) using eleven size stages with aluminum substrates and a quartz fiber backup filter. Samples were collected twice per day for day/night periods. The first sampling period tried to collect secondary aerosol as it started after the early morning emission period. The second sample collected the night aerosol and the emission period. Soluble ions (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and calcium) were later analyzed by IC. The nitrate mass was concentrated in two modes, the accumulation one around 0.75 µm and the coarse one around 3.90 µm. The sulfate and ammonium masses were concentrated in the accumulation mode, around 0.50 µm, although a small peak close to 5 µm

  19. Geochemical signature and phytoremediation of urban soil: a case in Barcelona city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Bocanegra, Javier; Roca, Núria; Febrero, Anna; Bort, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    The cleanup of contaminated places with heavy metals is necessary, but environmental remediation strategies are often expensive and energy consuming. Thus, it is important to develop low-cost and environmentally friendly strategies. Phytoremediation-based technologies could provide a long-lasting solution. The study area is located in Sants, a neighbourhood in Barcelona city (Catalonia, Spain). This place was an industrial area in the last century, which was occupied by a metal smelting industry. Nowadays, the neighbours want to cultivate vegetables in this location, but the history of this area suggests that the soil is polluted by elevated concentrations of heavy metals. The aim of this work was to determine heavy metal concentration in: a) soil, to know the degree of the soil pollution; b) roots and leaves of two plant species, Brassica juncea as an accumulator plant and Solanum lycopersicum as a crop plant, to know the capacity of each species to accumulate metals, and c) drainage water, to evaluate the heavy metal mobility. The main pollutants are Cu, Pb and Zn with topsoil total concentrations about 1355, 2230 and 6239 mg•kg-1, respectively. The established background upper limits in this area in mg•kg-1 were: Cu 145, Pb 91 and Zn 326. The same soil elements for available fractions, extracted with DTPA, were slightly elevated (9.6, 5.8 and 6.7 % of total concentration). The environmental pollution implies great extractability, suggesting the plants in these soils have facility with potentially toxic elements absorption. Instead, the concentrations in subsoil are lower than in topsoil. The concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn in the plants' leaves are greater in B. juncea 170 ± 52.7, 137 ± 46.3 and 2365 ± 860.4 mg•kg-1, than in S. lycopersicum 102.5 ± 7.1, 22.5 ± 1.3 and 1002 ± 85.2 mg•kg-1 respectively. Furthermore, they are also greater in roots than in leaves. All of them are lower than the threshold to be considered like a hyperaccumulator species

  20. Women's weight and disordered eating in a large Norwegian community sample: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT)

    PubMed Central

    Eik-Nes, Trine; Romild, Ulla; Guzey, Ismail; Holmen, Turid; Micali, Nadia; Bjørnelv, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Objectives An increasing part of the population is affected by disordered eating (DE) even though they do not meet the full eating disorder (ED) criteria. To improve treatment in the range of weight-related disorders, there is a need to improve our knowledge about DE and relevant correlates of weight problems such as underweight, overweight and obesity. However, studies investigating DE and weight problems in a wide range of ages in the general population have been lacking. This paper explores DE, weight problems, dieting and weight dissatisfaction among women in a general population sample. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The third survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3). Participants The population included 27 252 women, aged 19–99 years, with information on DE outcomes and covariates. Outcomes DE was assessed with an 8-item version of the Eating Attitude Test and the Eating Disorder Scale-5. Body mass index (BMI) was objectively measured. Data on dieting and weight dissatisfaction were collected from self-reported questionnaires and analysed across weight categories. Crude and adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic regression models were used. Results High rates of overweight (38%) and obesity (23%) were found. DE was associated with weight problems. In women aged <30 years, 11.8% (95% CI 10.3 to 13.1) reported DE, and 12% (95% CI 11.5 to 12.6) reported DE in women aged >30 years. In those of younger ages (19–29 years), lower weight predicted DE, while increasing weight predicted DE in older aged women (30–99 years). The majority of women were dissatisfied with their weight (58.8%), and 54.1% of the women reported dieting. Neither BMI status nor age was associated with dieting or weight dissatisfaction. Conclusions A high prevalence of DE was observed, and findings suggest that weight problems and DE are not distinct from one another. Dieting was associated with women's weight dissatisfaction, rather than with actual weight

  1. Life cycle assessment of an intensive sewage treatment plant in Barcelona (Spain) with focus on energy aspects.

    PubMed

    Bravo, L; Ferrer, I

    2011-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment was used to evaluate environmental impacts associated to a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Barcelona Metropolitan Area, with a treatment capacity of 2 million population equivalent, focussing on energy aspects and resources consumption. The wastewater line includes conventional pre-treatment, primary settler, activated sludge with nitrogen removal, and tertiary treatment; and the sludge line consists of thickening, anaerobic digestion, cogeneration, dewatering and thermal drying. Real site data were preferably included in the inventory. Environmental impacts of the resulting impact categories were determined by the CLM 2 baseline method. According to the results, the combustion of natural gas in the cogeneration engine is responsible for the main impact on Climate Change and Depletion of Abiotic Resources, while the combustion of biogas in the cogeneration unit accounts for a minor part. The results suggest that the environmental performance of the WWTP would be enhanced by increasing biogas production through improved anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. PMID:22097019

  2. HIV vaccine trial willingness among injection and non-injection drug users in two urban centres, Barcelona and San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Etcheverry, M Florencia; Lum, Paula J; Evans, Jennifer L; Sanchez, Emilia; de Lazzari, Elisa; Mendez-Arancibia, Eva; Sierra, Ernesto; Gatell, José M; Page, Kimberly; Joseph, Joan

    2011-02-24

    Being able to recruit high-risk volunteers who are also willing to consider future participation in vaccine trials are critical features of vaccine preparedness studies. We described data from two cohorts of injection- and non-injection drug users in Barcelona, Spain [Red Cross centre] and in San Francisco, USA, [UFO-VAX study] at high risk of HIV/HCV infection to assess behaviour risk exposure and willingness to participate in future preventive HIV vaccine trials. We successfully identified drug-using populations that would be eligible for future HIV vaccine efficacy trials, based on reported levels of risk during screening and high levels of willingness to participate. In both groups, Red Cross and UFO-VAX respectively, HCV infection was highly prevalent at baseline (41% and 34%), HIV baseline seroprevalence was 4.2% and 1.5%, and high levels of willingness were seen (83% and 78%). PMID:21241735

  3. Transmission dynamics of Cryptosporidium in primates and herbivores at the Barcelona zoo: a long-term study.

    PubMed

    Gracenea, M; Gómez, M S; Torres, J; Carné, E; Fernández-Morán, J

    2002-02-27

    Factors influencing the transmission of Cryptosporidium in primates and herbivores housed at the Barcelona zoo have been analyzed. The relationship between continuous and discontinuous oocyst shedding, both animal housing conditions and abiotic factors (seasonality, humidity, temperature) was examined to explain the epizootiology of the protozoan. Thirty six fecal samples from each of 11 primates (Pongidae, Cebidae, Cercopithecidae and Lemuridae) and 22 herbivores (Elephantidae, Camelidae, Cervidae, Giraffidae and Bovidae) were examined over the period of 1 year. The parasite transmission was based on the chronic infection status of some animals serving as a source of successive reinfection for other animals. The environmental temperature and humidity (seasonality), the physical features of the facilities, the vicinity of the animals and the physiological status induced by captivity contributed to transmission. The long-term character of this study was essential for obtaining these results and interpreting the complex relationships. PMID:11779652

  4. HIV vaccine trial willingness among injection and non-injection drug users in two urban centres, Barcelona and San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Etcheverry, M. Florencia; Lum, Paula J.; Evans, Jennifer L.; Sanchez, Emilia; de Lazzari, Elisa; Mendez-Arancibia, Eva; Sierra, Ernesto; Gatell, José M.; Page, Kimberly; Joseph, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Being able to recruit high-risk volunteers who are also willing to consider future participation in vaccine trials are critical features of vaccine preparedness studies. We described data from two cohorts of injection- and non-injection drug users in Barcelona, Spain [Red Cross centre] and in San Francisco, USA, [UFO-VAX study] at high risk of HIV/HCV infection to assess behaviour risk exposure and willingness to participate in future preventive HIV vaccine trials. We successfully identified drug-using populations that would be eligible for future HIV vaccine efficacy trials, based on reported levels of risk during screening and high levels of willingness to participate. In both groups, Red Cross and UFO-VAX respectively, HCV infection was highly prevalent at baseline (41% and 34%), HIV baseline seroprevalence was 4.2% and 1.5%, and high levels of willingness were seen (83% and 78%). PMID:21241735

  5. Electronic cigarette use among adult population: a cross-sectional study in Barcelona, Spain (2013–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Ballbè, Montse; Fu, Marcela; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Saltó, Esteve; Gottlieb, Mark; Daynard, Richard; Connolly, Gregory N; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study seeks to analyse the prevalence and correlates of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, purchase location and satisfaction with its use in a sample of the general population of the city of Barcelona, Spain. Design, setting and participants We used participants from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of the adult (≥16 years old) population of Barcelona (336 men and 400 women). The field work was conducted between May 2013 and February 2014. We computed the prevalence, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Results The prevalence of ever e-cigarette use was 6.5% (95% CI 4.7% to 8.3%): 1.6% current use, 2.2% past use and 2.7% only e-cigarette experimentation. 75% (95% CI 62.8% to 87.3%) of ever e-cigarette users were current cigarette smokers at the moment of the interview. E-cigarette use was more likely among current smokers (OR=54.57; 95% CI 7.33 to 406.38) and highly dependent cigarette smokers (OR=3.96; 95% CI 1.60 to 9.82). 62.5% of the ever users charged their e-cigarettes with nicotine with 70% of them obtaining the liquids with nicotine in a specialised shop. 39.6% of ever e-cigarette users were not satisfied with their use, a similar percentage of not satisfied expressing the smokers (38.9%) and there were no statistically significant differences in the satisfaction between the users of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine. Conclusions E-cigarette use is strongly associated with current smoking (dual use) and most users continue to be addicted to nicotine. Six out of 10 e-cigarette users preferred devices that deliver nicotine. The satisfaction with e-cigarette use is very low. PMID:25157186

  6. Development of spatial density maps based on geoprocessing web services: application to tuberculosis incidence in Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health professionals and authorities strive to cope with heterogeneous data, services, and statistical models to support decision making on public health. Sophisticated analysis and distributed processing capabilities over geocoded epidemiological data are seen as driving factors to speed up control and decision making in these health risk situations. In this context, recent Web technologies and standards-based web services deployed on geospatial information infrastructures have rapidly become an efficient way to access, share, process, and visualize geocoded health-related information. Methods Data used on this study is based on Tuberculosis (TB) cases registered in Barcelona city during 2009. Residential addresses are geocoded and loaded into a spatial database that acts as a backend database. The web-based application architecture and geoprocessing web services are designed according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) principles. These web processing services produce spatial density maps against the backend database. Results The results are focused on the use of the proposed web-based application to the analysis of TB cases in Barcelona. The application produces spatial density maps to ease the monitoring and decision making process by health professionals. We also include a discussion of how spatial density maps may be useful for health practitioners in such contexts. Conclusions In this paper, we developed web-based client application and a set of geoprocessing web services to support specific health-spatial requirements. Spatial density maps of TB incidence were generated to help health professionals in analysis and decision-making tasks. The combined use of geographic information tools, map viewers, and geoprocessing services leads to interesting possibilities in handling health data in a spatial manner. In particular, the use of spatial density maps has been effective to identify the most affected areas and its spatial impact. This

  7. Field Evidence of Social Influence in the Expression of Political Preferences: The Case of Secessionists Flags in Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    Parravano, Antonio; Noguera, José A.; Hermida, Paula; Tena-Sánchez, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Models of social influence have explored the dynamics of social contagion, imitation, and diffusion of different types of traits, opinions, and conducts. However, few behavioral data indicating social influence dynamics have been obtained from direct observation in “natural” social contexts. The present research provides that kind of evidence in the case of the public expression of political preferences in the city of Barcelona, where thousands of citizens supporting the secession of Catalonia from Spain have placed a Catalan flag in their balconies and windows. Here we present two different studies. 1) During July 2013 we registered the number of flags in 26% of the electoral districts in the city of Barcelona. We find that there is a large dispersion in the density of flags in districts with similar density of pro-independence voters. However, by comparing the moving average to the global mean we find that the density of flags tends to be fostered in electoral districts where there is a clear majority of pro-independence vote, while it is inhibited in the opposite cases. We also show that the distribution of flags in the observed districts deviates significantly from that of an equivalent random distribution. 2) During 17 days around Catalonia’s 2013 national holiday we observed the position at balcony resolution of the flags displayed in the facades of a sub-sample of 82 blocks. We compare the ‘clustering index’ of flags on the facades observed each day to thousands of equivalent random distributions. Again we provide evidence that successive hangings of flags are not independent events but that a local influence mechanism is favoring their clustering. We also find that except for the national holiday day the density of flags tends to be fostered in facades located in electoral districts where there is a clear majority of pro-independence vote. PMID:25961562

  8. Indoor/outdoor relationships and mass closure of quasi-ultrafine, accumulation and coarse particles in Barcelona schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, M.; Rivas, I.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Sunyer, J.; Álvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Bouso, L.; Sioutas, C.

    2014-05-01

    The mass concentration, chemical composition and sources of quasi-ultrafine (quasi-UFP, PM0.25), accumulation (PM0.25-2.5) and coarse mode (PM2.5-10) particles were determined in indoor and outdoor air at 39 schools in Barcelona (Spain). Quasi-UFP mass concentrations measured (25.6 μg m-3 outdoors, 23.4 μg m-3 indoors) are significantly higher than those reported in other studies, and characterised by higher carbonaceous and mineral matter contents and a lower proportion of secondary inorganic ions. Results suggest that quasi-UFPs in Barcelona are affected by local sources in the schools, mainly human activity (e.g. organic material from textiles, etc., contributing 23-46% to total quasi-UFP mass) and playgrounds (in the form of mineral matter, contributing about 9% to the quasi-UFP mass). The particle size distribution patterns of toxicologically relevant metals and major aerosol components was characterised, displaying two modes for most elements and components, and one mode for inorganic salts (ammonium nitrate and sulfate) and elemental carbon (EC). Regarding metals, Ni and Cr were partitioned mainly in quasi-UFPs and could thus be of interest for epidemiological studies, given their high redox properties. Exposure of children to quasi-UFP mass and chemical species was assessed by comparing the concentrations measured at urban background and traffic areas schools. Finally, three main indoor sources across all size fractions were identified by assessing indoor / outdoor ratios (I / O) of PM species used as their tracers: human activity (organic material), cleaning products, paints and plastics (Cl- source), and a metallic mixed source (comprising combinations of Cu, Zn, Co, Cd, Pb, As, V and Cr). Our results support the need to enforce targeted legislation to determine a minimum "safe" distance between major roads and newly built schools to reduce exposure to traffic-derived metals in quasi-UFPs.

  9. The Barcelona Dust Forecast Center: The first WMO regional meteorological center specialized on atmospheric sand and dust forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basart, Sara; Terradellas, Enric; Cuevas, Emilio; Jorba, Oriol; Benincasa, Francesco; Baldasano, Jose M.

    2015-04-01

    The World Meteorological Organization's Sand and Dust Storm Warning Advisory and Assessment System (WMO SDS-WAS, http://sds-was.aemet.es/) project has the mission to enhance the ability of countries to deliver timely and quality sand and dust storm forecasts, observations, information and knowledge to users through an international partnership of research and operational communities. The good results obtained by the SDS-WAS Northern Africa, Middle East and Europe (NAMEE) Regional Center and the demand of many national meteorological services led to the deployment of operational dust forecast services. On June 2014, the first WMO Regional Meteorological Center Specialized on Atmospheric Sand and Dust Forecast, the Barcelona Dust Forecast Center (BDFC; http://dust.aemet.es/), was publicly presented. The Center operationally generates and distributes predictions for the NAMEE region. The dust forecasts are based on the NMMB/BSC-Dust model developed at the Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC-CNS). The present contribution will describe the main objectives and capabilities of BDFC. One of the activities performed by the BDFC is to establish a protocol to routinely exchange products from dust forecast models as dust load, dust optical depth (AOD), surface concentration, surface extinction and deposition. An important step in dust forecasting is the evaluation of the results that have been generated. This process consists of the comparison of the model results with multiple kinds of observations (i.e. AERONET and MODIS) and is aimed to facilitate the understanding of the model capabilities, limitations, and appropriateness for the purpose for which it was designed. The aim of this work is to present different evaluation approaches and to test the use of different observational products in the evaluation system.

  10. Comparison of parallel temperature measurements from conventional and automatic weather stations at Fabra Observatory (Barcelona).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Enric; Gilabert, Alba; Prohom, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Fabra Observatory , located in a promontory at 411 meters above sea level in the outskirts of Barcelona, hosts a continuous climate record since 1913. Additionally, it has been recording since 1996 simultaneous temperature and precipitation data with conventional instruments and automated systems. The automatization of recording sites employed with climatological purposes is happening elsewhere in the country and across the globe. Unfortunately, in most cases long lasting parallel measurements, are not kept. Thereafter, this site offers an excellent opportunity to study the impact of the introduction of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The conventional station (CON) equips a liquid in glass thermometer, located inside a standard Stevenson screen. The automatic measurements (AWS) have been taken using MCV-STA sensors sheltered in a MCV small plate-like ventilated screen between 1996 and the end of July 2007. For our analysis, this MCV period is split in two (T1, T2) due to an obvious jump in the differences AWS-CON in October 2002, produced by unknown reasons. From August 2007 to the present (T3), a Vaisala HMP45AL sensor was placed inside a Stevenson Screen and used for automatic measurements. For daily maximum temperatures, the median differences reach 3.2°C in T1, 1.1°C in T2 and merely -0.1°C in T3. In this later period, 94% of the differences are comprised in a ±0.5°C range, compared to 23% in T2 and only 6% in T1. It is interesting to note how the overheating of the MCV screen dominates the difference series, as 85% of the AWS values taken in T1 and T2 are warmer than the conventional measurements, contrasting with only 27% of cases during T3, when the automated measurements were taken inside a Stevenson screen. These differences are highly temperature dependent: low (high) AWS temperatures are associated with small (large) differences with the CON series. This effect is also evident if temperatures are analyzed by seasons: summer differences are much

  11. NORD's Patient Assistance Programs

    MedlinePlus

    ... rarediseases.org Fax: 1-203-349-3277 CARNITOR® Medication Assistance (L-Carnitine or levo carnitine) Conditions: Primary systemic carnitine deficiency, inborn errors of metabolism resulting in secondary carnitine deficiency, carnitine ...

  12. Decreasing prevalence and seasonal variation of gunshot trauma in raptors admitted to the wildlife center of Virginia: 1993-2002.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jean; Lickey, Adrienne; Sleeman, Jonathan M

    2005-09-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to identify the epidemiologic factors associated with gunshot injuries in raptors presented to the Wildlife Center of Virginia from 1993 to 2002. Of the 3,156 raptors admitted, 118 raptors (3.7%), representing 15 species, were admitted with gunshot trauma as the primary cause of morbidity and mortality. The majority of cases consisted of four species: red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis; 47%), red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus; 14%), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura; 10%), and bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus; 8%). For species with greater than 40 admissions during the study period, the proportion of gunshot trauma of all causes of morbidity and mortality ranged from <1% to 11%. Greater numbers of raptors with gunshot trauma were admitted during the fall and winter months (75%) compared with the spring and summer (25%). A significant decrease in the absolute number of gunshot cases per year was observed over the time period studied. The population-level effect of gunshot trauma is unknown for these species; however, it appears to be minor compared with other causes of morbidity and mortality. PMID:17312769

  13. High resolution modeling of the effects of alternative fuels use on urban air quality: introduction of natural gas vehicles in Barcelona and Madrid Greater Areas (Spain).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, María; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Baldasano, José M

    2009-01-01

    The mitigation of the effects of on-road traffic emissions on urban air pollution is currently an environmental challenge. Air quality modeling has become a powerful tool to design environment-related strategies. A wide range of options is being proposed; such as the introduction of natural gas vehicles (NGV), biofuels or hydrogen vehicles. The impacts on air quality of introducing specific NGV fleets in Barcelona and Madrid (Spain) are assessed by means of the WRF-ARW/HERMES/CMAQ modeling system with high spatial-temporal resolution (1 km(2), 1 h). Seven emissions scenarios are defined taking into account the year 2004 vehicle fleet composition of the study areas and groups of vehicles susceptible of change under a realistic perspective. O(3) average concentration rises up to 1.3% in Barcelona and up to 2.5% in Madrid when introducing the emissions scenarios, due to the NO(x) reduction in VOC-controlled areas. Nevertheless, NO(2), PM10 and SO(2) average concentrations decrease, up to 6.1%, 1.5% and 6.6% in Barcelona and up to 20.6%, 8.7% and 14.9% in Madrid, respectively. Concerning SO(2) and PM10 reductions the most effective single scenario is the introduction of 50% of NGV instead of the oldest commercial vehicles; it also reduces NO(2) concentrations in Barcelona, however in Madrid lower levels are attained when substituting 10% of the private cars. This work introduces the WRF-ARW/HERMES/CMAQ modeling system as a useful management tool and proves that the air quality improvement plans must be designed considering the local characteristics. PMID:19022477

  14. Enzymatic and metabolic characterization of the phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency associated with chronic hemolytic anemia caused by the PGK-Barcelona mutation.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Bajo, María José; Repiso, Ada; la Ossa, Pablo Pérez de; Bañón-Maneus, Elisenda; de Atauri, Pedro; Climent, Fernando; Corrons, Joan-Lluís Vives; Cascante, Marta; Carreras, José

    2011-03-15

    Recently, we reported a new mutation of phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), called PGK-Barcelona, which causes chronic hemolytic anemia associated with progressive neurological impairment. We found a 140T→A substitution that produces an Ile46Asn change located at the N-domain of the enzyme and we suggested that the decrease of the PGK activity is probably related to a loss of enzyme stability. In this paper, by analyzing whole hemolysates and cloned enzymes, we show that both enzymes possess similar kinetic properties (although some differences are observed in the Km values) and the same electrophoretic mobility. However, PGK-Barcelona has higher thermal instability. Therefore, we confirm that the decrease of the red blood cell (RBC) PGK activity caused by the PGK-Barcelona mutation is more closely related to a loss of enzyme stability than to a decrease of enzyme catalytic function. Furthermore, we have measured the levels of glycolytic metabolites and adenine nucleotides in the RBC from controls and from the patient. The increase of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate and the decrease of ATP RBC levels are the only detected metabolic changes that could cause hemolytic anemia. PMID:21269848

  15. Identification and quantification of organic aerosol from cooking and other sources in Barcelona using aerosol mass spectrometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, C.; Decarlo, P. F.; Heringa, M. F.; Chirico, R.; Slowik, J. G.; Richter, R.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Seco, R.; Peñuelas, J.; Jiménez, J. L.; Crippa, M.; Zimmermann, R.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2011-10-01

    PM1 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <1 μm) non-refractory components and black carbon were measured continuously together with additional parameters at an urban background site in Barcelona, Spain, during March 2009 (campaign DAURE, Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was conducted on the organic aerosol (OA) data matrix measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer, on both unit mass (UMR) and high resolution (HR) data. Five factors or sources could be identified: LV-OOA (low-volatility oxygenated OA), related to regional, aged secondary OA; SV-OOA (semi-volatile oxygenated OA), a fresher oxygenated OA; HOA (hydrocarbon-like OA, related to traffic emissions); BBOA (biomass burning OA) from domestic heating or agricultural biomass burning activities; and COA (cooking OA). LV-OOA contributed 28% to OA, SV-OOA 27%, COA 17%, HOA 16%, and BBOA 11%. The COA HR spectrum contained substantial signal from oxygenated ions (O/C: 0.21) whereas the HR HOA spectrum had almost exclusively contributions from chemically reduced ions (O/C: 0.03). If we assume that the carbon in HOA is fossil while that in COA and BBOA is modern, primary OA in Barcelona contains a surprisingly high fraction (59%) of non-fossil carbon. This paper presents a method for estimating cooking organic aerosol in ambient datasets based on the fractions of organic mass fragments at m/z 55 and 57: their data points fall into a V-shape in a scatter plot, with strongly influenced HOA data aligned to the right arm and strongly influenced COA data points aligned to the left arm. HR data show that this differentiation is mainly driven by the oxygen-containing ions C3H3O+ and C3H5O+, even though their contributions to m/z 55 and 57 are low compared to the reduced ions C4H7+ and C4H9+. A simple estimation method based on the organic mass fragments at m/z 55, 57, and 44 is developed here and

  16. Identification and quantification of organic aerosol from cooking and other sources in Barcelona using aerosol mass spectrometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, C.; Decarlo, P. F.; Heringa, M. F.; Chirico, R.; Slowik, J. G.; Richter, R.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Seco, R.; Peñuelas, J.; Jiménez, J. L.; Crippa, M.; Zimmermann, R.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2012-02-01

    PM1 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <1 μm) non-refractory components and black carbon were measured continuously together with additional air quality and atmospheric parameters at an urban background site in Barcelona, Spain, during March 2009 (campaign DAURE, Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was conducted on the organic aerosol (OA) data matrix measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer, on both unit mass (UMR) and high resolution (HR) data. Five factors or sources could be identified: LV-OOA (low-volatility oxygenated OA), related to regional, aged secondary OA; SV-OOA (semi-volatile oxygenated OA), a fresher oxygenated OA; HOA (hydrocarbon-like OA, related to traffic emissions); BBOA (biomass burning OA) from domestic heating or agricultural biomass burning activities; and COA (cooking OA). LV-OOA contributed 28% to OA, SV-OOA 27%, COA 17%, HOA 16%, and BBOA 11%. The COA HR spectrum contained substantial signal from oxygenated ions (O:C: 0.21) whereas the HR HOA spectrum had almost exclusively contributions from chemically reduced ions (O:C: 0.03). If we assume that the carbon in HOA is fossil while that in COA and BBOA is modern, primary OA in Barcelona contains a surprisingly high fraction (59%) of non-fossil carbon. This paper presents a method for estimating cooking organic aerosol in ambient datasets based on the fractions of organic mass fragments at m/z 55 and 57: their data points fall into a V-shape in a scatter plot, with strongly influenced HOA data aligned to the right arm and strongly influenced COA data points aligned to the left arm. HR data show that this differentiation is mainly driven by the oxygen-containing ions C3H3O+ and C3H5O+, even though their contributions to m/z 55 and 57 are low compared to the reduced ions C4H7+ and C4H9+. A simple estimation method based on the markers m/z 55, 57, and 44 is

  17. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 7th International LISA Symposium, Barcelona, Spain, 16-20 June 2008 Proceedings of the 7th International LISA Symposium, Barcelona, Spain, 16-20 June 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Alberto; Sopuerta, Carlos F.

    2009-05-01

    In June 2006 the LISA International Science Team (LIST) accepted the bid presented by the Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC) to host the 7th International LISA Symposium. This was during its 11th meeting at the University of Maryland, just before the 6th edition of the symposium started at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The 7th International LISA Symposium took place in the city of Barcelona, Spain, 16-20 June, 2008, in the premises of CosmoCaixa, a modern science museum located in the hills near Tibidabo. Almost 240 delegates registered for the event, a record breaking figure compared to previous editions of the symposium. Many of the most renowned world experts in LISA, gravitational wave science, and astronomy, as well as engineers, attended LISA #7 and produced state of the art presentations, while everybody benefited from the opportunity to have live discussions during the week in a friendly environment. The programme included 31 invited plenary lectures in the mornings, and eight parallel sessions in the afternoons. These were classified into seven major areas of research: LISA Technology, LISA PathFinder, LISA PathFinder Data Analysis, LISA Data Analysis, Gravitational Wave Sources, Cosmology and Fundamental Physics with LISA and Other Gravitational Wave Detectors. Abstracts for 138 communications were received, from which a selection was made by the session convenors which would fit time constraints. Up to 63 posters completed the scientific programme. More details on the programme, including some of the talks, can be found at the symposium website:http://www.ice.cat/research/LISA_Symposium. There was, however, a remarkable add-on: Professor Clifford Will delivered a startling presentation to the general public, who completely filled the Auditori—the main conference room, 320 seats—and were invited to ask questions to the speaker who boldly guided them through the daunting world of Black Holes, Waves of Gravity, and other Warped Ideas

  18. Lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona: blood levels and related factors.

    PubMed

    Solé, E; Ballabriga, A; Dominguez, C

    1998-12-11

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 254 individuals not occupationally exposed to lead to determine the degree of lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Blood lead levels (BPb) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) by haemofluorimetry. Blood lead levels were analysed with respect to individuals' age, sex, area of residence, the season of the year the blood was drawn and ZPP. Mean blood lead in our series was 0.22 +/- 0.011 mumol/l (mean +/- S.E.); no significant differences were found with respect to area of residence, sex or season. A linear relationship was observed between BPb and individuals' age (BPb = 0.08 + 0.05 x age; r = 0.37). The prevalence of lead intoxication (BPb > 0.48 mumol/l) was 7.1%. No linear relationship was observed between BPb and ZPP. ZPP determination does not appear to be a good screening method for lead intoxication since it presents low specificity and sensitivity values with an area below the ROC curve similar to the null value line (area below the curve = 0.5052, IC 95% = 0.443-0.568). We conclude that lead exposure does not constitute a serious health problem in the area studied, since BPb levels found are far below the toxic limit and the prevalence of intoxication is similar to that reported in other studies conducted in other developed countries. PMID:9926425

  19. Evaluating the Environmental Performance of Urban Parks in Mediterranean Cities: An Example from the Barcelona Metropolitan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parés-Franzi, Marc; Saurí-Pujol, David; Domene, Elena

    2006-11-01

    In a context of increasing urban sprawl and water scarcity common to other Mediterranean cities, this article focuses on the urban parks in the Region of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) to examine how these parks are distributed in this region and to assess whether their design and management follow criteria adapted to Mediterranean environmental conditions, especially in what concerns water use. In order to evaluate the environmental performance of these parks, we selected four factors possibly influencing the adoption of park management practices at the local scale: urban density, population size of the municipality, municipal income per capita, and political orientation of the city council. After determining the location and area of urban parks in the region, we correlated these four explanatory factors with several management tasks extracted from two different samples of parks (one of 315 parks and another of 125 parks) and a survey of 86 city councils. Results show that, in general, urban parks were more frequent in large, dense, and left/green municipalities but that environmentally sound practices were more common in small and low-density municipalities. We conclude that changes in certain practices (especially the substitution of high water demanding species) could improve significantly the environmental performance of public spaces in large urban areas with Mediterranean climates. Our observations may be pertinent for other cities interested in the provision of environmental public goods such as parks that necessitate water for irrigation.

  20. Do we need full mesoscale models to simulate the urban heat island? A study over the city of Barcelona.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; De Ridder, Koen; Hooyberghs, Hans; Lauwaet, Dirk; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    As most of the population lives in urban environments, the simulation of the urban climate has become an important part of the global climate change impact assessment. However, due to the high resolution required, these simulations demand a large amount of computational resources. Here we present a comparison between a simplified fast urban climate model (UrbClim) and a widely used full mesoscale model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, over the city of Barcelona. In order to check the advantages and disadvantages of each approach, both simulations were compared with station data and with land surface temperature observations retrieved by satellites, focusing on the urban heat island. The effect of changing the UrbClim boundary conditions was studied too, by using low resolution global reanalysis data (70 km) and a higher resolution forecast model (15 km). Finally, a strict comparison of the computational resources consumed by both models was carried out. Results show that, generally, the performance of the simple model is comparable to or better than the mesoscale model. The exception are the winds and the day-to-day correlation in the reanalysis driven run, but these problems disappear when taking the boundary conditions from a higher resolution global model. UrbClim was found to run 133 times faster than WRF, using 4x times higher resolution and, thus, it is an efficient solution for running long climate change simulations over large city ensembles.

  1. Barcelona 2002: law, ethics, and human rights. Global battle cry: health is a right, not a commodity.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Irene

    2002-12-01

    Health is a fundamental right, not a commodity to be sold at a profit, argues Irene Fernandez in the second Jonathan Mann Memorial Lecture delivered on 8 July 2002 to the XIV International AIDS Conference in Barcelona. Ms Fernandez had to obtain a special permit from the Malaysian government to attend the Conference because she is on trial for having publicly released information about abuse, torture, illness, corruption, and death in Malaysian detention camps for migrants. This article, based on Ms Fernandez' presentation, describes how the policies of the rich world have failed the poor world. According to Ms Fernandez, the policies of globalization and privatization of health care have hindered the ability of developing countries to respond to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The article decries the hypocrisy of the industrialized nations in increasing subsidies to farmers while demanding that the developing world open its doors to Western goods. It points out that the rich nations have failed to live up their foreign aid commitments. The article concludes that these commitments--and the other promises made in the last few years, such as those in the United Nations' Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS--can only become a reality if they are translated into action. PMID:14743815

  2. Pedogeochemical mapping of heavy metals with kriging techniques: Lead and Chromium in soils of the Barcelona province (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, J.; Tume, P.; Sánchez, P.; Reverter, F.; Bech, J.; Lansac, A.; Longan, L.; Oliver, T.

    2009-04-01

    Analysis of the spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils is of fundamental importance in a number of applications including the delineation of potentially polluted spots at unsampled sites. In this study, 316 topsoil samples (0-20 cm) located approximately in a 5 km regular grid covering the Barcelona province (7728 square km) have been examined. The geology in this area is varied: granodiorites and Paleozoic shales are predominant in the SE-E and Mesozoic and Tertiary limestones, dolomites, marlstones, gypsum and sandstones in the remainder of the province. Heavy metals considered in this paper were lead and chromium. Soil samples (<2mm fraction) were analyzed by standard methods. Aqua regia digest (ISO 11466.2002) of Pb and Cr were determined by ICP-ES (Polyscan 61E Spectrometer). Experimental variograms have been analysed, considering both omni-directional and anisotropic cases. Theoretical variograms fitted with the experimental data were used to map heavy metal concentrations at 1 km regular grid using kriging techniques. Finally, the pedogeochemical maps obtained are discussed in terms of the soil properties, human activities and geological characteristics of the region.

  3. Prospective study of asbestos-related diseases incidence cases in primary health care in an area of Barcelona province

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Asbestos related diseases include a number of conditions due to inhalation of asbestos fibres at work, at home or in the environment, such as pleural mesothelioma, asbestosis and calcified pleural plaques. Few epidemiological studies have established the incidence of asbestos related diseases in our area. The present proposal is based on a retrospective study externally funded in 2005 that is currently taking place in the same area and largely carried out by the same research team. The aim of the study is to achieve a comprehensive and coordinated detection of all new cases of Asbestos Related Diseases presenting to primary care practitioners. Methods/design This is a multicentre, multidisciplinary and pluri-institutional prospective study. Setting 12 municipalities in the Barcelona province within the catchment area of the health facilities that participate in the study. Sample This is a population based study, of all patients presenting with diseases caused by asbestos in the study area. Measurements A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire will be filled in by the trained researchers after interviewing the patients and examining their clinical reports. Discussion Data on the incidence of the different Asbestos Related Diseases in this area will be obtained and the most plausible exposure source and space-time-patient profile will be described. The study will also improve the standardization of patient management, the coordination between health care institutions and the development of preventive activities related with asbestos exposure and disease. PMID:20412567

  4. Managing an odour episode in Barcelona's water supply: strategies adopted, the causative agent (diacetyl) and determination of its organoleptic properties.

    PubMed

    Martín-Alonso, J; Devesa, R; Bernal, A; Matia, L

    2007-01-01

    The Llobregat River is a basic drinking water resource for the city of Barcelona, meeting 40% of the demand. The river runs through a densely populated industrial area, so that it has in its history experienced various episodes due to industrial spills. The present work deals with a recent episode involving diacetyl. To the best of our knowledge this episode is the first time that this compound has been identified as an odour-causing compound in water. In a previous work the analytical method used for the identification of the compound causing the episode was described. The present work focuses its attention on how the episode was handled: action taken at the Sant Joan Despi water treatment plant and the sampling strategy on the river that led to the identification of the company responsible for the spill, a paper mill. It also deals with the role played by the FPA panel in the resolution of the episode: organoleptic description of samples of the problem in the initial phase of the episode (from the treatment plant, distribution network and customer complaints) and, once the compound responsible was identified, the determination of its organoleptic characteristics (odour threshold, odour descriptors, Weber-Fechner curve). PMID:17489412

  5. Occurrence and sources of brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants in dust from different indoor environments in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Cristale, Joyce; Hurtado, Alba; Gómez-Canela, Cristian; Lacorte, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the simultaneous presence of eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), nine new brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and ten organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) was investigated in dust samples collected from different indoor environments (homes, schools, theatres, a university and a Research Institute) in Barcelona, Spain. OPFRs were detected at the highest concentrations followed by PBDEs. ∑OPFRs ranged from 2053 to 72,090ngg(-1) and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) was the most abundant compound. BDE-209 was the main PBDE congener detected (up to 14,990ngg(-1)), while other PBDEs ranged from 2.6 to 118ngg(-1). Among the studied NBFRs, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE - up to 4432ngg(-1)) followed by bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP - up to 508ngg(-1)) were detected at the highest concentration, whereas a lower detection frequency was observed for 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), pentabromotoluene (PBT) and hexabromobenzene (HBB). The levels and profile of flame retardants (FRs) were characteristic of each environment, where theatres followed by homes presented the highest concentrations and schools had the lowest levels. Principal Component Analysis permitted to identify the main sources and distribution of all FRs, according to specific uses in each environment. The simultaneous presence of all FR families in indoor dust points to the need to monitor these compounds to minimize human exposure. PMID:27179204

  6. Barcelona 2002: law, ethics, and human rights. Advancing research and access to HIV vaccines: a framework for action.

    PubMed

    Avrett, Sam

    2002-12-01

    In light of the continuing spread of HIV infection and the devastating impact of the disease on lives, communities, and economies, particularly in the developing world, the investment in new treatments, vaccines, and microbicides has clearly been inadequate. Efforts must be intensified to develop effective HIV vaccines and to ensure that they are accessible to people in all parts of the world. This article is a summary of a paper by Sam Avrett presented at "Putting Third First: Vaccines, Access to Treatments and the Law," a satellite meeting held at Barcelona on 5 July 2002 and organized by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, the AIDS Law Project, South Africa, and the Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit, India. In the article, Avrett calls for immediate action to increase commitment and funding for HIV vaccines, enhance public support and involvement, accelerate vaccine development, and plan for the eventual delivery of the vaccines. The article briefly outlines steps that governments need to take to implement each of these objectives. The article also provides a menu of potential actions for vaccine advocates to consider as they lobby governments. PMID:14743820

  7. Advances in Urea cycle Neuroimaging: Proceedings from the 4th International symposium on Urea cycle disorders, Barcelona, Spain, September 2013

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Colon, Ileana; Fricke, Stanley; VanMeter, John; Gropman, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous imaging research performed as part of a Urea Cycle Rare Disorders Consortium (UCRDC) grant, has identified specific biomarkers of neurologic injury in ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, OTCD. While characterization of mutations can be achieved in most cases, this information does not necessarily predict the severity of the underlying neurological syndrome. The biochemical consequences of any mutation may be modified additionally by a large number of factors, including contributions of other enzymes and transport systems that mediate flux through the urea cycle, diet and other environmental factors. These factors likely vary from one patient to another, and they give rise to heterogeneity of clinical severity. Affected cognitive domains include non-verbal learning, fine motor processing, reaction time, visual memory, attention, and executive function. Deficits in these capacities may be seen in symptomatic patients, as well as asymptomatic carriers with normal IQ and correlate with variances in brain structure and function in these patients. Using neuroimaging we can identify biomarkers that reflect the downstream impact of UCDs on cognition. This manuscript is a summary of the presentation from the 4th International Consortium on Urea cycle disorders held in, Barcelona, Spain, September 2, 2014. PMID:25066103

  8. Spatial Variation of Aerosol Chemical Composition and Organic Components Identified by Positive Matrix Factorization in the Barcelona Region.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Claudia; DeCarlo, Peter F; Heringa, Maarten F; Chirico, Roberto; Richter, René; Crippa, Monica; Querol, Xavier; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S H

    2015-09-01

    The spatial distribution of PM1 components in the Barcelona metropolitan area was investigated using on-road mobile measurements of atmospheric particle- and gas-phase compounds during the DAURE campaign in March 2009. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) applied to organic aerosol (OA) data yielded 5 factors: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), cooking OA (COA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), and low volatility and semivolatile oxygenated OA (LV-OOA and SV-OOA). The area under investigation (∼500 km(2)) was divided into six zones (city center, harbor, industrial area, precoastal depression, 2 mountain ranges) for measurements and data analysis. Mean zonal OA concentrations are 4.9-9.5 μg m(-3). The area is heavily impacted by local primary emissions (HOA 14-38%, COA 10-18%, BBOA 10-12% of OA); concentrations of traffic-related components, especially black carbon, are biased high due to the on-road nature of the measurements. The formation of secondary OA adds more than half of the OA burden outside the city center (SV-OOA 14-40%, LV-OOA 17-42% of OA). A case study of one measurement drive from the shore to the precoastal mountain range furthest downwind of the city center indicates the importance of nonfossil over anthropogenic secondary OA based on OA/CO. PMID:26237368

  9. Managing the identification of the mortal victims run over by a train in the Castelldefels railway accident (Barcelona).

    PubMed

    Barbería, Eneko; Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Galtés, Ignasi; Subirana-Domenech, Mercé; Puigbarraca-Sol, Lourdes; Vidal-Gutiérrez, Claudina; Valverde-Villarreal, Juan Luis; Castellà-García, Josep; Medallo-Muñiz, Jordi

    2015-09-01

    The identification of disaster victims is the formal, organized process of identifying multiple bodies after an incident with multiple victims. The appropriate management of these incidents, particularly of the bodies, is one of the most crucial aspects of disaster response and its importance has led to the evolution of the concept of Disaster Victim Management. The aim of this study is to report how the process of identifying the 12 mortal victims of a railway accident in June 2010 in Castelldefels (Barcelona) was managed. The methodology used complied with the National Protocol for medical forensic and scientific police response to mass casualty incidents. The family assistance center also served as an ante mortem (AM) office. Despite the fragmentation of the bodies, all the victims were identified satisfactorily. The main problems observed during the management of the disaster were due to the state of the bodies, which raised many doubts as to the number of fatalities. The experience prompted a proposal to establish some recommendations on limiting the number of fragments to be analyzed genetically. We would like to stress the importance of setting up a Data Integration Center which brought together all the participating institutions, and collected and supervised all the different identification reports in a single comprehensive text addressed to the competent legal authority. PMID:26026775

  10. Origin of inorganic and organic components of PM2.5 in subway stations of Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; van Drooge, Barend L; Reche, Cristina; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Centelles, Sonia; Querol, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The present work assesses indoor air quality in stations of the Barcelona subway system. PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms of 4 subway stations were measured during two different seasons and the chemical composition was determined. A Positive Matrix Factorization analysis was performed to identify and quantify the contributions of major PM2.5 sources in the subway stations. Mean PM2.5 concentrations varied according to the stations design and seasonal periods. PM2.5 was composed of haematite, carbonaceous aerosol, crustal matter, secondary inorganic compounds, trace elements, insoluble sulphate and halite. Organic compounds such as PAHs, nicotine, levoglucosan and aromatic musk compounds were also identified. Subway PM2.5 source comprised emissions from rails, wheels, catenaries, brake pads and pantographs. The subway source showed different chemical profiles for each station, but was always dominated by Fe. Control actions on the source are important for the achievement of better air quality in the subway environment. PMID:26189044

  11. Source tracing of fluvial suspended sediments by magnetic and geochemical particle characterization: example of the Canche watershed (Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patault, Edouard; Alary, Claire; Franke, Christine; Gauthier, Arnaud; Abriak, Nor-Edine

    2016-04-01

    In France, erosion by water run-off is estimated to 1.5 t ha‑1yr‑1 and can exceed 10 t ha‑1yr‑1 in large growing areas, such as the North of France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais). In this region, the Canche watershed (1294 km2) sustains heavy loss of fertile soils. The land use is mainly dominated by arable lands (80%) and in 2013, 104 kt of suspended sediment transited to the estuary. As demonstrated in literature, agricultural soil erosion leads to the gradual disappearance and depletion of fertile soil, which constitute a non-renewable resource at human time scale. Additionally, water erosion can significantly damage the aquatic habitat and can be responsible for the input of nutrients, bacteria, pesticides, heavy metals and radionuclides into surface waters. Conscious of these effects, many programs have emerged in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais to reduce erosion. This study presents a combination of environmental magnetic proxy parameters and geochemical analyses on sediments and suspended particulate matter. The aim is to develop effective tools to trace erosion by water run-off and quantify this process. In order to identify the respective sediment sources in the Canche watershed, sediment trap samples of suspended particulate matter were recovered at key positions along the Canche watershed. The preliminary results show that magnetic concentration (Mrs) shows typical values for the agricultural soils in the region, but these variations in magnetic concentrations and total irons concentrations are not always correlated, which may be explained by the iron speciation. In calculating the so-called S-ratio for each sample we can distinguish changes in magneto-mineralogy (and thus iron speciation) from magnetite-dominated assemblages in the mainstream Canche (naturel background signal) to high-coercivity-dominated assemblages in the tributaries, typical for soil erosion material rich in hematite/goethite. In combination with the element concentrations from ICP analyses

  12. Implementation of the Barcelona Basic Model into TOUGH-FLAC for simulations of the geomechanical behavior of unsaturated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, J.; Ijiri, Y.; Yamamoto, H.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents the implementation of the Barcelona Basic Model (BBM) into the TOUGH-FLAC simulator analyzing the geomechanical behavior of unsaturated soils. We implemented the BBM into TOUGH-FLAC by (1) extending an existing FLAC{sup 3D} module for the Modified Cam-Clay (MCC) model in FLAC{sup 3D} and (2) adding computational routines for suction-dependent strain and net stress (i.e., total stress minus gas pressure) for unsaturated soils. We implemented a thermo-elasto-plastic version of the BBM, wherein the soil strength depends on both suction and temperature. The implementation of the BBM into TOUGH-FLAC was verified and tested against several published numerical model simulations and laboratory experiments involving the coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) behavior of unsaturated soils. The simulation tests included modeling the mechanical behavior of bentonite-sand mixtures, which are being considered as back-fill and buffer materials for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. We also tested and demonstrated the use of the BBM and TOUGH-FLAC for a problem involving the coupled THM processes within a bentonite-backfilled nuclear waste emplacement tunnel. The simulation results indicated complex geomechanical behavior of the bentonite backfill, including a nonuniform distribution of buffer porosity and density that could not be captured in an alternative, simplified, linear-elastic swelling model. As a result of the work presented in this paper, TOUGH-FLAC with BBM is now fully operational and ready to be applied to problems associated with nuclear waste disposal in bentonite-backfilled tunnels, as well as other scientific and engineering problems related to the mechanical behavior of unsaturated soils.

  13. The Effects of Particulate Matter Sources on Daily Mortality: A Case-Crossover Study of Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Aurelio; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Amato, Fulvio; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemí; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dozens of studies link acute exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution with premature mortality and morbidity, but questions remain about which species and sources in the vast PM mixture are responsible for the observed health effects. Although a few studies exist on the effects of species and sources in U.S. cities, European cities—which have a higher proportion of diesel engines and denser urban populations—have not been well characterized. Information on the effects of specific sources could aid in targeting pollution control and in articulating the biological mechanisms of PM. Objectives: Our study examined the effects of various PM sources on daily mortality for 2003 through 2007 in Barcelona, a densely populated city in the northeast corner of Spain. Methods: Source apportionment for PM ≤ 2.5 μm and ≤ 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5 and PM10) using positive matrix factorization identified eight different factors. Case-crossover regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of each factor. Results: Several sources of PM2.5, including vehicle exhaust, fuel oil combustion, secondary nitrate/organics, minerals, secondary sulfate/organics, and road dust, had statistically significant associations (p < 0.05) with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Also, in some cases relative risks for a respective interquartile range increase in concentration were higher for specific sources than for total PM2.5 mass. Conclusions: These results along with those from our multisource models suggest that traffic, sulfate from shipping and long-range transport, and construction dust are important contributors to the adverse health effects linked to PM. PMID:21846610

  14. Research and development of a gamma-ray imaging spectrometer in the MeV range in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, José-Manuel; Galvez, José-Luis; Hernanz, Margarita; Isern, Jordi; Lozano, Manuel; Pellegrini, Giulio; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Cabruja, Enric; Ullán, Miguel

    2010-07-01

    Gamma-ray astrophysics in the MeV energy range plays an important role for the understanding of cosmic explosions and acceleration mechanisms in a variety of galactic and extragalactic sources, e.g., Supernovae, Classical Novae, Supernova Remnants (SNRs), Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), Pulsars, Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Through the development of focusing telescopes in the MeV energy range, it will be possible to reach unprecedented sensitivities, compared with those of the currently operating gamma ray telescopes. In order to achieve the needed performance, a detector with mm spatial resolution and very high peak efficiency is required. It will be also desirable that the detector could detect polarization of the source. Our research and development activities in Barcelona aim to study a gamma-ray imaging spectrometer in the MeV range suited for the focal plane of a gamma-ray telescope mission, based on CdTe pixel detectors arranged in multiple layers with increasing thicknesses, to enhance gamma-ray absorption in the Compton regime. We have developed an initial prototype based on several CdTe module detectors, with 11x11 pixels, a pixel pitch of 1mm and a thickness of 2mm. Each pixel is stud-bump bonded to a fanout board and routed to a readout ASIC to measure pixel position, pulse height and rise time information for each incident gamma-ray photon. We will report on the results of an optimization study based on simulations, to select the optimal thickness of each CdTe detector within the module to get the best energy resolution of the spectrometer.

  15. Analysis of maximum and minimum daily temperatures recorded at Fabra Observatory (Barcelona, NE Spain) in the period 1917-1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, C.; Burgueño, A.; Lana, X.

    2001-04-01

    Daily maximum and minimum temperatures recorded without interruption at Fabra Observatory (Barcelona) from 1917 to 1998 are analysed studying their homogeneity, randomness, possible trends and their statistical significance, and time irregularities detected by means of concepts of entropy and spectral power analysis. The homogeneity of the series is tested on a monthly scale using the adaptive Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filter. With respect to the randomness of the time series, the von Neumann ratio test is applied to standardized values of extreme temperatures in four different time-scales (daily, monthly, seasonal and annual). The statistical significance of trends is quantified by applying the Spearman and Mann-Kendall tests to daily, monthly and seasonal data. The Mann-Kendall sequential test also leads to the detection of sharp changes in the time series when monthly data is analysed. The quantification of irregularities through entropy is investigated for standardized temperatures on daily, monthly and seasonal scales, based on the concept of mathematical information theory. Periodicities derived from spectral power analyses are checked with the hypothesis of white-noise and Markov red-noise stochastic processes. The most notable features, common to maximum and minimum temperatures, are the lack of randomness of the series for all the time-scales considered and the different trends obtained for the periods 1917-1980 and 1917-1998, which are confirmed by the Spearman and sequential Mann-Kendall tests. Nevertheless, the maximum and minimum temperature series show quite a different behaviour from the point of view of results concerning time irregularities in terms of entropy and periodicities. The main features of the results are discussed by comparing them with those obtained for other areas of the Mediterranean domain.

  16. Do Young Heroin Users in Madrid, Barcelona and Seville have Sufficient Knowledge of the Risk Factors for Unintentional Opioid Overdose?

    PubMed Central

    Barrio, Gregorio; Brugal, M. Teresa; de la Fuente, Luis; Ballesta, Rosario; Bravo, María J.; Silva, Teresa C.; Rodríguez-Martos, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    To identify the self-perceived reasons for unintentional opioid overdose of young heroin users in three Spanish cities and their agreement with objective risk factors for overdose. Computer-Assisted Personal Interviews (CAPI) were held with 991 street-recruited current heroin users aged 18–30. The general reasons for overdose and the reasons for the last overdose suffered were explored with open-ended (OEQs) and pre-coded questions (PCQs). Limited knowledge of overdose risk factors was defined as mention of fewer than two objective risk factors for unintentional overdose in the OEQ. Univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression methods were used. 77.8% (Seville), 64.9% (Madrid) and 57.2% (Barcelona) of participants have limited knowledge of overdose risk factors. Residence in Seville and not having attended courses or meetings on overdoses were significantly associated with limited knowledge, after adjusting for other factors. The most frequently identified general reasons in OEQ or PCQ were using heroin in large amounts (66.8%), together with tranquilizers (62.0%), adulterated (60.7%), or purer than usual (57.6%). Most reasons were selected more frequently in PCQ than in OEQ, especially rapid injection of the entire dose and using heroin shortly after using tranquilizers or alcohol, by injection, or after a period of abstinence. The results were similar for overdoses suffered by participants. Most young heroin users do not have sufficient knowledge of overdose risk factors, especially the use of heroin by injection, after a period of abstinence, or together with alcohol or methadone. Specific informational or educational programs adapted to the local context are critically needed. PMID:16739049

  17. 14 years of broadband ground based solar UV index observations in Barcelona: effects of clouds and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Joan; Sola, Yolanda; Ossó, Albert; Lorente, Jeroni

    2014-05-01

    This study presents an analysis of a 14-year data set of thirty-minute averaged experimental UVI values derived from ground-based broadband irradiance measurements, satellite-derived total ozone observations and total solar radiation recorded in Barcelona (NE Spain). Most maximum daily UVI values do occur at noon (82% of cases between 11:30 to 13:00 UTC). Considering all seasons, the maximum daily UVI presents a bimodal, approximately symmetrical, frequency distribution with a maximum around UVI class 2 (22%) and UVI 7 and 8 classes (23%) while June median presents a value of 8.2. According to attenuation criteria there is a preponderance of Clear sky days (77%) compared to Broken (22%) and Overcast (8%) conditions, which concentrate mostly in October, November and December (reaching 20% of days). An additional classification in terms of World Health Organisation UVI intensity categories indicates that 40% of days exceeded the lower threshold of UVI category Moderate (UVI values above 5.5), from them 21% of days had UVI values considered Very High (above 9.5) and one single case was classified as Extreme (UVI above 10.5). UVI values above 7.5 were found under Broken sky conditions in June, July and August. Additionally UVI diurnal daily cycles have also been analyzed in terms of selected percentile values and maximum levels. Under all sky-conditions UVI median values exceed the lower threshold of category High (5.5) from April to late August around noon (in June from 10:00 to 14:30 UTC). These results provide an exhaustive quantitative description of average and extreme values of experimental UVI values observed in the region and can be of interest for a wide range of applications, including ground-based UV modelling through the use of radiative transfer models, trend analysis or verification of UVI forecasts.

  18. The relationship between health promoting resources and work participation in a sample reporting musculoskeletal pain from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT 3, Norway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is one of the most frequent causes of sick leave from work, and is a common and potentially disabling condition. This study is based on the salutogenic perspective and investigates the relationship between personal, social, and functional health resources and work participation in a population reporting MSP. Method Analysis was performed on cross sectional data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT 3, in Norway. The sample of n= 6702 was extracted from HUNT 3, including a total of N= 50807 participants. Self-reported health (SRH) and, personal, social, and functional resources were assessed by a questionnaire. Reported sick leave was collected by interview at the point of time when the data were collected, from October 2006 until June 2008. Results Logistic regression analysis demonstrated statistically significant differences between the work group and sick leave group in self-rated health, work support, work control, work load, and feeling strong, and the model predicted 68% of the cases correctly. Females had a lower statistically significant probability (B= −.53) to be in the work group then men when suffering from MSP, with odds of 41%. Conclusion There was a statistically significant relationship between health promoting resources such as SRH, feeling strong, absence of neuroticism, work load, work control, and work participation in MSP population. PMID:23509959

  19. Integrated Health Care Barcelona Esquerra (Ais-Be): A Global View of Organisational Development, Re-Engineering of Processes and Improvement of the Information Systems. The Role of the Tertiary University Hospital in the Transformation.

    PubMed

    Font, David; Escarrabill, Joan; Gómez, Mónica; Ruiz, Rafael; Enfedaque, Belén; Altimiras, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Health Area "Barcelona Esquerra" (Área Integral de Salud de Barcelona Esquerra - AIS-BE), which covers a population of 524,000 residents in Barcelona city, is running a project to improve healthcare quality and efficiency based on co-ordination between the different suppliers in its area through the participation of their professionals. Endowed with an Organisational Model that seeks decision-taking that starts out from clinical knowledge and from Information Systems tools that facilitate this co-ordination (an interoperability platform and a website) it presents important results in its structured programmes that have been implemented such as the Reorganisation of Emergency Care, Screening for Colorectal Cancer, the Onset of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Teledermatology and the Development of Cross-sectional Healthcare Policies for Care in Chronicity. PMID:27616964

  20. Near-surface and columnar measurements with a micro pulse lidar of atmospheric pollen in Barcelona, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, Michaël; Izquierdo, Rebeca; Alarcón, Marta; Belmonte, Jordina; Comerón, Adolfo; Baldasano, José Maria

    2016-06-01

    We present for the first time continuous hourly measurements of pollen near-surface concentration and lidar-derived profiles of particle backscatter coefficients and of volume and particle depolarization ratios during a 5-day pollination event observed in Barcelona, Spain, between 27 and 31 March 2015. Daily average concentrations ranged from 1082 to 2830 pollen m-3. Platanus and Pinus pollen types represented together more than 80 % of the total pollen. Maximum hourly pollen concentrations of 4700 and 1200 m-3 were found for Platanus and Pinus, respectively. Every day a clear diurnal cycle caused by the vertical transport of the airborne pollen was visible on the lidar-derived profiles with maxima usually reached between 12:00 and 15:00 UT. A method based on the lidar polarization capabilities was used to retrieve the contribution of the pollen to the total aerosol optical depth (AOD). On average the diurnal (09:00-17:00 UT) pollen AOD was 0.05, which represented 29 % of the total AOD. Maximum values of the pollen AOD and its contribution to the total AOD reached 0.12 and 78 %, respectively. The diurnal means of the volume and particle depolarization ratios in the pollen plume were 0.08 and 0.14, with hourly maxima of 0.18 and 0.33, respectively. The diurnal mean of the height of the pollen plume was found at 1.24 km with maxima varying in the range of 1.47-1.78 km. A correlation study is performed (1) between the depolarization ratios and the pollen near-surface concentration to evaluate the ability of the former parameter to monitor pollen release and (2) between the depolarization ratios as well as pollen AOD and surface downward solar fluxes, which cause the atmospheric turbulences responsible for the particle vertical motion, to examine the dependency of the depolarization ratios and the pollen AOD upon solar fluxes. For the volume depolarization ratio the first correlation study yields to correlation coefficients ranging 0.00-0.81 and the second to

  1. Source apportionment of indoor, outdoor and personal PM2.5 exposure of pregnant women in Barcelona, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Schembari, A.; Triguero-Mas, M.; de Nazelle, A.; Dadvand, P.; Figueras, F.; Salvado, J. A.; Grimalt, J. O.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Querol, X.

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been shown to adversely affect foetal development in the case of pregnant women. The present study aims to investigate the PM composition and sources influencing personal exposure of pregnant women in Barcelona. To this end, indoor, outdoor and personal exposure measurements were carried out for a selection of 54 pregnant women between November 2008 and November 2009. PM2.5 samples were collected during two consecutive days and then analysed for black smoke (BS), major and trace elements, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations. Personal information such as commuting patterns and cosmetics use was also collected. PM2.5 concentrations were higher for personal samples than for indoor and outdoor environments. Indoor, outdoor and personal BS and sulphate concentrations were strongly correlated, although some specific indoor and outdoor sulphate sources may exist. Average trace elements concentrations were similar indoor, outdoor and for personal exposure, but the correlations were moderate for most of them. Most of the PAHs concentrations showed strong correlations indoor-outdoor. A source apportionment analysis of the PM composition data by means of a Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) resulted in the identification of six sources for the outdoor and indoor environments: secondary sulphate, fueloil + sea salt (characterized by V, Ni, Na and Mg), mineral, cigarette (characterized by K, Ce, Cd, benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(ghi)perylene), road traffic (characterized by BS and low weight PAHs), and industrial (characterized by Pb, Sn, Cu, Mn and Fe). For personal exposure two specific sources were found: cosmetics (characterized by abundance of Ca, Li, Ti and Sr and the absence of Al) and train/subway (characterized by Fe, Mn, Cu and Ba). The contribution of the sources varied widely among women, especially for cigarette (from zero to up to 4 μg m-3), train/subway (up to more than 6 μg m-3) and cosmetics (up to more

  2. Restricting Access to Health Care to Immigrants in Barcelona: A Mixed-Methods Study With Immigrants Who Have Experienced an Infectious Disease.

    PubMed

    Castano, Jenny; Ospina, Jesús E; Caylà, Joan A; Greer, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    Austerity policies implemented in Spain in response to the ongoing economic crisis may have detrimental consequences for the health of immigrant populations and for public health in general. A mixed-methods study by the Public Health Agency of Barcelona and the University of Michigan indicates that the Real Decreto-ley 16/2012 (RDL) threatens the health of individuals and the population, especially in the case of infectious diseases. The study sought to determine the percentage of foreign-born persons with an infectious disease who had an Individual Health Card (IHC) prior to the RDL and to determine whether foreign-born persons with an infectious disease in Barcelona encountered problems accessing health care after the RDL. Results indicate that immigrants used the IHC to seek medical attention for infectious diseases and chronic conditions. Results also show that 66% of respondents, including 54% of unemployed respondents, 3% of respondents working without contracts, and those in informal employment (9%), may be at risk of losing at least part of their health coverage. Universal health care access in Spain has been crucial for the control of communicable diseases among immigrant populations. Reducing access to a significant percentage of the total population may have deleterious effects on public health. PMID:27076652

  3. Chronic pain and use of opioids: a population-based pharmacoepidemiological study from the Norwegian prescription database and the Nord-Trøndelag health study.

    PubMed

    Fredheim, Olav Magnus S; Mahic, Milada; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Dale, Ola; Romundstad, Pål; Borchgrevink, Petter C

    2014-07-01

    In previous studies on prescription patterns of opioids, accurate data on pain are missing, and previous epidemiological studies of pain lack accurate data on opioid use. The present linkage study, which investigates the relationship between pain and opioid use, is based on accurate individual data from the complete national Norwegian prescription database and the Nord-Trøndelag health study 3, which includes about 46,000 people. Baseline data were collected in 2006 to 2008, and the cohort was followed up for 3 years. Of 14,477 people who reported chronic nonmalignant pain, 85% did not use opioids at all, 3% used opioids persistently, and 12% used opioids occasionally. Even in the group reporting severe or very severe chronic pain, the number not using opioids (2680) was far higher than the number who used opioids persistently (304). However, three quarters of people using opioids persistently reported strong or very strong pain in spite of the medication. Risk factors for the people with chronic pain who were not persistent opioid users at baseline to use opioids persistently 3 years later were occasional use of opioids, prescription of >100 defined daily doses per year of benzodiazepines, physical inactivity, reports of strong pain intensity, and prescription of drugs from 8 or more Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical groups. The study showed that most people having chronic nonmalignant pain are not using opioids, even if the pain is strong or very strong. However, the vast majority of patients with persistent opioid use report strong or very strong pain in spite of opioid treatment. PMID:24637039

  4. Inequalities in mortality of men by oral and pharyngeal cancer in Barcelona, Spain and São Paulo, Brazil, 1995–2003

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Borrell, Carme; Pérez, Glòria; Boing, Antonio Fernando; Wünsch-Filho, Victor

    2008-01-01

    Background Large inequalities of mortality by most cancers in general, by mouth and pharynx cancer in particular, have been associated to behaviour and geopolitical factors. The assessment of socioeconomic covariates of cancer mortality may be relevant to a full comprehension of distal determinants of the disease, and to appraise opportune interventions. The objective of this study was to compare socioeconomic inequalities in male mortality by oral and pharyngeal cancer in two major cities of Europe and South America. Methods The official system of information on mortality provided data on deaths in each city; general censuses informed population data. Age-adjusted death rates by oral and pharyngeal cancer for men were independently assessed for neighbourhoods of Barcelona, Spain, and São Paulo, Brazil, from 1995 to 2003. Uniform methodological criteria instructed the comparative assessment of magnitude, trends and spatial distribution of mortality. General linear models assessed ecologic correlations between death rates and socioeconomic indices (unemployment, schooling levels and the human development index) at the inner-city area level. Results obtained for each city were subsequently compared. Results Mortality of men by oral and pharyngeal cancer ranked higher in Barcelona (9.45 yearly deaths per 100,000 male inhabitants) than in Spain and Europe as a whole; rates were on decrease. São Paulo presented a poorer profile, with higher magnitude (11.86) and stationary trend. The appraisal of ecologic correlations indicated an unequal and inequitably distributed burden of disease in both cities, with poorer areas tending to present higher mortality. Barcelona had a larger gradient of mortality than São Paulo, indicating a higher inequality of cancer deaths across its neighbourhoods. Conclusion The quantitative monitoring of inequalities in health may contribute to the formulation of redistributive policies aimed at the concurrent promotion of wellbeing and social

  5. Source apportionment of submicron organic aerosol at an urban background and a road site in Barcelona (Spain) during SAPUSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alier, M.; van Drooge, B. L.; Dall'Osto, M.; Querol, X.; Grimalt, J. O.; Tauler, R.

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the contribution of potential sources to the submicron (PM1) organic aerosol (OA) simultaneously detected at an urban background (UB) and a road site (RS) in Barcelona during the 30 days of the intensive field campaign of SAPUSS (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies, September-October 2010). A total of 103 filters at 12 h sampling time resolution were collected at both sites. Thirty-six neutral and polar organic compounds of known emission sources and photo-chemical transformation processes were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentrations of the trace chemical compounds analyzed are herein presented and discussed. Additionally, OA source apportionment was performed by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) and six OA components were identified at both sites: two were of primary anthropogenic OA origin and three of secondary OA origin, while a sixth one was not clearly defined. Primary organics from emissions of local anthropogenic activities (urban primary organic aerosol, or POA Urban), mainly traffic emissions but also cigarette smoke, contributed 43% (1.5 μg OC m-3) and 18% (0.4 μg OC m-3) to OA at RS and UB, respectively. A secondary primary source - biomass burning (BBOA) - was found in all the samples (average values 7% RS; 12% UB; 0.3 μg OC m-3), but this component was substantially contributing to OA only when the sampling sites were under influence of regional air mass circulation (REG.). Three secondary organic aerosol (SOA) components (describing overall 60% of the variance) were observed in the urban ambient PM1. Products of isoprene oxidation (SOA ISO) - i.e. 2-methylglyceric acid, C5 alkene triols and 2-methyltetrols - showed the highest abundance at both sites when the city was under influence of inland air masses. The overall concentrations of SOA ISO were similar at both sites (0.4 and 0.3 μg m-3, or 16% and 7%, at UB and RS, respectively

  6. Radiofrequency ablation versus resection for Barcelona clinic liver cancer very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhen-Xin; Xiang, Pu; Gong, Jian-Ping; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Aim To compare the long-term survival outcomes of radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2015), Embase (1974 to March 15, 2015), PubMed (1950 to March 15, 2015), Web of Science (1900 to March 15, 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to March 15, 2015) were searched to identify relevant trials. Only trials that compared radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early stage (≤2 cm) or early stage (≤3 cm) HCC according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system were considered for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates, and the secondary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates. Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform a cumulative meta-analysis. Possible publication bias was examined using a funnel plot. A random-effects model was applied to summarize the various outcomes. Results Six studies involving 947 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=528) to liver resection (n=419) for single BCLC very early HCC. In these six studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (risk ratio [RR] =0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83–0.98, P=0.01; RR =0.84, 95% CI: 0.75–0.95, P=0.004; RR =0.77, 95% CI: 0.60–0.98, P=0.04; and RR =0.70, 95% CI: 0.52–0.94, P=0.02, respectively). Ten studies involving 2,501 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=1,476) to liver resection (n=1,025) for single BCLC early HCC. In these ten studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were also significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (RR =0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0

  7. Personalized respiratory medicine: exploring the horizon, addressing the issues. Summary of a BRN-AJRCCM workshop held in Barcelona on June 12, 2014.

    PubMed

    Agustí, Alvar; Antó, Josep Maria; Auffray, Charles; Barbé, Ferran; Barreiro, Esther; Dorca, Jordi; Escarrabill, Joan; Faner, Rosa; Furlong, Laura I; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Gea, Joaquim; Lindmark, Bertil; Monsó, Eduard; Plaza, Vicente; Puhan, Milo A; Roca, Josep; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan; Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Sanz, Ferran; Serrano, Luis; Sharpe, James; Sibila, Oriol; Silverman, Edwin K; Sterk, Peter J; Sznajder, Jacob I

    2015-02-15

    This Pulmonary Perspective summarizes the content and main conclusions of an international workshop on personalized respiratory medicine coorganized by the Barcelona Respiratory Network ( www.brn.cat ) and the AJRCCM in June 2014. It discusses (1) its definition and historical, social, legal, and ethical aspects; (2) the view from different disciplines, including basic science, epidemiology, bioinformatics, and network/systems medicine; (3) the bottlenecks and opportunities identified by some currently ongoing projects; and (4) the implications for the individual, the healthcare system and the pharmaceutical industry. The authors hope that, although it is not a systematic review on the subject, this document can be a useful reference for researchers, clinicians, healthcare managers, policy-makers, and industry parties interested in personalized respiratory medicine. PMID:25531178

  8. Impact of Glucose-Lowering Agents on the Risk of Cancer in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. The Barcelona Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Simó, Rafael; Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Puente, Diana; Morros, Rosa; Mundet, Xavier; Vilca, Luz M.; Hernández, Cristina; Fuentes, Inmaculada; Procupet, Adriana; Tabernero, Josep M.; Violán, Concepción

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of glucose-lowering agents in the risk of cancer in a large type 2 diabetic population. Methods A nested case-control study was conducted within a defined cohort (275,164 type 2 diabetic patients attending 16 Primary Health Care Centers of Barcelona). Cases (n = 1,040) comprised those subjects with any cancer diagnosed between 2008 and 2010, registered at the Cancer Registry of Hospital Vall d'Hebron (Barcelona). Three control subjects for each case (n = 3,120) were matched by age, sex, diabetes duration, and geographical area. The treatments analyzed (within 3 years prior to cancer diagnosis) were: insulin glargine, insulin detemir, human insulin, fast-acting insulin and analogues, metformin, sulfonylureas, repaglinide, thiazolidinediones, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and alpha glucosidase inhibitors. Conditional logistic regressions were used to calculate the risk of cancer associated with the use of each drug adjusted by age, BMI, dose and duration of treatment, alcohol use, smoking habit, and diabetes duration. Results No differences were observed between case and control subjects for the proportion, dose or duration of exposure to each treatment. None of the types of insulin and oral agents analyzed showed a significant increase in the risk of cancer. Moreover, no cancer risk was observed when glargine was used alone or in combination with metformin. Conclusions Our results suggest that diabetes treatment does not influence the risk of cancer associated with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, an eventual increase of cancer should not be a reason for biasing the selection of any glucose-lowering treatment in type 2 diabetic population. PMID:24278227

  9. Indoor/outdoor relationships of quasi-ultrafine, accumulation and coarse mode particles in school environments in Barcelona: chemical composition and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, M.; Rivas, I.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Sunyer, J.; Álvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Bouso, L.; Sioutas, C.

    2013-12-01

    The mass concentration, chemical composition and sources of quasi-ultrafine (quasi-UFP, PM0.25), accumulation (PM0.25-2.5) and coarse mode (PM2.5-10) particles were determined in indoor and outdoor air at 39 schools in Barcelona (Spain). Quasi-UFP mass concentrations measured (25.6 μg m-3 outdoors, 23.4 μg m-3 indoors) are significantly higher than those reported in other studies, and characterised by higher carbonaceous and mineral matter contents and a lower proportion of secondary inorganic ions. Results suggest that quasi-UFPs in Barcelona are affected by local sources in the schools, mainly human activity (e.g. organic material from textiles, etc.; contributing 23-46% to total quasi-UFP mass) and playgrounds (in the form of mineral matter, contributing about 9% to the quasi-UFP mass). The particle size distribution of toxicologically relevant metals and major aerosol components was characterised, displaying bimodal size distributions for most elements and components, and a unimodal distribution for inorganic salts (ammonium nitrate and sulphate) and elemental carbon (EC). Regarding metals, Ni and Cr were partitioned mainly in quasi-UFPs and could thus be of interest for epidemiological studies, given their high redox properties. Children exposure to quasi-UFP mass and chemical species was assessed by comparing the concentrations measured at urban background and traffic areas schools. Finally, three main indoor sources across all size fractions were identified by assessing indoor/outdoor ratios (I/O) of PM species used as their tracers: human activity (organic material), cleaning products, paints and plastics (Cl- source), and a metallic mixed source (comprising combinations of Cu, Zn, Co, Cd, Pb, As, V and Cr).

  10. Éthique de la recherche en santé mondiale : la relation Nord-Sud, quel partenariat pour quelle justice sociale ?

    PubMed

    Godard, Béatrice; Hunt, Matthew; Moube, Zéphirin

    2014-03-01

    La recherche en santé mondiale s'inscrit dans une volonté de mobiliser des connaissances au service d'interventions et de politiques publiques pour l'atteinte équitable du bien-être commun, notamment en matière de santé. Elle joue un rôle primordial en ce sens, en favorisant l'implication des communautés et leur autonomisation et de nombreuses lignes directrices supportent un tel partenariat. Néanmoins, certains enjeux éthiques sont liés au financement de la recherche, aux environnements de recherche, à la priorisation des problématiques de recherche, aux mécanismes d'évaluation éthique posent souvent un problème de justice sociale au niveau de la redistribution des ressources et de la reconnaissance des différences culturelles. Comment alors déterminer quelle est la façon « idéale » d'agir en tenant compte de la globalité des individus et du pluralisme culturel des sociétés pour « bien faire », pour satisfaire l'exigence de l'équité? Une réflexion et une démarche éthique demeurent essentielles, ainsi qu'un dialogue entre les chercheurs du Nord et du Sud, et leurs autres partenaires que sont les décideurs, les responsables locaux et les communautés. Un tel dialogue, établi dans un continuum du développement de projets de recherche à leur pérennité, peut grandement contribuer à limiter les problèmes de justice sociale et à viser un développement plus égalitaire des savoirs scientifiques. Plusieurs chercheurs se sont déjà engagés dans cette voie, et leurs initiatives devraient être encouragées pour mettre les nouveaux savoirs au service des populations. PMID:24594489

  11. Geochemical survey and metal bioaccumulation of three bivalve species (Crassostrea gigas, Cerastoderma edule and Ruditapes philippinarum) in the Nord Medoc salt marshes (Gironde estuary, France).

    PubMed

    Baudrimont, M; Schäfer, J; Marie, V; Maury-Brachet, R; Bossy, C; Boudou, A; Blanc, G

    2005-01-20

    A 15-month experiment combining a geochemical survey of Cd, Cu, Zn and Hg with a bioaccumulation study for three filter-feeding bivalve species (oysters, Crassostrea gigas; cockles, Cerastoderma edule; and clams, Ruditapes philippinarum) was conducted in a breeding basin of the Nord Medoc salt marshes connected to the Gironde estuary, which is affected by historic polymetallic pollution. Regular manual surface measurements of temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved O(2) concentration and hourly multiprobe in situ measurements throughout several periods for 6-8 weeks were performed. The geochemical behavior of metals in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment and their ecotoxicological impact on the three bivalve species were evaluated by in situ exposure of juvenile oysters (water column) and adult cockles and clams (sediment surface). The physico-chemical parameters reflected seasonal variations and basin management. A distinct daily periodicity (except salinity) indicated intense photosynthesis and respiration. In summer, low dissolved O(2) saturations ( approximately 40-50%) occurred in the early morning at 30 cm above the sediment, whereas in depressions, the water column near the sediment surface was suboxic. Cadmium, Zn and Cu concentrations in suspended particulate matter exceeded typical estuarine values and were much higher than the homogeneously distributed concentrations in different depth ranges of the basin sediment. Particles collected in sediment traps showed intermediate metal concentrations close to sediment values. These results suggest trace metal recycling due to reductive dissolution under suboxic conditions at the sediment surface resulting in trace metal release to the water column and adsorption onto suspended particles. Dissolved Cd, Zn and Hg concentrations (e.g. 13-136 ng l(-1); 0.3-25.1 microg l(-1) and 0.5-2.0 ng l(-1), respectively) in the basin corresponded to the concentration range typically observed in the Gironde estuary

  12. Impact of harbour emissions on ambient PM10 and PM2.5 in Barcelona (Spain): Evidences of secondary aerosol formation within the urban area.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Noemí; Pey, Jorge; Reche, Cristina; Cortés, Joaquim; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2016-11-15

    With the objective of estimating the impact of harbour activities on ambient PM10 and PM2.5 levels at the urban area of Barcelona, a one year long monitoring campaign was carried out in the context of the European APICE project (MED-FEDER-EC). This campaign was simultaneously conducted at the port and a central urban background site. A detailed PM10 and PM2.5 chemical speciation analysis was carried out with samples from both sites. Subsequently, a source apportionment analysis by means of the PMF receptor model was performed. Six common factors were identified, explaining local to regional emission sources (fuel oil combustion, industrial emissions, mineral-road dust resuspension, and road traffic emissions) and aerosol formation/transformation processes (secondary aerosols including ammonium sulphate and organic aerosols, and a mixed source accounting for aged sea spray and secondary nitrate). Around 50-55% PM10 and PM2.5 measured at the port was attributed to harbour activities: mineral matter from road dust and construction works of a new port area, vehicle traffic and fuel oil combustion. The estimated contribution of harbour emissions to the urban background reached 9-12% for PM10 and 11-15% for PM2.5 and is linked to primary emissions from fuel oil combustion but also to the formation of secondary aerosols. It becomes relevant to highlight the significantly higher contribution of secondary aerosols at the urban background when compared with the harbour site. Our hypothesis points to the fast formation of secondary ammonium sulphate within the city, after the reaction of SO2/H2SO4 transported by sea breezes with NH3, which is emitted in large amounts in Barcelona; and also to the enhanced formation of secondary organic aerosols within the city. This study broadens our knowledge on atmospheric phenomenology in urban Mediterranean cities and claims for effective abatement strategies focused on maritime practises, in agreement with the driving axis of the APICE

  13. NETWORK ANALYSIS OF PLAZA-STREET SYSTEM BASED ON THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF THE OLD CITY OF BARCELONA IN CONSIDERING THE RANGE OF WALKING DISTANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Sachiyo; Hato, Eiji

    In this study, we analyzed the network structure of the old city of Barcelona in considering the historical development of its plaza-street system. We proposed the index based on the betweenness centrality of street networks, which was calculated in subnetworks constituted within the range of walking distance, 250m, 500m and 1km. As a result, we got the distribution of centrality in each range which was explainable referred to historical development process. We found that the network was characterized by three types of streets, main streets formed in very early steps of the development in Middle Age which had high betweenness centrality in the range of 1km, streets of neighborhood in the range of 250m and links between districts in the range of 500m. Open spaces were located at the connection points of these streets and had the characteristics of hubs. Also we saw that new open spaces constructed in recent urban redevelopment were placed in the low centrality areas intended to make these areas transparent.

  14. Occurrence of emerging contaminants, priority substances (2008/105/CE) and heavy metals in treated wastewater and groundwater at Depurbaix facility (Barcelona, Spain).

    PubMed

    Teijon, Gloria; Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2010-08-01

    The presence of 170 pharmaceuticals, personal care products, priority substances according to the 2008/105EU Directive and four metals (Cd, Ni, Hg, Pb) have been investigated at the Llobregat delta, south of Barcelona (Spain). In the area, reclaimed water is destined to satisfy environmental uses, irrigation and the construction of a hydraulic barrier against seawater intrusion in the deep aquifer of the delta. A monitoring survey was undertaken of water samples from a tertiary wastewater treatment plant (Depurbaix), treated waste water with an additional treatment of ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and UV disinfection (WWATP, for the hydraulic barrier injection). Groundwater samples from the aquifer receiving recharge were also investigated. The pharmaceutical group of substances was detected in sampled waters at concentrations rarely exceeding a few microg/L, among the compounds Caffeine, Nicotine and Galaxolide (musk fragrance) were found to be present in more than 60% of the samples. Diuron was the only priority substance detected. The four metals were always present in a variable concentration. After the WWATP treatment the majority of analytes are removed from tertiary treated wastewater or their concentration is reduced below 0.1 microg/L. Monitoring revealed a widespread occurrence of analysed compounds in groundwater. Among them Codeine (analgesic), Ibuprofen (anti-inflammatory), Iopamidol, Iopromide (contrast agent) and Paraxanthine (metabolite of caffeine) have only been detected in groundwater, and are not present in water currently being injected in the deep aquifer. PMID:20593552

  15. Meeting report: present state of molecular genetics in clinical laboratories. Report on the VII European Symposium on Clinical Laboratory and In Vitro Diagnostic Industry in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Padró-Miquel, Ariadna; Candás-Estébanez, Beatriz

    2015-02-01

    The VII European Symposium of the Clinical Laboratory and In Vitro Diagnostic Industry, co-organized between the Catalan Association for Clinical Laboratory Sciences (ACCLC) and the Catalan Society of Biology, was held on May 28th-29th, 2013 in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) under the IFCC auspices and the IUPAC sponsorship. The subject of the present Symposium was "Molecular Genetics in the Clinical Laboratory" and began with an opening conference that was a stroll through the history of molecular genetics in the context of the clinical laboratory. The scientific program was structured in several 2-h length roundtables that dealt with the following topics: recent advances in molecular genetics for clinical microbiology, latest evidences and real applicability of pharmacogenetics in the clinical practice, quality assurance of a molecular genetics laboratory, and latest trends in prenatal genetic diagnosis. The aim of the Symposium was the discussion of the transformation that molecular genetics has generated on clinical laboratories in terms of organization, specialization, interpretation of results and fast technical and knowledge evolution. High-qualified professionals from several countries together with in-country experts formed the roundtables. Attendants participated actively in the debates, increasing the overall interest. PMID:25296673

  16. Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals Distinct Molecular Characteristics of Hepatitis B-Related Hepatocellular Carcinomas from Very Early to Advanced Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stages

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Kou, Yan-Bo; You, Hong-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Mei; Zheng, Kui-Yang; Tang, Ren-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)is the fifth most common malignancy associated with high mortality. One of the risk factors for HCC is chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The treatment strategy for the disease is dependent on the stage of HCC, and the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system is used in most HCC cases. However, the molecular characteristics of HBV-related HCC in different BCLC stages are still unknown. Using GSE14520 microarray data from HBV-related HCC cases with BCLC stages from 0 (very early stage) to C (advanced stage) in the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database, differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including common DEGs and unique DEGs in different BCLC stages, were identified. These DEGs were located on different chromosomes. The molecular functions and biology pathways of DEGs were identified by gene ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, and the interactome networks of DEGs were constructed using the NetVenn online tool. The results revealed that both common DEGs and stage-specific DEGs were associated with various molecular functions and were involved in special biological pathways. In addition, several hub genes were found in the interactome networks of DEGs. The identified DEGs and hub genes promote our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of HBV-related HCC through the different BCLC stages, and might be used as staging biomarkers or molecular targets for the treatment of HCC with HBV infection. PMID:27454179

  17. On the origin of water-soluble organic tracer compounds in fine aerosols in two cities: the case of Los Angeles and Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Alier, M; Osto, M Dall; Lin, Y-H; Surratt, J D; Tauler, R; Grimalt, J O; van Drooge, B L

    2014-10-01

    Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs), represented by anhydro-saccharides, dicarboxylic acids, and polyols, were analyzed by gas chromatography interfaced to mass spectrometry in extracts from 103 PM1 and 22 PM2.5 filter samples collected in an urban background and road site in Barcelona (Spain) and an urban background site in Los Angeles (USA), respectively, during 1-month intensive sampling campaigns in 2010. Both locations have similar Mediterranean climates, with relatively high solar radiation and frequent anti-cyclonic conditions, and are influenced by a complex mixture of emission sources. Multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares analyses were applied on the database in order to resolve differences and similarities in WSOC compositions in the studied sites. Five consistent clusters for the analyzed compounds were obtained, representing primary regional biomass burning organic carbon, three secondary organic components (aged SOC, isoprene SOC, and α-pinene SOC), and a less clear component, called urban oxygenated organic carbon. This last component is probably influenced by in situ urban activities, such as food cooking and traffic emissions and oxidation processes. PMID:24385187

  18. Surveillance and maintenance plan for Waste Area Groupings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for FY 1993--2002

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.; Jones, R.G.

    1992-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Area Grouping (WAG) Surveillance and Maintenance (S M) program was designed for the management of sites contaminated with radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals from the end of their operating life until final facility disposition or site stabilization in accordance with environmental regulations and good management practices. Program objectives include (1) S M of sites/facilities awaiting final disposition; (2) planning for safe and orderly final closure at each site/facility; and (3) implementing a program to accomplish final disposition in a safe, cost-effective, and timely manner.

  19. Surveillance and maintenance plan for Waste Area Groupings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for FY 1993--2002. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.; Jones, R.G.

    1992-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Area Grouping (WAG) Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) program was designed for the management of sites contaminated with radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals from the end of their operating life until final facility disposition or site stabilization in accordance with environmental regulations and good management practices. Program objectives include (1) S&M of sites/facilities awaiting final disposition; (2) planning for safe and orderly final closure at each site/facility; and (3) implementing a program to accomplish final disposition in a safe, cost-effective, and timely manner.

  20. Knowledge and attitudes of primary health care physicians and nurses with regard to population screening for colorectal cancer in Balearic Islands and Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Primary health care (PHC) professionals play a key role in population screening of colorectal cancer. The purposes of the study are: to assess knowledge and attitudes among PHC professionals with regard to colorectal cancer screening, as well as the factors that determine their support for such screening. Methods Questionnaire-based survey of PHC physicians and nurses in the Balearic Islands and in a part of the metropolitan area of Barcelona. Results We collected 1,219 questionnaires. About 84% of all professionals believe that screening for colorectal cancer by fecal occult blood test (FOBT) is effective. Around 68% would recommend to their clients a colorectal cancer screening program based on FOBT and colonoscopy. About 31% are reluctant or do not know. Professionals perceive the fear of undergoing a colonoscopy as the main obstacle in getting patients to participate, and the invasive nature of this test is the main reason behind their resistance to this program. The main barriers to support the screening program among PHC professionals are lack of knowledge (nurses) and lack of time (physicians). On multivariate analysis, the factors associated with reluctance to recommend colorectal cancer screening were: believing that FOBT has poor sensitivity and is complicated; that colonoscopy is an invasive procedure; that a lack of perceived benefit could discourage client participation; that only a minority of clients would participate; thinking that clients are fed up with screening tests and being unaware if they should be offered something to ensure their participation in the programme. Conclusions Two in every three PHC professionals would support a population screening program for colorectal cancer screening. Factors associated with reluctance to recommend it were related with screening tests characteristics as sensitivity and complexity of FOBT, and also invasive feature of colonoscopy. Other factors were related with patients' believes. PMID:20854679

  1. Analysis of ethyl sulfate in raw wastewater for estimation of alcohol consumption and its correlation with drugs of abuse in the city of Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Nicola; Lopez de Alda, Miren; Barcelo, Damia

    2014-09-19

    The increasing, generalized consumption of alcohol, especially among young people, generates great concern in our society due to its negative consequences on public health and safety. Besides the traditional, official methods employed for estimation of alcohol consumption, the monitoring of ethyl sulfate (EtS), a urinary biomarker of alcohol ingestion, in raw wastewater has been recently proposed as an additional tool to estimate alcohol use at community level through the so-called sewage epidemiology approach. In the presented study, a fast and reliable analytical method based on ion-pair liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been optimized and further applied to the analysis of EtS in seven 24h composite samples collected along one week at the inlet of a large sewage treatment plant (STP) located in the Barcelona area. EtS was measured in the entire set of analysed samples, with concentrations ranging from 5.5 to 33μg/L, which correspond to an absolute alcohol consumption of around 11,000 (Wednesday) to 25,000 (Sunday) kg/day. The average per capita absolute alcohol consumption calculated was 18mL/day/inhabitant. Moreover, the levels of EtS measured throughout the week showed high correlation with those of some recreational illicit drugs and metabolites, namely, cocaethylene (r(2)=0.9391, n=5), benzoylecgonine (r(2)=0.9252, n=7), ecstasy (r(2)=0.8950, n=7), amphetamine (r(2)=0.8707, n=7) and cocaine (r(2)=0.6425, n=7), measured in the same samples. This study confirms that the analysis of EtS in raw wastewater can be a useful tool for the estimation of alcohol consumption in an anonymous, fast and economic way, and indicates that consumption of alcohol and some illicit drugs occurs often together. PMID:25103281

  2. Comprehensive monitoring of the occurrence of 22 drugs of abuse and transformation products in airborne particulate matter in the city of Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Nicola; Postigo, Cristina; López de Alda, Miren; Viana, Mar; Rodríguez, Aureli; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Barceló, Damià

    2015-11-01

    In recent years monitoring the presence of psychotropic compounds in wastewater has been proposed as a tool to estimate community drug use. Measurement of drugs of abuse (DAs) in airborne particulate is currently being explored as an additional tool to evaluate drug use patterns in time and space, and identify potential emission sources. In this study, we comprehensively monitor the occurrence of 22 licit and illicit DAs and transformation products, belonging to 6 different chemical groups, in airborne particulate matter (PM10) in the city of Barcelona. In order to study spatial and temporal variations, samples were collected from 12 different selected locations on one weekday (Wednesday) and one weekend day (Saturday), during five consecutive weeks. A previously developed analytical methodology, based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination, was adapted for analysis of the target compounds with satisfactory performance, ensuring reliability of results. Among the investigated compounds, cannabinol (CBN), cocaine (COC), and methamphetamine (MA) were found to be the most ubiquitous and abundant compounds in PM10 with concentrations ranging from 0.7pg/m(3) (MA) to 6020pg/m(3) (CBN). Significant differences in total DA concentrations in PM10 were observed across sampling days and locations. DA emissions were identified in highly densely populated areas, where popular commercial and nightlife zones are located. Psychoactive effects due to inhalation of measured concentrations are probably negligible; however, potential health effects due to chronic exposure have not been explored yet. PMID:26081737

  3. Review of environmental exposure concentrations of chemical warfare agent residues and associated the fish community risk following the construction and completion of the Nord Stream gas pipeline between Russia and Germany.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Rahbek, Malene; Larsen, Jørn Bo

    2014-08-30

    This paper compiles all the measured chemical warfare agent (CWA) concentrations found in relation to the Nord Stream pipeline work in Danish waters for the past 5 years. Sediment and biota sampling were performed along the pipeline route in four campaigns, prior to (in 2008 and 2010), during (in 2011) and after (in 2012) the construction work. No parent CWAs were detected in the sediments. Patchy residues of CWA degradation products of Adamsite, Clark I, phenyldichloroarsine, trichloroarsine and Lewisite II, were detected in a total of 29 of the 391 sediment samples collected and analyzed the past 5 years. The cumulative fish community risk quotient for the different locations, calculated as a sum of background and added risk, ranged between 0 and 0.017 suggesting a negligible acute CWA risk toward the fish community. The added risk from sediment disturbance in relation to construction of the pipelines represents less than 2% of the total risk in the areas with the highest calculated risk. The analyses of benthic infauna corroborate the finding of CWA related low risk across the years. There was no significant difference in CWA risk before (2008) and after the pipeline construction (2012). PMID:25113514

  4. Épidémiologie descriptive de la brûlure dans un territoire de santé exemple du « territoire nord franche-comté » durant l’année 2014

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, J.L.; Bitar, M.P.; Marx, T.; Macher, J.M.; Desmettre, T.; Ravat, F.; Labourey, J.M.; Capellier, G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cette étude est une analyse épidémiologique rétrospective du recours aux services de santé du nord de la Franche-Comté en raison d’une brûlure durant l’année 2014 (114 patients). L’âge moyen était de 26 ans (8 mois-81 ans), 1/3 des brûlures ont touché des enfants de moins de 15 ans. Les brûlures, plus fréquentes l’été, surviennent principalement autour de l’heure des repas, les jours « sans école », à domicile, avec un liquide chaud. Elles sont peu étendues (4,81% de la SCT) et souvent superficielles. Elles nécessitent un passage dans un Service d’Accueil des Urgences dans 88,59% des cas, suivi d’un transfert en CTB (Lyon plus que Nancy ou Metz) dans 12,28% des cas. PMID:27252605

  5. [Trichinae, pigs and veterinary public health: The introduction of the microscopic world into the scientific basis for meat inspection (Barcelona, 1870s)].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez García, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    During the second half of the 19th century, Spanish authorities began developing specific programs on the safety of certain foods intended for human consumption. This paper analyses the key features that gave rise to the inclusion of the veterinarian in the administrative structure responsible for safeguarding public health. Among the aspects covered, special focus is put on the relationship between human and animal medicine at a time when growing public alarm in relation to certain zoonoses contributed to shaping the notion of veterinary public health. The appearance of a disease in pigs that was transmissible through the consumption of parasitized meat set the scene for veterinary inspection to be associated with the protection of public health. The outbreaks of trichinosis all over Spain in the 1870's proved the existence of contagium animatum in a pre-bacteriology era, and this led to the introduction of improvements in food inspection. In this sense, microscopic examination of pork products encouraged the modernization of inspection tasks undertaken by veterinarians, which had previously focused on the organoleptic evaluation of meat and fish and on unveiling fraud. The introduction of microscopes was widely accepted and established a watershed between acceptable and unacceptable methods of carrying out the examination of meat. Furthermore, this "technological" method of diagnosis brought veterinary medicine closer to other more prestigious health professions, at least in theory. Among other aspects, the acceptance of trichinae as an exogenous cause of disease contributed to 19th century doctors learning about the idea of pathogenic microorganisms from veterinarians. At a social level, the use of the microscope was seen as a way of preventing the transmission to people of an animal disease that was very much in the public eye at the time. From the political point of view, the process -analysed in this paper from the perspective of veterinarians in Barcelona

  6. ISSOL Meeting, Barcelona, Spain, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, James P. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Topics in a conference on the origins of life and the evolution of the biosphere include the origin of chirality, prebiotic chemistry of small biomolecules, primitive polymer formation, RNA regulation and control. Early origins of life and the ecology of hydrothermal systems such as ocean floor vents and their simple organisms are examined. The process of mineral catalysis in Montmorillonite as a model for early metabolism is used. The origin of the genetic code and the development of branching in molecular structures of amino acids is described. Studies are reported of the effects of meteorite impact on early Earth life.

  7. Implementation and Operational Research: Programmatic Feasibility of Dried Blood Spots for the Virological Follow-up of Patients on Antiretroviral Treatment in Nord Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Laetitia; Muwonga, Jeremie; Kabuayi, Jean Pierre; Kambale, Alain; Mutaka, Fidèle; Fujiwara, Paula I.; Decosas, Josef; Peeters, Martine; Delaporte, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: As part of its policy to shift monitoring of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to primary health care (PHC) workers, the Ministry of Health of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) tested the feasibility of using dried blood spots (DBS) for viral load (VL) quantification and genotypic drug resistance testing in off-site high-throughput laboratories. Methods: DBS samples from adults on ART were collected in 13 decentralized PHC facilities in the Nord-Kivu province and shipped during program quarterly supervision to a reference laboratory 2000 km away, where VL was quantified with a commercial assay (m2000rt, Abbott). A second DBS was sent to a World Health Organization (WHO)-accredited laboratory for repeat VL quantification on a subset of samples with a generic assay (Biocentric) and genotypic drug resistance testing when VL >1000 copies per milliliter. Findings: Constraints arose because of an interruption in national laboratory funding rather than to technical or logistic problems. All samples were assessed by both VL assays to allow ART adjustment. Median DBS turnaround time was 37 days (interquartile range: 9–59). Assays performed unequally with DBS, impacting clinical decisions, quality assurance, and overall cost-effectiveness. Based on m2000rt or generic assay, 31.3% of patients were on virological failure (VF) and 14.8% presented resistance mutations versus 50.3% and 15.4%, respectively. Conclusion: This study confirms that current technologies involving DBS make virological monitoring of ART possible at PHC level, including in challenging environments, provided organizational issues are addressed. Adequate core funding of HIV laboratories and adapted choice of VL assays require urgent attention to control resistance to ART as coverage expands. PMID:26413848

  8. Non-Smoking Tobacco Affects Endothelial Function in Healthy Men in One of the Largest Health Studies Ever Performed; The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study in Norway; HUNT3

    PubMed Central

    Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Ellingsen, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral tobacco (snuff) is taking a large market share in Scandinavia, especially with young users. However, long-term health effects are unknown. Small studies show association between snuff and reduced endothelial function, representing an early stage of vascular injury that often precedes manifest cardiovascular disease by several years. We therefore determined the associations between snuff and endothelial function in a large sample of healthy Norwegian men. Methods and Design In the Fitness substudy of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3), endothelial function was measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Aerobic fitness was measured by peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). A cross-sectional design including 1 592 self-reported healthy men compared these observations with records of present tobacco use, standard cardiovascular risk factors, and socioeconomic status, using general linear models. Results FMD was lower in snuff users (FMD: 4.12%, 3.63, 4.61) compared to non-users (FMD: 4.52%, 4.27, 4.78) after adjustment for age (difference: -0.57%, -1.12, -0.01). After further adjustment for potential confounders, FMD still tended to be lower in snuff users than in non-users (difference: -0.53%, -1.09, 0.02). This difference was even more pronounced in the inactive snuff users (-0.83%, -1.59, -0.06) and in the low fit snuff users (-0.74%, CI -0.55, 0.079). Conclusions Oral tobacco is associated with a tendency towards reduced endothelial function, indicating vascular changes that precede cardiovascular disease. The strongest associations were found in men with low physical activity or reduced aerobic fitness. PMID:27490361

  9. Pedogeochemical mapping of Al, Ba, Pb, Ti and V in soils of the Barcelona Province (Catalonia, NE Spain): relationships with soil physico-chemical properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, J.; Reverter, F.; Tume, P.; Sokolowska, M.; Sanchez, P.; Longan, L.; Bech, J.; Zhiyanski, M.; Lansac, A.; Oliver, M. T.

    2009-04-01

    Pedogeochemical mapping is a useful tool for estimating the local background of potentially toxic elements (PTE), wich is essential for environmental regulation. The aim of this study is to estimate the levels and distribution of Al, Ba, Pb, Ti and V in surface soils of the Barcelona province (Catalonia, NE Spain) and their relationships with administrative-geographic districts, texture, pH, organic carbon and CaCO3. The studied region has a surface area of 7731 Km2. The geology is varied: granites and Paleozoic shales predominate in SE-E. and Mesozoic and Cenozoic limestones, dolomites, marlstones, gypsum and sandstones in the remainder of the studied area. 319 top soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected at 5 km intervals on a regular grid, dried and sieved (2mm). General soil properties were analysed by standard methods. Aqua regia digests (DIN 38414-S7) of Al, Ba, Pb, Ti and V were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry. Statistical data treatment was carried out using SPSS 12.0 and Statgraphics Plus 5.1. We applied Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) techniques to statistically describe the data. The software used for mapping was ESRI's Arc Wiew 9.0, Desktop version. Analytical data is represented using growing dot maps. The values of every mapped variable were grouped into a few cartographic classes in order to produce limited legends. The limits for the cartographic classes were chosen by the percentile method (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 98th). Some results are: Al mg kg-1min 4410.0, max 194786.0, mean 18145.6, sd 12112.1, med 16273.3 ; Ba mgkg-1min 7.32, max 1709.0, mean 128.4, sd 149.2, med 91.7; Pb mg kg-1min 2.76, max 485.7, mean 52.2, sd 46.3, med 46.0; Ti mg kg-1min 11.6, max 3540.0, mean 268.0, sd 421.6, med 132.2, and V mg kg-1min 2.15, max 289.2, mean 31.4, sd 25.7, med 26.0. . The highest mean value of Ba (328mkg-1), Pb (139.6 mgkg-1) and V (54.7 mgkg-1) corresponds to the Barcelonés district with mainly urban soils. The Al contents

  10. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms as Predictors of All-Cause Mortality among People with Insulin-Naïve Type 2 Diabetes: 17-Year Follow-Up of the Second Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT2), Norway

    PubMed Central

    Nefs, Giesje; Tell, Grethe S.; Espehaug, Birgitte; Midthjell, Kristian; Graue, Marit; Pouwer, Frans

    2016-01-01

    Aim To examine whether elevated anxiety and/or depressive symptoms are related to all-cause mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes, not using insulin. Methods 948 participants in the community-wide Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey conducted during 1995–97 completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale with subscales of anxiety (HADS-A) and depression (HADS-D). Elevated symptoms were defined as HADS-A or HADS-D ≥8. Participants with type 2 diabetes, not using insulin, were followed until November 21, 2012 or death. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate associations between baseline elevated anxiety symptoms, elevated depressive symptoms and mortality, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, HbA1c, cardiovascular disease and microvascular complications. Results At baseline, 8% (n = 77/948) reported elevated anxiety symptoms, 9% (n = 87/948) elevated depressive symptoms and 10% (n = 93/948) reported both. After a mean follow-up of 12 years (SD 5.1, range 0–17), 541 participants (57%) had died. Participants with elevated anxiety symptoms only had a decreased mortality risk (unadjusted HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46–0.96). Adjustment for HbA1c attenuated this relation (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.50–1.07). Those with elevated depression symptoms alone had an increased mortality risk (fully adjusted model HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05–1.84). Having both elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms was not associated with increased mortality risk (adjusted HR 1.30, 95% CI 0.96–1.74). Conclusions Elevated depressive symptoms were associated with excess mortality risk in people with Type 2 diabetes not using insulin. No significant association with mortality was found among people with elevated anxiety symptoms. Having both elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms was not associated with mortality. The hypothesis that elevated levels of anxiety symptoms leads to behavior that counteracts the adverse health effects of Type 2 diabetes needs further investigation. PMID:27537359

  11. Etude des connaissances, attitudes et pratiques en matière de réintégration sociale des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricale: région de l'Extrême-nord, Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sanou Sobze; Adogaye, Sali Ben Béchir; Rodrigue, Mabvouna Biguioh; Maurice, Douryang; Vivaldi, Teikeu Tessa Vladimir; Amede, Saah Fopa Michael; Marie, Ovaga Eyenga Landry; Meriam, Ausseil Sandra; Colizzi, Vittorio; Gianluca, Russo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La fistule obstétricale est un orifice entre le vagin et la vessie ou le rectum, voire les deux. Ses impacts sont des conséquences anatomo-fonctionnelles et sociales. On estime à plus de 19 000 le nombre de femmes qui souffrent de fistule obstétricale au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale descriptive conduite dans trois districts de santé de la région de l'Extrême-nord. Vingt-huit femmes victimes de fistules obstétricales, quarante-deux membres de leur entourage et vingt-quatre agents de santé ont été interviewés entre Novembre et Décembre 2013. Trois types de questionnaires ont été utilisés. Les données ont été analysées dans Epi Info version 7.1.4.0. Les moyennes et les fréquences ont été calculées avec un intervalle de confiance à 95%. Résultats 46,4% des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricales interviewées avaient subi une intervention chirurgicale réparatrice parmi lesquelles, 61,5% bénéficiaient de la réintégration. Le fonds de commerce (62,5%) était l'aide la plus reçue. Vingt-deux membres de l'entourage savaient pourquoi on fait la réintégration. Selon eux, les considérations socioculturelles (68,2%), sont la principale barrière de la réintégration. D'après les agents de santé, le suivi psychosocial (58,3%) est la principale activité de la réintégration dans les centres de prise en charge de la fistule. Conclusion La prise en charge des fistules obstétricales au Cameroun souffre de manque de réintégration sociale. Ceci expliquerait en partie la persistance de cette pathologie. Un accent devrait être mis sur l'appui matériel, financier et sur le suivi psychosocial des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricale. PMID:26113915

  12. Trends in Transmission of Drug Resistance and Prevalence of Non-B Subtypes in Patients with Acute or Recent HIV-1 Infection in Barcelona in the Last 16 Years (1997-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, David; Parera, Marta; López-Diéguez, María; Romero, Anabel; Agüero, Fernando; Marcos, María Ángeles; Manzardo, Christian; Zamora, Laura; Gómez-Carrillo, Manuel; Gatell, José María; Pumarola, Tomás; Miró, José María

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and non-B subtypes in patients with acute/recent HIV-1 infection in Barcelona during the period 1997-2012. Methods Patients from the “Hospital Clínic Primary HIV-1 Infection Cohort” with a genotyping test performed within 180 days of infection were included. The 2009 WHO List of Mutations for Surveillance of Transmitted HIV-1 Drug Resistance was used for estimating the prevalence of TDR and phylogenetic analysis for subtype determination. Results 189 patients with acute/recent HIV-1 infection were analyzed in 4 time periods (1997-2000, n=28; 2001-4, n=42; 2005-8, n=55 and 2009-12, n=64). The proportion of patients with acute/recent HIV-1 infection with respect to the total of newly HIV-diagnosed patients in our center increased over the time and was 2.18%, 3.82%, 4.15% and 4.55% for the 4 periods, respectively (p=0.005). The global prevalence of TDR was 9%, or 17.9%, 9.5%, 3.6% and 9.4% by study period (p=0.2). The increase in the last period was driven by protease-inhibitor and nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor resistance mutations while non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase inhibitor TDR and TDR of more than one family decreased. The overall prevalence of non-B subtypes was 11.1%, or 0%, 4.8%, 9.1% and 20.3 by study period (p=0.01). B/F recombinants, B/G recombinants and subtype F emerged in the last period. We also noticed an increase in the number of immigrant patients (p=0.052). The proportion of men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) among patients with acute/recent HIV-1 infection increased over the time (p=0.04). Conclusions The overall prevalence of TDR in patients with acute/recent HIV-1 infection in Barcelona was 9%, and it has stayed relatively stable in recent years. Non-B subtypes and immigrants proportions progressively increased. PMID:26039689

  13. Education et Developpement au Moyen-Nord.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charbonneau, Yvon

    Humans, not things, are of primary importance when talking of development. All over the world, two separate, contradictory types of development may be seen: the first, centered on man, the second, on wealth. One of the ways in which man can gain control over his own future is through the school. It is essential to find out which type of…

  14. The Effectiveness of Multiple Electrode Radiofrequency Ablation in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Lesions More than 3 cm in Size and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stage A to B2

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chen-Chun; Cheng, Ya-Ting; Chen M, Wei-Ting; Lin, Shi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lesions >3.0 cm in size including Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with a single electrode remain unsatisfactory. This study aimed to investigate the outcomes of RFA with multiple electrodes (ME-RFA) for HCC tumors 3.1-7.0 cm in size and BCLC stage B. This retrospective study included 70 consecutive patients with 58 medium- (3.1-5.0 cm) and 17 large- (5.1-7.0 cm) sized HCCs after ME-RFA using a controller. Outcomes in terms of complete response, primary technique effectiveness, local tumor progression, and overall survival were investigated. After 1-4 applications of ME-RFA, the rates of complete response and PTE in medium-sized tumors were 79.3% and 91.4%, respectively, and in large tumors were 76.5% and 94.1%, respectively. Overall, the major complication rate was 5.7%. After a median 21-month follow-up period, both two- and three-year estimated overall survival rates were above 80%. There were no significant differences in overall survival and local tumor progression rates between medium- and large-size tumors and among BCLC stages A, B1 and B2. A complete response to ME-RFA was the only significant factor associated with improved survival (p=0.008). In conclusion, ME-RFA can effectively treat 3.1-7.0-cm sized HCCs with a comparable outcome between medium- and large-size tumors and among BCLA stages A to B2. PMID:26989656

  15. Pollen-inferred quantitative reconstructions of Holocene land-cover in NW Europe for the evaluation of past climate-vegetation feedbacks - The Swedish LANDCLIM project and the NordForsk LANDCLIM network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, Marie-Jose; Sugita, Shinya; Rundgren, Mats; Smith, Benjamin; Mazier, Florence; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Fyfe, Ralph; Kokfelt, Ulla; Nielsen, Anne-Birgitte; Strandberg, Gustav

    2010-05-01

    Reliable predictive models are needed to describe potential future climate changes and their impacts. Land surface-atmosphere feedbacks and their impacts on climate are a current priority in the climate modelling community, but reliable records of long-term land use and vegetation change required for model evaluation are limited. Palaeoecological and palaeo-climatic data provide a unique record of the past changes in vegetation, land use and climate on time scales relevant to vegetation processes and global change projections. The application of a new technique (the REVEALS model (Sugita 2007) to landscape reconstruction using fossil pollen data makes robust comparisons with vegetation model output possible . The model corrects for biases caused by e.g. inter-taxonomic differences in pollen productivity and dispersal. Our results show that pollen percentages, a traditional indicator of land cover changes, generally underestimate the unforested areas and certain broad-leaved trees such as Corylus and Tilia, while they often overestimate Betula and Pinus (see Cui et al. BG 6.2). Climate models use simplified land-surface classifications (plant functional types (PFTs)), such as grass (i.e. open land), deciduous trees, and conifers. Therefore, the observed large discrepancies in past land cover between the REVEALS estimates and pollen percentages are expected to influence model outcomes of the Holocene regional climate in NW Europe. The LANDCLIM project and research network (sponsored by the Swedish [VR] and Nordic [NordForsk] Research Councils) aim to quantify human-induced changes in regional vegetation/land-cover in NW Europe during the Holocene, and to evaluate the effects of these changes on the regional climate through altered feedbacks. We use the REVEALS model, theoretically derived and empirically tested, to estimate the percentage cover of taxa and groups of taxa (PFTs) from fossil pollen data for selected time windows of the Holocene, at a spatial resolution

  16. Occurrence and implications of methyl tert-butyl ether and gasoline hydrocarbons in ground water and source water in the United States and in drinking water in 12 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic States, 1993-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Michael J.; Zogorski, John S.; Squillace, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence and implications of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and gasoline hydrocarbons were examined in three surveys of water quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey?one national-scale survey of ground water, one national-scale survey of source water from ground water, and one regional-scale survey of drinking water from ground water. The overall detection frequency of MTBE in all three surveys was similar to the detection frequencies of some other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have much longer production and use histories in the United States. The detection frequency of MTBE was higher in drinking water and lower in source water and ground water. However, when the data for ground water and source water were limited to the same geographic extent as drinking-water data, the detection frequencies of MTBE were comparable to the detection frequency of MTBE in drinking water. In all three surveys, the detection frequency of any gasoline hydrocarbon was less than the detection frequency of MTBE. No concentration of MTBE in source water exceeded the lower limit of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Drinking-Water Advisory of 20 ?g/L (micrograms per liter). One concentration of MTBE in ground water exceeded 20 ?g/L, and 0.9 percent of drinking-water samples exceeded 20 ?g/L. The overall detection frequency of MTBE relative to other widely used VOCs indicates that MTBE is an important concern with respect to ground-water management. The probability of detecting MTBE was strongly associated with population density, use of MTBE in gasoline, and recharge, and weakly associated with density of leaking underground storage tanks, soil permeability, and aquifer consolidation. Only concentrations of MTBE above 0.5 ?g/L were associated with dissolved oxygen. Ground water underlying areas with high population density, ground water underlying areas where MTBE is used as a gasoline oxygenate, and ground water underlying areas with high recharge has a greater probability of MTBE contamination. Ground water from public-supply wells and shallow ground water underlying urban land-use areas has a greater probability of MTBE contamination compared to ground water from domestic wells and ground water underlying rural land-use areas.

  17. Impacts potentiels d'un changement climatique sur le pergelisol dans le nord canadien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obretin, Calin

    This thesis explores the potential impacts of a climate change due to the greenhouse gases on the state and the evolution of the permafrost in the Canadian North. The permafrost represents the half of the Canadian national territory and a change of its current state will echo in all spheres of activity, on the biosphere and on the environment generally. In spite of the evident importance of the subject, there is no precise idea as to how the permafrost will react to the climate change and to what extent the frozen layer will be disrupted. This thesis investigates this problem by using a methodological approach inspired by the Canadian model on the evolution of permafrost (TTOP) coupled with a theoretical approach based on the theory of the complex neuronal systems. The general objective of this thesis is to improve the Canadian model of evolution of permafrost (TTOP-Temperature one the Top Of Permafrost) created by Smith and Riseborough in 1996, its structure of computation, spatial resolution and to determine the state of the permafrost in the study area between 2010 and 2100. The study zone is situated in the Mackenzie Basin (N-W.T) on a north-south transect of 1440 by 720 km. The first objective of the research is to derive maps of the annual values of temperature on the top of the permafrost from 2010 to 2100 by using an improved dynamic model of the evolution of permafrost (TTOP-A). Thereafter, these values are compared with those obtained by Smith and Riseborough (1996). The values of the evolution of air temperature for this period are supplied by the climatic scenarios CGCM32 SRES A1B, CGCM3 SRES A2 and CGCM3 SRES B1. Secondly, this thesis has as an objective the production of the maps of the thickness of permafrost for 2100 with a spatial resolution of 25 km. More exactly, we determine the evolution of the values of thickness of permafrost for the three climatic scenarios mentioned above. Furthermore, the study proposes: i) a new method for downscaling of climate data by using a Determined Stochastic Model, ii) the integration of soil type, iii) the integration of the soil humidity, iv) the integration of the values of thickness of the snow layer and v) the integration of remote sensing data (SSM/I). As a rule, the results obtained by the TTOP-A model reveal that the mean values of temperature at the surface of the permafrost follow closely the values of air temperature and that they are similar to those found by Smith and Riseborough (1996) and Heginbottom and coll. (1995). Also, the differences of the values of temperature on the surface of permafrost between 2010 and 2100 are similar to the values published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Concerning the second objective of this thesis, the spatio-temporal dynamics of the permafrost until 2100 demonstrates that, in the study zone, the surface perturbed by global warming will be 37 %, 60 % and 29 % according to the scenarios CGCM3 SRES A1B, CGCM3 SRES A2 and CGCM3 SRES B1 respectively. The permafrost layer inside this zone will disappear by 20 %, 32 % and 18 % according to the scenarios mentioned before. These results lead us to believe that the estimations made by Smith and Riseborough were overvalued in the context of two of three current climates scenarios compared to that of the 1996. Finally, this study demonstrates that the method of downscaling of climate data using the neuronal network within a Determined Stochastic Model gives good results and it represents a reliable option which lends itself to large-scale generalizations. Keywords: permafrost, downscaling, snow, soil humidity, climate scenarios, neuronal network, Determined Stochastic Model, climate change, CGCM3, TTOP. 2The third generation Coupled Global Climate Model [CCCma, 2010].

  18. Principales lignes structurales du Maroc nord-oriental : apport de la gravimétrie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennouf, Touria; Khattach, Driss; Milhi, Abdellah; Andrieux, Pierre; Keating, Pierre

    2007-05-01

    The present work is based on various filtered maps (horizontal derivative, upward continuation) and Euler deconvolution of the gravity data from northeastern Morocco. These results allow the delineation of many geological structures, such as faults, basins, or diapirs. Some of these structures are hidden totally or partially by the Mesozoic and Cenozoic cover. The results were used to make a structural map of the study area; this map confirms the existence of several faults, localised or inferred, from former geological studies. It complements information on some of them and outlines a great number of deep or near-surface faults that had remained unknown until the present time. The major features show two principal directions: N080°-085° and N055°-065°, with a predominance of the latter, and their depth can reach 4500 m. The N080°-085° directions correspond to the Kebdana, Sidi Bouhouria, Naima, and Guefait faults, and the N055°-065° directions correspond to a fault parallel to the Mediterranean coast and the Moulouya, Madagh, Angad, and Zekkara faults.

  19. [Epidemiology of atherogenic dyslipidemia in an urban area of the city of Barcelona].

    PubMed

    Caballero Sarmiento, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    We performed a descriptive cross-sectional epidemiological study data on lipid profile and blood glucose of sample collected in 2021 consecutive and anonymous patients. We calculated the prevalence of atherogenic dyslipidemia by sex, according to several cutoff HDL cholesterol in women, and in the whole sample, and its association with diabetes. There is in the study selection bias, as it is performed in patients attending in a Primary Care Laboratory and not in a sample of the general population. Prevalence epidemiological data are therefore approximate and provisional. PMID:24365578

  20. Screening for Imported Diseases in an Immigrant Population: Experience from a Teaching Hospital in Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Bocanegra, Cristina; Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Pahissa, Albert; Molina, Israel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the screening for imported diseases among an immigrant population. This retrospective observational study was of all adult immigrants attended at the Tropical Medicine Unit of the Vall d'Hebron Teaching Hospital from September of 2007 to March of 2010. The screening strategy was adjusted by symptoms, country of origin, and length of residence in Europe. Overall, 927 patients were included. The median age was 34.5 years, and 42.1% of patients were male. A diagnosis was made in 419 (45.2%) patients. The most frequent diagnoses were Chagas disease, anemia, latent tuberculosis infection, intestinal parasitosis, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. After screening, more diseases were identified in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa (new diagnoses in 56.6% of patients) than patients from other geographic areas. The geographic origin and length of residence in a developed country determine the prevalence of diseases; hence, screening protocols must be based on this information. PMID:25331805

  1. The Neandertals of northeastern Iberia: new remains from the Cova del Gegant (Sitges, Barcelona).

    PubMed

    Quam, Rolf; Sanz, Montserrat; Daura, Joan; Robson Brown, Kate; García-González, Rebeca; Rodríguez, Laura; Dawson, Heidi; Rodríguez, Rosa Flor; Gómez, Sandra; Villaescusa, Lucía; Rubio, Ángel; Yagüe, Almudena; Ortega Martínez, María Cruz; Fullola, Josep Maria; Zilhão, João; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-04-01

    The present study describes a new juvenile hominin mandible and teeth and a new juvenile humerus from level V of the GP2 gallery of Cova del Gegant (Spain). The mandible (Gegant-5) preserves a portion of the right mandibular corpus from the M1 distally to the socket for the dc mesially, and the age at death is estimated as 4.5-5.0 years. Gegant-5 shows a single mental foramen located under the dm1/dm2 interdental septum, a relatively posterior placement compared with recent hominins of a similar developmental age. The mental foramen in Gegant-5 is also placed within the lower half of the mandibular corpus, as in the previously described late adolescent/adult mandible (Gegant-1) from this same Middle Paleolithic site. The Gegant-5 canine shows pronounced marginal ridges, a distal accessory ridge, and a pronounced distolingual tubercle. The P3 shows a lingually-displaced protoconid cusp tip and a distal accessory ridge. The P4 shows a slightly asymmetrical crown outline, a continuous transverse crest, a mesially placed metaconid cusp tip, a slight distal accessory ridge, and an accessory lingual cusp. The M1 shows a Y5 pattern of cusp contact and a well-developed and deep anterior fovea bounded posteriorly by a continuous midtrigonid crest. Gegant-4 is the distal portion of a left humerus from a juvenile estimated to be between 5 and 7 years old at death. The specimen shows thick cortical bone. Although fragmentary, the constellation of morphological and metric features indicates Neandertal affinities for these specimens. Their spatial proximity at the site and similar ages at death suggest these remains may represent a single individual. The addition of these new specimens brings the total number of Neandertal remains from the Cova del Gegant to five, and this site documents the clearest evidence for Neandertal fossils associated with Middle Paleolithic stone tools in this region of the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:25766902

  2. Exploring Links between Empowerment and Community-Based Arts and Cultural Practices: Perspectives from Barcelona Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrasco, Ruben David Fernández; Monferrer, Moisés Carmona; Tarditi, Andrés Di Masso

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we reflect on the development of community-based arts and cultural (CBAC) practices to promote psychosocial, group/organisational and community changes from the perspective of empowerment. We draw on findings from an initial exploratory phase of an ongoing action-research project in Spain about creative tools that empower artists…

  3. The Emergence of New Linguistic Repertoires among Barcelona's Youth of Latin American Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Victor; Nussbaum, Luci; Unamuno, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Since the end of the last century, more than 10% of students in Catalonia's schools are immigrants, mostly concentrated in areas of Catalonia where the population speaks Castilian in everyday life. Although these newcomers are educated in Catalan, the majority use diverse varieties of Spanish as their language of everyday communication. In the…

  4. New particle formation at ground level and in the vertical column over the Barcelona area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Brines, M.; Pérez, N.; Reche, C.; Pandolfi, M.; Fonseca, A. S.; Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Lyasota, A.; Codina, B.; Lee, H.-K.; Eun, H.-R.; Ahn, K.-H.; Querol, X.

    2015-10-01

    The vertical profiles (up to 975 m a.s.l.) of ultrafine and micronic particles across the planetary boundary layer and the free troposphere over a Mediterranean urban environment were investigated. Measurements were carried out using a tethered balloon equipped with a miniaturized condensation particle counter, a miniaturized optical particle counter, a micro-aethalometer, a rotating impactor, and meteorological instrumentation. Simultaneous ground measurements were carried out at an urban and a regional background site. New particle formation episodes initiating in the urban area were observed under high insolation conditions. The precursors were emitted by the city and urban photochemically-activated nucleation occurred both at high atmospheric levels (tens to hundreds of meters) and at ground level. The new particle formation at ground level was limited by the high particulate matter concentrations recorded during the morning traffic rush hours that increase the condensation sink and prevent new particle formation, and therefore restricted to midday and early afternoon. The aloft new particle formation occurred earlier as the thermally ascending polluted air mass was diluted. The regional background was only affected from midday and early afternoon when sea and mountain breezes transported the urban air mass after particle growth. These events are different from most new particle formation events described in literature, characterized by a regionally originated nucleation, starting early in the morning in the regional background and persisting with a subsequent growth during a long period. An idealized and simplified model of the spatial and time occurrence of these two types of new particle formation episodes into, around and over the city was elaborated.

  5. Spatial Reference in Sumu-Mayangna, Nicaraguan Spanish, and Barcelona Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleston, Alyson G.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines linguistic spatial frame of reference (FoR) usage across three cohorts, detailing the lexical and structural realization of particular spatial FoR classes within each linguistic community, as well as which linguistic and nonlinguistic factors are predictors of spatial FoR class usage. This study was designed to determine…

  6. Barcelona Consensus on Biomarker-Based Immunosuppressive Drugs Management in Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Mercè; Shipkova, Maria; van Gelder, Teun; Wieland, Eberhard; Sommerer, Claudia; Budde, Klemens; Haufroid, Vincent; Christians, Uwe; López-Hoyos, Marcos; Barten, Markus J; Bergan, Stein; Picard, Nicolas; Millán López, Olga; Marquet, Pierre; Hesselink, Dennis A; Noceti, Ofelia; Pawinski, Tomasz; Wallemacq, Pierre; Oellerich, Michael

    2016-04-01

    With current treatment regimens, a relatively high proportion of transplant recipients experience underimmunosuppression or overimmunosuppression. Recently, several promising biomarkers have been identified for determining patient alloreactivity, which help in assessing the risk of rejection and personal response to the drug; others correlate with graft dysfunction and clinical outcome, offering a realistic opportunity for personalized immunosuppression. This consensus document aims to help tailor immunosuppression to the needs of the individual patient. It examines current knowledge on biomarkers associated with patient risk stratification and immunosuppression requirements that have been generally accepted as promising. It is based on a comprehensive review of the literature and the expert opinion of the Biomarker Working Group of the International Association of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Clinical Toxicology. The quality of evidence was systematically weighted, and the strength of recommendations was rated according to the GRADE system. Three types of biomarkers are discussed: (1) those associated with the risk of rejection (alloreactivity/tolerance), (2) those reflecting individual response to immunosuppressants, and (3) those associated with graft dysfunction. Analytical aspects of biomarker measurement and novel pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models accessible to the transplant community are also addressed. Conventional pharmacokinetic biomarkers may be used in combination with those discussed in this article to achieve better outcomes and improve long-term graft survival. Our group of experts has made recommendations for the most appropriate analysis of a proposed panel of preliminary biomarkers, most of which are currently under clinical evaluation in ongoing multicentre clinical trials. A section of Next Steps was also included, in which the Expert Committee is committed to sharing this knowledge with the Transplant Community in the form of triennial updates. PMID:26977997

  7. Assessment of Rectocolonic Morphology and Function in Patients with Chagas Disease in Barcelona (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Fernando; Mego, Marianela; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Morís, María; Ramírez, Kathleen; Accarino, Ana; Malagelada, Juan-Ramon; Azpiroz, Fernando; Molina, Israel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between colonic symptoms, radiological abnormalities, and anorectal dysfunction in patients with Chagas disease. We performed a cross-sectional study of untreated patients diagnosed with Chagas disease. All patients were evaluated clinically (by a questionnaire for colonic symptoms based on Rome III criteria) and underwent a barium enema and anorectal manometry. A control group of patients with functional constipation and without Chagas disease was included in the study. Overall, 69 patients were included in the study: 42 patients were asymptomatic and 27 patients had abdominal symptoms according to Rome III criteria. Anorectal manometry showed a higher proportion of abnormalities in symptomatic patients than in asymptomatic ones (73% versus 21%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Megarectum was detected in a similar proportion in the different subgroups regardless of the presence of symptoms or abnormalities in anorectal functions. Among non-Chagas disease patients with functional constipation, 90% had an abnormal anorectal manometry study. Patients with Chagas disease present a high proportion of constipation with dyssynergic defecation in anorectal manometry but a low prevalence of impaired rectoanal inhibitory reflex, although these abnormalities may be nonspecific for Chagas disease. The presence of megarectum is a nonspecific finding. PMID:25778503

  8. Intestinal parasitism--protozoa and helminths--in primates at the Barcelona Zoo.

    PubMed

    Soledad Gómez, M; Gracenea, M; Montoliu, I; Feliu, C; Monleon, A; Fernandez, J; Enseñat, C

    1996-12-01

    The faunistic results regarding intestinal parasitism by protozoa and helminths in 21 primate species (three Cebidae, thirteen Cercopithecidae, one Hylobatidae, one Lemuridae, three Pongidae) are reported. The primate species were housed in four separate galleries. Six faecal samples of each host species were subjected to coprological analysis. Fifteen parasite species were detected: 11 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, E. chattoni, E. hartmanni, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Endolimax nana, Giardia intestinalis, Chilomastix mesnilii, Enteromonas hominis, Trichomonas intestinalis, Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis hominis) and 4 helminths (Ancylostoma sp., Strongyloides fuelleborni, Strongyloides sp., and Trichuris trichiura). The results reveal certain parasitic similarities between host species housed in the same gallery; however, these primate species do not always carry identical parasite species. PMID:9210027

  9. Long-Term Macroevaluation of Environmental Enrichment in Three Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) at Barcelona Zoo.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Ana I; Vinyoles, Dolors; Maté, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of enrichment programs is important to determine their effect on nonhuman animal welfare. The daily activity pattern and use of space of 3 brown bears (Ursus arctos) were used for long-term macroevaluation of enrichment to compare the baseline and enrichment phases. Focal sampling methods were used for data collection, and instantaneous scans were made at 2-min intervals during 15 sessions of 1 hr for each animal during the 2 study periods. The enrichment devices were categorized as feeding, occupational, and sensorial. The long-term macroevaluation in 3 bears showed statistically significant differences in some types of activity but not in others. There were also statistically significant differences for the use of space in 4 of the 8 zones in which the enclosures were divided. A more homogenous pattern in the use of space was only observed during the enrichment phase in the old female. The 3 brown bears followed different patterns concerning the enrichment program. PMID:26709627

  10. Barcelona Lymphedema Algorithm for Surgical Treatment in Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Masià, Jaume; Pons, Gemma; Rodríguez-Bauzà, Elena

    2016-06-01

    Background Breast cancer-related lymphedema is a prevalent condition that has a major impact on quality of life. Surgical treatment has become an alternative to help affected patients with good results. However, there is no consensus on surgical procedure and protocol. Methods We analyzed our data in two periods: from June 2007 to December 2011 and from January 2012 to June 2014. Data included the analysis of the limb circumferences and the subjective symptoms felt by patients. Results Of the 200 patients treated in the study, 81 had lymphaticovenous anastomosis, 7 had autologous lymph node transfer, 16 had total breast anatomy restoration, 52 had vibroliposuction, and 44 had combined reconstructive procedures. In the first period, the circumference of the superior limb showed a decrease of 0.9 to 6.1 cm (average 2.75 cm). In the second period, the circumference of the superior limb showed a decrease of 2.9 to 6.1 cm (average 3.85 cm). Clinical results and data from the questionnaires confirmed the improvement and subjective benefits. Conclusion We have obtained considerable improvements in results of limb circumferences and subjective symptoms after incorporating several modifications into our surgical strategy for lymphedema treatment. A detailed preoperative assessment should be performed to determine whether reconstructive surgery or palliative surgery is indicated. PMID:26975564

  11. ISSOL Meeting, 7th, Barcelona, Spain, July 4-9, 1993. [Abstracts only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, James P. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The journal issue consists of abstracts presented at the International Society for the Study of the Origins of Life (ISSOL) conference. Topics include research on biological and chemical evolution including prebiotic evolution: cosmic and terrestrial; mechanisms of abiogenesis including synthesis and reactions of biomonomers; and analysis of cometary matter and its possible relationship to organic compounds on Earth. Theories and research on origins of ribonucleic acids (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and other amino acids and complex proteins including their autocatalysis, replication, and translation are presented. Abiotic synthesis of biopolymers, mechanisms of the Genetic Code, precellular membrane systems and energetics are considered. Earth planetary evolution including early microfossils and geochemical conditions and simulations to study these conditions are discussed. The role of chirality in precellular evolution and the taxonomy and phylogeny of very simple organisms are reported. Past and future explorations in exobiology and space research directed toward study of the origins of life and solar system evolution are described.

  12. A serological survey of toxocariasis in patients and healthy donors in Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Portús, M; Riera, C; Prats, G

    1989-06-01

    The ELISA test, using excretory-secretory antigen from larvae II of Toxocara canis, was applied on 1018 sera (793 from adults and 225 from pediatrics) distributed in: A) patients with an hypereosinophilia where the ethiological agent was undetermined (99); B) patients with ocular complaints compatible with an ocular toxocariasis (116); C) patients with hidatidosis (97); D) patient with other non-toxocaral helminthiasis (34); E) patients with other clinical features (468) and F) healthy donors (204). Over 3,6% of sera showed elevated levels of antibodies reacting with T. canis antigen. The prevalence of seropositivity was statistically higher in patients with eosinophilia (14,1%) (a less than 0,001) and ocular complaints (6%) (0,025 greater than alpha greater than 0,01) than in the control group (1%). In the overall seropositivity from pediatrics did not differ from that of the adults. PMID:2767231

  13. Spatiotemporally resolved black carbon concentration, schoolchildren's exposure and dose in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Rivas, I; Donaire-Gonzalez, D; Bouso, L; Esnaola, M; Pandolfi, M; de Castro, M; Viana, M; Àlvarez-Pedrerol, M; Nieuwenhuijsen, M; Alastuey, A; Sunyer, J; Querol, X

    2016-06-01

    At city level, personal monitoring is the best way to assess people's exposure. However, it is usually estimated from a few monitoring stations. Our aim was to determine the exposure to black carbon (BC) and BC dose for 45 schoolchildren with portable microaethalometers and to evaluate the relationship between personal monitoring and fixed stations at schools (indoor and outdoor) and in an urban background (UB) site. Personal BC concentra-tions were 20% higher than in fixed stations at schools. Linear mixed-effect models showed low R(2) between personal measurements and fixed stations at schools (R(2)  ≤ 0.28), increasing to R(2)  ≥ 0.70 if considering only periods when children were at schools. For the UB station, the respective R(2) were 0.18 and 0.45, indicating the importance of the distance to the monitoring station when assessing exposure. During the warm season, the fixed stations agreed better with personal measurements than during the cold one. Children spent 6% of their time on commuting but received 20% of their daily BC dose, due to co-occurrence with road traffic rush hours and the close proximity to the source. Children received 37% of their daily-integrated BC dose at school. Indoor environments (classroom and home) were responsible for the 56% BC dose. PMID:25924870

  14. Ethical challenges in preclinical Alzheimer's disease observational studies and trials: Results of the Barcelona summit.

    PubMed

    Molinuevo, José L; Cami, Jordi; Carné, Xavier; Carrillo, Maria C; Georges, Jean; Isaac, Maria B; Khachaturian, Zaven; Kim, Scott Y H; Morris, John C; Pasquier, Florence; Ritchie, Craig; Sperling, Reisa; Karlawish, Jason

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is among the most significant health care burdens. Disappointing results from clinical trials in late-stage AD persons combined with hopeful results from trials in persons with early-stage suggest that research in the preclinical stage of AD is necessary to define an optimal therapeutic success window. We review the justification for conducting trials in the preclinical stage and highlight novel ethical challenges that arise and are related to determining appropriate risk-benefit ratios and disclosing individuals' biomarker status. We propose that to conduct clinical trials with these participants, we need to improve public understanding of AD using unified vocabulary, resolve the acceptable risk-benefit ratio in asymptomatic participants, and disclose or not biomarker status with attention to study type (observational studies vs clinical trials). Overcoming these challenges will justify clinical trials in preclinical AD at the societal level and aid to the development of societal and legal support for trial participants. PMID:26988427

  15. Etude de la variabilite climatique des hautes latitudes nord, derivee d'observations satellites micro-ondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mialon, Arnaud

    Observing sub-polar ecosystems is important as they are suspected to change significantly in response to the expected increase in temperature for the next decades. To bypass the lack of meteorological stations in the Northern High Latitudes, remote sensing is an interesting alternative tool, covering almost the entire area. This project deals with the development of a method to derive surface parameters (>50°N) from satellite data. For this study, brightness temperature data acquired by the SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) in the microwave spectrum are used because they are independent of solar radiation and weakly influenced by the atmosphere. Methods used are based on brightness temperatures measured at 19 and 37 GHz, which allow to derive three geophysical parameters related to climate variability: daily maps of snowcover between 1988 and 2002; a water surface extent (open water, small lakes, reservoirs, wetlands associated with low vegetation); a temperature characterizing the surface and the air above the ground. A method to normalize the temperature is presented to overcome the variation of the time of measurement. It leads to hourly series of temperature, This allows to study climate indicators such as the annual sum of positive degree days. Trends confirm observed climate evolution: increase of surface temperature (+0.8 +/- 0.4°C for Canada/Alaska between 1992 and 2002), decrease in snow extent cover. These original databases could also be useful for validation of regional climate model. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  16. Cout direct hospitalier des accidents vasculaires cérébraux à Parakou au nord du Benin

    PubMed Central

    Adoukonou, Thierry; Kouna-Ndouongo, Philomène; Codjia, Jean-Mannix; Covi, Richmine; Tognon-Tchegnonsi, Francis; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Houinato, Dismand

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Les accidents vasculaires cérébraux constituent un véritable problème de santé publique en Afrique avec une charge importante. Les données fiables sur sa réelle charge économique sont rares en Afrique. L'objectif de cette étude était d’évaluer le coût direct hospitalier des AVC à Parakou au Bénin. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale économique ayant inclus des patients hospitalisés pour un AVC à l'hôpital de Parakou entre le 1er Juin 2010 au 31Mai 2011. Les données concernant les différents postes de consommation ont été collectées selon la méthode dite bottom-up. Le coût était envisagé du point de vue de la société et du patient. L'unité du coût était le franc CFA (valeur en 2011). Une régression linéaire multiple était utilisée pour déterminer les meilleurs prédicteurs du coût. Résultats Ils étaient 78 patients dont 52 hommes, âgés en moyenne de 57 ans ± 10.9. Le NIHSS moyen était de 14,4. Le taux de mortalité était de 20,5%. Le coût direct moyen était de 316.810,3 (±230.774,8) F CFA (environ 704 ± 512 Euros). Les grands postes de consommation étaient les explorations paracliniques (34.3%) les soins et médicaments (28.4%) et les frais d'hospitalisation (17.9%). Les meilleurs prédicteurs du coût élevé étaient un AVC hémorragique, un NIHSS élevé à l'admission et une longue durée d'hospitalisation. Conclusion Cette étude suggère un coût élevé de la prise en charge actuelle des AVC à Parakou. PMID:24839529

  17. The Determinants of Transitions in Youth. Papers from the Conference Organized by the ESF Network on Transitions in Youth, CEDEFOP and GRET (Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona) (Barcelona, Spain, September 20-21, 1993). 2nd Edition. CEDEFOP Panorama. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    This document consists of the 24 papers delivered at a conference that had five workshops examining various dimensions of the social and occupational transition of young people. The papers are arranged by workshop/session. A summary report precedes the other papers presented during a session. The papers in the session on perspectives on systems,…

  18. La Ciutat Educadora = The Educating City. International Congress of Educating Cities (1st, Barcelona, Spain, November 26-30, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcelona Council (Spain).

    This report presents 28 conference papers, which represent different thematic and scientific perspectives designed to create an educating city theory. The translated titles of the articles include the following: (1) "Foreword" (P. Maragall); (2) "Introduction" (J. Trilla Bernet); (3) "Conceptual Itinerary Through the Educating City: A…

  19. Cost Attributable to Nosocomial Bacteremia. Analysis According to Microorganism and Antimicrobial Sensitivity in a University Hospital in Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    Riu, Marta; Chiarello, Pietro; Terradas, Roser; Sala, Maria; Garcia-Alzorriz, Enric; Castells, Xavier; Grau, Santiago; Cots, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Aim To calculate the incremental cost of nosocomial bacteremia caused by the most common organisms, classified by their antimicrobial susceptibility. Methods We selected patients who developed nosocomial bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These microorganisms were analyzed because of their high prevalence and they frequently present multidrug resistance. A control group consisted of patients classified within the same all-patient refined-diagnosis related group without bacteremia. Our hospital has an established cost accounting system (full-costing) that uses activity-based criteria to analyze cost distribution. A logistic regression model was fitted to estimate the probability of developing bacteremia for each admission (propensity score) and was used for propensity score matching adjustment. Subsequently, the propensity score was included in an econometric model to adjust the incremental cost of patients who developed bacteremia, as well as differences in this cost, depending on whether the microorganism was multidrug-resistant or multidrug-sensitive. Results A total of 571 admissions with bacteremia matched the inclusion criteria and 82,022 were included in the control group. The mean cost was € 25,891 for admissions with bacteremia and € 6,750 for those without bacteremia. The mean incremental cost was estimated at € 15,151 (CI, € 11,570 to € 18,733). Multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa bacteremia had the highest mean incremental cost, € 44,709 (CI, € 34,559 to € 54,859). Antimicrobial-susceptible E. coli nosocomial bacteremia had the lowest mean incremental cost, € 10,481 (CI, € 8,752 to € 12,210). Despite their lower cost, episodes of antimicrobial-susceptible E. coli nosocomial bacteremia had a major impact due to their high frequency. Conclusions Adjustment of hospital cost according to the organism causing bacteremia and antibiotic sensitivity could improve prevention strategies and allow their prioritization according to their overall impact and costs. Infection reduction is a strategy to reduce resistance. PMID:27055117

  20. Neighbourhood vitality and physical activity among the elderly: The role of walkable environments on active ageing in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Marquet, Oriol; Miralles-Guasch, Carme

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated whether neighbourhood vitality and walkability were associated with active ageing of the elderly. Immobility, activity engagement and physical activity were explored in relation with age, gender and walkability of the built environment. Number of trips per day and minutes spent on walking by the elderly were extracted from a broad travel survey with more than 12,000 CATI interviews and were compared across vital and non-vital urban environments. Results highlight the importance of vital environments for elderly active mobility as subpopulations residing in highly walkable neighbourhoods undertook more trips and spent more minutes walking than their counterparts. The results also suggest that the built environment has different effects in terms of gender, as elderly men were more susceptible to urban vitality than elderly women. PMID:25939073

  1. Short human occupations in the Middle Palaeolithic level i of the Abric Romani rock-shelter (Capellades, Barcelona, Spain)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallerdu, J.; Allue, E.; Bischoff, J.L.; Caceres, I.; Carbonell, E.; Cebria, A.; Garcia-Anton, D.; Huguet, R.; Ibanez, N.; Martinez, K.; Pasto, I.; Rosell, J.; Saladie, P.; Vaquero, Manola

    2005-01-01

    The small occupation surfaces and restricted provisioning strategies suggest short settlements in the Abric Romani. This shorter occupation model complements the longer diversified provisioning strategy recorded in both small and medium-sized occupied surfaces. The selection of precise elements for transport and the possible deferred consumption in the diversified provision strategy suggest an individual supply. In this respect, Neanderthal occupations in the Romani rock-shelter show a direct relation to: 1) hunting strategic resources; 2) high, linear mobility.

  2. Clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities in Latin American migrants with newly diagnosed Chagas disease 2005-2009, Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Valerio, L; Roure, S; Sabria, M; Balanzo, X; Valles, X; Seres, L

    2011-01-01

    Following Latin American migration, Chagas disease has inevitably appeared in non-endemic countries in Europe and elsewhere. New policies are necessary to prevent transmission in those countries but the long, often undetected chronic period of the early stages of the disease also renders epidemiological studies important. The main objective of our study was to determine the presence of clinical, electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiographic abnormalities in a population of Latin American migrants infected with Trypanosoma cruzi at the moment of diagnosis. We performed a hospital-based observational study of 100 adult patients with newly diagnosed Chagas infection between January 2005 and December 2009. Thirty-seven patients were classified within the Brazilian Consensus on Chagas cardiomyopathy early cardiac stages (A or B1) and 49 presented pathological findings (stage B2) according to the Panamerican Health Organization Classification. Overall, 49 patients showed ECG and/or echocardiographic alterations. The presence of ECG and ecocardiographic alterations were significantly associated (p=0.038). The most frequent ECG and echocardiographic findings were right bundle branch block (12 cases) and impaired left ventricular wall relaxation (24 cases), respectively. In conclusion, ECG and echocardiographic alterations coherent with Chagas cardiomyopathy were found in a large proportion of newly diagnosed Latin American migrants infected with T. cruzi. In the mid-term, Chagas disease might become an important cause of chronic cadiomyopathy in our attendance area. PMID:21958530

  3. Evaluation of groundwater contamination beneath an urban environment: the Besòs river basin (Barcelona, Spain).

    PubMed

    Navarro, Andrés; Carbonell, Montserrat

    2007-10-01

    The urban groundwater of the central Besòs river basin (the La Llagosta aquifer) has become contaminated due to the infiltration of wastewater from septic tanks and sewage networks, and by industrial activities located in urban areas. The groundwater hydrogeochemistry of the La Llagosta aquifer was characterized using isoconcentration maps, hydrogeochemical diagrams (Piper, Schoeller-Berkaloff) and by analyzing hydrogeochemical changes along a flow-path that crosses an urban and peripheral industrial area in the main alluvial aquifer (the La Llagosta unit). The evolution of cations, anions and heavy metals along the flow path and the use of the PHREEQC numerical code indicate a complex set of geochemical processes, which result from the interaction between the sources of pollution, the groundwater flow and the mineral composition of the aquifer materials. The contaminated groundwater below the urban areas shows high contents of NO(3)(-) (90-100 mg/L) and an increase in the concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) which coincides with a decrease in pH. The Eh shows greater variation than the pH along the flow line studied, with values ranging between 56 mV in the industrial area and 370 mV in the urban area. The area with the lowest Eh value coincides with the highest concentrations of dissolved Fe (4.7 mg/L) and Mn (0.22 mg/L). PMID:17223248

  4. School Educational Project as a Criterion of School Choice: Discourses and Practices in the City of Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benito, Ricard; Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Gonzàlez, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    In its advancement towards an education quasi-market, Catalonia has recently been driving the development of "school educational projects" in all schools (both public and private) as a tool to facilitate school autonomy and family choices. A school educational project is a formal document in which schools identify their pedagogical…

  5. The Participation of Immigrant Families with Children with SEN in Schools: A Qualitative Study in the Area of Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paniagua, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The context of Special Education is a privileged space to study participation. Most professionals and teachers have long assumed the participation and collaboration with families as a central tenet of their interventions. On the other hand, parents with children with Special Educational Needs (SEN) have also been described as being permanently…

  6. From Sevilla to Barcelona: Public Relations Research and Education in Spain. The Structure of Spanish Public Relations: 1980-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noguero i Grau, Antoni

    A study examined the situation of the public relations profession in Spain from the point of view of public relations agencies or consultancies, and of individuals in public relations. Forty-four individuals (of a target population of 100) and 26 public relations agencies or firms (of a target population of 40) responded to questionnaires and…

  7. Barcelona 2002: law, ethics, and human rights. HIV testing for peacekeeping forces: legal and human rights issues.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, Ralf

    2002-12-01

    In 2001, the United Nations Security Council established an Expert Panel to study the issue of whether the UN should institute HIV testing of peacekeeping personnel. This article, based on a 9 July 2002 presentation to the XIV International AIDS Conference (abstract TuOrG1173), reports on the findings of a paper prepared for the Expert Panel by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network. The paper examined whether it is permissible for the UN to implement mandatory HIV testing of its peacekeeping personnel, and whether HIV-positive UN peacekeeping personnel should be excluded or restricted from service on the basis of their HIV status or HIV disease progression. The article describes some of the court cases in which these issues have been considered; discusses the importance of analyzing such issues in the context of a human rights-based approach to the pandemic; and formulates a series of key principles for guiding UN decision-making. The article concludes that a policy of mandatory HIV testing for all UN peacekeeping personnel cannot be justified on the basis that it is required in order to assess their physical and mental capacity for service; that HIV-positive peacekeeping personnel cannot be excluded from service based on their HIV status alone, but only on their ability to perform their duties; and that the UN cannot resort to mandatory HIV testing for all UN peacekeeping personnel to protect the health and safety of HIV-negative personnel unless it can demonstrate that alternatives to such a policy would not reduce the risk sufficiently. In the end, the Expert Panel unanimously rejected mandatory testing and instead endorsed voluntary HIV counselling and testing for UN peacekeeping personnel. PMID:14743823

  8. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  9. Arsenic levels in immigrant children from countries at risk of consuming arsenic polluted water compared to children from Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Piñol, S; Sala, A; Guzman, C; Marcos, S; Joya, X; Puig, C; Velasco, M; Velez, D; Vall, O; Garcia-Algar, O

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic is a highly toxic element that pollutes groundwater, being a major environmental problem worldwide, especially in the Bengal Basin. About 40% of patients in our outpatient clinics come from those countries, and there is no published data about their arsenic exposure. This study compares arsenic exposure between immigrant and native children. A total of 114 children (57 natives, 57 immigrants), aged 2 months to 16 years, were recruited and sociodemographic and environmental exposure data were recorded. Total arsenic in urine, hair, and nails and arsenic-speciated compounds in urine were determined. We did not find significant differences in total and inorganic arsenic levels in urine and hair, but in organic arsenic monomethylarsenic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA) in urine and in total arsenic in nails. However, these values were not in the toxic range. There were significant differences between longer than 5 years exposure and less than 5 years exposure (consumption of water from tube wells), with respect to inorganic and organic MMA arsenic in urine and total arsenic in nails. There was partial correlation between the duration of exposure and inorganic arsenic levels in urine. Immigrant children have higher arsenic levels than native children, but they are not toxic. At present, there is no need for specific arsenic screening or follow-up in immigrant children recently arrived in Spain from exposure high-risk countries. PMID:26431705

  10. The Role of Previously Learned Languages in the Thought Processes of Multilingual Writers at the Deutsche Schule Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Brandon D.; Fernandez-Villanueva, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, scholars have voiced the need for research which focuses on the ability of multilinguals to write across multiple languages rather than on the limitations that they face when composing in a non-native language. In order to better understand multilingual writers as resourceful and creative problem-solvers, the current study aims to…

  11. Effets de la marée noire de l' ''Amoco Cadiz '' sur le benthos sublittoral du nord de la Bretagne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabioch, L.; Dauvin, J. C.; Mora Bermudez, J.; Rodriguez Babio, C.

    1980-03-01

    Effects of the “Amoco Cadiz ” oil spill on the sublittoral benthos, north of Brittany. Effects of hydrocarbons on the sublittoral macrobenthic communities have been observed through (1) studies of population dynamics of selected communities, conducted prior to the spill by the tanker “Amoco Cadiz ” in spring 1978 and (2) comparisons between the situation in summer 1978 with that in earlier years, with continuation of the observations in some selected sites. The effect of the spill has been selective, involving a limited number of species, mainly crustaceans, molluscs and the sand-urchin Echinocardium cordatum. The spill mainly affected communities on fine sediments and, to a lesser degree, those on mixed sediments. Notably, the destruction of the dominant populations of Ampelisca, in areas of fine sands in the Bay of Morlaix, has led to a marked decrease of biomass and production. Moreover, repopulation will be difficult because of the isolation of such communities on the southern side of the English Channel. The effects evolved with time; after a phase of sharp and selective mortality, which did not last more than a few weeks, secondary effects on the recruitment of the remaining species do not seem to have occurred on a large scale. Nevertheless, a proliferation of polychaetes has been noticed.

  12. Do Abnormal Serum Lipid Levels Increase the Risk of Chronic Low Back Pain? The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Heuch, Ingrid; Heuch, Ivar; Hagen, Knut; Zwart, John-Anker

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies suggest associations between abnormal lipid levels and prevalence of low back pain (LBP), but it is not known if there is any causal relationship. Objective The objective was to determine, in a population-based prospective cohort study, whether there is any relation between levels of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides and the probability of experiencing subsequent chronic (LBP), both among individuals with and without LBP at baseline. Methods Information was collected in the community-based HUNT 2 (1995–1997) and HUNT 3 (2006–2008) surveys of an entire Norwegian county. Participants were 10,151 women and 8731 men aged 30–69 years, not affected by chronic LBP at baseline, and 3902 women and 2666 men with LBP at baseline. Eleven years later the participants indicated whether they currently suffered from chronic LBP. Results Among women without LBP at baseline, HDL cholesterol levels were inversely associated and triglyceride levels positively associated with the risk of chronic LBP at end of follow-up in analyses adjusted for age only. Adjustment for the baseline factors education, work status, physical activity, smoking, blood pressure and in particular BMI largely removed these associations (RR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.85–1.07 per mmol/l of HDL cholesterol; RR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.94–1.42 per unit of lg(triglycerides)). Total cholesterol levels showed no associations. In women with LBP at baseline and men without LBP at baseline weaker relationships were observed. In men with LBP at baseline, an inverse association with HDL cholesterol remained after complete adjustment (RR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.72–0.95 per mmol/l). Conclusion Crude associations between lipid levels and risk of subsequent LBP in individuals without current LBP are mainly caused by confounding with body mass. However, an association with low HDL levels may still remain in men who are already affected and possibly experience a higher pain intensity. PMID:25233233

  13. Tectonique active du Nord-Est de Sulawesi(Indonésie) et contrôle structural de la caldeira de Tondano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lécuyer, Frédéric; Bellier, Olivier; Gourgaud, Alain; Vincent, Pierre M.

    1997-10-01

    Field study and SPOT image analyses on the Tondano caldera region permit us to show a distributed active sinistral strike-slip fault zone which trends ENE- WSW This faulting accommodates the N-S movement of the Celebes Sea plate and represents a transfer fault zone between the Celebes sea subduetion end and the Moluccas sea subduetion zone. Furthermore, this study permits us to provide evidence for a tectonic control of the Tondano caldera collapse and evolution.

  14. Ongoing Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus after 25 Years of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatments in the Vina du Nord River Valley, in North Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbarth, Albert; Achukwi, Mbunkah Daniel; Renz, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent reports of transmission interruption of Onchocerca volvulus, the causing agent of river blindness, in former endemic foci in the Americas, and more recently in West and East Africa, raise the question whether elimination of this debilitating disease is underway after long-term treatment of the population at risk with ivermectin. The situation in Central Africa has not yet been clearly assessed. Methods and findings Entomologic data from two former endemic river basins in North Cameroon were generated over a period of 43 and 48 months to follow-up transmission levels in areas under prolonged ivermectin control. Moreover, epidemiologic parameters of animal-borne Onchocerca spp. transmitted by the same local black fly vectors of the Simulium damnosum complex were recorded and their impact on O. volvulus transmission success evaluated. With mitochondrial DNA markers we unambiguously confirmed the presence of infective O. volvulus larvae in vectors from the Sudan savannah region (mean Annual Transmission Potential 2009–2012: 98, range 47–221), but not from the Adamawa highland region. Transmission rates of O. ochengi, a parasite of Zebu cattle, were high in both foci. Conclusions/significance The high cattle livestock density in conjunction with the high transmission rates of the bovine filaria O. ochengi prevents the transmission of O. volvulus on the Adamawa plateau, whereas transmission in a former hyperendemic focus was markedly reduced, but not completely interrupted after 25 years of ivermectin control. This study may be helpful to gauge the impact of the presence of animal-filariae for O. volvulus transmission in terms of the growing human and livestock populations in sub-Saharan countries. PMID:26926855

  15. Problemi di comunicazione interculturale tra Italiani e parlanti di italiano in Nord America (Intercultural Communication Problems Between Italians and Speakers of Italian in North America).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balboni, Paolo E.

    2001-01-01

    Examines intercultural communication between Italians and speakers of Italian in North America. Argues intercultural communicative competence comprises three elements: deep cultural values or "mental software"; non-verbal means of communication; and language. Offers advice to teachers of Italian who want to help their students develop…

  16. The flight of Arcadia: spatial CO2/SO2 variations in a cross section above the Nord East crater of Etna volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuffrida, Giovanni; Calabrese, Sergio; Bobrowski, Nicole; Finkenzeller, Henning; Pecoraino, Giovannella; Scaglione, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    The CO2/SO2 ratio in volcanic plumes of open conduit volcanoes can provide useful information about the magma depth inside a conduit and the possible occurrence of an eruptive event. Moreover, the same CO2 measurement when combined with a SO2 flux measurement, commonly carried out at many volcanoes nowadays, is used to contribute to an improved estimate of global volcanic CO2 budget. Today worldwide at 13 volcanoes automated in-situ instruments (known as Multi-GAS stations) are applied to continuously determine CO2/SO2 ratios and to use this signal as additional parameter for volcanic monitoring. Usually these instruments carry out measurements of half an hour 4 - 6 times/day and thus provide continuous CO2/SO2 values and their variability. The stations are located at crater rims in a position that according to the prevailing winds is invested by the plume. Obviously, although the stations are carefully positioned, it is inevitable that other sources than the plume itself, e.g. soil degassing and surrounding fumaroles, contribute and will be measured as well, covering the 'real' values. Between July and September 2014 experiments were carried out on the North East crater (NEC) of Mount Etna, installing a self-made cable car that crossed the crater from one side to the other. The basket, called "Arcadia", was equipped with an automated standard Multi-GAS station and a GPS, which acquired at high frequency (0.5 Hz) the following parameters : CO2, SO2, H2S, Rh, T, P and geo-coordinates. The choice of NEC of the volcano Etna was based on its accessibility, the relative small diameter (about 230 m) and the presence of a relatively constant and rather concentrated plume. Actually, NEC belongs also to the monitoring network EtnaPlume (managed by the INGV of Palermo). The aim of these experiments was to observe variations of each parameter, in particular the fluctuation of the CO2/SO2 ratio within the plume, moving from the edge to the center of the crater. The gained results give a first possibility to understand if common measurements carried out at the edge of a crater are subject to over- or underestimation and about the order of derivations caused by other sources than the plume. A preliminary analysis results in a lower CO2/SO2 ratio in the central part of the crater versus the more peripheral one. The deviation between the average CO2/SO2 ratio and the center of the plume ranges from a minimum of 58% up to a maximum of 74%. An increased CO2/SO2 emission could be caused by the influence of soil and/or fumarolic degassing at the crater rim. This interpretation leads us to the conclusion that measurements by fixed installed stations might overestimate the CO2/SO2 ratio compared to values originating from the "pure" plume. Further on, it means that variations of up to 74 % (in our experiment) don't necessarily correlate with volcanic activity changes.

  17. New archaeorthopteran insects from the Late Carboniferous of the Nord and Pas-de-Calais basins in northern France (Insecta: Cnemidolestodea, Panorthoptera).

    PubMed

    Coty, David; Háva, Jiří; Prokop, Jakub; Roques, Patrick; Nel, André

    2014-01-01

    New polyneopteran insects are described from Pennsylvanian (Bashkirian, Moscovian) compressed fossils from the North of France (Insecta: Archaeorthoptera). Discovery of wing apex with distinct venation, e.g., apical fusion of RA with RP, numerous parallel posterior branches of RP with transversal crossveins, can be assigned to cf. Tococladus sp. (Cnemidolestodea: Tococladidae). It represents the second record of Cnemidolestodea from the Avion locality apart from Aviocladus pectinatus Prokop et al., 2014. Bruaylogus magnificus gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, is attributed to Panorthoptera nec Orthoptera having some distinct characters for the placement either close to Oedischiidae or a more basal position possibly with affinities to genus Heterologus. Aviologus duquesnei gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, differs from Oedischiidae by the presence of basal fork of M far from point of separation between M and Cu and fusion of MA with first posterior branch of RP. Aviologus share a long stem of M and simple CuPaβ with Heterologus duyiwuer and H. langfordorum, but both differ in well separated median and radial veins. These new fossils demonstrate that the archaeorthopterid insect fauna from the North of France was rather diverse with links to late Carboniferous and early Permian assemblages in Euramerica such as the Mazon Creek, Carbondale Formation or Elmo, Wellington Formation (Illinois, Kansas, USA) entomofaunas. PMID:25544457

  18. Identification d'indicateurs de risque des populations victimes de conflits par imagerie satellitaire. Etude de cas: Le nord de l'Irak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubareka, Sarah Betoul

    Remote sensing and security, terms which are not usually associated, have found a common platform this decade with the conjuring of the GMOSS network (Global Monitoring for Security and Stability), whose mandate is to discover new applications for satellite-derived imagery to security issues. This study focuses on human security, concentrating on the characterisation of vulnerable areas to conflict. A time-series of satellite imagery taken from Landsat sensors from 1987 to 2001 and the SRTM mission imagery are used for this purpose over a site in northern Iraq. Human security issues include the exposure to any type of hazard. The region of study is first characterised in order to understand which hazards are and were present in the past for the region of study. The principal hazard for the region of study is armed conflict and the relative field data was analysed to determine the links between geographical indicators and vulnerable areas. This is done through historical research and the study of open-sourced information about disease outbreaks; the movements of refugees and the internally displaced; and humanitarian aid and security issues. These open sources offer information which are not always consistent, objective, or normalized and are therefore difficult to quantify. A method for the rapid mapping and graphing and subsequent analysis of the situation in a region where limited information is available is developed. This information is coupled with population numbers to create a "risk map": A disaggregated matrix of areas most at risk during conflict situations. The results show that describing the risk factor for a population to the hazard conflict depends on three complex indicators: Population density, remoteness and economic diversity. Each of these complex indicators is then derived from Landsat and SRTM imagery and a satellite-driven model is formulated. This model based on satellite imagery is applied to the study site for a temporal study. The output are three 90 m x 90 m resolution grids which describe, at a pixel level, the risk level within the region for each of the dates studies, and the changes which occur in northern Iraq as the result of the Anfal Campaigns. Results show that satellite imagery, with a minimum of processing, can yield indicators for characterising risk in a region. Although by no means a replacement for field data, this technological source, in the absence of local knowledge, can provide users with a starting point in understanding which areas are most at risk within a region. If this data is coupled with open sourced information such as political and cultural discrimination, economy and agricultural practices, a fairly accurate risk map can be generated in the absence of field data. Keywords. SRTM, Landsat, risk indicators, Iraq, conflict, population vulnerability, segmentation, land-use, fuzzy-classification, atmospheric corrections.

  19. Reconstitution de données climatiques pour l’Algérie du Nord : application des réseaux neuronaux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouaoune, Djahida; Dahmani-Megrerouche, Malika

    2010-11-01

    In the present context of climate change and preservation of biodiversity, the appreciation of the vulnerability of the natural ecosystems and their capacity of adaptation appears among the main preoccupations to the world level (GIEC, 2007). This assessment of the ecosystems requires the availability of climatic data, what is often made difficult by the weak density or even the absence of meteorological stations notably, to the level of the mountains zones. In order to study the climate-vegetation relationship in North Algeria, we use an automatic interpolation method, the neural network method, for the reconstitution of climatic data of the sampled sites, (1035 phytoecological samples), from the existing meteorological network (269 stations). This method is characterized by a great suppleness of non-linearity and by its capacity for reconstituting information from partial and not well-defined indications such as the case of data provided from meteorological networks. In order to reconstitution of climatic data, we use the explicate variables, longitude, latitude and altitude, the variables to explain being the rainfall and temperatures. To define the best approach, the network calibration has been activated on climatic parameters taken globally or solely, for the whole of study zone, and by geographical sector. The results of the interpolation are expressed through a climatic parameter cartography, released automatically by the MapInfo software. The reliability results obtained by this method can be appreciated by elaboration of errors maps comparing to reference data.

  20. Métamorphisme miocène de granites panafricains dans le massif de l'Edough (Nord-Est de l'Algérie)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammor, Dalila; Lancelot, Joël

    1998-09-01

    The Edough Massif is the easternmost crystalline core of the Maghrebides that represents the African segment of the west Mediterranean Alpine belt. U-Pb zircon dating provides upper intercept ages of 595 ± 51 My and 606 ± 55 My for an orthogneiss of the lower unit and a deformed leucogranite of the upper pelitic unit, respectively. These ages suggest emplacement of the two granitoids during the Pan-African orogeny. Monazites from a paragneiss sample gave a 18 ± 5 My U-Pb age that points to a Miocene age of the high-temperature metamorphism.

  1. Cadmium contamination of three bivalve species (oysters, cockles and clams) in Nord Médoc salt marshes (Gironde estuary, France): Geochemical survey and metal bioaccumulation kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudrimont, M.; Schäfer, J.; Marie, V.; Maury-Brachet, R.; Bossy, C.; Durrieu, G.; Palvadeau, A.; Maneux, E.; Boudou, A.; Blanc, G.

    2003-05-01

    A historical Cd pollution of the Lot-Garonne River system (France) bas led to the contamination of sediment and water of the Gironde Estuary. In spite of the decrease of fluvial Cd inputs since the early 90ies, Cd concentrations in the Gironde oysters remain higher than European norms (5 μg.g^{-1} dry mass) and the “zone D” classification of the estuary prohibits bivalve production and harvesting for human consumption. A geochemical survey in salt marshes used for aquaculture (crustaceans) has been conducted in order to assess the heavy métal contamination level in these systems periodically alimented by the Gironde water, accompanied by caging experiments on three bivalve species of economical interest: oysters (Crassostrea gigas), cockles (Cerastoderma edule) and clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) to study heavy metal accumulation in these organisms. Distribution of heavy metals in this system is controlled by biogeochemical processes and is independent of routine water management. Contamination levels in the studied species indicate the high accumulation of Cd by oysters. On the other hand, Cd concentrations in benthic species, such as cockles and clams, are clearly lower than European safety limits for human consumption.

  2. Weight-of-evidence environmental risk assessment of dumped chemical weapons after WWII along the Nord-Stream gas pipeline in the Bornholm Deep.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Thomsen, Marianne; Larsen, Jørn Bo

    2012-05-15

    In connection with installation of two natural gas pipelines through the Baltic Sea between Russia and Germany, there has been concern regarding potential re-suspension of historically dumped chemical warfare agents (CWA) in a nearby dump site and the potential environmental risks associated. 192 sediment and 11 porewater samples were analyzed for CWA residues, both parent and metabolites in 2008 and 2010 along the pipeline corridor next to the dump site. Macrozoobenthos and background variables were also collected and compared to the observed CWA levels and predicted potential risks. Detection frequencies and levels of intact CWA found were low, whereas CWA metabolites were more frequently found. Re-suspension of CWA residue-containing sediment from installation of the pipelines contributes marginally to the overall background CWA residue exposure and risk along the pipeline route. The multivariate weight-of-evidence analysis showed that physical and background parameters of the sediment were of higher importance for the biota than observed CWA levels. PMID:22440539

  3. Strategy for managing water in the Middle East and North Africa; Strategie pour la gestion de l`eau au moyen-orient et en afrique du nord

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Water has always been of central concern to life in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Burgeoning populations are placing unprecendented pressures on the resource, calling urgently for new approaches to water planning and management if escalating conflicts are to be avoided and if environmental degradation is to be reversed. The booklet sets out the implications of the new Bank policy for the MENA region, calling for a concerted effort by government and Bank staff to address water resources in a coordinated and sustainable manner. It proposes a practical, step-by-step approach to achieving this objective that could lead to new Bank-supported operations to address the water sector as a whole.

  4. Evaluation of the recovery annealing of the reactor pressure vessel of NPP Nord (Greifswald) Units 1 and 2 by means of subsize impact specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlstrand, R.; Klausnitzer, E.N.; Leitz, C.; Lange, D.; Pastor, D.; Valo, M.

    1993-12-01

    In 1988 and 1990, the reactor pressure vessels of Units 1 and 2, respectively, of the Greifswald nuclear power station were subjected to heat treatment at 475 C for annealing of irradiation effects. To demonstrate the effect of annealing and to evaluate a new postannealing transition temperature of vessel base metal and weld metal, boat samples were removed by means of electric discharge machining (EDM) from the (unclad) inner surface of the vessel. From these samples, micronotched bar impact test specimens were fabricated and tested at different temperature. Transition curves were evaluated from the results. By means of correlation tests, the transition temperatures evaluated from the micro-specimen tests are converted to standard Charpy-5 transition temperatures. Results are available for the weld metal of Unit 1 after annealing. The transition temperature T{sub k} is lower than the value calculated by the designer of the plant. Specimens removed from Unit 2 before and after annealing are in preparation.

  5. Analyse multi-échelle par ondelettes des contacts géologiques : application à la carte gravimétrique du Maroc nord-oriental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattach, Driss; Mraoui, Hamid; Sbibih, Driss; Chennouf, Touria

    2006-06-01

    The multiscale wavelet analysis has been applied to the gravity data from northeastern Morocco to map the major geological contacts, such us faults. Hence, the faults affecting the survey area were outlined with their importance level and dip direction. Seismic data confirm these results and testify the efficiency of this method, particularly in studying structure of plains. The structural map established is a very useful document in the planning of natural resources investigations (i.e. water, mines) to be undertaken in the area of study. To cite this article: D. Khattach et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  6. Apport de la gravimétrie à l'étude de la structure du bassin des Triffa (Maroc nord-oriental) : implications hydrogéologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattach, Driss; Keating, Pierre; Mili, El Mostafa; Chennouf, Touria; Andrieux, Pierre; Milhi, Abdellah

    2004-12-01

    Various techniques (horizontal and vertical derivatives, upward continuation, Euler deconvolution) have been applied to the gravity data from the Triffa's plain and the north flank of the Beni-Snassen massif to delineate various major geological structures such as faults and basins. These results allow the production of a structural map showing the fault systems for the survey area. This map forms the basis for planning future hydrogeological research in this region. To cite this article: D. Khattach et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  7. Abstracts of the 23rd Annual Conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE). September 13 - 16, 2011, Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    The International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE) is an international organization with almost 1000 members from more than 60 countries. The annual international conference brings together many members and non-members and provides an excellent forum for the discussion of problems and benefits related to the environment and human health. Specific themes for the 23rd Annual Conference include: Sustainable transport and health: Impact of transport on health and approaches to reduce health impacts, Impact of climate change: from water scarcity to Saharan dust episodes, Early exposure - later life: in utero and early life exposures and effects in later life, New methods and technologies. PMID:21896395

  8. Proceedings of the International Academy for Information Management (IAIM) Annual Conference: International Conference on Informatics Education Research (ICIER) (17th, Barcelona, Spain, December 13-15, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Academy for Information Management.

    The International Conference on Informatics Education Research (ICIER 2002) sponsored by the International Academy for Information Management (IAIM) provides a forum in which educators, researchers and practitioners in information systems can exchange ideas, techniques, and applications of pedagogy and can react to issues with significant…

  9. Cova del Rinoceront (Castelldefels, Barcelona): a terrestrial record for the Last Interglacial period (MIS 5) in the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daura, J.; Sanz, M.; Julià, R.; García-Fernández, D.; Fornós, J. J.; Vaquero, M.; Allué, E.; López-García, J. M.; Blain, H. A.; Ortiz, J. E.; Torres, T.; Albert, R. M.; Rodríguez-Cintas, À.; Sánchez-Marco, A.; Cerdeño, E.; Skinner, A. R.; Asmeron, Y.; Polyak, V. J.; Garcés, M.; Arnold, L. J.; Demuro, M.; Pike, A. W. G.; Euba, I.; Rodríguez, R. F.; Yagüe, A. S.; Villaescusa, L.; Gómez, S.; Rubio, A.; Pedro, M.; Fullola, J. M.; Zilhão, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Cova del Rinoceront, a site in NE Iberia, contains a thick sedimentary fill preserving a faunal archive from the penultimate glacial and the the last interglacial periods. Layers I to III have been dated to between 74 and 147 ka, coinciding with MIS 5a to 5e, a period poorly represented in the Mediterranean terrestrial record. The results from Cova del Rinoceront are of broader interest for the reconstruction of ecological dynamics during warm stages and the understanding of the evolution and geographical variation of several taxa. The palaeoecological evidence suggests a landscape dominated by mixed wooded vegetation with mild climatic conditions, slightly more humid than today. Several vertebrate taxa, including Haploidoceros mediterraneus, Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis and Glis glis, are documented for the first time in the early Upper Pleistocene of Europe, showing that these species persisted across the region for longer than previously thought. In addition, the recovery of a small lithic assemblage indicates human presence in the surroundings of the site. The 11 m-thick stratigraphic section also provides an ideal setting in which to compare several geochronological methods. U-Th dating of the flowstones that cap the deposit, of speleothems formed along the cave walls, and of speleothems buried by the deposit at different elevations provides minimum and maximum ages of 74 and 175 ka, respectively, for the accumulation. The ages obtained by luminescence, electron spin resonance (ESR), amino acid racemisation (AAR), palaeomagnetism and U-series dating of bone are in good agreement with each other and are stratigraphically consistent. This well-dated faunal succession presents a unique opportunity to assess changes in the Pleistocene fauna of the Mediterranean coast over an interval of more than 100 ka.

  10. Analysis and occurrence of pharmaceuticals, estrogens, progestogens and polar pesticides in sewage treatment plant effluents, river water and drinking water in the Llobregat river basin (Barcelona, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuster, Marina; López de Alda, Maria José; Hernando, Maria Dolores; Petrovic, Mira; Martín-Alonso, Jordi; Barceló, Damià

    2008-08-01

    SummaryThis work investigated the presence of 21 emerging contaminants of various chemical groups (7 estrogens, 3 progestogens, 6 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and 5 acidic pesticides) in the Llobregat river basin (NE Spain). Waters from the outlet of various sewage treatment plants (STP) and waterworks located along the river basin, as well as water samples from the river or its tributaries upstream and downstream of these plants were analysed in two pilot monitoring studies. Chemical analyses were performed by means of on-line or off-line solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. Methods detection limits (in ng/L) were ⩽0.85 for estrogens, ⩽3.94 for progestogens, ⩽30 for PPCPs, and ⩽0.99 for pesticides. Of the estrogens and progestogens analysed, only estrone-3-sulfate, estrone, estriol and progesterone were found to be present in the low nanogram per liter range in some of the samples investigated. Except for atenolol, all PPCPs studied (ibuprofen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, salicylic acid, and triclosan) could be identified at levels usually lower than 250 ng/L and up to 1200 ng/l (diclofenac). Of the various pesticides investigated (2,4-D, bentazone; MCPA, mecoprop and propanil) MCPA and 2,4-D were the most ubiquitous and abundant and bentazone the only one not detected. Individual concentrations were most often below 100 ng/L and never surpassed the EU limits.

  11. From challenges to solutions. European Bioanalysis Forum 3rd Annual Open Symposium, Hesperia Towers, Barcelona, Spain, 1-3 December 2010.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Richard W; Gordon, Ben; van Amsterdam, Peter; Lausecker, Berthold; Brudny-Kloeppel, Margarete; Smeraglia, John; Romero, Fernando; Globig, Susanne; Golob, Michaela; Knutsson, Magnus; Herling, Christian; Vieser, Eva; Timmerman, Philip

    2011-04-01

    The European Bioanalysis Forum is a bioanalytical nonprofit organization comprised of European pharmaceutical companies (27 members to date) and currently expanding to include CROs as well. The European Bioanalysis Forum provides a broad European bioanalytical network for the discussion of scientific, technological and regulatory topics of bioanalytical interest. The 3rd Annual Open Symposium was again much anticipated after the two previous successful meetings. The symposium included sessions on thinking outside the 'commodity' box, bioanalytical challenges with blood, global harmonization, assay platforms, dried blood spots, immunogenicity, matrix effects, anomalous results, biomarkers and two plenary technology sessions hosted by the Platinum sponsors. Experts and key opinion leaders were invited as guest speakers. A total of 424 delegates registered from 113 companies representing a large percentage of the European bioanalytical community. In addition to 48 oral presentations, 88 posters were presented and there was a vendor exposition of 40 companies. PMID:21510756

  12. A multidisciplinary approach to reconstructing the chronology and environment of southwestern European Neanderthals: the contribution of Teixoneres cave (Moià, Barcelona, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, Juan Manuel; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Burjachs, Francesc; Ballesteros, Anna; Allué, Ethel; Cuevas-Ruiz, Gloria Ericka; Rivals, Florent; Blasco, Ruth; Morales, Juan Ignacio; Hidalgo, Antonio Rodríguez; Carbonell, Eudald; Serrat, David; Rosell, Jordi

    2012-06-01

    According to pollen analysis and the 18O-isotope curve, the first part of the Late Pleistocene (ca 128-30 ka) is mainly characterized by a dynamic that alternates cold phases (Heinrich Events) and temperate phases (interstadials). These rapid fluctuations provide the context for the Neanderthal occupations in the northeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula. In this paper we present the chronological, environmental and climatic data obtained by analyzing the pollen, the charcoal, the small vertebrates (amphibians, squamates and small mammals) and the large-mammal dental wear at the Neanderthal site of Teixoneres cave, Northeastern Iberia. Levels II and III from this cavity have provided Mousterian industries and other evidence of Neanderthal occupations, such as cut-marks in large-mammal bones. A multiproxy study such as this constitutes a new approach to the chronological, environmental and climatic context in which Neanderthal populations lived in southwestern Europe (Iberian Peninsula). The results allow us to establish a relative chronology for these two levels of between ca 30-90 ka and show that they are associated with different environmental and climatic conditions: temperate and humid for Level III and cold and dry for Level II. This demonstrates that the Neanderthals were well adapted to the territory that they occupied, irrespective of the climatic conditions.

  13. Retrospective epidemiological study for the characterization of community- acquired pneumonia and pneumococcal pneumonia in adults in a well-defined area of Badalona (Barcelona, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has large impact on direct healthcare costs, especially those derived from hospitalization. This study determines impact, clinical characteristics, outcome and economic consequences of CAP in the adult (≥18 years) population attended in 6 primary-care centers and 2 hospitals in Badalona (Spain) over a two-year period. Methods Medical records were identified by codes from the International Classification of Diseases in databases (January 1st 2008-December 31st 2009). Results A total of 581 patients with CAP (55.6% males, mean age 57.5 years) were identified. Prevalence: 0.64% (95% CI: 0.5%-0.7%); annual incidence: 3.0 cases/1,000 inhabitants (95% CI: 0.2-0.5). Up to 241 (41.5%) required hospitalization. Hospital admission was associated (p<0.002) with liver disease (OR=5.9), stroke (OR=3.6), dementia (OR=3.5), COPD (OR=2.9), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.9) and age (OR=1.1 per year). Length of stay (4.4±0.3 days) was associated with PSI score (β=0.195), in turn associated with age (r=0.827) and Charlson index (r=0.497). Microbiological tests were performed in all inpatients but only in 35% outpatients. Among patients with microbiological tests, results were positive in 51.7%, and among them, S pneumoniae was identified in 57.5% cases. Time to recovery was 29.9±17.2 days. Up to 7.5% inpatients presented complications, 0.8% required ICU admission and 19.1% readmission. Inhospital mortality rate was 2.5%. Adjusted mean total cost was €2,332.4/inpatient and €698.6/outpatient (p<0.001). Patients with pneumococcal CAP (n=107) showed higher comorbidity and hospitalization (76.6%), higher PSI score, larger time to recovery and higher overall costs among inpatients. Conclusions Strategies preventing CAP, thus reducing hospital admissions could likely produce substantial costs savings in addition to the reduction of CAP burden. PMID:23114195

  14. The diagnosis and management of rectal cancer: expert discussion and recommendations derived from the 9th World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer, Barcelona, 2007.

    PubMed

    Van Cutsem, E; Dicato, M; Haustermans, K; Arber, N; Bosset, J-F; Cunningham, D; De Gramont, A; Diaz-Rubio, E; Ducreux, M; Goldberg, R; Glynne-Jones, R; Haller, D; Kang, Y-K; Kerr, D; Labianca, R; Minsky, B D; Moore, M; Nordlinger, B; Rougier, P; Scheithauer, W; Schmoll, H-J; Sobrero, A; Tabernero, J; Tempero, M; Van de Velde, C; Zalcberg, J

    2008-06-01

    Knowledge of the biology and management of rectal cancer continues to improve. A multidisciplinary approach to a patient with rectal cancer by an experienced expert team is mandatory, to assure optimal diagnosis and staging, surgery, selection of the appropriate neo-adjuvant and adjuvant strategy and chemotherapeutic management. Moreover, optimal symptom management also requires a dedicated team of health care professionals. The introduction of total mesorectal excision has been associated with a decrease in the rate of local failure after surgery. High quality surgery and the achievement of pathological measures of quality are a prerequisite to adequate locoregional control. There are now randomized data in favour of chemoradiotherapy or short course radiotherapy in the preoperative setting. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy is more beneficial and has less toxicity for patients with resectable rectal cancer than postoperative chemoradiotherapy. Furthermore chemoradiotherapy leads also to downsizing of locally advanced rectal cancer. New strategies that decrease the likelihood of distant metastases after initial treatment need be developed with high priority. Those involved in the care for patients with rectal cancer should be encouraged to participate in well-designed clinical trials, to increase the evidence-based knowledge and to make further progress. Health care workers involved in the care of rectal cancer patients should be encouraged to adopt quality control processes leading to increased expertise. PMID:18539618

  15. Motivation for Healthy Behavior: A Review of Health Promotion Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmore, Sarah; Goodson, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Authors reviewed the theoretical history of the "motivation" construct, and its utilization within past/current health behavior research. Textbooks and review articles functioned as sources for the theoretical history review. Research published within a 10-year period (1993-2002) in four health promotion journals (all with impact factors greater…

  16. PATTERNS OF MERCURY DEPOSITION AND CONCENTRATION IN NORTHEASTERN NORTH AMERICA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from 13 NADP/MDN monitoring sites (1996 -- 2002) and the Underhill (VT) event-based monitoring site (1993 -- 2002) were evaluated for spatial and temporal trends. Recent regional reductions of mercury emissions were not reflected in the mercury concentration or deposition d...

  17. The Mission Continues: Annual Report to the President on the Results of Participation of Historically Black Colleges and Universities in Federal Programs. 2002-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    From 1993-2002, federal support to Historically Black Colleges and Universities increased by $639 million, or 60 percent, while support for all institutions of higher education (IHEs) increased by 79 percent. The President's Advisory Board on HBCUs is concerned that federal support for HBCUs is not keeping pace with overall federal support for…

  18. Modelling Patterns of Improvement over Time: Value Added Trends in English Secondary School Performance across Ten Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sally; Peng, Wen Jung; Gray, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at underlying patterns of school effectiveness through analysing a GCSE examination data-set over a period of ten cohorts (1993-2002) in one very large English school district. Both value added and raw score approaches were explored by employing different statistical multilevel models to examine time trends of school and pupil…

  19. Economic and Racial Segregation in Greater Miami's Elementary Schools: Trends Shaping Metropolitan Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Myron; Discher, Anne; Luce, Tom

    This report highlights the social changes underway in Miami-area schools, discussing their implications for metropolitan growth policies. It focuses on changes in the racial and economic composition of elementary schools between 1993-2002. Data come from the Common Core of Data of the National Center for Education Statistics. Results indicate that…

  20. Evolution of the Conceptions of a Secondary Education Biology Teacher: Longitudinal Analysis Using Cognitive Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da-Silva, Consuelo; Mellado, Vicente; Ruiz, Constantino; Porlan, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    We describe a longitudinal study of a secondary education biology teacher at two moments in her career (1993-2002), determining the changes in her conceptions of the nature of science and its teaching and learning, and the factors that favored or hindered such changes. The changes were analyzed using cognitive maps, constructed on the basis of the…

  1. Exposure of health workers in primary health care to glutaraldehyde

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to avoid proliferation of microorganisms, cleaning, disinfection and sterilisation in health centres is of utmost importance hence reducing exposure of workers to biological agents and of clients that attend these health centres to potential infections. One of the most commonly-used chemical is glutaraldehyde. The effects of its exposure are well known in the hospital setting; however there is very little information available with regards to the primary health care domain. Objective To determine and measure the exposure of health workers in Primary Health Care Centres. Environmental to glutaraldehyde and staff concentration will be measured and compared with regulated Occupational Exposure Limits. Methods/Design Observational, cross-sectional and multi-centre study. The study population will be composed of any health professionals in contact with the chemical substance that work in the Primary Health Care Centres in the areas of Barcelonès Nord, Maresme, and Barcelona city belonging to the Catalan Institute of Health. Data will be collected from 1) Glutaraldhyde consumption from the previous 4 years in the health centres under study. 2) Semi-structured interviews and key informants to gather information related to glutaraldehyde exposure. 3) Sampling of the substance in the processes considered to be high exposure. Discussion Although glutaraldehyde is extensively used in health centres, scientific literature only deals with certain occupational hazards in the hospital setting. This study attempts to take an in-depth look into the risk factors and environmental conditions that exist in the primary care workplace with exposure to glutaraldehyde. PMID:24180250

  2. Origine et évolution du bassin Nord-Banda (Indonésie): apport des données magnétiquesOrigin and evolution of the North Banda Basin (Indonesia): constraints from magnetic data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinschberger, Florent; Malod, Jacques-André; Réhault, Jean-Pierre; Dyment, Jérôme; Honthaas, Christian; Villeneuve, Michel; Burhanuddin, Safri

    2000-10-01

    The North Banda Sea Basin is located in Eastern Indonesia, close to the triple junction between the Eurasian, Pacific and Indo-Australian plates, and opened during Late Miocene time in a back arc setting. We use the magnetic and bathymetric data to depict this opening and the geodynamical evolution of the basin. We also take into account radiochronological datations available from some dredges of its basement. Sea floor spreading occurred from 12.5 to 7.15 Ma directed by three large NW-SE transform faults, namely the West Buru, Tampomas and Hamilton fracture zones. Finally, a schematic model of the North and South Banda basins evolution is presented.

  3. Profil étiologique des surdités neurosensorielle sévère et profonde de l'enfant dans la région du centre-nord du Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Ridal, Mohammed; Outtasi, Naouar; Taybi, Zainab; Boulouiz, Redouan; Chaouki, Sanae; Boubou, Meryem; Maaroufi, Mustapha; Benmansour, Najib; Zaki, Zouheir; Ouldim, Karim; Barakat, Hamid; Hida, Mustapha; Tizniti, Siham; El Alami, Mohamed Noreddine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le diagnostic d'une surdité profonde est possible dès les premiers jours de vie. Or, le développement du langage et l'intégration scolaire et professionnelle ne sont pas possible que si la surdité est prise en charge précocement. L’établissement d'un diagnostc étiologique a des implications pronostiques et thérapeutiques. Méthodes C'est une étude rétrospective allant de Juin 2009 au mois de Janvier 2012 ayant recensé 250 cas d'enfants porteurs d'une surdité sévère et profonde. Résultats La moyenne d’âge au moment de l'annonce du diagnostic est de 3.7 ans. Les étiologies prédominantes sont les surdités génétiques dans 35.6% suivies des surdités acquises dans 30.8% des cas. Dans 34.4% des cas aucune étiologie n'a pu être retrouvée. Conclusion Cette étude met en évidence la prédominance éventuelle de causes génétiques de la surdité neurosensorielle de l'enfant au Maroc, et souligne la nécessité d'améliorer les politiques de prévention des maladies infectieuses et de dépistage de la surdité néonatale. Cependant, des analyses moléculaires plus ciblées et la réalisation d'un scanner des rochers systématiques sont nécessaires pour évaluer plus précisément la contribution des étiologies génétiques. PMID:25018837

  4. Présence de sills de roches ignées acides dans la mine Sb-Au de Ribeiro da Serra, district Dúrico-Beirão, Nord Portugal. Implications métallogéniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couto, Helena; Roger, Guy; Fonteilles, Michel

    1999-11-01

    In the Ribeiro da Serra mine, subconcordant and locally discordant veins composed mainly of quartz and albite, hosted by the bedded sequence of the schist-greywacke complex, are interpreted as sills of albitized felsic igneous rocks. They were emplaced after major Hercynian folding, in the same faulted structure as a mineralized quartz vein, and probably only a short time before the latter. The existence of this magmatic activity supports the hypothesis of an indirect relationship between the Sb-Au veins and a hidden granitic intrusion in the Dúrico-Beirão district.

  5. Histoire de l'exhumation de l'Altun Shan: indications sur l'âge de la subduction du bloc du Tarim sous le système de l'Altyn Tagh (Nord Tibet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, Marc; Roger, Françoise; Arnaud, Nicolas; Brunel, Maurice; Tapponnier, Paul; Seward, Diane

    1999-11-01

    The Altun Shan is a tectonic block to the south of the Tarim basin, North Tibet, bounded to the south by the Altyn Tagh fault. U/Pb crystallisation ages on zircons are 441 ± 9 Ma. 40Ar/ 39Ar analysis on muscovite yields an age of 383 ± 7 Ma. Both indicate a cooling rate of 7.3 ± 0.6 °C·Ma -1 from 441 to 383 Ma. Further cooling, probably due to exhumation, began at this time and continued at a rate of 0.8 ± 0.3 °C·Ma -1 From three apatite fission-track analyses, cooling rate increased to 8 ± 2 °C·Ma -1 at 10 Ma.

  6. Un segment proximal de rampe carbonatée d'âge protérozoïque supérieur au Nord du craton d'Afrique centrale (sud-est de la République centrafricaine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Philippe

    1996-01-01

    Near Bakouma (southwest Central African Republic), the ante Pan African carbonated formations are deeply karstified and overlaid by uranium and phosphorus bearing sediments, probably Eocene in age. The sedimentological study, of drilling cores allows the proposal of a carbonated ramp model for the lithological pile. This ramp was backed on to a large argilaceous continental rise with feldspathic sandy deposits. In the marine domain, pelitic sediments of the coastal plain progressively change into dolomites deposited on a dissipative beach limited by a discontinuous and partially emerged stromatolic bioherm. In the south, the stromatolic bioherms of Kassa-Limassa are interbedded in lagoonal silicified dolomites bearing evidence of evaporitic processes. Native copper is locally present in shore deposits. The progradation of the facies is southwards. This model is compared to the beach of the carbonated ramp evidenced for the Schisto-calcaire Group in Congo. The carbonated ramps of Central Africa, established before the Pan-African orogeny, can be linked to the same tectono-eustatic regressive period as the Schisto-calcaire ramp (West-Congolian Supergroup). By comparaison with the results obtained in south Congo, the age of the carbonated ramp in the north of Central Africa could be near the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary.

  7. Highlighting the Impacts of North-South Research Collaboration among Canadian and Southern Higher Education Partners (Principaux impacts des collaborations de recherche Nord-Sud entre les partenaires des etablissements d'enseignement superieur du Canada et du Sud)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) felt it was timely to create an academic forum in which university researchers have the opportunity to engage with their peers and relevant stakeholders and document the impacts of their North-South research collaboration in a peer-reviewed publication. The Association achieved this by…

  8. Tectonique en radeaux au toit d'un ≪ glacier de sel ≫ sous-marin albien de Tunisie du Nord-Ouest: exemple du secteur minier de Gueurn Halfaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, Jean-Marie; Youssef, Mohamed Ben; Bouhlel, Salah; Ghanmi, Mohamed; Kassa, Samia; Miaadi, Fethi

    1998-10-01

    In northwestern Tunisia, the new study of the Gueurn Halfaya mining area allows us to define the relationships of the Triassic masses with the surrounding Cretaceous and Miocene formations, and to specify the genesis of several mineralizations (Fe, Sr, Pb-Zn), from an Aptian-Albian tilted block extensional setting, later tectonically inverted during the Tertiary. During the Lower-Middle Cretaceous, a sedimentary slope with boulders, determined by normal faulting, receives a submarine 'salt glacier', like in the Gulf of Mexico. This is then overlain by two successive sedimentary covers (Middle-Upper Albian and Vraconian-Turonian); the depocentres of the second cover directly overlie the saliferous Triassic rocks after the rafting of the first cover. This organisation is similar to the Kuanza basin setting in Angola. The Lower-Middle Cretaceous tectono-sedimentary evolution proposed here, very different to the 'classical' forceful diapiric interpretation, is continuously drived from the extensional tectonics (sedimentation and mineralizations, before, during and after the halokinesis), and afterwards tectonically inverted by the two Tertiary contractional events.

  9. Extension spatiale de la salinisation des ressources en eau et modèle conceptuel des sources salées dans la plaine des Triffa (Maroc nord-oriental)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boughriba, Mimoun; Melloul, Abderrahmane; Zarhloule, Yassine; Ouardi, Abdelillah

    2006-09-01

    The succession of drought years and excessive abstraction in the plain of Triffa caused deterioration in water quality and endangers future exploitation of groundwater resources. A combination of geophysical surveys, including electrical resistivity and hydrochemical data has been used to identify the geographical extension of salinization and identify its origin. Electrical conductivity measurements are used to show the history of salinization in space and time. In this paper, a first conceptual model of the brackish springs has been established. To cite this article: M. Boughriba et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  10. Origine du soufre associé aux minéralisations Pb-Zn de type Mississippi Valley de la chaîne des Beni Snassen orientaux (Maroc nord-oriental)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouabdellah, Mohammed; Boudchiche, Lahbib; Ouahhabi, Benali; Naciri, Tayeb

    2008-12-01

    Sulfur isotope data measured on samples of galena from the main Mississippi Valley-type prospects of the eastern Beni Snassen belt preclude an igneous source for sulfur, pointing instead to a sedimentary source. Negative δ 34S values are interpreted to being derived from bacteriogenic reduction of Jurassic seawater sulphate. Positive δ 34S values are considered to be hydrothermal sulfide transported with metal-bearing fluid. Mixing of these two fluids resulted in the deposition of the Pb ore.

  11. Kinetic studies of 25-hydroxy-19-nor-vitamin D3 and 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy-19-nor-vitamin D3 hydroxylation by CYP27B1 and CYP24A1.

    PubMed

    Urushino, Naoko; Nakabayashi, Sachie; Arai, Midori A; Kittaka, Atsushi; Chen, Tai C; Yamamoto, Keiko; Hayashi, Keiko; Kato, Shigeaki; Ohta, Miho; Kamakura, Masaki; Ikushiro, Shinichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki

    2007-09-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that 25-hydroxy-19-nor-vitamin D(3) [25(OH)-19-nor-D(3)] inhibited the proliferation of immortalized noncancerous PZ-HPV-7 prostate cells similar to 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)], suggesting that 25(OH)-19-nor-D(3) might be converted to 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy-19-nor-vitamin D(3) [1 alpha,25(OH)(2)-19-nor-D(3)] by CYP27B1 before exerting its antiproliferative activity. Using an in vitro cell-free model to study the kinetics of CYP27B1-dependent 1 alpha-hydroxylation of 25(OH)-19-nor-D(3) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] and CYP24A1-dependent hydroxylation of 1 alpha,25(OH)-19-nor-D(3) and 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), we found that k(cat)/K(m) for 1 alpha-hydroxylation of 25(OH)-19-nor-D(3) was less than 0.1% of that for 25(OH)D(3), and the k(cat)/K(m) value for 24-hydroxylation was not significantly different between 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)-19-nor-D(3) and 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3). The data suggest a much slower formation and a similar rate of degradation of 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)-19-nor-D(3) compared with 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3). We then analyzed the metabolites of 25(OH)D(3) and 25(OH)-19-nor-D(3) in PZ-HPV-7 cells by high-performance liquid chromatography. We found that a peak that comigrated with 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) was detected in cells incubated with 25(OH)D(3), whereas no 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)-19-nor-D(3) was detected in cells incubated with 25(OH)-19-nor-D(3). Thus, the present results do not support our previous hypothesis that 25(OH)-19-nor-D(3) is converted to 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)-19-nor-D(3) by CYP27B1 in prostate cells to inhibit cell proliferation. We hypothesize that 25(OH)-19-nor-D(3) by itself may have a novel mechanism to activate vitamin D receptor or it is metabolized in prostate cells to an unknown metabolite with antiproliferative activity without 1 alpha-hydroxylation. Thus, the results suggest that 25(OH)-19-nor-D(3) has potential as an attractive agent for prostate cancer therapy. PMID:17553915

  12. School Exchanges Present and Future. Proceedings of the Symposium (Barcelona, Spain, March 13-17, 1991) = Bilan et Perspectives des Echanges Scolaires. Actes du colloque (Barcelone, Spain, 13-17 mar 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium).

    This document sets forth the proceedings of a symposium on the subject of international educational exchanges. Part 1 of the document includes introductory remarks by Catalonia's minister of education and David Coyne of the European Commission's task force on human relations. Part 2 offers specific introductory material on political, theoretical,…

  13. Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility in Barcelona: penA, ponA, mtrR, and porB mutations and NG-MAST sequence types associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Serra-Pladevall, J; Barberá, M J; Rodriguez, S; Bartolomé-Comas, R; Roig, G; Juvé, R; Andreu, A

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in our area, to analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in cephalosporins resistance, and to undertake molecular typing of our NG strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the Etest. The genes penA, mtrR, penB, and ponA were studied. Molecular typing was performed by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing. Of 329 strains analyzed in 2013, none showed high-level cephalosporin resistance, but 8.2 % had resistance to cefixime [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 0.125 μg/mL] and 0.6 % to ceftriaxone (MIC > 0.125 μg/mL). Azithromycin resistance was documented in 4.3 % and ciprofloxacin resistance in 49.2 %. Among 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 58.3 % showed the penA mosaic pattern XXXIV, 98 % a Leu → Pro substitution at position 421 of the ponA gene, 100 % amino acid changes at positions 101 and 102 of the PorB1b porin, and 87.5 % of strains an adenine deletion in the promoter region of the MtrC-D-E efflux pump. A significant difference between strains with and without decreased cephalosporin susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) was observed for these four genes. Of the 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 43.8 % belonged to the genogroup G1407 and 27.1 % belonged to the genogroup G2400. A significant association of G1407 with decreased susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) and G2992 with susceptibility was found, and also between G1407 and mosaic pattern XXXIV and between G2400 and A501T substitution in penA. The NG resistance rate in our area is higher than the median of Europe. We have detected the emergence of G2400, which may be a source of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27255221

  14. Motorized Migrations: the Future or Mere Fantasy?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Sladen, William J. L.; Lishman, W.A.; Clegg, K.R.; Duff, J.W.; Gee, G.F.; Lewis, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    In 15 experiments from 1993-2002, we led cranes, geese, or swans on their first southward migration with either ultralight aircraft or vehicles on the ground. These experiments reveal that large birds can be readily trained to follow and most will return north (and south) in subsequent migrations unassisted. These techniques can now be used to teach birds new (or forgotten) migration paths. Although we are constantly improving our training techniques, we now have an operational program that can be broadly applied to those species where juveniles learn migration routes from their parents.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Fabry disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) National Tay-Sachs & Allied Diseases Association, Inc. Resource list from the ... Brady R, Barranger J, Collins AJ, Germain DP, Goldman M, Grabowski G, Packman S, Wilcox WR. Fabry disease, ...

  16. Spasticity

    MedlinePlus

    ... in association with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, stroke, brain or head trauma, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ... 999-NORD (6673) Fax: 203-798-2291 United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) 1825 K St NW Suite 600 Washington, ...

  17. Striatonigral Degeneration

    MedlinePlus

    ... 744-0100; Voice Mail: 800-999-NORD (6673) Fax: 203-798-2291 American Parkinson Disease Association 135 ... 223-2732; 877-223-3801 (Young Onset Center) Fax: 718-981-4399 National Parkinson Foundation 200 SE ...

  18. Healing at Home: 100 Years of Public Health Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahy, Ellen T.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "Now More than Ever" (Fahy); "Healing at Home" (photo essay); "Amelia Greenwald: Pioneer in International Public Health Nursing" (Mayer); "Alaska's Watched Pot" (Nord); and "Gertrude Weld Peabody: Unsung Patron of Public Health Nursing Education" (Doona). (JOW)

  19. 75 FR 23847 - Blocking of Specially Designated National Pursuant to Executive Order 13413

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ..., Democratic Republic of the; DOB 1973; POB Nord-Kivu, DRC; alt. POB Rwanda; nationality Congo, Democratic.... MUTEBUZI, Jules), Rwanda; DOB 6 Jul 1960; POB South Kivu, DRC; nationality Congo, Democratic Republic...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... a chemical that transmits signals in the brain (neurotransmitter) called gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). The primary ... Diseases National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) Pediatric Neurotransmitter Disease Association GeneReviews (1 link) Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Laron syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 links) Human Growth Foundation Little People of America National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD): Growth Hormone ... on PubMed Central Guevara-Aguirre J, Rosenbloom AL. Obesity, diabetes and cancer: insight into the relationship from ...

  2. L'olistostrome coniacien de Lordat (Pyrénées ariégeoises) et son équivalent latéral de Vicdessos, témoins d'un nouveau bassin d'avant-pays au front nord de la Haute Chaîne Primaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peybernès, Bernard; Fondecave-Wallez, Marie-José; Eichène, Paule

    By means of new datings and grade-datings founded on planktonic Foraminifera, ponctually identified in spite of a Campanian epimetamorphism, the extention of the Coniacian sub-basin of Lordat (« Zone des Écailles Bordières » , Ariège),partly calciturbiditic, is doubled indeed tripled at the expense of formations previously assigned to Paleozoic (particularly the ex-'Paleozoic slice of Lordat'). These last ones are only represented by very large size olistolites redeposited within a thick olistostrome (Lordat castle, Saint-Pierre hermitage), itself included within a monoclinal succession with calcareous intercalations, regarded as a probable equivalent of the 'Fucoïd flysch'. This épimetamorphic series also exists, more to the North, beyond the marbles of the Internal Metamorphic Zone, as it is evidenced by the Upper Cretaceous age assigned to the ex-Paleozoic slice of Carmilles directly overthrust by the North-pyrenean hercynian massif of Saint-Barthelemy. More to the West, the Vicdessos sub-basin is regarded as a lateral extension of the Lordat one ; it consists of a thick monoclinal Coniacian series and not of a large 'synclinorium' subdivided by Urgo-Aptian anticlines which correspond, in reality, to calcareous intercalations within the Upper Cretaceous normal succession. The herein studied terrigenous complex of Lordat-Vicdessos, partly turbiditic, is composed by, at least, two 3rd order tectono-sedimentary sequences, A and B, marking the successive infilling of foreland synsedimentary synclines supplied (olistolites) by the probably submarine erosion of the Northward migrating front of the High Primary Range (induced by successive synsedimentary probably blind overthrusts). This model of foreland sub-basin fits in perfectly with the evolutional sheme of an interplaque bivergent range, in compression during Upper Cretaceous, where followed along a N-S palinspastic section reconstructed during Coniacian, on the two sides of the future High Primary Range, at least two sub-basins linked to the European Plate (Lordat-Vicdessos and Nalzen I) and one sub-basin (San Gervas) linked to the Iberian Plate.

  3. Séquences de dépôt à l'articulation plate-forme urgonienne bassin (intervalle Barrémien Albien) dans le Prébalkan occidental (Bulgarie du Nord-Ouest)Depositional sequences at the Urgonian platform/basin transition (Barremian Albian interval) in the western Fore-Balkan (northwest Bulgaria).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peybernès, Bernard; Ivanov, Marin; Nikolov, Todor; Ciszak, Richard; Stoykova, Kristalina

    2000-04-01

    In the western Fore-Balkan (northwest Bulgaria), the characterization of numerous depositional sequences within the Barremian-Albian interval allows us to reconstruct from southeast to northwest the successive palaeogeographies of this part of the north Tethyan margin: two carbonate (Urgonian) platforms flanking a central terrigenous basin during the Barremian; a single centrifugal terrigenous basin (Aptian) marked, along its axis, by an olistostrome and siliciclastic turbidites; a single Albian basin characterized by the stacking of glauconite-rich condensation sections and anoxic black marls.

  4. Caractérisation géométrique et cinématique des structures liées aux phases compressives de l'Éocène au Quaternaire inférieur en Tunisie : exemple de la Tunisie nord-orientale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mzali, Houcem; Zouari, Hédi

    2006-08-01

    During Eocene to Early Quaternary period, three compressive tectonic phases are recognized in Northeast Tunisia: a NW-SE to north-south phase during the Late Eocene, a N120-to-N140 phase in the Late Miocene, and a NW-SE to north-south phase in the Plio-Early Quaternary. The first Eocene phase has built NE-SW folds and remobilised east-west-to-N120 and NE-SW faults with a reverse component. The second Miocene phase is characterized by east-west-to-N120 faults with a normal component and NE-SW folds. The third phase occurred during the Plio-Early Quaternary has edified NE-SW folds associated with east-west-to-N120 dextral reverse strike-slip faults and NE-SW faults with a reverse component. To cite this article: H. Mzali, H. Zouari, C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  5. Sur les inocérames de Tercis (Landes, France) : le meilleur outil corrélatif entre Europe et Amérique du Nord autour de la limite Campanien MaastrichtienInoceramids of the site of Tercis (Landes, France): the best correlative tool between Europe and North America across the Campanian Maastrichtian boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odin, Gilles Serge; Walaszczyk, Ireneusz

    2003-01-01

    Four hundred inoceramids have been collected in the geological site at Tercis, where the Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary has been recently defined. At Tercis, a distinct drop of the adult size of inoceramids is observed between levels 111 and 117 and two turnovers of faunal composition were documented between levels 94 and 96 and between levels 111 and 117; the latter interval encompasses the stage boundary. The recognised inoceramid assemblages are very close to those known from North America, allowing better correlation than before between the two domains in the interval 77-70 Ma. The presence of these faunas perfectly located in the section leads to consider the Tercis section as the best known reference for this fossil group, the surprisingly good correlative potential of which has still to be considered in many areas.

  6. Caractéristiques et signification d'un niveau coquillier majeur à brachiopodes, marqueur événementiel dans l'évolution dévonienne de la Saoura (Sahara du Nord-Ouest, Algérie)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouali Mehadji, Abdelkader; Elmi, Serge; Rachebœuf, Patrick; Mekahli, Larbi

    2004-11-01

    In the Saoura, the brachiopod shell beds, so-called niveau coralligène, correspond to a major shell deposit dated to the Late Emsian. Brachiopods and crinoids dominate the benthic assemblage that contains also corals, bryozoans, trilobites, goniatites, and orthocones. This major level has a large geographic distribution and it is characterized by a wide brachiopod diversity due to time-averaging, taphonomic feedback and alternate bottom conditions changing from soft to shelly and firm. This kind of brachiopod association is linked to a transgressive onlap system. At regional extent, we can correlate this major shell bed to similar shell deposits from the Ahnet-Mouydir, Tindouf, and Zemmour areas. It indicates an important transgressive event underlined by change in the sedimentation from detritic deposits to carbonate sediments. To cite this article: A. Ouali Mehadji et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  7. Lithostratigraphie, sédimentologie et évolution de deux bassins molassiques intramontagneux de la chaine Pan-Africaine: la Série pourprée de l'Ahnet, Nord-Ouest du Hoggar, Algérie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait-Kaci Ahmed, Ali; Moussine-Pouchkine, Alexis

    The study of two of the intermontane molassic basins of the 'Série pourprée de l'Ahnet' shows that they developed independently both in time and space. The characteristics of their thick sedimentary infillings are quite different. The Ouallen basin is filled by essentially fine-grained sediments which were deposited in continental then marine or lacustrine environments; these sediments thicen from east to west. The In Semmen basin is characterised by coarser sediments which were deposited from south to north, in alluvial fan, fluvial, deltaic and slope environments. This basin is also characterised by an episode of carbonate sedimentation leading to the formation of a remarkable thin layer of carbonate, covering the entire sedimentary area, and perhaps related to a volcanic rhyolitic event. The history of the two basins is also marked by obvious tectonic events simultaneous with the sedimentation and related to the recurrent faulting of major Pan-African faults. These led to the formation of very coarse fanglomerates located near the fault scarps, and are probably responsible for the shape and the evolution of the basins.

  8. Possible presence of some human remains of the Wadjak type found at Cau Giat (Quynh Luu Bay, North Vietnam)Présence probable de formes de type Wadjak dans la baie fossile de Quyhn Luu au Nord Viêt-nam sur le site de Cau Giat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeter, Fabrice; Peyre, Evelyne; Coppens, Yves

    2000-03-01

    French archaeologists have known the Cau Giat site, excavated by Mrs Colani and Mr Pajot, since 1930. Many artefacts and human remains have been found, but human fossil material has long been lost and forgotten. However, the study of rediscovered fossil material highlights some morphological aspects that allow consideration of a human presence resembling the Wadjak in North Vietnam. Recognition of particular characters of the Wadjak type, outside Indonesia, leads to the hypothesis of the existence of migratory ways or diffusion between the Indonesian islands and the Eurasiatic continent.

  9. Du Gondwana à l'atlantique sud: les connexions du fossé de la bénoué avec les bassins du Nord-Est brésilien jusqu'à l'ouverture du golfe de Guinée au crétacé inférieur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popoff, Michel

    The Benue trough and the intracontinental basins of Northeast Brazil are located in the African-South American mobile belt deformed during the Pan-African (or Brazilian) orogeny. The chain trends in a N-S to NNE-SSW direction. During the Late Precambrian collision stages in between the cratons of West Africa, Sao Francisco and Congo, dominant NE-SW ductile shear zones acted as limits of mobile crustal blocks on both sides of the Gulf of Guinea. This gondwanian assemblage was reworked during the installation of the West and Central African rift system under the effects of a generalized distension which led to the opening of the Equatorial domain of the South Atlantic. Phanerozoic basins became oriented according to the inherited gondwanian mega-discontinuities along which brittle tectonics was most prominent. After an initial pre-rift deformation from Late Jurassic to Eo-Cretaceous, three principal tectono-sedimentary phases in the Benue Trough and the Northeast Brazilian basins have been shown— an eo-rift phase (Neocomian to Early Barremian) of extensional brittle tectonics and basin initiation— a syn-rift I phase (Barremian to Middle Albian) of crustal stretching, local block tilting and basin installation; associated synchronous basaltic magmatism with transitional affinities is characteristic of intracontinental distensive zones. This is the period of the Medio-African and NE-Brazilian Cretaceous Great Lakes; a syn-rift II phase (Late Albian-Early Cenomanian) of a probable crustal surextension related to regional tilting. The above evolutionary stages apply to the Equatorial domain of the South Atlantic (NE Brazil, Cameroon, Nigeria up to the Ivory Coast) deformed during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. This domain represented the final gondwanian link between the Central and South Atlantic. The new evidences of well dated polyphased intra-plate deformations are contrary to the earlier views of rigid plates in the context of continental reconstructions to obtain the pre-drift fit, different from the pre-rift one. Reconsidering the scenario of the South Atlantic opening through the geological record of its continental margins, it can be noted that the axial rift propagates from the South towards the North within successive domains (Austral, Tropical and Equatorial). The continental rifting-drifting processes were thus reproduced in the adjoining domain every 20 Ma. At the limit, transfer fault zones oriented NE-SW (with Africa in its present position) accomodate a differential deformation between each domain. In the Benue Trough, a strike-slip sinistral movement with a displacement of several tens of kilometres has been estimated along a similar NE-SW direction. The trough represents the abandoned arm of a RRF triple junction which acted at the time of the refraction of the Southern South Atlantic opening into the E-W domain of the Gulf of Guinea. The present features of the African and South American continents appeared as from the uppermost Albian to Lower Cenomanian times of final crustal disruption followed by a progressive separation of the land masses along the strike-slip equatorial margins.

  10. Communique: Special Issue on the International Network for Cooperation in Northern Science Created at a Meeting held in Edmonton, Alberta (October 12-15, 1982). Summary of Discussions and Agreements Reached = Numero special sur le Reseau Scientifique Internationale pour le Nord cree a la reunion tenue a Edmonton, Alberta (du 12 au 15 octobre 1982). Resume des discussions et accords conclus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communique, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Delegations from Canada, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States agreed to the establishment of a network for cooperation among individuals engaged in problems peculiar to the circumpolar North. The Northern Science Network, established within the Unesco Man and the Biosphere Program, consists of three themes: studies on the…

  11. "The Right To Speak Irish": representation de la langue gaelique en tant qu'enjeu de mobilisation militante en Irlande du Nord ("The Right To Speak Irish": Representation of the Gaelic Language as a Catalyst for Militant Activism in Northern Ireland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Viviane

    2000-01-01

    The Irish language movement in Northern Ireland was formed in the 1970s. Pragmatic and symbolic implications of this minority language revival considerably evolved, reflecting and depending on important political changes happening in this European province. This article focuses on the representation of Irish language and the most recent strategy…

  12. Validité de l'application des méthodes de vulnérabilité DRASTIC, SINTACS et SI à l'étude de la pollution par les nitrates dans la nappe phréatique de Metline Ras Jebel Raf Raf (Nord-Est tunisien)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Mohamed Hafedh; Added, Ayed; Francés, Alain; Rodríguez, Ramiro

    2007-06-01

    The phreatic aquifer of Metline-Ras Jebel-Raf Raf (prefecture of Bizerte, northeastern coast of Tunisia), which occupies an area of 35 km 2, has a great economical importance, because it is used for irrigation and domestic consumption. The area of the aquifer is essentially occupied by agricultural zones, characterised by increasing use of chemical fertilizers. These chemical fertilizers threaten the quality of the groundwaters. The study of the vulnerability to pollution of this aquifer was made by applying two intrinsic vulnerability methods: the generic DRASTIC and the SINTACS methods, and a specific method of vulnerability to nitrate pollution: the SI method. For the application of those methods, GIS techniques were used. The validity of the different methods to agricultural pollution by nitrates was verified by comparing the distribution of these species in the groundwater with the distribution of the different vulnerability classes. The comparison demonstrated that the SI method is the most valid method in the studied system.

  13. Superposition de la tectonique éburnéenne et panafricaine dans les granitoïdes de la bordure nord du craton ouest africain, boutonniére de Zenaga, Anti-Atlas central, Maroc(Pan-african overprint on Eburnian granitoids at the northern boundary of the West African Craton, Zenaga Inlier, central Anti-Atlas, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennih, N.; Laduron, D.; Greiling, R. O.; Errami, E.; de Wall, H.; Boutaleb, M.

    2001-05-01

    The Zenaga Inlier shows a comprehensive record of the Eburnian and Pan-African Orogenies. The Eburnian is characterised by high-temperature regional metamorphism and complex magmatism. The early (Azguemerzi) granodiorite has an isotopic mantle signature and was emplaced diapirically during the Eburnian Orogeny causing local thermal metamorphism. The foliation observed in this granitoid is a result of the interference between its primary syn-emplacement foliation and the regional foliation under amphibolite-facies conditions. The northern part of Zenaga has been intruded by the leucocratic granites of Tazenakht. These granites are cut by mylonites and phyllonites, corresponding to the Pan-African shear zones and accompanied with sub-greenschist-facies metamorphism during the Pan-African Orogeny. The deformation was the result of a regional sinistral transpressive event. This study in the northern part of the West African Craton shows the superposition of the Pan-African on the Eburnian Orogeny and the presence of a major fault in the Anti-Atlas.

  14. Validation of a model for sound propagation over non-flat terrain using BEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiros Y Alpera, Susana

    The aim of this thesis consists on validating the Scandinavian outdoors sound propagation model NORD2000 based on ray theory, diffraction theory and Fresnel-zone considerations. NORD2000 can predict sound propagation over non-flat terrain, but it still needed to be validated for configurations that involve combinations of flat ground, hills and barriers. In order to do this a boundary element model has been implemented in MATLAB to serve a reliable reference. It has been named MEC-ACOPLAMIENTO since it solves the Helmholtz integral equation, considering concavities and convexities of the terrain problems separately. Afterwards both problems are coupled by means of a fictitious boundary. The numerical model is checked with analytical solutions, numerical uncoupled cases and experimental scaled measurements. The results obtained with NORD2000 agree with those obtained with MEC-ACOPLAMIENTO.

  15. L'affleurement triasique du Debadib Ben Gasseur (Nord-Ouest de la Tunisie) : diapir enraciné à épanchements latéraux dans la mer Albienne, replissé au cours des phases de compression tertiairesThe Triassic rocks of the Debadib Ben Gasseur area (northwestern Tunisia): diapir with overhangs spreading downslope in the Albian Sea and deformed during the Tertiary compressional deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikhaoui, Mongi; Jallouli, Chokri; Turki, Mohamed Moncef; Soussi, Mohamed; Braham, Ahmed; Zaghbib-Turki, Dalia

    2002-12-01

    The Triassic outcrops of the Debadib-Ben Gasseur area, located in the Kef area (northwestern Tunisia) have recently been interpreted as submarine 'salt glaciers' interbedded within the Albian deposits (J.-M. Vila et al., C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Ser. II 318 (1994) 1661-1667). New cartographic, drills and gravimetric data recognised evidence for an Albian diapiric stage for the Triassic rocks. The Triassic rocks as pulling out of the sedimentary cover could spread laterally as small size 'salt glaciers' before they have been deformed during the Tertiary compressional deformations. To cite this article: M. Chikhaoui et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 1129-1133.

  16. Nouvelle interprétation structurale de la O faille Nord- Pyrénéenne e en vallée d'Aspe (Pyrénées-Atlantiques). Remise en question d'un plutonisme ophitique danien dans leBsecteur de BedousNew structural interpretation of the ?North-Pyrenean Fault? in the Aspe Valley (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France). Question about a so-called Danian ophitic plutonism in the Bedous area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canérot, Joseph; Majesté-Menjoulas, Claude; Ternet, Yves

    2004-02-01

    In the Aspe Valley (western Pyrenees), the Europe/Iberia boundary corresponds to a complex fracturing zone, called the 'Bielle-Accous Wrench-Faulting Corridor', which represents the classical 'North-Pyrenean Fault'. Located between the High Primary Range and the North-Pyrenean Zone, the BAWC shows different south-verging sheets mainly composed of Triassic materials. The Bedous ophite, associated with Muschelkalk and Keuper sediments, is also Triassic in age and involved in the same Pyrenean thrusting structures. So, contrary to a recent interpretation, this magmatic rock cannot be related to a supposed Danian plutonism inducing metamorphic processes in the surrounding Mesozoic formations. To cite this article: J. Canérot et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  17. Nouvelles données biostratigraphiques et sédimentologiques des formations carbonifères de la région de Bouqachmir (Maroc central). Implications sur la paléogéographie des bassins carbonifères nord-mésétiensNew biostratigraphic and sedimentological data of the Carboniferous formations in the Bouqachmir area (central Morocco). Implications on the palaeogeography of the north Mesetian Carboniferous basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izart, Alain; Tahiri, Abdelfatah; El Boursoumi, Abdou; Vachard, Daniel; Saidi, Mariam; Chèvremont, Philippe; Berkhli, Mostafa

    2001-02-01

    New Visean formations and biozones of foraminifera were defined on the Bouqachmir map. The new biozonation concerns the Moroccan biozone, Cfm1, which is subdivided into two subzones, Cfm1a and Cfm1b. This map exhibited, from north-west to south-east, the Tilouine, Bouqachmir-Tougouroulmès and Fourhal turbiditic basins. The first one, from Tournaisian to Late Visean, was the equivalent of the Sidi Bettache basin, located westwards. The second extended the Tilouine basin eastwards during the Visean. The third was a basin from Visean to Westphalian. They were separated by the Zaer-Oulmes and El Hammam horsts, else emerged or immersed, bordered by faults and with materials feeding chaotic deposits.

  18. Restriction des communications entre l'Atlantique et la Méditerranée au Messinien : apport de la téphrochronologie dans la plate-forme carbonatée et le bassin de Melilla Nador (Rif nord-oriental, Maroc)Restriction of the seawater exchanges between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean during the Messinian: contribution of the tephrochronology of the Melilla Nador area (north-eastern Rif, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, Philippe; Roger, Stephan; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Saint Martin, Jean-Paul; Féraud, Gilbert; Moussa, Abdelkhalak Ben

    2001-05-01

    Thirty-eight volcanic layers have been found, from the littoral carbonate platform to the basin, interbedded within the Neogene deposits of the Melilla-Nador area. Ten of them, whose stratigraphic location and geographic extension have been established, were petrographically and mineralogically studied. They have been used as markers to establish an overall platform/basin correlation sketch. Together with these correlations and a synthesis of available ages, we show that the sedimentation areas, and thus the oceanic circulations, progressively restricted in this region between 6.5 and 5.77 Ma as a consequence of tectono-magmatic activity of the Gourougou magmatic field.

  19. Une plate-forme en distension, témoin de phases pré-accrétion téthysienne en Afrique du Nord pendant le Toarcien Aalénien (synclinal Iguer Awragh Afennourir, Moyen Atlas occidental, Maroc)A pre-accretional extensional platform of the North African Tethys during the Toarcian Aalenian (Iguer Awragh Afennourir syncline, western Middle Atlas, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hammichi, Fatima; Elmi, Serge; Faure-Muret, Anne; Benshilil, Khadija

    2002-10-01

    A stratigraphic study and mapping allow defining the particular features of this area of the southwestern Middle Atlas (Morocco) during the Toarcian and the Aalenian. Numerous spectacular variations in thickness and facies are documented by the discovery of coralline build-ups dated to the Late Toarcian. They occur along the palaeostructures. Development of the structures occurred in several stages: (1) initial differentiation during the Early and Middle Toarcian; (2) homogenisation during the Late Toarcian, after the construction of the reefs. The Aalenian history is similar: differentiation (Early Aalenian)-homogenisation (Middle to Late Aalenian). Two palaeostructural trends are evident: SW-NE and transverse SSW-NNE to south-north. These caused separation of several subbasins, which alternatively deepened and shallowed, probably due to the tilting of several blocks to the southwest. To cite this article: F. El Hammichi et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 1003-1010.

  20. Comparative analysis of urban and rural nursing workforce shortages in Nebraska hospitals.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Mary; Nienaber, Jill; Helget, Peg; Agrawal, Sangeeta

    2006-11-01

    Current workforce models that rely on economic indicators have seriously underestimated the rural RN shortage and its impact on rural hospitals. This cross-sectional study developed an algorithm using the concept of need and applied it to health service demand data in 66 counties of a midwestern state (1993-2002) to determine trends in RN shortages between urban and rural areas. Results showed that rural areas consistently had the largest gap between predicted need for RNs and numbers employed and that the rural RN shortages were significantly greater than in urban areas. This study suggests that adequate and geographically specific targets of RN need are essential, especially for rural areas, because of policy implications for rural hospital staffing and workforce planning. Inadequate workforce targets perpetuate the shortage, especially in rural areas, and exacerbate the very reasons that RNs leave over concerns for patient safety, inadequate staffing, and job dissatisfaction. PMID:17242390

  1. The effects of harvest regulations on behaviors of duck hunters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugen, Matthew T.; Powell, Larkin A.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty exists as to how duck harvest regulations influence waterfowl hunter behavior. We used the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Parts Collection Survey to examine how harvest regulations affected behaviors of Central Flyway duck hunters. We stratified hunters into ranked groups based on seasonal harvest and identified three periods (1975–1984, 1988–1993, 2002–2011) that represented different harvest regulations (moderate, restrictive, and liberal, respectively; season length and daily bag limits smallest in restrictive seasons and largest in liberal seasons). We examined variability of seven measures of duck hunter behaviors across the periods: days harvesting ducks, daily harvest, hunter mobility, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) selectivity, gender selectivity, daily female mallard harvest, and timing of harvest. Hunters reported harvesting ducks on more days, at a higher efficiency, and in slightly more counties during liberal seasons relative to restrictive and moderate seasons. We provide evidence to suggest that future regulation change will affect hunter behaviors.

  2. Holy Grail or Poisoned Chalice? A Case Study of Partnership Collaboration between a University School of Education and a Private Sector Education Services Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Bill; Brown, Marie

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a case study of the set up and first year operations of the public-private partnership between the University of Manchester (UK) and Nord Anglia that delivered training for the National Professional Qualification for Headship. Reviews the partnership according to four factors and discusses the areas of conflict (time and language). (CMK)

  3. Chiari Malformation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tel: 914-997-4488; 888-MODIMES (663-4637) Fax: 914-428-8203 National Organization for Rare Disorders ( ... 744-0100; Voice Mail: 800-999-NORD (6673) Fax: 203-798-2291 Spina Bifida Association 4590 MacArthur ...

  4. Adrenoleukodystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 744-0100; Voice Mail: 800-999-NORD (6673) Fax: 203-798-2291 National Tay-Sachs and Allied ... ntsad.org Tel: 800-90-NTSAD (906-8723) Fax: 617-277-0134 United Leukodystrophy Foundation 224 North ...

  5. Dutch/Flemish in the North of France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryckeboer, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Dutch in the Northern France, specifically the historical retreat of Dutch from Pas-de-Calais, historical evolution of the language situation in the Department du Nord, reactions to official language policy and language loss, characteristics of Flemish in France, alienation from other Dutch dialects by communicative isolation, linguistic…

  6. The Unique Health Needs of Adolescents: Implications for Health Care Insurance and Financing. Highlights and Background Briefing Report of a Meeting (Washington, D.C., February 24, 1989). Family Impact Seminars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooms, Theodora; Herendeen, Lisa

    This report presents highlights of a seminar which focused on the unique health care needs of adolescents. Comments by the following panelists are summarized: Christine Winquist Nord, research associate at Child Trends Inc.; John Sargent, an adolescent psychiatrist, pediatrician and family therapist at the Philadelphia Child Guidance Clinic; and…

  7. Using Direct Observation to Assist in Eligibility Decisions and Intervention Planning: The Scales for Assessing Emotional Disturbance-2 Observation Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordness, Philip D.; Epstein, Michael H.; Cullinan, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    A key issue in using the federal definition of emotional disturbance (ED) is the challenge of measuring five characteristics of ED (Epstein, Nordness, Cullinan, & Hertzog, 2002). Stated briefly, these five characteristics include: (1) an inability to learn; (2) relationship problems; (3) inappropriate behavior; (4) unhappiness or depression;…

  8. Description de Nosopsyllus (N.) Atsbi n. sp. (Siphonaptera : Ceratophyllidae) d’Éthiopie et révision de l’espèce affine N. (N.) Incisus (Jordan & Rothschild, 1913) ; discussion biogéographique

    PubMed Central

    Beaucournu, J.-C.; Meheretu, Y.; Welegerima, K.; Mergey, T.; Laudisoit, A.

    2012-01-01

    Nous décrivons un Nosopsyllus s. sto. nouveau du nord de l’Éthiopie, N. atsbi, montrant des ressemblances phylétiques avec N. incisus (Jordan & Rothschild, 1913), espèce cantonnée à la partie orientale de la région afrotropicale. Ceci nous conduit à revoir les populations classées comme incisus sur l’unique critère de la sétation du télomère (trois fortes soies marginales, au lieu des deux classiquement observées dans ces genre et sous-genre). Il apparaît que N. incisus s. sto. est connu au nord-est de la République Démocratique du Congo, au Kenya, au Burundi et en Tanzanie. Au nord et au sud de cette région (centre de l’Éthiopie, d’une part, Zambie et Malawi, d’autre part), deux taxa sont morphologiquement à part et nous les érigeons au rang de sous-espèces : Nosopsyllus (N.) incisus traubi n. ssp. et N. (N.) incisus lewisi n. ssp. À l’heure actuelle, le “complexe incisus” est riche de quatre taxa, à savoir, du nord au sud, N. atsbi n. sp., N. incisus traubi n. ssp., N. incisus incisus (Jordan & Rothschild, 1913) et N. incisus lewisi n. ssp. PMID:22314238

  9. Sciences and society

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    J.Luns des Pays-Bas, ancien sécétaire général de NATO (OTAN=Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord) parle du passé, présent et future de la défense européenne et des relations est et ouest

  10. Sciences and society

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-10

    J.Luns des Pays-Bas, ancien sécétaire général de NATO (OTAN=Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord) parle du passé, présent et future de la défense européenne et des relations est et ouest

  11. A Tool for Creating Healthier Workplaces: The Conducivity Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasek, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    The conducivity process, a methodology for creating healthier workplaces by promoting conducive production, is illustrated through the use of the "conducivity game" developed in the NordNet Project in Sweden, which was an action research project to test a job redesign methodology. The project combined the "conducivity" hypotheses about a…

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Coffin-Lowry syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lowry Syndrome MalaCards: coffin-lowry syndrome MalaCards: symptomatic form of coffin-lowry syndrome in female carriers Orphanet: Coffin-Lowry syndrome Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (2 links) National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) Resource list from the ...

  13. Scanning the Dawn of High-Tech Education in the North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, C. H.; Minore, J. B.

    In late 1986, the Ontario government began a 4-year undertaking to establish a distance education network for northeastern and northwestern residents. The network, Contact North/Contact Nord, uses a full complement of interactive telecommunications systems to make secondary and postsecondary education more accessible regardless of community size…

  14. C-CARD: A Strategy to Improve Revising Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saddler, Bruce; Asaro-Saddler, Kristie; Thomas, Job

    2015-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) often perform well below their peers across academic areas, with lower math and reading scores and higher school failure and grade retention rates (Reid, Gonzalez, Nordness, Trout, & Epstein, 2004). However, writing is the most significant academic deficit for these students (Austinner,…

  15. Engaging Students with Behavior Disorders in Mathematics Practice Using the High-"p" Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vostal, Brooks R.

    2011-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) demonstrate significant academic deficits across content areas (Coutinho, 1986; Lane, Barton-Arwood, Nelson, & Wehby, 2008; Nelson, Benner, Lane, & Smith, 2004; Reid, Gonzalez, Nordness, Trout, & Epstein, 2004; Ruhl & Berlinghoff, 1992). Mathematics, however, appears to be especially…

  16. Examining Gender and the Academic Achievement of Students with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Elisabeth Hess; Yen, Cherng-Jyh

    2010-01-01

    Students with emotional disturbance (ED) have significant academic deficits (Trout, Nordness, Pierce, & Epstein, 2003; Lane, 2004). Even after identification and school intervention, students with ED continue to demonstrate limited academic achievement and high rates of drop out and school failure, with 80-90% scoring below grade level on tests of…

  17. Communicative Case Studies for EFL--Lessons for Interactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Anne E.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses use of case studies and role play throughout the curriculum at the Ecole de Hautes Etudes Commerciales du Nord, a French graduate school associated with the Catholic University of Lille. Provides a case study that was developed to reconcile conflicting needs in the business English classroom at the graduate level. Students require…

  18. Genetics Home Reference: pyruvate kinase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... National (UK) Information Centre for Metabolic Diseases National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD): Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Genetic Testing Registry (1 link) Pyruvate kinase deficiency of red cells Scientific articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Gorlin syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Syndrome Life Support Network Gorlin Syndrome Group National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) GeneReviews (1 link) Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Genetic Testing Registry (1 link) Gorlin syndrome Scientific articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) ...

  20. Rare Disorders and Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umlauf, Mary; Monaco, Jana; FitzZaland, Mary; FitzZaland, Richard; Novitsky, Scott

    2008-01-01

    According to the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD), a rare or "orphan" disease affects fewer than 200,000 people in the United States. There are more than 6,000 rare disorders that, taken together, affect approximately 25 million Americans. "Exceptional Parent" ("EP") recognizes that when a disorder affects a child or adult, it…

  1. Was the 2015 Hindu-Kush intermediate-depth earthquake a repeat of the previous M~7 earthquakes ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Tomoya; Satake, Kenji; Ishibashi, Katsuhiko

    2016-04-01

    On Oct. 26, 2015, an Mw7.5 earthquake occurred at intermediate depth (230 km) beneath Hindu-Kush. This event took place in the source region of the six previous M~7 earthquakes which recurred about every nine years:1956 (mb 6.5), 1965 (mb 7.5), 1974 (mb 7.1), 1983 (Mw 7.4), 1993 (Mw 7.0), and 2002 (Mw 7.3). On the basis of these past events, Harada and Ishibashi (2012, EGU) proposed that next event might be imminent in this region. However, recurrence interval between the 2002 and 2015 events is longer than those of events before 2002. In this study, in order to examine whether the 2015 earthquake re-ruptured the source region of the repeating M~7 earthquakes, we performed the same analysis of Harada and Ishibashi (2012) for the previous M~7 intermediate-depth earthquakes; namely, simultaneous relocation of the 1956 main shock and the earthquakes from 1964 to 2015, and mechanism determination / slip distribution estimation of the six events by tele-seismic body-wave analysis. As a result, the 2015 main shock is located close to the 1956, 1965, 1974, and 1983 main shocks and the 1993 foreshock (Mw 6.3) which occurred about 30 minutes before the main shock. The 2015 mechanism solution is very similar to those of the former six events (ESE-WNW striking and southward-dipping high-angle reverse faulting with a down-dip tension). However, the 2015 slip is distributed at the un-ruptured area by the five earthquakes from 1965 to 2002. The 1965, 1974, 1983, and 1993 events rupture the same region repeatedly. The main slips of the 1993, 2002, and 2015 events do not overlap each other; this was confirmed by re-analysis of the waveforms recorded at the same stations. As for the 1965, 1974, and 1983 earthquakes, overlap of the slip distributions may be caused by the low quality of the waveform data. From slip distributions, the M~7 earthquakes, at least for the 1993, 2002, and 2015 events, may not be considered as characteristic earthquakes. However, it is notable that main

  2. Variability in exposure to ambient ultrafine particles in urban schools: Comparative assessment between Australia and Spain.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Mandana; Reche, Cristina; Rivas, Ioar; Crilley, Leigh R; Álvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Viana, Mar; Tobias, Aurelio; Alastuey, Andrés; Sunyer, Jordi; Querol, Xavier; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-03-01

    Ambient ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNC) have inhomogeneous spatio-temporal distributions and depend on a number of different urban factors, including background conditions and distant sources. This paper quantitatively compares exposure to ambient ultrafine particles at urban schools in two cities in developed countries, with high insolation climatic conditions, namely Brisbane (Australia) and Barcelona (Spain). The analysis used comprehensive indoor and outdoor air quality measurements at 25 schools in Brisbane and 39 schools in Barcelona. PNC modes were analysed with respect to ambient temperature, land use and urban characteristics, combined with the measured elemental carbon concentrations, NOx (Brisbane) and NO2 (Barcelona). The trends and modes of the quantified weekday average daily cycles of ambient PNC exhibited significant differences between the two cities. PNC increases were observed during traffic rush hours in both cases. However, the mid-day peak was dominant in Brisbane schools and had the highest contribution to total PNC for both indoors and outdoors. In Barcelona, the contribution from traffic was highest for ambient PNC, while the mid-day peak had a slightly higher contribution for indoor concentrations. Analysis of the relationships between PNC and land use characteristics in Barcelona schools showed a moderate correlation with the percentage of road network area and an anti-correlation with the percentage of green area. No statistically significant correlations were found for Brisbane. Overall, despite many similarities between the two cities, school-based exposure patterns were different. The main source of ambient PNC at schools was shown to be traffic in Barcelona and mid-day new particle formation in Brisbane. The mid-day PNC peak in Brisbane could have been driven by the combined effect of background and meteorological conditions, as well as other local/distant sources. The results have implications for urban development

  3. Optical characteristics of biomass burning and desert dust over the Western Mediterranean during summer: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basart, Sara; Sicart, Michaël; María Baldasano, José; Lane, Diego; Comerón, Adolfo

    2013-04-01

    The present contribution reports on the aerosol vertical distributions in Barcelona (Spain) which were obtained when very high aerosol concentrations were observed on summer 2012. An EARLINET lidar system and AERONET sunphotometer located in Barcelona performed intensive measurements in the framework of the ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) project. The data that were collected allow the characterization of the optical properties of the aerosols in this region, benefiting from the synergy of various remote sensing instruments. Due to its location in the Mediterranean basin, Barcelona metropolitan area is influenced by two major aerosol source regions: Europe and the Western Mediterranean Basin, as a major source of anthropogenic pollutants, and North Africa, as a principal source of natural dust. As a result, the composition of atmospheric aerosols in Barcelona station is a mixing of aerosols. During the period between 1 - 2 July, AOD reached high values (~ 0.5). In addition to anthropogenic local contributions, other aerosols long-range transported were also detected. Between 1 - 3 July, strong forest fires occurred in Alicante where advected to Barcelona area. On the other hand, between 28th June and 1st July, the northeastern Iberian Peninsula was affected by the intrusion of Saharan dust. The presence of Saharan dust was successfully forecasted by the BSC-DREAM8b dust regional model. MODIS and AERONET data, as well as air-mass backward trajectories confirmed the existence of biomass burning and desert dust in the case examined. Desert dust was detected between 2 and 4 km (above sea level, a.s.l) with maximum dust concentrations at ~ 4 km a.s.l on 1st June. On the other hand, favourable meteorological conditions made possible that biomass burning from Alicante was southern advected to Barcelona during the study period.

  4. Study of tip loss corrections using CFD rotor computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, W. Z.; Zhu, W. J.; Sørensen, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Tip loss correction is known to play an important role for engineering prediction of wind turbine performance. There are two different types of tip loss corrections: tip corrections on momentum theory and tip corrections on airfoil data. In this paper, we study the latter using detailed CFD computations for wind turbines with sharp tip. Using the technique of determination of angle of attack and the CFD results for a NordTank 500 kW rotor, airfoil data are extracted and a new tip loss function on airfoil data is derived. To validate, BEM computations with the new tip loss function are carried out and compared with CFD results for the NordTank 500 kW turbine and the NREL 5 MW turbine. Comparisons show that BEM with the new tip loss function can predict correctly the loading near the blade tip.

  5. Passenger demographics and subjective response to commuter aircraft in the northeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noskowitz, D.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1974-01-01

    Results are compared for comfort and environmental studies taken in conjunction with a STOL program. Data were taken on flights of four different airlines, each flying different aircraft. Two of the lines are classified as commuter airlines flying between relatively close destinations. The aircraft involved are: the De Havilland Twin Otter, a Canadian aircraft; the French Nord 262; the Beechcraft 99 Airliner and the Sikorsky S-61 helicopter, both American.

  6. Gryphopsylla segregata Beaucournu & Sountsov, 1999 : Nouveau statut pour G. jacobsoni segregata, description de la femelle et proposition d’une nouvelle clé pour le genre Gryphopsylla traub, 1957 (Siphonaptera – Pygiopsyllidae – Stivaliinae)

    PubMed Central

    Beaucournu, J.-C.; Wells, K.

    2011-01-01

    La collecte d’une femelle de Gryphopsylla jacobsoni segregata Beaucournu & Sountsov, 1999 du nord de Bornéo nous permet de modifier le statut de ce taxon en celui de bonne espèce, proche mais distincte de G. jacobsoni (Jordan & Rothschild, 1922). La femelle de G. segregata est décrite et une clé remise à jour de ce genre est donnée. PMID:21894266

  7. First national survey of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Hungary by the analysis of mosses.

    PubMed

    Otvös, E; Pázmándi, T; Tuba, Z

    2003-06-20

    The atmospheric deposition of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in Hungary was investigated by using moss species as bioindicators. Our research was part of an international mapping project (Atmospheric Heavy Metal Deposition in Europe) [NORD 21 (1987) 1-44; NORD 9 (1994)] carried out in the most European countries in the 1990s to determine and to compare atmospheric heavy metal background pollution by standardized methods. Sampling was performed at 116 sites distributed over Hungary in the autumn of 1997. Moss species of Hypnum cupressiforme (72.4%) were preferred. But where it could not be collected, other species were taken. Unwashed, dried samples were digested with H(2)O(2)/HNO(3), and the concentrations of heavy metals were determined by ICP-AES. The results reflect local emission points. Background mean levels of Cd, Fe and Ni were mildly elevated in comparison to European means [NORD 9 (1994)]. Probably, that was due not only to pollution, but to the use of Hypnum cupressiforme, which can accumulate higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to other species. The results are presented on colored contour maps obtained with the SURFER program (Golden Software Inc. Co). PMID:12798100

  8. Affective Factors Influencing Plurilingual Students' Acquisition of Catalan in a Catalan-Spanish Bilingual Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernaus, Merce; Moore, Emilee; Azevedo, Adriana Cordeiro

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the affective factors influencing students' learning of Catalan across different year levels in a multilingual school community in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). Questionnaires were distributed to 176 students, from 12 to 17 years of age, registered in a public secondary school, the majority of whom were not born in Catalonia.…

  9. From Bologna to Copenhagen: Progress towards a European Credit Transfer System for VET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterton, Jonathon

    2005-01-01

    The Lisbon summit (March 2000) set the objective for 2010 of making Europe "the most competitive and knowledge-based economy in the world capable of sustainable growth and better jobs and greater social cohesion", while the Barcelona summit (March 2002) set the further objective of making European education and training systems a world quality…

  10. Tablet PCs, Academic Results and Educational Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Ferran; Belvis, Esther; Pamies, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    This article is the result of a study carried out in 2008 and 2009 by a team from the Autonomous University of Barcelona in order to evaluate the implementation of the Digital Whiteboard Program in public schools in the region of Aragon (Spain). The following pages present some of the results obtained during the study. More specifically, this…

  11. Activity Report: "Escola de Cultura de Pau", the Laureate of the First Evens Prize for Peace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delvou, Marjolein

    2011-01-01

    On March 18th 2011 an independent jury of experts convened in Antwerp, Belgium, to select the laureate of the first Evens Prize for Peace Education from a shortlist of eleven organizations from all over Europe. After a long day of intense discussions, the jury agreed unanimously to award the prize to the "Escola de Cultura de Pau" (Barcelona,…

  12. The Best of Both Worlds: Adapting ESL Methodology to the EFL Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Mary C.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses how the Instituto de Estudios Norteamericanos (IEN) in Barcelona, Spain has successfully met the challenge of developing an approach to teaching English that is both in step with current American methodology, yet fits the culture and logistical circumstances of an overseas program. (Author/VWL)

  13. Learning Outcomes for Sustainable Development in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svanstrom, Magdalena; Lozano-Garcia, Francisco J.; Rowe, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper sets out to discuss the commonalities that can be found in learning outcomes (LOs) for education for sustainable development in the context of the Tbilisi and Barcelona declarations. The commonalities include systemic or holistic thinking, the integration of different perspectives, skills such as critical thinking, change agent…

  14. 77 FR 72856 - New York State Prohibition of Discharges of Vessel Sewage; Receipt of Petition and Tentative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... safety standards. Currently, six New York municipal and community water supplies, including Buffalo and... and tentative affirmative determination. SUMMARY: Notice is given that, pursuant to Clean Water Act... embayments of the Lake, including Barcelona Harbor, Dunkirk Harbor and Buffalo Outer Harbor, and...

  15. Gaudi Goes Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    When the author traveled to the city of Barcelona, Spain to see the still-unfinished La Sagrada Familia in person, she marveled at the magical genius of Antoni Gaudi's masterpiece. Inspired by Gaudi's whimsical tile work and cathedral towers, the author developed an art project that engages students in a creative experience, which combined art…

  16. Virtual Classrooms in Traditional Universities: Changing Teaching Cultures through Telematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barajas, Mario; Chrysos, Adonis; Bosco, Alejandra; Fonollosa, Maite; Alvarez, Isabel; Sancho, Juana M.

    This paper describes two experiences in which traditional face-to-face and World Wide Web-based teaching methods were combined at the University of Barcelona (Spain) as part of a regular course in Environmental Education for student teachers. The first experience took place within the university when a Web-based module was delivered to a group of…

  17. Earth surface remote sensing 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cecchi, G.; Zilioli, E.

    1998-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of EOS/SPIE Remote Sensing Symposium which was held September 21--24, 1998 in Barcelona, Spain. Topics of discussion include the following: geological applications, cultural heritage, and geological hazards; land management; passive remote sensing of the ocean and sea ice; and active remote sensing of the ocean and sea ice.

  18. A Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Course for Secondary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Novell, J. M.; Cid, E.; Gomis, R.; Barbera, A.; Guinovart, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a course for reinforcing the knowledge of biochemistry in secondary school science teachers. The Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the University of Barcelona designed a course to bring these teachers up to date with this discipline. In addition to updating their knowledge of biochemistry and molecular…

  19. Accurate nuclear masses from a three parameter Kohn-Sham DFT approach (BCPM)

    SciTech Connect

    Baldo, M.; Robledo, L. M.; Schuck, P.; Vinas, X.

    2012-10-20

    Given the promising features of the recently proposed Barcelona-Catania-Paris (BCP) functional [1], it is the purpose of this work to still improve on it. It is, for instance, shown that the number of open parameters can be reduced from 4-5 to 2-3, i.e. by practically a factor of two without deteriorating the results.

  20. Gaining a "Sense of Place": Students' Affective Experiences of Place Leading to Transformative Learning on International Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simm, David; Marvell, Alan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reveals the extent to which undergraduate students demonstrate transformative learning whilst on international fieldwork in Barcelona, Spain. Groups of students create a series of discrete active learning situations that allow them and their peers to engage more fully with their locale and in turn experience a deeper understanding of…

  1. Natural Bioactive Compounds: The Way Shown by Professor Maurizio Battino and His Group in an Italian Cutting-Edge Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Editorial Office, International Journal Of Molecular Sciences

    2016-01-01

    Maurizio Battino, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Biochemistry in the Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Università Politecnica delle Marche (Italy), is the Director of the Centre for Health and Nutrition, Universidad Europea del Atlantico (Santander, Spain) and Director of Nutrition and Health projects and Master courses at FUNIBER on-line platform (Barcelona, Spain).[...]. PMID:27399670

  2. On the origin of Robertsonian fusions in nature: evidence of telomere shortening in wild house mice.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Guillén, R A; Capilla, L; Reig-Viader, R; Martínez-Plana, M; Pardo-Camacho, C; Andrés-Nieto, M; Ventura, J; Ruiz-Herrera, A

    2015-01-01

    The role of telomere shortening to explain the occurrence of Robertsonian (Rb) fusions, as well as the importance of the average telomere length vs. the proportion of short telomeres, especially in nature populations, is largely unexplored. In this study, we have analysed telomere shortening in nine wild house mice from the Barcelona Rb system with diploid numbers ranging from 29 to 40 chromosomes. We also included two standard (2n=40) laboratory mice for comparison. Our data showed that the average telomere length (considering all chromosomal arms) is influenced by both the diploid number and the origin of the mice (wild vs. laboratory). In detail, we detected that wild mice from the Rb Barcelona system (fused and standard) present shorter telomeres than standard laboratory mice. However, only wild mice with Rb fusions showed a high proportion of short telomeres (only in p-arms), thus revealing the importance of telomere shortening in the origin of the Rb fusions in the Barcelona system. Overall, our study confirms that the number of critically short telomeres, and not a simple reduction in the average telomere length, is more likely to lead to the origin of Rb fusions in the Barcelona system and ultimately in nature. PMID:25491286

  3. Recommendations on biomarker bioanalytical method validation by GCC.

    PubMed

    Hougton, Richard; Gouty, Dominique; Allinson, John; Green, Rachel; Losauro, Mike; Lowes, Steve; LeLacheur, Richard; Garofolo, Fabio; Couerbe, Philippe; Bronner, Stéphane; Struwe, Petra; Schiebl, Christine; Sangster, Timothy; Pattison, Colin; Islam, Rafiq; Garofolo, Wei; Pawula, Maria; Buonarati, Mike; Hayes, Roger; Cameron, Mark; Nicholson, Robert; Harman, Jake; Wieling, Jaap; De Boer, Theo; Reuschel, Scott; Cojocaru, Laura; Harter, Tammy; Malone, Michele; Nowatzke, William

    2012-10-01

    The 5th GCC in Barcelona (Spain) and 6th GCC in San Antonio (TX, USA) events provided a unique opportunity for CRO leaders to openly share opinions and perspectives, and to agree upon recommendations on biomarker bioanalytical method validation. PMID:23157353

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis from cetearyl alcohol in Thrombocid® ointment.

    PubMed

    Armengot-Carbo, Miquel Armengot-Carbo1; Rodríguez-Serna, Mercedes; Taberner-Bonastre, Pilar; Miquel-Miquel, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Thrombocid® ointment (Lacer, Barcelona, Spain) is widely used in Spain and other countries for varicose veins and 22 hematomas. To our knowledge, there are no reported cases of allergic contact dermatitis following its use. Herein we present 23 two cases of allergic contact dermatitis to Thrombocid® ointment, owing to cetearyl alcohol. PMID:27617733

  5. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  6. Promoting Individual and Group Regulated Learning in Collaborative Settings: An Experience in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onrubia, Javier; Rochera, Maria José; Engel, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We present a teaching innovation intervention aimed at promoting individual and group learning regulation in undergraduate students working in a computer supported collaborative learning environment. Participants were 127 students and three teachers of a compulsory course on Educational Psychology at the University of Barcelona (Spain). As a…

  7. When Grandparents Have Dementia: Effects on Their Grandchildren's Family Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celdran, Montserrat; Villar, Feliciano; Triado, Carme

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify changes in adolescents' lives and in the relationships within the family when a family member has a dementia. Grandchildren living in Barcelona, Spain, participated in the study (N = 145). The data, based on both quantitative and qualitative information, showed that if the grandparent moved into the grandchildren's…

  8. "A New World in Our Hearts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, John

    2009-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, Spain was a backward, rural country. Catalonia, by contrast, was industrialising rapidly. Catalan workers suffered from poor wages, worse conditions, exploited child and female labour, and unfit housing. In 1909 Barcelona erupted in a whole week of general strike and riots against the sending of Catalan reservists to…

  9. Implementing E-Learning in the Traditional Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barajas, Mario; Gannaway, Gloria J.

    2007-01-01

    This article takes a close look at a large, well-established traditional European university, the University of Barcelona, as an example of an institution that has a long history of developing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and e-learning. The results of a systematic peer-review analysis illustrate the issues, problems, and…

  10. Beyond Delinquent Citizenships: Immigrant Youth's (Re)Visions of Citizenship and Belonging in a Globalized World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios-Rojas, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Using ethnographic fieldwork conducted in a public high school located in the greater Barcelona area, Anne Rios-Rojas focuses on the experiences of immigrant youth as they negotiate a sense of belonging in an ever more globalized society. Rios-Rojas pays particular attention to the multiple and at times contradictory ways in which youth maneuver…

  11. Training Emotional and Social Competences in Higher Education: The Seminar Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberst, Ursula; Gallifa, Josep; Farriols, Nuria; Vilaregut, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of emotional and social competences in higher education and presents a training model. In 1991, Ramon Llull University of Barcelona (Spain) created the Seminar methodology to tackle these challenges. A general model derived from the Emotional Intelligence concept and the general principles of this methodology…

  12. Students as Scholars: Evaluating Student-Led Learning and Teaching during Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvell, Alan; Simm, David; Schaaf, Rebecca; Harper, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Student-led teaching and learning is an innovative form of active learning that empowers students with direct ownership of the learning experience. Reporting on a final-year undergraduate field trip to Barcelona, Spain, peer-to-peer teaching is used to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge and uncover the processes that help create a sense of…

  13. Reasons for Older Adult Participation in University Programs in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Feliciano; Triado, Carme; Pinazo, Sacramento; Celdran, Montserrat; Sole, Carme

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the reasons expressed by older adults for attending a university program in Barcelona (Spain). Results were based on the responses of 36 elders to questions from a semistructured interview. These were (a) reasons for joining a university course and (b) factors that prevent enrolling in that course. Participants mentioned more…

  14. Vic: The Challenges Facing Schools in a Small, Newly Diverse, Catalan City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simo, Nuria; Telford, Jon

    2012-01-01

    The arrival over the last 15 years of a substantial number of pupils of immigrant origin has presented Catalan schools with significant challenges. The schools in Vic (70 km north of Barcelona) have been at the forefront of attempts to adjust to this new multicultural reality. This article describes the results of three studies carried out by the…

  15. Generic Competences in Higher Education: Studying Their Development in Undergraduate Social Science Studies by Means of a Specific Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallifa, Josep; Garriga, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    Research into the acquisition of generic competences was carried out with the undergraduate social science programmes offered by the Ramon Llull University, Barcelona (Spain). For these programmes an innovative methodology called "cross-course seminars" has been developed. Its focus is, amongst others, on developing generic competences. In the…

  16. A Comparative Study of the Seriousness Attributed to Disruptive Classroom Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotzens, Concepcion; Badia, Mar; Genovard, Candido; Dezcallar, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we present a comparative analysis of three samples of teachers from Coimbra, Barcelona and Murcia that provides insight into the importance teachers attach to disruptive behavior and how different perspectives and values affect their daily work. Method: This research is framed within a quantitative empirical-analytic…

  17. Engaging Sacred Space: Experiments in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    della Dora, Veronica

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects on the experience of theorizing sacred space through field practice as part of a fieldtrip to Barcelona. In particular, it focuses on the critical analysis of different approaches to sacred space as applied to various sites in the city. The article opens with a brief review of three mainstream approaches to sacred space: the…

  18. The Conceptions about Teamwork Questionnaire: Design, Reliability and Validity with Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Fernandez, J. Reinaldo; Corcelles, Mariona; Cerrato-Lara, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we present the conceptions about teamwork questionnaire designed to evaluate the conceptions that secondary students have about teamwork. Participants were 309 students aged 15-16 from eight secondary schools, seven from Barcelona and one from Girona (Spain). The original 27-item questionnaire was reduced according to expert…

  19. 76 FR 66324 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Advanced Media...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on June 29, 2000 (65 FR 40127). The last notification was... Section 6(b) of the Act on July 20, 2011 (76 FR 43347). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement...; Panasonic AVC Networks Company, Kadoma City, Osaka, JAPAN; VSN Video Steam Networks, S.L., Barcelona,...

  20. Deconstructing Immigrant Girls' Identities through the Production of Visual Narratives in a Catalan Urban Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifa-Valls, Montserrat

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the research findings of a deconstructive visual ethnography focused on the production of immigrant girls' identities will be analysed. This collaborative research project involved experimentation with a dialogic curriculum aimed at creating diverse identity narratives with immigrant girls at an urban primary school in Barcelona.…

  1. Is the Personal Political? Chronotopes and Changing Stances toward Catalan Language and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolard, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    During the early catalanization of schooling in the Barcelona area in the 1980s, Castilian-speaking teenagers of working-class immigrant descent often struggled against Catalan language and identity. This longitudinal study followed a group of high-school classmates and found that as young adults, some but not all of the resistant working-class…

  2. Using Activity Theory to Understand the Contradictions in an Online Transatlantic Collaboration between Student-Teachers of English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoniadou, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the contradictions reported by student-teachers in Barcelona who engaged in telecollaboration with transatlantic peers via Second Life, during their initial training in Teaching English as a Foreign Language. The data analysis draws upon Grounded Theory and is theoretically informed by Activity Theory and the notion of…

  3. Discourse Analysis Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheu, Dagmar, Ed.; Lopez-Maestre, M. D., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This collection of articles includes: "Introduction: Discourse Analysis Today" (Dagmar Schue and M.D. Lopez-Maestre); "The Metaphorical and Metonymic Understanding of the Trinitarian Dogma" (Antonio Barcelona); "Symmetry as Conceptual Metaphor in Walker's The Color Purple" (Elena Tapia); "And She's Like it's Terrible, Like: Spoken Discourse,…

  4. The Contribution of International Studies on Educational Effectiveness: Current and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, Pam

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the contribution of international studies on educational effectiveness in the light of 4 papers presented at the new ICSEI Methodology of Research and Effectiveness (MORE) Network in Barcelona in January 2005 and published in this issue of the journal. A brief historical overview is used to provide a context for these papers…

  5. ICT Resources in the Teaching of Mathematics: Between Computer and School Technologies. A Case-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosco, Alejandra

    2004-01-01

    This article is based on a research project called "Information and communications technology (ICT) resources in school organizational and symbolic technology: a case-study" which was carried out in a primary school in Barcelona, Spain. The research looked at various interactions that took place between the computer as a teaching tool, the…

  6. La Verneda-Sant Martí Adult School: A Reference for Neighborhood Popular Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubert, Adrianna; Villarejo, Bea; Cabré, Joan; Santos, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: The Adult School of La Verneda Sant Martí, located in Barcelona, Spain, is a reference at the international level because of its trajectory and its contributions to the transformative movement in democratic education. The school was created in 1978 to address the demands of the working-class residents of the La Verneda…

  7. Learning Communities: When Learning in Common Means School Success for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonso, Jesus Gomez

    2002-01-01

    Barcelona, Spain's Learning Communities project transforms schools and their context through a permanent, integral, and participatory education based on the communicative approach of social and educational sciences. It has the entire community involved in working toward the best school for all children. The work is grounded in dialogic and…

  8. The Discursive Construction of Learning in a Multiethnic School: Perspectives from Non-Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planas, Nuria

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides data from individual interviews conducted with 15 and 16 year-old non-immigrant students from a highly multiethnic secondary urban school in Barcelona, Spain. In this school, mixed classrooms (immigrant and local) and small linguistically heterogeneous working groups are frequent in the mathematics lessons. The focus is on the…

  9. Working with Mathematics Teachers and Immigrant Students: An Empowerment Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planas, Nuria; Civil, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This article centers on a professional development project with a group of high school mathematics teachers in Barcelona. The eight participating teachers taught in low-income schools with a high percentage of immigrant students. Our model of professional development is based on the involvement of the teachers as co-researchers of their local…

  10. The Verbal System of Catalan Sign Language (LSC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Lopez, Esperanza; Boldu-Menasanch, Rosa Maria; Alonso-Rodriguez, Jesus Amador; Gras-Ferrer, Victoria; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Maria Angeles

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the predicative verbal system of Catalan Sign Language (LSC) as it is used by Deaf people in the province of Barcelona. We also present a historical perspective of the research on this topic, which provides insight into the changes that have taken place over the last few decades in sign language linguistics. The principal…

  11. Multilingual Switch in Peer Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unamuno, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    Focusing on code-switching from conversation analysis and sociolinguistic perspectives, this paper examines interactions between 10-12-year-old language learners of immigrant origin and locally born students as they are engaging in verbal pair work. All are students attending language classes in state primary schools in Barcelona in which Catalan…

  12. Continuous Assessment in a Large Group of Psychology Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Merce; Gotzens, Concepcion; Badia, Mar

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A continuous classroom assessment method was applied to a higher education course aimed at a large group of educational psychology students at the "Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona". Following the Bologna directions and the constructivist model, both declarative and procedural knowledge was taught in the module, and the students…

  13. Spanish Universities and the "Ranking 2005" Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Miguel, Jesus M.; Vaquera, Elizabeth; Sanchez, Jara D.

    2005-01-01

    This article assesses the quality of the Spanish higher education system, focusing mainly on the methodological challenges that the existence of public and private universities represents in the calculation of global higher education rankings. Researchers from the University of Barcelona and the University of Pennsylvania calculated the first…

  14. Shifting Discourses of Migrant Incorporation at a Time of Crisis: Understanding the Articulation of Language and Labour in the Catalan Non-Governmental Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codó, Eva; Garrido, Maria Rosa

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the discursive transformations that occurred at a migrant-support non-governmental organisation (NGO) located in the outskirts of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) and how they intersect with broader sociopolitical and economic processes. In particular, we focus on the revamping of the key notions of language and labour…

  15. Role of Secondary Schools in the Face of Student Absenteeism: A Study of Schools in Socially Underprivileged Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Gracia, Maribel

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the reactions to absenteeism in public secondary schools in underprivileged areas of the city of Barcelona, Spain. The data presented are part of a doctoral thesis undertaken after the implementation of the Spanish comprehensive education reform (LOGSE) and they draw attention to important differences between schools. The study…

  16. GPR survey in industrial archaeology survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vendrell, D.; Pérez Gracia, V.; González Drigo, R.

    2003-04-01

    A preliminary GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) study was performed at the Escola Tècnica Industrial de Barcelona (Industrial University of Barcelona) in order to detect structures and cavities under the ground of one of their buildings. In the 19th century, at the present university campus, was located an ancient textile factory. This factory was founded by the Batlló family and has becomed one of the most important examples of catalan modernist industrial architecture in Barcelona. At the beginning of the last century, it was donated to the city by its former owners to be used as a school. In order to turn out the factory into a scholastic centre, many changes were undertaken, so many pipes and tubes were covered with a new pavement and some underground tunnels were blocked. The purpose of this research is to locate these ancient structures and assess its uses. Datum obtained with the ground-penetrating radar has been compared with the information found in the historical archives of the Diputació de Barcelona (most of it were pictures that show the layout of the ancient machinery in some rooms of the factory). Since the contents of these files are not accurate nor complete, GPR survey has provided new information not only about what is underneath the soil of the building analyzed, but also its condition and characteristics.

  17. Education and Research Related to Organic Waste Management at Agricultural Engineering Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliva, Montserrat; Bernat, Carles; Gil, Emilio; Martinez, Xavier; Pujol, Miquel; Sabate, Josep; Valero, Jordi

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of the Agriculture Engineering School of Barcelona (ESAB), where undergraduate students were involved in field research experiments on organic waste use in agricultural systems. Design/methodology/approach: The paper outlines how the formation of professionals oriented to work for…

  18. CSF Amino Acids, Pterins and Mechanism of the Ketogenic Diet.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2015-10-01

    Investigators from Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain, studied the relationship between the etiology of refractory childhood epilepsy, CSF neurotransmitters, pterins, and amino acids, and response to a ketogenic diet in 60 patients with refractory epilepsy, 83% focal and 52% idiopathic. PMID:26933537

  19. Experiences of Serveis de Cultura Popular in the Field of Co-Production and Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuni, Lluis

    1992-01-01

    Describes efforts of Serveis de Cultura Popular, a nonprofit foundation in Barcelona (Spain), in the coproduction of educational videos. Highlights include contests that awarded prizes for completed videos, video scripts, or ideas for videos; coproduction with educational television; coproduction of an interactive videodisc; and international…

  20. Active Participation. An Analysis of Citizen Action among Young People in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Esther Luna; Rodriguez, Flor A. Cabrera

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a research project that has its origins in a broader research programme in Citizenship Education that is being undertaken by the intercultural education research group (GREDI) at the University of Barcelona. The programme, "From school to community," is intended to serve as a framework for teaching the process of active…

  1. Linguistic Reception of Latin American Students in Catalonia and Their Responses to Educational Language Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michael; Patino-Santos, Adriana; Trenchs-Parera, Mireia

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the connections between language policy implementation in three Barcelona-area secondary schools and the language attitudes and behaviors of Spanish-speaking Latin American newcomers. Data were collected through interviews and ethnographic participant observation document indexes of different forms of language socialization…

  2. The Spanish Civil War as Seen through Children's Drawings of the Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrós Tuneu, Núria; Carrillo Flores, Isabel; Casanovas Prat, Josep; Prat Viñolas, Pilar; Tort Bardolet, Antoni; Gómez Mundó, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the most significant results to have emerged from the research process "Documentation, interpretation and digital diffusion of the educational patrimony produced in the period 1936-1939 in the schools of Barcelona: children's drawings". This research set out to analyse the drawings produced by the children of the…

  3. Adoption of Preventive Measures and Attitudes toward the H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez, Anna; Rodríguez, Tània; López, Maria José; Continente, Xavier; Nebot, Manel

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study describes the perceived impact of H1N1 influenza and the adoption of the recommended measures to address the pandemic in schools. Methods: A cross-sectional self-reported survey was conducted in 433 schools in Barcelona addressed to the school principal or the H1N1 influenza designated person. A descriptive analysis was…

  4. Interaccion adulto-nino en la escuela infantil (Adult-Child Interaction in Nursery School).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined teacher-child interactions in 2 nursery schools in Barcelona, Spain, when the children (15 2-year olds and 15 4-year olds) were alone or in a group, observing a group in which they were a member, and not part of a group. For these conditions, compared differences in age, gender, and the forms of verbal and nonverbal communication used.…

  5. Affluence, Class Structure, and Working-Class Consciousness in Modern Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, John R.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of textile workers in Barcelona indicates that the growing proportion of affluent workers in Spain has become a major source of class consciousness, militancy, and politicization. A theoretical framework is presented which interprets the survey findings in terms of the relationship between affluence and class consciousness. (Author/DB)

  6. Experiencia Pedagogica con Adolescentes Paraliticos Cerebrales: La Musica, Un Elemento Rehabilitador (A Pedagogical Experience with Teenage Cerebral Paralytics Using Music as a Rehabilitating Element).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colomer, Marta; And Others

    The monograph describes efforts carried out in the Department of Work Therapy of a center for cerebral paralysis in Barcelona, Spain. The rehabilitation program incorporated music and movement in an attempt to develop the musical ear, sensitivity, and a sensorial education. The program stresses rhythm, melody, harmony, voice, musical audition, and…

  7. Updates in oncology.

    PubMed

    Sculier, Jean-Paul; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Berghmans, Thierry

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this review is to report the Clinical Year in Review proceedings in the field of thoracic oncology that were presented at the 2013 European Respiratory Society Annual Congress in Barcelona, Spain. Various topics were reviewed, including: epidemiology, screening, histology, and treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. PMID:24591664

  8. Russian roulette and risk-taking behavior: a medical examiner study.

    PubMed

    Shields, Lisa B E; Hunsaker, John C; Stewart, Donna M

    2008-03-01

    Fatal Russian roulette refers to death following an act of extreme bravado in which the individual spins the cylinder of a revolver loaded with at least one cartridge, aims the muzzle at the head, and pulls the trigger. The majority of victims are men younger than 30 years who, in the presence of others, are under the influence of ethanol or other drugs. This is a 10-year (1993-2002) retrospective review of self-inflicted gunshot wounds of the head, among which we culled and paid special attention to cases of Russian roulette, at the Medical Examiners' Offices in Kentucky. Of the 24 incidents of Russian roulette, the majority of victims were white (79.2%), and all were men between 14 and 47 years with a mean age of 24.8 years. Compared with other cephalic firearm suicides, the subjects engaging in Russian roulette were significantly more likely to have elevated blood levels (> or = 0.1%) of ethanol along with various drugs detected in urine. Although the presumed intent of the risky act is to survive, Russian roulette is deemed to be suicide, which is based on a comprehensive understanding of the inherently deliberate, volitional actions of the decedent. PMID:19749614

  9. Decline of Yangtze River water and sediment discharge: Impact from natural and anthropogenic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. L.; Xu, K. H.; Milliman, J. D.; Yang, H. F.; Wu, C. S.

    2015-07-01

    The increasing impact of both climatic change and human activities on global river systems necessitates an increasing need to identify and quantify the various drivers and their impacts on fluvial water and sediment discharge. Here we show that mean Yangtze River water discharge of the first decade after the closing of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) (2003-2012) was 67 km3/yr (7%) lower than that of the previous 50 years (1950-2002), and 126 km3/yr less compared to the relatively wet period of pre-TGD decade (1993-2002). Most (60-70%) of the decline can be attributed to decreased precipitation, the remainder resulting from construction of reservoirs, improved water-soil conservation and increased water consumption. Mean sediment flux decreased by 71% between 1950-1968 and the post-TGD decade, about half of which occurred prior to the pre-TGD decade. Approximately 30% of the total decline and 65% of the decline since 2003 can be attributed to the TGD, 5% and 14% of these declines to precipitation change, and the remaining to other dams and soil conservation within the drainage basin. These findings highlight the degree to which changes in riverine water and sediment discharge can be related with multiple environmental and anthropogenic factors.

  10. Radar observations of the diurnal tide in the tropical mesosphere-lower thermosphere region: Longitudinal variabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurubaran, S.; Rajaram, R.; Nakamura, T.; Tsuda, T.; Riggin, D.; Vincent, R. A.

    2009-04-01

    Significant attention is being paid in recent times by several observational and modeling studies to quantify the spatial and temporal variabilities of diurnal tide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region. These variabilities are ascribed to spatial and temporal variations in the tidal forcing or interactions between the propagating tides and background wind, planetary waves or gravity waves. The present work makes use of simultaneous ground-based radar wind observations of different durations from five equatorial/low latitude sites in the Indian, Indonesian and Pacific sectors: Tirunelveli (8.7°N, 77.8°E), Jakarta (6.4°S, 106.7°E), Pontianak (0.03°N, 109°E), Kauai (22°N, 160°W) and Christmas Island (2°N, 157°W). This study delineates the longitudinal differences in the tidal characteristics in (i) interannual time scales over Tirunelveli and Kauai during 1993-2002, (ii) seasonal time scales over Christmas Island, Jakarta and Tirunelveli for the years 1993-1997 and (iii) shorter than seasonal time scales over Christmas Island, Pontianak and Tirunelveli during 1996-1997. An important observational feature noticed in this work is the differing behavior of the long-term tidal fields over Tirunelveli and Kauai. The monthly tidal amplitudes over Tirunelveli reveal a strong QBO signature whereas a similar, strong QBO signal could not be traced in the long-term observations from Kauai.

  11. Where young MSM meet their first sexual partner: the role of the Internet.

    PubMed

    Bolding, Graham; Davis, Mark; Hart, Graham; Sherr, Lorraine; Elford, Jonathan

    2007-07-01

    The objective was to examine how many young men who have sex with men (MSM) meet their first sexual partner through the Internet and whether this has increased over time. In 2003, 2505 MSM surveyed on UK Internet sites completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analysed for 810 MSM who were under 30 years old at the time of the survey and who first had sex with another man between 1993-2002. During this period there was a significant increase in the percentage of MSM who met their first male sexual partner through the Internet (2.6-61.0%). There was a corresponding decrease in the percentage who met their first sexual partner at a gay venue (34.2-16.9%), school (23.7-1.3%), a public sex environment, through small ads or telephone chatlines (10.5-1.3%). An increasing number of young MSM appear to meet their first sexual partner through the Internet. Online sexual health interventions should be developed targeting men early in their sexual careers. PMID:17347876

  12. What is the most relevant standard of success in assisted reproduction?: The cumulated singleton/twin delivery rates per oocyte pick-up: the CUSIDERA and CUTWIDERA.

    PubMed

    Germond, Marc; Urner, Françoise; Chanson, Alain; Primi, Marie-Pierre; Wirthner, Daniel; Senn, Alfred

    2004-11-01

    National and international registries are essential tools for establishing new standards and comparing success rates, but they do not take into account the total pregnancy/delivery rate per oocyte recovery. In Switzerland and Germany, because of legal constraints, a maximum of three two-pronuclear zygotes are allocated for transfer whereas all the supernumerary pronuclear zygotes are immediately cryopreserved, preventing selection of the transferred embryos. We report on a 10 years' experience (1993-2002) of our centre which performs transfers of unselected embryos and cryopreservation at the two-pronuclear zygote stage. As approximately 30% of all deliveries are from cryo cycles, it is essential to take into account the contribution of the cryo transfers, and we propose therefore to evaluate, as a measure of IVF performance, the cumulated delivery rate per oocyte pick-up. This delivery rate is broken down further into the cumulated singleton delivery rate (CUSIDERA) and the cumulated twin delivery rate (CUTWIDERA). The sum (S) of these two rates is a measure of efficacy while the ratio CUTWIDERA/S as a percentage is a measure of safety of IVF treatments. Using these new indexes, the average 10 year efficacy and safety of our IVF programme were 26 and 19%, respectively. Both CUSIDERA and CUTWIDERA can be calculated easily in any clinical situation and yield useful parameters for patient counselling and internal/external benchmarking purposes. PMID:15358719

  13. Deep, respiratory tract and ear infections caused by Pseudallescheria (Scedosporium) and Microascus (Scopulariopsis) in Finland. A 10-year retrospective multi-center study.

    PubMed

    Issakainen, J; Salonen, J H; Anttila, V-J; Koukila-Kähkölä, P; Castrén, M; Liimatainen, O; Vuento, R; Ojanen, T; Koivula, I; Koskela, M; Meurman, O

    2010-05-01

    Deep, respiratory tract and ear infections due to Microascaceae (Pseudallescheria, Scedosporium, Microascus or Scopulariopsis) were studied nationwide in Finland during 1993-2002. The data were based on 52,000 fungal cultures that represented about 50% of all such specimens in Finland and included all Finnish cases of profound immunosuppression. There were 39 cases that were re-evaluated as clinically significant, i.e., three pneumonias, two deep pedal infections and five wound infections, 11 sinusitis and 18 ear infections. The pedal infections and most pneumonias occurred in immunocompromised patients. Most cases, except the ear infections, were due to Pseudallescheria boydii. Two patients had lethal P. boydii pneumonia and a deep P. boydii infection of the foot contributed to a third lethal case. Two of the patients with lethal outcomes had received an allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT). Two patients with haematological malignancies were cured of deep site infections by a prolonged course of itraconazole. Wound, sinus and ear infections were cured or improved by local surgery or topical therapy. There were 0.8-1.7 cases of any type of infection per million inhabitants per year (MY) and 3.4 cases/1000 AHSCT. Mortality associated with Microascaceae in any type of patient was 0.06-0.12 MY. PMID:19672782

  14. Emissions of air pollutants from road transport in Lebanon and other countries in the Middle East region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waked, Antoine; Afif, Charbel

    2012-12-01

    Road transport is a major contributor to pollutant emissions in the Middle East region (MEA). Emissions originating from this sector have a significant impact on the atmosphere, health and the climate change. Identification and quantification of these emissions in this region is of great importance in order to develop emissions reductions strategies. For this purpose and because a detailed emission inventory for road transport is nonexistent for Lebanon (a small developing country in the MEA region) and for its capital city Beirut, a spatially-resolved and temporally-allocated emission inventory for road transport was developed for Lebanon and for the city of Beirut using a bottom-up approach where possible. In order to compare emissions between developed and non-developed cities on the Mediterranean basin, road transport emissions originating in normal (February-June and September-November) and touristic periods (July-August and December-January) were compared between Beirut, Barcelona and Athens, respectively. The comparison obtained between Beirut, Barcelona and Athens showed that emissions per capita for CO and SO2 are highest in Beirut while emissions of particulate matter were highest in Barcelona. The different patterns between these cities showed that emissions increases in winter in Beirut and Barcelona (11 and 9% respectively) and decreases in the city of Athens by 9%. In summer, an increase of 15% in traffic intensities is observed in Athens while in Beirut and Barcelona, traffic intensities decrease by 10 and 40% respectively. At a national level, emissions were calculated for 14 countries in the MEA in order to inter compare them with those of Lebanon. The results show that in the MEA, the highest contributors to total carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions (78 and 79% respectively), are countries having a population that exceeds 20 million inhabitants such as Iran, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt. For Lebanon, emissions per

  15. Variation in indications for cataract surgery in the United States, Denmark, Canada, and Spain: results from the International Cataract Surgery Outcomes Study

    PubMed Central

    Norregaard, J. C.; Bernth-Petersen, P.; Alonso, J.; Dunn, E.; Black, C.; Andersen, T. F.; Espallargues, M.; Bellan, L.; Anderson, G.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—International comparisons of clinical practice may help in assessing the magnitude and possible causes of variation in cross national healthcare utilisation. With this aim, the indications for cataract surgery in the United States, Denmark, the province of Manitoba (Canada), and the city of Barcelona (Spain) were compared.
METHODS—In a prospective multicentre study, patients scheduled for first eye cataract surgery and aged 50 years or older were enrolled consecutively. From the United States 766 patients were enrolled; from Denmark 291; from Manitoba 152; and from Barcelona 200. Indication for surgery was measured as preoperative visual status of patients enlisted for cataract surgery. Main variables were preoperative visual acuity in operative eye, the VF-14 score (an index of functional impairment in patients with cataract) and ocular comorbidity.
RESULTS—Mean visual acuity were 0.23 (USA), 0.17 (Denmark), 0.15 (Manitoba), and 0.07 (Barcelona) (p<0.001). When restricting the sample to eyes with normal retina and macula, no significant difference between United States and Denmark was observed (p>0.05). Mean VF-14 scores were 76 (USA), 76 (Denmark), 71 (Manitoba), and 64 (Barcelona) (p<0.001).
CONCLUSION—Similar indications for cataract surgery were found in the United States and Denmark. Significantly more restricted indications were observed in Manitoba and Barcelona. Possible explanations for the results are discussed, including differences in sociodemographic characteristics, access to care, surgeons' willingness to operate, and patient demand.

 Keywords: cataract surgery; North America; Europe PMID:9924294

  16. Organic, elemental and inorganic carbon in particulate matter of six urban environments in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillanpää, M.; Frey, A.; Hillamo, R.; Pennanen, A. S.; Salonen, R. O.

    2005-11-01

    A series of 7-week sampling campaigns were conducted in urban background sites of six European cities as follows: Duisburg (autumn), Prague (winter), Amsterdam (winter), Helsinki (spring), Barcelona (spring) and Athens (summer). The campaigns were scheduled to include seasons of local public health concern due to high particulate concentrations or findings in previously conducted epidemiological studies. Aerosol samples were collected in parallel with two identical virtual impactors that divide air particles into fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) size ranges. From the collected filter samples, elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon contents were analysed with a thermal-optical carbon analyser (TOA); total Ca, Ti, Fe, Si, Al and K by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF); As, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS); Ca2+, succinate, malonate and oxalate by ion chromatography (IC); and the sum of levoglucosan+galactosan+mannosan (∑MA) by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The campaign means of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were 8.3-29.6 µg m-3 and 5.4-28.7 µg m-3, respectively. The contribution of particulate organic matter (POM) to PM2.5 ranged from 21% in Barcelona to 54% in Prague, while that to PM2.5-10 ranged from 10% in Barcelona to 27% in Prague. The contribution of EC was higher to PM2.5 (5-9%) than to PM2.5-10 (1-6%) in all the six campaigns. Carbonate (C(CO3), that interferes with the TOA analysis, was detected in PM2.5-10 of Athens and Barcelona but not elsewhere. It was subtracted from the OC by a simple integration method that was validated. The CaCO3 accounted for 55% and 11% of PM2.5-10 in Athens and Barcelona, respectively. It was anticipated that combustion emissions from vehicle engines affected the POM content in PM2.5 of all the six sampling campaigns, but a comparison of mass concentration ratios of the selected inorganic and organic tracers of common sources of organic material to POM suggested

  17. Energy and the environment in the Baltic Sea region: A study of cooperative action from the Estonian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, Alex P.

    Due to their geographic proximity and shared natural resources, cooperation on energy-related and environmental issues is particularly important for the nine countries surrounding the Baltic Sea. Currently, two projects are underway that have placed the level of cooperation within the region under the microscope: the environmental management work undertaken by the Helsinki Commission for the Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area (HELCOM) and the Nord Stream pipeline project, which, when completed, will provide the direct transportation of natural gas from Russia to Germany via the Baltic seafloor. Although both have been declared inclusive and decidedly Baltic ventures by some regional actors, reception of the cooperative efforts amongst the littoral Baltic countries has been markedly different. This study addresses these varying reactions by examining Estonia's participation in and subsequent perspectives on the HELCOM and Nord Stream projects. A theoretical framework grounded in the discipline of international relations is utilized to analyze Estonia's role in the projects and its position as a small state in a regional context. The primary areas of focus are how historical experiences and current levels of cooperation in the two endeavors have shaped Estonia's responses and, ultimately, its 'realist' perception of global politics. The study concludes that Estonia appears to have more substantive participation in HELCOM than in the Nord Stream project because of the tendency of states to securitize and, thus, prioritize the energy policy area over the environmental. Estonian foreign policy behavior, however, perpetuates the state-centric and power-centered policy processes that dominate the international political system.

  18. Lively Earthquake Activity in North-Eastern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Tine B.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Voss, Peter H.

    2016-04-01

    The seismograph at the Danish military outpost, Station Nord (NOR) in North East Greenland, records many regional/local earthquakes every day. Most of these events originate at the Arctic plate boundary between the Eurasian and the North American plates. The plate boundary has a particularly active segment approximately 200 km from the seismograph. Additionally we find a seismically very active region 20-30 km from NOR on the Kronprins Christian Land peninsula. The BB seismograph at NOR was installed in 2002 and later upgraded with real-time telemetry as part of the GLISN-project. Since late 2013 data from NOR have been included in routine processing at GEUS. Phase readings on some of the older data, primarily 2002-2003, have been carried out previously in connection with other projects. As a result, phase readings for more than 6000 local events, recorded exclusively at NOR, were found in the GEUS data base. During the years 2004 to 2007 four locations were occupied by temporary BB seismographs on the North coast of Greenland as part of the Law of the Sea preparatory work. Data from these stations have not previously been analyzed for local and regional events. In this study we combine the recordings from NOR with phase readings from the temporary seismographs in Northern Greenland. The local events on Kronprins Christian Land range in magnitude from less than 2 to a 4.8 event widely recorded in the region and felt by the personnel at Station Nord on August 30, 2005. Station Nord is located in the seismically most active region of Greenland.

  19. Potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and anticholinergic levels in the elderly: a population based study in a French region.

    PubMed

    Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Dupont, Corinne; Defebvre, Marie-Margueritte; Puisieux, Francois

    2014-01-01

    Prescriptions of PIMs and anticholinergic drugs lead to adverse events and hospitalizations in the elderly. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of PIMs and prescriptions with a high anticholinergic effect in a French region. All prescriptions dispensed at community pharmacies in patients aged 75 and older between January 1 and March 31, 2012 were extracted from French Health Insurance information System - Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region for patients affiliated to the Social Security. Prescription of PIMs was defined according to the Laroche list. The anticholinergic score for each prescription was calculated using the Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS). 65.6% (n=207,979) of people aged over 75 years, living in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region were included, of which 4.5% (n=9284) living in nursing homes. Patients received an average of 8.3 drugs over the 3-month study period. In 32.6% (n=67,863) of patients, at least one PMI was prescribed. According to the ADS, 10.0% (n=20,978) of patients in the general population and 24.0% (n=2231) of patients living in nursing homes was exposed to a prescription with a high or very high anticholinergic score (ADS≥3). Hydroxyzine prescribed in 51.4% (n=10,792) of them ranked first among drugs most often reported. In conclusion, PMIs and anticholinergic drugs were commonly prescribed in elderly living in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region. Improving the quality of prescriptions in the elderly appears necessary. PMID:25192614

  20. Conference report: moving forward together: "we are making progress".

    PubMed

    van Dongen, William D; Renfurm, Luuk C

    2014-05-01

    The 6th European Bioanalysis Forum Open Meeting 20-22 November 2013, Hesperia Tower Hotel, Barcelona, Spain At the 6th European Bioanalysis Forum Open Meeting, held from 20-22 November 2013 in Hesperia Tower Hotel, Barcelona, Spain, bioanalytical experts from pharmaceutical industry, academia, contract laboratories and regulatory bodies discussed current topics of interest in bioanalysis. 450 delegates from more than 170 institutes and companies participated in 75 open and stimulating presentations regarding the new US FDA Guidance for industry, technology updates, including liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of proteins and antibody-drug conjugates, dried blood spots, sampling and extraction and regulatory aspects of, for example, flow cytometry, parallelism, and interferences in ligand-binding assays. This article aims to provide an overview of the highlights discussed at the meeting. PMID:24946916

  1. Integrated care

    PubMed Central

    Gröne, Oliver; Garcia-Barbero, Mila

    2001-01-01

    Abstract The WHO European Office for Integrated Health Care Services in Barcelona is an integral part of the World Health Organizations' Regional Office for Europe. The main purpose of the Barcelona office is within the integration of services to encourage and facilitate changes in health care services in order to promote health and improve management and patient satisfaction by working for quality, accessibility, cost-effectiveness and participation. This position paper outlines the need for Integrated Care from a European perspective, provides a theoretical framework for the meaning of Integrated Care and its strategies and summarizes the programmes of the office that will support countries in the WHO European Region to improve health services. PMID:16896400

  2. Cell scientist to watch - Meritxell Huch.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    After completing her BSc in pharmacology at University of Barcelona, Spain, Meritxell Huch pursued her PhD in the laboratory of Cristina Fillat at the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) in Barcelona. Wanting to move into more basic research, Meri trained as a postdoc with Hans Clevers at the Hubrecht Institute in the Netherlands. In her postdoctoral research, she successfully established a liver organoid culture that earned her the National Centre for Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) prize in 2013. Meri joined the Gurdon Institute in February 2014 and is currently a Wellcome Trust Sir Henry Dale Research Fellow. She is interested in the mechanisms responsible for adult tissue regeneration in the liver and the pancreas, particularly in identifying stem cell populations that respond to damage and the intracellular mechanisms regulating their activation. PMID:27505425

  3. The seismicity in Kenya (East Africa) for the period 1906-2010: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulwa, J. K.; Kimata, F.; Suzuki, S.; Kuria, Z. N.

    2014-01-01

    Kenya has had a seismic station since 1963 as part of the World Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN). In 1990, the University of Nairobi in collaboration with GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) started to build up a local seismological network, the Kenya National Seismic Network (KNSN), which operated for about ten years between 1993-2002. This, however, experienced a myriad of problems ranging from equipment breakdown, vandalism and lack of spares. Kenya is seismically active since the Kenya rift valley traverses through the country from north to south bisecting the country into eastern and western regions. In the central part, the Kenya rift branches to form the NW-SE trending Kavirondo (Nyanza) rift. The Kenya rift valley and the Kavirondo (Nyanza) rift are the most seismically active where earthquakes of local magnitude (Ml) in the order of ⩽2.0-5.0 occur. Furthermore, historical records show that earthquakes of magnitudes of the order of Ml ⩾ 6.0 have occurred in Kenya. Such large magnitude earthquakes include the January 6, 1928 Subukia earthquake (Ml 7.1) and an aftershock (Ml 6.2) four days later, as well as the 1913 Turkana region earthquake (Ml 6.2). Since early 1970's, numerous seismic investigations have been undertaken in Kenya in order to understand the formation and structure of the Kenyan part of the East African rift valley. Earthquake data from these studies is, however, rather disorganized and individual datasets, including that acquired during the period 1993-2002, cannot furnish us with comprehensive information on the seismicity of Kenya for the past ∼100 years. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to review the seismicity in Kenya for the period 1906-2010 by utilizing data and results from different sources. The general seismicity of Kenya has been evaluated using historical data, data recorded by local seismic networks, the United States Geological Survey catalogue as well as earthquake data from the numerous seismic

  4. Common murre restoration monitoring in the Barren Islands, Alaska, 1993. Restoration project 93049. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roseneau, D.G.; Kettle, A.B.; Byrd, G.V.

    1995-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the second year of common murre (Uria aalge) restoration monitoring work conducted in the northern Gulf of Alaska for the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. Information on population numbers, nesting chronology, and productivity of murres were collected by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) biologists at the injured East of Amatuli Island - Light Rock and Nord Island - Northwest Islet colonies in the Barren Islands during the 1993 breeding season. These data are presented and statistically compared with information reported in the 1989-1992 FWS murre damage assessment and restoration studies.

  5. Data acquisition using the 168/E. [CERN ISR

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J.T.; Cittolin, S.; Demoulin, M.; Fucci, A.; Martin, B.; Norton, A.; Porte, J.P.; Rossi, P.; Storr, K.M.

    1983-03-01

    Event sizes and data rates at the CERN anti p p collider compose a formidable environment for a high level trigger. A system using three 168/E processors for experiment UA1 real-time event selection is described. With 168/E data memory expanded to 512K bytes, each processor holds a complete event allowing a FORTRAN trigger algorithm access to data from the entire detector. A smart CAMAC interface reads five Remus branches in parallel transferring one word to the target processor every 0.5 ..mu..s. The NORD host computer can simultaneously read an accepted event from another processor.

  6. [Organ allocation. Ethical issues].

    PubMed

    Cattorini, P

    2010-01-01

    The criteria for allocating organs are one of the most debated ethical issue in the transplantation programs. The article examines some rules and principles followed by "Nord Italia Transplant program", summarized in its Principles' Charter and explained in a recent interdisciplinary book. General theories of justice and their application to individual clinical cases are commented and evaluated, in order to foster a public, democratic, transparent debate among professionals and citizens, scientific associations and customers' organizations. Some specific moral dilemmas are focused regarding the concepts of proportionate treatment, unselfish donation by living persons, promotion of local institutions efficiency. PMID:20677677

  7. Les rivières et les sources de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac: extrait du rapport sur les eaux souterraines de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C., Jr.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1949-01-01

    Les principales rivières de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac, la Rivière Grise ou Grande Rivière du Cul-de-Sac et la Rivière Blanche, prennent naissance sur le flanc Nord du Massif de la Selle à des altitudes de 1,300 à 1,800 mètres au dessus du niveau de la mer. Elles coulent à l’amont à travers des gorges profondes et sont éloignées de 9 Kms. dans la partie central de la bordure Sud de la plaine.

  8. Heterogeneity of European DRG systems and potentials for a common EuroDRG system

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Alexander; Quentin, Wilm; Busse, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) systems across Europe are very heterogeneous, in particular because of different classification variables and algorithms as well as costing methodologies. But, given the challenge of increasing patient mobility within Europe, health systems are forced to incorporate a common patient classification language in order to compare and identify similar patients e.g. for reimbursement purposes. Beside the national adoption of DRGs for a wide range of purposes (measuring hospital activity vs. paying hospitals), a common DRG system can serve as an international communication basis among health administrators and can reduce the national development efforts as it is demonstrated by the NordDRG consortium. PMID:25905484

  9. Kyste hydatique du foie compliqué d'un accident vasculaire cérébral ischémique: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Turki, Olfa; Bahloul, Mabrouk; Chtara, Kamilia; Regaieg, Kais; Haddar, Sondes; Bouaziz, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    Le kyste hydatique du foie (KHF) est une maladie assez répandue dans les pays nord-africains. La rupture post-traumatique ou spontanée du kyste compliquée d'un choc anaphylactique et d'un AVC ischémique a été exceptionnellement rapportée. Nous rapportons un cas d'un kyste hydatique du foie (KHF) fissuré et compliqué d'un choc anaphylactique et d'un AVC ischémique. PMID:26985273

  10. Assessing the effects of the Spanish partial smoking ban on cardiovascular and respiratory diseases: methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Galán, Iñaki; Simón, Lorena; Flores, Víctor; Ortiz, Cristina; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael; Linares, Cristina; Boldo, Elena; José Medrano, María; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent research has assessed the impact of tobacco laws on cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity. In this study, we also examined whether the association between the implementation of the 2005 Spanish smoking ban and hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases varies according to the adjustment for potential confounders. Design Ecological time series analysis. Setting Residents of Madrid and Barcelona cities (Spain). Outcome Data on daily emergency room admissions for acute myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma derived from the 2003–2006 Spanish hospital admissions registry. Methods Changes in admission rates between 2006 and the 2003–2005 period were estimated using additive Poisson models allowing for overdispersion adjusted for secular trend in admission, seasonality, day of the week, temperature, number of flu and acute respiratory infection cases, pollution levels, tobacco consumption prevalence and, for asthma cases, pollen count. Results In Madrid, fully adjusted models failed to detect significant changes in hospital admission rates for any disease during the study period. In Barcelona, however, hospital admissions decreased by 10.2% (95% CI 3.8% to 16.1%) for cerebrovascular diseases and by 16.0% (95% CI 7.0% to 24.1%) for COPD. Substantial changes in effect estimates were observed on adjustment for linear or quadratic trend. Effect estimates for asthma-related admissions varied substantially when adjusting for pollen count in Madrid, and for seasonality and tobacco consumption in Barcelona. Conclusions Our results confirm that the potential impact of a smoking ban must be adjusted for the underlying secular trend. In asthma-related admissions, pollen count, seasonality and tobacco consumption must be specified in the model. The substantial variability in effects detected between the two cities of Madrid and Barcelona lends strong support for a

  11. Recent developments in multiphysics computational models of physiological flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldredge, Jeff D.; Mittal, Rajat

    2016-04-01

    A mini-symposium on computational modeling of fluid-structure interactions and other multiphysics in physiological flows was held at the 11th World Congress on Computational Mechanics in July 2014 in Barcelona, Spain. This special issue of Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics contains papers from among the participants of the mini-symposium. The present paper provides an overview of the mini-symposium and the special issue.

  12. Seasonal and spatial variation of organic tracers for biomass burning in PM1 aerosols from highly insolated urban areas.

    PubMed

    van Drooge, B L; Fontal, M; Bravo, N; Fernández, P; Fernández, M A; Muñoz-Arnanz, J; Jiménez, B; Grimalt, J O

    2014-10-01

    PM1 aerosol characterization on organic tracers for biomass burning (levoglucosan and its isomers and dehydroabietic acid) was conducted within the AERTRANS project. PM1 filters (N = 90) were sampled from 2010 to 2012 in busy streets in the urban centre of Madrid and Barcelona (Spain) at ground-level and at roof sites. In both urban areas, biomass burning was not expected to be an important local emission source, but regional emissions from wildfires, residential heating or biomass removal may influence the air quality in the cities. Although both areas are under influence of high solar radiation, Madrid is situated in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, while Barcelona is located at the Mediterranean Coast and under influence of marine atmospheres. Two extraction methods were applied, i.e. Soxhlet and ASE, which showed equivalent results after GC-MS analyses. The ambient air concentrations of the organic tracers for biomass burning increased by an order of magnitude at both sites during winter compared to summer. An exception was observed during a PM event in summer 2012, when the atmosphere in Barcelona was directly affected by regional wildfire smoke and levels were four times higher as those observed in winter. Overall, there was little variation between the street and roof sites in both cities, suggesting that regional biomass burning sources influence the urban areas after atmospheric transport. Despite the different atmospheric characteristics in terms of air relative humidity, Madrid and Barcelona exhibit very similar composition and concentrations of biomass burning organic tracers. Nevertheless, levoglucosan and its isomers seem to be more suitable for source apportionment purposes than dehydroabietic acid. In both urban areas, biomass burning contributions to PM were generally low (2 %) in summer, except on the day when wildfire smoke arrive to the urban area. In the colder periods the contribution increase to around 30 %, indicating that regional

  13. Origin of fine carbonaceous particulate matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin: fossil versus modern sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz Minguillón, María.; Perron, Nolwenn; Querol, Xavier; Szidat, Sönke; Fahrni, Simon; Wacker, Lukas; Reche, Cristina; Cusack, Michael; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2010-05-01

    The present work was carried out in the frame of the international field campaign DAURE (Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean). The objective of this campaign is to study the aerosol pollution episodes occurring at regional scale during winter and summer in the Western Mediterranean Basin. As part of this campaign, this work focuses on identifying the origin of fine carbonaceous aerosols. To this end, fine particulate matter (PM1) samples were collected during two different seasons (February-March and July 2009) at two sites: an urban site (Barcelona, NE Spain) and a rural European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (Montseny, NE Spain). Subsequently, 14C analyses were carried out on these samples, both in the elemental carbon (EC) fraction and the organic carbon (OC) fraction, in order to distinguish between modern carbonaceous sources (biogenic emissions and biomass burning emissions) and fossil carbonaceous sources (mainly road traffic). Preliminary results from the winter period show that 40% of the OC at Barcelona has a fossil origin whereas at Montseny this percentage is 30%. These values can be considered as unexpected given the nature of the sites. Nevertheless, the absolute concentrations of fossil OC at Barcelona and Montseny differ by a factor of 2 (the first being higher), since the total OC at Montseny is lower than at Barcelona. Further evaluation of results and comparison with other measurements carried out during the campaign are required to better evaluate the origin of the fine carbonaceous matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Acknowledgements: Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for a Postdoctoral Grant awarded to M.C. Minguillón in the frame of Programa Nacional de Movilidad de Recursos Humanos del Plan nacional de I-D+I 2008-2011. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for the Acción Complementaria DAURE CGL2007-30502-E/CLI.

  14. Middle Palaeolithic refugium, or archaeological misconception? A new U-Series and radiocarbon chronology of Abric Agut (Capellades, Spain)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaquero, Manola; Esteban, M.; Allue, E.; Vallverdu, J.; Carbonell, E.; Bischoff, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    New U-Series and C14 (AMS) dates are provided for the Abric Agut (Capellades, Barcelona, Spain). This site was previously considered to be of Middle Palaeolithic age according to the characteristics of the lithic assemblage. In addition, human teeth were uncovered and attributed to neandertals. However, radiometric dating clearly indicates a Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene age. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Injecting and HIV prevalence among young heroin users in three Spanish cities and their association with the delayed implementation of harm reduction programmes

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Luis; Bravo, María José; Toro, Carlos; Brugal, M Teresa; Barrio, Gregorio; Soriano, Vicente; Vallejo, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate changes in the prevalence of HIV infection among young heroin users in three Spanish cities, and their association with harm reduction programmes (HRPs). Methods Two cross sectional studies. The 1995 study included 596 users; half were street recruited and half were recruited at drug treatment centres. The 2001–03 study included 981 street recruited users. Face to face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire. Samples for HIV testing (saliva in 1995 and dried blood spot in 2001–03) were collected. Results The proportion who had ever injected (IDUs) decreased in all three cities. HIV prevalence in IDUs decreased by half in Barcelona (44.1% to 20.8%) and Seville (44.2% to 22.2%), but remained constant in Madrid (36.8% and 34.9%). This difference was attributable to a decrease in HIV prevalence in long term IDUs in Barcelona and Seville, but not in Madrid. The crude odds ratio for HIV prevalence in Madrid compared with Barcelona in long term IDUs was 2.3 (95%CI 1.4 to 3.7), increasing to 3.1 (95%CI 1.5 to 6.2) after adjusting for sociodemographic and risk factors. HIV prevalence in short term IDUs was similar in all cities. In 1992 Barcelona already had 20 heroin users in methadone maintenance programmes (MMPs) per 10 000 population aged 15–49 years; Seville reached this rate in 1994, and Madrid, not until 1998. Conclusions The prevalence of HIV infection did not decrease in long term injectors in Madrid. The delayed implementation of HRPs, especially MMPs, may be the most plausible hypothesis. This finding should shed light on decision making in countries in a similar epidemiological and sociological situation. PMID:16698987

  16. A case of Japanese encephalitis in a 20 year-old Spanish sportsman, February 2013.

    PubMed

    Doti, P; Castro, P; Martínez, M J; Zboromyrska, Y; Aldasoro, E; Inciarte, A; Requena-Méndez, A; Requena, A; Milisenda, J; Fernández, S; Nicolás, J M; Muñoz, J

    2013-01-01

    We report a severe case of imported Japanese encephalitis (JE) in a healthy young Spanish traveller who developed symptoms after spending three weeks in a touristic area of Thailand. The patient was diagnosed in Thailand and subsequently transferred to Barcelona, Spain, where the Thai laboratory results were confirmed based on IgM serology. Although JE is a rare disease in travellers, this case illustrates the need for seeking travel medical advice before visiting tropical countries. PMID:24008230

  17. (Automation in the clinical laboratory and drug testing programs in the workplace)

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, C.

    1990-10-17

    The traveler chaired a session on Laboratory Robotics at 4th International Congress on Automation in the Clinical Laboratory. In addition, the traveler chaired a session on Drugs-of-Abuse at 2nd International Congress of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Toxicology. In this session, the traveler also presented a paper entitled Development, Implementation and Management of a Drug Testing Program in the Workplace.'' These two Congress were run concurrently in the Congress Center in Barcelona, Spain.

  18. RANGELAND SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Spangler; George F. Vance; Gerald E. Schuman; Justin D. Derner

    2012-03-31

    Rangelands occupy approximately half of the world's land area and store greater than 10% of the terrestrial biomass carbon and up to 30% of the global soil organic carbon. Although soil carbon sequestration rates are generally low on rangelands in comparison to croplands, increases in terrestrial carbon in rangelands resulting from management can account for significant carbon sequestration given the magnitude of this land resource. Despite the significance rangelands can play in carbon sequestration, our understanding remains limited. Researchers conducted a literature review to identify sustainably management practices that conserve existing rangeland carbon pools, as well as increase or restore carbon sequestration potentials for this type of ecosystem. The research team also reviewed the impact of grazing management on rangeland carbon dynamics, which are not well understood due to heterogeneity in grassland types. The literature review on the impact of grazing showed a wide variation of results, ranging from positive to negative to no response. On further review, the intensity of grazing appears to be a major factor in controlling rangeland soil organic carbon dynamics. In 2003, researchers conducted field sampling to assess the effect of several drought years during the period 1993-2002. Results suggested that drought can significantly impact rangeland soil organic carbon (SOC) levels, and therefore, carbon sequestration. Resampling was conducted in 2006; results again suggested that climatic conditions may have overridden management effects on SOC due to the ecological lag of the severe drought of 2002. Analysis of grazing practices during this research effort suggested that there are beneficial effects of light grazing compared to heavy grazing and non-grazing with respect to increased SOC and nitrogen contents. In general, carbon storage in rangelands also increases with increased precipitation, although researchers identified threshold levels of

  19. A summary of total mercury concentrations in flora and fauna near common contaminant sources in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M; Chancy, C

    2008-02-01

    Total mercury concentrations are summarized for environmental media and biota collected from near-coastal areas, several impacted by contaminant sources common to the Gulf of Mexico. Water, sediment, fish, blue crabs, oysters, clams, mussels, periphyton and seagrasses were collected during 1993-2002 from targeted areas affected by point and non-point source contaminants. Mean concentrations in water and sediment were 0.02 (+/-1 standard deviation=0.06) microg l(-1) and 96.3 (230.8) ng g(-1) dry wt, respectively. Mean total mercury concentrations in fish, blue crabs, brackish clams and mussels were significantly greater than those in sediment, seagrass, colonized periphyton and oysters. Concentrations (ng g(-1) dry wt) averaged 23.1 (two seagrass species), 220.1 (oysters), 287.8 (colonized periphyton), 604.0 (four species of freshwater mussels), 772.4 (brackish clam), 857.9 (blue crabs) and 933.1 (nine fish species). Spatial, intraspecific and interspecific variability in results limited most generalizations concerning the relative mercury contributions of different stressor types. However, concentrations were significantly greater for some biota collected from areas receiving wastewater discharges and golf course runoff (fish), agricultural runoff (oysters) and urban stormwater runoff (colonized periphyton and sediment). Marine water quality criteria and proposed sediment quality guidelines were exceeded in 1-12% of total samples. At least one seafood consumption guideline, criteria or screening value were exceeded in edible tissues of blue crabs (6% total samples) and nine fish species (8-33% total samples) but all residues were less than the US Federal Drug Administration action limit of 1.0 ppm and the few reported toxic effect concentrations available for the targeted biota. PMID:17980902

  20. An Integrated Model for Evaluating Hydrology, Hydrodynamics, Water Quality and Ecology in a Coastal Desert Wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huckelbridge, K. H.; Stacey, M. T.; Glenn, E. P.; Dracup, J. A.

    2007-05-01

    An integrated model describing hydrology, hydrodynamics, salt dynamics and vegetation was developed to predict the evolution of the Cienega de Santa Clara ("Cienega"), a non-tidal wetland located in the Colorado River Delta. The Cienega was created in 1977 when water intended for treatment at the Yuma Desalting Plant in Arizona was bypassed to a salt flat in the Delta. The continued delivery of this water is uncertain and thus, this model was developed to predict the effects of changes in the quantity and quality of inflow to the wetland over seasonal and annual timescales. The model is divided into four modules that run in sequence for each timestep, in which the results from one module are used to produce results in successive modules. The four modules are: (1) evapotranspiration, (2) water balance, (3) mixing/salt balance, and (4) vegetation response. Over the calibration period, 1993-2002, modeled results of wetland surface area, the fraction of the wetland covered in vegetation and salinity concentrations compare well to actual data. The model was used to run nine hypothetical scenarios, representing the range of inflow quantity and quality to the Cienega that could occur if the source of the inflow is altered, including the possible re-opening of the Yuma Desalting plant. Model results show that the Cienega ecosystem is more sensitive to changes in salinity than to changes in flow. However, in almost all cases, an increase in salinity and/or a decrease in flow would cause a significant decrease in wetland size and vegetation cover, compromising a large portion of the habitat currently available to wildlife at the Cienega.

  1. Modeling spatial and temporal variation of suitable nursery habitats for Atlantic sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niklitschek, Edwin J.; Secor, David H.

    2005-07-01

    For rare and endangered species, bioenergetics modeling can represent a valuable approach for understanding issues of habitat value and connectivity among potential habitats within nurseries in restoration programs. We used multivariable bioenergetics and survival models for Atlantic sturgeon to generate spatially explicit maps of potential production in the Chesapeake Bay. For the period 1993-2002, spatial and temporal patterns in water quality effects (temperature, dissolved oxygen [DO] and salinity) on potential production were evaluated. In addition, two forecasted scenarios were modeled: one implementing newly revised U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) DO-criteria for the Chesapeake Bay, and the other assuming a bay-wide increase of 1 °C due to an underlying trend in regional climate. Atlantic sturgeon's low (survival/growth) tolerance to temperatures >28 °C was a critical constraint during their first 1-2 summers of life. Hatched in freshwater (spring to mid-summer), young-of-the-year were predicted to occupy cooler (deeper) areas as temperature approached sub-lethal levels. While most thermal refuges were located down-estuary, a large fraction of potential refuges were unsuitable due to persistent hypoxia and/or salinity levels beyond the limited osmoregulatory capabilities of early juvenile Atlantic sturgeon. As a result, suitable summer habitats for juvenile Atlantic sturgeons in the Chesapeake Bay were predicted to be spatially restricted and variable between years, ranging from 0 to 35% of the modeled bay surface area. In critical (drought) years, almost no summer habitat was predicted to be available for juvenile Atlantic sturgeon. Value and size of nursery habitat was highly sensitive to climatic oscillations and anthropogenic interventions affecting freshwater inflow, water temperature and/or DO. Achieving EPA DO-criteria for the Chesapeake Bay was predicted to increase total suitable habitat by 13% for an average year, while increasing

  2. Multimodel simulations of Arctic Ocean sea surface height variability in the period 1970-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koldunov, Nikolay V.; Serra, Nuno; Köhl, Armin; Stammer, Detlef; Henry, Olivier; Cazenave, Anny; Prandi, Pierre; Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Gao, Yongqi; Johannessen, Johnny

    2014-12-01

    The performance of several numerical ocean models is assessed with respect to their simulation of sea surface height (SSH) in the Arctic Ocean, and the main patterns of SSH variability and their causes over the past 40 years (1970-2009) are analyzed. In comparison to observations, all tested models broadly reproduce the mean SSH in the Arctic and reveal a good correlation with both tide gauge data and SSH anomalies derived from satellite observations. Although the models do not represent the positive Arctic SSH trend observed over the last two decades, their interannual-to-decadal SSH variability is in reasonable agreement with available measurements. Focusing on results from one of the models for a detailed analysis, it is shown that the decadal-scale SSH variability over shelf areas and deep parts of the Arctic Ocean have pronounced differences that are determined mostly by salinity variations. A further analysis of the three time periods 1987-1992, 1993-2002, and 2003-2009, corresponding to the transition times between cyclonic and anticyclonic regimes of the atmospheric circulation over the Arctic, revealed an unusual increase of SSH in the Amerasian basin during 2003-2009. Results from this model support the recent finding that the increase is caused mainly by changes in freshwater content brought about by the freshwater export through the Canadian Arctic Archiplago and increased Ekman pumping in the Amerasian basin and partly by lateral freshwater transport changes, leading to a redistribution of low-salinity shelf water. Overall, we show that present-day models can be used for investigating the reasons for low-frequency SSH variability in the region.

  3. Rainfall variability and extremes over southern Africa: assessment of a climate model to reproduce daily extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C.; Kniveton, D.; Layberry, R.

    2009-04-01

    It is increasingly accepted that that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. A change in the distribution and magnitude of extreme rainfall events (associated with changing variability), such as droughts or flooding, may have a far greater impact on human and natural systems than a changing mean. This issue is of particular importance for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable to and ill-equipped (in terms of adaptation) for extreme events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, famine, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability and the identification of rainfall extremes is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify extreme events and accurately predict future variability. The majority of previous climate model verification studies have compared model output with observational data at monthly timescales. In this research, the assessment of ability of a state of the art climate model to simulate climate at daily timescales is carried out using satellite derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infra-Red Algorithm (MIRA). This dataset covers the period from 1993-2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree longitude/latitude. The ability of a climate model to simulate current climate provides some indication of how much confidence can be applied to its future predictions. In this paper, simulations of current climate from the UK Meteorological Office Hadley Centre's climate model, in both regional and global mode, are firstly compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. This concentrates primarily on the ability of the model to simulate the spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall variability over southern Africa. Secondly, the ability of the model to reproduce daily rainfall extremes will

  4. Nonlinear responses of southern African rainfall to forcing from Atlantic SST in a high-resolution regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C.; Kniveton, D.; Layberry, R.

    2009-04-01

    It is increasingly accepted that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. A change in the distribution and magnitude of extreme rainfall events (associated with changing variability), such as droughts or flooding, may have a far greater impact on human and natural systems than a changing mean. This issue is of particular importance for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable to and ill-equipped (in terms of adaptation) for extreme events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, famine, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify extreme events and accurately predict future variability. In this research, high resolution satellite derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infra-Red Algorithm (MIRA) are used as a basis for undertaking model experiments using a state-of-the-art regional climate model. The MIRA dataset covers the period from 1993-2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree longitude/latitude. Once the model's ability to reproduce extremes has been assessed, idealised regions of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are used to force the model, with the overall aim of investigating the ways in which SST anomalies influence rainfall extremes over southern Africa. In this paper, results from sensitivity testing of the regional climate model's domain size are briefly presented, before a comparison of simulated daily rainfall from the model with the satellite-derived dataset. Secondly, simulations of current climate and rainfall extremes from the model are compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. Finally, the results from the idealised SST experiments are presented, suggesting highly nonlinear associations between rainfall extremes

  5. Estimation of sex-specific survival from capture-recapture data when sex is not always known

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Kendall, W.L.; Hines, J.E.; Spendelow, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Many animals lack obvious sexual dimorphism, making assignment of sex difficult even for observed or captured animals. For many such species it is possible to assign sex with certainty only at some occasions; for example, when they exhibit certain types of behavior. A common approach to handling this situation in capture-recapture studies has been to group capture histories into those of animals eventually identified as male and female and those for which sex was never known. Because group membership is dependent on the number of occasions at which an animal was caught or observed (known sex animals, on average, will have been observed at more occasions than unknown-sex animals), survival estimates for known-sex animals will be positively biased, and those for unknown animals will be negatively biased. In this paper, we develop capture-recapture models that incorporate sex ratio and sex assignment parameters that permit unbiased estimation in the face of this sampling problem. We demonstrate the magnitude of bias in the traditional capture-recapture approach to this sampling problem, and we explore properties of estimators from other ad hoc approaches. The model is then applied to capture-recapture data for adult Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) at Falkner Island, Connecticut, 1993-2002. Sex ratio among adults in this population favors females, and we tested the hypothesis that this population showed sex-specific differences in adult survival. Evidence was provided for higher survival of adult females than males, as predicted. We recommend use of this modeling approach for future capture-recapture studies in which sex cannot always be assigned to captured or observed animals. We also place this problem in the more general context of uncertainty in state classification in multistate capture-recapture models.

  6. Flood and debris flow interactions with roads promote the invasion of exotic plants along steep mountain streams, western Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watterson, Nicholas A.; Jones, Julia A.

    2006-08-01

    This study examines the interactions among geomorphic and biogeographic processes that govern the invasion by two contrasting exotic plant species—a shrub, scotch broom ( Cytisus scoparius) and an herb, foxglove ( Digitalis purpurea), over several decades of road and stream networks in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in western Oregon. Distributions of C. scoparius and D. purpurea were mapped along hillslopes and streams in 1993, 2002, and 2003. The mapped distributions were related to debris flow pathways and changes in stream morphology interpreted from field surveys and air photos over the period 1993 to 2003. Laboratory trials examined the response of seed germination to scarification (to test effects of transport by debris flows), soaking (to test effects of fluvial transport), and substrate texture (to test effects on establishment). C. scoparius and D. purpurea were present along roads and in clearcuts in the Andrews Forest from the 1970s to 2003, but invaded the stream (Lookout Creek) only after debris flows and floods during an extreme storm in 1996. Laboratory trials demonstrated that seeds could germinate on a variety of substrates after scarification and flood transport. Mapping and air photo/GIS analysis indicated that the distributions of exotic plants were located on freshly scoured bars and floodplains adjacent to the active channel, downstream of seed sources along roads that were connected to the main stem of Lookout Creek by road ditch drainage systems, and debris flow paths. This paper outlines a conceptual model for the invasion of exotic plants, highlighting the connectivity between road and stream networks provided by geomorphic processes in steep forested landscapes.

  7. Extreme Rainfall Events Over Southern Africa: Assessment of a Climate Model to Reproduce Daily Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C.; Kniveton, D.; Layberry, R.

    2007-12-01

    It is increasingly accepted that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. This issue is of particular importance for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable extreme events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability and the identification of rainfall extremes is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify extreme events and accurately predict future variability. The majority of previous climate model verification studies have compared model output with observational data at monthly timescales. In this research, the assessment of a state-of-the-art climate model to simulate climate at daily timescales is carried out using satellite derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infra-Red Algorithm (MIRA). This dataset covers the period from 1993-2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree longitude/latitude. Once the model's ability to reproduce extremes has been assessed, idealised regions of SST anomalies are used to force the model, with the overall aim of investigating the ways in which SST anomalies influence rainfall extremes over southern Africa. In this paper, results from sensitivity testing of the UK Meteorological Office Hadley Centre's climate model's domain size are firstly presented. Then simulations of current climate from the model, operating in both regional and global mode, are compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. Thirdly, the ability of the model to reproduce daily rainfall extremes will be assessed, again by a comparison with extremes from the MIRA dataset. Finally, the results from the idealised SST experiments are briefly presented, suggesting associations between rainfall extremes and both local and remote SST anomalies.

  8. BALTEX—an interdisciplinary research network for the Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckermann, Marcus; Langner, Joakim; Omstedt, Anders; von Storch, Hans; Keevallik, Sirje; Schneider, Bernd; Arheimer, Berit; Markus Meier, H. E.; Hünicke, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    BALTEX is an environmental research network dealing with the Earth system of the entire Baltic Sea drainage basin. Important elements include the water and energy cycle, climate variability and change, water management and extreme events, and related impacts on biogeochemical cycles. BALTEX was founded in 1993 as a GEWEX continental-scale experiment and is currently in its second 10 yr phase. Phase I (1993-2002) was primarily dedicated to hydrological, meteorological and oceanographic processes in the Baltic Sea drainage basin, hence mostly dealt with the physical aspects of the system. Scientific focus was on the hydrological cycle and the exchange of energy between the atmosphere, the Baltic Sea and the surface of its catchment. The BALTEX study area was hydrologically defined as the Baltic Sea drainage basin. The second 10 yr phase of BALTEX (Phase II: 2003-12) has strengthened regional climate research, water management issues, biogeochemical cycles and overarching efforts to reach out to stakeholders and decision makers, as well as to foster communication and education. Achievements of BALTEX Phase II have been the establishment of an assessment report of regional climate change and its impacts on the Baltic Sea basin (from hydrological to biological and socio-economic), the further development of regional physical climate models and the integration of biogeochemical and ecosystem models. BALTEX features a strong infrastructure, with an international secretariat and a publication series, and organizes various workshops and conferences. This article gives an overview of the BALTEX programme, with an emphasis on Phase II, with some examples from BALTEX-related research.

  9. GPS-derived strain in northwestern California: Termination of the San Andreas fault system and convergence of the Sierra Nevada Great Valley block contribute to southern Cascadia forearc contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Todd B.; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    2006-02-01

    GPS-derived velocities (1993-2002) in northwestern California show that processes other than subduction are in part accountable for observed upper-plate contraction north of the Mendocino triple junction (MTJ) region. After removing the component of elastic strain accumulation due to the Cascadia subduction zone from the station velocities, two additional processes account for accumulated strain in northern California. The first is the westward convergence of the Sierra Nevada-Great Valley (SNGV) block toward the coast and the second is the north-northwest impingement of the San Andreas fault system from the south on the northern California coastal region in the vicinity of Humboldt Bay. Sierra Nevada-Great Valley block motion is northwest toward the coast, convergent with the more northerly, north-northwest San Andreas transform fault-parallel motion. In addition to the westward-converging Sierra Nevada-Great Valley block, San Andreas transform-parallel shortening also occurs in the Humboldt Bay region. Approximately 22 mm/yr of distributed Pacific-SNGV motion is observed inland of Cape Mendocino across the northern projections of the Maacama and Bartlett Springs fault zones but station velocities decrease rapidly north of Cape Mendocino. The resultant 6-10 mm/yr of San Andreas fault-parallel shortening occurs above the southern edge of the subducted Gorda plate and at the latitude of Humboldt Bay. Part of the San Andreas fault-parallel shortening may be due to the viscous coupling of the southern edge of the Gorda plate to overlying North American plate. We conclude that significant portions of the upper-plate contraction observed north of the MTJ region are not solely a result of subduction of the Gorda plate but also a consequence of impingement of the western edge of the Sierra Nevada-Great Valley block and growth of the northernmost segments of the San Andreas fault system.

  10. Longitudinal trends in global obesity research and collaboration: a review using bibliometric metadata.

    PubMed

    Khan, A; Choudhury, N; Uddin, S; Hossain, L; Baur, L A

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to understand research trends and collaboration patterns together with scholarly impact within the domain of global obesity research. We developed and analysed bibliographic affiliation data collected from 117,340 research articles indexed in Scopus database on the topic of obesity and published from 1993-2012. We found steady growth and an exponential increase of publication numbers. Research output in global obesity research roughly doubled each 5 years, with almost 80% of the publications and authors from the second decade (2003-2012). The highest publication output was from the USA - 42% of publications had at least one author from the USA. Many US institutions also ranked highly in terms of research output and collaboration. Fifteen of the top-20 institutions in terms of publication output were from the USA; however, several European and Japanese research institutions ranked more highly in terms of average citations per paper. The majority of obesity research and collaboration has been confined to developed countries although developing countries have showed higher growth in recent times, e.g. the publication ratio between 2003-2012 and 1993-2002 for developing regions was much higher than that of developed regions (9:1 vs. 4:1). We also identified around 42 broad disciplines from authors' affiliation data, and these showed strong collaboration between them. Overall, this study provides one of the most comprehensive longitudinal bibliometric analyses of obesity research. This should help in understanding research trends, spatial density, collaboration patterns and the complex multi-disciplinary nature of research in the obesity domain. PMID:26864566

  11. Out-of-phase decadal changes in boreal summer rainfall between Yellow-Huaihe River Valley and southern China around 2002/2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Yao; Zhong, Zhong; Chen, Haishan; Hu, Yijia

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the decadal variability of rainfall over China in boreal summer (June-August) since the early 1990s. Results show that the rainfall experiences an abrupt decadal change at around 2002/2003. The decadal change is statistically significant and characterized by an out-of-phase pattern between southern China (SC) and the Yellow-Huaihe River Valley (YHRV). The rainfall over SC decreases during the decade 2003-2012 compared to that in the preceding decade 1993-2002. A simultaneous decadal increase in rainfall has occurred over the YHRV. Meanwhile, a significant sea surface temperature warming appears over the western Pacific Ocean and the northern Indian Ocean after 2002 on the decadal time scale. Further analysis reveals that enhanced convections are activated over the tropical regions between 130°E and 160°E and west of 80°E due to the SST anomalies, which induce the dry air in an area of anomalous subsidence located over SC and the northern South China Sea (SCS) via zonal circulation. Accompanied by the anomalous descending flow over the northern SCS, tropical cyclone (TC) activities in the SCS also experience a concurrent decadal reduction. The decrease in landfall TCs contributes to the decadal decrease in SC rainfall since 2003. Corresponding to the anomalous descending motion that is dominant south of 30°N, an anomalous moist ascending flow develops over the YHRV at around 35°N. Meanwhile, the western Pacific subtropical high becomes stronger and extends further westward during 2003-2012, leading to enhanced moisture transport by the southwesterly in the northwestern flank of subtropical high. As a result, more precipitation occurs over the YHRV. The above analysis has revealed the physical-dynamical processes involved in the decadal changes in rainfall over China. The mechanisms behind the out-of-phase pattern of rainfall changes between SC and the YHRV that occurred at 2002/2003 are explored.

  12. Gerberto, gli Arabi e Gerusalemme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, C.

    Gerbert of Aurillac went in Catalonia from 967 to 970, to visit the bishop Atton of Vic, famous for mathematical knowledge, during the apogee of Cordova's reign of the Caliph Al-Hakam II ibn Abd al-Rahman (961-976). He maintained contacts with local personalities like Mirò Bonfill (Bishop of Girona) and Lupitus of Barcelona through letters (both dated 984). When he was pope, Gerbert sent five papal privileges to Catalan dignitaries, showing his attention to this territory. The Caliph's prime minister Al-Mansu'r depredated Barcelona in 985, and conquered Santiago de Compostela in 997, drawing to an end the cultural exchanges between Christian and Arabic world through Mozarabic and Jewish translators. Gerbert learned and after taught and used Indo-Arabic numbers, abaci, astrolabes, monochords and theoretical music. It was possible for pilgrims to reach Jerusalem at Gerbert's times, and a letter written by Gerbert probably for an abbot starting his pilgrimage seems to introduce the first ideas of crusade and indulgences related to offers. The change of attitude of the Al-Andalus' government toward Christianity is probably responsible of these words written in a time very close to the depredations of Barcelona. Jerusalem is also in the index of geographic places in the book of the astrolabe, attributed to Gerbert, as well as Santiago de Compostela. Finally the legend of the Golem and the mass celebrated in the church of Jerusalem in Rome, completes the panorama of Gerbert and the Holy City.

  13. Towards the first open repository in gamma-ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Reichardt, I.; Rico, J.

    2011-11-01

    The MAGIC Telescopes produce around 300 TBytes of raw data per year that arepre-processed on-site at the Observatory Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, andthen transferred to the MAGIC Data Center at Barcelona, for storage,processing and internal data access by MAGIC users. MAGIC Data Center issupported by Institut de Física d'Altes Energies (IFAE), UniversidadComplutense de Madrid (UCM), Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA) andUniversitat Autónoma de Barcelona (UAB), and hosted by Port d'Informació Científica (PIC), Barcelona. We discuss here the possibilities that the MAGICData Center offers for the data handling, as well as the undergoingmodifications aimed at further improvement of its performance. In addition, wediscuss the accessibility of the MAGIC data to the wide scientificcommunity. Aside from providing all its published data in a format widelyaccepted by the astronomical community (FITS), the MAGIC collaboration iscurrently in the process of adapting these data to the standards required bythe International Virtual Observatory. This will put MAGIC published results on the international network of astronomical data and make them available to the whole scientific community.

  14. Organochlorine residues in human adipose tissue in Spain: Study of an agrarian area

    SciTech Connect

    Camps, M.; Planas, J.; Gomez-Catalan, J.; Sabroso, M.; To-Figueras, J.; Corbella, J.

    1989-02-01

    The environmental pollution by persistent organochlorine residues has received much attention in the last years because of its possible effects on wildlife and human health. These residues - organochlorine insecticides, hexa-chlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and, in minor levels, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) - are accumulated in lipid-rich tissues. Their concentrations in adipose tissues of human populations are the best indices in determining the extent of exposure and in evaluating the hazard. In a previous study on the urban population of Barcelona (Spain) during the years 1982-83, high levels of DDE, DDT, /beta/-HCH and HCB were determined. Recently the incidence of HCB in Barcelona has been confirmed by serum determinations. In the present paper the authors have investigated the levels of organochlorine residues - with special concern on HCB- in human adipose tissues from an agrarian area, located at 130 km from Barcelona, mainly devoted to fruit-trees and cereal culture. Results obtained will form part of an up-to-date report on organochlorine pollution in Spain, including several populations of different geographical and socioeconomic characteristics, that will make it possible to identify the sources and trends of this contamination.

  15. Urban NH3 levels and sources in six major Spanish cities.

    PubMed

    Reche, Cristina; Viana, Mar; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Cusack, Michael; Alastuey, Andrés; Artiñano, Begoña; Revuelta, M Aranzazu; López-Mahía, Purificación; Blanco-Heras, Gustavo; Rodríguez, Sergio; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío; González-Castanedo, Yolanda; Mantilla, Enrique; Tang, Y Sim; Querol, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    A detailed spatial and temporal assessment of urban NH3 levels and potential emission sources was made with passive samplers in six major Spanish cities (Barcelona, Madrid, A Coruña, Huelva, Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Valencia). Measurements were conducted during two different periods (winter-autumn and spring-summer) in each city. Barcelona showed the clearest spatial pattern, with the highest concentrations in the old city centre, an area characterised by a high population density and a dense urban architecture. The variability in NH3 concentrations did not follow a common seasonal pattern across the different cities. The relationship of urban NH3 with SO2 and NOX allowed concluding on the causes responsible for the variations in NH3 levels between measurement periods observed in Barcelona, Huelva and Madrid. However, the factors governing the variations in A Coruña, Valencia and Santa Cruz de Tenerife are still not fully understood. This study identified a broad variability in NH3 concentrations at the city-scale, and it confirms that NH3 sources in Spanish urban environments are vehicular traffic, biological sources (e.g. garbage containers), wastewater treatment plants, solid waste treatment plants and industry. The importance of NH3 monitoring in urban environments relies on its role as a precursor of secondary inorganic species and therefore PMX. Further research should be addressed in order to establish criteria to develop and implement mitigation strategies for cities, and to include urban NH3 sources in the emission inventories. PMID:25194477

  16. Sonmicat: Sea Level Observation System of Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Termens, A.; Ruiz, A.; Gonzalez Lopez, S.

    2014-12-01

    SONMICAT is the integrated sea level observation system of Catalonia. SONMICAT aims at providing high-quality continous measurements of sea- and land levels at the Catalan coast from tide gauges (relative sea levels) and from modern geodetic techniques (vertical land motion and absolute sea levels) for studies on long-term sea level trends, but also the calibration of satellite altimeters, for instance. This synergy is indeed the only way to get a clear and unambigous picture of what is actually going on at the coast of Catalonia. SONMICAT aims to be: - an integrated sea level monitoring system (different types of data, sources, time and space scales), - a sea level information system handling the data measured by different observation networks, - a local/regional component of international sea level observing systems (GLOSS, ESEAS, etc.), and - a local/regional interface for related European and Global projects and databases (PSML, TIGA, etc.) There is a gap of sea level data (GLOSS, PSML, TIGA) in the coast of Catalonia, although several groups and institutions have started to do some work. SONMICAT will fill it. Up to now, the system has started at l'Estartit and Barcelona harbours. A description of the actual SONMICAT infraestructure and campaigns - especially at Barcelona harbour - are presented. In June 2014, an airborne LiDAR campaign has been carrying on in Barcelona following two ICESat tracks. First results of the airborne survey will also be presented.

  17. Comparison of the levels of organic, elemental and inorganic carbon in particulate matter in six urban environments in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillanpää, M.; Frey, A.; Hillamo, R.; Pennanen, A. S.; Salonen, R. O.

    2005-05-01

    A series of 7-week sampling campaigns were conducted in urban background sites in the six European cities as follows: Duisburg 4 October-21 November 2002 (autumn), Prague 29 November 2002-16 January 2003 (winter), Amsterdam 24 January-13 March 2003 (winter), Helsinki 21 March-12 May 2003 (spring), Barcelona 28 March-19 May 2003 (spring) and Athens 2 June-21 July 2003 (summer). The campaigns were scheduled to include seasons of local public health concern due to high PM concentrations or findings in previously conducted epidemiological studies. Aerosol samples were collected in parallel with two identical virtual impactors (VI), which divide air PM into two size fractions, PM2.5 and PM2.5-10. The filter samples were analysed with a microbalance, an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF), an ion chromatograph (IC) and a thermo-optical carbon analyser (TOA). The PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 campaign means ranged 8.3-29.6 µg m-3 and 5.4-28.7 µg m-3, respectively. The ''wet and cool'' seasons favoured low coarse PM concentration and high fine PM concentration, whereas the spring and summer led to low fine and high coarse PM concentrations. The contribution of particulate organic matter (POM) to PM2.5-10 was highest (27%) in Prague and the lowest (10%) in Barcelona, while those to PM2.5 were generally higher, ranging from 21% in Barcelona to 54% in Prague. The contribution of elemental carbon (EC) to PM2.5-10 were relatively low (1-6%) in all the six European cities but it contributed somewhat higher (5-9%) to PM2.5. The differences are most likely due to variable contributions of local emission sources and seasonal factors such as domestic heating, vehicle exhausts and photochemical reactions. Carbonate, which interferes with carbon analysis by evolving stage at 900°C, was detected in the coarse particles of Athens and Barcelona and it could be separated reliably from OC by a simple integrating method. The calcium carbonate in Athens and Barcelona accounted for 56% and

  18. The influence of chemical composition of commercial lemon essential oils on the growth of Candida strains.

    PubMed

    Białoń, M; Krzyśko-Łupicka, T; Koszałkowska, M; Wieczorek, P P

    2014-02-01

    Candida yeasts are saprophytes naturally present in the environment and forming colonies on human mucous membranes and skin. They are opportunistic fungi that cause severe and even fatal infections in immunocompromised individuals. Several essential oils, including eucalyptus, pine, cinnamon and lemon, have been shown to be effective against Candida strains. This study addresses the chemical composition of some commercial lemon essential oils and their antifungal potential against selected Candida yeast strains. Antifungal potential and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for six commercial lemon essential oils against five Candida yeast strains (Candida albicans 31, Candida tropicalis 32, Candida glabrata 33, Candida glabrata 35 and Candida glabrata 38). On the basis of the GCMS analysis, it was found that the tested lemon essential oils had different chemical compositions, but mostly, they contained almost exclusively terpenes and oxygenated terpenes. The tests show that antifungal potential of lemon essential oils against Candida yeast strains was related to the high content of monoterpenoids and the type of Candida strains. From six tested commercial oils, only four (ETJA, Vera-Nord, Avicenna-Oil and Aromatic Art) shows antifungal potential against three Candida species (C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata). Vera-Nord and Avicenna-Oil show the best activity and effectively inhibit the growth of the C. albicans strain across the full range of the concentrations used. Our study characterises lemon essential oils, which could be used as very effective natural remedies against candidiasis caused by C. albicans. PMID:24436010

  19. Comparisons between physics-based, engineering, and statistical learning models for outdoor sound propagation.

    PubMed

    Hart, Carl R; Reznicek, Nathan J; Wilson, D Keith; Pettit, Chris L; Nykaza, Edward T

    2016-05-01

    Many outdoor sound propagation models exist, ranging from highly complex physics-based simulations to simplified engineering calculations, and more recently, highly flexible statistical learning methods. Several engineering and statistical learning models are evaluated by using a particular physics-based model, namely, a Crank-Nicholson parabolic equation (CNPE), as a benchmark. Narrowband transmission loss values predicted with the CNPE, based upon a simulated data set of meteorological, boundary, and source conditions, act as simulated observations. In the simulated data set sound propagation conditions span from downward refracting to upward refracting, for acoustically hard and soft boundaries, and low frequencies. Engineering models used in the comparisons include the ISO 9613-2 method, Harmonoise, and Nord2000 propagation models. Statistical learning methods used in the comparisons include bagged decision tree regression, random forest regression, boosting regression, and artificial neural network models. Computed skill scores are relative to sound propagation in a homogeneous atmosphere over a rigid ground. Overall skill scores for the engineering noise models are 0.6%, -7.1%, and 83.8% for the ISO 9613-2, Harmonoise, and Nord2000 models, respectively. Overall skill scores for the statistical learning models are 99.5%, 99.5%, 99.6%, and 99.6% for bagged decision tree, random forest, boosting, and artificial neural network regression models, respectively. PMID:27250158

  20. Electrical parameters and series resistance analysis of Au/Y/p-InP/Pt Schottky barrier diode at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, L. Dasaradha; Reddy, V. Rajagopal

    2016-05-01

    The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Au/Y/p-InP/Pt Schottky barrier diode (SBD) are analyzed at room temperature. The Au/Y/p-InP/Pt SBD shows a good rectification behavior. The ideality factor (n), barrier height (Φb), series resistance (Rs) and shunt resistance (Rsh) are determined from the I-V measurements. The n and Φb values of Au/Y/p-InP/Pt SBD are found to be 1.32 and 0.62 eV respectively. The value of barrier height (BH) obtained from Norde function is compared with those calculated from Cheung's functions. The series resistance (Rs) is calculated from Cheung's and modified Norde functions. Additionally, it is found that n, Φb, Rs, and Rsh have strong correlation with the applied bias. Furthermore, at low and high voltage regions, ohmic and space-charge-limited conduction mechanisms are found to govern the current flow in the diode.

  1. Révision du genre Bathiorhamnus Capuron (Rhamnaceae) endémique de Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    CALLMANDER, Martin W.; PHILLIPSON, Peter B.; BUERKI, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Le genre endèmique malgache Bathiorhamnus Capuron (Rhamnaceae) est l’objet d’une rèvision taxonomique. L’étude des caractères morphologiques permet de reconnaître sept espèces. En plus des deux espèces antérieurement reconnues: B. cryptophorus Capuron et B. louvelii (H.Perrier) Capuron, les trois variétés reconnues dans la seconde sont réévaluées et élevées au rang d’espèce: B. dentatus (Capuron) Callm., Phillipson & Buerki, B. macrocarpus (Capuron) Callm., Phillipson & Buerki, B. reticulatus (Capuron) Callm., Phillipson & Buerki. Deux nouvelles espèces sont décrites: B. capuronii Callm., Phillipson & Buerki, des forêts sèches de l’ouest et du nord et B. vohemarensis Callm., Phillipson & Buerki des forêts littorales situées autour de Vohémar au nord-est. Une clé du genre Bathiorhamnus est présentée ainsi qu’une évaluation préliminaire du statut de conservation de chaque espèce. PMID:21866216

  2. Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Great Escarpment (Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Clark, V. Ralph; Schrire, Brian D.; Barker, Nigel P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) are described from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism on the southern Great Escarpment, Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa. Both species are localised high-altitude endemics. Indigofera magnifica Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to the summit plateau of the Toorberg–Koudeveldberg–Meelberg west of Graaff-Reinet, and complements other western Sneeuberg endemics such as Erica passerinoides (Bolus) E.G.H. Oliv. and Faurea recondita Rourke & V.R. Clark. Indigofera asantasanensis Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to a small area east of Graaff-Reinet, and complements several other eastern Sneeuberg endemics such as Euryops exsudans B. Nord & V.R. Clark and Euryops proteoides B. Nord. & V.R. Clark. Based on morphology, both new species belong to the Cape Clade of Indigofera, supporting a biogeographical link between the Cape Floristic Region and the Sneeuberg, as well as with the rest of the eastern Great Escarpment. PMID:25941448

  3. The electrical characterization of Ag/PTCDA/PEDOT:PSS/p-Si Schottky diode by current-voltage characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Muhammad; Sayyad, Muhammad Hassan; Wahab, Fazal; Khan, Dil Nawaz; Aziz, Fakhra

    2013-04-01

    The Ag/PTCDA/PEDOT:PSS/p-Si Schottky diode has been fabricated by adding a layer of organic compound 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) on top of the p-Si for which the junction characteristics have been investigated. The electronic properties of the device have been studied by the conventional I-V and the Norde's methods. For conventional I-V measurements the rectifying behavior has been observed with a rectification ratio of 236. The barrier height and ideality factor values of 0.81 eV and 3.5, respectively, for the structure have been obtained from the forward bias I-V characteristics. Various electrical parameters such as reverse saturation current, series resistance and shunt resistance have been calculated from the analysis of experimental I-V results and discussed in detail. The barrier height and the series resistance determined by the Norde's function are found in good agreement with the values calculated from conventional I-V measurements. The charge conduction mechanism has also been discussed.

  4. Confirmation of a founder effect in a Northern European population of a new β-globin variant: HBB:c.23_26dup (codons 8/9 (+AGAA)).

    PubMed

    Marchi, Nina; Pissard, Serge; Cliquennois, Manuel; Vasseur, Christian; Le Metayer, Nathalie; Mereau, Claude; Jouet, Jean Pierre; Georgel, Anne-France; Genin, Emmanuelle; Rose, Christian

    2015-09-01

    β-Thalassemia is a genetic disease caused by a defect in the production of the β-like globin chain. More than 200 known different variants can lead to the disease and are mainly found in populations that have been exposed to malaria parasites. We recently described a duplication of four nucleotides in the first exon of β-globin gene in several families of patients living in Nord-Pas-de-Calais (France). Using the genotypes at 12 microsatellite markers surrounding the β-globin gene of four unrelated variant carriers plus an additional one recently discovered, we found that they shared a common haplotype indicating a founder effect that was estimated to have taken place 225 years ago (nine generations). In order to determine whether this variant arose in this region of Northern Europe or was introduced by migrants from regions of the world where thalassemia is endemic, we genotyped the first 4 unrelated variant carriers and 32 controls from Nord-Pas-de-Calais for 97 European ancestry informative markers (EAIMs). Using these EAIMs and comparing with population reference panels, we demonstrated that the variant carriers were very similar to the controls and were closer to North European populations than to South European or Middle-East populations. Rare β-thalassemia variants have already been described in patients sampled in non-endemic regions, but it is the first proof of a founder effect in Northern Europe. PMID:25469539

  5. Nordic Lightning Information System: Thunderstorm climate of Northern Europe for the period 2002-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, Antti; Enno, Sven-Erik; Haapalainen, Jussi

    2014-03-01

    A 10-year statistics (2002-2011) of the Nordic Lightning Information System (NORDLIS) are presented. NORDLIS is a joined lightning location network between Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Estonia, comprising in 2011 of 32 lightning location sensors. Our data set contains a total of 4,121,649 cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes. We show the regional and temporal distribution of lightning in Northern Europe during the study period. Our results indicate that the average annual ground flash density values are greatest in Southern Sweden, Baltic countries and Western Finland. The average number of thunderstorm days is largest in the Baltic countries and Southwestern Sweden, and the annual number of ground flashes has varied during the study period from 250,000 to 620,000. The largest observed daily number of ground flashes is 51,500, and the largest daily ground flash density is about 5 CGs km- 2; this has occurred in southern Sweden in July 2003. The average daily number of ground flashes peaks in mid-July-early-August. Cold season (October-April) thunderstorms occur frequently over the North Sea west of Norway and in the west coast of Denmark. Our results also show that an intense thunderstorm may occur practically anywhere in the Northern Europe except for certain maritime and mountain areas.

  6. Fate of elemental mercury in the Arctic during atmospheric mercury depletion episodes and the load of atmospheric mercury to the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Skov, Henrik; Christensen, Jesper H; Goodsite, Michael E; Heidam, Niels Z; Jensen, Bjarne; Wåhlin, Peter; Geernaert, Gerald

    2004-04-15

    Atmospheric mercury depletion episodes (AMDEs) were studied at Station Nord, Northeast Greenland, 81 degrees 36' N, 16 degrees 40' W, during the Arctic Spring. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and ozone were measured starting from 1998 and 1999, respectively, until August 2002. GEM was measured with a TEKRAN 2735A automatic mercury analyzer based on preconcentration of mercury on a gold trap followed by detection using fluorescence spectroscopy. Ozone was measured by UV absorption. A scatter plot of GEM and ozone concentrations confirmed that also at Station Nord GEM and ozone are linearly correlated during AMDEs. The relationship between ozone and GEM is further investigated in this paper using basic reaction kinetics (i.e., Cl, ClO, Br, and BrO have been suggested as reactants for GEM). The analyses in this paper show that GEM in the Arctic troposphere most probably reacts with Br. On the basis of the experimental results of this paper and results from the literature, a simple parametrization for AMDE was included into the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM). In the model, GEM is converted linearly to reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) over sea ice with temperature below -4 degrees C with a lifetime of 3 or 10 h. The new AMDE parametrization was used together with the general parametrization of mercury chemistry [Petersen, G.; Munthe, J.; Pleijel, K.; Bloxam, R.; Vinod Kumar, A. Atmos. Environ. 1998, 32, 829-843]. The obtained model results were compared with measurements of GEM at Station Nord. There was good agreement between the start and general features periods with AMDEs, although the model could not reproduce the fast concentration changes, and the correlation between modeled and measured values decreased from 2000 to 2001 and further in 2002. The modeled RGM concentrations over the Arctic in 2000 were found to agree well with the temporal and geographical variability of the boundary column of monthly average BrO observed by the GOME satellite. Scenario

  7. Effects of Highly Conserved Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Extended Haplotypes on Iron and Low CD8+ T Lymphocyte Phenotypes in HFE C282Y Homozygous Hemochromatosis Patients from Three Geographically Distant Areas

    PubMed Central

    Barton, James C.; Thorstensen, Ketil; Morais, Sandra; da Silva, Berta M.; Pinto, Jorge P.; Vieira, Cristina P.; Vieira, Jorge; Acton, Ronald T.; Porto, Graça

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HH) is a recessively inherited disorder of iron overload occurring commonly in subjects homozygous for the C282Y mutation in HFE gene localized on chromosome 6p21.3 in linkage disequilibrium with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A locus. Although its genetic homogeneity, the phenotypic expression is variable suggesting the presence of modifying factors. One such genetic factor, a SNP microhaplotype named A-A-T, was recently found to be associated with a more severe phenotype and also with low CD8+T-lymphocyte numbers. The present study aimed to test whether the predictive value of the A-A-T microhaplotype remained in other population settings. In this study of 304 HH patients from 3 geographically distant populations (Porto, Portugal 65; Alabama, USA 57; Nord-Trøndelag, Norway 182), the extended haplotypes involving A-A-T were studied in 608 chromosomes and the CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers were determined in all subjects. Patients from Porto had a more severe phenotype than those from other settings. Patients with A-A-T seemed on average to have greater iron stores (p = 0.021), but significant differences were not confirmed in the 3 separate populations. Low CD8+ T-lymphocytes were associated with HLA-A*03-A-A-T in Porto and Alabama patients but not in the greater series from Nord-Trøndelag. Although A-A-T may signal a more severe iron phenotype, this study was unable to prove such an association in all population settings, precluding its use as a universal predictive marker of iron overload in HH. Interestingly, the association between A-A-T and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, which was confirmed in Porto and Alabama patients, was not observed in Nord-Trøndelag patients, showing that common HLA haplotypes like A*01–B*08 or A*03–B*07 segregating with HFE/C282Y in the three populations may carry different messages. These findings further strengthen the relevance of HH as a good disease model to search for novel candidate loci associated with

  8. Trends in Inequalities in Induced Abortion According to Educational Level among Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    García-Subirats, Irene; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Díez, Elia; Borrell, Carme

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe trends in inequalities by women’s socioeconomic position and age in induced abortion in Barcelona (Spain) over 1992–1996 and 2000–2004. Induced abortions occurring in residents in Barcelona aged 20 and 44 years in the study period are included. Variables are age, educational level, and time periods. Induced abortion rates per 1,000 women and absolute differences for educational level, age, and time period are calculated. Poisson regression models are fitted to obtain the relative risk (RR) for trends. Induced abortion rates increased from 10.1 to 14.6 per 1,000 women aged 20–44 (RR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41–1.47) between 1992–1996 and 2000–2004. The abortion rate was highest among women aged 20–24 and 25–34 and changed little among women aged 35–44. Among women aged 20–24 and 25–34, those with a primary education or less had higher rates of induced abortion in the second period. Induced abortion rates also grew in those women with secondary education. In the 35–44 age group, the induced abortion rate declined among women with a secondary education (RR = 0.66; 95% CI 0.60–0.73) and slightly among those with a greater level of education. Induced abortion is rising most among women in poor socioeconomic positions. This study reveals deep inequalities in induced abortion in Barcelona, Spain. The trends identified in this study suggest that policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancies are failing in Spain. Our study fills an important gap in literature on recent trends in Southern Europe. PMID:20229107

  9. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Bruha, Jan; Bruhova-Foltynova, Hana; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Praznoczy, Corinne; Ragettli, Martina S; Tainio, Marko; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen) produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76-163) annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29-104), Barcelona 37 (24-56), Paris 37 (18-64) and Basel 5 (3-9). An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris) resulted in 19 (3-42) deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3-21) in Prague, 6 (4-9) in Basel, 3 (2-6) in Copenhagen and 3 (2-4) in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation. PMID:26930213

  10. Factors affecting collaboration between general practitioners and community pharmacists: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists (CPs) are encouraged to collaborate, a true collaborative relationship does not exist between them. Our objective was to identify and analyze factors affecting GP-CP collaboration. Methods This was a descriptive-exploratory qualitative study carried out in two Spanish regions: Catalonia (Barcelona) and Balearic Islands (Mallorca). Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs and CPs from Barcelona and Mallorca (January 2010-February 2011). Analysis was conducted using Colaizzi’s method. Results Thirty-seven interviews were conducted. The factors affecting the relationship were different depending on timing: 1) Before collaboration had started (prior to collaboration) and 2) Once the collaboration had been initiated (during collaboration). Prior to collaboration, four key factors were found to affect it: the perception of usefulness; the Primary Care Health Center (PCHC) manager’s interest; the professionals’ attitude; and geography and legislation. These factors were affected by economic and organizational aspects (i.e. resources or PCHC management styles) and by professionals’ opinions and beliefs (i.e. perception of the existence of a public-private conflict). During collaboration, the achievement of objectives and the changes in the PCHC management were the key factors influencing continued collaboration. The most relevant differences between regions were due to the existence of privately-managed PCHCs in Barcelona that facilitated the implementation of collaboration. In comparison with the group with experience in collaboration, some professionals without experience reported a skeptical attitude towards it, reporting that it might not be necessary. Conclusions Factors related to economic issues, management and practitioners’ attitudes and perceptions might be crucial for triggering collaboration. Interventions and strategies derived from these identified

  11. Pediatric Exposure to Drugs of Abuse by Hair Testing: Monitoring 15 Years of Evolution in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Pichini, Simona; García-Algar, Oscar; Alvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Mortali, Claudia; Gottardi, Massimo; Svaizer, Fiorenza; Pacifici, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Hair testing is a useful tool to investigate the prevalence of unsuspected chronic exposure to drugs of abuse in pediatric populations and it has been applied to three different cohorts of children from Barcelona, Spain along fifteen years to evaluate eventual changes in this exposure. Children were recruited from three independent studies performed at Hospital del Mar (Barcelona, Spain) and approved by the local Ethics Committee. Hair samples were collected from the first 187 children cohort (around 4 years of age) in 1998, from the second 90 children cohort (1.5–5 years of age) in 2008 and from the third 114 children cohort (5–14 years of age) in 2013. Hair samples were analysed for the presence of opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and cannabis by validated methodologies using gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Familiar sociodemographics and eventual consumption of drugs of abuse by parents, and caregivers were recorded. Hair samples from 24.6% children in 1998 were positive for any drug of abuse (23.0% cocaine), 25.5% in 2008 (23.3% cocaine), and 28.1% in 2013 (20.1% cocaine and 11.4% cannabis). In none of the cohorts, parental sociodemographics were associated with children exposure to drugs of abuse. The results of the three study cohorts demonstrated a significant prevalence of unsuspected pediatric exposure to drugs of abuse which mainly involved cocaine maintained along fifteen years in Barcelona, Spain. We recommend to be aware about unsuspected passive exposure to drugs of abuse in general population and to use general or selected hair screening to disclose exposure to drugs of abuse in children from risky environments to provide the basis for specific social and health interventions. PMID:25153461

  12. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J.; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Bruha, Jan; Bruhova-Foltynova, Hana; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Praznoczy, Corinne; Ragettli, Martina S.; Tainio, Marko; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16–64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen) produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76–163) annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29–104), Barcelona 37 (24–56), Paris 37 (18–64) and Basel 5 (3–9). An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris) resulted in 19 (3–42) deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3–21) in Prague, 6 (4–9) in Basel, 3 (2–6) in Copenhagen and 3 (2–4) in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation. PMID:26930213

  13. Inherited functional variants of the lymphocyte receptor CD5 influence melanoma survival.

    PubMed

    Potrony, Miriam; Carreras, Esther; Aranda, Fernando; Zimmer, Lisa; Puig-Butille, Joan-Anton; Tell-Martí, Gemma; Armiger, Noelia; Sucker, Antje; Giménez-Xavier, Pol; Martínez-Florensa, Mario; Carrera, Cristina; Malvehy, Josep; Schadendorf, Dirk; Puig, Susana; Lozano, Francisco

    2016-09-15

    Despite the recent progress in treatment options, malignant melanoma remains a deadly disease. Besides therapy, inherited factors might modulate clinical outcome, explaining in part widely varying survival rates. T-cell effector function regulators on antitumor immune responses could also influence survival. CD5, a T-cell receptor inhibitory molecule, contributes to the modulation of antimelanoma immune responses as deduced from genetically modified mouse models. The CD5 SNPs rs2241002 (NM_014207.3:c.671C > T, p.Pro224Leu) and rs2229177 (NM_014207.3:c.1412C > T, p.Ala471Val) constitute an ancestral haplotype (Pro224-Ala471) that confers T-cell hyper-responsiveness and worsens clinical autoimmune outcome. The assessment of these SNPs on survival impact from two melanoma patient cohorts (Barcelona, N = 493 and Essen, N = 215) reveals that p.Ala471 correlates with a better outcome (OR= 0.57, 95% CI = 0.33-0.99, Adj. p = 0.043, in Barcelona OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.40-1.01, Adj. p = 0.051, in Essen). While, p.Leu224 was associated with increased melanoma-associated mortality in both cohorts (OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.07-3.24, Adj. p = 0.030 in Barcelona and OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.04-3.26, Adj. p = 0.037, in Essen). Furthermore survival analyses showed that the Pro224-Ala471 haplotype in homozygosis improved melanoma survival in the entire set of patients (HR = 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.67, Adj. p = 0.005). These findings highlight the relevance of genetic variability in immune-related genes for clinical outcome in melanoma. PMID:27169428

  14. Cancer mortality inequalities in urban areas: a Bayesian small area analysis in Spanish cities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intra-urban inequalities in mortality have been infrequently analysed in European contexts. The aim of the present study was to analyse patterns of cancer mortality and their relationship with socioeconomic deprivation in small areas in 11 Spanish cities. Methods It is a cross-sectional ecological design using mortality data (years 1996-2003). Units of analysis were the census tracts. A deprivation index was calculated for each census tract. In order to control the variability in estimating the risk of dying we used Bayesian models. We present the RR of the census tract with the highest deprivation vs. the census tract with the lowest deprivation. Results In the case of men, socioeconomic inequalities are observed in total cancer mortality in all cities, except in Castellon, Cordoba and Vigo, while Barcelona (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.42-1.67), Madrid (RR = 1.57 95%CI 1.49-1.65) and Seville (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.36-1.74) present the greatest inequalities. In general Barcelona and Madrid, present inequalities for most types of cancer. Among women for total cancer mortality, inequalities have only been found in Barcelona and Zaragoza. The excess number of cancer deaths due to socioeconomic deprivation was 16,413 for men and 1,142 for women. Conclusion This study has analysed inequalities in cancer mortality in small areas of cities in Spain, not only relating this mortality with socioeconomic deprivation, but also calculating the excess mortality which may be attributed to such deprivation. This knowledge is particularly useful to determine which geographical areas in each city need intersectorial policies in order to promote a healthy environment. PMID:21232096

  15. Pediatric exposure to drugs of abuse by hair testing: monitoring 15 years of evolution in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pichini, Simona; García-Algar, Oscar; Alvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Mortali, Claudia; Gottardi, Massimo; Svaizer, Fiorenza; Pacifici, Roberta

    2014-08-01

    Hair testing is a useful tool to investigate the prevalence of unsuspected chronic exposure to drugs of abuse in pediatric populations and it has been applied to three different cohorts of children from Barcelona, Spain along fifteen years to evaluate eventual changes in this exposure. Children were recruited from three independent studies performed at Hospital del Mar (Barcelona, Spain) and approved by the local Ethics Committee. Hair samples were collected from the first 187 children cohort (around 4 years of age) in 1998, from the second 90 children cohort (1.5-5 years of age) in 2008 and from the third 114 children cohort (5-14 years of age) in 2013. Hair samples were analysed for the presence of opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and cannabis by validated methodologies using gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Familiar sociodemographics and eventual consumption of drugs of abuse by parents, and caregivers were recorded. Hair samples from 24.6% children in 1998 were positive for any drug of abuse (23.0% cocaine), 25.5% in 2008 (23.3% cocaine), and 28.1% in 2013 (20.1% cocaine and 11.4% cannabis). In none of the cohorts, parental sociodemographics were associated with children exposure to drugs of abuse. The results of the three study cohorts demonstrated a significant prevalence of unsuspected pediatric exposure to drugs of abuse which mainly involved cocaine maintained along fifteen years in Barcelona, Spain. We recommend to be aware about unsuspected passive exposure to drugs of abuse in general population and to use general or selected hair screening to disclose exposure to drugs of abuse in children from risky environments to provide the basis for specific social and health interventions. PMID:25153461

  16. Recent immigration and adverse pregnancy outcomes in an urban setting in Spain.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Pérez, Glòria; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Salvador, Joaquín; Jané, Mireia

    2011-07-01

    To describe social and economic inequalities in non-fatal pregnancy outcomes (low birth weight, preterm birth and small for gestational age births) in the neighbourhoods of the city of Barcelona (Spain), according to maternal age and maternal country of origin, between 1991 and 2005. A cross-sectional ecological study was carried out using the 38 neighbourhoods of Barcelona as the unit of analysis. The study population comprises the 192,921 live births to resident women aged 12-49 residing from 1991 to 2005. Information was gathered from births registry. Prevalence of low birth-weight, preterm birth and small for gestational age, was calculated for each of the 38 neighbourhoods of mothers' residence, stratifying results by maternal age and country of origin. The indicator of neighbourhood socio-economic level was the unemployment rate. Quartile maps along with Spearman correlation coefficients and linear regression were performed between indicators. The present study reports socio-economic inequalities in pregnancy outcomes among neighbourhoods in Barcelona (Spain): the more disadvantaged neighbourhoods have worse pregnancy outcomes (low birth weight, preterm birth and small for gestational age births) in all women age groups. These inequalities do not exist among immigrant women, and some groups of foreign mothers even have lower rates of low birth weight, preterm birth, and small for gestational age births than autochthonous women. The existing inequalities suggest that policy efforts to reduce these inequalities are not entirely successful and should focus on improving pregnancy and delivery care in less privileged women in a country with universal access to health care. PMID:20440546

  17. [Odón de Buen: forty-five years of commitment to the university].

    PubMed

    Gomis, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The aragonese naturalist Odón de Buen y del Cos for twenty-two annual academic courses professor of natural history at the University of Barcelona and for twenty-three of the University of Madrid. Strong supporter of Darwin's evolutionary theory, experimental work in the field and laboratory, in this paper puts the value of their efforts, as an educator, to popularize the natural sciences and thus separated from the concerns, superstition and fanaticism, which they were basic reasons of the moral and material backwardness in which Spain was found. PMID:22371988

  18. Vaccine Failures in Patients Properly Vaccinated with 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Catalonia, a Region with Low Vaccination Coverage.

    PubMed

    Moraga-Llop, Fernando; Garcia-Garcia, Juan-Jose; Díaz-Conradi, Alvaro; Ciruela, Pilar; Martínez-Osorio, Johanna; González-Peris, Sebastià; Hernández, Sergi; de Sevilla, Mariona Fernández; Uriona, Sonia; Izquierdo, Conchita; Selva, Laura; Campins, Magda; Codina, Gemma; Batalla, Joan; Esteva, Cristina; Domínguez, Àngela; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Vaccine failures occurring with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in 3 pediatric hospitals in Barcelona (2012-2013) are described. PCV13 vaccine failure was defined as the occurrence of an invasive pneumococcal infection in children properly vaccinated by PCV13. Among 84 patients with invasive pneumococcal infection, 32 had received at least one dose of PCV13. Seventeen of them had invasive pneumococcal infection produced by a PCV13 serotype. Among those, 9 patients were considered to have a PCV13 vaccine failure. Serotype 3 was isolated in 6 patients, serotype 19A in 2 and serotype 6B in 1. PMID:26658626

  19. Past, present and future of atomic force microscopy in life sciences and medicine.

    PubMed

    Parot, Pierre; Dufrêne, Yves F; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Le Grimellec, Christian; Navajas, Daniel; Pellequer, Jean-Luc; Scheuring, Simon

    2007-01-01

    To introduce this special issue of the Journal of Molecular Recognition dedicated to the applications of atomic force microscopy (AFM) in life sciences, this paper presents a short summary of the history of AFM in biology. Based on contributions from the first international conference of AFM in biological sciences and medicine (AFM BioMed Barcelona, 19-21 April 2007), we present and discuss recent progress made using AFM for studying cells and cellular interactions, probing single molecules, imaging biosurfaces at high resolution and investigating model membranes and their interactions. Future prospects in these different fields are also highlighted. PMID:18080995

  20. [SEMERGEN positioning for the treatment of alcohol disorders in primary care].

    PubMed

    Arbesú, José Ángel; Gual, Antoni; Casquero, Rafael; Bobes, Julio; Ortega, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The present manuscript is based on the recommendations of a panel of health care professionals, including several experts in primary health care, psychiatry and addictions. The participants are recognized specialists in the treatment of alcohol use disorder. The panel met in Barcelona on 2015 April 22 with the aims of evaluating the current management of alcohol use disorder in primary health care and developing a strategy to address this problem, basing on the evidence and the recommendations of the scientific societies and national and international organizations. PMID:26710714

  1. European Respiratory Society (ERS) - 20th Annual Congress.

    PubMed

    Seale, John Paul

    2010-11-01

    The European Respiratory Society Congress, held in Barcelona, included topics covering new therapeutic developments in the field of respiratory health and disease. This conference report highlights selected presentations on therapies targeting inflammatory cells, with a focus on therapeutic agents for asthma and COPD. This report also includes a discussion of novel therapeutic agents for pulmonary hypertension. Investigational drugs discussed include OC-000459 (Oxagen), SCH-527123 (Merck & Co), AZD-9668 (AstraZeneca), benralizumab (MedImmune/Kyowa Hakko Kirin/BioWa), PF-3429281 (Pfizer), vilanterol (GlaxoSmithKline/Theravance), LAS-100977 (Almirall Prodesfarma), selexipag (Nippon Shinyaku/Actelion) and GW-0742 (GlaxoSmithKline). PMID:21046521

  2. Daily processing of Gaia data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portell, J.; Fabricius, C.; Torra, J.; Garralda, N.; González, J.; Castañeda, J.

    2015-05-01

    Gaia, the space astrometry satellite of the European Space Agency, was successfully launched on 2013 December 19^{th}. A vast amount of data has already been received by the on-ground data processing systems running at the European Space Astronomy Centre near Madrid. In this paper we describe the mentioned systems, focusing on the Initial Data Treatment system which is coordinated by the Gaia group at the University of Barcelona. We present some of the results obtained during the first months of nominal operations.

  3. A New Conformation With an Extraordinarily Long, 3.04 Å Two-Electron, Six-Center Bond Observed for the π-[TCNE]2 (2-) Dimer in [NMe4 ]2 [TCNE]2 (TCNE=Tetracyanoethylene).

    PubMed

    Graham, Adora G; Mota, Fernando; Shurdha, Endrit; Rheingold, Arnold L; Novoa, Juan J; Miller, Joel S

    2015-09-14

    Invited for the cover of this issue are the groups of Joel S. Miller at the University of Utah and Juan J. Novoa at the University of Barcelona. The image depicts a visualization of the energy difference between the new 2e(-) /6c and the established 2e(-) /4c bond for C2 and D2h conformations, respectively, for π-[TCNE]2 (2-) . Read the full text of the article at 10.1002/chem.201501963. PMID:26332225

  4. Foreword

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labarta, Amilcar; Vazquez, Manuel; Fontcuberta, Josep; Schuller, Ivan; Rivas, José; Givord, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    The International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), organized under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), takes place every three years. It gathers scientists and engineers involved in magnetism research, from the most fundamental aspects to the most applied ones. ICM 2015, the 20th conference in the series, took place in Barcelona, from 5th to 10th July 2015, organized by a broadly international magnetics community with special commitment from the Spanish community. Almost 2200 delegates took part to ICM 2015, placing this conference amongst those with highest attendance in the series (see Table 1).

  5. Proton lifetime in orthogonal theories of family unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagger, Jonathan; Dimopoulos, Savas; Massó, Eduard

    1984-09-01

    We compute the proton lifetime in recently proposed orthogonal theories of family unification. For ΛMS = 100 MeV, we find a partial lifetime τ(p-->e+π0) of 5.9×1031+/-1 yr, where the error in the exponent comes from uncertainties in the hadronic wave function. Important decay products include electrons, neutrinos and non-strange mesons. Fulbright Fellow. On leave of absence from Departament de Física Teòrica, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, Belaterra, Spain.

  6. Heterogeneity versus homogeneity of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Fumitaka; Martinez, Nicholas E; Omura, Seiichi; Tsunoda, Ikuo

    2011-01-01

    The 10th International Congress of Neuroimmunology, including the 10th European School of Neuroimmunology Course, was held by the International Society of Neuroimmunology in Sitges (Barcelona, Spain) on 26–30 October 2010. The conference covered a wide spectrum of issues and challenges in both basic science and clinical aspects of neuroimmunology. Data and ideas were shared through a variety of programs, including review talks and poster sessions. One of the topics of the congress was whether multiple sclerosis is a homogenous or heterogenous disease, clinically and pathologically, throughout its course. PMID:21426254

  7. Current management of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizian, Parissa; Roayaie, Sasan; Schwartz, Myron E

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and leading cause of death among patients with cirrhosis. Treatment guidelines are based according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system. The choice among therapeutic options that include liver resection, liver transplantation, locoregional, and systemic treatments must be individualized for each patient. The aim of this paper is to review the outcomes that can be achieved in the treatment of HCC with the heterogeneous therapeutic options currently available in clinical practice. PMID:25132740

  8. Estimating recharge in fractured aquifers of a temperate humid to semiarid volcanic island (Jeju, Korea) from water table fluctuations, and Cl, CFC-12 and 3H chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Benjamin; El-Kadi, Aly I.; Mair, Alan; Whittier, Robert B.; Ha, Kyoochul

    2011-11-01

    SummaryGroundwater table fluctuations (WTF), chloride mass balance (CMB), apparent groundwater chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-12) ages and tritium ( 3H) mean residence times were used to assess recharge rates on Jeju Island (Korea), where groundwater is the main source of potable water. Given the limitations of various techniques and the respective data, the methods yield median values of 687 mm/yr (WTF), 429 mm/yr (CMB), 423 mm/yr (CFC-12) and 394 mm/yr ( 3H), which are lower than the multi-annual (1993-2002) average value calculated using the soil water budget (SWB) method (911 mm/yr). These underestimates are mainly due to most groundwater samples used for the analyses being located in the more arid lowland areas of the island. All methods yield highest recharge rates in the southern and eastern districts of Jeju implying a strong control of rainfall on the spatial recharge distribution. The spatial variability of recharge at the catchment scale is caused by spatially and temporally variable rainfall and evapotranspiration as well as the wide range in effective porosity and specific yield values of the aquifer lithologies. The WTF method yields reliable results in the coastal regions where low hydraulic gradients prevail. The CMB technique underestimates the recharge values of the SWB in all geographic districts probably as a result of anthropogenic Cl additions to groundwater and unaccounted for atmospheric Cl dry deposition. Median recharge estimates from the CFC-12 and 3H data show the lowest spatial correlation with those from the SWB mainly as a result of vertical anisotropies and uncertainties in the determination of effective aquifer thicknesses particularly in the perched, high level areas. The here applied methods are useful for local calibration and validation of SWB estimates in lower parabasal regions where thin unsaturated zones prevail; however, due to their inability to predict recharge in the more remote upslope areas from which, as of yet, no

  9. On the possible leakage of ET-RR1 liquid waste tank: hydrological and migration modes studies.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, N S; El-Hemamy, S T

    2005-03-20

    The first Egyptian (ET-RR1) research reactor has been in operation since 1961 at the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) Inshas site. Therefore, at present, it faces a serious problem due to aging equipment, especially those directly in contact with the environment such as the underground settling tanks of nuclear and radioactive waste. The possible leakage of radionuclides from these aging tanks and their migration to the aquifer was studied using instantaneous release. This study was done based on the geological and hydrological characteristics of the site, which were obtained from the hydrogeological data of 25 wells previously drilled at the site of the reactor[1]. These data were used to calculate the trend of water levels, hydraulic gradient, and formulation of water table maps from 1993-2002. This information was utilized to determine water velocity in the unsaturated zone. Radionuclides released from the settling tank to the aquifer were screened according to the radionuclides that have high migration ability and high activity. The amount of fission and activation products of the burned fuels that contaminated the water content of the reactor pool were considered as 10% of the original spent fuel. The radionuclides considered in this case were H-3, Sr-90, Zr-93, Tc-99, Cd-113, Cs-135, Cs-137, Sm-151, Pu-238, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Am-241. The instantaneous release was analyzed by theoretical calculations, taking into consideration the migration mechanism of the various radionuclides through the soil space between the tank bottom and the aquifer. The migration mechanism through the unsaturated zone was considered depending on soil type, thickness of the unsaturated zone, water velocity, and other factors that are specific for each radionuclide, namely retardation factor, which is the function of the specific distribution coefficient of each radionuclide. This was considered collectively as delay time. Meanwhile, the mechanism of radionuclide migration

  10. Radiation Therapy and Cardiac Death in Long-Term Survivors of Esophageal Cancer: An Analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result Database

    PubMed Central

    Gharzai, Laila; Verma, Vivek; Denniston, Kyle A.; Bhirud, Abhijeet R.; Bennion, Nathan R.; Lin, Chi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Radiation therapy (RT) for esophageal cancer often results in unintended radiation doses delivered to the heart owing to anatomic proximity. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we examined late cardiac death in survivors of esophageal cancer that had or had not received RT. Methods 5,630 patients were identified that were diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or adenocarcinoma (AC) from 1973–2012, who were followed for at least 5 years after therapy. Examined risk factors for cardiac death included age (≤55/56-65/66-75/>75), gender, race (white/non-white), stage (local/regional/distant), histology (SCC/AC), esophageal location (<18cm/18-24cm/25-32cm/33-40cm from incisors), diagnosis year (1973-1992/1993-2002/2003-2012), and receipt of surgery and/or RT. Time to cardiac death was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox model was used to evaluate risk factors for cardiac death in propensity score matched data. Results Patients who received RT were younger, diagnosed more recently, had more advanced disease, SCC histology, and no surgery. The RT group had higher risk of cardiac death than the no-RT group (log-rank p<0.0001). The median time to cardiac death in the RT group was 289 months (95% CI, 255–367) and was not reached in the no-RT group. The probability of cardiac death increased with age and decreased with diagnosis year, and this trend was more pronounced in the RT group. Multivariate analysis found RT to be associated with higher probability of cardiac death (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03–1.47, HR 1.961, 95% CI 1.466–2.624). Lower esophageal subsite (33–40 cm) was also associated with a higher risk of cardiac death. Other variables were not associated with cardiac death. Conclusions Recognizing the limitations of a SEER analysis including lack of comorbidity accountability, these data should prompt more definitive study as to whether a possible associative effect of RT on cardiac death

  11. Portmanteau Constructions, Phrase Structure, and Linearization

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Brian Hok-Shing

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual code-switching which involves language-pairs with contrasting head-complement orders (i.e., head-initial vs. head-final), a head may be lexicalized from both languages with its complement sandwiched in the middle. These so-called “portmanteau” sentences (Nishimura, 1985, 1986; Sankoff et al., 1990, etc.) have been attested for decades, but they had never received a systematic, formal analysis in terms of current syntactic theory before a few recent attempts (Hicks, 2010, 2012). Notwithstanding this lack of attention, these structures are in fact highly relevant to theories of linearization and phrase structure. More specifically, they challenge binary-branching (Kayne, 1994, 2004, 2005) as well as the Antisymmetry hypothesis (ibid.). Not explained by current grammatical models of code-switching, including the Equivalence Constraint (Poplack, 1980), the Matrix Language Frame Model (Myers-Scotton, 1993, 2002, etc.), and the Bilingual Speech Model (Muysken, 2000, 2013), the portmanteau construction indeed looks uncommon or abnormal, defying any systematic account. However, the recurrence of these structures in various datasets and constraints on them do call for an explanation. This paper suggests an account which lies with syntax and also with the psycholinguistics of bilingualism. Assuming that linearization is a process at the Sensori-Motor (SM) interface (Chomsky, 2005, 2013), this paper sees that word order is not fixed in a syntactic tree but it is set in the production process, and much information of word order rests in the processor, for instance, outputting a head before its complement (i.e., head-initial word order) or the reverse (i.e., head-final word order). As for the portmanteau construction, it is the output of bilingual speakers co-activating two sets of head-complement orders which summon the phonetic forms of the same word in both languages. Under this proposal, the underlying structure of a portmanteau construction is as simple as

  12. Military veteran mortality following a survived suicide attempt

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Suicide is a global public health problem. Recently in the U.S., much attention has been given to preventing suicide and other premature mortality in veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. A strong predictor of suicide is a past suicide attempt, and suicide attempters have multiple physical and mental comorbidities that put them at risk for additional causes of death. We examined mortality among U.S. military veterans after hospitalization for attempted suicide. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted with all military veterans receiving inpatient treatment during 1993-1998 at United States Veterans Affairs (VA) medical facilities following a suicide attempt. Deaths occurring during 1993-2002, the most recent available year at the time, were identified through VA Beneficiary and Records Locator System data and National Death Index data. Mortality data for the general U.S. adult population were also obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics. Comparisons within the veteran cohort, between genders, and against the U.S. population were conducted with descriptive statistics and standardized mortality ratios. The actuarial method was used estimate the proportion of veterans in the cohort we expect would have survived through 2002 had they experienced the same rate of death that occurred over the study period in the U.S. population having the age and sex characteristics. Results During 1993-1998, 10,163 veterans were treated and discharged at a VA medical center after a suicide attempt (mean age = 44 years; 91% male). There was a high prevalence of diagnosed alcohol disorder or abuse (31.8%), drug dependence or abuse (21.8%), psychoses (21.2%), depression (18.5%), and hypertension (14.2%). A total of 1,836 (18.1%) veterans died during follow up (2,941.4/100,000 person years). The cumulative survival probability after 10 years was 78.0% (95% CI = 72.9, 83.1). Hence the 10-year cumulative mortality risk was 22.0%, which was 3

  13. Investigation of hydrological drought using Cumulative Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI 30) in the eastern Mediterranean region (Damascus, Syria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhem, Boulos Abou; Kattaa, Bassam

    2016-07-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean region has been exposed to drought episodes, which have been occurring more frequently during the last decades. The objective of the present paper is to study the precipitation regime of the Damascus (Mazzeh) meteoric station by analysing drought characteristics using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and comparing this with the drought in Cyprus. The cumulative drought conceptis proposed to characterize long-term hydrologic drought, which affects the shallow groundwater productivity in terms of quantity and quality. Gamma probability distribution was fitted to the long-term annual precipitation in Damascus from 1918-1919 to 2007-2008 ( n = 90 years). Generally, a decreasing trend of 17% to the mean annual rainfall of Damascus and 13% to the mean annual rainfall of Cyprus was estimated between 1970 and 2000. The SPI identifies three major extended drought periods: (1) 9 years of severe drought (1954-1963) with an average 20% precipitation deficit per year compared to the mean. (2) 8 years of severe drought (1983-1991) with a 27% deficit per year on average. (3) 9 years of extreme drought (1993-2002) with a 31% deficit per year on average. The cumulative standardized precipitation index (SPI 30) demonstrates positive values for the first period and is indicative of having no effect on the global water balance. SPI 30 exhibits sensitive equilibrium with near zero values / a near zero value (±1.5) for the second period. For the third period, however, the SPI 30 decreases below -10 indicating an extreme hydrological drought that has negative consequences on the recent groundwater recharge. It is required to develop and implement a sustainable groundwater management strategy to reduce long-terms drought risks. Generally, the SPI 30 in Cyprus is parallel to that in Damascus with a 3-5 year delay. Thus, the central zone of the Eastern Mediterranean region is facing big challenges and has been suffering from three decades of moderate to

  14. Inter-annual Variability of Biomass Burning Aerosol Optical Depth in Southern Amazonia, and the Impact of These Aerosols on the Diurnal Cycle of Solar Flux Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J. S.; Artaxo, P.; Yamasoe, M. A.; Procopio, A. S.; Prins, E. M.; Feltz, J. M.; Smirnov, A.; Dubovik, O.; Reid, J. S.

    2002-12-01

    The inter-annual variability of the magnitude of biomass burning in southern Amazonia has been relatively large over the last decade. The extent of the burning in the latter half of a given dry season (July-October) depends largely on the rainfall amount and timing, with drought years exhibiting many more fires and smoke than average. Additionally, new regulations aimed at controlling burning may also affect inter-annual variability. We present measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from biomass burning smoke as measured by AERONET sites in Rondonia and Mato Grosso from 1993-2002. These AOD measurements are shown to follow similar inter-annual variability as the fire counts determined by the multi-spectral radiance measurements obtained with GOES-8. However, the AOD at these sites exhibit relatively little diurnal variation despite a very large diurnal cycle in satellite detected fire counts. In order to quantify the changes in the diurnal cycle of solar flux reduction as a result of aerosol attenuation at the peak of the burning season, we model the diurnal cycle of total shortwave (SW; 300-4000 nm), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm), and Ultraviolet- A (UVA; 320-400 nm) fluxes in mid-September using the AERONET monthly average AOD measurements (AOD(550 nm) = 1.11). These average diurnal cycle flux reductions show significant temporal delays in the morning for equivalent flux levels in all three spectral bands, of ~50 min to 2 hr 15 min at mid-morning (midpoint between sunrise and solar noon). The largest time delays in flux occur in the UVA band and the smallest in the total SW broadband due to a rapid decrease in AOD as wavelength increases for the accumulation mode smoke aerosols. The time delays in solar flux have implications for possible delay of the onset of cumulus convection, the shortening of the photo-period when plants photosynthesize, and reduced time interval for UVA fluxes which may have implications for photochemical

  15. Rainfall variability and extremes over southern Africa: Assessment of a climate model to reproduce daily extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. J. R.; Kniveton, D. R.; Layberry, R.

    2009-04-01

    It is increasingly accepted that that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. A change in the distribution and magnitude of extreme rainfall events (associated with changing variability), such as droughts or flooding, may have a far greater impact on human and natural systems than a changing mean. This issue is of particular importance for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable to and ill-equipped (in terms of adaptation) for extreme events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, famine, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability and the identification of rainfall extremes is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify extreme events and accurately predict future variability. The majority of previous climate model verification studies have compared model output with observational data at monthly timescales. In this research, the assessment of ability of a state of the art climate model to simulate climate at daily timescales is carried out using satellite derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infra-Red Algorithm (MIRA). This dataset covers the period from 1993-2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree longitude/latitude. The ability of a climate model to simulate current climate provides some indication of how much confidence can be applied to its future predictions. In this paper, simulations of current climate from the UK Meteorological Office Hadley Centre's climate model, in both regional and global mode, are firstly compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. This concentrates primarily on the ability of the model to simulate the spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall variability over southern Africa. Secondly, the ability of the model to reproduce daily rainfall extremes will

  16. Portmanteau Constructions, Phrase Structure, and Linearization.

    PubMed

    Chan, Brian Hok-Shing

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual code-switching which involves language-pairs with contrasting head-complement orders (i.e., head-initial vs. head-final), a head may be lexicalized from both languages with its complement sandwiched in the middle. These so-called "portmanteau" sentences (Nishimura, 1985, 1986; Sankoff et al., 1990, etc.) have been attested for decades, but they had never received a systematic, formal analysis in terms of current syntactic theory before a few recent attempts (Hicks, 2010, 2012). Notwithstanding this lack of attention, these structures are in fact highly relevant to theories of linearization and phrase structure. More specifically, they challenge binary-branching (Kayne, 1994, 2004, 2005) as well as the Antisymmetry hypothesis (ibid.). Not explained by current grammatical models of code-switching, including the Equivalence Constraint (Poplack, 1980), the Matrix Language Frame Model (Myers-Scotton, 1993, 2002, etc.), and the Bilingual Speech Model (Muysken, 2000, 2013), the portmanteau construction indeed looks uncommon or abnormal, defying any systematic account. However, the recurrence of these structures in various datasets and constraints on them do call for an explanation. This paper suggests an account which lies with syntax and also with the psycholinguistics of bilingualism. Assuming that linearization is a process at the Sensori-Motor (SM) interface (Chomsky, 2005, 2013), this paper sees that word order is not fixed in a syntactic tree but it is set in the production process, and much information of word order rests in the processor, for instance, outputting a head before its complement (i.e., head-initial word order) or the reverse (i.e., head-final word order). As for the portmanteau construction, it is the output of bilingual speakers co-activating two sets of head-complement orders which summon the phonetic forms of the same word in both languages. Under this proposal, the underlying structure of a portmanteau construction is as simple as an

  17. National Evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program: Preliminary Evaluation Plan for Program Year 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, Mark P; Schweitzer, Martin; Tonn, Bruce Edward; Schmoyer, Richard L; Eisenberg, Joel Fred

    2007-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Weatherization Assistance Program was created by Congress in 1976 under Title IV of the Energy Conservation and Production Act. The purpose and scope of the Program as currently stated in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10CFR 440.1 is 'to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings owned or occupied by low-income persons, reduce their total residential expenditures, and improve their health and safety, especially low-income persons who are particularly vulnerable such as the elderly, persons with disabilities, families with children, high residential energy users, and households with high energy burden' (Code of Federal Regulations, 2005). DOE sponsored a comprehensive evaluation of the Program in the early 1990's to provide policy makers and program implementers with up-to-date and reliable information they needed for effective decision making and cost-effective operations. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) managed the five part study which was based primarily on data from Program Year (PY) 1989 and supplemented by data from 1991-92 (Brown, Berry, and Kinney, 1994). In more recent years, ORNL has conducted four metaevaluations of the Program's energy savings using studies conducted by individual states between the years 1990-1996 (Berry, 1997), 1996-1998 (Schweitzer and Berry, 1999), 1993-2002 (Berry and Schweitzer, 2003), and 1993-2005 (Schweitzer, 2005). DOE announced through its Weatherization Program Notice 05-1 (DOE, 2004) that it would undertake a new national evaluation of the Program because the Program that was evaluated comprehensively in the early 1990's is vastly different from the Program of today. The Program has incorporated new funding sources, management principles, audit procedures, and energy-efficiency measures in response to findings and recommendations resulting from the 1989 National Evaluation, the Weatherization Plus strategic planning process, and other federal, state, and local initiatives

  18. Escape of Sierra Nevada-Great Valley Block Motion Contributes to Upper-Plate Contraction Within the Southern Cascadia Margin Near Humboldt Bay, CA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T. B.; Kelsey, H. M.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2002-12-01

    Recent GPS-derived site velocities (1993-2002) in northwestern California reveal that an additional mechanism other than subduction is in part accountable for observed upper plate contraction north of the migrating Mendocino triple junction. Sites at and near Cape Mendocino are moving approximately 30 mm/yr and are consistently oriented approximately N 10° W, sub-parallel to the southern Cascadia trench. Sites just north of latitude 40.4° N begin to be oriented east of north, sub-parallel to the Gorda-North America plate convergence direction. The transition from west-of-north to east-of-north site azimuths occurs 20 km north of the Mendocino Fault. The change in site azimuths is abrupt, with an eastward swing of 25°-30° occurring over a distance of approximately 8 km across the Eel River valley. North and east of Cape Mendocino, sites 50-300 km inland have velocities oriented west of north, consistent with the direction of northern Sierra Nevada-Great Valley (SNGV) block and Pacific-North America (P-NA) relative motion. Northern SNGV block motion is 11 mm/yr directed to the northwest. This velocity persists northwestward to within 50 km of the coast at the latitude of Humboldt Bay. Approximately 20 mm/yr of distributed P-NA motion occurs inland of Cape Mendocino across the northern projections of the Ma'acama and Bartlett Springs fault zones, and continues northward into the Humboldt Bay region. The direction of observed SNGV motion is obliquely convergent to the P-NA relative motion direction. The observed convergence between SNGV and the Coast Ranges begins approximately 130 km inland of the coast near Weaverville, CA. We observe 3-6 mm/yr of roughly east-west contraction in that area, which is near the location of the highest topography in the northern Coast Ranges. Near Humboldt Bay, NE-SW convergence of 16+/-2 mm/yr occurs from the coast to approximately 50 km inland. After removing an estimate of the interseismic subduction zone signal from the

  19. Flood and Landslide Applications of Near Real-time Satellite Rainfall Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Negri, Andrew; Huffman, George J.

    2007-01-01

    Floods and associated landslides are one of the most widespread natural hazards on Earth, responsible for tens of thousands of deaths and billions of dollars in property damage every year. During 1993-2002, over 1000 of the more than 2,900 natural disasters reported were due to floods. These floods and associated landslides claimed over 90,000 lives, affected over 1.4 billion people and cost about $210 billion. The impact of these disasters is often felt most acutely in less developed regions. In many countries around the world, satellite-based precipitation estimation may be the best source of rainfall data due to lack of surface observing networks. Satellite observations can be of essential value in improving our understanding of the occurrence of hazardous events and possibly in lessening their impact on local economies and in reducing injuries, if they can be used to create reliable warning systems in cost-effective ways. This article addressed these opportunities and challenges by describing a combination of satellite-based real-time precipitation estimation with land surface characteristics as input, with empirical and numerical models to map potential of landslides and floods. In this article, a framework to detect floods and landslides related to heavy rain events in near-real-time is proposed. Key components of the framework are: a fine resolution precipitation acquisition system; a comprehensive land surface database; a hydrological modeling component; and landslide and debris flow model components. A key precipitation input dataset for the integrated applications is the NASA TRMM-based multi-satellite precipitation estimates. This dataset provides near real-time precipitation at a spatial-temporal resolution of 3 hours and 0.25deg x 0.25deg. By careful integration of remote sensing and in-situ observations, and assimilation of these observations into hydrological and landslide/debris flow models with surface topographic information, prediction of useful

  20. Investigation of hydrological drought using Cumulative Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI 30) in the eastern Mediterranean region (Damascus, Syria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhem, Boulos Abou; Kattaa, Bassam

    2016-06-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean region has been exposed to drought episodes, which have been occurring more frequently during the last decades. The objective of the present paper is to study the precipitation regime of the Damascus (Mazzeh) meteoric station by analysing drought characteristics using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and comparing this with the drought in Cyprus. The cumulative drought conceptis proposed to characterize long-term hydrologic drought, which affects the shallow groundwater productivity in terms of quantity and quality. Gamma probability distribution was fitted to the long-term annual precipitation in Damascus from 1918-1919 to 2007-2008 (n = 90 years). Generally, a decreasing trend of 17% to the mean annual rainfall of Damascus and 13% to the mean annual rainfall of Cyprus was estimated between 1970 and 2000. The SPI identifies three major extended drought periods: (1) 9 years of severe drought (1954-1963) with an average 20% precipitation deficit per year compared to the mean. (2) 8 years of severe drought (1983-1991) with a 27% deficit per year on average. (3) 9 years of extreme drought (1993-2002) with a 31% deficit per year on average. The cumulative standardized precipitation index (SPI 30) demonstrates positive values for the first period and is indicative of having no effect on the global water balance. SPI 30 exhibits sensitive equilibrium with near zero values / a near zero value (±1.5) for the second period. For the third period, however, the SPI 30 decreases below -10 indicating an extreme hydrological drought that has negative consequences on the recent groundwater recharge. It is required to develop and implement a sustainable groundwater management strategy to reduce long-terms drought risks. Generally, the SPI 30 in Cyprus is parallel to that in Damascus with a 3-5 year delay. Thus, the central zone of the Eastern Mediterranean region is facing big challenges and has been suffering from three decades of moderate to