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Sample records for norm change movement

  1. Changing Norms to Change Behavior.

    PubMed

    Miller, Dale T; Prentice, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    Providing people with information about the behavior and attitudes of their peers is a strategy commonly employed by those seeking to reduce behavior deemed harmful either to individuals (e.g., high alcohol consumption) or the collective (e.g., high energy consumption). We review norm-based interventions, detailing the logic behind them and the various forms they can take. We give special attention to interventions designed to decrease college students' drinking and increase environment-friendly behaviors. We identify the conditions under which norm information has the highest likelihood of changing the targeted behavior and discuss why this is the case. PMID:26253542

  2. Dynamic Assessment of Binocular Eye Movement Coordination: Norms and Functional Implications

    PubMed Central

    Viirre, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Alignment of the two eyes is controlled by a finely tuned, fast acting system with components within the brain. Assessment of binocular alignment has classically been done statically. Eye positions are assessed in primary position and at eccentric angles to interpret the functional status of the oculomotor nerves and muscles. However, assessment of dynamic eye alignment, the coordination of the eyes during eye movements, has been less commonly carried out and has not been formalized with population norms. Clinicians are aware of slow eye movement dynamic alignment changes, such as that clinically observed in Intranuclear Ophthalmoplegia. But assessment of eye alignment during rapid eye movements, such as saccade or pursuit has not been part of neuro-ophthalmologic assessment. With the advent of inexpensive, high resolution recording systems, both eyes can be simultaneously recorded and their coordination during movement compared. Thus, we now have an opportunity to provide a laboratory based objective measurement of a gamut of binocular coordination systems. Recent research in humans has demonstrated increased variability of binocular coordination during divided attention. Variability is an interesting statistic that can be sensitively assessed in the velocity domain without extensive gaze position recalibration procedures during recording over long intervals. Variability can thus be used as a robust, long-term eye movement parameter with minimal intrusiveness to the subject. It is proposed that population studies of binocular coordination during eye movements be carried out to determine neurologic norms so that conditions such as brain injury and others can be assessed with a functional tool with objective parameters. PMID:24804278

  3. Time Lag and Communication in Changing Unpopular Norms

    PubMed Central

    Gërxhani, Klarita; Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Humans often coordinate their social lives through norms. When a large majority of people are dissatisfied with an existing norm, it seems obvious that they will change it. Often, however, this does not occur. We investigate how a time lag between individual support of a norm change and the change itself hinders such change, related to the critical mass of supporters needed to effectuate the change, and the (im)possibility of communicating about it. To isolate these factors, we utilize a laboratory experiment. As predicted, we find unambiguous effects of time lag on precluding norm change; a higher threshold for a critical mass does so as well. Communication facilitates choosing superior norms but it does not necessarily lead to norm change when the uncertainty on whether there will be a norm change in the future is high. Communication seems to help coordination on actions at the present but not the future. Hence, the uncertainty driven by time lag makes individuals choose the status quo, here the unpopular norm. PMID:25880200

  4. A norming study and library of 203 dance movements.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Nadal, Marcos; Cela-Conde, Camilo José

    2014-01-01

    Dance stimuli have been used in experimental studies of (i) how movement is processed in the brain; (ii) how affect is perceived from bodily movement; and (iii) how dance can be a source of aesthetic experience. However, stimulus materials across--and even within--these three domains of research have varied considerably. Thus, integrative conclusions remain elusive. Moreover, concerns have been raised that the movements selected for such stimuli are qualitatively too different from the actual art form dance, potentially introducing noise in the data. We propose a library of dance stimuli which responds to the stimuli requirements and design criteria of these three areas of research, while at the same time respecting a dance art-historical perspective, offering greater ecological validity as compared with previous dance stimulus sets. The stimuli are 5-6 s long video clips, selected from genuine ballet performances. Following a number of coding experiments, the resulting stimulus library comprises 203 ballet dance stimuli coded in (i) 25 qualitative and quantitative movement variables; (ii) affective valence and arousal; and (iii) the aesthetic qualities beauty, liking, and interest. An Excel spreadsheet with these data points accompanies this manuscript, and the stimuli can be obtained from the authors upon request. PMID:24919352

  5. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yachun; Shi, Chunmei; Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P<0.001) in all age groups. For several ages, the scores obtained in this study were significantly different from the reported scores of Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (P<0.005). Compared with English-speaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical-horizontal time

  6. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the “vertical scores” were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P<0.001) in all age groups. For several ages, the scores obtained in this study were significantly different from the reported scores of Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (P<0.005). Compared with English-speaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical

  7. Areal Characteristics and Changing Community Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Bih-Er; And Others

    Study objectives were to assess actual changes in normative traditionalism which had occurred in a sample of rural Pennsylvania areas and to determine the extent to which the changes in traditionalism were associated with the rurality of these areas. Utilizing a combination of socioeconomic data (census derived) and longitudinal data obtained via…

  8. Changing and Changed Stance toward Norm Selection in Philippine Universities: Its Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardo, Alejandro S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey which involved College English teachers from three leading universities in the Philippines. The results point to one conclusion--College English teachers now have a changing and changed stance toward norm selection in Philippine Universities. The results give the impression that a good number of College…

  9. Scientists in a Changed Institutional Environment: Subjective Adaptation and Social Responsibility Norms in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y

    2008-06-05

    How do scientists react when the institutional setting in which they conduct their work changes radically? How do long-standing norms regarding the social responsibility of scientists fare? What factors influence whether scientists embrace or reject the new institutions and norms? We examine these questions using data from a unique survey of 602 scientists in Russia, whose science system experienced a sustained crisis and sweeping changes in science institutions following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We develop measures of how respondents view financing based on grants and other institutional changes in the Russian science system, as well as measures of two norms regarding scientists social responsibility. We find that the majority of scientists have adapted, in the sense that they hold positive views of the new institutions, but a diversity of orientations remains. Social responsibility norms are common among Russian scientists, but far from universal. The main correlates of adaptation are age and current success at negotiating the new institutions, though prospective success, work context, and ethnicity have some of the hypothesized associations. As for social responsibility norms, the main source of variation is age: younger scientists are more likely to embrace individualistic rather than socially-oriented norms.

  10. Chloe’s Law: A Powerful Legislative Movement Challenging a Core Ethical Norm of Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, the ethical norm governing counselors involved in testing and screening for genetic conditions related to reproduction has been strict neutrality. Counseling about reproductive genetics was to be patient centered but nondirective. Many advocates for people with Down syndrome believe that high abortion rates following a diagnosis of this condition show an unfounded bias against those with Down syndrome. These advocates have succeeded in enacting federal and state legislation that requires women who receive a prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome to receive positive information about the condition, thereby ending the nominal goal of value-neutral counseling and setting the stage for further normative shifts in clinical reproductive genetics as counseling expands because of cell-free testing. PMID:26247743

  11. Chloe's Law: A Powerful Legislative Movement Challenging a Core Ethical Norm of Genetic Testing.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Arthur L

    2015-08-01

    Since the early 1970s, the ethical norm governing counselors involved in testing and screening for genetic conditions related to reproduction has been strict neutrality. Counseling about reproductive genetics was to be patient centered but nondirective. Many advocates for people with Down syndrome believe that high abortion rates following a diagnosis of this condition show an unfounded bias against those with Down syndrome. These advocates have succeeded in enacting federal and state legislation that requires women who receive a prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome to receive positive information about the condition, thereby ending the nominal goal of value-neutral counseling and setting the stage for further normative shifts in clinical reproductive genetics as counseling expands because of cell-free testing. PMID:26247743

  12. Promoting Behavior Change Using Social Norms: Applying a Community Based Social Marketing Tool to Extension Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Most educational programs are designed to produce lower level outcomes, and Extension educators are challenged to produce behavior change in target audiences. Social norms are a very powerful proven tool for encouraging sustainable behavior change among Extension's target audiences. Minor modifications to program content to demonstrate the…

  13. Arbitrary norms and social change in high- and low-authoritarian societies.

    PubMed

    Montogmery, R L; Hinkle, S W; Enzie, R F

    1976-06-01

    Following Jacobs and Campbell's methodology for replacing confederates and naive subjects over 11 successive generations, this study considered the impact of authoritarianism on the rate of social change of arbitrary norms in laboratory societies. Subjects were 116 college students scoring high and low on the California F scale who participated in an autokinetic experiment either with no confederates (control), confederates who made estimates in a range of 9 to 15 inches (22.86-38.10 cm) (moderately arbitrary), or those who estimated in a range of 15 to 21 inches (38.10--53.34 cm) (extremely arbitrary). Results indicated: (a) High-F societies perpetuated arbitrary norms (both 9-15 and 15-21) for more generations than low-F societies; (b) in low-F societies, the 9-15- and 15-21-inch norms rapidly declined; and (c) in high-F societies, the 15-21-inch norms gradually declined, while the 9-15-inch norm declined very little. Overall, the results suggested that an interaction model would better described social change than do presently existing theories of social change. PMID:1271232

  14. Male Scientists’ Competing Devotions to Work and Family: Changing Norms in a Male-Dominated Profession

    PubMed Central

    Damaske, Sarah; Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Lincoln, Anne E.; White, Virginia Johnston

    2014-01-01

    Using in-depth interviews with 74 men across different ranks in biology and physics at prestigious US universities, we ask to what extent changing norms of fatherhood and a flexible workplace affect men working in a highly male-dominated profession and what variation exists in family forms. We conceptualize four typologies of men: those forgoing children, egalitarian partners, neo-traditional dual-earners, and traditional breadwinners. Findings suggest male scientists hold strong work devotions yet a growing number seek egalitarian relationships, which they frame as reducing their devotion to work. The majority of men find the all-consuming nature of academic science conflicts with changing fatherhood norms. PMID:25419040

  15. Male Scientists' Competing Devotions to Work and Family: Changing Norms in a Male-Dominated Profession.

    PubMed

    Damaske, Sarah; Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Lincoln, Anne E; White, Virginia Johnston

    2014-11-01

    Using in-depth interviews with 74 men across different ranks in biology and physics at prestigious US universities, we ask to what extent changing norms of fatherhood and a flexible workplace affect men working in a highly male-dominated profession and what variation exists in family forms. We conceptualize four typologies of men: those forgoing children, egalitarian partners, neo-traditional dual-earners, and traditional breadwinners. Findings suggest male scientists hold strong work devotions yet a growing number seek egalitarian relationships, which they frame as reducing their devotion to work. The majority of men find the all-consuming nature of academic science conflicts with changing fatherhood norms. PMID:25419040

  16. Changes in Students' Participation and Small Group Norms in Scientific Argumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Sun Mi; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to interpret students' participation in terms of social and argumentation norms to improve understanding of social interaction in scientific argumentation. Therefore, the study sought to identify social and argumentation norms formed in group argumentation and to explore changes in students' participation as lessons progressed. Twelve lessons that included argumentation were delivered to 44 eighth graders in Korea. In each lesson, small group argumentation tasks were introduced after the teacher had explained the main concepts or after student-centred hands-on activities. We analysed argumentation in one focus group based on various data, including audiotaped and videotaped conversations, field notes and student interviews. In early lessons, discussions were always teacher-initiated and led by a high-achieving student, while other students rarely presented ideas. Moreover, students struggled to seek answers in a textbook and often used analogies and common sense to explain phenomena. They tended to accept others' opinions unquestioningly or ignore other low achievers' ideas in small group argumentation. In later lessons, we observed student-initiated and more equally distributed discussions, in which students were likely to make claims or statements actively based on experimental results and scientific knowledge. Along with these changes in discussion style, some students were seen to support the building of social norms and argumentation norms in a group. Also, performing tasks and receiving guidance from the teacher helped to build students' epistemological norms about scientific argumentation.

  17. Accountable communities: how norms and values affect health system change.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, C R; Baxter, R J

    1998-01-01

    Economic forces, policy initiatives, and technological change push markets along what some hypothesize is a common evolutionary path. Observations from twelve sites, however, indicate that the pace and direction of change are highly variable across markets. Other forces, internal and unique to a community, help to explain this variation. These forces emanate from the underlying history, culture, and values of a community and in part dictate the response of various players to the more common forces. This paper explores the mechanisms through which these forces operate and their relationship to health system change. PMID:9691558

  18. Exploring the potential for changing gender norms among cricket coaches and athletes in India.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth; Das, Madhumita; Verma, Ravi; O'Connor, Brian; Ghosh, Sancheeta; Jaime, Maria Catrina D; McCauley, Heather L

    2015-02-01

    This study explored gender norms with cricket coaches and athletes in India to adapt a coach-delivered gender violence prevention program from the United States for the urban Indian context. Interviews and focus groups conducted among coaches and adolescent cricketers highlight the extent to which coaches and athletes articulate prevailing inequitable notions about gender and recognition of the power coaches wield. Adapting a violence prevention program that emphasizes gender norms change may be feasible with Indian cricket coaches but is likely to require attention to defining gender equity and challenging cultural assumptions with coaches prior to implementing the program with athletes. PMID:25540256

  19. Changing Gender Norms and Reducing HIV and Violence Risk Among Workers and Students in China.

    PubMed

    Pulerwitz, Julie; Hui, Wang; Arney, Jennifer; Scott, Lisa Mueller

    2015-08-01

    Global evidence demonstrates that inequitable gender norms negatively influence key health outcomes (e.g., violence, HIV/STI), and the importance of male involvement in prevention efforts. The China Family Planning Association and PATH partnered to develop and evaluate a gender-focused behavior change communication intervention for HIV and violence prevention. Eight participatory education sessions-adapted for the Chinese setting-were implemented in factories and schools. Baseline and endline surveys with participants (219 male factory workers and 496 male vocational students) were conducted. Support for (in)equitable norms was measured by the Gender Equitable Men Scale, as well as partner violence and communication. Focus groups with male and female workers/students, teachers, and factory managers were used to corroborate findings. At baseline, many workers and students supported inequitable gender norms, with workers generally being more inequitable. At endline, significant positive changes in gender-related views (e.g., reduction from 42% to 18% of workers agreeing that "a woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together") and behaviors (e.g., reduction from 15% to 7% of students reporting partner violence over the past 3 months) were reported. Results suggest that a relatively low intensity intervention can influence important gender norms and related behaviors. PMID:25950187

  20. Fetal breathing movements and changes at birth.

    PubMed

    Koos, Brian J; Rajaee, Arezoo

    2014-01-01

    The fetus, which develops within a fluid-filled amniotic sac, relies on the placenta for respiratory gas exchange rather than the lungs. While not involved in fetal oxygenation, fetal breathing movements (FBM) nevertheless have an important role in lung growth and in development of respiratory muscles and neural regulation. FBM are regulated differently in many respects than postnatal respiration, which results from the unique intrauterine environment. Prominent distinctions of FBM include its episodic nature and apnea-sensitivity to hypoxia. The latter characteristic is the basis for using FBM in the assessment of fetuses at risk for hypoxic injury. At birth, the transition to continuous postnatal respiration involves a fall in temperature, gaseous distention of the lungs, activation of the Hering-Breuer reflexes, and functional connectivity of afferent O2 chemoreceptor activity with respiratory motoneurons and arousal centers. Importantly, exposure to drugs or adverse conditions in utero not only can change patterns of FBM but also can lead to epigenetic dysregulation in postnatal respiration. Such changes, can blunt respiratory and arousal defenses against hypoxic challenges in sleep. Thus, fetal hypoxia and/or drug exposure may in later life dispose sleeping infants, children, and adults to hypertension, diabetes mellitus, brain injury, and sudden death. PMID:25015803

  1. Changing global essential medicines norms to improve access to AIDS treatment: lessons from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunn, A; Fonseca, E Da; Gruskin, S

    2009-01-01

    Brazil's large-scale, successful HIV/AIDS treatment programme is considered by many to be a model for other developing countries aiming to improve access to AIDS treatment. Far less is known about Brazil's important role in changing global norms related to international pharmaceutical policy, particularly international human rights, health and trade policies governing access to essential medicines. Prompted by Brazil's interest in preserving its national AIDS treatment policies during World Trade Organisation trade disputes with the USA, these efforts to change global essential medicines norms have had important implications for other countries, particularly those scaling up AIDS treatment. This paper analyses Brazil's contributions to global essential medicines policy and explains the relevance of Brazil's contributions to global health policy today. PMID:19333805

  2. Changing global essential medicines norms to improve access to AIDS treatment: Lessons from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, A.; Fonseca, E. Da; Gruskin, S.

    2009-01-01

    Brazil's large-scale, successful HIV/AIDS treatment programme is considered by many to be a model for other developing countries aiming to improve access to AIDS treatment. Far less is known about Brazil's important role in changing global norms related to international pharmaceutical policy, particularly international human rights, health and trade policies governing access to essential medicines. Prompted by Brazil's interest in preserving its national AIDS treatment policies during World Trade Organisation trade disputes with the USA, these efforts to change global essential medicines norms have had important implications for other countries, particularly those scaling up AIDS treatment. This paper analyses Brazil's contributions to global essential medicines policy and explains the relevance of Brazil's contributions to global health policy today. PMID:19333805

  3. Learning from the Women's Movement about Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The women's movement in the 1970s and 1980s was a global phenomenon that achieved significant educational change. More analysis of how it developed and had an impact on education can inform our understanding of the possibilities for change today. This paper explores how the women's movement changed schooling in Vancouver in the 1970s, using a…

  4. 30 CFR 57.9160 - Train movement during shift changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Train movement during shift changes. 57.9160 Section 57.9160 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9160 Train movement during shift changes. During shift...

  5. 30 CFR 57.9160 - Train movement during shift changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Train movement during shift changes. 57.9160 Section 57.9160 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9160 Train movement during shift changes. During shift...

  6. 30 CFR 57.9160 - Train movement during shift changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Train movement during shift changes. 57.9160 Section 57.9160 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9160 Train movement during shift changes. During shift...

  7. 30 CFR 57.9160 - Train movement during shift changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Train movement during shift changes. 57.9160 Section 57.9160 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9160 Train movement during shift changes. During shift...

  8. 30 CFR 57.9160 - Train movement during shift changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Train movement during shift changes. 57.9160 Section 57.9160 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9160 Train movement during shift changes. During shift...

  9. Mechanical Power Flow Changes during Multijoint Movement Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadota, Koji; Matsuo, Tomoyuki; Hashizume, Ken; Tezuka, Kazushi

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the differences in mechanical power flow in early and late practice stages during a cyclic movement consisting of upper arm circumduction to clarify the change in mechanical energy use with skill acquisition. Seven participants practiced the task every other day until their joint angular movements conformed to those of an expert.…

  10. Reliable Change Indices and Standardized Regression-Based Change Score Norms for Evaluating Neuropsychological Change in Children with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Robyn M.; Lineweaver, Tara T.; Ferguson, Lisa; Haut, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable change index scores (RCIs) and standardized regression-based change score norms (SRBs) permit evaluation of meaningful changes in test scores following treatment interventions, like epilepsy surgery, while accounting for test-retest reliability, practice effects, score fluctuations due to error, and relevant clinical and demographic factors. Although these methods are frequently used to assess cognitive change after epilepsy surgery in adults, they have not been widely applied to examine cognitive change in children with epilepsy. The goal of the current study was to develop RCIs and SRBs for use in children with epilepsy. Sixty-three children with epilepsy (age range 6–16; M=10.19, SD=2.58) underwent comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations at two time points an average of 12 months apart. Practice adjusted RCIs and SRBs were calculated for all cognitive measures in the battery. Practice effects were quite variable across the neuropsychological measures, with the greatest differences observed among older children, particularly on the Children’s Memory Scale and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. There was also notable variability in test-retest reliabilities across measures in the battery, with coefficients ranging from 0.14 to 0.92. RCIs and SRBs for use in assessing meaningful cognitive change in children following epilepsy surgery are provided for measures with reliability coefficients above 0.50. This is the first study to provide RCIs and SRBs for a comprehensive neuropsychological battery based on a large sample of children with epilepsy. Tables to aid in evaluating cognitive changes in children who have undergone epilepsy surgery are provided for clinical use. An excel sheet to perform all relevant calculations is also available to interested clinicians or researchers. PMID:26043163

  11. Professional Norms in School Leadership: Change Efforts in Implementation of Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leo, Ulf; Wickenberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    This study identifies and analyses professional norms as a means of illuminating school cultures and how norms are distributed in the system. Of special interest is the role of school leaders and how they lead, organize and realise school development. The study research question is: What professional norms do school leaders highlight in change…

  12. Legitimization of regulatory norms: Waterfowl hunter acceptance of changing duck bag limits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey S.; Cordts, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined response to regulatory change over time, or addressed hunter attitudes about changes in hunting bag limits. This article explores Minnesota waterfowl hunters’ attitudes about duck bag limits, examining attitudes about two state duck bag limits that were initially more restrictive than the maximum set by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), but then increased to match federal limits. Results are from four mail surveys that examined attitudes about bag limits over time. Following two bag limit increases, a greater proportion of hunters rated the new bag limit “too high” and a smaller proportion rated it “too low.” Several years following the first bag limit increase, the proportion of hunters who indicated that the limit was “too high” had declined, suggesting hunter acceptance of the new regulation. Results suggest that waterfowl bag limits may represent legal norms that influence hunter attitudes and gain legitimacy over time.

  13. Matrix Norms and the Condition Number: A General Framework to Improve Mesh Quality via Node-Movement

    SciTech Connect

    KNUPP,PATRICK

    1999-09-27

    Objective functions for unstructured hexahedral and tetrahedral mesh optimization are analyzed using matrices and matrix norms. Mesh untangling objective functions that create valid meshes are used to initialize the optimization process. Several new objective functions to achieve element invertibility and quality are investigated, the most promising being the ''condition number''. The condition number of the Jacobian matrix of an element forms the basis of a barrier-based objective function that measures the distance to the set of singular matrices and has the ideal matrix as a stationary point. The method was implemented in the Cubit code, with promising results.

  14. Creating social norm change to prevent VAW and HIV: a programmatic perspective from Uganda.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Katy

    2016-05-01

    There has been an increased emphasis on evidence based programming for violence prevention in recent years, although research on what works to prevent violence is still an emerging field. There are also important lessons emerging from practice. The experience of Raising Voices in Uganda is that using community mobilization programming can help to shift entrenched norms, attitudes and behaviours. A recent randomised control trial evidenced some of these changes and whilst this research has been key to developing the approach, it is also essential that we continue to be informed by the voices of community members and activists. As we continue to build the evidence base on what works to prevent violence, the field needs to ensure that we place the experiences and ideas of the community at the center of our interventions. PMID:27578348

  15. Movement amplitude and tempo change in piano performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Caroline

    2001-05-01

    Music performance places stringent temporal and cognitive demands on individuals that should yield large speed/accuracy tradeoffs. Skilled piano performance, however, shows consistently high accuracy across a wide variety of rates. Movement amplitude may affect the speed/accuracy tradeoff, so that high accuracy can be obtained even at very fast tempi. The contribution of movement amplitude changes in rate (tempo) is investigated with motion capture. Cameras recorded pianists with passive markers on hands and fingers, who performed on an electronic (MIDI) keyboard. Pianists performed short melodies at faster and faster tempi until they made errors (altering the speed/accuracy function). Variability of finger movements in the three motion planes indicated most change in the plane perpendicular to the keyboard across tempi. Surprisingly, peak amplitudes of motion before striking the keys increased as tempo increased. Increased movement amplitudes at faster rates may reduce or compensate for speed/accuracy tradeoffs. [Work supported by Canada Research Chairs program, HIMH R01 45764.

  16. Accuracy of aimed arm movements in changed gravity.

    PubMed

    Bock, O; Howard, I P; Money, K E; Arnold, K E

    1992-11-01

    We studied the accuracy of aimed arm movements in normal gravity, and during the hypergravity (hyper-G) and microgravity (micro-G) episodes of KC-135 parabolic flights. Subjects pointed at mirror-viewed targets without sight of their arm, and final pointing position was measured by a digitizing pad. Compared with the normal gravity (normal-G) baseline, subjects pointed consistently higher in hyper-G, and still higher in micro-G. Results were not different if subjects viewed targets only during normal-G and pointed at their memorized position under changed gravity (changed-G); this suggests that the "elevator illusion" played a minor role in our study. The observed impairments were attributed to degraded proprioceptive feedback and/or inappropriate motor programs in changed-G. Pointing accuracy improved movement-to-movement but not parabola-to-parabola, indicating that prolonged exposure is needed for sustained adaptation. PMID:1445164

  17. Reconstructing Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorgorio, Nuria; Planas, Nuria

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the constructs "cultural scripts" and "social representations", and on the basis of the empirical research we have been developing until now, we revisit the construct norms from a sociocultural perspective. Norms, both sociomathematical norms and norms of the mathematical practice, as cultural scripts influenced by social…

  18. Cue properties change timing strategies in group movement synchronisation.

    PubMed

    Honisch, Juliane J; Elliott, Mark T; Jacoby, Nori; Wing, Alan M

    2016-01-01

    To maintain synchrony in group activities, each individual within the group must continuously correct their movements to remain in time with the temporal cues available. Cues might originate from one or more members of the group. Current research suggests that when synchronising movements, individuals optimise their performance in terms of minimising variability of timing errors (asynchronies) between external cues and their own movements. However, the cost of this is an increase in the timing variability of their own movements. Here we investigate whether an individual's timing strategy changes according to the task, in a group scenario. To investigate this, we employed a novel paradigm that positioned six individuals to form two chains with common origin and termination on the circumference of a circle. We found that participants with access to timing cues from only one other member used a strategy to minimise their asynchrony variance. In contrast, the participant at the common termination of the two chains, who was required to integrate timing cues from two members, used a strategy that minimised movement variability. We conclude that humans are able to flexibly switch timekeeping strategies to maintain task demands and thus optimise the temporal performance of their movements. PMID:26781066

  19. Cue properties change timing strategies in group movement synchronisation

    PubMed Central

    Honisch, Juliane J.; Elliott, Mark T.; Jacoby, Nori; Wing, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    To maintain synchrony in group activities, each individual within the group must continuously correct their movements to remain in time with the temporal cues available. Cues might originate from one or more members of the group. Current research suggests that when synchronising movements, individuals optimise their performance in terms of minimising variability of timing errors (asynchronies) between external cues and their own movements. However, the cost of this is an increase in the timing variability of their own movements. Here we investigate whether an individual’s timing strategy changes according to the task, in a group scenario. To investigate this, we employed a novel paradigm that positioned six individuals to form two chains with common origin and termination on the circumference of a circle. We found that participants with access to timing cues from only one other member used a strategy to minimise their asynchrony variance. In contrast, the participant at the common termination of the two chains, who was required to integrate timing cues from two members, used a strategy that minimised movement variability. We conclude that humans are able to flexibly switch timekeeping strategies to maintain task demands and thus optimise the temporal performance of their movements. PMID:26781066

  20. Conceptual Change, Text Comprehension and Eye Movements during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penttinen, Marjaana; Anto, Erkki; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2013-01-01

    In the two studies presented in this article, we examine the interplay of conceptual change, text comprehension, and eye-movements during reading and develop and test methods suitable for such explorations. In studies 1 and 2, university students (N = 15 and 23) read a text on photosynthesis, explained their reading processes retrospectively cued…

  1. Incorporating Social Norms into Sexual Assault Interventions: Effects on Belief and Behavior Change among College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    A sexual assault intervention was designed using applicable research from social psychology (i.e., social norms). Undergraduate men were randomly assigned to the experimental intervention or an active control condition. Attitudinal and behavioral data were collected preintervention, post-intervention and at a one month follow-up. Significant…

  2. Changing gendered norms about women and girls at the level of household and community: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Keleher, H; Franklin, L

    2008-01-01

    Gendered norms are embedded in social structures, operating to restrict the rights, opportunities, and capabilities, of women and girls, causing significant burdens, discrimination, subordination, and exploitation. This review, developed for the Women and Gender Equity Knowledge Network of the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, sought to identify the best available research evidence about programmatic interventions, at the level of household and community, that have been effective for changing gender norms to increase the status of women. The focus was on developing countries. A wide range of single and multiple databases were searched, utilizing database specific keywords such as: women and girls; men and boys; household and community; intervention; and gender norms. Key themes were identified: education of women and girls; economic empowerment of women; violence against women, including female genital mutilation/cutting; and men and boys. Types of interventions, levels of action, populations of interest, and key outcomes from evaluations are identified. Evaluations are limited, with little evidence or measurement of changes in gender equity and women's empowerment. A key finding is, that targeting women and girls is a sound investment, but outcomes are dependent on integrated approaches and the protective umbrella of policy and legislative actions. PMID:19288342

  3. Social norms and rank-based nudging: Changing willingness to pay for healthy food.

    PubMed

    Aldrovandi, Silvio; Brown, Gordon D A; Wood, Alex M

    2015-09-01

    People's evaluations in the domain of healthy eating are at least partly determined by the choice context. We systematically test reference level and rank-based models of relative comparisons against each other and explore their application to social norms nudging, an intervention that aims at influencing consumers' behavior by addressing their inaccurate beliefs about their consumption relative to the consumption of others. Study 1 finds that the rank of a product or behavior among others in the immediate comparison context, rather than its objective attributes, influences its evaluation. Study 2 finds that when a comparator is presented in isolation the same rank-based process occurs based on information retrieved from memory. Study 3 finds that telling people how their consumption ranks within a normative comparison sample increases willingness to pay for a healthy food by over 30% relative to the normal social norms intervention that tells them how they compare to the average. We conclude that social norms interventions should present rank information (e.g., "you are in the most unhealthy 10% of eaters") rather than information relative to the average (e.g., "you consume 500 calories more than the average person"). PMID:26010301

  4. Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on movement: movable art, relocating families, human rights, and trains and cars. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books, additional resources and activities (PEN)

  5. Spatial Changes and Population Movements on the Albanian Coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjir, U.; Gregorič Bon, N.

    2016-06-01

    The last decade has seen a large increase in construction along the southern Albanian coastline, mainly in the rise of large tourist complexes comprising hotels, apartment houses, touristic villages, and so on. These constructions rarely follow urban planning and not only change its landscape but also often threaten the ecological value of the coastal zone. The uncontrolled and devastating construction along the coast has been accompanied by coastal erosion caused by the sea with the intensity up to 50 cm/year. This paper investigates the environmental change monitoring on the Albanian Riviera by analysing optical remote sensing data (Landsat 5 and 8) in the period between 1984 and 2015. The image analysis results grounded on the change vector analysis indicate coastal morphology changes and land cover changes in the coastal environment, which appear mostly due to erosion in river delta and urban growth. Apart from identifying both phenomena through time, the objective of this study is to show that these landscape changes in fact correlate with the population migration as well as to explain why and the extent to which Albania is one of the most migratory countries in Europe. Based on the multidisciplinary research, which combines anthropological method with spatial analysis, this presentation anticipates future changes in this area. It argues that movements of both people and in landscape formations strongly influence each other, constituting a closely corresponding relationship.

  6. Alignment control exercise changes lower extremity movement during stop movements in female basketball players.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shigeyuki; Urabe, Yukio; Kawamura, Kenji

    2008-08-01

    This study was intended to evaluate a short-term intervention designed to improve the lower extremity alignment with neutral position during stop movements of female basketball players when performing a quick-stop jump shot. In this study, 20 healthy female college basketball players (mean age 20.5 years) participated. The authors monitored two groups for 4 weeks: one which trained (n=10) and one which did not train (n=10). The exercise program emphasized the neutral position of lower extremities for dynamic alignment control; the players avoided the valgus position with their knees. Kinematics analysis with a lower extremity angle in the stop action was performed using three digital video cameras and analyzed using software. Following the intervention exercise program, each subject was re-evaluated at two and four weeks to determine changes in movement patterns during the "sink shot" task. Two-way analysis of variance models were used to determine differences at pre-intervention, at mid-term, and post-intervention. After the 2-week intervention, the trained athletes group made basketball shots with greater change of the lower extremity motion pattern during the stop action than did non-trained athletes (p<0.05). However, no significant differences were found between other data of the 2-week and 4-week intervention groups. Results of this study show that two weeks of training can improve the dynamic alignment control of the lower extremities, as measured using the alignment angle of the coronal plane and the torsion angle of horizontal plane during a stop action. PMID:18524598

  7. Microwave sensing of physiological movement and volume change: a review.

    PubMed

    Lin, J C

    1992-01-01

    The ability non-invasively to detect and monitor the movement of tissues and organs from outside the body provides many worthwhile areas of potential biomedical applications. Several non-invasive microwave techniques for contact and remote sensing of circulatory and respiratory movements and volume changes have been developed. In general, these systems consist of a microwave generator, a sampling device, a transmitting-receiving antenna, a set of signal-conditioning and processing devices, and a display unit. They operate at continuous-wave frequencies between 1 and 35 GHz and make use of amplitude and phase information derived from the received signal. The average power density of energy radiated by present systems ranges from approximately 0.001-1.0 mW/cm2. These systems are capable of registering instantaneous changes in fluid volume, pressure pulse, heart rate, and respiration rate in contact with body surface or at distances greater than 30 m, or behind thick layers of non-conductive walls. PMID:1482418

  8. Environmentalism unbound: reconnecting and re-envisioning movements for change.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, R

    2001-01-01

    Disputes over environmental discourse have generated divergent pathways and discordant messages over the last three decades. An examination of them becomes a study of environmentalism s roots. The workplace is shown as a hidden and often discounted arena of debate about what constitutes an environmental issue. The triumph of the productionist and limitless consumption views helped to establish a focus on environmental change as a form of consumer action. Since the 1970s though, new forms of environmental discourse and action both community- and production-related have sought to shift the terrain. The possibility of becoming a broader, more socially inclusive movement capable of challenging the very structure and logic of capitalist social order is possible again, including the ability to identify new strategies for action. Overcoming the work/environment divide is perhaps the most contentious question facing the future of the environmental and labor movements. New approaches, including developing a community of interests, revaluing work, and developing an ethic of place (with urban, industrial, and global forms), require that the social and the ecological become joined in the construction of a common vision. When any environmental issue can be seen as socially determined, then environmentalism s great task will be to see itself as a primary agent of social change. PMID:17208705

  9. Community Gender Norms Change as a Part of a Multilevel Approach to Sexual Health Among Married Women in Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajendra; Schensul, Jean J.; Verma, Ravi K.; Burleson, Joseph A.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.

    2015-01-01

    Inequitable gender norms in societies and communities negatively contribute to women’s sexual and reproductive health. While the need for change in gender norms is well recognized, the task is highly challenging in terms of intervention design, implementation and assessment of impact. This paper describes a methodology for identification of gender norms, the design of community level intervention, community participation and the assessment of intervention impact in a low income, predominately Muslim community of 600,000 people in Mumbai, India. Formative research focused on in-depth interviews with women, men and couples yielding gender normative statements and assessment of community resources to facilitate change. A Gender Equity Scale (GES) based on this formative research was developed and administered annually for a three-year period to random, cross-sectional samples in the intervention and control communities, and to community based, non-governmental organizations (NGO) staff and Imams (religious leaders) in the intervention community. NGO staff disseminated gender oriented messages to their female constituency through their regular outreach activities and through special events and festivals in the community. Imams disseminated gender messages through lectures on social issues for men attending Friday prayers. The results showed that the NGO staff and Imams, assumed more gender equitable attitudes across time. The intervention was associated with a significant improvement in attitudes towards gender equity in the intervention relative to the control community. Men showed a dramatic change in more positive gender attitudes, while women lagged behind in their GES scores. The meaning of these results are explored and the implications assessed for the generalizability of the methodology for other countries, cultures and communities. PMID:26136202

  10. Community Gender Norms Change as a Part of a Multilevel Approach to Sexual Health Among Married Women in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Schensul, Stephen L; Singh, Rajendra; Schensul, Jean J; Verma, Ravi K; Burleson, Joseph A; Nastasi, Bonnie K

    2015-09-01

    Inequitable gender norms in societies and communities negatively contribute to women's sexual and reproductive health. While the need for change in gender norms is well recognized, the task is highly challenging in terms of intervention design, implementation and assessment of impact. This paper describes a methodology for identification of gender norms, the design of community level intervention, community participation and the assessment of intervention impact in a low income, predominately Muslim community of 600,000 people in Mumbai, India. Formative research focused on in-depth interviews with women, men and couples yielding gender normative statements and assessment of community resources to facilitate change. A Gender Equity Scale (GES) based on this formative research was developed and administered annually for a three-year period to random, cross-sectional samples in the intervention and control communities, and to community based, non-governmental organizations (NGO) staff and Imams (religious leaders) in the intervention community. NGO staff disseminated gender oriented messages to their female constituency through their regular outreach activities and through special events and festivals in the community. Imams disseminated gender messages through lectures on social issues for men attending Friday prayers. The results showed that the NGO staff and Imams, assumed more gender equitable attitudes across time. The intervention was associated with a significant improvement in attitudes towards gender equity in the intervention relative to the control community. Men showed a dramatic change in more positive gender attitudes, while women lagged behind in their GES scores. The meaning of these results are explored and the implications assessed for the generalizability of the methodology for other countries, cultures and communities. PMID:26136202

  11. Alice in actuarial-land: through the looking glass of changing Static-99 norms.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Shoba; Weinberger, Linda E; Frances, Allen; Cusworth-Walker, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The Static-99, an actuarial rating method, is employed to conduct sexual violence risk assessment in legal contexts. The proponents of the Static-99 dismiss clinical judgment as not empirical. Two elements must be present to apply an actuarial risk model to a specific individual: sample representativeness and uniform measurement of outcome. This review demonstrates that both of these elements are lacking in the normative studies of the Static-99 and its revised version, the Static-99R. Studies conducted since the publication of the Static-99 have not replicated the original norms. Sexual recidivism rates for the same Static-99 score vary widely, from low to high, depending on the sample used. A hypothetical case example is presented to illustrate how the solitary application of the Static-99 or Static-99R recidivism rates to the exclusion of salient clinical factors for identifying sexual dangerousness can have serious consequences for public safety. PMID:20852227

  12. Conceptual Change, Text Comprehension and Eye Movements During Reading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttinen, Marjaana; Anto, Erkki; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2013-08-01

    In the two studies presented in this article, we examine the interplay of conceptual change, text comprehension, and eye-movements during reading and develop and test methods suitable for such explorations. In studies 1 and 2, university students (N = 15 and 23) read a text on photosynthesis, explained their reading processes retrospectively cued with their own gaze videos, and answered written pre- and posttests. In Study 1, a case study demonstrated connections between re-readings and high-level cognitive processing. Out of all of the participants' retrospective reports, categories were formed based on the expressions referring to either situation model or textbase construction during reading. In Study 2, conceptual change learners differed from other learner groups in terms of prolonged overall reading time and a relatively high amount of expressing textbase construction at the beginning of the retrospective reporting. The results emphasise the importance of careful construction of the textbase in conceptual change and point to the benefits of complementing the eye tracking with cued retrospective reporting when examining high-level cognitive processes during reading.

  13. Thermal Reaction Norms and the Scale of Temperature Variation: Latitudinal Vulnerability of Intertidal Nacellid Limpets to Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Morley, Simon A.; Martin, Stephanie M.; Day, Robert W.; Ericson, Jess; Lai, Chien-Houng; Lamare, Miles; Tan, Koh-Siang; Thorne, Michael A. S.; Peck, Lloyd S.

    2012-01-01

    The thermal reaction norms of 4 closely related intertidal Nacellid limpets, Antarctic (Nacella concinna), New Zealand (Cellana ornata), Australia (C. tramoserica) and Singapore (C. radiata), were compared across environments with different temperature magnitude, variability and predictability, to test their relative vulnerability to different scales of climate warming. Lethal limits were measured alongside a newly developed metric of “duration tenacity”, which was tested at different temperatures to calculate the thermal reaction norm of limpet adductor muscle fatigue. Except in C. tramoserica which had a wide optimum range with two break points, duration tenacity did not follow a typical aerobic capacity curve but was best described by a single break point at an optimum temperature. Thermal reaction norms were shifted to warmer temperatures in warmer environments; the optimum temperature for tenacity (Topt) increased from 1.0°C (N. concinna) to 14.3°C (C. ornata) to 18.0°C (an average for the optimum range of C. tramoserica) to 27.6°C (C. radiata). The temperature limits for duration tenacity of the 4 species were most consistently correlated with both maximum sea surface temperature and summer maximum in situ habitat logger temperature. Tropical C. radiata, which lives in the least variable and most predictable environment, generally had the lowest warming tolerance and thermal safety margin (WT and TSM; respectively the thermal buffer of CTmax and Topt over habitat temperature). However, the two temperate species, C. ornata and C. tramoserica, which live in a variable and seasonally unpredictable microhabitat, had the lowest TSM relative to in situ logger temperature. N. concinna which lives in the most variable, but seasonally predictable microhabitat, generally had the highest TSMs. Intertidal animals live at the highly variable interface between terrestrial and marine biomes and even small changes in the magnitude and predictability of their

  14. Thermal reaction norms and the scale of temperature variation: latitudinal vulnerability of intertidal nacellid limpets to climate change.

    PubMed

    Morley, Simon A; Martin, Stephanie M; Day, Robert W; Ericson, Jess; Lai, Chien-Houng; Lamare, Miles; Tan, Koh-Siang; Thorne, Michael A S; Peck, Lloyd S

    2012-01-01

    The thermal reaction norms of 4 closely related intertidal Nacellid limpets, Antarctic (Nacella concinna), New Zealand (Cellana ornata), Australia (C. tramoserica) and Singapore (C. radiata), were compared across environments with different temperature magnitude, variability and predictability, to test their relative vulnerability to different scales of climate warming. Lethal limits were measured alongside a newly developed metric of "duration tenacity", which was tested at different temperatures to calculate the thermal reaction norm of limpet adductor muscle fatigue. Except in C. tramoserica which had a wide optimum range with two break points, duration tenacity did not follow a typical aerobic capacity curve but was best described by a single break point at an optimum temperature. Thermal reaction norms were shifted to warmer temperatures in warmer environments; the optimum temperature for tenacity (T(opt)) increased from 1.0°C (N. concinna) to 14.3°C (C. ornata) to 18.0°C (an average for the optimum range of C. tramoserica) to 27.6°C (C. radiata). The temperature limits for duration tenacity of the 4 species were most consistently correlated with both maximum sea surface temperature and summer maximum in situ habitat logger temperature. Tropical C. radiata, which lives in the least variable and most predictable environment, generally had the lowest warming tolerance and thermal safety margin (WT and TSM; respectively the thermal buffer of CT(max) and T(opt) over habitat temperature). However, the two temperate species, C. ornata and C. tramoserica, which live in a variable and seasonally unpredictable microhabitat, had the lowest TSM relative to in situ logger temperature. N. concinna which lives in the most variable, but seasonally predictable microhabitat, generally had the highest TSMs. Intertidal animals live at the highly variable interface between terrestrial and marine biomes and even small changes in the magnitude and predictability of their

  15. Changes in the Relationship Between Movement Velocity and Movement Distance in Primary Focal Hand Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Prodoehl, Janey; Corcos, Daniel M.; Leurgans, Sue; Comella, Cynthia L.; Weis-McNulty, Annette; MacKinnon, Colum D.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between movement velocity and distance and the associated muscle activation patterns in 18 individuals with focal hand dystonia (FHD) compared with a control group of 18 individuals with no known neuromuscular condition. Participants performed targeted voluntary wrist and elbow flexion movements as fast as possible across 5 movement distances. Individuals with FHD were slower than controls across all distances, and this difference was accentuated for longer movements. Muscle activation patterns were triphasic in the majority of individuals with FHD, and muscle activation scaled with distance in a similar manner to controls. Cocontraction did not explain movement slowing in individuals with dystonia, but there was a trend toward underactivation of the 1st agonist burst in the dystonic group. The authors concluded that slowness is a consistent feature of voluntary movement in FHD and is present even in the absence of dystonic posturing. Underactivation of the 1st agonist burst appears to be the most likely reason to explain slowing. PMID:18628107

  16. Educational Change and the Women's Movement: Lessons From British Columbia Schools in the 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This article uses Melucci's approach to social movements to explore how the women"s movement changed education in British Columbia in the 1970s. The women's movement was a multifaceted social phenomenon with multiple agendas and actors. In the early 1970s, it developed a temporary sense of cohesion in the field of education in the context of a…

  17. Changing Issue Representation among Major United States Environmental Movement Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Histories of the environmental movement have emphasized the importance of a shift in focus from those issues traditionally associated with the movement, such as resource and wildlife protection, towards "new" quality of life issues, such as environmental pollution and its human health effects. Here, time-series data between 1970 and 2000 on the…

  18. Atherosclerotic changes of vessels caused by restriction of movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gvishiani, G. S.; Kobakhidze, N. G.; Mchedlishvili, M. G.; Dekanosidze, T. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of restriction of movement on the development of atheroscelerosis was studied in rabbits. Drastic restriction of movement for 20 and 30 days causes atherosclerotic alterations of the aorta and shifts in ECG which are characteristic of coronary atherosclerosis. At the same time, shortening of the duration of blood coagulation and an increase in the content of catecholamines and beta-lipoproteids occur.

  19. Cue predictability changes scaling in eye-movement fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Wallot, Sebastian; Coey, Charles A; Richardson, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has provided evidence for scaling-relations in eye-movement fluctuations, but not much is known about what these scaling relations imply about cognition or eye-movement control. Generally, scaling relations in behavioral and neurophysiological data have been interpreted as an indicator for the coordination of neurophysiological and cognitive processes. In this study, we investigated the effect of predictability in timing and gaze-direction on eye-movement fluctuations. Participants performed a simple eye-movement task, in which a visual cue prompted their gaze to different locations on a spatial layout, and the predictability about temporal and directional aspects of the cue were manipulated. The results showed that scaling exponents in eye-movements decreased with predictability and were related to the participants' perceived effort during the task. In relation to past research, these findings suggest that scaling exponents reflect a relative demand for voluntary control during task performance. PMID:26337612

  20. Corticomotor excitability changes during mirrored or asynergistic wrist movements.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Charles T; Danna-dos-Santos, Alessander; Peters, Christina; Moore, Marlesa

    2015-03-15

    The current study used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the right primary motor cortex (M1) during bimanual contractions to examine facilitatory and inhibitory influences on the contralateral, target extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR) during changes in the task demands of the ipsilateral (task) ECR. The bimanual contractions were either mirrored (isometric wrist extension bilaterally) or more difficult asynergistic (asymmetric [wrist extension paired with wrist radial deviation]) contractions. TMS-induced motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and cortical silent periods (CSPs) were recorded during the execution of visually guided ramp and hold tasks. It was of interest to determine whether or not asynergistic contractions, representing a more difficult bimanual coordination task, resulted in differing patterns of activation and inhibition than mirrored movements. Asynergistic contractions were found to have differing effects on the target ECR than mirrored contractions. Foremost among these differences were the presence of enhanced inhibitory mechanisms. During asynergistic bimanual contractions the MEPs of the target ECR did not increase to the same degree and cortical silent period durations were longer. Findings indicate that bimanual mirrored and asynergistic contractions result in differing patterns of corticomotor excitability. PMID:25529184

  1. A preliminary investigation of the influence of subjective norms and relationship commitment on stages of change in female intimate partner violence victims.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Tirone, Vanessa; Nathanson, Alison M; Handsel, Vanessa A; Rhatigan, Deborah L

    2013-02-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a prevalent and serious problem throughout the world, causing devastating mental and physical health problems for victims. Recent research has begun to focus on factors that may influence women's decisions to stay or leave their abusive partners, as interventions for batterers has only resulted in minimal success in reducing IPV. Therefore, this study preliminarily examined the influence of women's perceptions of their social network members' subjective norms and their relationship commitment on stages of change to end an abusive relationship among a community sample of female IPV victims (N = 84). Results showed that subjective norms and women's relationship commitment were associated with women's stages of change. Relationship commitment did not mediate the relation between subjective norms and stages of change. These findings indicate that a number of factors contribute to women's stay/leave decision-making process, and close social network members could be included in interventions designed to keep women safe. PMID:22929339

  2. Spectral changes of interhemispheric crosstalk during movement instabilities.

    PubMed

    Houweling, Sanne; Beek, Peter J; Daffertshofer, Andreas

    2010-11-01

    Bimanual coordination requires the functional integration of the activity in various cortical, subcortical, spinal, and peripheral neural structures. We challenged this functional integration by destabilizing bimanual 5:8 tapping through an increase in movement tempo, while measuring brain and muscle activity using magnetoencephalography and electromyography. Movement instabilities were characterized by a drop in frequency locking. Time-frequency analysis revealed movement-related beta amplitude modulation in bilateral motor areas as well as movement-related corticospinal entrainment. Both of these synchronization patterns depended on movement tempo suggesting that the timescale needed for the upregulation and downregulation of beta synchrony in rhythmic tapping poses constraints on motor performance. Bilateral phase locking over movement cycles appeared to be mediated by beta-frequency oscillations and constrained by its phase dynamics. The timescale of beta synchrony thus seems to play a key role in achieving timed phase synchrony in the motor cortex and along the neural axis. Once event-related desynchronization-synchronization cycles cannot be build up properly, inhibition may become inadequate, resulting in a reduction of the stability of performance, which may eventually become unstable. PMID:20176689

  3. Seasonal and Ontogenetic Changes in Movement Patterns of Sixgill Sharks

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Kelly S.; Williams, Greg D.; Levin, Phillip S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding movement patterns is fundamental to population and conservation biology. The way an animal moves through its environment influences the dynamics of local populations and will determine how susceptible it is to natural or anthropogenic perturbations. It is of particular interest to understand the patterns of movement for species which are susceptible to human activities (e.g. fishing), or that exert a large influence on community structure, such as sharks. Methodology/Principal Findings We monitored the patterns of movement of 34 sixgill sharks Hexanchus griseus using two large-scale acoustic arrays inside and outside Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Sixgill sharks were residents in Puget Sound for up to at least four years before making large movements out of the estuary. Within Puget Sound, sixgills inhabited sites for several weeks at a time and returned to the same sites annually. Across four years, sixgills had consistent seasonal movements in which they moved to the north from winter to spring and moved to the south from summer to fall. Just prior to leaving Puget Sound, sixgills altered their behavior and moved twice as fast among sites. Nineteen of the thirty-four sixgills were detected leaving Puget Sound for the outer coast. Three of these sharks returned to Puget Sound. Conclusions/Significance For most large marine predators, we have a limited understanding of how they move through their environment, and this clouds our ability to successfully manage their populations and their communities. With detailed movement information, such as that being uncovered with acoustic monitoring, we can begin to quantify the spatial and temporal impacts of large predators within the framework of their ecosystems. PMID:20838617

  4. Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2012-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive…

  5. NORM regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    The author reviews the question of regulation for naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM), and the factors that have made this a more prominent concern today. Past practices have been very relaxed, and have often involved very poor records, the involvment of contractors, and the disposition of contaminated equipment back into commercial service. The rationale behind the establishment of regulations is to provide worker protection, to exempt low risk materials, to aid in scrap recycling, to provide direction for remediation and to examine disposal options. The author reviews existing regulations at federal and state levels, impending legislation, and touches on the issue of site remediation and potential liabilities affecting the release of sites contaminated by NORM.

  6. Variations in Articulatory Movement with Changes in Speech Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasko, Stephen M.; McClean, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of normal and disordered articulatory movement often rely on the use of short, simple speech tasks. However, the severity of speech disorders can be observed to vary markedly with task. Understanding task-related variations in articulatory kinematic behavior may allow for an improved understanding of normal and disordered speech motor…

  7. Teaching for Change: Popular Education and the Labor Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delp, Linda, Ed.; Outman-Kramer, Miranda, Ed.; Schurman, Susan J., Ed.; Wong, Kent, Ed.

    These 28 essays recount popular education's history and its multiple uses in the labor movement today: to organize the unorganized, to develop new leaders and activists, and to strengthen labor and community alliances. They explore its other facets: theater and culture, economics education, workplace safety and health, and classroom use and…

  8. Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California’s Smoke-Free Workplace Act*

    PubMed Central

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2013-01-01

    California’s Smoke-Free Workplace Act— CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)—was extended to bars in 1998. This paper analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive observations and interviews with bar staff and patrons, health officials, and law enforcement personnel in three California counties. Smoking outside became a normal pause in the social environment and created a new type of bar socializing for outside smokers. Although some bar owners and staff reported initially resenting the responsibility to uphold the law, once norms regarding cigarettes and smoking began changing, bar workers experienced less conflict in upholding the law. Non-smoking behavior within bars also became the normative behavior for bar patrons. California’s Smoke-Free Workplace Act has both reflected and encouraged normative beliefs and behaviors related to smoking in bars. The findings indicate that such shifts are possible even in contexts where smoking behaviors and attitudes supporting smoking were deeply entrenched. Recommendations include attending to the synergistic effect of education and policy in effective tobacco control programs. PMID:23705511

  9. Women and AIDS Support Network: mutual support to change community norms.

    PubMed

    Ray, S

    1992-01-01

    A group of women formed the Women and AIDS Support Network (WASN) in Zimbabwe in June 1989 to improve women;s self-esteem and confidence and to bring about changes in attitudes and reactions toward AIDS-related problems. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women are WASN members. Women have limited control over sexual relationships. Women who know their partners are having intercourse with other women have few options, e.g., they may depend on their partners. A family council settles marital disagreements, but husbands do not always cooperate. Increased peer pressure could change societal acceptance of male infidelity to positive attitudes toward friendship and partnership in marriage. Therefore, WASN explores sexual relationships, especially control and power in them. These discussions should lead to affirmation of positive behavior. For example, men can promote condom use and monogamy to their male peers. They can also talk to their partners and their sons about HIV. Rural women should not blame urban women for their partner's HIV status. WASN also targets schoolgirls. Most early and some current messages of AIDS campaigns reinforces the dichotomy of good and bad women, supported by an earlier link between urban women and sexually transmitted diseases. Yet, they ignored men's role in HIV transmission. WASN speaks out against such negative images, e.g., dramas that depict the HIV-infected woman as evil and the innocent as good while the man worries about which woman infected him instead of feeling awful about infecting other women. WASN also addressee AIDS-related discrimination on the job and stigmatization issues. It now is conducting 2 research projects: information needs of urban and rural women and capacities of family support systems to assist HIV-positive women. PMID:12318080

  10. The Nursing Home Culture-Change Movement: Recent Past, Present, and Future Directions for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Anna N.; Schnelle, John F.

    2008-01-01

    This article uses a retrospective approach to critique the research base underlying the nursing home culture-change movement--an effort to radically transform the nation's nursing homes by delivering resident-directed care and empowering staff. The article traces the development of the movement from its inception 10 years ago to 2005, when the…

  11. Changes in movement symmetry over the stages of the shoeing process in military working horses.

    PubMed

    Pfau, T; Daly, K; Davison, J; Bould, A; Housby, N; Weller, R

    2016-08-20

    Military working horses perform a high proportion of work on road surfaces and are shod frequently to deal with high attrition rates. The authors investigate the influence of shoeing on movement symmetry as an indirect indicator of mechanical differences affecting force production between contralateral limbs. In this quantitative observational study, inertial sensor gait analysis was performed in 23 Irish sport type horses (4-21 years, 1.58-1.85 m) in full ceremonial work at the King's Troop, Royal Horse Artillery. Changes in two movement symmetry measures (SI: symmetry index; MinDiff: difference between displacement minima) for head and pelvic movement were assessed at four stages of routine shoeing: 'old shoes', 'shoes removed', 'trimmed', 'reshod'. Horses were assessed applying shoes to the front limbs (N=10), to the hindlimbs (N=10) or both (N=3). Changes in head movement symmetry between conditions were small and inconsistent. Changes in pelvic movement symmetry were small and showed significant differences between shoeing stages (SI: P=0.013, MinDiff: P=0.04) with most symmetrical pelvic movement after trimming. In military working horses with high frequency shoeing small changes in movement symmetry were measured. All significant changes involved trimming, which indicates that future studies should in particular assess changes before/after trimming and investigate longer shoeing intervals. PMID:27358309

  12. Eye Movements and Display Change Detection during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Timothy J.; Angele, Bernhard; Rayner, Keith

    2011-01-01

    In the boundary change paradigm (Rayner, 1975), when a reader's eyes cross an invisible boundary location, a preview word is replaced by a target word. Readers are generally unaware of such changes due to saccadic suppression. However, some readers detect changes on a few trials and a small percentage of them detect many changes. Two experiments…

  13. Changes in music tempo entrain movement related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ian; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Roesch, Etienne; Weaver, James; Williams, Duncan; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2014-01-01

    The neural mechanisms of music listening and appreciation are not yet completely understood. Based on the apparent relationship between the beats per minute (tempo) of music and the desire to move (for example feet tapping) induced while listening to that music it is hypothesised that musical tempo may evoke movement related activity in the brain. Participants are instructed to listen, without moving, to a large range of musical pieces spanning a range of styles and tempos during an electroencephalogram (EEG) experiment. Event-related desynchronisation (ERD) in the EEG is observed to correlate significantly with the variance of the tempo of the musical stimuli. This suggests that the dynamics of the beat of the music may induce movement related brain activity in the motor cortex. Furthermore, significant correlations are observed between EEG activity in the alpha band over the motor cortex and the bandpower of the music in the same frequency band over time. This relationship is observed to correlate with the strength of the ERD, suggesting entrainment of motor cortical activity relates to increased ERD strength. PMID:25571015

  14. Whole-Body Reaching Movements Formulated by Minimum Muscle-Tension Change Criterion.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Naoki; Choi, Kyuheong; Kagawa, Takahiro; Uno, Yoji

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that planar reaching movements of the human shoulder and elbow joints have invariant features: roughly straight hand paths and bell-shaped velocity profiles. The optimal control models with the criteria of smoothness or precision, which determine a unique movement pattern, predict such features of hand trajectories. In this letter on expanding the research on simple arm reaching movements, we examine whether the smoothness criteria can be applied to whole-body reaching movements with many degrees of freedom. Determining a suitable joint trajectory in the whole-body reaching movement corresponds to the optimization problem with constraints, since body balance must be maintained during a motion task. First, we measured human joint trajectories and ground reaction forces during whole-body reaching movements, and confirmed that subjects formed similar movements with common characteristics in the trajectories of the hand position and body center of mass. Second, we calculated the optimal trajectories according to the criteria of torque and muscle-tension smoothness. While the minimum torque change trajectories were not consistent with the experimental data, the minimum muscle-tension change model was able to predict the stereotyped features of the measured trajectories. To explore the dominant effects of the extension from the torque change to the muscle-tension change, we introduced a weighted torque change cost function. Considering the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the muscle as the weighting factor of each joint torque, we formulated the weighted torque change cost as a simplified version of the minimum muscle-tension change cost. The trajectories owing to the minimum weighted torque change criterion also showed qualitative agreement with the common features of the measured data. Proper estimation of the MVC forces in the body joints is essential to reproduce human whole-body movements according to the minimum muscle-tension change

  15. Path segmentation for beginners: an overview of current methods for detecting changes in animal movement patterns.

    PubMed

    Edelhoff, Hendrik; Signer, Johannes; Balkenhol, Niko

    2016-01-01

    Increased availability of high-resolution movement data has led to the development of numerous methods for studying changes in animal movement behavior. Path segmentation methods provide basics for detecting movement changes and the behavioral mechanisms driving them. However, available path segmentation methods differ vastly with respect to underlying statistical assumptions and output produced. Consequently, it is currently difficult for researchers new to path segmentation to gain an overview of the different methods, and choose one that is appropriate for their data and research questions. Here, we provide an overview of different methods for segmenting movement paths according to potential changes in underlying behavior. To structure our overview, we outline three broad types of research questions that are commonly addressed through path segmentation: 1) the quantitative description of movement patterns, 2) the detection of significant change-points, and 3) the identification of underlying processes or 'hidden states'. We discuss advantages and limitations of different approaches for addressing these research questions using path-level movement data, and present general guidelines for choosing methods based on data characteristics and questions. Our overview illustrates the large diversity of available path segmentation approaches, highlights the need for studies that compare the utility of different methods, and identifies opportunities for future developments in path-level data analysis. PMID:27595001

  16. Negotiating for Change: Women's Movements and Education Reform in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shu-Ching

    2011-01-01

    The dramatic changes during the past 20 years in Taiwan offer a good example of how gender policy in education is facilitated by a combination of interrelated economic, political and social forces. Taiwan's policy on gender education emerged from the interaction of state, education, academic and non-academic feminist positions in reforms. This…

  17. Relationships between and Changes in Preservice Classroom Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs, Willingness to Integrate Movement, and Perceived Barriers to Movement Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Collin A.; Erwin, Heather; Parks, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study used an uncontrolled pre-post design in the context of a 16-week comprehensive school physical activity promotion (CSPAP) course to examine relationships between and changes in preservice classroom teachers' (PCTs; N = 103) efficacy beliefs about integrating movement in the academic classroom, willingness to integrate movement, and…

  18. Reflections on the Women's Movement: An Assessment of Change and Its Limits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs

    Recent changes in the social and economic roles of women are examined. These changes affect the lives of the largest single group in the United States and have resulted from a movement aimed not only at increased access to society's resources and power, but also at a redefinition of the identity of American women. Topics reviewed include women in…

  19. Changes in the Spinal Neural Circuits are Dependent on the Movement Speed of the Visuomotor Task

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Shinji; Hirano, Masato; Koizume, Yoshiki; Tanabe, Shigeo; Funase, Kozo

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that spinal neural circuits are modulated by motor skill training. However, the effects of task movement speed on changes in spinal neural circuits have not been clarified. The aim of this research was to investigate whether spinal neural circuits were affected by task movement speed. Thirty-eight healthy subjects participated in this study. In experiment 1, the effects of task movement speed on the spinal neural circuits were examined. Eighteen subjects performed a visuomotor task involving ankle muscle slow (nine subjects) or fast (nine subjects) movement speed. Another nine subjects performed a non-visuomotor task (controls) in fast movement speed. The motor task training lasted for 20 min. The amounts of D1 inhibition and reciprocal Ia inhibition were measured using H-relfex condition-test paradigm and recorded before, and at 5, 15, and 30 min after the training session. In experiment 2, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), the effects of corticospinal descending inputs on the presynaptic inhibitory pathway were examined before and after performing either a visuomotor (eight subjects) or a control task (eight subjects). All measurements were taken under resting conditions. The amount of D1 inhibition increased after the visuomotor task irrespective of movement speed (P < 0.01). The amount of reciprocal Ia inhibition increased with fast movement speed conditioning (P < 0.01), but was unchanged by slow movement speed conditioning. These changes lasted up to 15 min in D1 inhibition and 5 min in reciprocal Ia inhibition after the training session. The control task did not induce changes in D1 inhibition and reciprocal Ia inhibition. The TMS conditioned inhibitory effects of presynaptic inhibitory pathways decreased following visuomotor tasks (P < 0.01). The size of test H-reflex was almost the same size throughout experiments. The results suggest that supraspinal descending inputs for controlling joint movement are responsible

  20. Regional Changes in Cerebral Oxygenation During Repeated Passive Movement Measured by Functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Onishi, Hideaki; Tsubaki, Atsuhiro; Takai, Haruna; Tokunaga, Yuta; Tamaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of passive movement repetition frequency at 1.5-Hz and 1-Hz on changes in cerebral oxygenation and assess the temporal properties of these changes using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). No significant differences in systemic hemodynamics were observed between resting and passive movement phases for either 1.5-Hz or 1-Hz trial. Changes in cortical oxygenation as measured by fNIRS in bilateral supplementary motor cortex (SMC), left primary motor cortex (M1), left primary somatosensory cortex (S1), and left posterior association area (PAA) during passive movement of the right index finger revealed greater cortical activity at only 1.5-Hz movement frequency. However, there were no significant differences in the time for peak oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) among regions (bilateral SMC, 206.4 ± 14.4 s; left M1, 199.1 ± 14.8 s; left S1, 207.3 ± 9.4 s; left PAA, 219.1 ± 10.2 s). Therefore, our results that passive movement above a specific frequency may be required to elicit a changed in cerebral oxygenation, and the times of peak ΔoxyHb did not differ significantly among measured regions. PMID:26635590

  1. Changing motivations during migration: linking movement speed to reproductive status in a migratory large mammal

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Navinder J.; Ericsson, Göran

    2014-01-01

    A challenge in animal ecology is to link animal movement to demography. In general, reproducing and non-reproducing animals may show different movement patterns. Dramatic changes in reproductive status, such as the loss of an offspring during the course of migration, might also affect movement. Studies linking movement speed to reproductive status require individual monitoring of life-history events and hence are rare. Here, we link movement data from 98 GPS-collared female moose (Alces alces) to field observations of reproductive status and calf survival. We show that reproductive females move more quickly during migration than non-reproductive females. Further, the loss of a calf over the course of migration triggered a decrease in speed of the female. This is in contrast to what might be expected for females no longer constrained by an accompanying offspring. The observed patterns demonstrate that females of different reproductive status may have distinct movement patterns, and that the underlying motivation to move may be altered by a change in reproductive status during migration. PMID:24942710

  2. Impact of changes in cattle movement regulations on the risks of bovine tuberculosis for Scottish farms.

    PubMed

    Gates, M C; Volkova, V V; Woolhouse, M E J

    2013-02-01

    Legislation requiring the pre- and post-movement testing of cattle imported to Scotland from regions with high bovine tuberculosis (bTB) incidence was phased in between September 2005 and May 2006 as part of efforts to maintain Officially Tuberculosis Free (OTF) status. In this analysis, we used centralized cattle movement records to investigate the influence of the legislative change on import movement patterns and the movement-based risk factors associated with new bTB herd breakdowns identified through routine testing or slaughter surveillance. The immediate reduction in the number of import movements from high incidence regions of England and Wales into Scotland suggests that pre- and post-movement testing legislation has had a strong deterrent effect on cattle import trade. Combined with the direct benefits of a more stringent testing regime, this likely explains the observed decrease in the odds of imported cattle subsequently being identified as reactors in herd breakdowns detected through routine surveillance compared to Scottish cattle. However, at the farm-level, herds that recently imported cattle from high incidence regions were still at increased risk of experiencing bTB breakdowns, which highlights the delay between the introduction of disease control measures and detectable changes in incidence. With the relative infrequency of routine herd tests and the insidious nature of clinical signs, past import movements were likely still important in determining the present farm-level risk for bTB breakdown. However, the possibility of low-level transmission between Scottish cattle herds cannot be ruled out given the known issues with test sensitivity, changes in import animal demographics, and the potential for on-farm transmission. Findings from this analysis emphasize the importance of considering how farmer behavioural change in response to policy interventions may influence disease transmission dynamics. PMID:22897858

  3. Changes in muscle activation and force generation patterns during cycling movements because of low-intensity squat training with slow movement and tonic force generation.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Michiya; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Miyachi, Motohiko; Ishii, Naokata

    2009-11-01

    Our previous studies showed that relatively low-load (approximately 50-60% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation (LST) significantly increased muscle size and strength. However, LST is a very specific movement that differs from natural movements associated with sport activities and activities of daily life, and therefore, it might have some unfavorable effects on dynamic sport movement. We investigated the effects of LST on muscle activity and force generation patterns during cycling movement as a representative dynamic sports movement. Twenty-four healthy young men who were not in the habit of bicycle riding and did not have a history of regular resistance training were randomly assigned to the LST (approximately 60% 1RM load, 3-second lifting, and 3-second lowering movement without a relaxing phase: n = 8), a high-intensity exercise at normal speed (HM) group (85% 1RM load, 1-second lifting, 1-second lowering, and 1-second relaxed movement: n = 8), or sedentary control (CON, n = 8) group. Subjects in the training groups performed vertical squats by the assigned method. Exercise sessions consisted of 3 sets and were performed twice a week for 13 weeks. Pre- and posttraining muscle activation and force generation patterns during the cycling movements were evaluated by the coefficient of variation (CV) of the rectified electromyographic (EMG) wave from the vastus lateralis and CV of pedaling force. Both the CV of the rectified EMG and of pedaling force decreased significantly in the LST group (-21 and -18%, p < 0.05, respectively), whereas there were no significant changes in either the HN or the CON group. This decrease in CV in the LST group could mean that muscle activity and force generation during cycling movement have become more tonic. This result following LST may have an unfavorable effect on cycling movement and other dynamic sports movements. PMID:19826286

  4. Changes in the Structure of Relations Between Groups and the Emergence of Political Movements: The Student Movement at Harvard and Wisconsin, 1930-1969. A Thesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swirski, Shlomo

    This study presents a theoretical approach to the study of the emergence of movements for political change. It was postulated that changes outside the university role set --industrial systems development, political, military, scientific competition between the United States and Soviet Union-- brought about the following structural changes within…

  5. Effectiveness of Community Dialogue in Changing Gender and Sexual Norms for HIV Prevention: Evaluation of the Tchova Tchova Program in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Maria Elena; Poppe, Patricia; Carrasco, Maria; Pinho, Maria Dirce; Massingue, Felisberto; Tanque, Maria; Kwizera, Amata

    2016-01-01

    Structural HIV prevention interventions have gained prominence as ways to address underlying social and cultural factors that fuel the HIV epidemic. Identifying theories that explain how structural interventions are expected to change such factors can substantially increase their success. The Tchova Tchova community dialogue program, a theory-based intervention implemented in 2009–2010 in the provinces of Zambezia and Sofala, Mozambique, aimed to change gender and sexual norms for HIV prevention. Through facilitated sessions, the program sparked critical thinking and open dialogue among participants. This article measures the program’s effectiveness based on a sample of 462 participants and 453 nonparticipants. The results show that the program was successful in producing changes in three of the underlying structural factors of HIV: gender attitudes, gender roles, and HIV stigma. The program was also successful in changing other factors associated with HIV infection, including HIV prevention knowledge, discussion of HIV between sex partners, and having multiple sex partners. PMID:27123984

  6. Effectiveness of Community Dialogue in Changing Gender and Sexual Norms for HIV Prevention: Evaluation of the Tchova Tchova Program in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Maria Elena; Poppe, Patricia; Carrasco, Maria; Pinho, Maria Dirce; Massingue, Felisberto; Tanque, Maria; Kwizera, Amata

    2016-05-01

    Structural HIV prevention interventions have gained prominence as ways to address underlying social and cultural factors that fuel the HIV epidemic. Identifying theories that explain how structural interventions are expected to change such factors can substantially increase their success. The Tchova Tchova community dialogue program, a theory-based intervention implemented in 2009-2010 in the provinces of Zambezia and Sofala, Mozambique, aimed to change gender and sexual norms for HIV prevention. Through facilitated sessions, the program sparked critical thinking and open dialogue among participants. This article measures the program's effectiveness based on a sample of 462 participants and 453 nonparticipants. The results show that the program was successful in producing changes in three of the underlying structural factors of HIV: gender attitudes, gender roles, and HIV stigma. The program was also successful in changing other factors associated with HIV infection, including HIV prevention knowledge, discussion of HIV between sex partners, and having multiple sex partners. PMID:27123984

  7. Association of Orofacial Muscle Activity and Movement during Changes in Speech Rate and Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClean, Michael D.; Tasko, Stephen M.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how orofacial muscle activity and movement covary across changes in speech rate and intensity has implications for the neural control of speech production and the use of clinical procedures that manipulate speech prosody. The present study involved a correlation analysis relating average lower-lip and jaw-muscle activity to lip and…

  8. Local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and physical inactivity, features of the built environment, and 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin in an Australian population-based biomedical cohort.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Suzanne J; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Niyonsenga, Theo; Daniel, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Descriptive norms vary between places. Spatial variation in health-related descriptive norms may predict individual-level health outcomes. Such relationships have rarely been investigated. This study assessed 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in relation to local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity (n = 1890) and physical inactivity (n = 1906) in models accounting for features of the built environment. HbA1c was measured three times over 10 years for a population-based biomedical cohort of adults in Adelaide, South Australia. Environmental exposures were expressed for cohort participants using 1600 m road-network buffers centred on participants' residential address. Local descriptive norms (prevalence of overweight/obesity [body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)] and of physical inactivity [<150 min/week]) were aggregated from responses to a separate geocoded population survey. Built environment measures were public open space (POS) availability (proportion of buffer area) and walkability. Separate sets of multilevel models analysed different predictors of 10-year change in HbA1c. Each model featured one local descriptive norm and one built environment variable with area-level education and individual-level covariates (age, sex, employment status, education, marital status, and smoking status). Interactions between local descriptive norms and built environment measures were assessed. HbA1c increased over time. POS availability and local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and physical inactivity were each associated with greater rates of HbA1c increase. Greater walkability was associated with a reduced rate of HbA1c increase, and reduced the influence of the overweight/obesity norm on the rate of increase in HbA1c. Local descriptive health-related norms and features of the built environment predict 10-year change in HbA1c. The impact of local descriptive norms can vary according to built environment features. Little researched thus far

  9. Modeling void growth and movement with phase change in thermal energy storage canisters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darling, Douglas; Namkoong, David; Skarda, J. R. L.

    1993-01-01

    A scheme was developed to model the thermal hydrodynamic behavior of thermal energy storage salts. The model included buoyancy, surface tension, viscosity, phases change with density difference, and void growth and movement. The energy, momentum, and continuity equations were solved using a finite volume formulation. The momentum equation was divided into two pieces. The void growth and void movement are modeled between the two pieces of the momentum equations. Results showed this scheme was able to predict the behavior of thermal energy storage salts.

  10. From Norm Adoption to Norm Internalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Rosaria; Andrighetto, Giulia; Villatoro, Daniel

    In this presentation, advances in modeling the mental dynamics of norms will be presented. In particular, the process from norm-adoption, possibly yielding new normative goals, to different forms of norm compliance will be focused upon, including norm internalization, which is at study in social-behavioral sciences and moral philosophy since long. Of late, the debate was revamped within the rationality approach pointing to the role of norm internalization as a less costly and more reliable enforcement system than social control. So far, poor attention was paid to the mental underpinnings of internalization. In this presentation, a rich cognitive model of different types, degrees and factors of internalization is shown. The initial implementation of this model on EMIL-A, a normative agent architecture developed and applied to the.

  11. Formation and control of optimal trajectory in human multijoint arm movement. Minimum torque-change model.

    PubMed

    Uno, Y; Kawato, M; Suzuki, R

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we study trajectory planning and control in voluntary, human arm movements. When a hand is moved to a target, the central nervous system must select one specific trajectory among an infinite number of possible trajectories that lead to the target position. First, we discuss what criterion is adopted for trajectory determination. Several researchers measured the hand trajectories of skilled movements and found common invariant features. For example, when moving the hand between a pair of targets, subjects tended to generate roughly straight hand paths with bell-shaped speed profiles. On the basis of these observations and dynamic optimization theory, we propose a mathematical model which accounts for formation of hand trajectories. This model is formulated by defining an objective function, a measure of performance for any possible movement: square of the rate of change of torque integrated over the entire movement. That is, the objective function CT is defined as follows: (formula; see text) We overcome this difficult by developing an iterative scheme, with which the optimal trajectory and the associated motor command are simultaneously computed. To evaluate our model, human hand trajectories were experimentally measured under various behavioral situations. These results supported the idea that the human hand trajectory is planned and controlled in accordance with the minimum torque-change criterion. PMID:2742921

  12. 49 CFR 236.405 - Track signaled for movements in both directions, change of direction of traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Track signaled for movements in both directions, change of direction of traffic. 236.405 Section 236.405 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... in both directions, change of direction of traffic. On track signaled for movements in...

  13. 49 CFR 236.405 - Track signaled for movements in both directions, change of direction of traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track signaled for movements in both directions, change of direction of traffic. 236.405 Section 236.405 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... in both directions, change of direction of traffic. On track signaled for movements in...

  14. Height changes and recent vertical crustal movements in Western German areas — instrumental improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mälzer, H.

    1981-01-01

    The working group "Recent Height Changes" of the German Geodetic Commission, (DGK) in co-operation with the Departments of Ordnance Survey, has published a map of height changes for Western German areas. The scale of the map is 1: 1,000,000, and the height changes resulting from first-order levellings are described by isolines of 0.1 mm/year. Instrumental improvements with regard to the observation of recent vertical crustal movements have been achieved. The influences of scale errors and insufficient temperature registration on the results of precise levellings are reported.

  15. The Movement of Taboos: A Message-Oriented Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantz, Walter

    Defining "taboos" as laws, norms, or personal beliefs specifying situations in which behaviors or topics should not be performed or communicated about, this paper provides a conceptual and theoretical communication perspective governing the movement of taboos in social change situations. Applying Joseph Woelfel's message-oriented linear force…

  16. Changes of vertical eye movements of goldfish for different otolith stimulation by linear acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takabayashi, A.; Ohmura-Iwasaki, T.; Mori, S.

    2003-10-01

    Eye movements serves to hold the gaze steady or to shift the gaze to an object of interest. On Earth, signals from otoliths can be interpreted either as linear motion or as tilt with respect to gravity. In microgravity, static tilt will no longer give rise to changes in otolith activity. However, linear acceleration as well as angular acceleration stimulate the otolith organ. Therefore, during adaptation to microgravity, otolith-mediated response such as eye movements alter. In this study, we analyzed the eye movements of goldfish during linear acceleration. The eye movements during rectangular linear acceleration along the different body axis were video-recorded. The vertical eye rotations were analyzed frame by frame. In normal fish, leftward lateral acceleration induced downward eye rotation in the left eye and upward eye rotation in the right eye. Acceleration from caudal to rostral evoked downward eye rotation in both eyes. When the direction of acceleration was shifted 15 degrees left, the responses in the left eye disappeared. These results suggested that otolith organs in each side were stimulated differently.

  17. Changes of vertical eye movements of goldfish for different otolith stimulation by linear acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takabayashi, A.; Ohmura, T.; Mori, S.

    Eye movements serve to hold the gaze steady or to shift the gaze to an object of interest. On Earth, signals from otoliths can be interpreted either as linear motion or as tilt with respect to gravity. In microgravity, static tilt will no longer give rise to change in otolith activity. However, linear acceleration as well as angular acceleration stimulate otolith organ. Therefore, during adaptation to microgravity, otolith-mediated response such as eye movements would alter. In this study, we analyzed the eye movements of goldfish during linear acceleration. The eye movements during rectangular linear acceleration along the different body axis were video-recorded. The vertical eye rotations were analyzed frame by frame. In normal fish, acceleration from caudal to rostral evoked downward eye rotation in both eyes. Leftward lateral acceleration induced downward eye rotation in left eye and upward eye rotation in right eye. When the direction of acceleration was shifted to left about 15 degrees, the responses in left eye was disappeared. These results suggested that otolith organs in each side were stimulated in different way.

  18. Age-related changes of dental pulp tissue after experimental tooth movement in rats.

    PubMed

    Von Böhl, Martina; Ren, Yijin; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne M; Fudalej, Piotr S; Maltha, Jaap C

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the effect of orthodontic tooth movement on the dental pulp in adolescents is reversible and that it has no long-lasting effect on pulpal physiology. However, it is not clear yet if the same conclusion is also valid for adult subjects. Thus, in two groups of rats, aged 6 and 40 weeks respectively, 3 molars at one side of the maxilla were moved together in a mesial direction with a standardized orthodontic appliance delivering a force of 10 cN. The contralateral side served as a control. Parasagittal histological sections were prepared after tooth movement for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The pulp tissue was characterized for the different groups, with special emphasis on cell density, inflammatory cells, vascularity, and odontoblasts. Dimensions of dentin and the pulpal horns was determined and related with the duration of orthodontic force application and age ware evaluated. We found that neither in young nor in adult rats, force application led to long-lasting or irreversible changes in pulpal tissues. Dimensional variables showed significant age-related changes. In conclusion, orthodontic tooth movement per se has no long-lasting or irreversible effect on pulpal tissues, neither in the young nor in the adult animals. PMID:26855867

  19. Age-related changes of dental pulp tissue after experimental tooth movement in rats

    PubMed Central

    Von Böhl, Martina; Ren, Yijin; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne M.; Maltha, Jaap C.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the effect of orthodontic tooth movement on the dental pulp in adolescents is reversible and that it has no long-lasting effect on pulpal physiology. However, it is not clear yet if the same conclusion is also valid for adult subjects. Thus, in two groups of rats, aged 6 and 40 weeks respectively, 3 molars at one side of the maxilla were moved together in a mesial direction with a standardized orthodontic appliance delivering a force of 10 cN. The contralateral side served as a control. Parasagittal histological sections were prepared after tooth movement for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The pulp tissue was characterized for the different groups, with special emphasis on cell density, inflammatory cells, vascularity, and odontoblasts. Dimensions of dentin and the pulpal horns was determined and related with the duration of orthodontic force application and age ware evaluated. We found that neither in young nor in adult rats, force application led to long-lasting or irreversible changes in pulpal tissues. Dimensional variables showed significant age-related changes. In conclusion, orthodontic tooth movement per se has no long-lasting or irreversible effect on pulpal tissues, neither in the young nor in the adult animals. PMID:26855867

  20. Learning-Induced Changes in Attentional Allocation during Categorization: A Sizable Catalog of Attention Change as Measured by Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    McColeman, Caitlyn M.; Barnes, Jordan I.; Chen, Lihan; Meier, Kimberly M.; Walshe, R. Calen; Blair, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Learning how to allocate attention properly is essential for success at many categorization tasks. Advances in our understanding of learned attention are stymied by a chicken-and-egg problem: there are no theoretical accounts of learned attention that predict patterns of eye movements, making data collection difficult to justify, and there are not enough datasets to support the development of a rich theory of learned attention. The present work addresses this by reporting five measures relating to the overt allocation of attention across 10 category learning experiments: accuracy, probability of fixating irrelevant information, number of fixations to category features, the amount of change in the allocation of attention (using a new measure called Time Proportion Shift - TIPS), and a measure of the relationship between attention change and erroneous responses. Using these measures, the data suggest that eye-movements are not substantially connected to error in most cases and that aggregate trial-by-trial attention change is generally stable across a number of changing task variables. The data presented here provide a target for computational models that aim to account for changes in overt attentional behaviors across learning. PMID:24497915

  1. Norm-establishing and norm-following in autonomous agency.

    PubMed

    Barandiaran, Xabier E; Egbert, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Living agency is subject to a normative dimension (good-bad, adaptive-maladaptive) that is absent from other types of interaction. We review current and historical attempts to naturalize normativity from an organism-centered perspective, identifying two central problems and their solution: (1) How to define the topology of the viability space so as to include a sense of gradation that permits reversible failure, and (2) how to relate both the processes that establish norms and those that result in norm-following behavior. We present a minimal metabolic system that is coupled to a gradient-climbing chemotactic mechanism. Studying the relationship between metabolic dynamics and environmental resource conditions, we identify an emergent viable region and a precarious region where the system tends to die unless environmental conditions change. We introduce the concept of normative field as the change of environmental conditions required to bring the system back to its viable region. Norm-following, or normative action, is defined as the course of behavior whose effect is positively correlated with the normative field. We close with a discussion of the limitations and extensions of our model and some final reflections on the nature of norms and teleology in agency. PMID:23373978

  2. The Relationship between Performance and Trunk Movement During Change of Direction.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Shogo; Nagano, Yasuharu; Kaneko, Satoshi; Sakurai, Takakuni; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain the trunk kinematics data during a change-of-direction task and to determine the relationship between trunk kinematics and the change-of-direction performance. The design of this investigation was a descriptive laboratory study. Twelve healthy male collegiate soccer players (age: 21.3 ± 1.0 yrs, body mass: 67. 7 ± 6.7 kg, and height: 1.75 ± 0.05 m) participated in this study. Participants performed a shuttle run cutting task with a 180 degree pivot as quickly as possible. The shuttle run cutting time, ground contact time during a change-of-direction, and trunk inclination angle were measured. The shuttle run cutting time tends to correlate positively with ground contact time. During the change- of-direction task, the trunk forward inclination angle gradually increased during the first 50% of the stance phase and decreased subsequently whereas the trunk flexed, maintaining a left inclination during the first 40% of the stance phase and changing exponentially in the opposite direction. Forward angular displacement of the trunk between foot-contact and maximum trunk inclination correlated positively with the shuttle run cutting time (r = 0.61, p < 0.05) and ground contact time (r = 0.65, p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the change-of-direction performance could be related to the small angular displacement of the trunk during a change of direction. Moreover, it was considered that there might be optimal inclination angles related to change-of-direction performance. Therefore, coaches in field sports should check body posture and trunk movements during changes of direction. Key pointsSmall forward angular displacement of the trunk during a direction change is related to the change-of-direction performance.Trunk stability during a change of direction is an important factor in the change-of-direction performance.There might be a range of optimal angles of trunk inclination during a change of direction.Coaches in field

  3. Tracking Mobile Sinks via Analysis of Movement Angle Changes in WSNs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guisong; Xu, Huifen; He, Xingyu; Wang, Gang; Xiong, Naixue; Wu, Chunxue

    2016-01-01

    Existing methods for tracking mobile sinks in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) often incur considerable energy consumption and overhead. To address this issue, we propose a Detour-Aware Mobile Sink Tracking (DAMST) method via analysis of movement angle changes of mobile sinks, for collecting data in a low-overhead and energy efficient way. In the proposed method, while a mobile sink passes through a region, it appoints a specific node as a region agent to collect information of the whole region, and records nodes near or on its trajectory as footprints. If it needs information from the region agent in a future time it will construct an energy efficient path from the region agent to itself by calculating its own movement angles according to the footprints, as well as getting rid of detours by analyzing these movement angles. Finally, the performance of the tracking method is evaluated systematically under different trajectory patterns and footprint appointment intervals. The simulation results consolidate that DAMST has advantages in reducing energy consumption and data overhead. PMID:27043562

  4. Tracking Mobile Sinks via Analysis of Movement Angle Changes in WSNs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guisong; Xu, Huifen; He, Xingyu; Wang, Gang; Xiong, Naixue; Wu, Chunxue

    2016-01-01

    Existing methods for tracking mobile sinks in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) often incur considerable energy consumption and overhead. To address this issue, we propose a Detour-Aware Mobile Sink Tracking (DAMST) method via analysis of movement angle changes of mobile sinks, for collecting data in a low-overhead and energy efficient way. In the proposed method, while a mobile sink passes through a region, it appoints a specific node as a region agent to collect information of the whole region, and records nodes near or on its trajectory as footprints. If it needs information from the region agent in a future time it will construct an energy efficient path from the region agent to itself by calculating its own movement angles according to the footprints, as well as getting rid of detours by analyzing these movement angles. Finally, the performance of the tracking method is evaluated systematically under different trajectory patterns and footprint appointment intervals. The simulation results consolidate that DAMST has advantages in reducing energy consumption and data overhead. PMID:27043562

  5. Adaptation and perceptual norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole

    2007-02-01

    We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.

  6. Doctoral students in the life sciences: Perceptions related to the impact of changing expectations and modes of support on research ethics and norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajen, Ava Lee

    Scholars predict that the current institutional, state, and federal push for the commercialization of research, as well as increases in industry funding, will challenge, and perhaps even alter, the culture and ethical standards of academe. A focal point for these trends at many institutions is the current emphasis on life sciences research. This study builds on what is known about doctoral students and their ethical training in the life sciences by examining the individual experiences of doctoral students within the context of changing research expectations and funding patterns at one research university. The project was conducted using a case study approach within the naturalistic tradition. Twenty-four advanced doctoral student in the life sciences were interviewed. They were asked about their perceptions and experiences related to three broad topics: the normative and ethical aspects of academic research behavior; the impact of changing funding sources and changing expectations for research outcomes; and the aspects of their graduate education and training related to research norms and ethics. A systematic qualitative data analysis process allowed the richness and complexity of the students' views and concerns to be revealed. The results of this study highlight their individual and shared understandings and experiences, provide a conceptual framework for understanding their perceptions, and offer related recommendations for improving doctoral education within the current, ethically complex research context.

  7. Speech in ALS: Longitudinal Changes in Lips and Jaw Movements and Vowel Acoustics

    PubMed Central

    Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan R.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Pattee, Gary L.; Zinman, Lorne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this exploratory study was to investigate longitudinally the changes in facial kinematics, vowel formant frequencies, and speech intelligibility in individuals diagnosed with bulbar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This study was motivated by the need to understand articulatory and acoustic changes with disease progression and their subsequent effect on deterioration of speech in ALS. Method Lip and jaw movements and vowel acoustics were obtained for four individuals with bulbar ALS during four consecutive recording sessions with an average interval of three months between recordings. Participants read target words embedded into sentences at a comfortable speaking rate. Maximum vertical and horizontal mouth opening and maximum jaw displacements were obtained during corner vowels. First and second formant frequencies were measured for each vowel. Speech intelligibility and speaking rate score were obtained for each session as well. Results Transient, non-vowel-specific changes in kinematics of the jaw and lips were observed. Kinematic changes often preceded changes in vowel acoustics and speech intelligibility. Conclusions Nonlinear changes in speech kinematics should be considered in evaluation of the disease effects on jaw and lip musculature. Kinematic measures might be most suitable for early detection of changes associated with bulbar ALS.

  8. Spring hunting changes the regional movements of migrating greater snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bechet, A.; Giroux, J.-F.; Gauthier, G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    1. Human-induced disturbance such as hunting may influence the migratory behaviour of long-distance migrants. In 1999 and 2000 a spring hunt of greater snow geese Anser caerulescens atlanticus occurred for the first time in North America since 1916, aimed at stopping population growth to protect natural habitats. 2. We evaluated the impact of this hunt on the staging movements of geese along a 600-km stretch of the St. Lawrence River in southern Quebec, Canada. 3. We tracked radio-tagged female geese in three contiguous regions of the staging area from the south-west to the north-east: Lake St Pierre, Upper Estuary and Lower Estuary, in spring 1997 (n = 37) and 1998 (n = 70) before the establishment of hunting, and in 1999 (n = 60) and 2000 (n = 59) during hunting. 4. We used multi-state capture-recapture models to estimate the movement probabilities of radio-tagged females among these regions. To assess disturbance level, we tracked geese during their feeding trips and estimated the probability of completing a foraging bout without being disturbed. 5. In the 2 years without hunting, migration was strongly unidirectional from the south-west to the north-east, with very low westward movement probabilities. Geese gradually moved from Lake St Pierre to Upper Estuary and then from Upper Estuary to Lower Estuary. 6. In contrast, during the 2 years with hunting westward movement was more than four times more likely than in preceding years. Most of these backward movements occurred shortly after the beginning of the hunt, indicating that geese moved back to regions where they had not previously experienced hunting. 7. Overall disturbance level increased in all regions in years with hunting relative to years without hunting. 8. Synthesis and applications. We conclude that spring hunting changed the stopover scheduling of this long-distance migrant and might further impact population dynamics by reducing prenuptial fattening. The spring hunt may also have increased crop

  9. Changes in sexual risk taking with antiretroviral treatment: influence of context and gender norms in Mombasa, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Sarna, Avina; Chersich, Matthew; Okal, Jerry; Luchters, Stanley M F; Mandaliya, Kishorchandra N; Rutenberg, Naomi; Temmerman, Marleen

    2009-11-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 23 sexually-active adults receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Mombasa Kenya to understand changes in sexual behaviour after treatment initiation and factors influencing condom use. Advanced HIV disease had previously led to marked decreases in sexual desire and function. After HIV testing, numbers of partners reduced and monogamous relationships began to predominate. Receipt of ART strengthened these changes, while improving sexual health. However, concurrent sexual partnerships continue within polygamous marriage and unprotected sex occurs with regular partners, even those who are HIV-negative. Those who used condoms inconsistently prior to ART often remained inconsistent users thereafter. While disclosure of HIV status appeared to support condom use, this does not always predict protected sex. In addition to classic perceptions about condom's effect on intimacy and trust, traditional gender roles, misconceptions about potential harm from condoms and fertility desires hinder condom use. PMID:19557584

  10. Lacustrine chronology links late Pleistocene climate change and mass movements in northern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Dethier, D.P.; Reneau, S.L.

    1996-06-01

    Well-dated lacustrine deposits in northern White Rock Canyon, New Mexico, record damming of the Rio Grande by at least four separate failures of a slump complex between about 17.5 and 12.4 ka ({sup 14}C), linking mass movements to a period of rapid climate change in the western United States. Failure of metastable slumps probably resulted from removal of lateral support during down-cutting and erosion by the Rio Grande and from a decrease in resisting forces due to increased pore pressures. Our chronology suggests that the lake that formed between 17.5 and 15.0 ka may record effects of both glacial melt and pluvial activity (mainly enhanced rainfall); the youngest lake (neary 12.4 ka) may record pluvial runoff; and the intermediate lakes (13.7 to 13.1 ka) may record pluvial and minor melt-water activity. We have not found lacustrine deposits younger than about 12.4 ka. The record of geomorphic response along the Rio Grande suggests that late Pleistocene climatic changes may have triggered similar mass movements elsewhere in the southwest. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Service user involvement in practitioner education: Movement politics and transformative change.

    PubMed

    Mckeown, Mick; Dix, Julie; Jones, Fiona; Carter, Bernie; Malihi-Shoja, Lisa; Mallen, Ernie; Harrison, Nigel

    2014-08-01

    This paper will attempt to celebrate both key developments and best practice involving the users of health and social care services in programmes of practitioner education in a UK context, and offer a critical appraisal of the extent to which such initiatives meet some of the more transformative objectives sought by service user activists for change. The approach is largely that of a discussion paper but we will illustrate some of the themes relating to movement activism with selected data. These data relate to earlier research and two specially convened focus groups within the Comensus initiative at the University of Central Lancashire; itself constituted as a piece of participatory action research. We conclude that universities represent paradoxical sites for the facilitation of debate and learning relevant to key issues of social justice and change. As such, they are places that can impede or support movement aims. Particular strategic responses might be more likely to engender progressive outcomes. These ought to include the presence of critically engaged academic staff operating within a scholarly culture that fosters forms of deliberative democratic decision making. PMID:24815179

  12. Correlating charge movements with local conformational changes of a Na(+)-coupled cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Patti, Monica; Forster, Ian C

    2014-04-15

    To gain insight into the steady-state and dynamic characteristics of structural rearrangements of an electrogenic secondary-active cotransporter during its transport cycle, two measures of conformational change (pre-steady-state current relaxations and intensity of fluorescence emitted from reporter fluorophores) were investigated as a function of membrane potential and external substrate. Cysteines were substituted at three believed-new sites in the type IIb Na(+)-coupled inorganic phosphate cotransporter (SLC34A2 flounder isoform) that were predicted to be involved in conformational changes. Labeling at one site resulted in substantial suppression of transport activity, whereas for the other sites, function remained comparable to the wild-type. For these mutants, the properties of the pre-steady-state charge relaxations were similar for each, whereas fluorescence intensity changes differed significantly. Fluorescence changes could be accounted for by simulations using a five-state model with a unique set of apparent fluorescence intensities assigned to each state according to the site of labeling. Fluorescence reported from one site was associated with inward and outward conformations, whereas for the other sites, including four previously indentified sites, emissions were associated principally with one or the other orientation of the transporter. The same membrane potential change induced complementary changes in fluorescence at some sites, which suggested that the microenvironments of the respective fluorophores experience concomitant changes in polarity. In response to step changes in voltage, the pre-steady-state current relaxation and the time course of change in fluorescence intensity were described by single exponentials. For one mutant the time constants matched well with and without external Na(+), providing direct evidence that this label reports conformational changes accompanying intrinsic charge movement and cation interactions. PMID:24739161

  13. Correlating Charge Movements with Local Conformational Changes of a Na+-Coupled Cotransporter

    PubMed Central

    Patti, Monica; Forster, Ian C.

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into the steady-state and dynamic characteristics of structural rearrangements of an electrogenic secondary-active cotransporter during its transport cycle, two measures of conformational change (pre-steady-state current relaxations and intensity of fluorescence emitted from reporter fluorophores) were investigated as a function of membrane potential and external substrate. Cysteines were substituted at three believed-new sites in the type IIb Na+-coupled inorganic phosphate cotransporter (SLC34A2 flounder isoform) that were predicted to be involved in conformational changes. Labeling at one site resulted in substantial suppression of transport activity, whereas for the other sites, function remained comparable to the wild-type. For these mutants, the properties of the pre-steady-state charge relaxations were similar for each, whereas fluorescence intensity changes differed significantly. Fluorescence changes could be accounted for by simulations using a five-state model with a unique set of apparent fluorescence intensities assigned to each state according to the site of labeling. Fluorescence reported from one site was associated with inward and outward conformations, whereas for the other sites, including four previously indentified sites, emissions were associated principally with one or the other orientation of the transporter. The same membrane potential change induced complementary changes in fluorescence at some sites, which suggested that the microenvironments of the respective fluorophores experience concomitant changes in polarity. In response to step changes in voltage, the pre-steady-state current relaxation and the time course of change in fluorescence intensity were described by single exponentials. For one mutant the time constants matched well with and without external Na+, providing direct evidence that this label reports conformational changes accompanying intrinsic charge movement and cation interactions. PMID:24739161

  14. Evaluation of Potential Climate Change Impacts on Particle Movement in Open Channel Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, E.; Tsai, C.

    2014-12-01

    It is important to develop a forecast model to predict the trajectory of sediment particles when extreme flow events occur. In extreme flow environments, the stochastic jump diffusion particle tracking model (SJD-PTM) can be used to model the movement of sediment particles in response to extreme events. This proposed SJD-PTM can be separated into three main parts — a drift motion, a turbulence term and a jump term due to random occurrences of extreme flow events. The study is intended to modify the jump term, which models the abrupt changes of particle position in the extreme flow environments. The frequency of extreme flow occurrences might change due to many uncertain factors such as climate change. The study attempts to use the concept of the logistic regression and the parameter of odds ratio, namely the trend magnitude to investigate the frequency change of extreme flow event occurrences and its impact on sediment particle movement. With the SJD-PTM, the ensemble mean and variance of particle trajectory can be quantified via simulations. The results show that by taking the effect of the trend magnitude into consideration, the particle position and its uncertainty may undergo a significant increase. Such findings will have many important implications to the environmental and hydraulic engineering design and planning. For instance, when the frequency of the occurrence of flow events with higher extremity increases, particles can travel further and faster downstream. It is observed that flow events with higher extremity can induce a higher degree of entrainment and particle resuspension, and consequently more significant bed and bank erosion.

  15. Changes in Articulator Movement Variability during Phonemic Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigos, Maria I.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The present study explored articulator movement variability during voicing contrast acquisition. The purpose was to examine whether oral articulator movement trajectories associated with the production of voiced/voiceless bilabial phonemes in children became less variable over time. Method: Jaw, lower lip, and upper lip movements were…

  16. Event-related beta EEG-changes during passive and attempted foot movements in paraplegic patients.

    PubMed

    Müller-Putz, Gernot R; Zimmermann, Doris; Graimann, Bernhard; Nestinger, Kurt; Korisek, Gerd; Pfurtscheller, Gert

    2007-03-16

    A number of electroencephalographic (EEG) studies report on motor event-related desynchronization and synchronization (ERD/ERS) in the beta band, i.e. a decrease and increase of spectral amplitudes of central beta rhythms in the range from 13 to 35 Hz. Following an ERD that occurs shortly before and during the movement, bursts of beta oscillations (beta ERS) appear within a 1-s interval after movement offset. Such a post-movement beta ERS has been reported after voluntary hand movements, passive movements, movement imagination, and also after movements induced by functional electrical stimulation. The present study compares ERD/ERS patterns in paraplegic patients (suffering from a complete spinal cord injury) and healthy subjects during attempted (active) and passive foot movements. The aim of this work is to address the question, whether patients do have the same focal beta ERD/ERS pattern during attempted foot movement as healthy subjects do. The results showed midcentral-focused beta ERD/ERS patterns during passive, active, and imagined foot movements in healthy subjects. This is in contrast to a diffuse and broad distributed ERD/ERS pattern during attempted foot movements in patients. Only one patient showed a similar ERD/ERS pattern. Furthermore, no significant ERD/ERS patterns during passive foot movement in the group of the paraplegics could be found. PMID:17229403

  17. Atmospheric depression-mediated water temperature changes affect the vertical movement of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Takashi; Hyodo, Susumu; Sato, Katsufumi

    2016-08-01

    The Sanriku coastal area, Japan, is one of the southern-most natural spawning regions of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta. Here, we report their behavioral response to changes in ambient temperature after the passage of an atmospheric depression during the early spawning season. Before the passage, all electrically tagged fish moved vertically for several hours to depths below the shallow thermocline at >100 m. However, during the atmospheric depression, the salmon shortened the duration of their vertical movements and spent most time at the surface. The water column was homogenous at <150 m deep except for the surface. The descending behavior may have been discontinued because the cooler water below the thermocline was no longer in a thermally defined layer, due to strong vertical mixing by high wave action. Instead, they likely spent time within the cooler water temperatures at the surface of bays to minimize metabolic energy cost during migration. PMID:27236419

  18. Climate change impacts on mass movements--case studies from the European Alps.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, M; Tiranti, D; Huggel, C

    2014-09-15

    This paper addresses the current knowledge on climate change impacts on mass movement activity in mountain environments by illustrating characteristic cases of debris flows, rock slope failures and landslides from the French, Italian, and Swiss Alps. It is expected that events are likely to occur less frequently during summer, whereas the anticipated increase of rainfall in spring and fall could likely alter debris-flow activity during the shoulder seasons (March, April, November, and December). The magnitude of debris flows could become larger due to larger amounts of sediment delivered to the channels and as a result of the predicted increase in heavy precipitation events. At the same time, however, debris-flow volumes in high-mountain areas will depend chiefly on the stability and/or movement rates of permafrost bodies, and destabilized rock glaciers could lead to debris flows without historic precedents in the future. The frequency of rock slope failures is likely to increase, as excessively warm air temperatures, glacier shrinkage, as well as permafrost warming and thawing will affect and reduce rock slope stability in the direction that adversely affects rock slope stability. Changes in landslide activity in the French and Western Italian Alps will likely depend on differences in elevation. Above 1500 m asl, the projected decrease in snow season duration in future winters and springs will likely affect the frequency, number and seasonality of landslide reactivations. In Piemonte, for instance, 21st century landslides have been demonstrated to occur more frequently in early spring and to be triggered by moderate rainfalls, but also to occur in smaller numbers. On the contrary, and in line with recent observations, events in autumn, characterized by a large spatial density of landslide occurrences might become more scarce in the Piemonte region. PMID:24630951

  19. Extending the Mertonian Norms: Scientists’ Subscription to Norms of Research

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Melissa S.; Ronning, Emily A.; DeVries, Raymond; Martinson, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    This analysis, based on focus groups and a national survey, assesses scientists’ subscription to the Mertonian norms of science and associated counternorms. It also supports extension of these norms to governance (as opposed to administration), as a norm of decision-making, and quality (as opposed to quantity), as a evaluative norm. PMID:21132074

  20. Effects of movement from a postural maintenance position on lumbar hemodynamic changes

    PubMed Central

    Kumamoto, Tsuneo; Seko, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Yui

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of movement from a postural maintenance position on lumbar hemodynamic changes, in order to prevent lower back pain and develop exercise therapy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five healthy adults (mean age: 23.2 years) participated in the study. During flexion-extension exercise, the subjects moved their trunks gradually to a flexed position from an upright posture while sitting and standing, and then returned to and maintained an upright (re-upright) position. In the extension–flexion exercise, the subjects moved their trunks gradually from an upright posture to an extended position, and back while maintaining an upright (re-upright) position. Lumbar spinal muscle activity and hemodynamic changes were evaluated during both exercises. [Results] During the flexion and extension exercises, increased trunk-flexion angle caused increased muscle activity, decreased oxygenated hemoglobin in the multifidus muscle, and increased deoxygenated hemoglobin in the multifidus and lumbar erector spinae muscles. Moreover, the muscle activities were nearly the same in the re-upright and upright positions, and total hemoglobin also increased. [Conclusion] In both standing and sitting positions, holding the trunk in a flexed position causes ischemic hemodynamic changes in the multifidus muscle; however, the hyperemic response when returning the trunk to an extended position may improve circulation. PMID:27390450

  1. Network structure and influence of the climate change counter-movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Justin

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic climate change represents a global threat to human well-being and ecosystem functioning. Yet despite its importance for science and policy, our understanding of the causes of widespread uncertainty and doubt found among the general public remains limited. The political and social processes driving such doubt and uncertainty are difficult to rigorously analyse, and research has tended to focus on the individual-level, rather than the larger institutions and social networks that produce and disseminate contrarian information. This study presents a new approach by using network science to uncover the institutional and corporate structure of the climate change counter-movement, and machine-learning text analysis to show its influence in the news media and bureaucratic politics. The data include a new social network of all known organizations and individuals promoting contrarian viewpoints, as well as the entirety of all written and verbal texts about climate change from 1993-2013 from every organization, three major news outlets, all US presidents, and every occurrence on the floor of the US Congress. Using network and computational text analysis, I find that the organizational power within the contrarian network, and the magnitude of semantic similarity, are both predicted by ties to elite corporate benefactors.

  2. Using nonlinear methods to quantify changes in infant limb movements and vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Abney, Drew H.; Warlaumont, Anne S.; Haussman, Anna; Ross, Jessica M.; Wallot, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The pairing of dynamical systems theory and complexity science brings novel concepts and methods to the study of infant motor development. Accordingly, this longitudinal case study presents a new approach to characterizing the dynamics of infant limb and vocalization behaviors. A single infant's vocalizations and limb movements were recorded from 51-days to 305-days of age. On each recording day, accelerometers were placed on all four of the infant's limbs and an audio recorder was worn on the child's chest. Using nonlinear time series analysis methods, such as recurrence quantification analysis and Allan factor, we quantified changes in the stability and multiscale properties of the infant's behaviors across age as well as how these dynamics relate across modalities and effectors. We observed that particular changes in these dynamics preceded or coincided with the onset of various developmental milestones. For example, the largest changes in vocalization dynamics preceded the onset of canonical babbling. The results show that nonlinear analyses can help to understand the functional co-development of different aspects of infant behavior. PMID:25161629

  3. Effects of movement from a postural maintenance position on lumbar hemodynamic changes.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Tsuneo; Seko, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Yui

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of movement from a postural maintenance position on lumbar hemodynamic changes, in order to prevent lower back pain and develop exercise therapy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five healthy adults (mean age: 23.2 years) participated in the study. During flexion-extension exercise, the subjects moved their trunks gradually to a flexed position from an upright posture while sitting and standing, and then returned to and maintained an upright (re-upright) position. In the extension-flexion exercise, the subjects moved their trunks gradually from an upright posture to an extended position, and back while maintaining an upright (re-upright) position. Lumbar spinal muscle activity and hemodynamic changes were evaluated during both exercises. [Results] During the flexion and extension exercises, increased trunk-flexion angle caused increased muscle activity, decreased oxygenated hemoglobin in the multifidus muscle, and increased deoxygenated hemoglobin in the multifidus and lumbar erector spinae muscles. Moreover, the muscle activities were nearly the same in the re-upright and upright positions, and total hemoglobin also increased. [Conclusion] In both standing and sitting positions, holding the trunk in a flexed position causes ischemic hemodynamic changes in the multifidus muscle; however, the hyperemic response when returning the trunk to an extended position may improve circulation. PMID:27390450

  4. Effects of natural and anthropogenic change on habitat use and movement of endangered salt marsh harvest mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine R; Barthman-Thompson, Laureen; Gould, William R; Mabry, Karen E

    2014-01-01

    The northern salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris halicoetes) is an endangered species endemic to the San Francisco Bay Estuary. Using a conservation behavior perspective, we examined how salt marsh harvest mice cope with both natural (daily tidal fluctuations) and anthropogenic (modification of tidal regime) changes in natural tidal wetlands and human-created diked wetlands, and investigated the role of behavioral flexibility in utilizing a human-created environment in the Suisun Marsh. We used radio telemetry to determine refuge use at high tide, space use, and movement rates to investigate possible differences in movement behavior in tidal versus diked wetlands. We found that the vast majority of the time salt marsh harvest mice remain in vegetation above the water during high tides. We also found no difference in space used by mice during high tide as compared to before or after high tide in either tidal or diked wetlands. We found no detectable difference in diurnal or nocturnal movement rates in tidal wetlands. However, we did find that diurnal movement rates for mice in diked wetlands were lower than nocturnal movement rates, especially during the new moon. This change in movement behavior in a relatively novel human-created habitat indicates that behavioral flexibility may facilitate the use of human-created environments by salt marsh harvest mice. PMID:25310800

  5. Effects of Natural and Anthropogenic Change on Habitat Use and Movement of Endangered Salt Marsh Harvest Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katherine R.; Barthman-Thompson, Laureen; Gould, William R.; Mabry, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    The northern salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris halicoetes) is an endangered species endemic to the San Francisco Bay Estuary. Using a conservation behavior perspective, we examined how salt marsh harvest mice cope with both natural (daily tidal fluctuations) and anthropogenic (modification of tidal regime) changes in natural tidal wetlands and human-created diked wetlands, and investigated the role of behavioral flexibility in utilizing a human-created environment in the Suisun Marsh. We used radio telemetry to determine refuge use at high tide, space use, and movement rates to investigate possible differences in movement behavior in tidal versus diked wetlands. We found that the vast majority of the time salt marsh harvest mice remain in vegetation above the water during high tides. We also found no difference in space used by mice during high tide as compared to before or after high tide in either tidal or diked wetlands. We found no detectable difference in diurnal or nocturnal movement rates in tidal wetlands. However, we did find that diurnal movement rates for mice in diked wetlands were lower than nocturnal movement rates, especially during the new moon. This change in movement behavior in a relatively novel human-created habitat indicates that behavioral flexibility may facilitate the use of human-created environments by salt marsh harvest mice. PMID:25310800

  6. Early Changes in Saccadic Eye Movement in Hemiparkinsonian MPTP-Treated Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Tereshchenko, Leonid V; Anisimov, Victor N; Shul'govsky, Valery V; Latanov, Alexander V

    2015-01-01

    The saccadic eye movements declining given the development of Parkinson's disease (PD) still deserves thorough analysis. Recent studies confirmed that PD patients show poor saccadic control in visuomotor tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dynamics of saccades parameters at the development of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD. The gradual decline of saccadic control was studied in two monkeys that executed the visuomotor task with low doses of MPTP being injected at a prolonged period of time. The experiment included investigating the horizontal, vertical, oblique visually guided saccades as well as the corrective saccades triggered by stimuli onset in various loci within a two-dimensional visual field in the Gap-Step-Overlap paradigm. Our study revealed that the execution of visually guided saccades with small amplitude and corrective saccades changed dramatically with MPTP-model progressing. These changes are also confirmed statistically at the presymptomatic stage of MPTP syndrome. Not only our study gives a robust report of PD dynamics development and saccadic control but the obtained data could also be helpful in developing methods for the early diagnosis of PD. PMID:26562919

  7. Quantitative analysis of changes in movement behaviour within and outside habitat in a specialist butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Schtickzelle, Nicolas; Joiris, Augustin; Van Dyck, Hans; Baguette, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Background Dispersal between habitat patches is a key process in the functioning of (meta)populations. As distance between suitable habitats increases, the ongoing process of habitat fragmentation is expected to generate strong selection pressures on movement behaviour. This leads to an increase or decrease of dispersal according to its cost relative to landscape structure. To limit the cost of dispersal in an increasingly hostile matrix, we predict that organisms would adopt special dispersal behaviour between habitats, which are different from movements associated with resource searching in suitable habitats. Results Here we quantified the movement behaviour of the bog fritillary butterfly (Proclossiana eunomia) by (1) assessing perceptual range, the distance to which the habitat can be perceived, and (2) tracking and parameterizing movement behaviour within and outside habitat (parameters were move length and turning angles distributions). Results are three-fold. (1) Perceptual range was < 30 m. (2) Movements were significantly straighter in the matrix than within the habitat. (3) Correlated random walk adequately described movement behaviour for 70% of the observed movement paths within habitat and in the matrix. Conclusion The perceptual range being lower than the distance between habitat patches in the study area, P. eunomia likely perceives these habitat networks as fragmented, and must locate suitable habitats while dispersing across the landscape matrix. Such a constraint means that dispersal entails costs, and that selection pressure should favour behaviours that limit these costs. Indeed, our finding that dispersal movements in the matrix are straighter than resource searching movements within habitat supports the prediction of simulation studies that adopting straight movements for dispersal reduces its costs in fragmented landscapes. Our results support the mounting evidence that dispersal in fragmented landscapes evolved towards the use of specific

  8. Changes in chemical permeation of disposable latex, nitrile, and vinyl gloves exposed to simulated movement.

    PubMed

    Phalen, Robert N; Le, Thi; Wong, Weng Kee

    2014-01-01

    Glove movement can affect chemical permeation of organic compounds through polymer glove products. However, conflicting reports make it difficult to compare the effects of movement on chemical permeation through commonly available glove types. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of movement on chemical permeation of an organic solvent through disposable latex, nitrile, and vinyl gloves. Simulated whole-glove permeation testing was conducted using ethyl alcohol and a previously designed permeation test system. With exposure to movement, a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.001) in breakthrough time (BT) was observed for the latex (-23%) and nitrile gloves (-31%). With exposure to movement, only the nitrile glove exhibited a significant increase (p ≤ 0.001) in steady-state permeation rate (+47%) and cumulative permeation at 30 min (+111%). Even though the nitrile glove provided optimum chemical resistance against ethyl alcohol, it was most affected by movement. With exposure to movement, the latex glove was an equivalent option for overall worker protection, because it was less affected by movement and the permeation rate was lower than that of the nitrile glove. In contrast, the vinyl glove was the least affected by movement, but did not provide adequate chemical resistance to ethyl alcohol in comparison with the nitrile and latex gloves. Glove selection should take movement and polymer type into account. Some glove polymer types are less affected by movement, most notably the latex glove in this test. With nitrile gloves, at least a factor of three should be used when attempting to assign a protection factor when repetitive hand motions are anticipated. Ultimately, the latex gloves outperformed nitrile and vinyl in these tests, which evaluated the effect of movement on chemical permeation. Future research should aim to resolve some of the observed discrepancies in test results with latex and vinyl gloves. PMID:24689368

  9. Changes in Chemical Permeation of Disposable Latex, Nitrile and Vinyl Gloves Exposed to Simulated Movement

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, Robert N.; Le, Thi; Wong, Weng Kee

    2014-01-01

    Glove movement can affect chemical permeation of organic compounds through polymer glove products. However, conflicting reports make it difficult to compare the effects of movement on chemical permeation through commonly available glove types. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of movement on chemical permeation of an organic solvent through disposable latex, nitrile, and vinyl gloves. Simulated whole-glove permeation testing was conducted using ethyl alcohol and a previously designed permeation test system. With exposure to movement, a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.001) in breakthrough time was observed for the latex (-23%) and nitrile gloves (-31%). With exposure to movement, only the nitrile glove exhibited a significant increase (p ≤ 0.001) in steady-state permeation rate (+47%) and cumulative permeation at 30 min (+111%). Even though the nitrile glove provided optimum chemical resistance against ethyl alcohol, it was most affected by movement. With exposure to movement, the latex glove was an equivalent option for overall worker protection, because it was less affected by movement and the permeation rate was lower than that of the nitrile glove. In contrast, the vinyl glove was the least affected by movement, but did not provide adequate chemical resistance to ethyl alcohol in comparison with the nitrile and latex gloves. In conclusion, glove selection should take movement and polymer type into account. Some glove polymer types are less affected by movement, most notably the latex glove in this test. With nitrile gloves, at least a factor of three should be used when attempting to assign a protection factor when repetitive hand motions are anticipated. Ultimately, the latex gloves outperformed nitrile and vinyl in these tests, which evaluated the effect of movement on chemical permeation. Future research should aim to resolve some of the observed discrepancies in test results with latex and vinyl gloves. PMID:24689368

  10. Developmental changes in intralimb coordination during spontaneous movements of human infants from 2 to 3 months of age.

    PubMed

    Ohmura, Yoshiyuki; Gima, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo

    2016-08-01

    Human infants show a variety of spontaneous movements in the first few months of life. Although the pattern of spontaneous movements changes at approximately 2 months of age, the precise mechanism that governs the developmental changes in intralimb coordination remains unclear. In the present study, we focused on knee-ankle coordination during spontaneous movements of human infants from 2 to 3 months of age. Multiple attitude sensors were used to measure three-dimensional angular motion of knee and ankle joint motions. We acquired a one-dimensional time series of the knee joint angle around the putative hinge joint and a two-dimensional time series of ankle motions on the putative sagittal and frontal plane. First, we found that 3-month-old infants show a significant predominance to extend their knee joints, remarkably so on the left side. To quantify dissociated motions of the knee and ankle, we calculated the temporal correlation and the regression slope between them. We observed that 3-month-old infants moved their ankle joints more independently of knee motions than 2-month-old infants. Finally, we found that dissociated motions of the knee and ankle simultaneously develop with knee extension predominance. The developmental change from synchronization to dissociation of intralimb joint movements during spontaneous movements suggests that the development of the cortical and/or subcortical mechanism may mediate selective activation and inhibition of joint motions at approximately 2 months of age. PMID:27010721

  11. Some poleward movement of British native vascular plants is occurring, but the fingerprint of climate change is not evident

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent upperward migration of plants and animals along altitudinal gradients and poleward movement of animal range boundaries have been confirmed by many studies. This phenomenon is considered to be part of the fingerprint of recent climate change on the biosphere. Here I examine whether poleward movement is occurring in the vascular plants of Great Britain. The ranges of plants were determined from detection/non-detection data in two periods, 1978 to 1994 and 1995 to 2011. From these, the centre of mass of the population was calculated and the magnitude and direction of range shifts were determined from movements of the centre of mass. A small, but significant, northward movement could be detected in plants with expanding ranges, but not among declining species. Species from warmer ranges were not more likely to be moving northward, nor was dispersal syndrome a predictor of migration success. It is concluded that simply looking at northward movement of species is not an effective way to identify the effect of climate change on plant migration and that other anthropogenic changes obscure the effect of climate. PMID:23734340

  12. Edinger-Westphal and pharmacologically stimulated accommodative refractive changes and lens and ciliary process movements in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ostrin, Lisa A; Glasser, Adrian

    2007-02-01

    During accommodation, the refractive changes occur when the ciliary muscle contracts, releasing resting zonular tension and allowing the lens capsule to mold the lens into an accommodated form. This results in centripetal movement of the ciliary processes and lens edge. The goal of this study was to understand the relationship between accommodative refractive changes, ciliary process movements and lens edge movements during Edinger-Westphal (EW) and pharmacologically stimulated accommodation in adolescent rhesus monkeys. Experiments were performed on one eye each of three rhesus monkeys with permanent indwelling electrodes in the EW nucleus of the midbrain. EW stimulated accommodative refractive changes were measured with infrared photorefraction, and ciliary process and lens edge movements were measured with slit-lamp goniovideography on the temporal aspect of the eye. Images were recorded on the nasal aspect for one eye during EW stimulation. Image analysis was performed off-line at 30 Hz to determine refractive changes and ciliary body and lens edge movements during EW stimulated accommodation and after carbachol iontophoresis to determine drug induced accommodative movements. Maximum EW stimulated accommodation was 7.36+/-0.49 D and pharmacologically stimulated accommodation was 14.44+/-1.21 D. During EW stimulated accommodation, the ciliary processes and lens edge moved centripetally linearly by 0.030+/-0.001 mm/D and 0.027+/-0.001 mm/D, with a total movement of 0.219+/-0.034 mm and 0.189+/-0.023 mm, respectively. There was no significant nasal/temporal difference in ciliary process or lens edge movements. 30-40 min after pharmacologically stimulated accommodation, the ciliary processes moved centripetally a total of 0.411+/-0.048 mm, or 0.030+/-0.005 mm/D, and the lens edge moved centripetally 0.258+/-0.014 mm, or 0.019+/-0.003 mm/D. The peaks and valleys of the ciliary processes moved by similar amounts during both supramaximal EW and pharmacologically

  13. Serotonin and Social Norms

    PubMed Central

    Bilderbeck, Amy C.; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Read, Judi; Woolrich, Mark; Cowen, Phillip J.; Behrens, Tim E. J.

    2014-01-01

    How do people sustain resources for the benefit of individuals and communities and avoid the tragedy of the commons, in which shared resources become exhausted? In the present study, we examined the role of serotonin activity and social norms in the management of depletable resources. Healthy adults, alongside social partners, completed a multiplayer resource-dilemma game in which they repeatedly harvested from a partially replenishable monetary resource. Dietary tryptophan depletion, leading to reduced serotonin activity, was associated with aggressive harvesting strategies and disrupted use of the social norms given by distributions of other players’ harvests. Tryptophan-depleted participants more frequently exhausted the resource completely and also accumulated fewer rewards than participants who were not tryptophan depleted. Our findings show that rank-based social comparisons are crucial to the management of depletable resources, and that serotonin mediates responses to social norms. PMID:24815611

  14. One-Step "Change" and "Compare" Word Problems: Focusing on Eye-Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moutsios-Rentzos, Andreas; Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In this study, we focus on the relationship between the students' mathematical thinking and their non-mechanically identified eye-movements with the purpose to gain deeper understanding about the students' reasoning processes and to investigate the feasibility of incorporating eye-movement information in everyday pedagogy. Method.…

  15. Development, social norms, and assignment to task

    PubMed Central

    Fafchamps, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Economic development involves a structural transformation in the way people are allocated to tasks. There is a shift from self-provision to market exchange, facilitating specialization. There is also a shift from self-employment to wage employment in large firms and organizations, driven by innovation and increasing returns to scale. Changes in allocation mechanisms require changes in norms and attitudes. Because different labor assignment domains coexist, conflicts arise among norms that apply to different domains, possibly resulting in dysfunctional outcomes. I argue that religion, humanism, and schools have all played an important historical role in fostering the changes in social norms and attitudes that are needed to accompany structural changes in the way economies allocate workers to tasks. PMID:22198757

  16. Brain potential changes in voluntary and passive movements in humans: readiness potential and reafferent potentials.

    PubMed

    Kornhuber, Hans H; Deecke, Lüder

    2016-07-01

    A method of chronological data storage and reverse computation is described by which bio-electrical phenomena preceding 'spontaneous' events within the nervous system can be analysed if these events appear repeatedly and are capable of triggering a computer.Slow brain potentials accompanying voluntary and passive movements of the limbs were analysed by this method. These potentials were recorded from different points of the scalp from 12 healthy subjects in 94 experiments with more than 100 movements in each record. At times artifacts were superimposed upon cerebral potentials. The former were identified, and, as far as possible, eliminated.Voluntary hand or foot movements are preceded by a slowly increasing surface-negative cortical potential of 10-15 μV, called readiness potential. This potential is maximal over the contralateral precentral region, but shows bilateral spread and is larger over the frontal than over the occipital areas. The readiness potential increases with intentional engagement and is reduced by mental indifference of the subject.Voluntary movements are followed by a complex potential with an early positive phase that begins 30-90 msec after the onset of movement. The late potentials following voluntary movements are similar to those after passive movements. Both resemble the late bilateral components of the evoked potentials after electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves. Some variable differences between the early components of the potentials after the onset of active and passive movements require further investigation.No relation between the onset of voluntary movements and the phase of the alpha rhythm could be detected.Further applications of reverse computation are addressed. Similarities between the readiness potential and G. WALTER'S expectancy wave in conditioned reflexes, and the sources of artifacts through eye movements etc. are discussed. PMID:27392465

  17. Changes in Compensatory Eye Movements Associated with Simulated Stimulus Conditions of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Zografos, Linda M.; Skinner, Noel C.; Parker, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    Compensatory vertical eye movement gain (CVEMG) was recorded during pitch oscillation in darkness before, during and immediately after exposures to the stimulus rearrangement produced by the Preflight Adaptation Trainer (PAT) Tilt-Translation Device (TTD). The TTD is designed to elicit adaptive responses that are similar to those observed in microgravity-adapted astronauts. The data from Experiment 1 yielded a statistically significant CVEMG decrease following 15 minutes of exposure to a stimulus rearrangement condition where the phase angle between subject pitch tilt and visual scene translation was 270 degrees; statistically significant gain decreases were not observed following exposures either to a condition where the phase angle between subject pitch and scene translation was 90 degrees or to a no-stimulus-rearrangement condition. Experiment 2 replicated the 270 degree phase condition from Experiment 1 and extended the exposure duration from 30 to 45 minutes. Statistically significant additional changes in CVEMG associated with the increased exposure duration were not observed. The adaptation time constant estimated from the combined data from Experiments 1 and 2 was 29 minutes.

  18. Changes in compensatory eye movements associated with simulated stimulus conditions of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Zografos, Linda M.; Skinner, Noel C.; Parker, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    Compensatory vertical eye movement gain (CVEMG) was recorded during pitch oscillation in darkness before, during, and immediately after exposures to the stimulus rearrangement produced by the Preflight Adaptation Trainer (PAT) Tilt-Translation Device (TTD). The TTD is designed to elicit adaptive responses that are similar to those observed in microgravity-adapted astronauts. The data from Experiment 1 yielded a statistically significant CVEMG decrease following 15 min of exposure to a stimulus rearrangement condition where the phase angle between subject pitch tilt and visual scene translation was 270 deg; statistically significant gain decreases were not observed following exposures either to a condition where the phase angle between subject pitch and scene translation was 90 deg or to a no-stimulus-rearrangement condition. Experiment 2 replicated the 270-deg-phase condition from Experiment 1 and extended the exposure duration from 30 to 45 min. Statistically significant additional changes in CVEMG associated with the increased exposure duration were not observed. The adaptation time constant estimated fram the combined data from Experiments 1 and 2 was 29 min.

  19. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens’ sexual behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys’ perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls’ perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens’ likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys’ contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors. PMID:25104920

  20. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens' sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D

    2014-06-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys' perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls' perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens' likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys' contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors. PMID:25104920

  1. Global climate change policy issues related to the movement of industry from developed to rapidly industrializing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.; Waltemath, L.A.

    1990-10-01

    Global climate change policies adopted by developed countries may encourage industries to move to countries with less restrictive policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policy-driven issues that may result in such a movement. This report (1) summarizes the conclusions of previous studies that have explored the relationship between environmental regulations and industrial movement, (2) identifies and summarizes existing and proposed US global climate change policy options, and (3) discusses issues and topics relating to possible industrial relocation because of the global climate change policy options. It concludes with recommendations for further research. Although federal global climate change policy options are the primary focus of this report, some international and regional efforts addressing this issue are also included. A potential regional industrial migration issue is highlighted. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Regional Norms for English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachru, Braj B.

    The debate continues about regional norms for English usage around the world, although the discussion has become more realistic and less didactic. Educated non-native varieties are increasingly accepted, distinctions are being made between national and international language uses, and localized varieties are no longer considered as necessarily…

  3. [Cleanliness Norms 1964-1975].

    PubMed

    Noelle-Neumann, E

    1976-01-01

    In 1964 the Institut für Demoskopie Allensbach made a first survey taking stock of norms concerning cleanliness in the Federal Republic of Germany. At that time, 78% of respondents thought that the vogue among young people of cultivating an unkempt look was past or on the wane (Table 1.). Today we know that this fashion was an indicator of more serious desires for change in many different areas like politics, sexual morality, education and that its high point was still to come. In the fall of 1975 a second survey, modelled on the one of 1964, was conducted. Again, it concentrated on norms, not on behavior. As expected, norms have changed over this period but not in a one-directional or simple manner. In general, people are much more large-minded about children's looks: neat, clean school-dress, properly combed hair, clean shoes, all this and also holding their things in order has become less important in 1975 (Table 2). To carry a clean handkerchief is becoming oldfashioned (Table 3). On the other hand, principles of bringing-up children have not loosened concerning personal hygiene - brushing ones teeth, washing hands, feet, and neck, clean fingernails (Table 4). On one item related to protection of the environment, namely throwing around waste paper, standards have even become more strict (Table 5). With regard to school-leavers, norms of personal hygiene have generally become more strict (Table 6). As living standards have gone up and the number of full bathrooms has risen from 42% to 75% of households, norms of personal hygiene have also increased: one warm bath a week seemed enough to 56% of adults in 1964, but to only 32% in 1975 (Table 7). Also standards for changing underwear have changed a lot: in 1964 only 12% of respondents said "every day", in 1975 48% said so (Table 8). Even more stringent norms are applied to young women (Tables 9/10). For comparison: 1964 there were automatic washing machines in 16%, 1975 in 79% of households. Answers to questions

  4. Adaptive changes of the eye movements for otolith stimulation in goldfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takabayashi, A.; Iwata, K.; Mori, S.

    2006-01-01

    Vestibular compensation was studied in the eye movements of goldfish. Vertical eye movements evoked by linear acceleration were analyzed for one month after unilateral removal of the otolith. No spontaneous nystagmus was observed in the goldfish following recovery from hemilabyrinthectomy surgery (a period of 30 min). However, unilateral removal of the otolith resulted in a decrease in response amplitude to linear acceleration. After one week, eye movement amplitude had increased to approximately 50% of normal. After one month of compensation, the response amplitude of eye movement was nearly normal. The results suggest that the goldfish is capable of almost completely recovering amplitude of response to linear acceleration following one month of compensation for unilateral removal of the otolith.

  5. Adaptive changes of the eye movements for otolith stimulation in goldfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takabayashi, A.; Iwata, K.; Mori, S.

    Vestibular compensation was studied in the eye movements of goldfish. Torsional and vertical eye movements evoked by linear acceleration or body tilt were analyzed for ˜ 2 months after unilateral removal of the otolith. Spontaneous nystagmus was not observed in the goldfish following recovery from the surgery for hemi labyrinthectomy (a period of 30 minutes). However, unilateral removal of the otolith resulted in an acute decrease in response amplitude to linear acceleration and body tilt. After 1 week, amplitude of eye movement had increased toward normal to approximately 50% of normal. After 1 month of compensation, response amplitude of eye movement had recovered almost its normal value. The results suggest that the goldfish is capable of almost completely recovering amplitude of response to linear acceleration following 1 month of compensation for unilateral removal of otolith.

  6. Lip movement tracking based on the changes of surface area of ellipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talha, Kamil S.; Wan, Khairunizam; Chittawad, Viratt; Za'ba, S. K.; Ayob, M. Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Lip reading is a technique used by a hard hearing person to communicate in their conversation. Sometime the word they understand is not the same as what the other speaker talk. Computer-based lip reading system may help to track those words based on the movement of the lips. When speak, lip make a unique movement that may differ between several words. For the computer to recognize the spoken word, preliminary studies need to be done in order to extract features from the movements of the lip. A surface area of the lip is proposed as the feature of the lip movement. The horizontal and vertical distances of the lip are extracted to determine the surface area. In the experiments, several spoken words at the hospital have been chosen. The experimental results show that the ellipse feature could be employed to train the computer understands the spoken word from the human.

  7. Pulp-dentine complex changes and root resorption during intrusive orthodontic tooth movement in patients prescribed nabumetone.

    PubMed

    Villa, Paula A; Oberti, Giovanni; Moncada, Cesar A; Vasseur, Olga; Jaramillo, Alejandro; Tobón, Diego; Agudelo, Jaime A

    2005-01-01

    Pulpitis, external root resorption, and pain may be experienced during orthodontic movement. The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been suggested to control these changes. The purpose of this study was to observe pulp-dentinal reactions, root resorption, tooth pain, and tooth movement after the application of a 4-ounce intrusive orthodontic force to human maxillary first premolars in patients given the NSAID nabumetone. Thirty-four maxillary first premolars were evaluated. A placebo was prescribed to 17 patients after an intrusive force was activated and reactivated for an 8-week period on the right side. The same procedure was repeated on the left side after patients were given nabumetone. Pulp-dentinal reactions and external root resorption were evaluated by histology. Pain and movement were also evaluated. Nabumetone was found to be useful in reducing pulpitis, external root resorption, and pain caused by intrusive orthodontic movement, without altering tooth movement in response to the application of orthodontic force. PMID:15614010

  8. Light-dependent changes in the leaflet movement rhythm of the plant Desmodium gyrans.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Bardal, Tom Kristian; Johnsson, Anders

    2003-01-01

    The movements of the lateral leaflets of the Indian telegraph plant Desmodium gyrans (L. F.) DC, have earlier been studied in detail with regards to the effects of chemicals, DC currents, and static magnetic fields. In the present paper we have discussed the oscillation of the lateral leaflets under the influence of white light of various light levels (0-75 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)), produced by an array of LEDs (light emitting diodes). LEDs were used in contrast to fluorescense tubes as in earlier studies in order to minimize changes of wavelength when light intensity was decreased or increased. Furthermore, care was taken to ensure that the temperature in the experimental chamber was constant. When the oscillations were first monitored in bright light, the oscillations were found to be very rapid and with decreasing light intensity the oscillations slowed down. For light levels lower than about 20 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) the period of the oscillation of the lateral leaflets was almost constant (or even decreased slightly towards complete darkness). We also show that the oscillations could completely stop under prolonged darkness (for longer than about 6 h) and that such halted oscillations could be restarted in most of the leaflets when he light was turned back on. Such stopping of the oscillation of the lateral leaflets in prolonged darkness suggests that these short period oscillations of the lateral leaflets could have a daily component and in natural environment these oscillations could serve the purpose of optimising the amount of light falling on the leaflets or/and facilitating transpiration of water through stomata. Such a finding could have an implication for the answer to the long standing question of adaptive significance of short period oscillation of the Indian telegraph plant Desmodium gyrans (L. F.) DC. PMID:12622232

  9. [Biomechanical study on orthodontic tooth movement: changes in biomechanical property of the periodontal tissue in terms of tooth mobility].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Y

    1989-12-01

    The magnitude of tooth mobility has been frequently used for evaluating biomechanical response of the periodontal tissue to applied forces. However, tooth mobility during orthodontic tooth movement has not been measured. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in biomechanical property of the periodontal tissue during canine retraction, in terms of tooth mobility. The upper canines on both sides of ten orthodontic patients were moved in the distal direction for about four weeks with an initial force of 200 gf. An amount of tooth movement and a magnitude of tooth mobility were measured every 3 or 4 days during retraction. A distally directed force up to 500 gf was continuously applied to each canine and tooth mobility was measured with a noncontact type of eddy current displacement sensor. A two-dimensional finite element model was constructed and displacements of the finite element model were calculated with various Young's moduli in loading with a 100 gf force in the distal direction. In comparison with the magnitudes of the tooth mobility, Young's modulus of the periodontal membrane before retraction and the influence of the biomechanical factors on changes in tooth mobility were investigated. The tooth movement curve was divided into three phases; an initial phase, a lag phase and a post-lag phase. The magnitudes of tooth mobility at the initial phase were significantly larger than those before retraction within the range of 250 gf to 500 gf and these magnitudes decreased during the lag phase. The magnitudes of tooth mobility at the post-lag phase significantly increased, within the range of 50 gf to 500 gf, than those before retraction. As a result of curveliniar regression analysis, the tooth mobility curves approximated to delta = AFB, where delta and F denote tooth mobility and force respectively. The coefficients A and B changed according to the phases of tooth movement. An inclination of the tooth mobility curve expressed by a tangent at the

  10. Community stress and social and technological change: a framework for interpreting the behavior of social movements and community action groups

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.W.; Schuller, C.R.; Lindell, M.K.; Greene, M.R.; Walsh, J.T.; Earle, T.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive examination of existing research on community organizations and community political systems. These findings will be integrated into a framework for understanding the variety of social and political responses which may be manifest in small communities facing the prospect of hosting a major nuclear facility. The principal focus is on the formation and behavior of social groups in communities, particularly politically oriented social movements or community action groups. This analysis is set on the context of a community experiencing social stress. Most of the discussion which follows is based on an extrapolation from the large body of reseach literature on the topics in sociology, political science, and psychology. Chapter I examines the community political systems which are the arena in which local action groups will operate. Chapter II focuses on the internal conditions necessary for the formation and maintenance of community action groups. Chapter III reviews the research literature on the social environment of organizations in communities and the external conditions which are necessary to maintain organizations over time. Chapter IV develops a logic whereby the community consensus model can be adopted to particular social movement organizations and community actions groups. Chapter V examines changes in aspects of the environment which can be a function of the operation of movement organizations, and changes in the structure and tactics of movement organizations which appear to be a response to the environment.

  11. Robotic guidance induces long-lasting changes in the movement pattern of a novel sport-specific motor task.

    PubMed

    Kümmel, Jakob; Kramer, Andreas; Gruber, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Facilitating the learning or relearning of motor tasks is one of the main goals of coaches, teachers and therapists. One promising way to achieve this goal is guiding the learner through the correct movement trajectory with the help of a robotic device. The aim of this study was to investigate if haptic guidance can induce long-lasting changes in the movement pattern of a complex sport-specific motor task. For this purpose, 31 subjects were assigned to one of three groups: EA (early angle, n=10), LA (late angle, n=11) and CON (control, n=10). EA and LA successfully completed five training sessions, which consisted of 50 robot-guided golf swings and 10 free swings each, whereas CON had no training. The EA group was guided through the movement with the wrist being bent early during backswing, whereas in the LA group it was bent late. The participants of EA and LA were not told about this difference in the movement patterns. To assess if the robot-guided training was successful in shaping the movement pattern, the timing of the wrist bending during the backswing in free swings was measured before (PRE), one day after (POST), and 7 days after (FUP) the five training sessions. The ANOVA (time×group×angle) showed that during POST and FUP, the participants of the EA group bent their wrist significantly earlier during the backswing than the other groups. Post-hoc analyses revealed that this interaction effect was mainly due to the differences in the wrist angle progression during the first 5° of the backswing. The robot-guided training was successful in shaping the movement pattern, and these changes persisted even after 7 days without further practice. This might have implications for the learning of complex motor tasks in general, as haptic guidance might quickly provide the beginner with an internal model of the correct movement pattern without having to direct the learner's attention towards the key points of the correct movement pattern. PMID:25238621

  12. Role of movement in long-term basal ganglia changes: implications for abnormal motor responses

    PubMed Central

    Simola, Nicola; Morelli, Micaela; Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Frau, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) and dyskinesias elicited by drugs that stimulate dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia are a major issue in the management of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Preclinical studies in dopamine-denervated animals have contributed to the modeling of these abnormal movements, but the precise neurochemical and functional mechanisms underlying these untoward effects are still elusive. It has recently been suggested that the performance of movement may itself promote the later emergence of drug-induced motor complications, by favoring the generation of aberrant motor memories in the dopamine-denervated basal ganglia. Our recent results from hemiparkinsonian rats subjected to the priming model of dopaminergic stimulation are in agreement with this. These results demonstrate that early performance of movement is crucial for the manifestation of sensitized rotational behavior, indicative of an abnormal motor response, and neurochemical modifications in selected striatal neurons following a dopaminergic challenge. Building on this evidence, this paper discusses the possible role of movement performance in drug-induced motor complications, with a look at the implications for PD management. PMID:24167489

  13. Visuomotor impairment in early-stage Alzheimer's disease: changes in relative timing of eye and hand movements.

    PubMed

    Verheij, Simone; Muilwijk, Danya; Pel, Johan J M; van der Cammen, Tischa J M; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; van der Steen, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Although memory complaints are one of the first clinical symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), damage to the parietal lobe, a key structure in the visuomotor coordination network, was recently identified in early-stage AD. The aim of this study was to quantify visuomotor coordination in patients with probable AD and to compare their visuomotor performance with controls using five eye-hand coordination tasks of variable complexity. Eye and hand movements were measured in 16 AD patients and 18 controls. The measurement setup consisted of a touch screen, an eye-tracking device, and a motion capturing system. We investigated eye-hand coordination by quantifying absolute and relative latencies of eye and hand movements and by analyzing eye and hand kinematics. We found that AD patients need significantly more time to initiate and execute goal-directed hand movements. AD patients are also unable to suppress reflexive eye and, to a lesser extent, hand movements. Furthermore, AD patients use a stepwise approach of eye and hand movements to touch a sequence of stimuli, whereas controls more often show an anticipatory approach. The impairments in reflex suppression of eye and hand movements, and changes in relative timing of eye-hand coordination, in AD patients support the notion that cortical networks involving the posterior parietal cortex are affected at an early disease-stage. It also suggests that the problems of AD patients to perform daily activities that require eye-hand coordination are not only caused by cognitive decline, but also by degeneration of neural networks involved in visuomotor coordination. PMID:22377783

  14. Does Domestication Cause Changes in Growth Reaction Norms? A Study of Farmed, Wild and Hybrid Atlantic Salmon Families Exposed to Environmental Stress

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, Monica Favnebøe; Skaala, Øystein; Nilsen, Frank; Glover, Kevin Alan

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important traits linked with the successful domestication of animals is reducing their sensitivity to environmental stressors in the human controlled environment. In order to examine whether domestication selection in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., over approximately ten generations, has inadvertently selected for reduced responsiveness to stress, we compared the growth reaction norms of 29 wild, hybrid and domesticated families reared together under standard hatchery conditions (control) and in the presence of a stressor (reduced water level twice daily). The experiment was conducted for a 14 week period. Farmed salmon outgrew wild salmon 1∶2.93 in the control tanks, and no overlap in mean weight was displayed between families representing the three groups. Thus, the elevation of the reaction norms differed among the groups. Overall, growth was approximately 25% lower in the stressed tanksl; however, farmed salmon outgrew wild salmon 1∶3.42 under these conditions. That farmed salmon maintained a relatively higher growth rate than the wild salmon in the stressed tanks demonstrates a lower responsiveness to stress in the farmed salmon. Thus, flatter reaction norm slopes were displayed in the farmed salmon, demonstrating reduced plasticity for this trait under these specific experimental conditions. For all growth measurements, hybrid salmon displayed intermediate values. Wild salmon displayed higher heritability estimates for body weight than the hybrid and farmed salmon in both environments. This suggests reduced genetic variation for body weight in the farmed contra wild salmon studied here. While these results may be linked to the specific families and stocks investigated, and verification in other stocks and traits is needed, these data are consistent with the theoretical predictions of domestication. PMID:23382901

  15. Examining Value Change in MOOCs in the Scope of Connectivism and Open Educational Resources Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Hayriye Tugba

    2015-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) came to prominence with Open Educational Resources Movement (OERM). It was based upon the idea of libre in removal of some permission barriers and gratis in removing the price barrier (Suber, 2008) in learning resources. In line with the theoretical underpinnings of OERM, MOOCs embody primary characteristics of…

  16. Developmental Changes in the Movement Characteristics of the Punt--A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Alison

    Punting characteristics of a subject were studied over an 8-year period. Performances were recorded from the age of 2 years 9 months through 11 years 4 months. Fifteen film records were made at 3-month intervals through ages 3 and 4, at 6-month intervals through ages 6 and 7, and at 1-year intervals through ages 8 to 11. Movement characteristics…

  17. The effect of changes in habitat conditions on the movement of juvenile Snail Kites Rostrhamus sociabilis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowling, Andrea C.; Martin, Julien; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of habitats due to human activities is a major topic of interest for the conservation and management of wild populations. There is growing evidence that the Florida Everglades ecosystem continues to suffer from habitat degradation. After a period of recovery in the 1990s, the Snail Kite Rostrhamus sociabilis population suffered a substantial decline in 2001 and has not recovered since. Habitat degradation has been suggested as one of the primary reasons for this lack of recovery. As a consequence of the continued degradation of the Everglades, we hypothesized that this would have led to increased movement of juvenile Kites over time, as a consequence of the need to find more favourable habitat. We used multistate mark-recapture models to compare between-site movement probabilities of juvenile Snail Kites in the 1990s (1992–95; which corresponds to the period before the decline) and 2000s (2003–06; after the decline). Our analyses were based on an extensive radiotelemetry study (266 birds tracked monthly over the entire state of Florida for a total period of 6 years) and considered factors such as sex and age of marked individuals. There was evidence of increased movement of juvenile Snail Kites during the post-decline period from most of the wetland regions used historically by Kites. Higher movement rates may contribute to an increase in the probability of mortality of young individuals and could contribute to the observed declines.

  18. Social Movement Tactics, Organizational Change and the Spread of African-American Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    Social movement research suggests that protest is effective because it de-legitimizes existing policies and imposes costs on power holders. The author tests this hypothesis with data on African-American student protest and the creation of departments of African-American Studies. The author finds that nondisruptive protest, such as rallies and…

  19. Qualitative changes of general movements in preterm infants with brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, F; Cioni, G; Prechtl, H F

    1990-09-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to replicate previous quantitative studies of motor activity in low-risk and high-risk preterm infants and (2) to apply a new method of systematic analysis of the qualitative characteristics of general movements in these two groups of infants. Sequential one-hour videorecordings of the unstimulated infants in the incubator were made during the preterm period and then continued during the postterm period until about 20 weeks. The high-risk group consisted only of infants with signs of haemorrhage and/or leucomalacia in the repeated ultrasonograms of the brain. The neurological follow-up continued up to a minimum of one and a maximum of three years of corrected age. The quantification of the various motor patterns in 12 matched pairs of low-risk and high-risk preterm infants revealed a slight but significant (P = 0.05) excess of isolated arm movements in the low-risk cases during the activity phase. No other movement pattern differed significantly. The qualitative assessment of general movements during the preterm period resulted in all but one of the 14 low-risk cases having a normal quality of general movements. In the lesion-group (N = 29) all the infants had an abnormal quality during the preterm period. Eight cases later became neurologically normal although 1 of them had strabism. In addition, one infant was blind (ROP) and retarded and one other had mental retardation. Nineteen infants later developed cerebral palsy (two monoplegia of a leg, three hemiplegia, 5 diplegia and 9 quadriplegia). Strabism was present in 48.3% of the whole group of 29 cases. A semi-quantitative estimation of various aspects of the abnormal general movements made a typology of abnormal patterns possible. A graphic display of developmental trajectories of individual cases, depicting the course of abnormal aspects along the time axis, helps document the evolution of abnormal signs. Their course is a better predictor of the neurological outcome than the

  20. Changing beliefs for changing movement and pain: Classification-based cognitive functional therapy (CB-CFT) for chronic non-specific low back pain.

    PubMed

    Meziat Filho, N

    2016-02-01

    This case report presents the effect of classification-based cognitive functional therapy in a patient with chronic disabling low back pain. The patient was assessed using a multidimensional biopsychosocial classification system and was classified as having flexion pattern of movement impairment disorder. Management of this patient was to change her belief that bending over and sitting would cause damage to her disc, combined with active exercises for graded exposure to lumbar flexion to restore normal movement. Three months after the first appointment, the treatment resulted in reduced pain, the mitigation of fear avoidance beliefs and the remediation of functional disability. The patient returned to work and was walking for one hour a day on a treadmill. The cognitive intervention to change the patient's negative beliefs related to the biomedical model was important to make the graded exercises and the lifestyle changes possible. PMID:25920336

  1. The Quest for Quality--Towards Joint European Quality Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomeus, Yvonne, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains the following papers about considerations in developing joint European quality norms for vocational guidance: "Joint Quality Norms in Guidance"; "Careers Guidance in the Information Society" (Frans Meijers); "The Changing Nature of Guidance" (J. Chamberlain); "Quality with Policy: Beyond Calimero?" (Saskia den Broeder); "Ethical…

  2. A gait index may underestimate changes of gait: a comparison of the Movement Deviation Profile and the Gait Deviation Index.

    PubMed

    Barton, Gabor J; Hawken, Malcolm B; Holmes, Gill; Schwartz, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the Movement Deviation Profile (MDP) and Gait Deviation Index (GDI) to detect gait changes was compared in a child with cerebral palsy who underwent game training. Conventional gait analysis showed that sagittal plane angles became mirrored about normality after training. Despite considerable gait changes, the GDI showed minimal change, while the MDP detected a difference equal to a shift between 10-9 on the Functional Assessment Questionnaire scale. Responses of the GDI and MDP were examined during a synthetic transition of the patient's curves from before intervention to a state mirrored about normality. The GDI showed a symmetric response on the two opposite sides of normality but the neural network based MDP gave an asymmetric response reflecting faithfully the unequal biomechanical consequences of joint angle changes. In conclusion, the MDP can detect altered gait even if the changes are missed by the GDI. PMID:23521124

  3. Predation may counteract climatic change as a driving force for movements of mountain ungulates.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Francesco; Lovari, Sandro

    2016-08-01

    Temperature variations are expected to influence altitudinal movements of mountain herbivores and, in turn, those of their predators, but relevant information is scarce. We evaluated monthly relationships between temperature and altitude used by a large mountain-dwelling herbivore, the Himalayan tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus, and its main predator, the snow leopard Panthera uncia, in an area of central Himalaya for five consecutive years (2006-2010). In contrast to expectations, there was no significant direct relationship between altitude of tahr sightings and temperature. The mean altitude of tahr sightings decreased by c. 200m throughout our study. As expected, snow leopard movements tracked those of tahr, although the core area of the snow leopard did not move downwards. Tahr remained the staple of the snow leopard diet: we suggest that the former did not move upwards in reaction to higher temperature to avoid encounters with the latter. Avoidance of competition with the larger common leopard Panthera pardus at lower altitudes could explain why snow leopards did not shift their core area downwards. Apparently, interspecific interactions (predation; competition) influenced movements of Himalayan tahr and snow leopards more than climatic variations. PMID:27312822

  4. Social Norms: Do We Love Norms Too Much?

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David C.; Cox, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Social norms are often cited as the cause of many social phenomena, especially as an explanation for prosocial family and relationship behaviors. And yet maybe we love the idea of social norms too much, as suggested by our failure to subject them to rigorous test. Compared to the detail in social norms theoretical orientations, there is very little detail in tests of normative theories. To provide guidance to researchers who invoke social norms as explanations, we catalog normative orientations that have been proposed to account for consistent patterns of action. We call on researchers to conduct tests of normative theories and the processes such theories assert. PMID:25937833

  5. Localizing Movement-Related Primary Sensorimotor Cortices with Multi-Band EEG Frequency Changes and Functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ching-Chang; Luu, Phan; Morgan, Kyle K.; Dow, Mark; Davey, Colin; Song, Jasmine; Malony, Allen D.; Tucker, Don M.

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations in multiple frequency bands can be observed during functional activity of the cerebral cortex. An important question is whether activity of focal areas of cortex, such as during finger movements, is tracked by focal oscillatory EEG changes. Although a number of studies have compared EEG changes to functional MRI hemodynamic responses, we can find no previous research that relates the fMRI hemodynamic activity to localization of the multiple EEG frequency changes observed in motor tasks. In the present study, five participants performed similar thumb and finger movement tasks in parallel EEG and functional MRI studies. We examined changes in five frequency bands (from 5–120 Hz) and localized them using 256 dense-array EEG (dEEG) recordings and high-resolution individual head models. These localizations were compared with fMRI localizations in the same participants. Results showed that beta-band (14–30 Hz) desynchronizations (power decreases) were the most robust effects, appearing in all individuals, consistently localized to the hand region of the primary motor cortex, and consistently aligned with fMRI localizations. PMID:25375957

  6. Event-Related Beta EEG Changes During Active, Passive Movement and Functional Electrical Stimulation of the Lower Limb.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shuang; Yi, Weibo; Xu, Jiapeng; Qi, Hongzhi; Du, Jingang; Wang, Chunfang; He, Feng; Ming, Dong

    2016-02-01

    A number of electroencephalographic (EEG) studies have reported on event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) during active movements, passive movements, and the movements induced by functional electrical stimulation (FES). However, the quantitative differences in ERD values and affected frequency bands associated with the lower limb have not been discussed. The goal of this paper was to quantitatively compare the ERD patterns during active movement, passive movement and FES-induced movement of the lower limb. 64-channel EEG signals were recorded to investigate the brain oscillatory patterns during active movement, passive movement and FES-induced movement of the lower limb in twelve healthy subjects. And passive movement and FES-induced movement were also performed in a hemiplegic stroke patient. For healthy subjects, FES-induced movement presented significantly higher characteristic frequency of central beta ERD while there was no significant difference in ERD values compared with active or passive movement. Meanwhile, beta ERD values of FES-induced movement were significantly correlated with those of active movement, and spatial distribution of beta ERD pattern for FES-induced movement was more correlated with that for active movement. In addition, the stroke patient presented central ERD patterns during FES-induced movement, while no ERD with similar frequencies could be found during passive movement. This work implies that the EEG oscillatory pattern under FES-induced movement tends more towards active movement instead of passive movement. The quantification of ERD patterns could be expected as a potential technique to evaluate the brain response during FES-induced movement. PMID:26441422

  7. Models for fine-scale movements along growth faults associated with climate/sea level changes

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrie, A.

    1986-09-01

    Along the northern Gulf of Mexico, the deglaciation phase of a Pliocene-Pleistocene glacial cycle produced up to a tenfold increase in waters available for sediment transportation to continental margins. With lowered sea levels during glacial maxima, sedimentary pulses are deposited along the shelf break and on the slope. High-energy deposition promotes foundation instability. Growth faults then originate along the shelf break. Increased lithostatic pressure due to rapid deposition on underlying unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sediments, semiplastic salt, and marine clays promote flow that accelerates compaction, fluid migration, growth fault movements, and salt tectonics. Sedimentary depositional cycles of deca- and centenary-millennia are recorded throughout the Phanerozoic. Planetary orbital motions, controlling the amount of incoming solar radiation and lasting 20,000, 40,00, and 100,000 years, apparently cause these depositional cycles via climate/sea level fluctuations. When sea level is low, sediments are deposited about or beyond the shelf break. Increased lithostatic pressure promotes movement on the fault, deposition on the downthrown block, accelerated compaction of sediments, and fluid expulsion and migration. When sea level is high, sediment deposition is along the upper and middle shelf. Fault activity should be minimal or nil. Thus, the geologic episodes that record the greatest amount of downthrown block growth may also be punctuated by bursts of large drops in sea level. Onshore Louisiana production is usually greatest from maximum growth downthrown blocks.

  8. Changes of Substance P in the Crevicular Fluid in relation to Orthodontic Movement Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Levrini, Luca; Sacerdote, Paola; Moretti, Sarah; Panzi, Silvia; Caprioglio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a tachykinin released from both the central and the peripheral endings of primary afferent neurons and functions as a neurotransmitter. As a transmitter signaling pain, substance P is involved in nociception and is an extremely potent vasodilator. We found several studies about this neuropeptide especially in relation to parodontology and a few orthodontic reviews. This is because in the past the importance of this neuropeptide in dental element undergoing periodontal inflammation was observed. The aims of the present pilot study was to investigate whether the substance P was present in gingival crevicular fluid in dental elements undergoing orthodontic treatment with Invisalign technique compared to teeth belonging to the same series but not undergoing orthodontic movement. We analysed gengival crevicular fluid (GCF) collected from four young subjects, using a paper cone for a time of 60 seconds. The results showed that SP is present in the gengival sulcus in elements undergoing orthodontic forces during treatment with Invisalign technique and not in the control teeth. During the literature analysis, we have found a lot of papers describing involvement of SP in periodontitis and inflammatory diseases, but further studies are needed in order to demonstrate the role of this neuropeptide during teeth movement. PMID:23737731

  9. Relationship between coronary hemodynamic changes and the phasic events of rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, L W; Huang, A H; Thurnher, M M; Nearing, B D; Verrier, R L

    1993-09-01

    Previous studies in dogs showed dramatic increases in coronary blood flow associated with episodes of sinus tachycardia during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The present study demonstrates that 90% of these surges in heart rate and coronary flow are concentrated during periods of phasic REM sleep and only 10% in tonic REM sleep. Intensely phasic REM was distinguished from moderately phasic REM sleep by the degree of phasic eye movement. The surges were three times more frequent during intensely phasic REM than in moderately phasic REM sleep. However, the magnitudes of heart rate (37% +/- 3%) and coronary flow (25% +/- 3%) surges were unaffected by the specific substage of REM sleep. The incidence of surge events was almost eleven times greater in epochs of phasic REM that also contained a muscle twitch than in those that did not. During REM sleep, muscle twitches accompanying surges were not associated with any additional elevations in coronary flow or myocardial demand. Our data indicate that the sinus tachycardia-associated surges in coronary flow represent integrated autonomic responses intrinsic to phasic periods of REM sleep in dogs. PMID:8235240

  10. Task-dependent changes in cutaneous reflexes recorded from various muscles controlling finger movement in man.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, A L; Harrison, L M; Stephens, J A

    1989-01-01

    1. Cutaneous reflex responses have been recorded from muscles involved in the control of finger movement following electrical stimulation of the digital nerves of the fingers in man. 2. Recordings have been made while subjects performed various manual tasks. 3. Reflexes recorded while subjects performed a relatively isolated finger movement consisted of an initial short-latency increase in muscle electrical activity, followed by a decrease, followed by a prominent longer-latency increase. The long-latency excitatory component was smaller or absent during those grips used in the present study. 4. The short-latency excitatory (E1) and inhibitory (I1) components of the cutaneomuscular reflex response are mediated via spinal pathways. The second longer-latency excitatory component (E2) is of supraspinal origin, requiring the integrity of the dorsal columns, sensorimotor cortex and corticospinal tract (Jenner & Stephens, 1982). The results of the present study suggest that one or more of these supraspinal pathways is more active when a finger is used in a relatively isolated manner than when the same finger participates in any of the gripping manoeuvres used in the present experiments. PMID:2621613

  11. Changes in functional independence measure ratings associated with a safe patient handling and movement program.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Margaret; Radawiec, Stephanie; Campo, Marc; Wright, Laurette R

    2011-01-01

    Safe patient handling and movement (SPHM) programs are effective in reducing healthcare worker injuries. However, the perception among rehabilitation personnel that SPHM equipment promotes patient dependence and adversely affects functional outcomes is one barrier to implementing successful programs. This barrier is particularly evident in acute inpatient rehabilitation facilities, where functional independence is the primary goal. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate this perception. Functional Independence Measure (FIM) ratings were collected from 94 patients with a diagnosis of stroke. Forty-seven patients were admitted 1 year prior to implementation of the SPHM program (Group 1), and 47 were admitted to the facility over a period of 1 year (Group 2) 18 months after program implementation. Group 2 obtained equal or better discharge mobility FIM ratings than Group 1, who received care without the SPHM equipment. This study suggests that SPHM programs do not impede functional outcomes in stroke patients. PMID:21721394

  12. Diurnal movements of cotton leaves expressed as thermodynamic work and entropy changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, J. B.; Kimes, D. S.; Newcomb, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that some important agricultural crops show heliotropic leaf movements. In these species, the proclivity of leaves to orient either perpendicularly or parallel or in some combination of these positions with respect to the sun is controlled by the leaf turgor and the availability of water. Such an orientational response is particularly noticeable for cotton. Schutt et al. (1985) have detailed leaf trajectories using three angles. The present investigation applies the three-angle representation to leaf trajectory mapping and to the calculation of the phase angle 'gamma' between the individual leaf normals and the solar direction. Using gamma, the thermodynamic work and entropy functions are evaluated and used to distinguish between the behavior of water-stressed and well watered cotton canopies.

  13. Changes in Cortical Activity During Real and Imagined Movements: an ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flávia; Ribeiro, Pedro; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Almada, Leonardo Ferreira; Anghinah, Renato; Basile, Luis; Moro, Maria Francesca; Orsini, Marco; Silva, Julio Guilherme; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to compare the topographic distribution of cortical activation between real and imagined movement through event-related potential (ERP). We are specifically interested in identifying, the topographic distribution of activated areas, the intensity of activated areas, and the temporal occurrence of these activations on preparation and motor response phases. Twelve healthy and right handed subjects were instructed to perform a task under real and imagery conditions. The task was performed simultaneously to electroencephalographic (EEG) recording. When compared the conditions, we found a statistically significant difference in favor of real condition revealed by performing an unpaired t-test with multiple corrections of Bonferroni, demonstrating negative activity on electrode C3 and positive activity on the electrode C4 only in motor response phase. These findings revealed similar functional connections established during real and imagery conditions, suggesting that there are common neural substrate and similar properties of functional integration shared by conditions. PMID:24358049

  14. Ethnic diversity, traditional norms, and marriage behaviour in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Nobles, Jenna

    2009-11-01

    What role do cultural norms play in shaping individual behaviour and how does this relationship change with rapid socio-economic development? While modernization and convergence theories predict a weakened relationship between culture and behaviour as individuals rely less on family and community members for economic opportunities, recent research suggests that such norms can persist and continue to influence behaviour. We explored this question for Indonesia, asking whether cultural norms for age at marriage and post-marriage residence-as embodied in local ethnicity-based laws and customs known as 'adat'-relate to actual marriage behaviour. We demonstrate that adat norms are strong predictors of marriage behaviour, both over time and net of large increases in educational attainment. Our results suggest more generally that traditional marriage norms can persist even when a society is in the process of rapid socio-economic development. PMID:19851937

  15. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... movement and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  16. Changes in Effective Connectivity of the Superior Parietal Lobe during Inhibition and Redirection of Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Asscheman, Susanne J.; Thakkar, Katharine N.; Neggers, Sebastiaan F.W.

    2015-01-01

    Executive control is the ability to flexibly control behavior and is frequently studied with saccadic eye movements. Contrary to frontal oculomotor areas, the role of the superior parietal lobe (SPL) in the executive control of saccades remains unknown. To explore the role of SPL networks in saccade control, we performed a saccadic search-step task while acquiring functional magnetic resonance imaging data for 41 participants. Psychophysiological interaction analyses assessed task-related differences in the effective connectivity of SPL with other brain regions during the inhibition and redirection of saccades. Results indicate an increased coupling of SPL with frontal, posterior, and striatal oculomotor areas for redirected saccades versus visually guided saccades. Saccade inhibition versus unsuccessful inhibition revealed an increased coupling of SPL with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. We discuss how these findings relate to ongoing debates about the implementation of executive control and conclude that early attentional control and rapid updating of saccade goals are important signals for executive control. PMID:27147827

  17. Neuronal variability of MSTd neurons changes differentially with eye movement and visually related variables.

    PubMed

    Brostek, Lukas; Büttner, Ulrich; Mustari, Michael J; Glasauer, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Neurons in macaque cortical area MSTd are driven by visual motion and eye movement related signals. This multimodal characteristic makes MSTd an ideal system for studying the dependence of neuronal activity on different variables. Here, we analyzed the temporal structure of spiking patterns during visual motion stimulation using 2 distinct behavioral paradigms: fixation (FIX) and optokinetic response. For the FIX condition, inter- and intra-trial variability of spiking activity decreased with increasing stimulus strength, complying with a recent neurophysiological study reporting stimulus-related decline of neuronal variability. In contrast, for the optokinetic condition variability increased together with increasing eye velocity while retinal image velocity remained low. Analysis of stimulus signal variability revealed a correlation between the normalized variance of image velocity and neuronal variability, but no correlation with normalized eye velocity variance. We further show that the observed difference in neuronal variability allows classifying spike trains according to the paradigm used, even when mean firing rates (FRs) were similar. The stimulus-dependence of neuronal variability may result from the local network structure and/or the variability characteristics of the input signals, but may also reflect additional timing-based mechanisms independent of the neuron's mean FR and related to the modality driving the neuron. PMID:22772648

  18. Does perceptual or motor experience influence the perception of global and joint-specific kinematic changes in complex movement patterns?

    PubMed

    Giblin, Georgia; Farrow, Damian; Reid, Machar; Ball, Kevin; Abernethy, Bruce

    2016-08-01

    The perception and identification of technical errors during skill execution is a critical component in coaching, because it provides the foundation for skill analysis, instruction, and feedback provision. In this study, we examined the influences of perceptual and motor experience on the perception of kinematic change in a technical evaluation task that is common in coaching. A total of 21 expert coaches, stratified by playing ("motor") expertise, as well as ten novice coaches and ten current players, observed video and point-light displays of a service action and recorded written judgments on whether the serve had changed from one video clip to the next. Three kinematic variables were manipulated: maximum knee flexion, maximum trunk rotation, and ball toss position at zenith. Coaching experience provided no additional benefit when perceiving global (holistic) changes in the service action, and limited if any benefit when perceiving specific changes in the observed kinematics. A significant expertise effect showed that expert coaches have increased sensitivity when detecting smaller changes in knee flexion. Changes in trunk rotation appeared difficult to perceive for all groups, whereas changes in lateral ball toss position were easily perceived. Motor experience did not influence the perception of global kinematics and provided no benefit above perceptual experience alone when perceiving specific kinematic changes. Collectively, the findings demonstrate that experienced coaches have the capacity to detect relatively small changes in kinematics; however, the ability to detect changes does not appear to be influenced by the extent of their own expertise in producing the movement pattern being evaluated. PMID:27338718

  19. Late Holocene sea level changes and tectonic movements inferred from fossil diatom assemblages in Tainohama, Tokushima prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, T.; Fujino, S.; Kobori, E.

    2014-12-01

    The average recurrence interval of the interplate earthquakes along the Nankai Trough is estimated from historical literature and archaeological data. However, the details of tectonic movements by past Nankai earthquakes are mostly left unclear from historical literature, therefore, we need to obtain the geological evidence of the tectonic movements. Yuki city, Tokushima prefecture, located in north part of the Nankai Trough, has been subsided and many tsunamis attacked along the coast of the Shikoku islands accompanied by the previous Nankai earthquakes. Therefore, some historical documents and memorial monuments written about the past Nankai earthquakes and tsunamis remain in the city. The study purposed to reveal tectonic movements of the earthquakes from Nankai Trough during the late Holocene at Tainohama in Minami city which is adjacent to the southwest of Yuki city by fossil diatom analysis. We obtained a 700cm long core at a marsh behind a barrier spit probably be not affected directly from sea waves in Tainohama. The core includes more than 13 sand layers in organic-rich muddy or peaty sedimentary succession up to 500cm depth in the core. And the diatom assemblages included in the peat and peaty mud deposits were dominated by fresh and brackish water species, especially Pseudostaurosira brevistriata, P. subsalina and Tabellaria fenestrate. In contrast to the above mentioned sand layers, brackish and marine species, such as Diploneis smithii increased. The diatom assemblages from the organic rich muddy sediments and radiocarbon ages indicate that freshwater marsh or saltmarsh formed in this region during the late Holocene. On the other hand, the sandy layers include the diatoms living in environments where salinities are higher than freshwater or salt marsh, so the assemblages suggest that the sand layers were transported from seaside by past tsunamis. In addition, changes of diatom assemblages in the peaty or peaty mud sediments show increase or decrease of

  20. [Trapped in the body - lived experience and coping of individuals having Parkinson and their relatives with changed movement pattern caused by the disease].

    PubMed

    Kohler, Myrta; Saxer, Susi; Fringer, André; Hantikainen, Virpi

    2014-06-01

    People with Parkinson's disease suffer from various symptoms. Changed movement patterns frequently represent the prevailing symptom experience and influence the everyday life of the affected persons and their relatives. This qualitative study explores how persons with Parkinson's disease and their relatives experience the changed movement patterns and how they manage the consequential problems in their daily life. Eight persons with Parkinson's disease and six partners were interviewed. The interviews were analysed by means of content analysis according to Mayring. The qualitative analysis resulted in two main categories: "effects on the changed movement patterns on everyday life" and "coping skills for dealing with changed movement patterns". The experience of the affected person can be characterised by "being trapped in the body" as well as by a constantly slowing down daily life. The coping strategies are diverse, but all respondents seek to maintain mobility. Partners naturally support the affected persons and take over many tasks. This is associated with elevated distress and the feeling of having to be permanently present. Various coping strategies have to be promoted and included in daily care for people with Parkinson's disease. Consideration of the individual experience of the changed movement patterns is very important in the development of strategies and also the support of the affected persons and relatives that they can keep up with their movements. PMID:24860057

  1. Category Norms: An Updated and Expanded Version of the Battig and Montague (1969) Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Overschelde, James P.; Rawson, Katherine A.; Dunlosky, John

    2004-01-01

    The Battig and Montague (1969) category norms have been an invaluable tool for researchers in many fields, with a recent literature search revealing their use in over 1600 projects published in more than 200 different journals. Since 1969, numerous changes have occurred culturally that warrant the collection of new normative data. For instance, in…

  2. The Haskell norm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Advocate, Dev L.

    The matter of the viscosity of the mantle has started to become serious. In 1935, Norm Haskell estimated the viscosity to be about 1020 poise and there the matter stood for about half a century. For a little while, people worried about excess ellipticity of the Earth and attributed this to a “fossil bulge” that lagged the rotation rate. For this same little while, 1025 poise was thought to be the viscosity of the lower mantle, but then it was discovered that the equator was also out of shape by about the same amount, ruling out the “fossil bulge” idea. To cover their embarrassment, geodynamicists upped the viscosity of the mantle to 1021 by adopting S.I. (Satan's Invention) units. No one noticed for some time since it didn't really matter whether viscosity was given in stokes, poise, or pascal seconds. It was just a large number with a large uncertainty and no one had a feel for it anyway.

  3. Morphological changes in the rat periodontal ligament and its vascularity after experimental tooth movement using superelastic forces.

    PubMed

    Noda, Koji; Nakamura, Yoshiki; Kogure, Kyotaro; Nomura, Yoshiaki

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to statistically assess the morphological changes of the rat periodontal ligament (PDL) and its vascularity in relation to varied magnitudes of superelastic force in experimental tooth movement using nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy wire. Forces of 0.8, 1.6, 4, 8, and 18 g were applied to the upper first molars of five groups of 10-week-old male Wistar rats (300-320 g) for 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. A control group with no orthodontic appliance application was assessed in accordance with the five experimental periods. The specimens were observed under light microscopy, processed by computer imaging, and analysed statistically with Tukey's HSD non-parametric test. One day after the start of the experiment, a few blood vessels could be seen in the compressed PDL with forces of 0.8 and 1.6 g. The cross-sectional areas of blood vessels (CAV) and periodontal ligament (CAPL) in the experimental groups where a force of over 4 g was applied were significantly smaller than those where 0.8 and 1.6 g forces were used, and in the control group. On day 7, large CAV were seen in the 1.6, 4, and 8 g groups. On day 28, the 8 and 18 g groups showed significantly larger CAPL than the 0.8, 4 g, or control groups. The findings suggest that a light continuous force, under 1.6 g, maintains the vascular structure during experimental tooth movement. In contrast, a heavy continuous force over 4 g causes the vascular structure to be absent in the early stages of tooth movement, but a dynamic regeneration of the PDL with vascularity and expansion follows. PMID:19073960

  4. Assessment of Corticotomy Facilitated Tooth Movement and Changes in Alveolar Bone Thickness - A CT Scan Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Preeti; Bhattacharya, Hirak; Bhandari, Ravi; Agarwal, D.K.; Gupta, Ankur; Ansar, Juhi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Corticotomy is an effective method of accelerating the orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the treatment time for the extraction space closure, between corticotomy assisted and conventional orthodontic tooth movement and to check the alveolar bone thickness before and after corticotomy procedure in the corticotomy group. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional clinical study. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients (age>15 y) requiring orthodontic treatment with upper anterior retraction in the extraction space of 1st premolar were selected and were randomised into control and corticotomy group each group consisted of 10 subjects. Pre retraction, corticotomy was performed in the maxillary anterior segment. The pre and post retraction CT scans were recorded and the thickness of the alveolar plates were measured at crestal level (S1), mid root level (S2) and apical level (S3) PreTreatment (T1). The same measurements were repeated after incisor retraction was completed PostTreatment (T2). Statistical Analysis: Student’s t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: There was a significant difference in retraction time (days) between control and corticotomy groups (p<0.001). Also, there were significant difference in total alveolar bone thickness at the crest region for all the four incisor teeth (p<0.05). A significant difference was observed in total alveolar bone thickness at the S2 and S3 level for 11, 21 and 11, 12 and 22 (p<0.05) respectively. Conclusion: Alveolar corticotomies not only accelerates the orthodontic treatment but, also provides the advantage of increased alveolar width to support the teeth and overlying structures. PMID:25478442

  5. Using Webcams to Show Change and Movement in the Physical Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Carol F.; Butler, David R.; Curtis, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Environmental change is ideally taught through field observations; however, leaving the classroom is often unrealistic due to financial and logistical constraints. The Internet offers several feasible alternatives using webcams that instructors can use to illustrate a variety of geographic examples and exercises for students. This article explores…

  6. Exploring Teachers' Experiences with Change Related to the Whole Language Movement: A Narrative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Stacey A.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study contributes to understanding about teachers' experiences with change. As teachers attempt to navigate the curricular initiatives that continually come and go, their work is affected and their attitudes are shaped. Employing the methodology of narrative inquiry, teachers' personal stories about their experiences…

  7. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  8. Changing fuel use behavior: the Pittsburgh smoke control movement, 1940-1950

    SciTech Connect

    Tarr, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    Local policy development in Pittsburgh brought about cleaner air by influencing change in the household use of fuel and combustion equipment. By a combination of media campaigns, voluntary organizations, technical advisers, and business and labor leaders, the public was convinced of the necessity to reduce air pollution. The unique aspect is that the public accepted the costs of a long-range policy decision through education and persuasion. 20 refs.

  9. Advanced Behavioral Analyses Show that the Presence of Food Causes Subtle Changes in C. elegans Movement

    PubMed Central

    Angstman, Nicholas B.; Frank, Hans-Georg; Schmitz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    As a widely used and studied model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans worms offer the ability to investigate implications of behavioral change. Although, investigation of C. elegans behavioral traits has been shown, analysis is often narrowed down to measurements based off a single point, and thus cannot pick up on subtle behavioral and morphological changes. In the present study videos were captured of four different C. elegans strains grown in liquid cultures and transferred to NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn or with no lawn. Using an advanced software, WormLab, the full skeleton and outline of worms were tracked to determine whether the presence of food affects behavioral traits. In all seven investigated parameters, statistically significant differences were found in worm behavior between those moving on NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn and NGM-agar plates with no lawn. Furthermore, multiple test groups showed differences in interaction between variables as the parameters that significantly correlated statistically with speed of locomotion varied. In the present study, we demonstrate the validity of a model to analyze C. elegans behavior beyond simple speed of locomotion. The need to account for a nested design while performing statistical analyses in similar studies is also demonstrated. With extended analyses, C. elegans behavioral change can be investigated with greater sensitivity, which could have wide utility in fields such as, but not limited to, toxicology, drug discovery, and RNAi screening. PMID:27065825

  10. High Resolution Topography of Age-Related Changes in Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Electroencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Sprecher, Kate E.; Riedner, Brady A.; Smith, Richard F.; Tononi, Giulio; Davidson, Richard J.; Benca, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping brain activity reflects brain anatomy and physiology. The aim of this study was to use high density (256 channel) electroencephalography (EEG) during sleep to characterize topographic changes in sleep EEG power across normal aging, with high spatial resolution. Sleep was evaluated in 92 healthy adults aged 18–65 years old using full polysomnography and high density EEG. After artifact removal, spectral power density was calculated for standard frequency bands for all channels, averaged across the NREM periods of the first 3 sleep cycles. To quantify topographic changes with age, maps were generated of the Pearson’s coefficient of the correlation between power and age at each electrode. Significant correlations were determined by statistical non-parametric mapping. Absolute slow wave power declined significantly with increasing age across the entire scalp, whereas declines in theta and sigma power were significant only in frontal regions. Power in fast spindle frequencies declined significantly with increasing age frontally, whereas absolute power of slow spindle frequencies showed no significant change with age. When EEG power was normalized across the scalp, a left centro-parietal region showed significantly less age-related decline in power than the rest of the scalp. This partial preservation was particularly significant in the slow wave and sigma bands. The effect of age on sleep EEG varies substantially by region and frequency band. This non-uniformity should inform the design of future investigations of aging and sleep. This study provides normative data on the effect of age on sleep EEG topography, and provides a basis from which to explore the mechanisms of normal aging as well as neurodegenerative disorders for which age is a risk factor. PMID:26901503

  11. Glacio-isostatic crustal movements caused by historical volume change of the Vatnajokull ice cap, Iceland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Einarsson, Pall

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of the lake level of Lake Langisjor at the SW edge of the Vatnajokull ice cap indicate a tilt of 0.26 +/- 0.06 microrad/yr away from the ice cap in the years of 1959-1991. The tilt is too large to be explained as an elastic Earth response to ice retreat this century, or to be caused by change in the gravitational pull of the ice cap, but it can be explained by sub-lithospheric viscous adjustment. Regional subsidence in historical times in SE Iceland can similarly be attributed to viscous adjustment resulting from the increased load of Vatnajokull during the Little Ice Age. The inferred sublithospheric viscosity is 1 x 10 exp 18 - 5 x 10 exp 19 Pa s.

  12. Allosteric communication in myosin V: from small conformational changes to large directed movements.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, M; Houdusse, A; Karplus, M

    2008-01-01

    The rigor to post-rigor transition in myosin, a consequence of ATP binding, plays an essential role in the Lymn-Taylor functional cycle because it results in the dissociation of the actomyosin complex after the powerstroke. On the basis of the X-ray structures of myosin V, we have developed a new normal mode superposition model for the transition path between the two states. Rigid-body motions of the various subdomains and specific residues at the subdomain interfaces are key elements in the transition. The allosteric communication between the nucleotide binding site and the U50/L50 cleft is shown to result from local changes due to ATP binding, which induce large amplitude motions that are encoded in the structure of the protein. The triggering event is the change in the interaction of switch I and the P-loop, which is stabilized by ATP binding. The motion of switch I, which is a relatively rigid element of the U50 subdomain, leads directly to a partial opening of the U50/L50 cleft; the latter is expected to weaken the binding of myosin to actin. The calculated transition path demonstrates the nature of the subdomain coupling and offers an explanation for the mutual exclusion of ATP and actin binding. The mechanism of the uncoupling of the converter from the motor head, an essential part of the transition, is elucidated. The origin of the partial untwisting of the central beta-sheet in the rigor to post-rigor transition is described. PMID:18704171

  13. Professional Norms Guiding School Principals' Pedagogical Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leo, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the professional norms surrounding school development, with a special emphasis on school principals' pedagogical leadership. Design/methodology/approach: A norm perspective is used to identify possible links between legal norms, professional norms, and actions. The findings are based on…

  14. Change detection of riverbed movements using river cross-sections and LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Michael; Höfle, Bernhard; Mandlburger, Gottfried; Rutzinger, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Today, Airborne LiDAR derived digital terrain models (DTMs) are used for several aspects in different scientific disciplines, such as hydrology, geomorphology or archaeology. In the field of river geomorphology, LiDAR data sets can provide information on the riverine vegetation, the level and boundary of the water body, the elevation of the riparian foreland and their roughness. The LiDAR systems in use for topographic data acquisition mainly operate with wavelengths of at least 1064nm and, thus, are not able to penetrate water. LiDAR sensors with two wavelengths are available (bathymetric LiDAR), but they can only provide elevation information of riverbeds or lakes, if the water is clear and the minimum water depth exceeds 1.5m. In small and shallow rivers it is impossible to collect information of the riverbed, regardless of the used LiDAR sensor. In this article, we present a method to derive a high-resolution DTM of the riverbed and to combine it with the LiDAR DTM resulting in a watercourse DTM (DTM-W) as a basis for calculating the changes in the riverbed during several years. To obtain such a DTM-W we use river cross-sections acquired by terrestrial survey or echo-sounding. First, a differentiation between water and land has to be done. A highly accurate water surface can be derived by using a water surface delineation algorithm, which incorporates the amplitude information of the LiDAR point cloud and additional geometrical features (e.g. local surface roughness). The second step is to calculate a thalweg line, which is the lowest flow path in the riverbed. This is achieved by extracting the lowest point of each river cross section and by fitting a B-spline curve through those points. In the next step, the centerline of the river is calculated by applying a shrinking algorithm of the water boundary polygon. By averaging the thalweg line and the centerline, a main flow path line can be computed. Subsequently, a dense array of 2D-profiles perpendicular to the

  15. Changes in plate motion and vertical movements along passive continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Japsen, P.; Cobbold, P. R.; Chalmers, J. A.; Green, P. F.; Bonow, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    The origin of the forces that produce elevated, passive continental margins (EPCMs) has been a hot topic in geoscience for many years. Studies of individual margins have led to models, which explain high elevations by invoking specific conditions for each margin in question. We have studied the uplift history of several margins and have found some striking coincidences between episodes of uplift and changes in plate motion. In the Campanian, Eocene and Miocene, pronounced events of uplift and erosion affected not only SE Brazil (Cobbold et al., 2001), but also NE Brazil and SW Africa (Japsen et al., 2012a). The uplift phases in Brazil also coincided with three main phases of Andean orogeny (Cobbold et al., 2001, 2007). These phases, Peruvian (90-75 Ma), Incaic (50-40 Ma), and Quechuan (25-0 Ma), were also periods of relatively rapid convergence at the Andean margin of South America (Pardo-Casas and Molnar, 1987). Because Campanian uplift in Brazil coincides, not only with rapid convergence at the Andean margin of South America, but also with a decline in Atlantic spreading rate, we suggest that all these uplift events have a common cause, which is lateral resistance to plate motion (Japsen et al., 2012a). Because the uplift phases in South America and Africa are common to the margins of two diverging plates, we also suggest that the driving forces can transmit across the spreading axis, probably at great depth, e.g. in the asthenosphere (Japsen et al., 2012a). Similarly, a phase of uplift and erosion at the Eocene-Oligocene transition (c. 35 Ma), which affected margins around the North Atlantic, correlates with a major plate reorganization there (Japsen et al., 2012b). Passive continental margins clearly formed as a result of extension. Despite this, the World Stress Map shows that, where data exist, all EPCMs are today under compression. We maintain that folds, reverse faults, reactivated normal faults and strike-slip faults that are typical of EPCMs are a result

  16. Small plastic debris changes water movement and heat transfer through beach sediments.

    PubMed

    Carson, Henry S; Colbert, Steven L; Kaylor, Matthew J; McDermid, Karla J

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the physical properties of beaches contaminated with plastic fragments. We compared sediment cores from Hawai'i Island's Kamilo Beach, notable for plastic accumulation, to cores from a nearby beach. Compared to the nearby beach, Kamilo sediments contained more plastics (up to 30.2% by weight), were coarser-grained, and were more permeable (t-test, p<0.0001). 85% of the fragments were polyethylene, and 95% were concentrated in the top 15 cm of the cores. We constructed artificial cores of standardized grain size and varying plastic-to-sediment ratios. Adding plastic significantly increased the permeability (ANOVA, p=0.002), which was partially attributed to the fragments increasing the mean grain size. Sediments with plastic warmed more slowly (16% maximum decrease in thermal diffusivity), and reached lower maximum temperatures (21% maximum increase in heat capacity). These changes have a variety of potential effects on beach organisms, including those with temperature-dependent sex-determination such as sea turtle eggs. PMID:21700298

  17. Human-Induced Changes in Landscape Configuration Influence Individual Movement Routines: Lessons from a Versatile, Highly Mobile Species

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Carlos; Palacios, Sebastián; Sáez, Pedro; Sánchez, Sonia; Potti, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Landscape conversion by humans may have detrimental effects on animal populations inhabiting managed ecosystems, but human-altered areas may also provide suitable environments for tolerant species. We investigated the spatial ecology of a highly mobile nocturnal avian species–the red-necked nightjar (Caprimulgus ruficollis)–in two contrastingly managed areas in Southwestern Spain to provide management recommendations for species having multiple habitat requirements. Based on habitat use by radiotagged nightjars, we created maps of functional heterogeneity in both areas so that the movements of breeding individuals could be modeled using least-cost path analyses. In both the natural and the managed area, nightjars used remnants of native shrublands as nesting sites, while pinewood patches (either newly planted or natural mature) and roads were selected as roosting and foraging habitats, respectively. Although the fraction of functional habitat was held relatively constant (60.9% vs. 74.1% in the natural and the managed area, respectively), landscape configuration changed noticeably. As a result, least-cost routes (summed linear distances) from nest locations to the nearest roost and foraging sites were three times larger in the natural than in the managed area (mean ± SE: 1356±76 m vs. 439±32 m). It seems likely that the increased proximity of functional habitats in the managed area relative to the natural one is underlying the significantly higher abundances of nightjars observed therein, where breeders should travel shorter distances to link together essential resources, thus likely reducing their energy expenditure and mortality risks. Our results suggest that landscape configuration, but not habitat availability, is responsible for the observed differences between the natural and the managed area in the abundance and movements of breeding nightjars, although no effect on body condition was detected. Agricultural landscapes could be moderately managed to

  18. Human-induced changes in landscape configuration influence individual movement routines: lessons from a versatile, highly mobile species.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Carlos; Palacios, Sebastián; Sáez, Pedro; Sánchez, Sonia; Potti, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Landscape conversion by humans may have detrimental effects on animal populations inhabiting managed ecosystems, but human-altered areas may also provide suitable environments for tolerant species. We investigated the spatial ecology of a highly mobile nocturnal avian species-the red-necked nightjar (Caprimulgus ruficollis)-in two contrastingly managed areas in Southwestern Spain to provide management recommendations for species having multiple habitat requirements. Based on habitat use by radiotagged nightjars, we created maps of functional heterogeneity in both areas so that the movements of breeding individuals could be modeled using least-cost path analyses. In both the natural and the managed area, nightjars used remnants of native shrublands as nesting sites, while pinewood patches (either newly planted or natural mature) and roads were selected as roosting and foraging habitats, respectively. Although the fraction of functional habitat was held relatively constant (60.9% vs. 74.1% in the natural and the managed area, respectively), landscape configuration changed noticeably. As a result, least-cost routes (summed linear distances) from nest locations to the nearest roost and foraging sites were three times larger in the natural than in the managed area (mean ± SE: 1356±76 m vs. 439±32 m). It seems likely that the increased proximity of functional habitats in the managed area relative to the natural one is underlying the significantly higher abundances of nightjars observed therein, where breeders should travel shorter distances to link together essential resources, thus likely reducing their energy expenditure and mortality risks. Our results suggest that landscape configuration, but not habitat availability, is responsible for the observed differences between the natural and the managed area in the abundance and movements of breeding nightjars, although no effect on body condition was detected. Agricultural landscapes could be moderately managed to

  19. CHANGES IN LOWER EXTREMITY MOVEMENT AND POWER ABSORPTION DURING FOREFOOT STRIKING AND BAREFOOT RUNNING

    PubMed Central

    Green, Douglas H.; Wurzinger, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Both forefoot strike shod (FFS) and barefoot (BF) running styles result in different mechanics when compared to rearfoot strike (RFS) shod running. Additionally, running mechanics of FFS and BF running are similar to one another. Comparing the mechanical changes occurring in each of these patterns is necessary to understand potential benefits and risks of these running styles. The authors hypothesized that FFS and BF conditions would result in increased sagittal plane joint angles at initial contact and that FFS and BF conditions would demonstrate a shift in sagittal plane joint power from the knee to the ankle when compared to the RFS condition. Finally, total lower extremity power absorption will be least in BF and greatest in the RFS shod condition. Methods: The study included 10 male and 10 female RFS runners who completed 3‐dimensional running analysis in 3 conditions: shod with RFS, shod with FFS, and BF. Variables were the angles of plantarflexion, knee flexion, and hip flexion at initial contact and peak sagittal plane joint power at the hip, knee, and ankle during stance phase. Results: Running with a FFS pattern and BF resulted in significantly greater plantarflexion and significantly less negative knee power (absorption) when compared to shod RFS condition. FFS condition runners landed in the most plantarflexion and demonstrated the most peak ankle power absorption and lowest knee power absorption between the 3 conditions. BF and FFS conditions demonstrated decreased total lower extremity power absorption compared to the shod RFS condition but did not differ from one another. Conclusions: BF and FFS running result in reduced total lower extremity power, hip power and knee power and a shift of power absorption from the knee to the ankle. Clinical Relevance: Alterations associated with BF running patterns are present in a FFS pattern when wearing shoes. Additionally, both patterns result in increased demand at the foot and ankle as

  20. The Climate Change Crisis as an International Civil Rights Issue: Forging an Alliance Between Science, Activism, and Progressive Social Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, B. J.; Driver, S.

    2011-12-01

    If our scientific community wants to make real progress on the climate change and environmental crisis we must be willing to side with and fight for the oppressed. The national and international communities most ready to act - those hit hardest by the real impact of climate change in their day-to-day lives - need the political leadership of and a living, organic connection with scientists who are prepared to tell the truth and act on the truth of our science. A new generation of scientist-activist leaders and this strategic and mutually beneficial alliance with the oppressed will be necessary to wage an international, intransigent fight to enact and implement the social, political, and economic policies needed to mitigate the damage already done and prevent future environmental and human catastrophe. In the statement BAMN distributed to last year's Fall AGU conference we said, "there will be no shortage of mass struggle in the next period of history." This spring we saw the absolutely awe-inspiring social upheavals in North Africa and the Middle East in the form of waves of mass demonstrations in country after country. Many of those struggles, with demands for real democracy, for jobs and economic opportunities, for improved living conditions, continue to this day. In virtually every instance, these popular and progressive social movements have been led by youth: middle school, high school and college students. In the US and Europe we have seen the spread of student-led struggle around the defense of K-12 public education and on college campuses in defense of various programs, opportunities, and the character of the educational experience. The most dynamic force in these struggles has been the Latina/o, black, other underrepresented minority and immigrant youth who refuse to accept permanent second-class citizenship and a future devoid of hope and opportunity. We will discuss our experience as a youth-led civil rights organization presenting the issues of climate

  1. Is Co-norming Required?

    PubMed

    Rohling, Martin L; Miller, Ronald M; Axelrod, Bradley N; Wall, Jacqueline R; Lee, Amy J H; Kinikini, Daniel T

    2015-11-01

    Researchers who have been responsible for developing test batteries have argued that competent practice requires the use of a "fixed battery" that is co-normed. We tested this assumption with three normative systems: co-normed, meta-regressed norms and a system of these two methods. We analyzed two samples: 330 referred patients and 99 undergraduate volunteers. The T scores generated for referred patients using the three systems were highly associated with one another and quite similar in magnitude, with an Overall Test Battery Means (OTBMs) using the co-normed, hybrid, and meta-regressed scores equaled 43.8, 45.0, and 43.9, respectively. For volunteers, the OTBMs equaled 47.4, 47.5, and 47.1, respectively. The correlations amongst these OTBMs across systems were all above .90. Differences among OTBMs across normative systems were small and not clinically meaningful. We conclude that co-norming for competent clinical practice is not necessary. PMID:26152291

  2. Can infrared spectroscopy be used to measure change in potassium nitrate concentration as a proxy for soil particle movement?

    PubMed

    Luleva, Mila Ivanova; van der Werff, Harald; Jetten, Victor; van der Meer, Freek

    2011-01-01

    Displacement of soil particles caused by erosion influences soil condition and fertility. To date, the cesium 137 isotope ((137)Cs) technique is most commonly used for soil particle tracing. However when large areas are considered, the expensive soil sampling and analysis present an obstacle. Infrared spectral measurements would provide a solution, however the small concentrations of the isotope do not influence the spectral signal sufficiently. Potassium (K) has similar electrical, chemical and physical properties as Cs. Our hypothesis is that it can be used as possible replacement in soil particle tracing. Soils differing in texture were sampled for the study. Laboratory soil chemical analyses and spectral sensitivity analyses were carried out to identify the wavelength range related to K concentration. Different concentrations of K fertilizer were added to soils with varying texture properties in order to establish spectral characteristics of the absorption feature associated with the element. Changes in position of absorption feature center were observed at wavelengths between 2,450 and 2,470 nm, depending on the amount of fertilizer applied. Other absorption feature parameters (absorption band depth, width and area) were also found to change with K concentration with coefficient of determination between 0.85 and 0.99. Tracing soil particles using K fertilizer and infrared spectral response is considered suitable for soils with sandy and sandy silt texture. It is a new approach that can potentially grow to a technique for rapid monitoring of soil particle movement over large areas. PMID:22163843

  3. Can Infrared Spectroscopy Be Used to Measure Change in Potassium Nitrate Concentration as a Proxy for Soil Particle Movement?

    PubMed Central

    Luleva, Mila Ivanova; van der Werff, Harald; Jetten, Victor; van der Meer, Freek

    2011-01-01

    Displacement of soil particles caused by erosion influences soil condition and fertility. To date, the cesium 137 isotope (137Cs) technique is most commonly used for soil particle tracing. However when large areas are considered, the expensive soil sampling and analysis present an obstacle. Infrared spectral measurements would provide a solution, however the small concentrations of the isotope do not influence the spectral signal sufficiently. Potassium (K) has similar electrical, chemical and physical properties as Cs. Our hypothesis is that it can be used as possible replacement in soil particle tracing. Soils differing in texture were sampled for the study. Laboratory soil chemical analyses and spectral sensitivity analyses were carried out to identify the wavelength range related to K concentration. Different concentrations of K fertilizer were added to soils with varying texture properties in order to establish spectral characteristics of the absorption feature associated with the element. Changes in position of absorption feature center were observed at wavelengths between 2,450 and 2,470 nm, depending on the amount of fertilizer applied. Other absorption feature parameters (absorption band depth, width and area) were also found to change with K concentration with coefficient of determination between 0.85 and 0.99. Tracing soil particles using K fertilizer and infrared spectral response is considered suitable for soils with sandy and sandy silt texture. It is a new approach that can potentially grow to a technique for rapid monitoring of soil particle movement over large areas. PMID:22163843

  4. Patterns and Importance of Self-Other Differences in College Drinking Norms

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Kate B.; Borsari, Brian; Carey, Michael P.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    College students overestimate other students’ drinking behavior (descriptive norms) and attitudes (injunctive norms). This study explored the effects of demographics, norm type, and reference group on the magnitude of self-other differences (SODs). Participants (N = 1611; 64% women) completed surveys assessing demographics, drinking patterns, and perceived norms. A subset of 122 students provided consumption data one month later to test predictors of changes in drinking. Overall, women and non-Greeks reported larger SODs for both norm types compared to men and Greeks. Heavier drinkers reported smaller SODs. Gender-by-reference group interactions revealed that women had larger SODs for reference groups increasingly distal to them; for men, the largest SODs occur for close friends versus more distal groups. Larger SODs for descriptive norms predicted increases in drinking, consistent with Social Norms Theory. PMID:17176173

  5. Effects of changing stance conditions on anticipatory postural adjustment and reaction time to voluntary arm movement in humans.

    PubMed

    Dietz, V; Kowalewski, R; Nakazawa, K; Colombo, G

    2000-04-15

    1. The effect on reaction time (RT) and anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) of unexpectedly changing stance conditions was studied using a push or pull arm movement task. The aim was to evaluate the modifiability of RT and APA by an external perturbation associated with an automatic compensatory reaction. 2. Subjects standing on a moveable platform were asked to push or pull a rigid handle as quickly and as strongly as possible in response to the 'go-signal', a visual signal from a green or red light-emitting diode. Forward and backward translations of the platform were randomly induced at four time intervals after the go-signal. In some experiments to detect unspecific arousal there were no platform translations but an acoustic signal was given before the go-signal. Surface electromyographic activity (EMG) of upper arm and lower leg muscles was analysed. 3. During the push task both RT and the duration of APA (onset of APA till the force signal indicating hand action) were shorter during backward than during forward translation. During the pull task the effect of platform translations was the reverse. The delay between go-signal and onset of APA remained constant. Consequently, RT and APA became shorter when the platform was translated in the same direction as that in which the upper body was displaced by the push or pull movement, and longer when it was translated in the opposite direction. The effects were maximal when translations were induced 250 ms after the go-signal, but a difference was detected up to 375 ms. 4. Furthermore, with forward and backward platform translations RT was shorter when the translations were induced early rather than late after the go-signal. This was associated with a shortening of the delay between the go-signal and onset of APA, while APA duration remained constant. The shortened RT was in the range of that obtained when an acoustic signal was given just before the go-signal. 5. It is concluded that (i) both the RT and the

  6. Liberal Norms and Their Discontents.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Deborah A

    2012-09-01

    Recent analyses of the predominance of liberals in personality and social psychology have raised the possibility that this ideological imbalance is driven in part by active discrimination against conservatives. In this article, I review empirical evidence relevant to this possibility and find little support for it. The evidence points instead to a predominance of liberal views in academia more generally, driven by multiple factors including the consonance of academic work with the goals and values of liberals. Within the field of personality and social psychology, this concentration of liberal views has fostered strong liberal norms, which both intensify and exaggerate the field's ideological homogeneity. These liberal norms have unfortunate narrowing effects on research in personality and social psychology; remedies for these effects should focus on weakening the norms. PMID:26168510

  7. Correcting Slightly Less Simple Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aivar, M. P.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J. B. J.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets…

  8. Brief motivational intervention for college drinking: the synergistic impact of social anxiety and perceived drinking norms.

    PubMed

    Terlecki, Meredith A; Buckner, Julia D; Larimer, Mary E; Copeland, Amy L

    2012-12-01

    Despite the efficacy of Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS), students with higher social anxiety appear vulnerable to poorer outcomes. A possible explanation for these outcomes is that corrective normative feedback (an active component of BASICS) may be less effective for socially anxious students if their beliefs about others' drinking are less malleable because of intense fear of negative evaluation for deviating from perceived drinking norms. This study evaluated whether socially anxious students demonstrated less change in perceived norms during BASICS. We also examined whether change in norm endorsement moderated the relation between social anxiety and BASICS outcomes. Undergraduates (n = 52) who underwent BASICS completed measures of drinking, social anxiety, and perceived norms at baseline and 4 weeks post-BASICS. Higher social anxiety was related to less change in norm endorsement after receiving BASICS. Change in perceived norms during treatment moderated the relation between social anxiety and follow-up drinking. Among students with smaller change in norm endorsement after BASICS, higher social anxiety was related to heavier follow-up drinking. Among students with greater changes to norm endorsement during BASICS, the effect of social anxiety was nonsignificant. Results suggest that corrective perceived norms interventions may be less effective among socially anxious students, contributing to continued heavy drinking. Development of social anxiety-specific BASICS components warrants attention. PMID:22612254

  9. Muscle co-activity tuning in Parkinsonian hand movement: disease-specific changes at behavioral and cerebral level.

    PubMed

    van der Stouwe, A M M; Toxopeus, C M; de Jong, B M; Yavuz, P; Valsan, G; Conway, B A; Leenders, K L; Maurits, N M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated simple directional hand movements based on different degrees of muscle co-activity, at behavioral and cerebral level in healthy subjects and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We compared "singular" movements, dominated by the activity of one agonist muscle, to "composite" movements, requiring conjoint activity of multiple muscles, in a center-out (right hand) step-tracking task. Behavioral parameters were obtained by EMG and kinematic recordings. fMRI was used to investigate differences in underlying brain activations between PD patients (N = 12) and healthy (age-matched) subjects (N = 18). In healthy subjects, composite movements recruited the striatum and cortical areas comprising bilaterally the supplementary motor area and premotor cortex, contralateral medial prefrontal cortex, primary motor cortex, primary visual cortex, and ipsilateral superior parietal cortex. Contrarily, the ipsilateral cerebellum was more involved in singular movements. This striking dichotomy between striatal and cortical recruitment vs. cerebellar involvement was considered to reflect the complementary roles of these areas in motor control, in which the basal ganglia are involved in movement selection and the cerebellum in movement optimization. Compared to healthy subjects, PD patients showed decreased activation of the striatum and cortical areas in composite movement, while performing worse at behavioral level. This implies that PD patients are especially impaired on tasks requiring highly tuned muscle co-activity. Singular movement, on the other hand, was characterized by a combination of increased activation of the ipsilateral parietal cortex and left cerebellum. As singular movement performance was only slightly compromised, we interpret this as a reflection of increased visuospatial processing, possibly as a compensational mechanism. PMID:26300761

  10. Muscle co-activity tuning in Parkinsonian hand movement: disease-specific changes at behavioral and cerebral level

    PubMed Central

    van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; Toxopeus, C. M.; de Jong, B. M.; Yavuz, P.; Valsan, G.; Conway, B. A.; Leenders, K. L.; Maurits, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated simple directional hand movements based on different degrees of muscle co-activity, at behavioral and cerebral level in healthy subjects and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We compared “singular” movements, dominated by the activity of one agonist muscle, to “composite” movements, requiring conjoint activity of multiple muscles, in a center-out (right hand) step-tracking task. Behavioral parameters were obtained by EMG and kinematic recordings. fMRI was used to investigate differences in underlying brain activations between PD patients (N = 12) and healthy (age-matched) subjects (N = 18). In healthy subjects, composite movements recruited the striatum and cortical areas comprising bilaterally the supplementary motor area and premotor cortex, contralateral medial prefrontal cortex, primary motor cortex, primary visual cortex, and ipsilateral superior parietal cortex. Contrarily, the ipsilateral cerebellum was more involved in singular movements. This striking dichotomy between striatal and cortical recruitment vs. cerebellar involvement was considered to reflect the complementary roles of these areas in motor control, in which the basal ganglia are involved in movement selection and the cerebellum in movement optimization. Compared to healthy subjects, PD patients showed decreased activation of the striatum and cortical areas in composite movement, while performing worse at behavioral level. This implies that PD patients are especially impaired on tasks requiring highly tuned muscle co-activity. Singular movement, on the other hand, was characterized by a combination of increased activation of the ipsilateral parietal cortex and left cerebellum. As singular movement performance was only slightly compromised, we interpret this as a reflection of increased visuospatial processing, possibly as a compensational mechanism. PMID:26300761

  11. The aspect of ultrastructural changes of the osteoblasts and surface areas of alveolar bone appearing in experimental tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Hirashita, A

    1976-12-01

    Molars of mature Wistar rats were moved experimentally by orthodontic elastic for four days. Then, the aspects of ultrastructural changes of the osteoblasts and structure of the alveolar bone surface which appeared in experimental tooth movement were studied. The following results were obtained. 1) These osteoblasts are classified into three groups according to their position. 2) The most active response to the orthodontic force is exhibited by the second group of cells with the ability of rapid production of abundant acid polysaccharide; i) Abundant rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum with markedly dilated cisternae. ii) Well developed Golgi apparatus and electron opaque granules with a limiting membrane are found in the cytoplasm. Large granules are frequently seen to be secreted out of the cell. iii) The mitochondria are of large size and round shape with well developed cristae. 3) The surface of the new alveolar bone is covered with a belt-shaped structure consisting of small dense spherical-shaped structures. 4) Osteoclasts are rarely seen, but the original function of the cells appears to be almost inactive. PMID:1072189

  12. Social Norms of Cooperation in Small-Scale Societies

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Fernando P.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity, besides providing a convenient framework to address the evolution of moral systems, offers a simple and plausible explanation for the prevalence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. By helping someone, an individual may increase her/his reputation, which may change the pre-disposition of others to help her/him in the future. This, however, depends on what is reckoned as a good or a bad action, i.e., on the adopted social norm responsible for raising or damaging a reputation. In particular, it remains an open question which social norms are able to foster cooperation in small-scale societies, while enduring the wide plethora of stochastic affects inherent to finite populations. Here we address this problem by studying the stochastic dynamics of cooperation under distinct social norms, showing that the leading norms capable of promoting cooperation depend on the community size. However, only a single norm systematically leads to the highest cooperative standards in small communities. That simple norm dictates that only whoever cooperates with good individuals, and defects against bad ones, deserves a good reputation, a pattern that proves robust to errors, mutations and variations in the intensity of selection. PMID:26808261

  13. Diversity-induced resonance in the response to social norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessone, Claudio J.; Sánchez, Angel; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we focus on diversity-induced resonance, which was recently found in bistable, excitable, and other physical systems. We study the appearance of this phenomenon in a purely economic model of cooperating and defecting agents. An agent's contribution to a public good is seen as a social norm, so defecting agents face a social pressure, which decreases if free riding becomes widespread. In this model, diversity among agents naturally appears because of the different sensitivities towards the social norm. We study the evolution of cooperation as a response to the social norm (i) for the replicator dynamics and (ii) for the logit dynamics by means of numerical simulations. Diversity-induced resonance is observed as a maximum in the response of agents to changes in the social norm as a function of the degree of heterogeneity in the population. We provide an analytical, mean-field approach for the logit dynamics and find very good agreement with the simulations. From a socioeconomic perspective, our results show that, counterintuitively, diversity in the individual sensitivity to social norms may result in a society that better follows such norms as a whole, even if part of the population is less prone to follow them.

  14. 03-NIF Dedication: Norm Pattiz

    ScienceCinema

    Norm Pattiz

    2010-09-01

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Norm Pattiz, the chairman of Lawrence Livermore National Security, which manages Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  16. 03-NIF Dedication: Norm Pattiz

    SciTech Connect

    Norm Pattiz

    2009-07-02

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Norm Pattiz, the chairman of Lawrence Livermore National Security, which manages Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Prediction of changes in landslide movements induced by rainfalls: from the use of a black box model to a 1D mechanical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardie, S.; Desramaut, N.; Russo, G.; Grandjean, G.

    2012-04-01

    Predicting landslide surface displacements is a challenge for scientists, as it may help save human lives and protect individual housing or transport, energetic facilities. One of the main challenges in active landslide monitoring concerns the prediction of slope's movements in the near future. This study focuses on an innovative methodology to predict landslide surface accelerations, based on a black box tool coupled to a 1D mechanical model. These models are able to predict the evolution of the daily displacements according to the variations of precipitation. More specifically, the impulse response model allows predicting the changes in the landslide movements by computing the transfer function between the input signal (precipitation in this case) and the output signal (the displacements). The second model is based on a simple 1D mechanical assumption, with considering a viscoplastic behavior of the landslide's material, and with taking into account the evolution of the pore water pressure in time. These methods have been applied to the Super-Sauze landslide, located in the Southern French Alps, mountainous region. This site is controlled by complex hydrologic processes leading to active movements within black marls, with velocities ranging between 0.002 and 0.4 m per day. After preliminary tests, results show that the snowmelt has to be taken into account in the models, since the phenomena of freezing /thawing has an influence on the water refills, leading to movement changes. Different approaches to integrate rainfall and/or snow-melting inputs are compared and their complementarity is demonstrated. Finally, a validated methodology for predicting movement changes within landslide based on criteria of comparison between the observed and calculated velocities can be proposed. The results suggest that the impulse response model reproduces the observed data with very good accuracy, whereas the mechanical model seems to be more adapted to predict the movements

  18. Football, Fast Cars, and Cheerleading: Adolescent Gender Norms, 1978-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suitor, J. Jill; Rebel, Reavis

    1995-01-01

    Examines changes in adolescent gender norms in the 1980s, using data collected from 496 college students who graduated from high school between 1979 and 1982 or between 1988 and 1989. Findings indicate little change in gender norms across the decade. Boys continue to achieve prestige primarily through sports and school achievement, while girls…

  19. Soft, cutting edge of environmentalism: why and how the appropriate-technology notion is changing the movement

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.E.

    1980-04-01

    The central theme of hard, or centralized, technology versus soft, or small and disperse, technology is traced through two stages of development that the author terms enthusiasm and realism. The overlap between the environmental movement and the soft-technology movement has given the appropriate-technology movement a broad base of ideological support. Soft-technology thinking in environmentalism is broadening its concerns. This trend tends to increase what to date has been environmentalism's rather marginal relevance and legitimacy in the original and still-central domain of the soft-technolgoy movement, namely the developing countries. The small is beautiful concept will force environmentalists to question their commitments to political ideologies as well as environmentalism when faced with achieving environmental reform in the context of achieving greater social equity through redistribution. According to the author, the soft-technology vision of transformation to a soft society is the cutting edge of thought in environmentalism. 45 footnotes, 1 table. (SAC)

  20. Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  1. Quality of decision making and group norms.

    PubMed

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Cihangir, S

    2001-06-01

    Two studies investigated the impact of group norms for maintaining consensus versus norms for critical thought on group decisions in a modification of the biased sampling paradigm (G. Stasser & W. Titus, 1985). Both studies showed that critical norms improved the quality of decisions, whereas consensus norms did not. This effect appeared to be mediated by the perceived value of shared and unshared information: Consensus norm groups valued shared information more highly than critical groups did, and valence was a good predictor of decision outcome. In addition, the 2nd study showed that the group norm manipulation has no impact on individual decisions, consistent with the assumption that this is a group effect. Results suggest that the content of group norms is an important factor influencing the quality of group decision-making processes and that the content of group norms may be related to the group's proneness for groupthink. PMID:11414374

  2. Bowel Movement

    MedlinePlus

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out ... rectum and anus. Another name for stool is feces. It is made of what is left after ...

  3. Cultural Norms and Nonverbal Communication: An Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication takes place in specific cultural contexts and is influenced by cultural norms. Cultural norms are "social rules for what certain types of people should and should not do" (Hall, 2005). Different cultures might have different norms for nonverbal behaviors in specific social, relational, and geographical contexts.…

  4. Boosting safety behaviour: Descriptive norms encourage child booster seat usage amongst low involvement parents.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Jennifer; Whelan, Jodie; Pirouz, Dante M; Snowdon, Anne W

    2016-07-01

    Campaigns advocating behavioural changes often employ social norms as a motivating technique, favouring injunctive norms (what is typically approved or disapproved) over descriptive norms (what is typically done). Here, we investigate an upside to including descriptive norms in health and safety appeals. Because descriptive norms are easy to process and understand, they should provide a heuristic to guide behaviour in those individuals who lack the interest or motivation to reflect on the advocated behaviour more deeply. When those descriptive norms are positive - suggesting that what is done is consistent with what ought to be done - including them in campaigns should be particularly beneficial at influencing this low-involvement segment. We test this proposition via research examining booster seat use amongst parents with children of booster seat age, and find that incorporating positive descriptive norms into a related campaign is particularly impactful for parents who report low involvement in the topic of booster seat safety. Descriptive norms are easy to state and easy to understand, and our research suggests that these norms resonate with low involvement individuals. As a result, we recommend incorporating descriptive norms when possible into health and safety campaigns. PMID:27085145

  5. Separating subjective norms, university descriptive and injunctive norms, and U.S. descriptive and injunctive norms for drinking behavior intentions.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Sun; Klein, Katherine A; Smith, Sandi; Martell, Dennis

    2009-12-01

    The theory of planned behavior and the social norms approach both stress the important influence that normative perceptions have on behavioral intentions and behavior. These 2 approaches were used to examine the behavioral intention to limit drinking to 0 to 4 drinks. Further, this study examined whether perception of subjective norms, university- and U.S.-level descriptive norms, and university- and U.S.-level injunctive norms represented separate dimensions for this behavioral intention. A representative sample of 1,100 undergraduate students completed a Web-based survey. The results confirmed that the 5 types of norms were all unique constructs and showed that individuals' intentions to limit their alcohol consumption to 0 to 4 drinks were predicted by positive attitudes, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, U.S. descriptive norms, and U.S. injunctive norms. Subjective norms also moderated the relationship between perceived behavioral control and behavioral intention. University descriptive norms served as a moderator between attitudes and behavioral intentions and between perceived behavioral control and behavioral intentions. This study has important implications for norms-based theories and campaigns. PMID:20183383

  6. Motor commands for fast point-to-point arm movements are customized for small changes in inertial load.

    PubMed

    Pinter, Ilona J; Bobbert, Maarten F; van Soest, A J Knoek; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2011-12-01

    For repeated point-to-point arm movements it is often assumed that motor commands are customized in a trial-to-trial manner, based on previous endpoint error. To test this assumption, we perturbed movement execution without affecting the endpoint error by using a modest manipulation of inertia. Participants made point-to-point elbow flexion and extension movements in the horizontal plane, under the instruction to move as fast as possible from one target area to another. In selected trials the moment of inertia of the lower arm was increased or decreased by 25%. First, we found that an unexpected increase or decrease of inertia did not affect the open loop controlled part of the movement path (and thus endpoint error was not affected). Second, we found that when the increased or decreased inertia was presented repeatedly, after 5-11 trials motor commands were customized: the first 100ms of agonistic muscle activity in the smoothed and rectified electromyographic signal of agonistic muscles was higher for the high inertia compared to the low inertia. We conclude that endpoint error is not the only parameter that is used to evaluate if motor commands lead to movements as planned. PMID:21890379

  7. Fatigue-Induced Changes in Movement Pattern and Muscle Activity During Ballet Releve on Demi-Pointe.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Feng; Lee, Wan-Chin; Chen, Yi-An; Hsue, Bih-Jen

    2016-08-01

    Fatigue in ballet dancers may lead to injury, particularly in the lower extremities. However, few studies have investigated the effects of fatigue on ballet dancers' performance and movement patterns. Thus, the current study examines the effect of fatigue on the balance, movement pattern, and muscle activities of the lower extremities in ballet dancers. Twenty healthy, female ballet dancers performed releve on demi-pointe before and after fatigue. The trajectory of the whole body movement and the muscle activities of the major lower extremity muscles were recorded continuously during task performance. The results show that fatigue increases the medial-lateral center of mass (COM) displacement and hip and trunk motion, but decreases the COM velocity and ankle motion. Moreover, fatigue reduces the activities of the hamstrings and tibialis anterior, but increases that of the soleus. Finally, greater proximal hip and trunk motions are applied to compensate for the effects of fatigue, leading to a greater COM movement. Overall, the present findings show that fatigue results in impaired movement control and may therefore increase the risk of dance injury. PMID:26955753

  8. Fatigue-Induced Changes in Movement Pattern and Muscle Activity During Ballet Releve on Demi-Pointe.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Feng; Lee, Wan-Chin; Chen, Yi-An; Hsue, Bih-Jen

    2016-08-01

    Fatigue in ballet dancers may lead to injury, particularly in the lower extremities. However, few studies have investigated the effects of fatigue on ballet dancers' performance and movement patterns. Thus, the current study examines the effect of fatigue on the balance, movement pattern, and muscle activities of the lower extremities in ballet dancers. Twenty healthy, female ballet dancers performed releve on demi-pointe before and after fatigue. The trajectory of the whole body movement and the muscle activities of the major lower extremity muscles were recorded continuously during task performance. The results show that fatigue increases the medial-lateral center of mass (COM) displacement and hip and trunk motion, but decreases the COM velocity and ankle motion. Moreover, fatigue reduces the activities of the hamstrings and tibialis anterior, but increases that of the soleus. Finally, greater proximal hip and trunk motions are applied to compensate for the effects of fatigue, leading to a greater COM movement. Overall, the present findings show that fatigue results in impaired movement control and may therefore increase the risk of dance injury. PMID:27622498

  9. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-05-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social Survey data. We investigate mean levels of civic mindedness in these countries and perform regression analyses to investigate whether factors traditionally associated with civic and political participation are also correlated with citizenship norms across Eastern Europe. We show that mean levels of civic mindedness differ significantly across the four Eastern European countries. We find some support for theories on civic and political participation when explaining norms of citizenship, but also demonstrate that individual-level characteristics are differently related to citizenship norms across the countries of our study. Hence, our findings show that Eastern Europe is not a monolithic and homogeneous bloc, underscoring the importance of taking the specificities of countries into account. PMID:20390027

  10. Changes in the Relative Abundance and Movement of Insect Pollinators During the Flowering Cycle of Brassica rapa Crops: Implications for Gene Flow

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Laura A.; Howlett, Bradley G.; Grant, Jan E.; Didham, Raphael K.

    2013-01-01

    The potential movement of transgenes from genetically modified crops to non-genetically modified crops via insect-mediated pollen dispersal has been highlighted as one of the areas of greatest concern in regards to genetically modified crops. Pollen movement depends sensitively on spatial and temporal variation in the movement of insect pollinators between crop fields. This study tested the degree of variation in the diversity and relative abundance of flower-visiting insects entering versus leaving pak choi, Brassica rapa var. chinensis L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), crops throughout different stages of the flowering cycle. The relative abundance of flower-visiting insects varied significantly with Brassica crop phenology. Greater numbers of flower-visiting insects were captured inside rather than outside the crop fields, with the highest capture rates of flower-visitors coinciding with the peak of flowering in both spring-flowering and summer-flowering crops. Moreover, the ratio of flower-visiting insects entering versus leaving crop fields also varied considerably with changing crop phenology. Despite high variation in relative capture rates, the data strongly indicate non-random patterns of variation in insect movement in relation to crop phenology, with early-season aggregation of flower-visiting insects entering and remaining in the crop, and then mass emigration of flower-visiting insects leaving the crop late in the flowering season. Although pollen movement late in the flowering cycle might contribute relatively little to total seed set (and hence crop production), the findings here suggest that extensive late-season pollinator redistribution in the landscape could contribute disproportionately to long-distance gene movement between crops. PMID:23937538

  11. Changes in the relative abundance and movement of insect pollinators during the flowering cycle of Brassica rapa crops: implications for gene flow.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Laura A; Howlett, Bradley G; Grant, Jan E; Didham, Raphael K

    2013-01-01

    The potential movement of transgenes from genetically modified crops to non-genetically modified crops via insect-mediated pollen dispersal has been highlighted as one of the areas of greatest concern in regards to genetically modified crops. Pollen movement depends sensitively on spatial and temporal variation in the movement of insect pollinators between crop fields. This study tested the degree of variation in the diversity and relative abundance of flower-visiting insects entering versus leaving pak choi, Brassica rapa var. chinensis L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), crops throughout different stages of the flowering cycle. The relative abundance of flower-visiting insects varied significantly with Brassica crop phenology. Greater numbers of flower-visiting insects were captured inside rather than outside the crop fields, with the highest capture rates of flower-visitors coinciding with the peak of flowering in both spring-flowering and summer-flowering crops. Moreover, the ratio of flower-visiting insects entering versus leaving crop fields also varied considerably with changing crop phenology. Despite high variation in relative capture rates, the data strongly indicate non-random patterns of variation in insect movement in relation to crop phenology, with early-season aggregation of flower-visiting insects entering and remaining in the crop, and then mass emigration of flower-visiting insects leaving the crop late in the flowering season. Although pollen movement late in the flowering cycle might contribute relatively little to total seed set (and hence crop production), the findings here suggest that extensive late-season pollinator redistribution in the landscape could contribute disproportionately to long-distance gene movement between crops. PMID:23937538

  12. Modulation of event-related desynchronization in robot-assisted hand performance: brain oscillatory changes in active, passive and imagined movements

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Robot-assisted therapy in patients with neurological disease is an attempt to improve function in a moderate to severe hemiparetic arm. A better understanding of cortical modifications after robot-assisted training could aid in refining rehabilitation therapy protocols for stroke patients. Modifications of cortical activity in healthy subjects were evaluated during voluntary active movement, passive robot-assisted motor movement, and motor imagery tasks performed under unimanual and bimanual protocols. Methods Twenty-one channel electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded with a video EEG system in 8 subjects. The subjects performed robot-assisted tasks using the Bi-Manu Track robot-assisted arm trainer. The motor paradigm was executed during one-day experimental sessions under eleven unimanual and bimanual protocols of active, passive and imaged movements. The event-related-synchronization/desynchronization (ERS/ERD) approach to the EEG data was applied to investigate where movement-related decreases in alpha and beta power were localized. Results Voluntary active unilateral hand movement was observed to significantly activate the contralateral side; however, bilateral activation was noted in all subjects on both the unilateral and bilateral active tasks, as well as desynchronization of alpha and beta brain oscillations during the passive robot-assisted motor tasks. During active-passive movement when the right hand drove the left one, there was predominant activation in the contralateral side. Conversely, when the left hand drove the right one, activation was bilateral, especially in the alpha range. Finally, significant contralateral EEG desynchronization was observed during the unilateral task and bilateral ERD during the bimanual task. Conclusions This study suggests new perspectives for the assessment of patients with neurological disease. The findings may be relevant for defining a baseline for future studies investigating the neural correlates of

  13. The Impact of Climate Change on the Poleward Movement of Tropical Cyclone-Like Vortices in a Regional Climate Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Kevin J. E.; Katzfey, Jack J.

    2000-03-01

    A regional climate model (DARLAM) is implemented over the Australian region and a 20-yr seasonally varying simulation is examined for the presence of tropical cyclone-like vortices (TCLVs). The horizontal resolution of the model is 125 km with nine vertical levels and is forced at its boundaries by the output of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation GCM using a mixed layer (or `slab') ocean. Additional simulations are performed with a horizontal resolution of 30 km and with 18 vertical levels to examine the impact of increasing resolution on storm intensity. A sample of TCLVs from the 125-km resolution simulation is simulated at 30-km resolution to determine whether they reach observed tropical storm intensity at the finer resolution. It is found that stronger vortices in the 125-km resolution simulation are more likely to intensify when simulated at finer resolution than weaker vortices. In this way, a detection threshold for vortices generated in the 125-km resolution simulation is established and then used to detect TCLVs in that simulation. The regional climate model DARLAM provides a good simulation of both cyclogenesis and its seasonal variation under the current climate. The response of the model under enhanced greenhouse conditions is studied. Under 2 × CO2 conditions, there is no statistically significant change in regions of formation of TCLVs, with only a slight southward shift simulated. Nevertheless, there are statistically significant effects on the poleward movement of TCLVs, with storms generally tending to travel farther poleward in a warmer climate once they have formed. An analysis is undertaken to determine the reasons for this behavior. While the dynamical constraints on the maintenance of TCLV intensity under 2 × CO2 conditions (e.g., vertical wind shear) are similar to those in the current climate, thermodynamic conditions (e.g., sea surface temperatures) are quite different and are likely to be at least partly

  14. Late Quaternary depositional history, Holocene sea-level changes, and vertical crustal movement, southern San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, Brian F.; Hedel, Charles W.; Helley, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Sediments collected for bridge foundation studies at southern San Francisco Bay, Calif., record estuaries that formed during Sangamon (100,000 years ago) and post-Wisconsin (less than 10,000 years ago) high stands of sea level. The estuarine deposits of Sangamon and post-Wisconsin ages are separated by alluvial and eolian deposits and by erosional unconformities and surfaces of nondeposition, features that indicate lowered base levels and oceanward migrations of the shoreline accompanying low stands of the sea. Estuarine deposits of mid-Wisconsin age appear to be absent, suggesting that sea level was not near its present height 30,000–40,000 years ago in central California. Holocene sea-level changes are measured from the elevations and apparent 14C ages of plant remains from 13 core samples. Uncertainties of ±2 to ±4 m in the elevations of the dated sea levels represent the sum of errors in determination of (1) sample elevation relative to present sea level, (2) sample elevation relative to sea level at the time of accumulation of the dated material, and (3) postdepositional subsidence of the sample due to compaction of underlying sediments. Sea level in the vicinity of southern San Francisco Bay rose about 2 cm/yr from 9,500 to 8,000 years ago. The rate of relative sea-level rise then declined about tenfold from 8,000 to 6,000 years ago, and it has averaged 0.1–0.2 cm/yr from 6,000 years ago to the present. This submergence history indicates that the rising sea entered the Golden Gate 10,000–11,000 years ago and spread across land areas as rapidly as 30 m/yr until 8,000 years ago. Subsequent shoreline changes were more gradual because of the decrease in rate of sea-level rise. Some of the sediments under southern San Francisco Bay appear to be below the level at which they initially accumulated. The vertical crustal movement suggested by these sediments may be summarized as follows: (1) Some Quaternary(?) sediments have sustained at least 100 m of

  15. Developmental Changes in the Variability of Tongue and Lip Movements during Speech from Childhood to Adulthood: An EMA Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdoch, Bruce E.; Cheng, Hei-Yan; Goozee, Justine V.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental variability of lip and tongue movement in 48 children and adults. Motion of the tongue-tip, tongue-body and lower lip was recorded using electromagnetic articulography during productions of sentences containing /t/, /s/, /l/, /k/ and /p/. Four groups of speakers participated in the study: (1) aged 6-7…

  16. How to Be Happy by Calling for Change: Constructs of Happiness and Meaningfulness amongst Social Movement Activists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Alice; Smith, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on how social movement activists view happiness in relation to their political involvement. Interviewers asked activists questions about their personal histories and feelings. The phenomenological strategy involved focused on interviews with subjects who could speak richly about their commitments and emotions. The data from the…

  17. Perceived Norms Mediate Effects of a Brief Motivational Intervention for Sanctioned College Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Kate B.; Henson, James M.; Carey, Michael P.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial of brief motivational interventions (BMIs) for 198 college students sanctioned for alcohol-related violations of school policy (Carey, Henson, Carey, & Maisto, 2009). Using multivariate latent growth curve models, we evaluated theoretically-derived mediators of the observed BMI effect: motivation to change (readiness-to-change, costs and benefits of drinking), and drinking norms (injunctive norms for peers, and descriptive norms for friends, local peers, and national peers). Results provided partial support for mediation by changes in perceptions of descriptive but not injunctive norms, a pattern that varied by gender and norm type. We found no evidence of a mediating role for any of the motivational variables. PMID:22238504

  18. Supervision in Weakly Normed Systems: The Case of the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Arthur

    Instructionally, schools tend to be "weakly normed" organizational systems in which teachers bring relatively little pressure upon each other to change and/or improve their classroom performance. Because teachers tolerate a wide range of behavior among their colleagues and are reluctant to offer criticism of each other, those responsibile for…

  19. Testing the Effects of Social Norms and Behavioral Privacy on Hand Washing: A Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Maloney, Erin K.; Braz, Mary; Shulman, Hillary C.

    2013-01-01

    A 2-part study examines the influence of normative messages on college males' hand washing perceptions and behaviors. Study 1 tests for the appropriateness of hand washing as a target of social norms campaigns and tests messages designed to change perceived descriptive norms. Results indicated that hand washing behavior is appropriate for health…

  20. Norm stability in Jirisan National Park: effects of time, existing conditions, and background characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Oh; Shelby, Bo

    2008-04-01

    Norm stability is an important issue to consider in using the normative approach as a component of resource management decision making. This study examines three major questions related to norm stability: (1) Do norms change over time? (2) Do existing conditions affect norms? (3) Do background characteristics and visitation patterns affect norms? Data used in this study were collected at a campground in the Jirisan National Park (JNP) of Korea in 1993, 1994, and 2003. A total of 396 subjects were used for the study (120 for 1993, 106 for 1994, and 170 for 2003). Changes in the standards for "quiet time" and "seeing others littering" were statistically significant, but there was no change in the standard for "number of other tents." There was little change in norm agreement or norm prevalence. Existing conditions were strongly correlated with standards for number of other tents but results were mixed for the other two indicators. Users' demographic characteristics and visitation patterns were not generally related to norms. Findings of the study are discussed. PMID:18214588

  1. The false enforcement of unpopular norms.

    PubMed

    Willer, Robb; Kuwabara, Ko; Macy, Michael W

    2009-09-01

    Prevailing theory assumes that people enforce norms in order to pressure others to act in ways that they approve. Yet there are numerous examples of "unpopular norms" in which people compel each other to do things that they privately disapprove. While peer sanctioning suggests a ready explanation for why people conform to unpopular norms, it is harder to understand why they would enforce a norm they privately oppose. The authors argue that people enforce unpopular norms to show that they have complied out of genuine conviction and not because of social pressure. They use laboratory experiments to demonstrate this "false enforcement" in the context of a wine tasting and an academic text evaluation. Both studies find that participants who conformed to a norm due to social pressure then falsely enforced the norm by publicly criticizing a lone deviant. A third study shows that enforcement of a norm effectively signals the enforcer's genuine support for the norm. These results demonstrate the potential for a vicious cycle in which perceived pressures to conform to and falsely enforce an unpopular norm reinforce one another. PMID:20614762

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Black American and Mexican-American Cultural Norms and Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Willard A.; And Others

    Although Mexican-American and Black-American movements in the United States have typically been compared, significant differences between the two minorities--especially in cultural norms and expectations--make comparisons inaccurate and misleading. This paper explores the differences between the Black-American and Mexican-American minorities,…

  3. Educators Assess "Open Content" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the open-content movement in education. A small but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "open," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The open-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy to create…

  4. Overview of NORM and activities by a NORM licensed permanent decontamination and waste processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mirro, G.A.

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of issues related to handling NORM materials, and provides a description of a facility designed for the processing of NORM contaminated equipment. With regard to handling NORM materials the author discusses sources of NORM, problems, regulations and disposal options, potential hazards, safety equipment, and issues related to personnel protection. For the facility, the author discusses: description of the permanent facility; the operations of the facility; the license it has for handling specific radioactive material; operating and safety procedures; decontamination facilities on site; NORM waste processing capabilities; and offsite NORM services which are available.

  5. Longitudinal relationships between individual and class norms supporting dating violence and perpetration of dating violence.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katherine A; Sullivan, Terri N; Farrell, Albert D

    2015-03-01

    Dating violence is commonly perpetrated in adolescence, making it imperative to understand risk factors in order to inform prevention efforts. Although individual norms supporting dating violence are strongly related to its perpetration, few studies have examined their longitudinal impact. Moreover, the influence of class norms (i.e., norms for students in the same grade, cohort, and school) supporting dating violence on perpetration has rarely been studied. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between individual and class norms supporting dating violence and perpetration of physical and psychological dating violence. Participants were two cohorts of sixth graders from 37 schools who were in dating relationships at Wave 1 and 6 months later at Wave 2 (N = 2,022; 43% female; 52% African American, 21% Latino/a, 20% White, and 7% other). The analyses used a multilevel approach, with students represented at Level 1 and classes (n = 74) at Level 2. The models tested direct effects of Wave 1 individual and class norms supporting dating violence on subsequent changes in perpetration of dating violence at Wave 2 and the extent to which gender moderated these relationships. The findings indicated that greater individual norms supporting male dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of physical and psychological dating violence and greater individual norms supporting female dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of psychological dating violence. Greater class norms supporting male dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of physical dating violence; whereas greater class norms supporting female dating violence predicted less change in perpetration of physical dating violence. These findings highlight the need to address norms in early adolescence. PMID:25274452

  6. Changes in force associated with the amount of aligner activation and lingual bodily movement of the maxillary central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaowei; Ren, Chaochao; Wang, Zheyao; Zhao, Pai; Wang, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to measure the orthodontic forces generated by thermoplastic aligners and investigate the possible influences of different activations for lingual bodily movements on orthodontic forces, and their attenuation. Methods Thermoplastic material of 1.0-mm in thickness was used to manufacture aligners for 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 mm activations for lingual bodily movements of the maxillary central incisor. The orthodontic force in the lingual direction delivered by the thermoplastic aligners was measured using a micro-stress sensor system for the invisible orthodontic technique, and was monitored for 2 weeks. Results Orthodontic force increased with the amount of activation of the aligner in the initial measurements. The attenuation speed in the 0.6 mm group was faster than that of the other groups (p < 0.05). All aligners demonstrated rapid relaxation in the first 8 hours, which then decreased slowly and plateaued on day 4 or 5. Conclusions The amount of activation had a substantial influence on the orthodontic force imparted by the aligners. The results suggest that the activation of lingual bodily movement of the maxillary central incisor should not exceed 0.5 mm. The initial 4 or 5 days is important with respect to orthodontic treatment incorporating an aligner. PMID:27019820

  7. The Ability of Narrative Communication to Address Health-related Social Norms

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Murphy, Sheila T.; Frank, Lauren; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Social norms are an important predictor of health behavior and have been targeted by a variety of health communication campaigns. However, these campaigns often encounter challenges related to the socially specific context in which norms exist: specifically, the extent to which the target population identifies with the reference group presented in the ad and the extent to which the target population believes the campaign's message. We argue that because of its capacity to effect identification among viewers, narrative communication is particularly appropriate for impacting social norms and, consequently, behavioral intention. This manuscript presents the results of a randomized trial testing the effectiveness of two films – one narrative, one non-narrative – in changing perceived social norms and behavioral intention regarding Pap testing to detect cervical cancer. Results of the study indicate that the narrative film was in fact more effective at producing positive changes in perceived norm and intention. PMID:24179677

  8. The neural signature of social norm compliance.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Manfred; Fischbacher, Urs; Herrnberger, Bärbel; Grön, Georg; Fehr, Ernst

    2007-10-01

    All known human societies establish social order by punishing violators of social norms. However, little is known about how the brain processes the punishment threat associated with norm violations. We use fMRI to study the neural circuitry behind social norm compliance by comparing a treatment in which norm violations can be punished with a control treatment in which punishment is impossible. Individuals' increase in norm compliance when punishment is possible exhibits a strong positive correlation with activations in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Moreover, lateral orbitofrontal cortex activity is strongly correlated with Machiavellian personality characteristics. These findings indicate a neural network involved in social norm compliance that might constitute an important basis for human sociality. Different activations of this network reveal individual differences in the behavioral response to the punishment threat and might thus provide a deeper understanding of the neurobiological sources of pathologies such as antisocial personality disorder. PMID:17920024

  9. Movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Stoessl, A Jon; Mckeown, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders can be hypokinetic (e.g., parkinsonism), hyperkinetic, or dystonic in nature and commonly arise from altered function in nuclei of the basal ganglia or their connections. As obvious structural changes are often limited, standard imaging plays less of a role than in other neurologic disorders. However, structural imaging is indicated where clinical presentation is atypical, particularly if the disorder is abrupt in onset or remains strictly unilateral. More recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may allow for differentiation between Parkinson's disease and atypical forms of parkinsonism. Functional imaging can assess regional cerebral blood flow (functional MRI (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)), cerebral glucose metabolism (PET), neurochemical and neuroreceptor status (PET and SPECT), and pathologic processes such as inflammation or abnormal protein deposition (PET) (Table 49.1). Cerebral blood flow can be assessed at rest, during the performance of motor or cognitive tasks, or in response to a variety of stimuli. In appropriate situations, the correct imaging modality and/or combination of modalities can be used to detect early disease or even preclinical disease, and to monitor disease progression and the effects of disease-modifying interventions. Various approaches are reviewed here. PMID:27430452

  10. Quantifying social norms: by coupling the ecosystem management concept and semi-quantitative sociological methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.; Xu, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over recent decades, human-induced environmental changes have steadily and rapidly grown in intensity and impact to where they now often exceed natural impacts. As one of important components of human activities, social norms play key roles in environmental and natural resources management. But the lack of relevant quantitative data about social norms greatly limits our scientific understanding of the complex linkages between humans and nature, and hampers our solving of pressing environmental and social problems. In this study, we built a quantified method by coupling the ecosystem management concept, semi-quantitative sociological methods and mathematical statistics. We got the quantified value of social norms from two parts, whether the content of social norms coincide with the concept of ecosystem management (content value) and how about the performance after social norms were put into implementation (implementation value) . First, we separately identified 12 core elements of ecosystem management and 16 indexes of social norms, and then matched them one by one. According to their matched degree, we got the content value of social norms. Second, we selected 8 key factors that can represent the performance of social norms after they were put into implementation, and then we got the implementation value by Delph method. Adding these two parts values, we got the final value of each social norms. Third, we conducted a case study in Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river in China, by selecting 12 official edicts related to the river basin ecosystem management of Heihe River Basin. By doing so, we first got the qualified data of social norms which can be directly applied to the research that involved observational or experimental data collection of natural processes. Second, each value was supported by specific contents, so it can assist creating a clear road map for building or revising management and policy guidelines. For example, in this case study

  11. Auxin and chloroplast movements.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiec, Weronika; Waligórski, Piotr; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-03-01

    Auxin is involved in a wide spectrum of physiological processes in plants, including responses controlled by the blue light photoreceptors phototropins: phototropic bending and stomatal movement. However, the role of auxin in phototropin-mediated chloroplast movements has never been studied. To address this question we searched for potential interactions between auxin and the chloroplast movement signaling pathway using different experimental approaches and two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. We observed that the disturbance of auxin homeostasis by shoot decapitation caused a decrease in chloroplast movement parameters, which could be rescued by exogenous auxin application. In several cases, the impairment of polar auxin transport, by chemical inhibitors or in auxin carrier mutants, had a similar negative effect on chloroplast movements. This inhibition was not correlated with changes in auxin levels. Chloroplast relocations were also affected by the antiauxin p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid and mutations in genes encoding some of the elements of the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA auxin receptor complex. The observed changes in chloroplast movement parameters are not prominent, which points to a modulatory role of auxin in this process. Taken together, the obtained results suggest that auxin acts indirectly to regulate chloroplast movements, presumably by regulating gene expression via the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA-ARF pathway. Auxin does not seem to be involved in controlling the expression of phototropins. PMID:26467664

  12. Wagging the watchdog: law and the emergence of bioethical norms.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael L

    2002-01-01

    Bioethics offers an ideal vantage point to study how law and ethics affect the emergence of norms. Moral philosophy traditionally places itself in the role of prime mover, the normative force behind social, cultural and legislative change. But some bioethical norms, particularly those associated with emerging right-to-die norms in the mid 1960's and through the late 1980's, did not originate in this way. Instead, legal reasoning and judicial decision-making brought about rapid change in bioethical norms almost excluding moral philosophy in the process. Judicial decision-making has prompted legislation, molded public opinion, guided medical practice and shaped moral thinking. The reasons for this are not difficult to understand. Legal reasoning, usually in the form of risk management, replaces moral reasoning because it is cognitively more comfortable, rational and parsimonious. This process creates undue pressure on the judiciary to undertake tasks for which it may not be well trained, while at the same time offers a challenge to ethicists to advocate interdisciplinary, deliberative and public forums to attenuate the undue influence of the law. PMID:15795997

  13. A panel study of peer norms and adolescent alcohol consumption: developing strategies for communication interventions.

    PubMed

    Hong, Traci; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-08-01

    Given that alcohol consumption and binge drinking among adolescents in the United States remain prevalent, this study assesses changes in the influence of peer norms-and their interactions with time, gender, and ethnicity-on alcohol consumption. Panel survey interviews of adolescents (N = 1,607) were completed in 9th grade and then again in 12th grade with students from Louisiana. Fixed effects multiple regression assessed the relations between the changes in 2 types of peer norms (i.e., descriptive norms and injunctive norms) and 2 alcohol consumption measures: 30-day alcohol prevalence and binge drinking. Increases in 30-day alcohol prevalence and binge drinking were associated with only descriptive norms. The effects of both types of peer norms intensified over time, and the effects of descriptive norms varied according to gender and ethnicity. Specifically, the influence of descriptive norms was greater on boys than on girls and on Caucasians than on African Americans. Communication interventions that target adolescents in the context of alcohol consumption should consider the temporal variability of peer normative influence and how it varies by gender and ethnicity. PMID:23767700

  14. Saccadic eye movements in a high-speed bimanual stacking task: changes of attentional control during learning and automatization.

    PubMed

    Foerster, Rebecca M; Carbone, Elena; Koesling, Hendrik; Schneider, Werner X

    2011-01-01

    Principles of saccadic eye movement control in the real world have been derived by the study of self-paced well-known tasks such as sandwich or tea making. Little is known whether these principles generalize to high-speed sensorimotor tasks and how they are affected by learning and automatization. In the present study, right-handers practiced the speed-stacking task in 14 consecutive daily training sessions, while their eye movements were recorded. Speed stacking is a high-speed sensorimotor task that requires grasping, moving, rotating, and placing of objects. The following main results emerged. Throughout practice, the eyes led the hands, displayed by a positive eye-hand time span. Moreover, visual information was gathered for the subsequent manual sub-action, displayed by a positive eye-hand unit span. With automatization, the eye-hand time span became shorter, yet it increased when corrected by the decreasing trial duration. In addition, fixations were mainly allocated to the goal positions of the right hand or objects in the right hand. The number of fixations decreased while the fixation rate remained constant. Importantly, all participants fixated on the same task-relevant locations in a similar scan path across training days, revealing a long-term memory-based mode of attention control after automatization of a high-speed sensorimotor task. PMID:21665985

  15. The Deanship and Its Faculty Interpreters: Do Mertonian Norms of Science Translate into Norms for Administration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents research comparing faculty-held norms for academic deans' behavior to Mertonian norms of science. Findings indicate that while some elements of Mertonian norms hold true, it is not the best pattern of grouping faculty expectations for deans. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (Contains 5 tables.)

  16. Psychogenic Movement

    MedlinePlus

    ... also look for marked improvement in symptoms following psychotherapy, use of a placebo (a medicine with no ... multi-therapy approach to treating psychogenic movement includes psychotherapy, placebo, or suggestion; antidepressants for symptoms related to ...

  17. Movement - uncoordinated

    MedlinePlus

    Lack of coordination; Loss of coordination; Coordination impairment; Ataxia; Clumsiness; Uncoordinated movement ... are passed through families (such as congenital cerebellar ataxia, Friedreich ataxia , ataxia - telangiectasia , or Wilson disease ) Multiple ...

  18. Adults' Attitudes about Children's Gender Norm Transgressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

    This study examined college students' knowledge and attitudes regarding children's gender, and social and moral norms, and compared their evaluations of violation of each norm type. Participating were 140 female and 67 male college students ranging in age from 17 to 46 years, 33 of whom were parents. Subjects were asked questions related to toys,…

  19. Social norms theory and concussion education.

    PubMed

    Kroshus, Emily; Garnett, Bernice R; Baugh, Christine M; Calzo, Jerel P

    2015-12-01

    Secondary prevention of harm from sport-related concussion is contingent on immediate removal from play post-injury. To-date, educational efforts to reduce the prevalent risk behavior of continued play while symptomatic have been largely ineffective. Social norms theory may hold promise as a foundation for more effective concussion education aimed at increasing concussion reporting. The primary objective of this study was to assess whether perceived team concussion reporting norms would be less supportive of an individual's safe concussion symptom reporting behavior than objective team norms. Participants were 328 male and female US collegiate athletes. Written surveys were completed in person during the spring of 2014. Among both male and female athletes, team concussion reporting norms were significantly misperceived, with athletes tending to think that they themselves have safer attitudes about concussion reporting than their teammates. Perceived norms were associated with symptom reporting intention, independent of the team's objective reporting norm. A social norms approach to concussion education, in which misperceived group norms are corrected and shifted in the direction of safety, is an important avenue for program development and evaluation research aimed at the secondary prevention of harm from concussion. Implications for the design of this type of educational programming are discussed. PMID:26471918

  20. Disturbance energy norms: A critical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, K. Joseph; Sujith, R. I.

    2012-03-01

    The question of which norm should be used to characterize the fluctuating disturbance energy in studies on thermoacoustic instabilities remains a topic of continued debate. In this paper we formulate a strategy for developing mathematically consistent norms that do not support spurious growth of disturbance energy in the absence of 'physical' sources of energy. A critical analysis of various disturbance energy norms existing in literature is conducted and important conclusions regarding positive definitiveness and susceptibility to exhibiting unphysical growth are drawn. It is shown that the energy norm proposed by Cantrell and Hart [Interaction between sound and flow in acoustic cavities: mass, momentum and energy considerations, Journal of Acoustical Society of America 36 (1964) 697-706] and Myers' first order disturbance energy norm [Transport of energy by disturbances in arbitrary steady flow, Journal of Fluid Mechanics 226 (1991) 383-400] are positive definite if M0<1 and M0<1/√{γ}, respectively, where M0 is the magnitude of the local mean flow Mach number, γ is the ratio of specific heats at constant pressure and volume and the stipulated conditions should be met at every point in the flow domain. Our analysis shows that the disturbance energy norm proposed by Chu [On the energy transfer to small disturbances in fluid flow (part I), Acta Mechanica 1 (1965) 215-234] does not exhibit unphysical growth. It is also shown that this property is not unique to Chu's disturbance energy norm and there exists a family of norms which satisfy this requirement. The analysis also leads to an interesting interpretation of the acoustic energy conservation principle of Cantrell and Hart. The potential held by various disturbance energy norms for exhibiting fictitious growth is quantified using tools from nonmodal stability theory. It is concluded that if the mean flow Mach number is small, Myers' norm is a suitable measure of the disturbance energy.

  1. School holidays: examining childhood, gender norms, and kinship in children's shorter-term residential mobility in urban Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Hunleth, Jean; Jacob, Rebekah R; Cole, Steven M; Bond, Virginia; James, Aimee S

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a practice of child residential mobility in Zambia that is frequently overlooked in migration studies and difficult to capture through standard survey methods: the practice of ‘going on holiday’ to the homes of relatives during breaks in the school term. Drawing on child-centered and quantitative research, this article examines the multiple dimensions of ‘going on holiday’ for children living in a low-income urban settlement in Lusaka. Findings suggest that the practice was gendered and may map onto changing norms in schooling in Zambia. Within a context where resources are severely constrained, going on holiday may serve as one means for cultivating reciprocity, sharing the burden of care and household labor, and strengthening kin ties. This work further demonstrates the importance of using locally meaningful terms and practices in survey research where general questions about children's mobility may fail to capture the nature and extent of children's movements. PMID:26435699

  2. Effects of a social norm feedback campaign on the drinking norms and behavior of Division I student-athletes.

    PubMed

    Thombs, Dennis L; Hamilton, Monair J

    2002-01-01

    Social norm feedback is a promising strategy for reducing alcohol misuse on college campuses. However, little is known about the impact of these interventions on at-risk populations, such as student-athletes. This study examined the effects of a campus-wide media campaign on Division I student-athletes at three universities. A discriminant function analysis revealed that a composite measure of perceived campus drinking norms distinguished between two campaign exposure groups. With the exception of one perceived norm measure (closest friends), the campaign-exposed group reported more conservative estimates of alcohol use in peers. However, there was no evidence that the campaign had reduced alcohol use. The inability of the campaign to reduce perceptions of alcohol use among one's closest friends may have accounted for the lack of change in drinking behavior. Discussion is directed to the potential limitations of using social norm feedback campaigns to reduce alcohol misuse in high-risk groups, such as student-athletes. PMID:12379053

  3. Followership in Ecology/Environment Social Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clavner, Jerry B.; Sumodi, Veronica R.

    The paper analyzes the failure of the ecology/environmental movement to develop into a social movement and to generate a mass following. The movement has had difficulty not only in organizing collective behavior but also in maintaining the necessary momentum to change into a full-fledged social movement. Obvious reasons are that ecologists…

  4. "Be Nice": Wikipedia norms for supportive communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagle, Joseph M.

    2010-04-01

    Wikipedia is acknowledged to have been home to "some bitter disputes." Indeed, conflict at Wikipedia is said to be "as addictive as cocaine." Yet, such observations are not cynical commentary but motivation for a collection of social norms. These norms speak to the intentional stance and communicative behaviors Wikipedians should adopt when interacting with one another. In the following pages, I provide a survey of these norms on the English Wikipedia and argue that they can be characterized as supportive based on Jack Gibb's classic communication article "Defensive Communication."

  5. Physical Processes Contributing To Small-scale Vertical Movements During Changing Inplane Stresses In Rift Basins and At Passive Continental Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, G. E.; Nielsen, S. B.; Hansen, D. L.

    The vertical movements during a regional stress reversal in a rifted basin or on a passive continental margin are examined using a numerical 2D thermo-mechanical finite element model with a visco-elastic-plastic rheology. Three different physical mechanisms are recognized in small-scale vertical movements at small inplane force variations: elastic dilatation, elastic flexure, and permanent deformation. Their rela- tive importance depend on the applied force, the duration of the force, and the thermal structure of the lithosphere. Elastic material dilatation occurs whenever the stress state changes. A reversal from extension to compression therefore immediately leads to elastic dilatation, and re- sults in an overall subsidence of the entire profile. Simultaneously with dilatation the lithosphere reacts with flexure. The significance of the flexural component strongly depends on the thermal structure of the lithosphere. The polarity and amplitude of the flexure depends on the initial (before compression) loading of the lithosphere. Gener- ally, the flexural effects lead to subsidence of the overdeep in the landward part of the basin and a small amount of uplift at the basin flanks. The amplitudes of the flexural response are small and comparable with the amplitudes of the elastic dilatation. With continuing compression permanent deformation and lithospheric thickening becomes increasingly important. Ultimately, the thickened part of the lithosphere stands out as an inverted zone. The amount of permanent deformation is directly connected with the size and duration of the applied force, but even a relatively small force leads to inversion tectonics in the landward part of the basin. The conclusions are: 1) small stress induced vertical movements in rift basins and at passive continental margins are the result of a complex interaction of at least three different processes, 2) the total sediment loaded amplitudes resulting from these pro- cesses are small (2-300 m) for

  6. Legal forms and reproductive norms.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Ruth

    2003-06-01

    This article draws on Pashukanis's concept of legal form and on O'Brien's concept of synthetic value to argue that legal form plays a role in reproductive relations by constructing legal subjects as the bearers of reproductive responsibilities. Pashukanis conceived of legal form as playing a particular role in capitalist exchange relations by interpellating subjects as the bearers of property rights. O'Brien argued that reproduction's specific value is synthetic value, which represents the value of integrating nature and reason in species continuity. Synthetic value is distinct from exchange value or emotional value which may also attach to reproductive process. By working through Pashukanis's method of extracting legal form from specific social relations and by adapting it to reproductive relations, an example is provided of how legal form analysis can be extended beyond the particular context of capitalist exchange relations. Just as legal form constitutes owners and non-owners as legal subjects, so it constitutes reproducers and non-reproducers. By tracing the way in which law attributes reproductive responsibility, legal form analysis shows us how law draws a line between wanting to attribute responsibility and not to attribute it, and this contradiction is a hook which social forces such as sexuality, gender, race, class and disability can latch on to in pushing legal form to shape reproductive responsibilities in a particular way. Each legal form is also externally contradicted by other legal forms. When law negotiates a balance between the reproductive norms of responsibilities and rights, it demonstrates how particular legal forms manage the interaction of different sets of social relations, such as reproduction and exchange. PMID:15871155

  7. A Biphasic Change of Regional Blood Volume in the Frontal Cortex during Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Khatami, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Current knowledge on hemodynamics in sleep is limited because available techniques do not allow continuous recordings and mainly focus on cerebral blood flow while neglecting other important parameters, such as blood volume (BV) and vasomotor activity. Design: Observational study. Participants and Settings: Continuous measures of hemodynamics over the left forehead and biceps were performed using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during nocturnal polysomnography in 16 healthy participants in sleep laboratory. Measurements and Results: Temporal dynamics and mean values of cerebral and muscular oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2), deoxygenated hemoglobin (HHb), and BV during different sleep stages were compared. A biphasic change of cerebral BV was observed which contrasted a monotonic increase of muscular BV during non-rapid eye movement sleep. A significant decrement in cerebral HbO2 and BV accompanied by an increase of HHb was recorded at sleep onset (Phase I). Prior to slow wave sleep (SWS) HbO2 and BV turned to increase whereas HHb began to decrease in subsequent Phase II suggested increased brain perfusion during SWS. The cerebral HbO2 slope correlated to BV slope in Phase I and II, but it only correlated to HHb slope in Phase II. The occurrence time of inflection points correlated to SWS latencies. Conclusion: Initial decrease of brain perfusion with decreased blood volume (BV) and oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) together with increasing muscular BV fit thermoregulation process at sleep onset. The uncorrelated and correlated slopes of HbO2 and deoxygenated hemoglobin indicate different mechanisms underlying the biphasic hemodynamic process in light sleep and slow wave sleep (SWS). In SWS, changes in vasomotor activity (i.e., increased vasodilatation) may mediate increasing cerebral and muscular BV. Citation: Zhang Z, Khatami R. A biphasic change of regional blood volume in the frontal cortex during non-rapid eye movement sleep: a near

  8. Trading places: Real Choice Systems Change grants and the movement to community-based long-term care supports.

    PubMed

    Shirk, Cynthia

    2007-05-30

    The Real Choice Systems Change grant program was created to help states transform their long-term care service systems from ones that rely on institutions to ones that are more community-based. The grants are intended to help states develop the infrastructure needed for seniors and individuals with disabilities to live in integrated community settings. This issue brief provides information about Systems Change grants and the kinds of activities state Medicaid agencies have undertaken to transform their institutionally based systems. In addition, this paper reports on some of the qualitative and quantitative responses to the changes. This brief also raises critical policy questions related to public spending for long-term care in different settings that might be considered in tandem with future grant funding decisions. PMID:17542106

  9. NORM -- The new kid on the block

    SciTech Connect

    Estey, H.P.

    1991-12-31

    The existence of radioactive materials in accumulations of scale and sludge in oil and gas production equipment is a relatively new issue. This developing issue first gained international attention in 1981 when significant radiation levels were detected on oil and gas production platforms in the North Sea; it didn`t become a domestic issue until 1986 when a similar situation was detected in a Mississippi pipe yard. Most published papers on the occurrence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in oil and gas production equipment have been based on studies of NORM-related activities in the United Kingdom (North Sea NORM). This paper addresses the occurrences and regulation of NORM in the US oil and gas production industry as experienced, witnessed and/or observed by the author over the past four years.

  10. Developmental Norms for the Sentence Repetition Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, John A.; MacDonald, John W.

    1984-01-01

    Obtained developmental norms for the Sentence Repetition Test from children (N=1,081) ranging in age from three to 13 years. Utilized a substanially larger number of children in each age group than previous reports. (Author/LLL)

  11. Post-wildfire erosion and mass movement in British Columbia: site-scale soil changes and catchment-scale processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Peter

    2010-05-01

    yield which is derived mainly from previously stored channel sediment. Several debris flows have occurred in one of the burned areas under study, as well as in earlier burns in the region. Most of these have occurred in steep, dissected terrain which was subject to debris flows before fire, although old logging roads were responsible for one notable event. Increased snow accumulation and more rapid snowmelt in burned areas have been responsible for some debris flows, as have autumn rain-on-snow storms. These observations suggest that engineering treatments, such as road deactivation and improved drainage control, may be at least as important as broadcast erosion control treatments for reducing risks from post-wildfire mass movement.

  12. 49 CFR 236.405 - Track signaled for movements in both directions, change of direction of traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., change of direction of traffic. 236.405 Section 236.405 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.405 Track signaled for...

  13. 49 CFR 236.405 - Track signaled for movements in both directions, change of direction of traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., change of direction of traffic. 236.405 Section 236.405 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.405 Track signaled for...

  14. 49 CFR 236.405 - Track signaled for movements in both directions, change of direction of traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., change of direction of traffic. 236.405 Section 236.405 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.405 Track signaled for...

  15. Reform Movement in Turkey: Changes in Geometry Content in Student Selection and Placement Examinations in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Incikabi, Lutfi

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to present the changes in student selection and placement examinations in secondary education by focusing on the geometry content during the postreform period. The methodology, also used by Petway (2000), includes three steps toward the aim of examining the following: technical aspects, content coverage, and examination results.…

  16. Youth in Turmoil. America's Changing Youth Cultures and Student Protest Movements. Crime and Delinquency Issues: A Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Jack D.

    In this monograph, student protests and disturbances are viewed within a broad and well-informed framework, which includes: (1) the growing importance of youth and college students in American society; (2) the changing social position of youth and the rise of a generalized youth subculture; and (3) perspectives on cooperative subcultures, deviant…

  17. Popular Pedagogy and the Changing Political Landscape: A Case Study of a Women's Housing Movement in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Salma

    2009-01-01

    This paper sets out to explore the relationship between popular education and the changing South African political landscape through case study research of the Victoria Mxenge Housing Development Association. The research took place over an extended period of time from 1992-2003 and discusses how popular education was advocated by the South…

  18. State High School Tests: Changes in State Policies and the Impact of the College and Career Readiness Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Shelby

    2011-01-01

    Since 2002, the Center on Education Policy (CEP) has collected and reported data on state policies that require students to pass a state assessment in order to receive a high school diploma. The state policies associated with these assessments, also known as high school exit exams, have undergone a number of changes over the past ten years. For…

  19. Social norms for intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Witte, Tricia H; Mulla, Mazheruddin M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated perceived descriptive norms (i.e., perceived prevalence) for intimate partner violence (IPV) among college students. Male and female college students were asked to estimate the prevalence of IPV for same-sex "typical students" on their campus. Perpetrators of IPV made higher estimates than nonperpetrators. Both perpetrators and nonperpetrators overestimated the prevalence of IPV when compared to actual prevalence rates. Findings lend support for using social-norms-based prevention programs on college campuses. PMID:24547674

  20. Shared Norms and Their Explanation for the Social Clustering of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Brewis, Alexandra A.; Wutich, Amber; Morin, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to test the hypothesized role of shared body size norms in the social contagion of body size and obesity. Methods. Using data collected in 2009 from 101 women and 812 of their social ties in Phoenix, Arizona, we assessed the indirect effect of social norms on shared body mass index (BMI) measured in 3 different ways. Results. We confirmed Christakis and Fowler's basic finding that BMI and obesity do indeed cluster socially, but we found that body size norms accounted for only a small portion of this effect (at most 20%) and only via 1 of the 3 pathways. Conclusions. If shared social norms play only a minor role in the social contagion of obesity, interventions targeted at changing ideas about appropriate BMIs or body sizes may be less useful than those working more directly with behaviors, for example, by changing eating habits or transforming opportunities for and constraints on dietary intake. PMID:21555656

  1. NEIGHBORHOOD NORMS AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG TEENS

    PubMed Central

    Musick, Kelly; Seltzer, Judith A.; Schwartz, Christine R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses new data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS) to examine how neighborhood norms shape teenagers’ substance use. Specifically, it takes advantage of clustered data at the neighborhood level to relate adult neighbors’ attitudes and behavior with respect to smoking, drinking, and drugs, which we treat as norms, to teenagers’ own smoking, drinking, and drug use. We use hierarchical linear models to account for parents’ attitudes and behavior and other characteristics of individuals and families. We also investigate how the association between neighborhood norms and teen behavior depends on: (1) the strength of norms, as measured by consensus in neighbors’ attitudes and conformity in their behavior; (2) the willingness and ability of neighbors to enforce norms, for instance, by monitoring teens’ activities; and (3) the degree to which teens are exposed to their neighbors. We find little association between neighborhood norms and teen substance use, regardless of how we condition the relationship. We discuss possible theoretical and methodological explanations for this finding. PMID:18496598

  2. Semidiurnal temperature changes caused by tidal front movements in the warm season in seabed habitats on the georges bank northern margin and their ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Guida, Vincent G; Valentine, Page C; Gallea, Leslie B

    2013-01-01

    Georges Bank is a large, shallow feature separating the Gulf of Maine from the Atlantic Ocean. Previous studies demonstrated a strong tidal-mixing front during the warm season on the northern bank margin between thermally stratified water in the Gulf of Maine and mixed water on the bank. Tides transport warm water off the bank during flood tide and cool gulf water onto the bank during ebb tide. During 10 days in August 2009, we mapped frontal temperatures in five study areas along ∼100 km of the bank margin. The seabed "frontal zone", where temperature changed with frontal movment, experienced semidiurnal temperature maxima and minima. The tidal excursion of the frontal boundary between stratified and mixed water ranged 6 to 10 km. This "frontal boundary zone" was narrower than the frontal zone. Along transects perpendicular to the bank margin, seabed temperature change at individual sites ranged from 7.0°C in the frontal zone to 0.0°C in mixed bank water. At time series in frontal zone stations, changes during tidal cycles ranged from 1.2 to 6.1°C. The greatest rate of change (-2.48°C hr(-1)) occurred at mid-ebb. Geographic plots of seabed temperature change allowed the mapping of up to 8 subareas in each study area. The magnitude of temperature change in a subarea depended on its location in the frontal zone. Frontal movement had the greatest effect on seabed temperature in the 40 to 80 m depth interval. Subareas experiencing maximum temperature change in the frontal zone were not in the frontal boundary zone, but rather several km gulfward (off-bank) of the frontal boundary zone. These results provide a new ecological framework for examining the effect of tidally-driven temperature variability on the distribution, food resources, and reproductive success of benthic invertebrate and demersal fish species living in tidal front habitats. PMID:23405129

  3. Abnormal Ocular Movement With Executive Dysfunction and Personality Change in Subject With Thalamic Infarction: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ee Jin; Kim, Myeong Ok; Kim, Chang Hwan; Joa, Kyung Lim

    2015-01-01

    The thalamus, located between the cerebrum and midbrain, is a nuclear complex connected to the cerebral cortex that influences motor skills, cognition, and mood. The thalamus is composed of 50-60 nuclei and can be divided into four areas according to vascular supply. In addition, it can be divided into five areas according to function. Many studies have reported on a thalamic infarction causing motor or sensory changes, but few have reported on behavioral and executive aspects of the ophthalmoplegia of the thalamus. This study reports a rare case of a paramedian thalamus infarction affecting the dorsomedial area of the thalamus, manifesting as oculomotor nerve palsy, an abnormal behavioral change, and executive dysfunction. This special case is presented with a review of the anatomical basis and function of the thalamus. PMID:26798620

  4. A review of adaptive change in musculoskeletal impedance during space flight and associated implications for postflight head movement control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, P. V.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Layne, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    We present a review of converging sources of evidence which suggest that the differences between loading histories experienced in 1-g and weightlessness are sufficient to stimulate adaptation in mechanical impedance of the musculoskeletal system. As a consequence of this adaptive change we argue that we should observe changes in the ability to attenuate force transmission through the musculoskeletal system both during and after space flight. By focusing attention on the relation between human sensorimotor activity and support surfaces, the importance of controlling mechanical energy flow through the musculoskeletal system is demonstrated. The implications of such control are discussed in light of visual-vestibular function in the specific context of head and gaze control during postflight locomotion. Evidence from locomotory biomechanics, visual-vestibular function, ergonomic evaluations of human vibration, and specific investigations of locomotion and head and gaze control after space flight, is considered.

  5. Localized Movement and Levels of 53BP1 Protein Are Changed by γ-irradiation in PML Deficient Cells.

    PubMed

    Legartová, Soňa; Sehnalová, Petra; Malyšková, Barbora; Küntziger, Thomas; Collas, Philippe; Cmarko, Dušan; Raška, Ivan; Sorokin, Dmitry V; Kozubek, Stanislav; Bártová, Eva

    2016-11-01

    We studied epigenetics, distribution pattern, kinetics, and diffusion of proteins recruited to spontaneous and γ-radiation-induced DNA lesions. We showed that PML deficiency leads to an increased number of DNA lesions, which was accompanied by changes in histone signature. In PML wt cells, we observed two mobile fractions of 53BP1 protein with distinct diffusion in spontaneous lesions. These protein fractions were not detected in PML-deficient cells, characterized by slow-diffusion of 53BP1. Single particle tracking analysis revealed limited local motion of 53BP1 foci in PML double null cells and local motion 53BP1 foci was even more reduced after γ-irradiation. However, radiation did not change co-localization between 53BP1 nuclear bodies and interchromatin granule-associated zones (IGAZs), nuclear speckles, or chromocenters. This newly observed interaction pattern imply that 53BP1 protein could be a part of not only DNA repair, but also process mediated via components accumulated in IGAZs, nuclear speckles, or paraspeckles. Together, PML deficiency affected local motion of 53BP1 nuclear bodies and changed composition and a number of irradiation-induced foci. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2583-2596, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27526954

  6. College Student Alcohol Use and Abuse: Social Norms, Health Beliefs, and Selected Socio-Demographic Variables as Explanatory Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Denisha A.; Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General described college alcohol abuse as the most significant public health concern on university campuses (DHHS, 2007). Social norms have been identified as a strong predictor of college drinking and yet programs based on norms have had limited effectiveness in changing drinking behavior. Other theoretical explanations, such as…

  7. Changes in melatonin secretion in tourists after rapid movement to another lighting zone without transition of time zone.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Joanna; Blazejczyk, Krzysztof; Morita, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Most of the research in the field of Chronobiology is focused on the problem of the circadian rhythms (CR) desynchronization. In travelers, it results mostly from the changes of surrounding: photoperiod, local climate conditions (radiation and thermal load) and behavior (e.g. type and place of tourism and activity level). Until now, it was not documented whether the changes in melatonin (MLT) secretion occur in effect of mid-distance transparallel travels (TpT), without complications arising due to time-zone transitions (e.g. jet-lag syndrome). To cope with this problem, a special field experiment was carried out. In the experiment, MLT characteristics were examined twice a year in real conditions through a group of young tourists (23-26 years old) at their place of habitual residence (Warsaw, Poland), and at their tourist destination (Tromso, Norway). Transition to circumpolar zone in summer has resulted in insignificant reduction in melatonin peak value (MPV) compared to preflight control (2 days before travel) and the melatonin peak time (MPT) was delayed. However, after traveling southward on the returning flight, MPV was lower compared to control and MPT was advanced. In winter, MPV was insignificantly higher in comparison to preflight control and MPT was almost unchanged. While changes in MPV do not depend on season, flight direction and day of stay after flight than MPT was differentiated seasonally and due to direction of flight. MPV and MPT were significantly modified by characteristics of individual light exposure during daytime and evening. The experiment showed also that in real conditions activity level is an important factor affected melatonin peak in tourists. In winter, greater daytime activity significantly influenced earlier MPT occurrence, both after northward and southward flights. PMID:26817496

  8. The dynamic relationship between social norms and behaviors: The results of an HIV prevention network intervention for injection drug users

    PubMed Central

    Latkin, Carl; Donnell, Deborah; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa; Celentano, David; Metzger, David

    2013-01-01

    Aims Social norms are a key source of influence on health behaviors. This study examined changes in social norms and relationships between HIV injection risk behaviors and social norms among injection drug users (IDUs) involved in an experimental intervention. Design Randomized clinical trial. Setting An HIV Prevention Trials Network study, Philadelphia, USA. Participants IDUs, called indexes, and their social network members, who were drug or sex partners, were recruited for an HIV prevention intervention and followed for up to 30 months (N=652). Indexes were randomized into a peer education intervention or control condition. Measurements Outcomes of injection related HIV risk behaviors (sharing needles, sharing cookers, sharing cotton, front/back-loaded) were measured every 6 months and social norm of these 4 risk behaviors were assessed every 12 months. Findings There was a statistically significant intervention effect on all four social norms of injection behaviors, with participants in the intervention reporting less risky social norms compared with controls (changes in mean score: needles, -0.24, p.<01; cookers, -0.33, p.<01; cottons, -0.28, p.<05; front/back loading, -0.23, p.<01). There was also a statistically significant bidirectional association with social norms predicting injection risk behaviors at the next assessment and risk behaviors predicting social norms at the subsequent visit. Conclusions Through social network interventions it is feasible to change both injection risk behaviors and associated social norms. However, it is critical that social network interventions focus on publically highlighting behavior changes since changing social norms without awareness of behaviors change may lead to relapse of risk behaviors. PMID:23362861

  9. Seasonal changes in interstitial salinities and seasonal movements of subtidal benthic invertebrates in the Fraser River estuary, B.C.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Peter M.; Brinkhurst, Ralph O.

    1981-01-01

    The subtidal benthic fauna of the lower Fraser River, a salt-wedge estuary, was sampled monthly from June 1977 to August 1978 in mud substrates at six stations ranging from oligohaline to polyhaline. Subtidal interstitial salinities were also measured and were related to the seasonal distribution of the estuarine benthic fauna. Interstitial salinities of silty sediments do not vary diurnally, but the transition zone between salt and fresh interstitial water is cyclically shifted up- and downstream in relation to freshwater discharge, leading to seasonal shifts in the distribution of benthic infaunal species. Seasonal shifts are shown to occur in the oligochaetes Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, Tubifex tubifex, Tubificoides gabriellae, Paranais litoralis, Specaria fraseri, Nais communis and Nais elinguis, and of the polychaetes Eteone longa, Amphicteis sp. and Polydora kempi japonica. These species comprised over 25% of the total taxa collected and over 60% of the individuals collected. The data on other species distributions do not conflict with the hypothesis of cyclic changes related to seasonal interstitial salinities. The changes vary in extent in relation to runoff, and appear to be a feature of salt-wedge estuaries in general.

  10. [Personal and social norms that determine children's waste reduction behavior].

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Kayo

    2011-08-01

    Research has demonstrated the environmentally conscious behavior of parents and caregivers acts as a social influence that produces environmentally conscious behavior in their children, and also has an effect on their children's cost-benefit evaluations and social norm evaluations. The present study examined the personal norms for producing continuous environmentally conscious behavior, and two social norms that form the personal norms, which are categorized as descriptive and subjective norms. The results of this study suggest that the subjective norm formed the personal norm. Furthermore, the parents' normative social influences affected the personal norm through the subjective norm, and the parents' behavior affected their children's environmentally conscious behavior through the descriptive norm. PMID:21919301

  11. Learning the Norm of Internality: NetNorm, a Connectionist Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thierry, Bollon; Adeline, Paignon; Pascal, Pansu

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present article is to show that connectionist simulations can be used to model some of the socio-cognitive processes underlying the learning of the norm of internality. For our simulations, we developed a connectionist model which we called NetNorm (based on Dual-Network formalism). This model is capable of simulating the…

  12. Functional mapping of reaction norms to multiple environmental signals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiasheng; Zeng, Yanru; Huang, Jianqing; Hou, Wei; Zhu, Jun; Wu, Rongling

    2007-02-01

    Whether there are different genes involved in response to different environmental signals and how these genes interact to determine the final expression of the trait are of fundamental importance in agricultural and biological research. We present a statistical framework for mapping environment-induced genes (or quantitative trait loci, QTLs) of major effects on the expression of a trait that respond to changing environments. This framework is constructed with a maximum-likelihood-based mixture model, in which the mean and covariance structure of environment-induced responses is modelled. The means for responses to continuous environmental states, referred to as reaction norms, are approximated for different QTL genotypes by mathematical equations that were derived from fundamental biological principles or based on statistical goodness-of-fit to observational data. The residual covariance between different environmental states was modelled by autoregressive processes. Such an approach to studying the genetic control of reaction norms can be expected to be advantageous over traditional mapping approaches in which no biological principles and statistical structures are considered. We demonstrate the analytical procedure and power of this approach by modelling the photosynthetic rate process as a function of temperature and light irradiance. Our approach allows for testing how a QTL affects the reaction norm of photosynthetic rate to a specific environment and whether there exist different QTLs to mediate photosynthetic responses to temperature and light irradiance, respectively. PMID:17517157

  13. Movement, swimming speed, and oxygen consumption of juvenile white sturgeon in response to changing flows, water temperatures, and light level in the Snake River, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Brown, Richard S.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Brink, Steve R.; Lepla, Kenneth B.; Bates, Phil; Chandler, James A.

    2005-07-01

    The flow of the Snake River downstream of Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, frequently fluctuates as the dam responds to power production requirements. These flow fluctuations have the potential to increase the energy used by individual juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) that move to avoid unfavorable habitat or that alter their swimming speeds to maintain position over a range of velocities. Following swimming respirometry experiments, a field study using electromyogram (EMG) and sonic telemetry evaluated whether sturgeon were being negatively affected by operations of Hells Canyon Dam during three study periods where flows were artificially fluctuated (247 to 856 m3/s), held high and stable (438 to 600 m3/s), or held low and stable (275 to 284 m3/s). Respirometry results confirmed that oxygen consumption of juvenile sturgeon increased with swim speed and was temperature dependent, and when corrected for fish mass, ranged from 140.2 to 306.5 mg O2 kg-1 h-1. The telemetry study showed that movements and activity levels, as measured by swimming speeds and oxygen consumption, of sturgeon were variable among fish and across study periods. When flows were held low and stable, sturgeon movement increased while activity levels decreased when compared to the study periods when flows were variable or were high and stable. Although the overall trend was for activity levels to be less during the study period when flows were low and stable, the majority of differences between study periods appeared to be due to differences in water temperature and light levels that changed during the three-month investigation. The results suggest high flows, even those of relatively short durations such as what occurs during load-following operations, restrict the movement of juvenile sturgeon, but do not result in an increase of energy expenditure, possibly because of morphological and behavioral adaptations to living in a high-velocity environment. This may have significant

  14. Southern elephant seals from Kerguelen Islands confronted by Antarctic Sea ice. Changes in movements and in diving behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailleul, Frédéric; Charrassin, Jean-Benoıˆt; Ezraty, Robert; Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny; McMahon, Clive R.; Field, Iain C.; Guinet, Christophe

    2007-02-01

    The behaviour of southern elephant seals from Kerguelen Island ( 49∘50'S, 70∘30'E) was investigated in relation to the oceanographic regions of the Southern Ocean. The oceanographic and the seal behaviour data, including location and diving activity, were collected using a new generation of satellite-relayed devices measuring and transmitting pressure, temperature, and salinity along with locations. Dive duration, maximum diving depth, time spent at the bottom of the dives, and shape of dive profiles were compared between male and female seals, and were related to the oceanographic characteristics of areas prospected by the seals. Most animals travelled to the Antarctic shelf. However, during winter, adult females travelled away from the continent, remained and foraged within the marginal sea-ice zone, while juvenile males remained within the pack ice to forage mainly on the Antarctic shelf. Therefore, as the ice expanded females appeared to shift from benthic to pelagic foraging farther north, while males continued to forage almost exclusively benthically on the continental shelf. This difference is likely related to the different energetic requirements between the two sexes, but also may be related to pregnant females having to return to Kerguelen in early spring in order to give birth and successfully raise their pups, while males can remain in the ice. Our results show an important link between elephant seals and Antarctic sea ice and suggest that changes in sea-ice conditions could strongly affect the behaviour of this species.

  15. Four-dimensional inversion of resistivity monitoring data through Lp norm minimizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Supper, Robert; Tsourlos, Panagiotis; Yi, Myeong-Jong

    2013-12-01

    A new 4-D inversion algorithm is developed so that any data misfits and model roughness in the space and time domains can be selectively minimized, in terms of either the L1 norm or the L2 norm. This study is motivated by the experience that a 4-D inversion adopting full L2 norm minimization may sometimes result in a model that is too smoothly varying with time. It is further encouraged by the realization that a particular criterion of either L1 or L2 norm cannot be universally optimal for accurately reconstructing the subsurface condition. In addition, we try to overcome difficulties of jointly choosing two optimal regularization parameters in space and time domains. To achieve this, we devise automatic determination methods, not only of the Lagrangian multipliers for the space-domain smoothness constraint, but also of the regularization parameter for penalizing the model roughness along the time axis. Both kinds of regularization parameters are actively updated at each iteration, according to variations in data misfit and model roughness. We conducted inversion experiments using synthetic and field monitoring data to test the proposed algorithms, and further to compare the performance of L1 and L2 norm minimizations. Both the synthetic and field data experiments demonstrated that the proposed automatic determination method produced ground changes that were more similar to the true changes than those of approaches using pre-determined parameter values. Inversion experiments showed that L1 norm minimization of the time-domain roughness could reduce the problem of overly smooth model changes when the subsurface changes are locally confined, but that the L2 norm approach would be more reasonable when the changes are expected to be widespread.

  16. Face recognition with L1-norm subspaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maritato, Federica; Liu, Ying; Colonnese, Stefania; Pados, Dimitris A.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the problem of representing individual faces by maximum L1-norm projection subspaces calculated from available face-image ensembles. In contrast to conventional L2-norm subspaces, L1-norm subspaces are seen to offer significant robustness to image variations, disturbances, and rank selection. Face recognition becomes then the problem of associating a new unknown face image to the "closest," in some sense, L1 subspace in the database. In this work, we also introduce the concept of adaptively allocating the available number of principal components to different face image classes, subject to a given total number/budget of principal components. Experimental studies included in this paper illustrate and support the theoretical developments.

  17. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

    PubMed Central

    Garnham, Alan; Doehren, Sam; Gygax, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality. PMID:26257681

  18. Mixed Norm Regularized Discrimination for Image Steganalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoming; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Dong

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of image steganalysis is to detect the presence of hidden messages in cover images. Steganalysis can be considered as a pattern recognition process to decide which class a test image belongs to: the innocent photographic image or the stego-image. This paper presents a definition of mixed L_{p,q} matrix norm as an extension of L_{2,1} matrix norm. We incorporate discriminative mixed L_{p,q} matrix norm analysis to select the features which best preserve the data distribution, e.g., manifold structure, of the whole feature sets. Experiments on different data sets verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach and the selected features are more discriminate.

  19. Movement - uncontrolled or slow

    MedlinePlus

    ... leg movements - uncontrollable; Slow involuntary movements of large muscle groups; Athetoid movements ... The slow twisting movements of muscles (athetosis) or jerky muscle ... including: Cerebral palsy Drug side effects Encephalitis ...

  20. Semidiurnal Temperature Changes Caused by Tidal Front Movements in the Warm Season in Seabed Habitats on the Georges Bank Northern Margin and Their Ecological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Guida, Vincent G.; Valentine, Page C.; Gallea, Leslie B.

    2013-01-01

    Georges Bank is a large, shallow feature separating the Gulf of Maine from the Atlantic Ocean. Previous studies demonstrated a strong tidal-mixing front during the warm season on the northern bank margin between thermally stratified water in the Gulf of Maine and mixed water on the bank. Tides transport warm water off the bank during flood tide and cool gulf water onto the bank during ebb tide. During 10 days in August 2009, we mapped frontal temperatures in five study areas along ∼100 km of the bank margin. The seabed “frontal zone”, where temperature changed with frontal movment, experienced semidiurnal temperature maxima and minima. The tidal excursion of the frontal boundary between stratified and mixed water ranged 6 to 10 km. This “frontal boundary zone” was narrower than the frontal zone. Along transects perpendicular to the bank margin, seabed temperature change at individual sites ranged from 7.0°C in the frontal zone to 0.0°C in mixed bank water. At time series in frontal zone stations, changes during tidal cycles ranged from 1.2 to 6.1°C. The greatest rate of change (−2.48°C hr−1) occurred at mid-ebb. Geographic plots of seabed temperature change allowed the mapping of up to 8 subareas in each study area. The magnitude of temperature change in a subarea depended on its location in the frontal zone. Frontal movement had the greatest effect on seabed temperature in the 40 to 80 m depth interval. Subareas experiencing maximum temperature change in the frontal zone were not in the frontal boundary zone, but rather several km gulfward (off-bank) of the frontal boundary zone. These results provide a new ecological framework for examining the effect of tidally-driven temperature variability on the distribution, food resources, and reproductive success of benthic invertebrate and demersal fish species living in tidal front habitats. PMID:23405129

  1. Justice foundations for the Comprehensive Law Movement.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Authors examining the developing dispute resolution alternatives to the adversarial system have identified nine converging "vectors" or alternatives in what has been termed the Comprehensive Law Movement. These authors have sought to understand how the developing vectors can remain separate and vibrant movements while sharing common ground. Some analyze these developments as being within law and legal practice, others see them as alternative approaches to law, and still others take a combined approach. It will be impossible to understand how these vectors have meaningful differences from law and legal practice if the search is limited to looking within law and legal practice. It will be impossible to understand how these vectors have meaningful commonalities with law and legal practice if the search is limited to looking external to law and legal practice. Instead of comparing the vectors with the adversarial system, higher order criteria are required. What is needed is a comprehensive and internally consistent super-system of norms; one that can be used to evaluate the adversarial system and the evolving vectors on an equal footing. An Aristotelian natural law virtue theory of justice can: (a) provide a functional guiding definition of justice; (b) serve as a comprehensive and internally consistent super-system of norms; and (c) provide the theoretical and evaluative foundation required to clarify the relationships among the adversarial system and the developing vectors. Finally, it will become clear why the Comprehensive Law Movement might be more appropriately conceptualized as the Comprehensive Justice Movement. PMID:20880589

  2. Arousal facilitates involuntary eye movements.

    PubMed

    DiGirolamo, Gregory J; Patel, Neha; Blaukopf, Clare L

    2016-07-01

    Attention plays a critical role in action selection. However, the role of attention in eye movements is complicated as these movements can be either voluntary or involuntary, with, in some circumstances (antisaccades), these two actions competing with each other for execution. But attending to the location of an impending eye movement is only one facet of attention that may play a role in eye movement selection. In two experiments, we investigated the effect of arousal on voluntary eye movements (antisaccades) and involuntary eye movements (prosaccadic errors) in an antisaccade task. Arousal, as caused by brief loud sounds and indexed by changes in pupil diameter, had a facilitation effect on involuntary eye movements. Involuntary eye movements were both significantly more likely to be executed and significantly faster under arousal conditions (Experiments 1 and 2), and the influence of arousal had a specific time course (Experiment 2). Arousal, one form of attention, can produce significant costs for human movement selection as potent but unplanned actions are benefited more than planned ones. PMID:26928432

  3. Energizing and de-motivating effects of norm-conflict.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Rachel I; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R

    2013-01-01

    Norms have a pervasive influence on behavior, yet previous research has not addressed that people often face conflicting norms from multiple ingroups. The current research addresses this gap in the context of proenvironmental behavior and demonstrates two effects predicted by the novel theoretical position we offer: People can be de-motivated by norm-conflict, or conversely, norm-conflict can encourage people to take action. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that norm-conflict is associated with increased perceived effectiveness for those with positive attitudes to the issue and reduced perceived effectiveness for those with moderate attitudes, and effectiveness perceptions mediated an indirect effect on behavioral intentions. Study 3 found that perceived effectiveness also moderates the effects of norm-conflict such that norm-conflict only influences intentions when perceived effectiveness is high. Norm-conflict is both positively and negatively related to behavioral decision making, suggesting additional considerations in the design of social norms-based interventions. PMID:23100542

  4. Norms as Group-Level Constructs: Investigating School-Level Teen Pregnancy Norms and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Social norms are a group-level phenomenon, but past quantitative research has rarely measured them in the aggregate or considered their group-level properties. We used the school-based design of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to measure normative climates regarding teen pregnancy across 75 U.S. high schools. We distinguished between the strength of a school's norm against teen pregnancy and the consensus around that norm. School-level norm strength and dissensus were strongly (r = -0.65) and moderately (r = 0.34) associated with pregnancy prevalence within schools, respectively. Normative climate partially accounted for observed racial differences in school pregnancy prevalence, but norms were a stronger predictor than racial composition. As hypothesized, schools with both a stronger average norm against teen pregnancy and greater consensus around the norm had the lowest pregnancy prevalence. Results highlight the importance of group-level normative processes and of considering the local school environment when designing policies to reduce teen pregnancy. PMID:26074628

  5. Necessary, yet dissociable contributions of the insular and ventromedial prefrontal cortices to norm adaptation: computational and lesion evidence in humans.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaosi; Wang, Xingchao; Hula, Andreas; Wang, Shiwei; Xu, Shuai; Lohrenz, Terry M; Knight, Robert T; Gao, Zhixian; Dayan, Peter; Montague, P Read

    2015-01-14

    Social norms and their enforcement are fundamental to human societies. The ability to detect deviations from norms and to adapt to norms in a changing environment is therefore important to individuals' normal social functioning. Previous neuroimaging studies have highlighted the involvement of the insular and ventromedial prefrontal (vmPFC) cortices in representing norms. However, the necessity and dissociability of their involvement remain unclear. Using model-based computational modeling and neuropsychological lesion approaches, we examined the contributions of the insula and vmPFC to norm adaptation in seven human patients with focal insula lesions and six patients with focal vmPFC lesions, in comparison with forty neurologically intact controls and six brain-damaged controls. There were three computational signals of interest as participants played a fairness game (ultimatum game): sensitivity to the fairness of offers, sensitivity to deviations from expected norms, and the speed at which people adapt to norms. Significant group differences were assessed using bootstrapping methods. Patients with insula lesions displayed abnormally low adaptation speed to norms, yet detected norm violations with greater sensitivity than controls. Patients with vmPFC lesions did not have such abnormalities, but displayed reduced sensitivity to fairness and were more likely to accept the most unfair offers. These findings provide compelling computational and lesion evidence supporting the necessary, yet dissociable roles of the insula and vmPFC in norm adaptation in humans: the insula is critical for learning to adapt when reality deviates from norm expectations, and that the vmPFC is important for valuation of fairness during social exchange. PMID:25589742

  6. Necessary, Yet Dissociable Contributions of the Insular and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortices to Norm Adaptation: Computational and Lesion Evidence in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaosi; Wang, Xingchao; Hula, Andreas; Wang, Shiwei; Xu, Shuai; Lohrenz, Terry M.; Knight, Robert T.; Gao, Zhixian; Dayan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Social norms and their enforcement are fundamental to human societies. The ability to detect deviations from norms and to adapt to norms in a changing environment is therefore important to individuals' normal social functioning. Previous neuroimaging studies have highlighted the involvement of the insular and ventromedial prefrontal (vmPFC) cortices in representing norms. However, the necessity and dissociability of their involvement remain unclear. Using model-based computational modeling and neuropsychological lesion approaches, we examined the contributions of the insula and vmPFC to norm adaptation in seven human patients with focal insula lesions and six patients with focal vmPFC lesions, in comparison with forty neurologically intact controls and six brain-damaged controls. There were three computational signals of interest as participants played a fairness game (ultimatum game): sensitivity to the fairness of offers, sensitivity to deviations from expected norms, and the speed at which people adapt to norms. Significant group differences were assessed using bootstrapping methods. Patients with insula lesions displayed abnormally low adaptation speed to norms, yet detected norm violations with greater sensitivity than controls. Patients with vmPFC lesions did not have such abnormalities, but displayed reduced sensitivity to fairness and were more likely to accept the most unfair offers. These findings provide compelling computational and lesion evidence supporting the necessary, yet dissociable roles of the insula and vmPFC in norm adaptation in humans: the insula is critical for learning to adapt when reality deviates from norm expectations, and that the vmPFC is important for valuation of fairness during social exchange. PMID:25589742

  7. Effectiveness of social norms media marketing in reducing drinking and driving: A statewide campaign

    PubMed Central

    Linkenbach, Jeffrey W.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated the efficacy of a high-intensity social norms media marketing campaign aimed at correcting normative misperceptions and reducing the prevalence of drinking and driving among 21-to-34-year-olds in Montana. A quasi-experimental design was used, such that regions of Montana were assigned to one of three experimental groups: social norms media marketing campaign, buffer, and control. Four random samples of Montanans between the ages of 21 and 34 were assessed at four time points over 18 months via phone surveys. Findings suggest that the social norms media campaign was successful at exposing the targeted population to social norms messages in the counties within the intervention region. Moreover, results demonstrate the campaign reduced normative misperceptions, increased use of designated drivers, and decreased drinking and driving among those young adults in counties within the intervention region. Social norms media marketing can be effective at changing drinking-related behaviors at the population level. This research provides a model for utilizing social norms media marketing to address other behaviors related to public health. PMID:20619177

  8. Do my peers approve? Interest in injunctive norms feedback delivered online to college student drinkers.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Jennifer E; Miller, Mary Beth; Balestrieri, Sara G; Carey, Kate B

    2016-07-01

    Injunctive norms feedback is promising but understudied as a component of college drinking interventions. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate acceptability of injunctive norms feedback delivered to college drinkers via the web. We examined subjective interest in information reflecting peer approval of four sets of drinking behaviors and outcomes, and correlates of interest in the normative feedback. A sample of 221 young adults enrolled in a 2- or 4-year college or university (ages 18-25 years; 52% female) completed online surveys in which they were asked to rate their interest in each of 11 injunctive norms statements. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four sets of statements regarding peer approval of (a) intoxicated behaviors, (b) safe drinking strategies, (c) drinking-related consequences, and (d) drinking behaviors of potential partners. All items were framed to reflect disapproval of risky behaviors and approval of protective behaviors. Across norm sets, participants found the items to be moderately interesting and interest ratings did not differ across sets. Higher scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), stronger perceived approval of drinking in general (injunctive norms), stronger perceptions of drinking among peers (descriptive norms), and female gender were bivariately correlated with more interest. In a multiple regression, female gender, higher AUDIT (consequence subscale), and stronger general drinking injunctive norms remained significantly associated with interest in the pro-moderation statements. An important future direction is to determine whether the presentation of specific types of injunctive norms feedback can result in downward changes in drinking behavior. PMID:26978277

  9. Criterion vs. Norm-referenced Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimsleur, Paul

    1975-01-01

    A norm-referenced evaluation system, which evaluates the student in comparison to his peers, is rejected in favor of a criterion-referenced system. The latter, which rates the performance of a student on an absolute standard, makes for an individualized approach. Two kinds of tests are distinguished, the formative, administered during the course…

  10. Toleration and the Design of Norms.

    PubMed

    Floridi, Luciano

    2015-10-01

    One of the pressing challenges we face today-in a post-Westphalian order (emergence of the state as the modern, political information agent) and post-Bretton Woods world (emergence of non-state multiagent systems or MASs as "hyperhistorical" players in the global economy and politics)-is how to design the right kind of MAS that can take full advantage of the socio-economic and political progress made so far, while dealing successfully with the new global challenges that are undermining the best legacy of that very progress. This is the topic of the article. In it, I argue that (i) in order to design the right kind of MAS, we need to design the right kind of norms that constitute them; (ii) in order to design the right kind of constitutive norms, we need to identify and adopt the right kind of principles of normative design; (iii) toleration is one of those principles; (iv) unfortunately, its role as a foundation for the design of norms has been undermined by the "paradox of toleration"; (v) however, the paradox can be solved; (vi) so toleration can be re-instated as the right kind of foundational principle for the design of the right kind of norms that can constitute the right kind of MAS that can operate across cultures, societies and states, to help us to tackle the new global challenges facing us. PMID:25287376

  11. Contrasting Norm Referenced and Criterion Referenced Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Robert S.

    Differences in design between norm referenced measures (NRM) and criterion referenced measures (CRM) are reviewed, and some of the procedures proposed on designing and evaluating CRM are examined. Differences in design of NRM and CRM are said to arise from the different purposes that underlie each measure. In addition, there are differences among…

  12. Academic Dishonesty, Ethical Norms and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colnerud, Gunnel; Rosander, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study is aimed to deduce which ethical norms and considerations are implicitly present in the students' answers when they are asked to define to what degree the presented actions in a questionnaire are acts of cheating. Data are analysed by factor analysis as well as qualitative analysis. The questions asked are: What characterises the items…

  13. Norming plans for the NIH Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Havlik, Richard; Cook, Karon F.; Hays, Ron D.; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Korper, Samuel P.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Nord, Christine; Zill, Nicholas; Choi, Seung; Yost, Kathleen J.; Ustsinovich, Vitali; Brouwers, Pim; Hoffman, Howard J.; Gershon, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIH Toolbox) is a comprehensive battery of brief assessment tools. The purpose of this article is to describe plans to establish normative reference values for the NIH Toolbox measures. Methods: A large sample will be obtained from the US population for the purpose of calculating normative values. The sample will be stratified by age (ages 3–85 years), sex, and language preference (English or Spanish) and have a total sample size of at least 4,205. The sample will include a minimum of 25–100 individuals in each targeted demographic and language subgroup. Results: Norming methods will include poststratification adjustment calculated using iterative proportional fitting, also known as raking, so that the weighted sample will have the same distribution on key demographic variables as the US population described in the 2010 Census. Conclusions: As with any set of norms, users should be mindful of the reference population and make conclusions consistent with the limitations of normative sampling, since it is not a probability-based sample. However, the NIH Toolbox norming study has been designed to minimize bias and maximize representativeness and precision of estimates. The availability of a "toolbox" of normed measures will be an important foundation for addressing critical research questions in neurologic and behavioral health. PMID:23479550

  14. Non-Euclidean-normed Statistical Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livadiotis, George

    2016-03-01

    This analysis introduces a possible generalization of Statistical Mechanics within the framework of non-Euclidean metrics induced by the Lp norms. The internal energy is interpreted by the non-Euclidean Lp-normed expectation value of a given energy spectrum. The presented non-Euclidean adaptation of Statistical Mechanics involves finding the stationary probability distribution in the Canonical Ensemble by maximizing the Boltzmann-Gibbs and Tsallis entropy under the constraint of internal energy. The derived non-Euclidean Canonical probability distributions are respectively given by an exponential, and by a q-deformed exponential, of a power-law dependence on energy states. The case of the continuous energy spectrum is thoroughly examined. The Canonical probability distribution is analytically calculated for a power-law density of energy. The relevant non-Euclidean-normed kappa distribution is also derived. This analysis exposes the possible values of the q- or κ-indices, which are strictly limited to certain ranges, depending on the given Lp-norm. The equipartition of energy in each degree of freedom and the extensivity of the internal energy, are also shown. Surprisingly, the physical temperature coincides with the kinetically defined temperature, similar to the Euclidean case. Finally, the connection with thermodynamics arises through the well-known standard classical formalisms.

  15. Social Norms Theory and Concussion Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroshus, Emily; Garnett, Bernice R.; Baugh, Christine M.; Calzo, Jerel P.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary prevention of harm from sport-related concussion is contingent on immediate removal from play post-injury. To date, educational efforts to reduce the prevalent risk behavior of continued play while symptomatic have been largely ineffective. Social norms theory may hold promise as a foundation for more effective concussion education aimed…

  16. Towards a Norm in South African Englishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johann L.; van Rooy, Bertus

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the perception and application of the norm in South African English with specific reference to Black South African English. Hypothesizes that South African English is in the hibernation and expansion phase. Three sets of data are presented and analyzed. (Author/VWL)

  17. Raised marine sequences of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura revisited—a reappraisal of relative sea-level changes and vertical movements in the eastern Canary Islands during the Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazo, Cari; Goy, José Luis; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Gillot, Pierre-Yves; Soler, Vicente; González, José Ángel; Dabrio, Cristino J.; Ghaleb, Bassam

    2002-10-01

    Systematic mapping and morphosedimentary analysis of Fuerteventura and Lanzarote Islands supported by laboratory techniques (U-series mostly by TIMS, 14C analysis and allo-isoleucine measurements on biogenic carbonates from raised marine deposits, paleomagnetic and a few K/Ar measurements on volcanic formations related to marine deposits) provide a basis for constraining the age of Late Cainozoic marine units. The most complete sequences of raised marine terraces are found at similar elevations in both islands. They include up to 12 marine terraces (Episodes) at elevations between 0 m and 70 m above mean sea level (asl). At least six terraces should be of Quaternary age, and more recent than 1.2 Myr. Throughout the whole marine sequence with the exception of the Holocene terrace, the warm fauna assemblage is characterized by the presence of Ostrea virleti, Nerita emiliana, and Strombus ( S. cf. coronatus-S. cf. bubonius). However, there is a major change, highlighted by the disappearance of the first two species, below the 8-10 m terrace, that could possibly correspond to MIS 11. K-Ar measurements allow an estimate for mean uplift rate of 1.7 cm/ka during the last million years. The present elevation of the Last Interglacial deposits (about 1 and 2 m asl) shows discontinuous vertical movements with possibly a reverse trend since MIS 9 in eastern Canary Islands.

  18. Evidence for density-dependent changes in growth, downstream movement, and size of Chinook salmon subyearlings in a large-river landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, William P.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Plumb, John M.; Moffit, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the growth rate, downstream movement, and size of naturally produced fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha subyearlings (age 0) for 20 years in an 8th-order river landscape with regulated riverine upstream rearing areas and an impounded downstream migration corridor. The population transitioned from low to high abundance in association with U.S. Endangered Species Act and other federally mandated recovery efforts. The mean growth rate of parr in the river did not decline with increasing abundance, but during the period of higher abundance the timing of dispersal from riverine habitat into the reservoir averaged 17 d earlier and the average size at the time of downstream dispersal was smaller by 10 mm and 1.8 g. Changes in apparent abundance, measured by catch per unit effort, largely explained the time of dispersal, measured by median day of capture, in riverine habitat. The growth rate of smolts in the reservoir declined from an average of 0.6 to 0.2 g/d between the abundance periods because the reduction in size at reservoir entry was accompanied by a tendency to migrate rather than linger and by increasing concentrations of smolts in the reservoir. The median date of passage through the reservoir was 14 d earlier on average, and average smolt size was smaller by 38 mm and 22.0 g, in accordance with density-dependent behavioral changes reflected by decreased smolt growth. Unexpectedly, smolts during the high-abundance period had begun to reexpress the migration timing and size phenotypes observed before the river was impounded, when abundance was relatively high. Our findings provide evidence for density-dependent phenotypic change in a large river that was influenced by the expansion of a recovery program. Thus, this study shows that efforts to recover native fishes can have detectable effects in large-river landscapes. The outcome of such phenotypic change, which will be an important area of future research, can only be fully judged by

  19. A Social Norms Approach to Preventing Binge Drinking at Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Michael P.

    This document describes an effort to change perceptions of social norms and examines the effect of this change on binge drinking and alcohol-related problems at Northern Illinois University (NIU). The first section of the report discusses the historical and theoretical basis for this approach to prevention. The next section describes a…

  20. Students Negotiating and Designing Their Collaborative Learning Norms: A Group Developmental Perspective in Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hod, Yotam; Ben-Zvi, Dani

    2015-01-01

    This research shows how participants in classroom learning communities (LCs) come to take responsibility over designing their collaborative learning norms. Taking a micro-developmental perspective within a graduate-level course, we examined fine-grained changes in group discourse during a period of rapid change where this responsibility taking…

  1. The Reliability of Functional Movement Screening and In-Season Changes in Physical Function and Performance Among Elite Rugby League Players.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Mark; Gray, Adrian; Worsfold, Paul; Twist, Craig

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (a) assess the reliability of the functional movement screening (FMS) protocol and (b) to establish changes in both FMS and tests of physical performance throughout a season. The reliability of the FMS components (12 in total) was assessed through a nonparametric statistical approach, based on 2 trials, separated by 1 week. Score on the FMS, strength (3 repetition maximum full squat, 1 repetition maximum [1 RM] bench press), running speed (10 and 40 m), and jump height of 12 elite male under-19 rugby league players was monitored at pre-, mid-, and late-season periods. There was no bias (p > 0.05) found between trials for the FMS, with the majority of components reaching 100% "perfect agreement," reflecting the good reliability of the FMS tool. There were no effects (p > 0.05) of season stage on any of the FMS components; however, an improvement (p ≤ 0.05) between the pre- and both mid- and late-season periods was apparent in every component of fitness, such as 1 RM bench press (112.92 ± 24.54 kg; 125.83 ± 21.41 kg; 125.98 ± 24.48 kg) and 40-m sprint time (5.69 ± 0.35 seconds; 5.62 ± 0.31 seconds; 5.64 ± 0.27 seconds). Our findings demonstrate that the FMS can be reliably administered to elite rugby league players but will not change in accordance with physical performance across a competitive season. Our findings should not necessarily deter practitioners from using the FMS but begin to question the specific qualities that are being assessed through its administration. PMID:27003450

  2. Normes linguistiques: Determination, description, contenu, utilite (Linguistic Norms: Determination, Description, Content, Usefulness)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mareschal, Roger

    1977-01-01

    Discusses different approaches for determining second language proficiency norms to be set by employers for personnel, all involving varying degrees of emphasis on linguistic proficiency on the one hand, and communicative competence on the other. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  3. Injunctive social norms primacy over descriptive social norms in retirement savings decisions.

    PubMed

    Croy, Gerry; Gerrans, Paul; Speelman, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Consistent with the global trend to shift responsibility for retirement income provision from the public purse to individuals has been encouragement to save more and to manage investment strategy. Analyzing data from 2,300 respondents to a randomly distributed questionnaire, this article focuses on the motivational importance of social norms. The study finds injunctive social norms (what is commonly approved or disapproved of) exert greater influence than descriptive social norms (what is commonly done) in predicting retirement savings intentions. Modeling employs the theory of planned behavior, and also finds injunctive social norm has predictive primacy over attitude and perceived behavioral control. Discussion advocates a balanced approach to intervention design, and identifies opportunities for the further study of normative message framing. PMID:21261135

  4. Norms Regulating Self-Disclosure Among Polish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derlega, Valerian J.; Stepien, Ewa Gurnik

    1977-01-01

    In the first study reported most American norms governing reactions to self-disclosure to friends and strangers were replicated. In the second study American norms governing self-disclosure to males and females were not replicated. (Author/AM)

  5. A Review of Norms and Normative Multiagent Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Moamin A.; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work. PMID:25110739

  6. The Norm Implementation Problem in Normative Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, D.; Gabbay, D.; van der Torre, L.

    The norm implementation problem consists in how to see to it that the agents in a system comply with the norms specified for that system by the system designer. It is part of the more general problem of how to synthesize or create norms for multi-agent systems, by, for example, highlighting the choice between regimentation and enforcement, or the punishment associated with a norm violation. In this paper we discuss how various ways to implement norms in a multi-agent system can be distinguished in a formal game-theoretic framework. In particular, we show how different types of norm implementation can all be uniformly specified and verified as types of transformations of extensive games. We introduce the notion of retarded preconditions to implement norms, and we illustrate the framework and the various ways to implement norms in the blocks world environment.

  7. A Modified CIPW Norm Calculation for Lunar Mare Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, R. E.; Basu, A.

    2000-01-01

    CIPW norms of lunar mare basalts are anomalously low in pyroxene. A modified norm calculation allowing higher Ca, Ti, Al, Cr, and Mn in di' and hy' obtains closer matches between normative and modal mineralogy.

  8. An experimental study on the effects of peer drinking norms on adolescents’ drinker prototypes

    PubMed Central

    Teunissen, Hanneke A.; Spijkerman, Renske; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescents form impressions about the type of peers who drink (i.e., drinker prototypes). The evaluation of, and perceived similarity to these prototypes are related to adolescents’ drinking. Peer drinking norms play an important role in the formation of prototypes. We experimentally examined whether manipulation of peer norms changed the evaluation of and perceived similarity to drinker prototypes and whether these changes were moderated by peers’ popularity. Methods In a pre-test, we assessed heavy drinker, moderate drinker and abstainer prototypes, drinking behaviors and peer-perceived popularity among 599 adolescents. Additionally, 88 boys from this sample participated in a simulated chat room, in which they interacted with peers from school. These peers were in fact pre-programmed e-confederates, who were either popular or unpopular and who communicated either pro-alcohol or anti-alcohol norms. After the chat room interaction we assessed participants’ drinker prototypes. Results Participants exposed to anti-alcohol norms were more negative about, and perceived themselves as less similar to heavy drinker prototypes, than participants exposed to pro-alcohol norms. We found no effects of peer norms on moderate drinker and abstainer prototypes. Effects were not moderated by peers’ popularity. We did find a main effect of popularity on perceived similarity to all prototypes. This indicated that participants rated themselves as more similar to heavy and moderate drinker prototypes and less similar to abstainer prototypes when they interacted with unpopular peers than with popular peers. Conclusions Exposure to anti-alcohol norms of peers leads adolescents to form more negative prototypes of the heavy drinker. This could be an important finding for prevention and intervention programs aimed to reduce alcohol consumption among adolescents. PMID:24104050

  9. SU-E-J-179: Assessment of Tumor Volume Change and Movement During Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) for Lung Cancer: Is Adaptive Radiation Therapy (ART) Necessary?

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C; Lee, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Delineation of gross tumor volumes (GTVs) is important for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). However, tumor volume changes during treatment response. Here, we have investigated tumor volume changes and movement during SBRT for lung cancer, as a means of examining the need for adaptive radiation therapy (ART). Methods: Fifteen tumors in 15 patients with lung cancer were treated with SBRT (total dose: 60 Gy in 4 fractions). GTVs were obtained from cone-beam computed tomography scans (CBCT1–4) taken before each of the 4 fractions was administered. GTVs were delineated and measured by radiation oncologists using a treatment planning system. Variance in the tumor position was assessed between the planning CT and the CBCT images. To investigate the dosimetric effects of tumor volume changes, planning CT and CBCT4 treatment plans were compared using the conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), and Paddick’s index (PCI). Results: The GTV on CBCT1 was employed as a baseline for comparisons. GTV had decreased by a mean of 20.4% (range: 0.7% to 47.2%) on CBCT4. Most patients had smaller GTVs on CBCT4 than on CBCT1. The interfractional shifts of the tumor position between the planning CT and CBCT1–4 were as follows: right-left, −0.4 to 1.3 mm; anterior-posterior, −0.8 to 0.5 mm; and superiorinferior, −0.9 to 1.1 mm. Indices for plans from the planning CT and CBCT4 were as follows: CI = 0.94±0.02 and 1.11±0.03; HI= 1.1±0.02 and 1.10±0.03; and PCI = 1.35±0.16 and 1.11±0.02, respectively. Conclusion: CI, HI, and PCI did not differ between the planning CT and CBCTs. However, daily CBCT revealed a significant decrease in the GTV during lung SBRT. Furthermore, there was an obvious interfractional shift in tumor position. Using ART could potentially lead to a reduced GTV margin and improved regional tumor control for lung cancer patients with significantly decreased GTV.

  10. Effects of Group Norms on Children's Intentions to Bully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith A.

    2008-01-01

    A minimal group study examined the effect of peer group norms on children's direct and indirect bullying intentions. Prior to an inter-group drawing competition, children (N = 85) aged seven and nine years were assigned to a group that had a norm of out-group dislike or out-group liking. Results indicated that, regardless of group norms, the…

  11. Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…

  12. Content and Construct Validity of Norm-Referenced Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald Ross; Yen, Wendy M.

    Basic skills tests in which measurement of growth is defined in the context of national norms are discussed. An integral part of the construction of norms is the production of a trait or ability score which is normed. Test publishers define a multidimensional trait by including items which measure it. The trait as a construct is a distinct…

  13. Thoracic Hemisection in Rats Results in Initial Recovery Followed by a Late Decrement in Locomotor Movements, with Changes in Coordination Correlated with Serotonergic Innervation of the Ventral Horn

    PubMed Central

    Leszczyńska, Anna N.; Majczyński, Henryk; Wilczyński, Grzegorz M.; Sławińska, Urszula; Cabaj, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Lateral thoracic hemisection of the rodent spinal cord is a popular model of spinal cord injury, in which the effects of various treatments, designed to encourage locomotor recovery, are tested. Nevertheless, there are still inconsistencies in the literature concerning the details of spontaneous locomotor recovery after such lesions, and there is a lack of data concerning the quality of locomotion over a long time span after the lesion. In this study, we aimed to address some of these issues. In our experiments, locomotor recovery was assessed using EMG and CatWalk recordings and analysis. Our results showed that after hemisection there was paralysis in both hindlimbs, followed by a substantial recovery of locomotor movements, but even at the peak of recovery, which occurred about 4 weeks after the lesion, some deficits of locomotion remained present. The parameters that were abnormal included abduction, interlimb coordination and speed of locomotion. Locomotor performance was stable for several weeks, but about 3–4 months after hemisection secondary locomotor impairment was observed with changes in parameters, such as speed of locomotion, interlimb coordination, base of hindlimb support, hindlimb abduction and relative foot print distance. Histological analysis of serotonergic innervation at the lumbar ventral horn below hemisection revealed a limited restoration of serotonergic fibers on the ipsilateral side of the spinal cord, while on the contralateral side of the spinal cord it returned to normal. In addition, the length of these fibers on both sides of the spinal cord correlated with inter- and intralimb coordination. In contrast to data reported in the literature, our results show there is not full locomotor recovery after spinal cord hemisection. Secondary deterioration of certain locomotor functions occurs with time in hemisected rats, and locomotor recovery appears partly associated with reinnervation of spinal circuitry by serotonergic fibers. PMID

  14. Ground-Water Occurrence and Movement, 2006, and Water-Level Changes in the Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valley Basins, Mohave County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, David W.; Truini, Margot; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Remick, William H.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water levels for water year 2006 and their change over time in Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valley Basins of northwestern Arizona were investigated to improve the understanding of current and past ground-water conditions in these basins. The potentiometric surface for ground water in the Basin-Fill aquifer of each basin is generally parallel to topography. Consequently, ground-water movement is generally from the mountain front toward the basin center and then along the basin axis toward the Colorado River or Lake Mead. Observed water levels in Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valley Basins have fluctuated during the period of historic water-level records (1943 through 2006). In Detrital Valley Basin, water levels in monitored areas have either remained the same, or have steadily increased as much as 3.5 feet since the 1980s. Similar steady conditions or water-level rises were observed for much of the northern and central parts of Hualapai Valley Basin. During the period of historic record, steady water-level declines as large as 60 feet were found in wells penetrating the Basin-Fill aquifer in areas near Kingman, northwest of Hackberry, and northeast of Dolan Springs within the Hualapai Valley Basin. Within the Sacramento Valley Basin, during the period of historic record, water-level declines as large as 55 feet were observed in wells penetrating the Basin-Fill aquifer in the Kingman and Golden Valley areas; whereas small, steady rises were observed in Yucca and in the Dutch Flat area.

  15. Norm-based measurement of quantum correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yuchun; Guo Guangcan

    2011-06-15

    In this paper we derived a necessary and sufficient condition for classical correlated states and proposed a norm-based measurement Q of quantum correlation. Using the max norm of operators, we gave the expression of the quantum correlation measurement Q and investigated the dynamics of Q in Markovian and non-Markovian cases, respectively. Q decays exponentially and vanishes only asymptotically in the Markovian case and causes periodical death and rebirth in the non-Markovian case. In the pure state, the quantum correlation Q is always larger than the entanglement, which was different from other known measurements. In addition, we showed that locally broadcastable and broadcastable are equivalent and reproved the density of quantum correlated states.

  16. SCHWARZ'S LEMMA IN NORMED LINEAR SPACES*

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Lawrence A.

    1969-01-01

    In this paper we show that any Fréchet holomorphic function mapping the open unit ball of one normed linear space into the closed unit ball of another must be a linear mapping if the Fréchet derivative of the function at zero is a surjective isometry. From this fact we deduce a Banach-Stone theorem for operator algebras which generalizes that of R. V. Kadison. PMID:16591741

  17. The Effects of Liking Norms and Descriptive Norms on Vegetable Consumption: A Randomized Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jason M.; Liu, Jinyu; Robinson, Eric L.; Aveyard, Paul; Herman, C. Peter; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that social norm messages can be used to promote the selection of fruit and vegetables in low habitual consumers of these foods but it is unclear whether this effect is sustained over time. It is also unclear whether information about others' liking for a food (liking norm) could have the same effect. Using a 2 × 5 × 2 experimental design we investigated the effects of exposure to various messages on later intake from a food buffet and whether any effects were sustained 24 h after exposure in both low and high consumers of vegetables. There were three factors: delay (immediate food selection vs. food selection 24 h after exposure), message type (liking norm, descriptive norm, health message, vegetable variety condition, and neutral control message), and habitual consumption (low vs. high). The buffet consisted of three raw vegetables, three energy-dense foods, and two dips. For vegetables and non-vegetables there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay. There was a significant message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for vegetable consumption; however, follow up tests did not yield any significant effects. Examining each food individually, there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay, for any of the foods; however, there was a message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for broccoli. Consumption of broccoli in the health message and descriptive norm conditions did not differ from the control neutral condition. However, habitually low consumers of vegetables increased their consumption of broccoli in the vegetable variety and liking norm conditions relative to habitual low vegetable consumers in the neutral control condition (p < 0.05). Further, investigation of the effects of the liking norm and vegetable variety condition on vegetable intake is warranted. This trial is listed as NCT02618174 at clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:27065913

  18. Joint Impedance Decreases during Movement Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Ludvig, Daniel; Antos, Stephen A.; Perreault, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the joint influence how we interact with our environment and hence are important in the control of both posture and movement. Many studies have investigated how the mechanical properties—specifically the impedance—of different joints vary with different postural tasks. However, studies on how joint impedance varies with movement remain limited. The few studies that have investigated how impedance varies with movement have found that impedance is lower during movement than during posture. In this study we investigated how impedance changed as people transitioned from a postural task to a movement task. We found that subjects’ joint impedances decreased at the initiation of movement, prior to increasing at the cessation of movement. This decrease in impedance occurred even though the subjects’ torque and EMG levels increased. These findings suggest that during movement the central nervous system may control joint impedance independently of muscle activation. PMID:23366632

  19. Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Historic Prospective.

    PubMed

    Will, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    The earliest report on orthodontic tooth movement in the English literature was published in 1911. Oppenheim carried out studies on baboons to determine what histologic changes occurred during tooth movement. Reitan and many others carried out research into the nature of tooth movement. The pressure-tension model of tooth movement developed from these studies, whereby the two sides of the tooth responded to forces as if in isolation. A second theory, proposed by Stuteville in 1938, was the hydraulic theory of tooth movement. In this theory, fluid from the vasculature, lymphatic system and intercellular spaces responds to the forces of tooth movement, damping the force and limiting movement. Bien and Baumrind expanded on this theory with their own studies in the 1960s. It is clear that both the pressure-tension and fluid flow concepts have merit, but considerable work needs to be done to ascertain the details so that tooth movement can be managed and controlled. PMID:26599117

  20. Establishing a NORM based radiation calibration facility.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J

    2016-05-01

    An environmental radiation calibration facility has been constructed by the Radiation and Nuclear Sciences unit of Queensland Health at the Forensic and Scientific Services Coopers Plains campus in Brisbane. This facility consists of five low density concrete pads, spiked with a NORM source, to simulate soil and effectively provide a number of semi-infinite uniformly distributed sources for improved energy response calibrations of radiation equipment used in NORM measurements. The pads have been sealed with an environmental epoxy compound to restrict radon loss and so enhance the quality of secular equilibrium achieved. Monte Carlo models (MCNP),used to establish suitable design parameters and identify appropriate geometric correction factors linking the air kerma measured above these calibration pads to that predicted for an infinite plane using adjusted ICRU53 data, are discussed. Use of these correction factors as well as adjustments for cosmic radiation and the impact of surrounding low levels of NORM in the soil, allows for good agreement between the radiation fields predicted and measured above the pads at both 0.15 m and 1 m. PMID:26921707

  1. An Abbreviated Tool for Assessing Feminine Norm Conformity: Psychometric Properties of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Mike C.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    The Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45 (CFNI-45; Parent & Moradi, 2010) is an important tool for assessing level of conformity to feminine gender norms and for investigating the implications of such norms for women's functioning. The authors of the present study assessed the factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, and…

  2. A Double-Coil TMS Method to Assess Corticospinal Excitability Changes at a Near-Simultaneous Time in the Two Hands during Movement Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Emmanuelle; Quoilin, Caroline; Petitjean, Charlotte; Duque, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many previous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have investigated corticospinal excitability changes occurring when choosing which hand to use for an action, one of the most frequent decision people make in daily life. So far, these studies have applied single-pulse TMS eliciting motor-evoked potential (MEP) in one hand when this hand is either selected or non-selected. Using such method, hand choices were shown to entail the operation of two inhibitory mechanisms, suppressing MEPs in the targeted hand either when it is non-selected (competition resolution, CR) or selected (impulse control, IC). However, an important limitation of this “Single-Coil” method is that MEPs are elicited in selected and non-selected conditions during separate trials and thus those two settings may not be completely comparable. Moreover, a more important problem is that MEPs are computed in relation to the movement of different hands. The goal of the present study was to test a “Double-Coil” method to evaluate IC and CR preceding the same hand responses by applying Double-Coil TMS over the two primary motor cortices (M1) at a near-simultaneous time (1 ms inter-pulse interval). Methods: MEPs were obtained in the left (MEPLEFT) and right (MEPRIGHT) hands while subjects chose between left and right hand key-presses in blocks using a Single-Coil or a Double-Coil method; in the latter blocks, TMS was either applied over left M1 first (TMSLRM1 group, n = 12) or right M1 first (TMSRLM1 group, n = 12). Results: MEPLEFT were suppressed preceding both left (IC) and right (CR) hand responses whereas MEPRIGHT were only suppressed preceding left (CR) but not right (IC) hand responses. This result was observed regardless of whether Single-Coil or Double-Coil TMS was applied in the two subject groups. However, in the TMSLRM1 group, the MEP suppression was attenuated in Double-Coil compared to Single-Coil blocks for both IC and CR, when probed with MEPLEFT (elicited by

  3. Dictator Game Giving: The Importance of Descriptive versus Injunctive Norms

    PubMed Central

    Raihani, Nichola J.; McAuliffe, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Human behaviour is influenced by social norms but norms can entail two types of information. Descriptive norms refer to what others do in this context, while injunctive norms refer to what ought to be done to ensure social approval. In many real-world situations these norms are often presented concurrently meaning that their independent effects on behaviour are difficult to establish. Here we used an online Dictator Game to test how descriptive and injunctive norms would influence dictator donations when presented independently of one another. In addition, we varied the cost of complying with the norm: By stating that $0.20 or $0.50 cent donations from a $1 stake were normal or suggested, respectively. Specifying a higher target amount was associated with increased mean donation size. In contrast to previous studies, descriptive norms did not seem to influence giving behaviour in this context, whereas injunctive norms were associated with increased likelihood to give at least the target amount to the partner. This raises the question of whether injunctive norms might be more effective than descriptive norms at promoting prosocial behaviour in other settings. PMID:25493945

  4. Bundles of Norms About Teen Sex and Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie

    2015-09-01

    Teen pregnancy is a cultural battleground in struggles over morality, education, and family. At its heart are norms about teen sex, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. Analyzing 57 interviews with college students, we found that "bundles" of related norms shaped the messages teens hear. Teens did not think their communities encouraged teen sex or pregnancy, but normative messages differed greatly, with either moral or practical rationalizations. Teens readily identified multiple norms intended to regulate teen sex, contraception, abortion, childbearing, and the sanctioning of teen parents. Beyond influencing teens' behavior, norms shaped teenagers' public portrayals and post hoc justifications of their behavior. Although norm bundles are complex to measure, participants could summarize them succinctly. These bundles and their conflicting behavioral prescriptions create space for human agency in negotiating normative pressures. The norm bundles concept has implications for teen pregnancy prevention policies and can help revitalize social norms for understanding health behaviors. PMID:25387911

  5. Sex in an Evolutionary Perspective: Just Another Reaction Norm

    PubMed Central

    Nylin, Sören

    2010-01-01

    It is common to refer to all sorts of clear-cut differences between the sexes as something that is biologically almost inevitable. Although this does not reflect the status of evolutionary theory on sex determination and sexual dimorphism, it is probably a common view among evolutionary biologists as well, because of the impact of sexual selection theory. To get away from thinking about biological sex and traits associated with a particular sex as something static, it should be recognized that in an evolutionary perspective sex can be viewed as a reaction norm, with sex attributes being phenotypically plastic. Sex determination itself is fundamentally plastic, even when it is termed “genetic”. The phenotypic expression of traits that are statistically associated with a particular sex always has a plastic component. This plasticity allows for much more variation in the expression of traits according to sex and more overlap between the sexes than is typically acknowledged. Here we review the variation and frequency of evolutionary changes in sex, sex determination and sex roles and conclude that sex in an evolutionary time-frame is extremely variable. We draw on recent findings in sex determination mechanisms, empirical findings of morphology and behaviour as well as genetic and developmental models to explore the concept of sex as a reaction norm. From this point of view, sexual differences are not expected to generally fall into neat, discrete, pre-determined classes. It is important to acknowledge this variability in order to increase objectivity in evolutionary research. PMID:21170116

  6. Genetics of Growth Reaction Norms in Farmed Rainbow Trout

    PubMed Central

    Sae-Lim, Panya; Mulder, Han; Gjerde, Bjarne; Koskinen, Heikki; Lillehammer, Marie; Kause, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Rainbow trout is farmed globally under diverse uncontrollable environments. Fish with low macroenvironmental sensitivity (ES) of growth is important to thrive and grow under these uncontrollable environments. The ES may evolve as a correlated response to selection for growth in one environment when the genetic correlation between ES and growth is nonzero. The aims of this study were to quantify additive genetic variance for ES of body weight (BW), defined as the slope of reaction norm across breeding environment (BE) and production environment (PE), and to estimate the genetic correlation (rg(int, sl)) between BW and ES. To estimate heritable variance of ES, the coheritability of ES was derived using selection index theory. The BW records from 43,040 rainbow trout performing either in freshwater or seawater were analysed using a reaction norm model. High additive genetic variance for ES (9584) was observed, inferring that genetic changes in ES can be expected. The coheritability for ES was either -0.06 (intercept at PE) or -0.08 (intercept at BE), suggesting that BW observation in either PE or BE results in low accuracy of selection for ES. Yet, the rg(int, sl) was negative (-0.41 to -0.33) indicating that selection for BW in one environment is expected to result in more sensitive fish. To avoid an increase of ES while selecting for BW, it is possible to have equal genetic gain in BW in both environments so that ES is maintained stable. PMID:26267268

  7. BeUpright: Posture Correction Using Relational Norm Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaemyung; Huh, Jina; Kang, Bumsoo; Kim, Jinhan; Park, Taiwoo; Song, Junewha

    2016-01-01

    Research shows the critical role of social relationships in behavior change, and the advancement of mobile technologies brings new opportunities of using online social support for persuasive applications. In this paper, we propose Relational Norm Intervention (RNI) model for behavior change, which involves two individuals as a target user and a helper respectively. RNI model uses Negative Reinforcement and Other-Regarding Preferences as motivating factors for behavior change. The model features the passive participation of a helper who will undergo artificially generated discomforts (e.g., limited access to a mobile device) when a target user performs against a target behavior. Based on in-depth discussions from a two-phase design workshop, we designed and implemented BeUpright, a mobile application employing RNI model to correct sitting posture of a target user. Also, we conducted a two-week study to evaluate the effectiveness and user experience of BeUpright. The study showed that RNI model has a potential to increase efficacy, in terms of behavior change, compared to conventional notification approaches. The most influential factor of RNI model in the changing the behavior of target users was the intention to avoid discomforting their helpers. RNI model also showed a potential to help unmotivated individuals in behavior change. We discuss the mechanism of RNI model in relation to prior literature on behavior change and implications of exploiting discomfort in mobile behavior change services. PMID:27478881

  8. Globalization and eating disorder risk: Peer influence, perceived social norms, and adolescent disordered eating in Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Gerbasi, Margaret E.; Richards, Lauren K.; Thomas, Jennifer J.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Gilman, Stephen E.; Becker, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The increasing global health burden imposed by eating disorders warrants close examination of social exposures associated with globalization that potentially elevate risk during the critical developmental period of adolescence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The study aim was to investigate the association of peer influence and perceived social norms with adolescent eating pathology in Fiji, a LMIC undergoing rapid social change. Method We measured peer influence on eating concerns (with the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns; IPIEC), perceived peer norms associated with disordered eating and body concerns, perceived community cultural norms, and individual cultural orientations in a representative sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls (n=523). We then developed a multivariable linear regression model to examine their relation to eating pathology (measured by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q). Results We found independent and statistically significant associations between both IPIEC scores and our proxy for perceived social norms specific to disordered eating (both p <.001) and EDE-Q global scores in a fully adjusted linear regression model. Discussion Study findings support the possibility that peer influence as well as perceived social norms relevant to disordered eating may elevate risk for disordered eating in Fiji, during the critical developmental period of adolescence. Replication and extension of these research findings in other populations undergoing rapid social transition—and where globalization is also influencing local social norms—may enrich etiologic models and inform strategies to mitigate risk. PMID:25139374

  9. Understanding of norms regarding sexual practices among gay men: literature review.

    PubMed

    McKechnie, Michelle L; Bavinton, Benjamin R; Zablotska, Iryna B

    2013-05-01

    Since there is little evidence about gay community norms across the world, we reviewed published literature in this area and discuss implications for prevention and research. Eight databases were searched for articles and 16 were considered suitable for analysis. All used quantitative methodology and seven were based on a published theoretical framework. The most common theory employed by four out of the seven papers was the Theory of Reasoned Action. All papers reviewed examined norms on condom use but norms on other risk reduction practices were not explored in these papers. Seven (44 %) studies found those men who perceived strong social support from their peers, were less likely to engage in unprotected anal intercourse. This finding suggests that social support from partners and community members plays a role in shaping safe sex norms. Better understanding of norms may help to redress HIV behaviour change programmes, particularly at the time when HIV diagnoses rates are increasing in most gay communities across the world. PMID:22983537

  10. RECOGNIZE: A Social Norms Campaign to Reduce Rumor Spreading in a Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Jennifer E.; Peisner, William

    2009-01-01

    This article studied changes in rumor spreading and perceptions of peers' rumor spreading among students at one public junior high school following a social norms marketing campaign. Results of the study show that perceptions of peer rumor spreading fell following the campaign, but self-reports of rumor spreading did not decrease. Results suggest…

  11. Forging New Norms in New Orleans: From Emotional to Ecological Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goleman, Daniel; Barlow, Zenobia; Bennett, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    At points of instability in a system--whether a school, community, or any other social system--there is the opportunity for breakdown or breakthrough. In that moment of opportunity arises the possibility for significant change through the emergence of new norms or standards of behavior that reflect the evolving values of the larger group. What…

  12. Norms of Filial Responsibility for Aging Parents across Time and Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gans, Daphna; Silverstein, Merril

    2006-01-01

    This investigation examined the normative expectation that adult children should be responsible for the care of their aging parents, and how this norm changes over the adult life span, across several decades of historical time, in relation to generational position in families, and between successive generations. Analyses were performed using 4…

  13. Social Norms Theory-Based Interventions: Testing the Feasibility of a Purported Mechanism of Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagman, Brett T.; Clifford, Patrick R.; Noel, Nora E.

    2007-01-01

    Social norms-based interventions targeting college student drinking behaviors have become increasingly popular. Such interventions purportedly modify student misperceptions of fellow student drinking behaviors, which leads to changes in individual drinking behavior. Despite claims of successful interventions, research demonstrating that social…

  14. Social Norms and Global Environmental Challenges: The Complex Interaction of Behaviors, Values, and Policy.

    PubMed

    Kinzig, Ann P; Ehrlich, Paul R; Alston, Lee J; Arrow, Kenneth; Barrett, Scott; Buchman, Timothy G; Daily, Gretchen C; Levin, Bruce; Levin, Simon; Oppenheimer, Michael; Ostrom, Elinor; Saari, Donald

    2013-03-01

    Government policies are needed when people's behaviors fail to deliver the public good. Those policies will be most effective if they can stimulate long-term changes in beliefs and norms, creating and reinforcing the behaviors needed to solidify and extend the public good.It is often the short-term acceptability of potential policies, rather than their longer-term efficacy, that determines their scope and deployment. The policy process should consider both time scales. The academy, however, has provided insufficient insight on the coevolution of social norms and different policy instruments, thus compromising the capacity of decision makers to craft effective solutions to the society's most intractable environmental problems. Life scientists could make fundamental contributions to this agenda through targeted research on the emergence of social norms. PMID:25143635

  15. Social Norms and Global Environmental Challenges: The Complex Interaction of Behaviors, Values, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Paul R.; Alston, Lee J.; Arrow, Kenneth; Barrett, Scott; Buchman, Timothy G.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Levin, Bruce; Levin, Simon; Oppenheimer, Michael; Ostrom, Elinor; Saari, Donald

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Government policies are needed when people’s behaviors fail to deliver the public good. Those policies will be most effective if they can stimulate long-term changes in beliefs and norms, creating and reinforcing the behaviors needed to solidify and extend the public good.It is often the short-term acceptability of potential policies, rather than their longer-term efficacy, that determines their scope and deployment. The policy process should consider both time scales. The academy, however, has provided insufficient insight on the coevolution of social norms and different policy instruments, thus compromising the capacity of decision makers to craft effective solutions to the society’s most intractable environmental problems. Life scientists could make fundamental contributions to this agenda through targeted research on the emergence of social norms. PMID:25143635

  16. Movement speed is biased by prior experience

    PubMed Central

    Yousif, Nada; Greenwood, Richard; Rothwell, John C.; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    How does the motor system choose the speed for any given movement? Many current models assume a process that finds the optimal balance between the costs of moving fast and the rewards of achieving the goal. Here, we show that such models also need to take into account a prior representation of preferred movement speed, which can be changed by prolonged practice. In a time-constrained reaching task, human participants made 25-cm reaching movements within 300, 500, 700, or 900 ms. They were then trained for 3 days to execute the movement at either the slowest (900-ms) or fastest (300-ms) speed. When retested on the 4th day, movements executed under all four time constraints were biased toward the speed of the trained movement. In addition, trial-to-trial variation in speed of the trained movement was significantly reduced. These findings are indicative of a use-dependent mechanism that biases the selection of speed. Reduced speed variability was also associated with reduced errors in movement amplitude for the fast training group, which generalized nearly fully to a new movement direction. In contrast, changes in perpendicular error were specific to the trained direction. In sum, our results suggest the existence of a relatively stable but modifiable prior of preferred movement speed that influences the choice of movement speed under a range of task constraints. PMID:24133220

  17. Class, Race, and Gender and the Construction of Post-Secondary Curricula in the United States: Social Movement, Professionalization, and Political Economic Theories of Curricular Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Sheila

    1997-01-01

    Challenges the current belief that post-secondary curricula is defined by faculty and institutions in response to demographic shifts. Maintains that a complex interweaving of social movements, class structures, political, and economic forces influences the adaptation and implementation of curricula. Criticizes the establishment and the recognition…

  18. Movement-related changes in local and long-range synchronization in Parkinson’s disease revealed by simultaneous magnetoencephalography and intracranial recordings

    PubMed Central

    Litvak, Vladimir; Eusebio, Alexandre; Jha, Ashwani; Oostenveld, Robert; Barnes, Gareth; Foltynie, Tom; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan I.; Friston, Karl; Brown, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Functional neurosurgery has afforded the opportunity to assess interactions between populations of neurons in the human cerebral cortex and basal ganglia in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Interactions occur over a wide range of frequencies, and the functional significance of those above 30 Hz is particularly unclear. Do they improve movement and, if so, in what way? We acquired simultaneously magnetoencephalography (MEG) and direct recordings from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in 17 PD patients. We examined the effect of synchronous and sequential finger movements and of the dopamine prodrug levodopa on induced power in the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) and STN and on the coherence between the two structures. We observed discrete peaks in M1 and STN power over 60-90 Hz and 300-400 Hz. All these power peaks increased with movement and levodopa treatment. Only STN activity over 60-90 Hz was coherent with activity in M1. Directionality analysis showed that STN gamma activity at 60-90 Hz tended to drive gamma activity in M1. The effects of levodopa on both local and distant synchronisation over 60-90 Hz correlated with the degree of improvement in bradykinesia-rigidity, as did local STN activity at 300-400 Hz. Despite this, there were no effects of movement type, nor interactions between movement type and levodopa in the STN, nor in the coherence between STN and M1. We conclude that synchronisation over 60-90 Hz in the basal ganglia cortical network is prokinetic, but likely through a modulatory effect rather than any involvement in explicit motor processing. PMID:22855804

  19. CORPEX{reg_sign} NORM decontamination process

    SciTech Connect

    Azrak, R.G.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes a commecial process which has been developed for application to the remediation of NORM deposits on metal parts or embedded in scales on such parts. The process employs a registered chemical process, involving non-RCRA regulated chemicals, which can remove fixed {sup 226,228}Radium, {sup 210}Lead, and {sup 210}Polonium. The author describes the capabilities of the chemical process which has been developed, the way it is offered to potential customers as a practical process, and numerous examples of its application in the field.

  20. Reducing Sexual Assault on Campus: Lessons From the Movement to Prevent Drunk Driving

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    I examined similarities and differences between the movement to prevent drunk driving of the 1980s, and current efforts to prevent and address campus sexual assault. As college and university administrators design policies and initiatives to reduce campus sexual assault in response to new federal legislation and regulation, they can apply lessons from successful public health initiatives to reduce drunk driving initiated more than 3 decades ago. I illustrate how interventions at the 5 levels of the social–ecological model, and messages that address entrenched cultural attitudes condoning sexual assault and blaming its victims can be used to combat campus sexual assault as a crime and a public health problem. I also show how efforts to promote community engagement can change behavioral norms and reduce offenses. PMID:26985614

  1. Reducing Sexual Assault on Campus: Lessons From the Movement to Prevent Drunk Driving.

    PubMed

    Potter, Sharyn J

    2016-05-01

    I examined similarities and differences between the movement to prevent drunk driving of the 1980s, and current efforts to prevent and address campus sexual assault. As college and university administrators design policies and initiatives to reduce campus sexual assault in response to new federal legislation and regulation, they can apply lessons from successful public health initiatives to reduce drunk driving initiated more than 3 decades ago. I illustrate how interventions at the 5 levels of the social-ecological model, and messages that address entrenched cultural attitudes condoning sexual assault and blaming its victims can be used to combat campus sexual assault as a crime and a public health problem. I also show how efforts to promote community engagement can change behavioral norms and reduce offenses. PMID:26985614

  2. Injunctive Social Norms Primacy over Descriptive Social Norms in Retirement Savings Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croy, Gerry; Gerrans, Paul; Speelman, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Consistent with the global trend to shift responsibility for retirement income provision from the public purse to individuals has been encouragement to save more and to manage investment strategy. Analyzing data from 2,300 respondents to a randomly distributed questionnaire, this article focuses on the motivational importance of social norms. The…

  3. Smoking Norms and the Regulation of E-Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)—commonly called e-cigarettes—are at the center of a polarized debate. How should they be regulated? Central to this debate is the concern that e-cigarettes could lead to the renormalization of smoking and that the regulation of ENDS should therefore be modeled on the regulation of conventional cigarettes. I argue that arguments based on the renormalization of smoking can lend support to restrictions on marketing of ENDS, but that such arguments are problematic when used to justify restrictions on where ENDS can be used. The debate has been insufficiently sensitive to the ethical complexities of attempts to manipulate social norms to change health behaviors; these complexities must also inform the debate about ENDS and their regulation. PMID:26270285

  4. Modeling social norms and social influence in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shoham, David A.; Hammond, Ross; Rahmandad, Hazhir; Wang, Youfa; Hovmand, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide increase in obesity has led to changes in what is considered “normal” or desirable weight, especially among populations at higher risk. We show that social norms are key to understanding the obesity epidemic, and that social influence mechanisms provide a necessary linkage between individual obesity-related behaviors and population-level characteristics. Because influence mechanisms cannot be directly observed, we show how three complex systems tools may be used to gain insights into observed epidemiologic patterns: social network analysis, agent-based modeling, and systems dynamics modeling. However, simulation and mathematical modeling approaches raise questions regarding acceptance of findings, especially among policy makers. Nevertheless, we point to modeling successes in obesity and other fields, including the NIH-funded National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) Envison project. PMID:26576335

  5. Smoking Norms and the Regulation of E-Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Kristin

    2015-10-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)-commonly called e-cigarettes-are at the center of a polarized debate. How should they be regulated? Central to this debate is the concern that e-cigarettes could lead to the renormalization of smoking and that the regulation of ENDS should therefore be modeled on the regulation of conventional cigarettes. I argue that arguments based on the renormalization of smoking can lend support to restrictions on marketing of ENDS, but that such arguments are problematic when used to justify restrictions on where ENDS can be used. The debate has been insufficiently sensitive to the ethical complexities of attempts to manipulate social norms to change health behaviors; these complexities must also inform the debate about ENDS and their regulation. PMID:26270285

  6. Computational substrates of social norm enforcement by unaffected third parties.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Songfa; Chark, Robin; Hsu, Ming; Chew, Soo Hong

    2016-04-01

    Enforcement of social norms by impartial bystanders in the human species reveals a possibly unique capacity to sense and to enforce norms from a third party perspective. Such behavior, however, cannot be accounted by current computational models based on an egocentric notion of norms. Here, using a combination of model-based fMRI and third party punishment games, we show that brain regions previously implicated in egocentric norm enforcement critically extend to the important case of norm enforcement by unaffected third parties. Specifically, we found that responses in the ACC and insula cortex were positively associated with detection of distributional inequity, while those in the anterior DLPFC were associated with assessment of intentionality to the violator. Moreover, during sanction decisions, the subjective value of sanctions modulated activity in both vmPFC and rTPJ. These results shed light on the neurocomputational underpinnings of third party punishment and evolutionary origin of human norm enforcement. PMID:26825438

  7. Geology and genesis of NORM industrial links and depositional processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.F.

    1995-12-31

    NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) has now been found to be associated with many industrial activities that extends far beyond oil and gas production. There are approximately 59 naturally occurring radionuclides that might end up in a train of NORM contamination, which could impact at least 13 industries. It is appropriate and indeed necessary to examine the geological roots of NORM and its concentration in various industries. Impacted NORM industries and their associated problems are presented. Some plant and environmental managers may not even suspect they have NORM problems, because one cannot ``sense`` NORM without instrumentation, until it might be too late for the health and safety of the effected employees and surrounding community. Others want to ``see no evil, hear no evil or speak any evil`` until they are forced into ``reactive`` environmental management, rather than ``proactive`` management. It has been the experience of many that reactive management is far more costly than proactive management.

  8. Social-norms interventions for light and nondrinking students

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Jensen, Megan; Tidwell, Judy; Walter, Theresa; Fossos, Nicole; Lewis, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Social-norms approaches to alcohol prevention are based on consistent findings that most students overestimate the prevalence of drinking among their peers. Most interventions have been developed for heavy-drinking students, and the applicability of social-norms approaches among abstaining or light-drinking students has yet to be evaluated. The present research aimed to evaluate the impact of two types of online social-norms interventions developed for abstaining or light-drinking students. Identification with other students was evaluated as a moderator. Participants included 423 freshmen and sophomore college students who reported never or rarely drinking at screening. Students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (a) personalized-norms feedback, (b) social-norms marketing ads, or (c) attention control. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Results provided some support for both interventions but were stronger for social-norms marketing ads, particularly among participants who identified more closely with other students.

  9. Effects of geolocators on hatching success, return rates, breeding movements, and change in body mass in 16 species of Arctic-breeding shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiser, Emily; Lanctot, Richard B.; Brown, Stephen C.; Alves, Jose A.; Battley, Phil F.; Bentzen, Rebecca L.; Bety, Joel; Bishop, Mary Anne; Boldenow, Megan; Bollache, Loic; Casler, Bruce; Christie, Maureen; Coleman, Jonathan T.; Conklin, Jesse R.; English, Willow B.; Gates, H. River; Gilg, Olivier; Giroux, Marie-Andree; Gosbell, Ken; Hassell, Chris J.; Helmericks, Jim; Johnson, Andrew; Katrinardottir, Borgny; Koivula, Kari; Kwon, Eunbi; Lamarre, Jean-Francois; Lang, Johannes; Lank, David B.; Lecomte, Nicolas; Liebezeit, Joseph R.; Loverti, Vanessa; McKinnon, Laura; Minton, Clive; Mizrahi, David S.; Nol, Erica; Pakanen, Veli-Matti; Perz, Johanna; Porter, Ron; Rausch, Jennie; Reneerkens, Jeroen; Ronka, Nelli; Saalfeld, Sarah T.; Senner, Nathan R.; Sittler, Benoit; Smith, Paul A.; Sowl, Kristine M.; Taylor, Audrey; Ward, David H.; Yezerinac, Stephen; Sandercock, Brett K.

    2016-01-01

    Negative effects of geolocators occurred only for three of the smallest species in our dataset, but were substantial when present. Future studies could mitigate impacts of tags by reducing protruding parts and minimizing use of additional markers. Investigators could maximize recovery of tags by strategically deploying geolocators on males, previously marked individuals, and successful breeders, though targeting subsets of a population could bias the resulting migratory movement data in some species.

  10. Predictors of photo naming: Dutch norms for 327 photos.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zeshu; Stiegert, Julia

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we report naming latencies and norms for 327 photos of objects in Dutch. We provide norms for eight psycholinguistic variables: age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, objective and subjective visual complexity, word frequency, word length in syllables and letters, and name agreement. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses revealed that the significant predictors of photo-naming latencies were name agreement, word frequency, imageability, and image agreement. The naming latencies, norms, and stimuli are provided as supplemental materials. PMID:26122979

  11. Revised Push-Up Test Norms for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Ted A.; Hales, Derek; Chung, Hyuk; Oh, Suhak; Wood, Heather M.

    2004-01-01

    A revised push-up test for college students was presented in 2002. The purpose of this study was to develop percentile norms for the revised push-up test when it is used with college students. Revised push-up scores collected on 177 male and 274 female college students were used to develop percentile norms. The norms for the men have a different…

  12. Base norms and discrimination of generalized quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Jenčová, A.

    2014-02-15

    We introduce and study norms in the space of hermitian matrices, obtained from base norms in positively generated subspaces. These norms are closely related to discrimination of so-called generalized quantum channels, including quantum states, channels, and networks. We further introduce generalized quantum decision problems and show that the maximal average payoffs of decision procedures are again given by these norms. We also study optimality of decision procedures, in particular, we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition under which an optimal 1-tester for discrimination of quantum channels exists, such that the input state is maximally entangled.

  13. Using multiscale norms to quantify mixing and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2012-02-01

    Mixing is relevant to many areas of science and engineering, including the pharmaceutical and food industries, oceanography, atmospheric sciences and civil engineering. In all these situations one goal is to quantify and often then to improve the degree of homogenization of a substance being stirred, referred to as a passive scalar or tracer. A classical measure of mixing is the variance of the concentration of the scalar, which is the L2 norm of a mean-zero concentration field. Recently, other norms have been used to quantify mixing, in particular the mix-norm as well as negative Sobolev norms. These norms have the advantage that unlike variance they decay even in the absence of diffusion, and their decay corresponds to the flow being mixing in the sense of ergodic theory. General Sobolev norms weigh scalar gradients differently, and are known as multiscale norms for mixing. We review the applications of such norms to mixing and transport, and show how they can be used to optimize the stirring and mixing of a decaying passive scalar. We then review recent work on the less-studied case of a continuously replenished scalar field—the source-sink problem. In that case the flows that optimally reduce the norms are associated with transport rather than mixing: they push sources onto sinks, and vice versa.

  14. The NORM technology connection web site : streamlined access to NORM-related service company and regulatory information.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K. P.; Richmond, P.; LePoire, D. J.; Arnish, J. J.; Johnson, R.

    2000-11-08

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed an Internet web site providing access to critical information needed to support decisions on the management and disposal of wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The NORM Technology Connection web site provides current information on (1) service companies that provide support on NORM issues (e.g., site characterization and remediation, sample analysis, radiation safety training, disposal) and (2) existing applicable NORM regulations and guidelines. A third element of the site is an electronic mail list that allows users to post or respond to questions about the management of NORM. Development of the NORM Technology Connection web site was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. It is hosted and maintained by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The web site is publicly available; access is free, as is participation by any of the service companies.

  15. Movement - unpredictable or jerky

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy (chorea gravidarum) Stroke Systemic lupus erythematosus Tardive dyskinesia (a condition that can be caused by medicines ... uncontrolled); Hyperkinetic movements References Jankovic J, Lang AE. Movement disorders. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta ...

  16. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  17. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  18. The cultural transmission of cooperative norms

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xinyue; Liu, Yan; Ho, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative behavior depends on cultural environment, so what happens when people move from to a new culture governed by a new norm? The dynamics of culture-induced cooperation has not been well understood. We expose lab participants to a sequence of different subject pools while playing a constrained Trust Game. We find prior exposure to different subject pools does in fact influence cooperative behavior; first impressions matter—the primacy effect plays a stronger role than the recency effect; and selfish first impressions matter more than cooperative first impressions—observing selfish behavior by others had a longer-lasting and greater influence on behaviors than observing cooperative behavior by others. Moreover, three consecutive exposures to cooperative environments were needed to neutralize one exposure to a selfish environment. PMID:26578993

  19. Understanding movement data and movement processes: current and emerging directions.

    PubMed

    Schick, Robert S; Loarie, Scott R; Colchero, Fernando; Best, Benjamin D; Boustany, Andre; Conde, Dalia A; Halpin, Patrick N; Joppa, Lucas N; McClellan, Catherine M; Clark, James S

    2008-12-01

    Animal movement has been the focus on much theoretical and empirical work in ecology over the last 25 years. By studying the causes and consequences of individual movement, ecologists have gained greater insight into the behavior of individuals and the spatial dynamics of populations at increasingly higher levels of organization. In particular, ecologists have focused on the interaction between individuals and their environment in an effort to understand future impacts from habitat loss and climate change. Tools to examine this interaction have included: fractal analysis, first passage time, Lévy flights, multi-behavioral analysis, hidden markov models, and state-space models. Concurrent with the development of movement models has been an increase in the sophistication and availability of hierarchical bayesian models. In this review we bring these two threads together by using hierarchical structures as a framework for reviewing individual models. We synthesize emerging themes in movement ecology, and propose a new hierarchical model for animal movement that builds on these emerging themes. This model moves away from traditional random walks, and instead focuses inference on how moving animals with complex behavior interact with their landscape and make choices about its suitability. PMID:19046362

  20. Understanding Community Norms Surrounding Tobacco Sales

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization. Methods We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales. Results Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative. Conclusion Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions. PMID:25180772

  1. Wavefield imaging using the energy norm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Daniel Carvalho, Junior

    For various wavefield types, one can formulate a measurement of the mechanical energy that satisfies conservation laws. Based on this formulation, one can derive an energy norm that is applicable to wavefield imaging. Extending the concept of the norm to an inner product, one can compare two related wavefields. Therefore, an imaging condition can be defined as the inner product between the source and receiver wavefields at every spatial location. In this regard, the imaging condition based on the energy inner product accounts for wavefield directionality in space and time, overcoming some problems present in the conventional imaging condition. I exploit the wavefield directionality information from the energy imaging condition to attenuate unwanted events in reverse time migrated (RTM) images. For acoustic wavefields, these unwanted events are characterized by the collinearity of the source and receiver raypaths, and they are described as RTM backscattering artifacts. For elastic wavefields, these events are characterized by the fact that source and receiver displacement fields have the same polarization and wave propagation directions. In both acoustic and elastic cases, one can to attenuate these artifacts and produce high quality images. Another application that uses the wavefield directionality is to enhance the full waveform inversion (FWI) gradient for acoustic wavefields. By enhancing wave events that are collinear and suppressing all other wave events, I am able to compute gradients that are more suitable for the inversion process. Numerical experiments show the efficacy of these applications for synthetic models that emulate the complexity of subsurface structures found in exploration seismology, such as salt bodies, diffractors, dipping layers and faults.

  2. Linking Literacy and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2010-01-01

    There are many links between literacy and movement. Movement and language are both forms of communication and self-expression. Rhythm is an essential component of both language and movement. While people may think of rhythm primarily in musical terms, there is a rhythm to words and sentences as well. Individuals develop an internal rhythm when…

  3. Progressive Social Movements and Educational Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyon, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This article places policy development in the context of progressive social movements. It describes how social movements develop, and delineates some of the accomplishments of such contestation in U.S. history as well as in changes of education policy. The article closes by considering the possibilities and challenges of current social movement…

  4. The Chicano Movement: Paths to Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Jose Angel

    2011-01-01

    This article is a quick overview of the Chicano Movement (CM) with specific analyses of the five major strategies employed by its adherents to effect social change. The CM was a social movement that occurred in the United States with increased activity in the southwest and midwest during a time frame: 1950s to 1980s. Persons of Mexican ancestry…

  5. Eye Movement Patterns of Captioned Television Viewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensema, Carl J.; Sharkawy, Sameh El; Danturthi, Ramalinga Sarma; Burch, Robert; Hsu, David

    2000-01-01

    Eye movement of six subjects (three with deafness) was recorded as they watched video segments with and without captions. The addition of captions to a video resulted in major changes in eye movement patterns, with the viewing process becoming primarily a reading process. (Contains six references.) (Author/CR)

  6. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this journal's Fall 2009 issue, the Forum section included an article by Gordon Selman and Mark Selman arguing that although Canadian adult education had existed as a social movement in the middle part of the 20th century, it is no longer a social movement. They also speculated about the causes of this change. In the Spring 2011 issue, Tom…

  7. Inequalities in the Impact of National Reimbursement of Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapy and the Influence of Injunctive Norms: An Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Fiona E.; Nagelhout, Gera E.; Nierkens, Vera; Willemsen, Marc C.; Stronks, Karien

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, the Dutch government reimbursed smoking cessation pharmacotherapy with behavioral therapy for quitting smokers. We investigate whether inequalities in the use of pharmacotherapy change and, if not, whether this is due to a relatively positive injunctive norm in lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups. A total of 75,415 participants aged ≥15 years from the Dutch Continuous Survey of Smoking Habits, 2009–2012, were considered with the following measures: SES (education/income), injunctive norm (mostly acceptable/neutral/mostly unacceptable), period (2011/all other years), and pharmacotherapy use (yes/no). The proportion of low SES smokers compared with high SES smokers making quit attempts with pharmacotherapy did not differ significantly. The injunctive norm of low SES smokers differed significantly from high SES smokers and nonsmokers of all SES levels. Low income smokers with mostly acceptable injunctive norms were significantly less likely to make quit attempts using pharmacotherapy than those with a neutral or less accepting injunctive norm. The significantly lower use of pharmacotherapy in quit attempts in low income smokers with a positive injunctive norm toward smoking may partly underlie the lack of uptake of reimbursed pharmacotherapy in low SES smokers. PMID:27257383

  8. Saccadic Eye Movement Speed and Motor Response Execution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Harriet G.; Helfrich, Janet

    1977-01-01

    Evidence was found to indicate that training to improve the speed of saccadic eye movement (movement from one fixation point to another) also resulted in observable changes in batting performance among a sample group of high school girls. (MJB)

  9. easyCBM Norms. 2014 Edition. Technical Report #1409

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saven, Jessica L.; Tindal, Gerald; Irvin, P. Shawn; Farley, Dan; Alonzo, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Previous norms for the easyCBM assessment system were computed using scores from all students who took each measure for every grade and benchmark season (fall, winter, and spring). During the 2013-­14 school year, new national norms were developed to more accurately (proportionately) represent reading and mathematics performance by two variables:…

  10. Norms and Varieties of English and TESOL Teacher Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamid, M. Obaidul; Zhu, Lingyan; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The growing recognition of the plurality of English underlying the World Englishes (WE) paradigm has problematised the conventional second language acquisition (SLA) views of errors. If English use in emerging English-speaking contexts is to be judged by local norms, as argued by WE scholars, applying exocentric norms in these contexts can be…

  11. The Maturation of Norms for Computer-Mediated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Gregory B.

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes the communication norms of the major forms of computer-mediated communication, including electronic mail, mailing lists, Usenet and other bulletin board systems, interactive messaging, multiuser domains (MUDs), and mass-broadcast media. New uses and the development of standards, or norms, are discussed. (Contains 11 references.) (LRW)

  12. Creation of Norms for the Purpose of Global Talent Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedricks, Cynthia A.; Robie, Chet; Harnisher, John V.

    2008-01-01

    Personality scores were used to construct three databases of global norms. The composition of the three databases varied according to percentage of cases by global region, occupational group, applicant status, and gender of the job candidate. Comparison of personality scores across the three norms databases revealed that the magnitude of the…

  13. Gender Norms and Retaliatory Violence against Spouses and Acquaintances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feld, Scott L.; Felson, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines an experiment embedded within a nationally representative survey of adult Americans to investigate gender norms regarding retaliatory violence between spouses and acquaintances. Contrary to claims that societal norms permit violence within marriage, respondents disapproved of retaliatory violence against spouses more than…

  14. The Subjectivity of the Translator and Socio-Cultural Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pei, Denghua

    2010-01-01

    This thesis attempts to probe into the dialectical relationship between the subjectivity of the translator and socio-cultural norms. The socio-cultural norms inevitably regulate the translator's translating activity, as acceptability of the translated text is the primary concern of most translators. However, this does not mean that the…

  15. Professional Development of PMRI Teachers for Introducing Social Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Dolk, Maarten; Zulkardi

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports implementation results of designing a workshop for mathematics teachers in introducing classroom social norms. The participants are eight mathematics teachers in primary and junior secondary level. Teachers learned and did some activities about social norms during the workshop. First, they watched an example of learning videos…

  16. Utility of Inferential Norming with Smaller Sample Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Jianjun; Chen, Hsin-Yi

    2011-01-01

    We examined the utility of inferential norming using small samples drawn from the larger "Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition" (WISC-IV) standardization data set. The quality of the norms was estimated with multiple indexes such as polynomial curve fit, percentage of cases receiving the same score, average absolute score…

  17. Teaching the Sociocultural Norms of an Undergraduate Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couper, Graeme; Denny, Heather; Watkins, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The importance of teaching second language learners the pragmatic norms of relevant communities of practice is widely recognised. Familiarisation with these norms is also an important aspect of socialisation for native speakers entering a new community of practice. This study focuses on pragmatic instruction of English as an additional language…

  18. Parametric R-norm directed-divergence convex function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Dhanesh; Kumar, Satish

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we define parametric R-norm directed-divergence convex function and discuss their special cases and prove some properties similar to Kullback-Leibler information measure. From R-norm divergence measure new information measures have also been derived and their relations with different measures of entropy have been obtained and give its application in industrial engineering.

  19. The American Freshman: National Norms for Fall 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, Alexander W.; And Others

    This publication presents national norms for 237,777 college freshmen in fall 1994 based on the 29th annual survey of incoming students at 461 two-year and four-year colleges and universities. Three major tables present the norms for type of institutional control for all freshmen and by sex; for universities by selectivity level and by sex; and…

  20. CLEX: A Cross-Linguistic Lexical Norms Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Rune Norgaard; Dale, Philip S.; Bleses, Dorthe; Fenson, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Parent report has proven a valid and cost-effective means of evaluating early child language. Norming datasets for these instruments, which provide the basis for standardized comparisons of individual children to a population, can also be used to derive norms for the acquisition of individual words in production and comprehension and also early…

  1. Epistemological Norms and Companion Meanings in Science Classroom Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundqvist, Eva; Almqvist, Jonas; Ostman, Leif

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe two central epistemological norms related to the importance of making investigations and to scientific language and its logic. These norms have been identified in empirical material consisting of 200 video-recorded lessons in three different science classes. With regard to the learning of science and socialization, we…

  2. Family Norms in a Rapidly Industrializing Society: Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podmore, David; Chaney, David

    1974-01-01

    A sample of 1123 young people in Hong Kong responded to a number of statements concerning family norms. Data suggest that with regard to relationships between husband and wife, and parents and children, views are more consonant with the norms of the Western conjugal family than the traditional Chinese family. (Author)

  3. Minnesota Test-Norms and Expectancy Tables. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joselyn, Edwin Gary, Comp.; Perry, Dallis K.

    The volume of test-norms and expectancy tables is intended as a tool for counselors in counseling individuals. The work contains a chapter on test interpretation to assist the counselor in relating individual test scores to other information about the individual. In the Minnesota Norms section of the tables, there are no data at the elementary…

  4. Linguistic Norms and Adult Roles in Play and Serious Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Janus Spindler; Jorgensen, Jens Normann

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the ways in which minority students in the Danish public school system bring mono-lingually based norms into their poly-lingual peer group interaction. In sequential micro-analyses of interaction we show how the students use the voice of an authority in their reproduction and negotiation of linguistic norms. We base our…

  5. Social Norms about a Health Issue in Work Group Networks

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to advance theorizing about how small groups understand health issues through the use of social network analysis. To achieve this goal, an adapted cognitive social structure examines group social norms around a specific health issue, H1N1 flu prevention. As predicted, individual’s attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived social norms were each positively associated with behavioral intentions for at least one of the H1N1 health behaviors studied. Moreover, collective norms of the whole group were also associated with behavioral intentions, even after controlling for how individual group members perceive those norms. For members of work groups in which pairs were perceived to agree in their support for H1N1 vaccination, the effect of individually perceived group norms on behavioral intentions was stronger than for groups with less agreement. PMID:26389934

  6. Privacy, technology, and norms: the case of Smart Meters.

    PubMed

    Horne, Christine; Darras, Brice; Bean, Elyse; Srivastava, Anurag; Frickel, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Norms shift and emerge in response to technological innovation. One such innovation is Smart Meters - components of Smart Grid energy systems capable of minute-to-minute transmission of consumer electricity use information. We integrate theory from sociological research on social norms and privacy to examine how privacy threats affect the demand for and expectations of norms that emerge in response to new technologies, using Smart Meters as a test case. Results from three vignette experiments suggest that increased threats to privacy created by Smart Meters are likely to provoke strong demand for and expectations of norms opposing the technology and that the strength of these normative rules is at least partly conditional on the context. Privacy concerns vary little with actors' demographic characteristics. These findings contribute to theoretical understanding of norm emergence and have practical implications for implementing privacy protections that effectively address concerns of electricity users. PMID:25769852

  7. Encouraging children to eat more fruit and vegetables: Health vs. descriptive social norm-based messages

    PubMed Central

    Sharps, Maxine; Robinson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Traditional intervention approaches to promote fruit and vegetable consumption outline the health benefits of eating fruit and vegetables. More recently, social norm-based messages describing the healthy eating habits of others have been shown to increase fruit and vegetable intake in adults. Here we report two experimental studies which investigated whether exposure to descriptive social norm-based messages about the behaviour of other children and health-based messages increased fruit and vegetable intake in young children. In both studies children were exposed to messages whilst playing a board-game. After exposure to the messages, children were able to consume fruit and vegetables, as well as high calorie snack foods. Although findings were inconsistent across the two individual studies, in a pooled analysis we found evidence that both health messages and descriptive social norm-based messages increased children's fruit and vegetable intake, relative to control condition messages (p < .05). Whether descriptive social norm-based messages can be used to promote meaningful changes to children's dietary behaviour warrants further study. PMID:26820776

  8. Probabilistic maturation reaction norms assessed from mark–recaptures of wild fish in their natural habitat

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Esben M; Serbezov, Dimitar; Vøllestad, Leif A

    2014-01-01

    Reaction norms are a valuable tool in evolutionary biology. Lately, the probabilistic maturation reaction norm approach, describing probabilities of maturing at combinations of age and body size, has been much applied for testing whether phenotypic changes in exploited populations of fish are mainly plastic or involving an evolutionary component. However, due to typical field data limitations, with imperfect knowledge about individual life histories, this demographic method still needs to be assessed. Using 13 years of direct mark–recapture observations on individual growth and maturation in an intensively sampled population of brown trout (Salmo trutta), we show that the probabilistic maturation reaction norm approach may perform well even if the assumption of equal survival of juvenile and maturing fish does not hold. Earlier studies have pointed out that growth effects may confound the interpretation of shifts in maturation reaction norms, because this method in its basic form deals with body size rather than growth. In our case, however, we found that juvenile body size, rather than annual growth, was more strongly associated with maturation. Viewed against earlier studies, our results also underscore the challenges of generalizing life-history patterns among species and populations. PMID:24967078

  9. Encouraging children to eat more fruit and vegetables: Health vs. descriptive social norm-based messages.

    PubMed

    Sharps, Maxine; Robinson, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Traditional intervention approaches to promote fruit and vegetable consumption outline the health benefits of eating fruit and vegetables. More recently, social norm-based messages describing the healthy eating habits of others have been shown to increase fruit and vegetable intake in adults. Here we report two experimental studies which investigated whether exposure to descriptive social norm-based messages about the behaviour of other children and health-based messages increased fruit and vegetable intake in young children. In both studies children were exposed to messages whilst playing a board-game. After exposure to the messages, children were able to consume fruit and vegetables, as well as high calorie snack foods. Although findings were inconsistent across the two individual studies, in a pooled analysis we found evidence that both health messages and descriptive social norm-based messages increased children's fruit and vegetable intake, relative to control condition messages (p < .05). Whether descriptive social norm-based messages can be used to promote meaningful changes to children's dietary behaviour warrants further study. PMID:26820776

  10. Predicting healthcare employees' participation in an office redesign program: Attitudes, norms and behavioral control

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, David C; Lukas, Carol VanDeusen; Meterko, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Background The study examined the extent to which components based on a modified version of the theory of planned behavior explained employee participation in a new clinical office program designed to reduce patient waiting times in primary care clinics. Methods We regressed extent of employee participation on attitudes about the program, group norms, and perceived behavioral control along with individual and clinic characteristics using a hierarchical linear mixed model. Results Perceived group norms were one of the best predictors of employee participation. Attitudes about the program were also significant, but to a lesser degree. Behavioral control, however, was not a significant predictor. Respondents with at least one year of clinic tenure, or who were team leaders, first line supervisor, or managers had greater participation rates. Analysis at the clinic level indicated clinics with scores in the highest quartile clinic scores on group norms, attitudes, and behavioral control scores were significantly higher on levels of overall participation than clinics in the lowest quartile. Conclusion Findings suggest that establishing strong norms and values may influence employee participation in a change program in a group setting. Supervisory level was also significant with greater responsibility being associated with greater participation. PMID:18976505

  11. Probabilistic maturation reaction norms assessed from mark-recaptures of wild fish in their natural habitat.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Esben M; Serbezov, Dimitar; Vøllestad, Leif A

    2014-05-01

    Reaction norms are a valuable tool in evolutionary biology. Lately, the probabilistic maturation reaction norm approach, describing probabilities of maturing at combinations of age and body size, has been much applied for testing whether phenotypic changes in exploited populations of fish are mainly plastic or involving an evolutionary component. However, due to typical field data limitations, with imperfect knowledge about individual life histories, this demographic method still needs to be assessed. Using 13 years of direct mark-recapture observations on individual growth and maturation in an intensively sampled population of brown trout (Salmo trutta), we show that the probabilistic maturation reaction norm approach may perform well even if the assumption of equal survival of juvenile and maturing fish does not hold. Earlier studies have pointed out that growth effects may confound the interpretation of shifts in maturation reaction norms, because this method in its basic form deals with body size rather than growth. In our case, however, we found that juvenile body size, rather than annual growth, was more strongly associated with maturation. Viewed against earlier studies, our results also underscore the challenges of generalizing life-history patterns among species and populations. PMID:24967078

  12. Health-adjusted neuropsychological test norms based on 463 older Swedish car drivers.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Ingvar; Johansson, Kurt; Almkvist, Ove; Lundberg, Catarina

    2016-04-01

    There is a need for improved normative information in particular for older persons. The present study provides neuropsychological test norms on seven cognitive tests used in a sample representing the general older driving population, when uncontrolled and controlled for physical health. A group of 463 healthy Swedish car drivers, aged 65 to 84 years, participated in a medical and neuropsychological examination. The latter included tests of visual scanning, mental shifting, visual spatial function, memory, reaction time, selective attention, and simultaneous capacity. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that, when uncontrolled for health, old age was associated with significant impairment on all seven tests. Education was associated with a significant advantage for all tests except most reaction time subtests. Women outperformed men on selective attention. Controlling for health did not consistently change the associations with education, but generally weakened those with age, indicating rises in normative scores of up to 0.36 SD (residual). In terms of variance explained, impaired health predicted on average 2.5%, age 2.9%, education 2.1% and gender 0.1%. It was concluded (1) that individual regression-based predictions of expected values have the advantage of allowing control for the impact of health on normative scores in addition to the adjustment for various demographic and performance-related variables and (2) that health-adjusted norms have the potential to classify functional status more accurately, to the extent that these norms diverge from norms uncontrolled for physical health. PMID:26946452

  13. Contrast Invariant Interest Point Detection by Zero-Norm LoG Filter.

    PubMed

    Zhenwei Miao; Xudong Jiang; Kim-Hui Yap

    2016-01-01

    The Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) filter is widely used in interest point detection. However, low-contrast image structures, though stable and significant, are often submerged by the high-contrast ones in the response image of the LoG filter, and hence are difficult to be detected. To solve this problem, we derive a generalized LoG filter, and propose a zero-norm LoG filter. The response of the zero-norm LoG filter is proportional to the weighted number of bright/dark pixels in a local region, which makes this filter be invariant to the image contrast. Based on the zero-norm LoG filter, we develop an interest point detector to extract local structures from images. Compared with the contrast dependent detectors, such as the popular scale invariant feature transform detector, the proposed detector is robust to illumination changes and abrupt variations of images. Experiments on benchmark databases demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed zero-norm LoG detector in terms of the repeatability and matching score of the detected points as well as the image recognition rate under different conditions. PMID:26302514

  14. Robustness of norm-driven cooperation in the commons.

    PubMed

    Schlüter, Maja; Tavoni, Alessandro; Levin, Simon

    2016-01-13

    Sustainable use of common-pool resources such as fish, water or forests depends on the cooperation of resource users that restrain their individual extraction to socially optimal levels. Empirical evidence has shown that under certain social and biophysical conditions, self-organized cooperation in the commons can evolve. Global change, however, may drastically alter these conditions. We assess the robustness of cooperation to environmental variability in a stylized model of a community that harvests a shared resource. Community members follow a norm of socially optimal resource extraction, which is enforced through social sanctioning. Our results indicate that both resource abundance and a small increase in resource variability can lead to collapse of cooperation observed in the no-variability case, while either scarcity or large variability have the potential to stabilize it. The combined effects of changes in amount and variability can reinforce or counteract each other depending on their size and the initial level of cooperation in the community. If two socially separate groups are ecologically connected through resource leakage, cooperation in one can destabilize the other. These findings provide insights into possible effects of global change and spatial connectivity, indicating that there is no simple answer as to their effects on cooperation and sustainable resource use. PMID:26740611

  15. Disciplinary Differences in Faculty Conformity to the Norms of Science: Are Norms Compensatory Integrating Mechanisms for Professional Fragmentation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coopersmith, Georgia A.; Braxton, John M.

    The norms of science define appropriate and inappropriate scholarly or research role performance. The four norms described in this study are (1) universalism: research is assessed on its merit, not particularistic criteria; (2) commonality: research must be made public and shared with the research community; (3) disinterestedness: research is…

  16. Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Morgante, Francesca; Edwards, Mark J.; Espay, Alberto J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review describes the main clinical features of psychogenic (functional) movement disorders and reports recent advances in diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. Recent Findings The terminology and definition of patients with psychogenic movement disorders remain subjects of controversy; the term “functional” has been used more frequently in the literature in recent years regarding the neurobiological substrate underpinning these disorders. Correct diagnosis of psychogenic movement disorders should rely not on the exclusion of organic disorders or the sole presence of psychological factors but on the observation or elicitation of clinical features related to the specific movement disorder (ie, a positive or inclusionary rather than exclusionary diagnosis). Sudden onset, spontaneous remissions, and variability over time or during clinical examination are useful “red flags” suggestive of a psychogenic movement disorder. Imaging studies have demonstrated impaired connectivity between limbic and motor areas involved in movement programming and hypoactivity of a brain region that compares expected data with actual sensory data occurring during voluntary movement. Treatment of psychogenic movement disorders begins with ensuring the patient’s acceptance of the diagnosis during the initial debriefing and includes nonpharmacologic (cognitive-behavioral therapy, physiotherapy) and pharmacologic options. Summary Psychogenic movement disorders represent a challenging disorder for neurologists to diagnose and treat. Recent advances have increased understanding of the neurobiological mechanism of psychogenic movement disorders. Treatment with cognitive strategies and physical rehabilitation can benefit some patients. As short duration of disease correlates with better prognosis, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment are critical. PMID:24092294

  17. The Double-Edged Sword of "Disaster Volunteerism": A Study of New Orleans Rebirth Movement Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heldman, Caroline; Israel-Trummel, Mackenzie

    2012-01-01

    We examine the political and personal effects of disaster volunteerism with participants of the New Orleans Rebirth Movement (NORM) using four waves of pre- and postsurveys and qualitative analysis of participant journals. Significant increases are found in internal political efficacy, desire to be active in politics, and value placed on social…

  18. Between DSM and ICD: Paraphilias and the Transformation of Sexual Norms.

    PubMed

    Giami, Alain

    2015-07-01

    The simultaneous revision of the two major international classifications of disease, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the International Classification of Diseases, serves as an opportunity to observe the dynamic processes through which social norms of sexuality are constructed and are subject to change in relation to social, political, and historical context. This article argues that the classifications of sexual disorders, which define pathological aspects of "sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges or behaviors" are representations of contemporary sexual norms, gender identifications, and gender relations. It aims to demonstrate how changes in the medical treatment of sexual perversions/paraphilias passed, over the course of the 20th century, from a model of pathologization (and sometimes criminalization) of non-reproductive sexual behaviors to a model that reflects and privileges sexual well-being and responsibility, and pathologizes the absence or the limitation of consent in sexual relations. PMID:25933671

  19. Functional (psychogenic) movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Czarnecki, Kathrin; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review This review provides an overview of recent developments in diagnosis, pathophysiology, neuroimaging and management of functional (psychogenic) movement disorders (FMD) and highlights the current controversy on classification of somatoform disorders in the new DSM-5. Recent findings There has been increasing interest in recent years to study the underlying pathophysiology of FMDs, which has resulted in a broadened disease model, taking neurobiologic and psychosocial factors equally into account. In this context, the term “psychogenic” has been replaced by “functional” movement disorders by many authors in the field to express the changing focus towards a multifactorial disease model. The need for establishing a positive diagnosis of FMD as opposed to providing a diagnosis of exclusion is increasingly recognized and reflected by the introduction of “laboratory-supported” diagnostic criteria of FMD. Important advances have been made through behavioral, electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies although the fundamental etiology of FMD remains poorly understood. Of particular interest have been several reports on abnormal sensorimotor features and cortical inhibition in both organic and functional dystonia, highlighting possible shared traits of both conditions. In terms of treatment, recent studies have reported benefit from both psychiatric and physical therapy based interventions. Summary Increasing efforts have been made towards better understanding and treatment of FMD, and the disease model has been broadened to include neurobiologic and psychosocial factors. Laboratory-based diagnostic criteria have been established for many FMDs to support the clinical diagnosis. To determine the most effective management strategies for FMD, a closer collaboration between neurologists and psychiatrists and intensified research efforts with prospective treatment trials are needed. PMID:22610460

  20. Hazard of NORM from phosphorite of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sabiha-Javied; Tufail, M; Asghar, M

    2010-04-15

    In order to investigate the radiological hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in phosphorite deposits of Pakistan, 26 samples of phosphorite were collected from the phosphorite mines near Abbottabad, and 20 samples of single superphosphate (SSP) fertilizer were obtained from the warehouses in Pakistan. Activity concentration in all the samples was assayed using HPGe detection system. Specific activity values of (238)U, (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th in the samples of phosphorite were 550+/-156 (329-845), 206+/-72 (93-362), 511+/-189 (316-830) and 52+/-17 (23-81) Bq kg(-1), respectively; and those in SSP fertilizer due to these radionuclides were 637+/-44 (596-687), 164+/-24 (113-215), 589+/-44 (521-671) and 29+/-6 (16-45) Bq kg(-1), respectively. The results were compared with that of worldwide soil. Outdoor external dose rate due to gamma rays from phosphorite was calculated to be 276+/-94 (177-441) nGy h(-1) and external dose rate in a room made of phosphorite containing material was estimated to be 706+/-243 (455-1129) nGy h(-1). The concentration of radon was measured in phosphorite mines and in the warehouses for SSP fertilizer by an active method. Protective measures have been proposed to control the pollution in the phosphorite mining and processing, and fertilizer storage areas. PMID:19963319

  1. Suicidality, Economic Shocks, and Egalitarian Gender Norms

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Durkheim conceived of suicide as a product of social integration and regulation. Although the sociology of suicide has focused on the role of disintegration, to our knowledge, the interaction between integration and regulation has yet to be empirically evaluated. In this article we test whether more egalitarian gender norms, an important form of macro-regulation, protects men and women against suicidality during economic shocks. Using cross-national data covering 20 European Union countries from the years 1991 to 2011, including the recent economic crises in Europe, we first assessed the relation between unemployment and suicide. Then we evaluated potential effect modification using three measures of gender equality, the gender ratio in labour force participation, the gender pay gap, and women’s representation in parliament using multiple measures. We found no evidence of a significant, direct link between greater gender equality and suicide rates in either men or women. However, a greater degree of gender equality helped protect against suicidality associated with economic shocks. At relatively high levels of gender equality in Europe, such as those seen in Sweden and Austria, the relationship between rising unemployment rates and suicide in men disappeared altogether. Our findings suggest that more egalitarian forms of gender regulation may help buffer the suicidal consequences of economic shocks, especially in men. PMID:26877572

  2. Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, S. J.; Smith, K. P.

    1999-10-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the radium concentrations exceed regulatory limits or activate the alarms on radiation screening devices installed at most scrap metal recycling facilities. Although NORM-contaminated scrap metal currently is not disposed of by re-melting, this form of recycling could present a viable disposition option for this waste stream. Studies indicate that re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal is a viable recycling option from a risk-based perspective. However, a myriad of economic, regulatory, and policy issues have caused the recyclers to turn away virtually all radioactive scrap metal. Until these issues can be resolved, re-melting of the petroleum industry's NORM-impacted scrap metal is unlikely to be a widespread practice. This paper summarizes the issues associated with re-melting radioactive scrap so that the petroleum industry and its regulators will understand the obstacles. This paper was prepared as part of a report being prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee.

  3. Options and cost for disposal of NORM waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    Oil field waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is presently disposed of both on the lease site and at off-site commercial disposal facilities. The majority of NORM waste is disposed of through underground injection, most of which presently takes place at a commercial injection facility located in eastern Texas. Several companies offer the service of coming to an operator's site, grinding the NORM waste into a fine particle size, slurrying the waste, and injecting it into the operator's own disposal well. One company is developing a process whereby the radionuclides are dissolved out of the NORM wastes, leaving a nonhazardous oil field waste and a contaminated liquid stream that is injected into the operator's own injection well. Smaller quantities of NORM are disposed of through burial in landfills, encapsulation inside the casing of wells that are being plugged and abandoned, or land spreading. It is difficult to quantify the total cost for disposing of NORM waste. The cost components that must be considered, in addition to the cost of the operation, include analytical costs, transportation costs, container decontamination costs, permitting costs, and long-term liability costs. Current NORM waste disposal costs range from $15/bbl to $420/bbl.

  4. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD. PMID:26065126

  5. Congenital mirror movements.

    PubMed Central

    Schott, G D; Wyke, M A

    1981-01-01

    In this report are described seven patients assessed clinically and neuropsychologically in whom mirror movements affecting predominantly the hands occurred as a congenital disorder. These mirror movements, representing a specific type of abnormal synkinesia, may arise as a hereditary condition, in the presence of a recognisable underlying neurological abnormality, and sporadically, and the seven patients provide more or less satisfactory examples of each of these three groups. Despite the apparent uniformity of the disorder, the heterogeneity and variability may be marked, examples in some of our patients including the pronounced increase in tone that developed with arm movement, and the capacity for modulation of the associated movement by alteration of neck position and bio-feedback. Various possible mechanisms are considered; these include impaired cerebral inhibition of unwanted movements, and functioning of abnormal motor pathways. Emphasis has been placed on the putative role of the direct, crossed corticomotoneurone pathways and on the unilateral and bilateral cerebral events that precede movement. PMID:7288446

  6. The Temporal Structure of Vertical Arm Movements

    PubMed Central

    Gaveau, Jérémie; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates how the CNS deals with the omnipresent force of gravity during arm motor planning. Previous studies have reported direction-dependent kinematic differences in the vertical plane; notably, acceleration duration was greater during a downward than an upward arm movement. Although the analysis of acceleration and deceleration phases has permitted to explore the integration of gravity force, further investigation is necessary to conclude whether feedforward or feedback control processes are at the origin of this incorporation. We considered that a more detailed analysis of the temporal features of vertical arm movements could provide additional information about gravity force integration into the motor planning. Eight subjects performed single joint vertical arm movements (45° rotation around the shoulder joint) in two opposite directions (upwards and downwards) and at three different speeds (slow, natural and fast). We calculated different parameters of hand acceleration profiles: movement duration (MD), duration to peak acceleration (D PA), duration from peak acceleration to peak velocity (D PA-PV), duration from peak velocity to peak deceleration (D PV-PD), duration from peak deceleration to the movement end (D PD-End), acceleration duration (AD), deceleration duration (DD), peak acceleration (PA), peak velocity (PV), and peak deceleration (PD). While movement durations and amplitudes were similar for upward and downward movements, the temporal structure of acceleration profiles differed between the two directions. More specifically, subjects performed upward movements faster than downward movements; these direction-dependent asymmetries appeared early in the movement (i.e., before PA) and lasted until the moment of PD. Additionally, PA and PV were greater for upward than downward movements. Movement speed also changed the temporal structure of acceleration profiles. The effect of speed and direction on the form of acceleration

  7. Alterations of eye movement control in neurodegenerative movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Gorges, Martin; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Kassubek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the fovea centralis, the most central part of the retina and the area of the highest visual accuracy, requires humans to shift their gaze rapidly (saccades) to bring some object of interest within the visual field onto the fovea. In addition, humans are equipped with the ability to rotate the eye ball continuously in a highly predicting manner (smooth pursuit) to hold a moving target steadily upon the retina. The functional deficits in neurodegenerative movement disorders (e.g., Parkinsonian syndromes) involve the basal ganglia that are critical in all aspects of movement control. Moreover, neocortical structures, the cerebellum, and the midbrain may become affected by the pathological process. A broad spectrum of eye movement alterations may result, comprising smooth pursuit disturbance (e.g., interrupting saccades), saccadic dysfunction (e.g., hypometric saccades), and abnormal attempted fixation (e.g., pathological nystagmus and square wave jerks). On clinical grounds, videooculography is a sensitive noninvasive in vivo technique to classify oculomotion function alterations. Eye movements are a valuable window into the integrity of central nervous system structures and their changes in defined neurodegenerative conditions, that is, the oculomotor nuclei in the brainstem together with their directly activating supranuclear centers and the basal ganglia as well as cortical areas of higher cognitive control of attention. PMID:24955249

  8. [The new International Standardization Organization 9000 norms: 2000].

    PubMed

    Arnold, J

    1999-07-01

    The reviewing of ISO 9000 norms has been planned to be published within the last quarter of the year 2000. It aims at overcoming the limits and difficulties of use evidenced by the implementation of the 1994 ISO norms, and at providing an analysis aid for improving quality, which would be adapted to the needs of each company or user. What is at stake with these new norms is the implementation of a quality management system, and its evolution towards a total-quality management. PMID:10472689

  9. The mathematics of movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Review of: Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and Plants. Peter Turchin. 1998. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 306 pages. $38.95 (paper).

  10. [Delayed Copying of Unfamiliar Contour Shapes: Does Reaction Time Decrease with Growing Delay Reflect a Change in Internal Representation Of Fothcoming Movement?].

    PubMed

    Korneev, A A; Lomakin, D I; Kurgansky, A V

    2016-01-01

    Group of 24 adults has performed the delayed reproduction (copying) of unfamiliar contour shapes (trajectory templates). Templates were shown for 250 ms and the participants were asked to reproduce them upon detecting acoustical go signal (short click). Go signal was delayed relatively to the end of a visual template exposure by T = 0, 500, 1000, 2000 or 4000 ms. Block design of the experiment was used when delay T was held constant within a block consisted of 32 trials. We analyzed reaction time (RT), mean movement time (MT) along a single segment of trajectory, and the mean dwell time (DT) in the vertices of the template. It is shown that RT does not depend monotonically on the delay T showing a decrease at T ≤ 1000 ms and increase at T ≤ 2000 ms. The RT of T curve is well described by a simple additive model that includes a linearly growing and an exponentially decaying terms. The linear growth reflects the foreperiod effect, i.e., decreasing capacity to predict an exact moment of go signal with the growing delay T [Niemi, Naatanen, 1981; Meulenbroek, Van Galen, 1988]. We suggested that exponentially decaying term may be caused by the internal representation of a trajectory undergoing some transformation during retention in the working memory. PMID:27263275

  11. Changing patterns of localization of the tobacco mosaic virus movement protein and replicase to the endoplasmic reticulum and microtubules during infection.

    PubMed Central

    Heinlein, M; Padgett, H S; Gens, J S; Pickard, B G; Casper, S J; Epel, B L; Beachy, R N

    1998-01-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) derivatives that encode movement protein (MP) as a fusion to the green fluorescent protein (MP:GFP) were used in combination with antibody staining to identify host cell components to which MP and replicase accumulate in cells of infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and in infected BY-2 protoplasts. MP:GFP and replicase colocalized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER; especially the cortical ER) and were present in large, irregularly shaped, ER-derived structures that may represent "viral factories." The ER-derived structures required an intact cytoskeleton, and microtubules appeared to redistribute MP:GFP from these sites during late stages of infection. In leaves, MP:GFP accumulated in plasmodesmata, whereas in protoplasts, the MP:GFP was targeted to distinct, punctate sites near the plasma membrane. Treating protoplasts with cytochalasin D and brefeldin A at the time of inoculation prevented the accumulation of MP:GFP at these sites. It is proposed that the punctate sites anchor the cortical ER to plasma membrane and are related to sites at which plasmodesmata form in walled cells. Hairlike structures containing MP:GFP appeared on the surface of some of the infected protoplasts and are reminiscent of similar structures induced by other plant viruses. We present a model that postulates the role of the ER and cytoskeleton in targeting the MP and viral ribonucleoprotein from sites of virus synthesis to the plasmodesmata through which infection is spread. PMID:9668131

  12. Changing patterns of localization of the tobacco mosaic virus movement protein and replicase to the endoplasmic reticulum and microtubules during infection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinlein, M.; Padgett, H. S.; Gens, J. S.; Pickard, B. G.; Casper, S. J.; Epel, B. L.; Beachy, R. N.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) derivatives that encode movement protein (MP) as a fusion to the green fluorescent protein (MP:GFP) were used in combination with antibody staining to identify host cell components to which MP and replicase accumulate in cells of infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and in infected BY-2 protoplasts. MP:GFP and replicase colocalized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER; especially the cortical ER) and were present in large, irregularly shaped, ER-derived structures that may represent "viral factories." The ER-derived structures required an intact cytoskeleton, and microtubules appeared to redistribute MP:GFP from these sites during late stages of infection. In leaves, MP:GFP accumulated in plasmodesmata, whereas in protoplasts, the MP:GFP was targeted to distinct, punctate sites near the plasma membrane. Treating protoplasts with cytochalasin D and brefeldin A at the time of inoculation prevented the accumulation of MP:GFP at these sites. It is proposed that the punctate sites anchor the cortical ER to plasma membrane and are related to sites at which plasmodesmata form in walled cells. Hairlike structures containing MP:GFP appeared on the surface of some of the infected protoplasts and are reminiscent of similar structures induced by other plant viruses. We present a model that postulates the role of the ER and cytoskeleton in targeting the MP and viral ribonucleoprotein from sites of virus synthesis to the plasmodesmata through which infection is spread.

  13. Mirror, mirror, on the wall, is that even my hand at all? Changes in the afterimage of one's reflection in a mirror in response to bodily movement.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, J Brendan; Carlson, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Successful mirror self-recognition has often been considered a correlate of self-awareness in human development and phylogeny (Gallup, 1982). Studies have also shown that vision and touch interact such that objects viewed in a mirror's reflection are recoded as originating from a location within reachable, or peripersonal, space (Maravita et al. 2002). However, the association of mirror self-recognition and self-awareness is controversial, and the mechanism that underlies the recoding of visual information into peripersonal space remains an open question. In the present study, we address these issues through the novel use of an old paradigm: positive afterimages. It has been shown that when a positive afterimage is induced, and a limb is displaced from its apparent location in the afterimage, the afterimage of the limb fades or "crumbles" (Davies, 1973). We reproduced this effect in conditions where subjects viewed the afterimage of their arms' reflection using a frontally placed mirror and mirror box (Ramachandran & Rogers-Ramachandran, 1996). Our results suggest that the explicit knowledge that one is looking at a mirror as well as online visual feedback from bodily movement are unlikely to be responsible for previously observed interactions between vision and touch. Instead, we propose that a sense of ownership, and (bodily) self-awareness, might in part explain these interactions between vision and proprioception, which provides a partial vindication of the inference from successful mirror self-recognition to self-awareness. PMID:20117118

  14. Investigation on the movement of vortex burst position with dynamically changing angle of attack for a schematic deltawing in a watertunnel with correlation to similar studies in windtunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolffelt, Karl W.

    1987-06-01

    The requirements for modern military aircraft to maintain good handling qualities at very high angles of attack is one of many reasons why an increased knowledge is necessary regarding the aerodynamic behavior of vortex flows at nonstationary conditions. Linearized theory as it has been utilized in flight mechanics simulation using damping derivatives derived from forced oscillation technique, for example, may no longer be valid at such conditions. With this background some investigations have been made by SAAB-SCANIA with the aim to study the hysteresis effects for nonstationary vortex flows. A schematic delta-wing model which could also be equipped with a similar canard wing has been tested in a water tunnel. The model was supported in the tunnel by a simple mechanism by which it could be forced to move in one of four different modes, pitching or plunging with either ramp or harmonic motion. The flow over the model was visualized with air bubbles and sequences were recorded on videotape. The sequences were analyzed and the movements of the leading edge vortex burst have been studied with the main interest focused on the hysteresis effects.

  15. An H-infinity norm minimization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muse, Jonathan A.

    This dissertation seeks to merge the ideas from robust control theory such as Hinfinity control design and the Small Gain Theorem, L stability theory and Lyapunov stability from nonlinear control, and recent theoretical achievements in adaptive control. The fusion of frequency domain and linear time domain ideas allows the derivation of an H infinity Norm Minimization Approach (H infinity-NMA) for adaptive control architecture that permits a control designer to simplify the adaptive tuning process and tune the uncertainty compensation characteristics via linear control design techniques, band limit the adaptive control signal, efficiently handle redundant actuators, and handle unmatched uncertainty and matched uncertainty in a single design framework. The two stage design framework is similar to that used in robust control, but without sacrificing performance. The first stage of the design considers an ideal system with the system uncertainty completely known. For this system, a control law is designed using linear Hinfinity theory. Then in the second stage, an adaptive process is implemented that emulates the behavior of the ideal system. If the linear Hinfinity design is applied to control the emulated system, it then guarantees closed loop system stability of the actual system. All of this is accomplished while providing notions of transient performance bounds between the ideal system and the true system. Extensions to the theory include architectures for a class of output feedback systems, limiting the authority of an adaptive control system, and a method for improving the performance of an adaptive system with slow dynamics without any modification terms. Applications focus on using aerodynamic flow control for aircraft flight control and the Crew Launch Vehicle.

  16. Pronounced Seasonal Changes in the Movement Ecology of a Highly Gregarious Central-Place Forager, the African Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum)

    PubMed Central

    Fahr, Jakob; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Esch, Thomas; Machwitz, Miriam; Suu-Ire, Richard; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K. N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) migrate over vast distances across the African continent, probably following seasonal bursts of resource availability. This causes enormous fluctuations in population size, which in turn may influence the bats’ impact on local ecosystems. We studied the movement ecology of this central-place forager with state-of-the-art GPS/acceleration loggers and concurrently monitored the seasonal fluctuation of the colony in Accra, Ghana. Habitat use on the landscape scale was assessed with remote sensing data as well as ground-truthing of foraging areas. Principal Findings During the wet season population low (~ 4000 individuals), bats foraged locally (3.5–36.7 km) in urban areas with low tree cover. Major food sources during this period were fruits of introduced trees. Foraging distances almost tripled (24.1–87.9 km) during the dry season population peak (~ 150,000 individuals), but this was not compensated for by reduced resting periods. Dry season foraging areas were random with regard to urban footprint and tree cover, and food consisted almost exclusively of nectar and pollen of native trees. Conclusions and Significance Our study suggests that straw-coloured fruit bats disperse seeds in the range of hundreds of meters up to dozens of kilometres, and pollinate trees for up to 88 km. Straw-coloured fruit bats forage over much larger distances compared to most other Old World fruit bats, thus providing vital ecosystem services across extensive landscapes. We recommend increased efforts aimed at maintaining E. helvum populations throughout Africa since their keystone role in various ecosystems is likely to increase due to the escalating loss of other seed dispersers as well as continued urbanization and habitat fragmentation. PMID:26465139

  17. Singular Spectrum Analysis Based on L1-Norm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalantari, Mahdi; Yarmohammadi, Masoud; Hassani, Hossein

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, the singular spectrum analysis (SSA) technique has been further developed and increasingly applied to solve many practical problems. The aim of this research is to introduce a new version of SSA based on L1-norm. The performance of the proposed approach is assessed by applying it to various real and simulated time series, especially with outliers. The results are compared with those obtained using the basic version of SSA which is based on the Frobenius norm or L2-norm. Different criteria are also examined including reconstruction errors and forecasting performances. The theoretical and empirical results confirm that SSA based on L1-norm can provide better reconstruction and forecasts in comparison to basic SSA when faced with time series which are polluted by outliers.

  18. Protective Behavioral Strategies, Social Norms, and Alcohol-Related Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Arterberry, Brooke J.; Smith, Ashley E.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cadigan, Jennifer M.; Murphy, James G.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the unique contributions of protective behavioral strategies and social norms in predicting alcohol-related outcomes. Participants were 363 students from a large public university in the Midwest who reported at least one binge-drinking episode (5+/4+ drinks for men/women in one sitting) in the past 30 days. Data were collected 1/2010–3/2011. We used SEM to test models where protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and social norms were predictors of both alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, after controlling for the effects of gender. Both PBS and descriptive norms had relationships with alcohol use. PBS also had a relationship with alcohol-related problems. Overall, the findings suggest that PBS and social norms have unique associations with distinct alcohol-related outcomes. PMID:25419202

  19. Multiscale flat norm signatures for shapes and images

    SciTech Connect

    Sandine, Gary; Morgan, Simon P; Vixie, Kevin R; Clawson, Keth; Asaki, Thomas J; Price, Brandon

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we begin to explore the application of the multiscale flat norm introduced in Morgan and Vixie to shape and image analysis. In particular, we look at the use of the multiscale flat norm signature for the identification of shapes. After briefly reviewing the multiscale flat norm, the L{sup 1}TV functional and the relation between these two, we introduce multiscale signatures that naturally follow from the multiscale flat norm and its components. A numerical method based on the min-cut, max-flow graph-cut is briefly recalled. We suggest using L{sup 2} minimization, rather than the usual Crofton's formula based approximation, for choosing the required weights. The resulting weights have the dual benefits of being analytically computable and of giving more accurate approximations to the anisotropic TV energy. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of the signatures on simple shape classification tasks.

  20. Computer-Delivered Social Norm Message Increases Pain Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Pulvers, Kim; Schroeder, Jacquelyn; Limas, Eleuterio F.; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Few experimental studies have been conducted on social determinants of pain tolerance. Purpose This study tests a brief, computer-delivered social norm message for increasing pain tolerance. Methods Healthy young adults (N=260; 44 % Caucasian; 27 % Hispanic) were randomly assigned into a 2 (social norm)×2 (challenge) cold pressor study, stratified by gender. They received standard instructions or standard instructions plus a message that contained artifically elevated information about typical performance of others. Results Those receiving a social norm message displayed significantly higher pain tolerance, F(1, 255)=26.95, p<.001, ηp2=.10 and pain threshold F(1, 244)=9.81, p=.002, ηp2=.04, but comparable pain intensity, p>.05. There were no interactions between condition and gender on any outcome variables, p>.05. Conclusions Social norms can significantly increase pain tolerance, even with a brief verbal message delivered by a video. PMID:24146086

  1. Slow Movements of Bio-Inspired Limbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babikian, Sarine; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.; Kanso, Eva

    2016-05-01

    Slow and accurate finger and limb movements are essential to daily activities, but the underlying mechanics is relatively unexplored. Here, we develop a mathematical framework to examine slow movements of tendon-driven limbs that are produced by modulating the tendons' stiffness parameters. Slow limb movements are driftless in the sense that movement stops when actuations stop. We demonstrate, in the context of a planar tendon-driven system representing a finger, that the control of stiffness suffices to produce stable and accurate limb postures and quasi-static (slow) transitions among them. We prove, however, that stable postures are achievable only when tendons are pretensioned, i.e., they cannot become slack. Our results further indicate that a non-smoothness in slow movements arises because the precision with which individual stiffnesses need to be altered changes substantially throughout the limb's motion.

  2. The Human Potential Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamashiro, Roy T.

    The advent of the human potential movement has generated the expectation that educators unleash the intellectual, emotional, physical, and spiritual talents of students. This movement is characterized by its focus on (1) the person as a total being, (2) the needs and concerns of students, (3) phenomenology, (4) personal values and goals, and (5)…

  3. Research for a Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchfield, Randy G.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the new era of the Religious Education Association (REA) and how it may be seen to function as a "movement" with purposes, scope, and connectivity that bring together diverse groups. The author contends that religious education as a movement needs: (1) Research that describes patterns and uniquenesses in the religious…

  4. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  5. National CARES Mentoring Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    Harsh and cruel experiences have led many of our young to believe that they are alone in the world and that no one cares. In this article, Martin L Mitchell introduces us to the "National CARES Mentoring Movement" founded by Susan L.Taylor. This movement provides young people with role models who help shape their positive development.…

  6. 85 Engaging Movement Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    This book presents activities to keep K-6 students moving in a variety of ways as they learn. The movement experiences are planned around key curriculum concepts in movement and music as well as in academic curriculum areas. The experiences develop students' basic timing, language abilities, vocabulary, concentration, planning skills, and…

  7. From Social Movement Learning to Sociomaterial Movement Learning? Addressing the Possibilities and Limits of New Materialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Callum

    2014-01-01

    In recent years academic interest in social movement learning (SML) has flourished. "Studies in the Education of Adults" has arguably emerged as the premier international forum for exploring the links between adult learning and movements for progressive change. In parallel to this subfield, yet largely in isolation from it,…

  8. Prosocial norms and degree heterogeneity in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovářík, Jaromír; Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Cobo-Reyes, Ramón; Espinosa, María Paz; Jiménez, Natalia; Ponti, Giovanni

    2012-02-01

    We provide empirical evidence to support the claims that social diversity promotes prosocial behavior. We elicit a real-life social network and its members' adherence to a social norm, namely inequity aversion. The data reveal a positive relationship between subjects' prosociality and several measures of centrality. This result is in line with the theoretical literature that relates the evolution of social norms to the structure of social interactions and argues that central individuals are crucial for the emergence of prosocial behavior.

  9. Gendered norms, sexual exploitation and adolescent pregnancy in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Douglas, Zayid; Rwehumbiza, Annagrace; Hamisi, Aziza; Mabala, Richard

    2013-05-01

    Adolescent pregnancy places girls at increased risk for poor health and educational outcomes that limit livelihood options, economic independence, and empowerment in adulthood. In Tanzania, adolescent pregnancy remains a significant concern, with over half of all first births occurring before women reach the age of 20. A participatory research and action project (Vitu Newala) conducted formative research in a rural district on the dynamics of sexual risk and agency among 82 girls aged 12-17. Four major risk factors undermined girls' ability to protect their own health and well-being: poverty that pushed them into having sex to meet basic needs, sexual expectations on the part of older men and boys their age, rape and coercive sex (including sexual abuse from an early age), and unintended pregnancy. Transactional sex with older men was one of the few available sources of income that allowed adolescent girls to meet their basic needs, making this a common choice for many girls, even though it increased the risk of unintended (early) pregnancy. Yet parents and adult community members blamed the girls alone for putting themselves at risk. These findings were used to inform a pilot project aimed to engage and empower adolescent girls and boys as agents of change to influence powerful gender norms that perpetuate girls' risk. PMID:23684192

  10. Improving ensemble forecasting with q-norm bred vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazo, Diego; Lopez, Juan Manuel; Rodriguez, Miguel Angel

    2016-04-01

    Error breeding is a popular and simple method to generate initial perturbations for use in ensemble forecasting that is used for operational purposes in many weather/climate centres worldwide. There is a widespread belief among practitioners that the type of norm used in the periodic normalizations of BVs does not have an effect on the performance of ensemble forecasting systems. However, we have recently reported that BVs constructed with different norms have indeed very different dynamical and spatial properties. In particular, BVs constructed with the 0-norm or geometric norm has nice properties (e.g. enhancement of the ensemble diversity), which in principle render it more adequate to construct ensembles than other norm types like the Euclidean one. These advantages are clearly demonstrated here in a simple experiment of ensemble forecasting for the Lorenz-96 model with ensembles of BVs. Our simple numerical assimilation experiment shows how the increased statistical diversity of geometric BVs leads to improved scores regarding forecasting capabilities as compared with BVs constructed with the standard Euclidean norm.

  11. Geometry and dynamics of one-norm geometric quantum discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiming; Qiu, Daowen; Mateus, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the geometry of one-norm geometric quantum discord and present a geometric interpretation of one-norm geometric quantum discord for a class of two-qubit states. It is found that one-norm geometric quantum discord has geometric behavior different from that described in Lang and Caves (Phys Rev Lett 105:150501, 2010), Li et al. (Phys Rev A 83:022321, 2011) and Yao et al. (Phys Lett A 376:358-364, 2012). We also compare the dynamics of the one-norm geometric quantum discord and other measures of quantum correlations under correlated noise. It is shown that different decoherent channels bring different influences to quantum correlations measured by concurrence, entropic quantum discord and geometric quantum discord, which depend on the memory parameter and decoherence parameter. We lay emphasis on the behaviors such as entanglement sudden death and sudden transition of quantum discord. Finally, we study the dynamical behavior of one-norm geometric quantum discord in one-dimensional anisotropic XXZ model by utilizing the quantum renormalization group method. It is shown that the one-norm geometric quantum discord demonstrates quantum phase transition through renormalization group approach.

  12. Civility norms, safety climate, and safety outcomes: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Walsh, Benjamin M; Kath, Lisa M; Morrow, Stephanie L

    2014-10-01

    Working environments that are both civil and safe are good for business and employee well-being. Civility has been empirically linked to such important outcomes as organizational performance and individuals' positive work-related attitudes, yet research relating civility to safety is lacking. In this study, we link perceptions of civility norms to perceptions of safety climate and safety outcomes. Drawing on social exchange theory, we proposed and tested a model in 2 samples wherein civility norms indirectly relate to safety outcomes through associations with various safety climate facets. Our results supported direct relationships between civility and management safety climate and coworker safety climate. Additionally, indirect effects of civility norms on unsafe behaviors and injuries were observed. Indirect effects of civility norms on unsafe behaviors were observed through coworker safety climate and work-safety tension. Indirect effects of civility norms on injuries were observed through management safety climate and work-safety tension for full-time employees, although these effects did not hold for part-time employees. This study provides initial evidence that researchers and practitioners may want to look beyond safety climate to civility norms to more comprehensively understand the origins of unsafe behaviors and injuries and to develop appropriate preventive interventions. PMID:24933595

  13. Social norms and smoking bans on campus: interactions in the Canadian university context.

    PubMed

    Procter-Scherdtel, Amy; Collins, Damian

    2013-02-01

    Smoking bans offer practical protection against environmental tobacco smoke and highlight the decreasing normative status of smoking. At Canadian universities, indoor smoking is now completely prohibited, but regulations vary with respect to outdoor smoking. The purpose of this research was to conceptualize the interactions of smoking bans on campus with changing social norms around smoking. Interviews were conducted with 36 key informants, exploring the development and normative significance of smoking bans at three case study institutions. Five key themes were identified in the transcripts. First, universities were understood as community leaders and role models. Second, they were viewed as institutions with a mandate to promote health. Third, students were generally perceived to view smoke-free environments and lifestyles as normative. Fourth, respondents also acknowledged that students remain vulnerable to social and behavioural influences that can encourage smoking. Finally, they articulated bans' normative effects: restricting where smoking occurs on campus may discourage initiation and support cessation. Our findings suggest that health-promoting policies, such as smoking bans, can be motivated by changes in social norms and that their implementation reinforces this norm shift. Moreover, the contextual and compositional characteristics of universities mean they are uniquely placed to adopt such initiatives. PMID:22722782

  14. Relative ordering of square-norm distance correlations in open quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Song, Xue-Ke; Ye, Liu

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the square-norm distance correlation dynamics of the Bell-diagonal states under different local decoherence channels, including phase flip, bit flip, and bit-phase flip channels by employing the geometric discord (GD) and its modified geometric discord (MGD), as the measures of the square-norm distance correlations. Moreover, an explicit comparison between them is made in detail. The results show that there is no distinct dominant relative ordering between them. Furthermore, we obtain that the GD just gradually deceases to zero, while MGD initially has a large freezing interval, and then suddenly changes in evolution. The longer the freezing interval, the less the MGD is. Interestingly, it is shown that the dynamic behaviors of the two geometric discords under the three noisy environments for the Werner-type initial states are the same.

  15. Friends Don’t Let Friends Eat Cookies: Effects of Restrictive Eating Norms on Consumption Among Friends

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Maryhope; Hunger, Jeffrey; Mann, Traci

    2012-01-01

    Social norms are thought to be a strong influence over eating, but this hypothesis has only been experimentally tested with groups of strangers, and correlational studies using actual friends lack important controls. We manipulate an eating norm in the laboratory and explore its influence within established friendships. In two studies we randomly assigned groups of three friends to a restrictive norm condition, in which two of the friends were secretly instructed to restrict their intake of appetizing foods, or a control condition, in which the friends were not instructed to restrict their eating. The third friend’s consumption was measured while eating with the other two friends and while eating alone. In both studies, participants consumed less food when eating with friends who had been given restricting instructions compared to those who had not been given those instructions. In Study 2, participants who ate with restricting friends also continued to restrict their eating when alone. Experimentally manipulating social norms within established friendships is possible, and these norms can influence consumption in those social groups and carry over into non-social eating situations. These findings may suggest mechanisms through which eating behaviors may spread through social networks, as well as an environmental factor that may be amenable to change. PMID:22771755

  16. Movement sequencing in normal aging: speech, oro-facial, and finger movements.

    PubMed

    Bilodeau-Mercure, Mylène; Kirouac, Vanessa; Langlois, Nancy; Ouellet, Claudie; Gasse, Isabelle; Tremblay, Pascale

    2015-08-01

    The manner and extent to which normal aging affects the ability to speak are not fully understood. While age-related changes in voice fundamental frequency and intensity have been documented, changes affecting the planning and articulation of speech are less well understood. In the present study, 76 healthy, cognitively normal participants aged between 18 and 93 years old were asked to produce auditorily and visually triggered sequences of finely controlled movements (speech, oro-facial, and manual movement). These sequences of movements were either (1) simple, in which at least two of the three movements were the same, or (2) complex, in which three different movements were produced. For each of the resulting experimental condition, accuracy was calculated. The results show that, for speech and oro-facial movements, accuracy declined as a function of age and complexity. For these movements, the negative effect of complexity on performance accuracy increased with age. No aging or complexity effects were found for the manual movements on accuracy, but a significant slowing of movement was found, particularly for the complex sequences. These results demonstrate that there is a significant deterioration of fine motor control in normal aging across different response modalities. PMID:26208709

  17. Social and moral norm differences among Portuguese 1st and 6th year medical students towards their intention to comply with hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Magda S; Mearns, Kathryn; Silva, Silvia A

    2012-01-01

    This study examines social and moral norms towards the intention to comply with hand hygiene among Portuguese medical students from 1st and 6th years (N = 175; 121 from the 1st year, 54 from the 6th year). The study extended the theory of planned behaviour theoretical principles and hypothesised that both subjective and moral norms will be the best predictors of 1st and 6th year medical students' intention to comply with hand hygiene; however, these predictors ability to explain intention variance will change according to medical students' school year. Results indicated that the subjective norm, whose referent focuses on professors, is a relevant predictor of 1st year medical students' intention, while the subjective norm that emphasises the relevance of colleagues predicts the intentions of medical students from the 6th year. In terms of the moral norm, 6th year students' intention is better predicted by a norm that interferes with compliance; whereas intentions from 1st year students are better predicted by a norm that favours compliance. Implications of the findings highlight the importance of role models and mentors as key factors in teaching hand hygiene in medical undergraduate curricula. PMID:22111788

  18. Visual gravity influences arm movement planning.

    PubMed

    Sciutti, Alessandra; Demougeot, Laurent; Berret, Bastien; Toma, Simone; Sandini, Giulio; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Pozzo, Thierry

    2012-06-01

    When submitted to a visuomotor rotation, subjects show rapid adaptation of visually guided arm reaching movements, indicated by a progressive reduction in reaching errors. In this study, we wanted to make a step forward by investigating to what extent this adaptation also implies changes into the motor plan. Up to now, classical visuomotor rotation paradigms have been performed on the horizontal plane, where the reaching motor plan in general requires the same kinematics (i.e., straight path and symmetric velocity profile). To overcome this limitation, we considered vertical and horizontal movement directions requiring specific velocity profiles. This way, a change in the motor plan due to the visuomotor conflict would be measurable in terms of a modification in the velocity profile of the reaching movement. Ten subjects performed horizontal and vertical reaching movements while observing a rotated visual feedback of their motion. We found that adaptation to a visuomotor rotation produces a significant change in the motor plan, i.e., changes to the symmetry of velocity profiles. This suggests that the central nervous system takes into account the visual information to plan a future motion, even if this causes the adoption of nonoptimal motor plans in terms of energy consumption. However, the influence of vision on arm movement planning is not fixed, but rather changes as a function of the visual orientation of the movement. Indeed, a clear influence on motion planning can be observed only when the movement is visually presented as oriented along the vertical direction. Thus vision contributes differently to the planning of arm pointing movements depending on motion orientation in space. PMID:22442569

  19. Hispanic/Latino Adolescents' Alcohol Use: Influence of Family Structure, Perceived Peer Norms, and Family Members' Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Wura; Barry, Adam E.; Xu, Lei; Valente, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Family structure and value system among Hispanic/Latino population are changing. However, very few studies have examined the combination of the influence of family structure, parental and sibling alcohol use, perceived peer norms about drinking, and alcohol use among Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Purpose: This study examined the…

  20. The unbearable likeness of being digital: the persistence of nonverbal social norms in online virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Yee, Nick; Bailenson, Jeremy N; Urbanek, Mark; Chang, Francis; Merget, Dan

    2007-02-01

    Every day, millions of users interact in real-time via avatars in online environments, such as massively-multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). These online environments could potentially be unique research platforms for the social sciences and clinical therapy, but it is crucial to first establish that social behavior and norms in virtual environments are comparable to those in the physical world. In an observational study of Second Life, a virtual community, we collected data from avatars in order to explore whether social norms of gender, interpersonal distance (IPD), and eye gaze transfer into virtual environments even though the modality of movement is entirely different (i.e., via keyboard and mouse as opposed to eyes and legs). Our results showed that established findings of IPD and eye gaze transfer into virtual environments: (1) male-male dyads have larger IPDs than female-female dyads, (2) male-male dyads maintain less eye contact than female-female dyads, and (3) decreases in IPD are compensated with gaze avoidance as predicted by the Equilibrium Theory. We discuss implications for users of online games as well as for social scientists who seek to conduct research in virtual environments. PMID:17305457

  1. The Development of Coordinated Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanaro, Silvana Quattrocchi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses stages of movement in the first 3 years of life with a philosophical dimension regarding evolutionary aspects of movement as first manifestation of "will." Describes how the early childhood environment is prepared to allow for movement and the connection between movement and brain development. Discusses the contribution of movement to…

  2. An abbreviated tool for assessing feminine norm conformity: psychometric properties of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45.

    PubMed

    Parent, Mike C; Moradi, Bonnie

    2011-12-01

    The Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45 (CFNI-45; Parent & Moradi, 2010) is an important tool for assessing level of conformity to feminine gender norms and for investigating the implications of such norms for women's functioning. The authors of the present study assessed the factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, and validity of the CFNI-45 with data from 520 college women (55% White). Confirmatory factor analyses with data from this sample suggested acceptable fit for the posited 9-factor structure. Furthermore, analyses of measurement invariance indicated similar structural properties with members of socioculturally dominant (i.e., White) and nondominant (i.e., women of color) racial/ethnic status groups. Also, subscales of the CFNI-45 demonstrated acceptable internal consistency reliability coefficients, and correlations with convergent and discriminant validity indicators supported the validity of subscales scores. Overall, results offered support for the CFNI-45 as a multidimensional measure of women's conformity to feminine norms. The CFNI-45 can be used in research to facilitate evaluation of the theorized roles of conformity to feminine norms in women's mental health, vocational behavior, interpersonal relationships, and other domains. The CFNI-45 can be used in clinical practice to assess and attend to clients' conformity to feminine norms as is called for in the American Psychological Association's (2007) Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Girls and Women. PMID:21707186

  3. Behavioral and Movement Disorders due to Long-Lasting Myoclonic Status Epilepticus Misdiagnosed as ADHD in a Patient With Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy: Electroclinical Findings and Related Hemodynamic Changes.

    PubMed

    Fanella, Martina; Carnì, Marco; Morano, Alessandra; Albini, Mariarita; Lapenta, Leonardo; Casciato, Sara; Fattouch, Jinane; Di Castro, Elisabetta; Colonnese, Claudio; Vaudano, Anna Elisabetta; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) likely share common underlying neural mechanisms, as often suggested by both the evidence of electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities in ADHD patients without epilepsy and the coexistence of these 2 conditions. The differential diagnosis between epilepsy and ADHD may consequently be challenging. In this report, we describe a patient presenting with a clinical association of "tics" and behavioral disorders that appeared 6 months before our first observation and had previously been interpreted as ADHD. A video-EEG evaluation documented an electroclinical pattern of myoclonic status epilepticus. On the basis of the revised clinical data, the EEG findings, the good response to valproate, the long-lasting myoclonic status epilepticus, and the enduring epileptic abnormalities likely causing behavioral disturbances, the patient's symptoms were interpreted as being the expression of untreated juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. The EEG-functional magnetic resonance imaging study revealed, during clinical generalized spike-and-wave and polyspike-and-wave discharges, positive blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes bilaterally in the thalamus, the prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 6, supplementary motor area) and the cerebellum, and negative BOLD signal changes in the regions of the default mode network. Such findings, which are typical of BOLD changes observed in idiopathic generalized epilepsy, may also shed light on the anatomofunctional network underlying ADHD. PMID:25733678

  4. Leveling circuits and crustal movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, S. C.; Reilinger, R. E.; Brown, L. D.; Oliver, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of further possible vertical crustal movements in the Western United States made with circuit microclosure analysis is presented. The San Andreas fault in Cal., the Nevada seismic zone in Nev., and the Sierra Nevada in Calif. were studied based on supposition that in areas undergoing crustal movement the misclosure for a particular circuit should have the smallest value when the circuit is formed from the most temporarily homogeneous survey data; it should have larger, predictable values when the circuit is closed with surveys conducted at other times. Leveling surveys along the San Andreas fault and the Nevada seismic zone are discussed, noting the possibility of regional tilting in the Great Basin between 1934 and 1955, and of elevation changes in the Northern Nevada Range using results of leveling surveys between Roseville, Cal. and Reno, Nev.

  5. Gene movement and genetic association with regional climate gradients in California valley oak (Quercus lobata Née) in the face of climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sork, Victoria L.; Davis, Frank W.; Westfall, Robert; Flint, Alan L.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Wang, Hongfang; Grivet, Delphine

    2010-01-01

    Rapid climate change jeopardizes tree populations by shifting current climate zones. To avoid extinction, tree populations must tolerate, adapt, or migrate. Here we investigate geographic patterns of genetic variation in valley oak, Quercus lobata N??e, to assess how underlying genetic structure of populations might influence this species' ability to survive climate change. First, to understand how genetic lineages shape spatial genetic patterns, we examine historical patterns of colonization. Second, we examine the correlation between multivariate nuclear genetic variation and climatic variation. Third, to illustrate how geographic genetic variation could interact with regional patterns of 21st Century climate change, we produce region-specific bioclimatic distributions of valley oak using Maximum Entropy (MAXENT) models based on downscaled historical (1971-2000) and future (2070-2100) climate grids. Future climatologies are based on a moderate-high (A2) carbon emission scenario and two different global climate models. Chloroplast markers indicate historical range-wide connectivity via colonization, especially in the north. Multivariate nuclear genotypes show a strong association with climate variation that provides opportunity for local adaptation to the conditions within their climatic envelope. Comparison of regional current and projected patterns of climate suitability indicates that valley oaks grow in distinctly different climate conditions in different parts of their range. Our models predict widely different regional outcomes from local displacement of a few kilometres to hundreds of kilometres. We conclude that the relative importance of migration, adaptation, and tolerance are likely to vary widely for populations among regions, and that late 21st Century conditions could lead to regional extinctions. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. A Graph-based Approach to Auditing RxNorm

    PubMed Central

    Bodenreider, Olivier; Peters, Lee B.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives RxNorm is a standardized nomenclature for clinical drug entities developed by the National Library of Medicine. In this paper, we audit relations in RxNorm for consistency and completeness through the systematic analysis of the graph of its concepts and relationships. Methods The representation of multi-ingredient drugs is normalized in order to make it compatible with that of single-ingredient drugs. All meaningful paths between two nodes in the type graph are computed and instantiated. Alternate paths are automatically compared and manually inspected in case of inconsistency. Results The 115 meaningful paths identified in the type graph can be grouped into 28 groups with respect to start and end nodes. Of the 19 groups of alternate paths (i.e., with two or more paths) between the start and end nodes, 9 (47%) exhibit inconsistencies. Overall, 28 (24%) of the 115 paths are inconsistent with other alternate paths. A total of 348 inconsistencies were identified in the April 2008 version of RxNorm and reported to the RxNorm team, of which 215 (62%) had been corrected in the January 2009 version of RxNorm. Conclusion The inconsistencies identified involve missing nodes (93), missing links (17), extraneous links (237) and one case of mix-up between two ingredients. Our auditing method proved effective in identifying a limited number of errors that had defeated the quality assurance mechanisms currently in place in the RxNorm production system. Some recommendations for the development of RxNorm are provided. PMID:19394440

  7. Stabilizing l1-norm prediction models by supervised feature grouping.

    PubMed

    Kamkar, Iman; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Phung, Dinh; Venkatesh, Svetha

    2016-02-01

    Emerging Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) have reformed the modern healthcare. These records have great potential to be used for building clinical prediction models. However, a problem in using them is their high dimensionality. Since a lot of information may not be relevant for prediction, the underlying complexity of the prediction models may not be high. A popular way to deal with this problem is to employ feature selection. Lasso and l1-norm based feature selection methods have shown promising results. But, in presence of correlated features, these methods select features that change considerably with small changes in data. This prevents clinicians to obtain a stable feature set, which is crucial for clinical decision making. Grouping correlated variables together can improve the stability of feature selection, however, such grouping is usually not known and needs to be estimated for optimal performance. Addressing this problem, we propose a new model that can simultaneously learn the grouping of correlated features and perform stable feature selection. We formulate the model as a constrained optimization problem and provide an efficient solution with guaranteed convergence. Our experiments with both synthetic and real-world datasets show that the proposed model is significantly more stable than Lasso and many existing state-of-the-art shrinkage and classification methods. We further show that in terms of prediction performance, the proposed method consistently outperforms Lasso and other baselines. Our model can be used for selecting stable risk factors for a variety of healthcare problems, so it can assist clinicians toward accurate decision making. PMID:26689771

  8. Exploring spatial change and gravity center movement for ecosystem services value using a spatially explicit ecosystem services value index and gravity model.

    PubMed

    He, Yingbin; Chen, Youqi; Tang, Huajun; Yao, Yanmin; Yang, Peng; Chen, Zhongxin

    2011-04-01

    Spatially explicit ecosystem services valuation and change is a newly developing area of research in the field of ecology. Using the Beijing region as a study area, the authors have developed a spatially explicit ecosystem services value index and implemented this to quantify and spatially differentiate ecosystem services value at 1-km grid resolution. A gravity model was developed to trace spatial change in the total ecosystem services value of the Beijing study area from a holistic point of view. Study results show that the total value of ecosystem services for the study area decreased by 19.75% during the period 1996-2006 (3,226.2739 US$×10(6) in 1996, 2,589.0321 US$×10(6) in 2006). However, 27.63% of the total area of the Beijing study area increased in ecosystem services value. Spatial differences in ecosystem services values for both 1996 and 2006 are very clear. The center of gravity of total ecosystem services value for the study area moved 32.28 km northwestward over the 10 years due to intensive human intervention taking place in southeast Beijing. The authors suggest that policy-makers should pay greater attention to ecological protection under conditions of rapid socio-economic development and increase the area of green belt in the southeastern part of Beijing. PMID:20556644

  9. Movement Coordination during Conversation

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Nida; Barbosa, Adriano V.; Vatiokiotis-Bateson, Eric; Castelhano, Monica S.; Munhall, K. G.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral coordination and synchrony contribute to a common biological mechanism that maintains communication, cooperation and bonding within many social species, such as primates and birds. Similarly, human language and social systems may also be attuned to coordination to facilitate communication and the formation of relationships. Gross similarities in movement patterns and convergence in the acoustic properties of speech have already been demonstrated between interacting individuals. In the present studies, we investigated how coordinated movements contribute to observers’ perception of affiliation (friends vs. strangers) between two conversing individuals. We used novel computational methods to quantify motor coordination and demonstrated that individuals familiar with each other coordinated their movements more frequently. Observers used coordination to judge affiliation between conversing pairs but only when the perceptual stimuli were restricted to head and face regions. These results suggest that observed movement coordination in humans might contribute to perceptual decisions based on availability of information to perceivers. PMID:25119189

  10. Stomatal development and movement

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Kun; Liu, Yu-Bo; Zhang, Mao-Ying

    2010-01-01

    Stomata are epidermal pores on plant surface used for gas exchange with the atmosphere. Stomatal development and movement are regulated by environmental and internal signals. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are universal transducers of extracellular signals among all eukaryotes. In plant, MAPK cascades regulate diverse cellular processes occurring during the whole ontogenetic plant life and ranging from normal cell proliferation to stress-inducing plant-to-environment interactions. Recent reports reveal that MAPK signaling is involved in both stomatal development and movement. This mini-review summarizes the roles of MAPK signaling in stomatal development and movement. How MAPK specificity is maintained in stomatal development and movement is also discussed. PMID:20855958

  11. Drinking Reductions following Alcohol-related Sanctions are associated with Social Norms among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Carey, Kate B.; Reid, Allecia E.; Carey, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Students mandated for intervention following an alcohol-related sanction event often reduce their drinking prior to intervention. Knowing the determinants of self-initiated change may help identify intervention targets for individuals who do not reduce their drinking. Guided by self-regulation theory, we tested whether fewer past alcohol consequences and higher descriptive and injunctive norms would be associated with higher levels of post-sanction drinking. College students referred for a campus alcohol violation (N=658, 64% male) reported on their drinking during the month before and after their sanction event. Results show that post-sanction drinking was significantly lower than pre-sanction drinking across four outcomes: (a) drinks per drinking day, (b) drinks per week, (c) peak drinks, and (d) peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Hypothesized social influence variables (i.e., descriptive and injunctive norms) were consistently associated with all four drinking outcomes; that is, students who perceived that their friends drank more and held more accepting views of drinking were less reactive to alcohol-related sanctions. Past consequences of drinking did not consistently predict subsequent drinking. Therefore, we conclude that alcohol interventions for mandated students should target both descriptive and injunctive norms to optimize their efficacy. PMID:24274435

  12. Gender and aesthetic norms in popular hygienic culture in Germany from 1900 to 1914.

    PubMed

    Hau, M

    1999-08-01

    The paper concerns the construction of gender norms in popular hygienic literature at the turn of the century. It argues that the formulation of aesthetic gender norms for women's and men's bodies was a response to social developments which were perceived as a threat to the middle-class ideology of separate spheres for the sexes. Concerns about the blurring of gender distinctions were expressed in the aesthetic idiom of the educated middle class. Aesthetic norms for each sex were established and contrasted with the degenerate body forms of contemporaries. The spectre of masculinized women and feminized men was raised, reflecting a deep-seated uneasiness about changing gender roles and identities. The increasing assertiveness of women as expressed in feminist activism was interpreted by anti-feminist authors as a sign of degeneracy. For these authors any articulation of self-interest by women was suspect. Strong sexual desires of women which could serve as the basis for the independent articulation of female sexual interests were denied or declared as abnormal. Feminist critics argued that it was the lack of economic and social independence of women which was the reason for the declining health and beauty of the female sex. PMID:11623929

  13. What saccadic eye movements tell us about TMS-induced neuromodulation of the DLPFC and mood changes: a pilot study in bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Beynel, Lysianne; Chauvin, Alan; Guyader, Nathalie; Harquel, Sylvain; Szekely, David; Bougerol, Thierry; Marendaz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The study assumed that the antisaccade (AS) task is a relevant psychophysical tool to assess (i) short-term neuromodulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) induced by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS); and (ii) mood change occurring during the course of the treatment. Saccadic inhibition is known to strongly involve the DLPFC, whose neuromodulation with iTBS requires less stimulation time and lower stimulation intensity, as well as results in longer aftereffects than the conventional repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Active or sham iTBS was applied every day for 3 weeks over the left DLPFC of 12 drug-resistant bipolar depressed patients. To assess the iTBS-induced short-term neuromodulation, the saccadic task was performed just before (S1) and just after (S2) the iTBS session, the first day of each week. Mood was evaluated through Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores and the difference in scores between the beginning and the end of treatment was correlated with AS performance change between these two periods. As expected, only patients from the active group improved their performance from S1 to S2 and mood improvement was significantly correlated with AS performance improvement. In addition, the AS task also discriminated depressive bipolar patients from healthy control subjects. Therefore, the AS task could be a relevant and useful tool for clinicians to assess if the Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced short-term neuromodulation of the DLPFC occurs as well as a "trait vs. state" objective marker of depressive mood disorder. PMID:25191234

  14. What saccadic eye movements tell us about TMS-induced neuromodulation of the DLPFC and mood changes: a pilot study in bipolar disorders

    PubMed Central

    Beynel, Lysianne; Chauvin, Alan; Guyader, Nathalie; Harquel, Sylvain; Szekely, David; Bougerol, Thierry; Marendaz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The study assumed that the antisaccade (AS) task is a relevant psychophysical tool to assess (i) short-term neuromodulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) induced by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS); and (ii) mood change occurring during the course of the treatment. Saccadic inhibition is known to strongly involve the DLPFC, whose neuromodulation with iTBS requires less stimulation time and lower stimulation intensity, as well as results in longer aftereffects than the conventional repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Active or sham iTBS was applied every day for 3 weeks over the left DLPFC of 12 drug-resistant bipolar depressed patients. To assess the iTBS-induced short-term neuromodulation, the saccadic task was performed just before (S1) and just after (S2) the iTBS session, the first day of each week. Mood was evaluated through Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores and the difference in scores between the beginning and the end of treatment was correlated with AS performance change between these two periods. As expected, only patients from the active group improved their performance from S1 to S2 and mood improvement was significantly correlated with AS performance improvement. In addition, the AS task also discriminated depressive bipolar patients from healthy control subjects. Therefore, the AS task could be a relevant and useful tool for clinicians to assess if the Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced short-term neuromodulation of the DLPFC occurs as well as a “trait vs. state” objective marker of depressive mood disorder. PMID:25191234

  15. Cardiac response induced by voluntary self-paced finger movement.

    PubMed

    Florian, G; Stancák, A; Pfurtscheller, G

    1998-05-01

    Cardiac responses induced by slow and brisk voluntary self-paced index finger movements of the dominant and non-dominant hand were investigated in a group of 12 right-handed subjects. Since subjects synchronised movement and respiration, initiating movement preferably during inspiration, a novel method of evaluating the movement-induced cardiac response was used. This method allows one to distinguish the differential effects on the cardiac response due to movement and respiration. The effect of type of movements (slow vs. brisk) and hand (right vs. left) were analysed. Slow movements induced a monophasic cardiac response, consisting of cardiac deceleration preceding and accompanying movement. Brisk movements induced a biphasic cardiac response, consisting of preparatory deceleration followed by slight post-movement cardiac acceleration. Hand-dominance did not influence the movement-induced cardiac response. The results suggest that neocortical structures involved in planning and execution of voluntary movement impinge upon brainstem cardiovascular nuclei. Vagal cardiac outflow is affected and gives rise to movement-induced changes in cardiac chronotropism. PMID:9545662

  16. Marketing norm perception among medical representatives in Indian pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

    2012-03-01

    Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company's medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field. PMID:24826035

  17. Adolescent Subtest Norms for the ImPACT Neurocognitive Battery.

    PubMed

    Henry, Luke C; Sandel, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    The neurocognitive testing of sports concussion for injury management and return-to-play decisions has long been considered the gold standard in evaluation of the injury. Computerized testing batteries are frequently employed, with the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) being the most used of all the current testing platforms to evaluate concussion. ImPACT's clinical report yields four normed composite scores (Verbal Memory, Visual Memory, Visual Motor Speed, and Reaction Time) and another composite score that is not normed but is used as a validity measure (Impulse Control), as well as their corresponding subtest scores, which are not normed. The current study provides normative data on each of the subtests used to calculate the composite scores. Normative data are separated by gender for athletes aged 13 to 21 years old and are stratified by the norm age brackets already employed by the ImPACT. These norms may be helpful in the interpretation of the ImPACT clinical report and further delineation of areas of neurocognitive dysfunction. PMID:25412432

  18. Fast and accurate matrix completion via truncated nuclear norm regularization.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yao; Zhang, Debing; Ye, Jieping; Li, Xuelong; He, Xiaofei

    2013-09-01

    Recovering a large matrix from a small subset of its entries is a challenging problem arising in many real applications, such as image inpainting and recommender systems. Many existing approaches formulate this problem as a general low-rank matrix approximation problem. Since the rank operator is nonconvex and discontinuous, most of the recent theoretical studies use the nuclear norm as a convex relaxation. One major limitation of the existing approaches based on nuclear norm minimization is that all the singular values are simultaneously minimized, and thus the rank may not be well approximated in practice. In this paper, we propose to achieve a better approximation to the rank of matrix by truncated nuclear norm, which is given by the nuclear norm subtracted by the sum of the largest few singular values. In addition, we develop a novel matrix completion algorithm by minimizing the Truncated Nuclear Norm. We further develop three efficient iterative procedures, TNNR-ADMM, TNNR-APGL, and TNNR-ADMMAP, to solve the optimization problem. TNNR-ADMM utilizes the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM), while TNNR-AGPL applies the accelerated proximal gradient line search method (APGL) for the final optimization. For TNNR-ADMMAP, we make use of an adaptive penalty according to a novel update rule for ADMM to achieve a faster convergence rate. Our empirical study shows encouraging results of the proposed algorithms in comparison to the state-of-the-art matrix completion algorithms on both synthetic and real visual datasets. PMID:23868774

  19. Marketing Norm Perception Among Medical Representatives in Indian Pharmaceutical Industry

    PubMed Central

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

    2012-01-01

    Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company’s medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field. PMID:24826035

  20. Caught between cultures: cultural norms in Jungian psychodynamic process.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Gretchen

    2012-11-01

    In our increasingly mobile world, more of us are caught between cultures rather than in one culture. We straddle different ethnic, racial, political, geographical, and religious groups, forced into awareness of the precarious nature of our self-definition, involuntarily gazing at the constructed nature of our cultural norms, unable to avoid reckoning with the choices of which collective to honour. The impossibility of separating individual from collective is foundational to work as Jungian practitioners, but a paradox of individuation is becoming free of the control of collective norms while simultaneously living within those very norms. In such a conflict it becomes easy to overlook the fact that when the norms we have incorporated into ourselves are from cultures vastly different from the one in which we live, the cacophony can be overwhelming. In this paper, I will draw from postmodern theorists such as Derrida, Foucault and Irigaray in an effort to re-imagine the role of culture in psychodynamic process. The case of a Muslim Iranian man working with a Christian American woman analyst will be used to explore the complexity of a multitude of cultural norms present in the consulting room. PMID:23130617

  1. Changes in the Bispectral Index in Response to Loss of Consciousness and No Somatic Movement to Nociceptive Stimuli in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ning; Yue, Yun; Pan, Jonathan Z; Zuo, Ming-Zhang; Shi, Yu; Zhou, Shu-Zhen; Peng, Wen-Ping; Gao, Jian-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bispectral index (BIS) is considered very useful to guide anesthesia care in elderly patients, but its use is controversial for the evaluation of the adequacy of analgesia. This study compared the BIS changes in response to loss of consciousness (LOC) and loss of somatic response (LOS) to nociceptive stimuli between elderly and young patients receiving intravenous target-controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol and remifentanil. Methods: This study was performed on 52 elderly patients (aged 65–78 years) and 52 young patients (aged 25–58 years), American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II. Anesthesia was induced with propofol administered by TCI. A standardized noxious electrical stimulus (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, [TENS]) was applied (50 Hz, 80 mA, 0.25 ms pulses for 4 s) to the ulnar nerve at increasing remifentanil predicted effective-site concentration (Ce) until patients lost somatic response to TENS. Changes in awake, prestimulus, poststimulus BIS, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulse oxygen saturation, predicted plasma concentration, Ce of propofol, and remifentanil at both LOC and LOS clinical points were investigated. Results: BISLOC in elderly group was higher than that in young patient group (65.4 ± 9.7 vs. 57.6 ± 12.3) (t = 21.58, P < 0.0001) after TCI propofol, and the propofol Ce at LOC was 1.6 ± 0.3 μg/ml in elderly patients, which was significantly lower than that in young patients (2.3 ± 0.5 μg/ml) (t = 7.474, P < 0.0001). As nociceptive stimulation induced BIS to increase, the mean of BIS maximum values after TENS was significantly higher than that before TENS in both age groups (t = 8.902 and t = 8.019, P < 0.0001). With increasing Ce of remifentanil until patients lost somatic response to TENS, BISLOS was the same as the BISLOC in elderly patients (65.6 ± 10.7 vs. 65.4 ± 9.7), and there were no marked differences between elderly and young patient groups in BISawake, BISLOS, and Ce of

  2. Impact of Norm Perceptions and Guilt on Audience Response to Anti-Smoking Norm PSAs: The Case of Korean Male Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyegyu; Paek, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine how norm appeals and guilt influence smokers' behavioural intention. Design: Quasi-experimental design. Setting: South Korea. Method: Two hundred and fifty-five male smokers were randomly assigned to descriptive, injunctive, or subjective anti-smoking norm messages. After they viewed the norm messages, their norm…

  3. The Role of Values, Moral Norms, and Descriptive Norms in Building Occupant Responses to an Energy-Efficiency Pilot Program and to Framing of Related Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arpan, Laura M.; Barooah, Prabir; Subramany, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    This study examined building occupants' responses associated with an occupant-based energy-efficiency pilot in a university building. The influence of occupants' values and norms as well as effects of two educational message frames (descriptive vs. moral norms cues) on program support were tested. Occupants' personal moral norm to conserve energy…

  4. Brain-machine interface for eye movements.

    PubMed

    Graf, Arnulf B A; Andersen, Richard A

    2014-12-01

    A number of studies in tetraplegic humans and healthy nonhuman primates (NHPs) have shown that neuronal activity from reach-related cortical areas can be used to predict reach intentions using brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) and therefore assist tetraplegic patients by controlling external devices (e.g., robotic limbs and computer cursors). However, to our knowledge, there have been no studies that have applied BMIs to eye movement areas to decode intended eye movements. In this study, we recorded the activity from populations of neurons from the lateral intraparietal area (LIP), a cortical node in the NHP saccade system. Eye movement plans were predicted in real time using Bayesian inference from small ensembles of LIP neurons without the animal making an eye movement. Learning, defined as an increase in the prediction accuracy, occurred at the level of neuronal ensembles, particularly for difficult predictions. Population learning had two components: an update of the parameters of the BMI based on its history and a change in the responses of individual neurons. These results provide strong evidence that the responses of neuronal ensembles can be shaped with respect to a cost function, here the prediction accuracy of the BMI. Furthermore, eye movement plans could be decoded without the animals emitting any actual eye movements and could be used to control the position of a cursor on a computer screen. These findings show that BMIs for eye movements are promising aids for assisting paralyzed patients. PMID:25422454

  5. Evaluation of RxNorm for Medication Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Freimuth, Robert R.; Wix, Kelly; Zhu, Qian; Siska, Mark; Chute, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the potential use of RxNorm to provide standardized representations of generic drug name and route of administration to facilitate management of drug lists for clinical decision support (CDS) rules. We found a clear representation of generic drug name but not route of administration. We identified several issues related to data quality, including erroneous or missing defined relationships, and the use of different concept hierarchies to represent the same drug. More importantly, we found extensive semantic precoordination of orthogonal concepts related to route and dose form, which would complicate the use of RxNorm for drug-based CDS. This study demonstrated that while RxNorm is a valuable resource for the standardization of medications used in clinical practice, additional work is required to enhance the terminology so that it can support expanded use cases, such as managing drug lists for CDS. PMID:25954360

  6. Asymptotic state discrimination and a strict hierarchy in distinguishability norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of discriminating quantum states by local operations and classical communication (LOCC) when an arbitrarily small amount of error is permitted. This paradigm is known as asymptotic state discrimination, and we derive necessary conditions for when two multipartite states of any size can be discriminated perfectly by asymptotic LOCC. We use this new criterion to prove a gap in the LOCC and separable distinguishability norms. We then turn to the operational advantage of using two-way classical communication over one-way communication in LOCC processing. With a simple two-qubit product state ensemble, we demonstrate a strict majorization of the two-way LOCC norm over the one-way norm.

  7. Image reconstruction from few views by l0-norm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu-Li; Tao, Jin-Xu

    2014-07-01

    In the medical computer tomography (CT) field, total variation (TV), which is the l1-norm of the discrete gradient transform (DGT), is widely used as regularization based on the compressive sensing (CS) theory. To overcome the TV model's disadvantageous tendency of uniformly penalizing the image gradient and over smoothing the low-contrast structures, an iterative algorithm based on the l0-norm optimization of the DGT is proposed. In order to rise to the challenges introduced by the l0-norm DGT, the algorithm uses a pseudo-inverse transform of DGT and adapts an iterative hard thresholding (IHT) algorithm, whose convergence and effective efficiency have been theoretically proven. The simulation demonstrates our conclusions and indicates that the algorithm proposed in this paper can obviously improve the reconstruction quality.

  8. Done 4: analysis of a failed social norms marketing campaign.

    PubMed

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Clapp, John D; Dejong, William

    2005-01-01

    College students commonly believe their peers engage in higher levels of dangerous drinking than is actually the case. Social norms marketing campaigns attempt to correct these misperceptions, decrease the perceived normative pressure to drink, and thereby drive down high-risk alcohol consumption. In this case study, we critically examined "Done 4," an unsuccessful social norms marketing campaign conducted as part of a comprehensive prevention trial at a large urban university. As part of this analysis, undergraduate marketing students were shown the principal print advertisement used in the campaign and asked to complete an advertising analysis questionnaire. The results of this case study suggest that the advertisement was poorly constructed, which decreased its effectiveness and led to confusion about the social norms message. We discuss implications of these findings for future prevention campaigns and new research. PMID:15590342

  9. H2 -norm of fractional transfer functions of implicit type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malti, Rachid; Chevrié, Mathieu; Farges, Christophe; Sabatier, Jocelyn

    2015-09-01

    This paper studies the H2 -norm (or impulse response energy) of fractional transfer functions of implicit type. Stability conditions are first shown to be identical as in rational systems with all poles located in the open left half complex plane. Then, analytical expressions of the H2 -norm are derived for elementary fractional transfer functions of the first and the second kind cascaded with a pure fractional integrator. Next, general boundedness conditions are established in terms of transfer function relative degree. Three illustrative examples are finally proposed. The first one evaluates the quality of a rational approximation of a fractional model of implicit type on the basis of the H2 -norm of the error signal. The second one evaluates the Integral Squared Error of a CRONE control loop and compares it to a classical proportional-derivative controller in a vehicle suspension. Finally, the third one allows to set up an implicit fractional preshaping filter for closed-loop control.

  10. Evaluation of RxNorm for Medication Clinical Decision Support.

    PubMed

    Freimuth, Robert R; Wix, Kelly; Zhu, Qian; Siska, Mark; Chute, Christopher G

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the potential use of RxNorm to provide standardized representations of generic drug name and route of administration to facilitate management of drug lists for clinical decision support (CDS) rules. We found a clear representation of generic drug name but not route of administration. We identified several issues related to data quality, including erroneous or missing defined relationships, and the use of different concept hierarchies to represent the same drug. More importantly, we found extensive semantic precoordination of orthogonal concepts related to route and dose form, which would complicate the use of RxNorm for drug-based CDS. This study demonstrated that while RxNorm is a valuable resource for the standardization of medications used in clinical practice, additional work is required to enhance the terminology so that it can support expanded use cases, such as managing drug lists for CDS. PMID:25954360

  11. Predicting naming latencies for action pictures: Dutch norms.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zeshu; Roelofs, Ardi; Meyer, Antje S

    2014-03-01

    The present study provides Dutch norms for age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, word frequency, and word length (in syllables) for 124 line drawings of actions. Ratings were obtained from 117 Dutch participants. Word frequency was determined on the basis of the SUBTLEX-NL corpus (Keuleers, Brysbaert, & New, Behavior Research Methods, 42, 643-650, 2010). For 104 of the pictures, naming latencies and name agreement were determined in a separate naming experiment with 74 native speakers of Dutch. The Dutch norms closely corresponded to the norms for British English. Multiple regression analysis showed that age of acquisition, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, and name agreement were significant predictors of naming latencies, whereas word frequency and word length were not. Combined with the results of a principal-component analysis, these findings suggest that variables influencing the processes of conceptual preparation and lexical selection affect latencies more strongly than do variables influencing word-form encoding. PMID:23771428

  12. From Abstract to Concrete Norms in Agent Institutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossi, Davide; Dignum, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Norms specifying constraints over institutions are stated in such a form that allows them to regulate a wide range of situations over time without need for modification. To guarantee this stability, the formulation of norms need to abstract from a variety of concrete aspects, which are instead relevant for the actual operationalization of institutions. If agent institutions are to be built, which comply with a set of abstract requirements, how can those requirements be translated in more concrete constraints the impact of which can be described directly in the institution? In this work we make use of logical methods in order to provide a formal characterization of the translation rules that operate the connection between abstract and concrete norms. On the basis of this characterization, a comprehensive formalization of the notion of institution is also provided.

  13. Asymptotic state discrimination and a strict hierarchy in distinguishability norms

    SciTech Connect

    Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we consider the problem of discriminating quantum states by local operations and classical communication (LOCC) when an arbitrarily small amount of error is permitted. This paradigm is known as asymptotic state discrimination, and we derive necessary conditions for when two multipartite states of any size can be discriminated perfectly by asymptotic LOCC. We use this new criterion to prove a gap in the LOCC and separable distinguishability norms. We then turn to the operational advantage of using two-way classical communication over one-way communication in LOCC processing. With a simple two-qubit product state ensemble, we demonstrate a strict majorization of the two-way LOCC norm over the one-way norm.

  14. Movement disorder emergencies in childhood.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, F J; Haywood, P; Kashyape, P; Borbone, J; Lording, A; Pryde, K; Cox, M; Keslake, J; Smith, M; Cuthbertson, L; Murugan, V; Mackie, S; Thomas, N H; Whitney, A; Forrest, K M; Parker, A; Forsyth, R; Kipps, C M

    2011-09-01

    The literature on paediatric acute-onset movement disorders is scattered. In a prospective cohort of 52 children (21 male; age range 2mo-15y), the commonest were chorea, dystonia, tremor, myoclonus, and Parkinsonism in descending order of frequency. In this series of mainly previously well children with cryptogenic acute movement disorders, three groups were recognised: (1) Psychogenic disorders (n = 12), typically >10 years of age, more likely to be female and to have tremor and myoclonus (2) Inflammatory or autoimmune disorders (n = 22), including N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis, opsoclonus-myoclonus, Sydenham chorea, systemic lupus erythematosus, acute necrotizing encephalopathy (which may be autosomal dominant), and other encephalitides and (3) Non-inflammatory disorders (n = 18), including drug-induced movement disorder, post-pump chorea, metabolic, e.g. glutaric aciduria, and vascular disease, e.g. moyamoya. Other important non-inflammatory movement disorders, typically seen in symptomatic children with underlying aetiologies such as trauma, severe cerebral palsy, epileptic encephalopathy, Down syndrome and Rett syndrome, include dystonic posturing secondary to gastro-oesophageal reflux (Sandifer syndrome) and Paroxysmal Autonomic Instability with Dystonia (PAID) or autonomic 'storming'. Status dystonicus may present in children with known extrapyramidal disorders, such as cerebral palsy or during changes in management e.g. introduction or withdrawal of neuroleptic drugs or failure of intrathecal baclofen infusion; the main risk in terms of mortality is renal failure from rhabdomyolysis. Although the evidence base is weak, as many of the inflammatory/autoimmune conditions are treatable with steroids, immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis, or cyclophosphamide, it is important to make an early diagnosis where possible. Outcome in survivors is variable. Using illustrative case histories, this review draws attention to the practical difficulties in

  15. An Analysis of the Women's Movement as a Social Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budenstein, Mary Jane

    The paper analyzes the development of the women's movement, indicating how this particular movement empirically documents the theoretical suppositions of a sociologically defined social movement. A social movement is defined as "a group venture extended beyond a local community or a single event and involving a systematic effort to inaugurate…

  16. Seasonal changes in ground-water quality and ground-water levels and directions of ground-water movement in southern Elmore County, southwestern Idaho, including Mountain Home Air Force Base, 1990-1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.; Parliman, D.J.; Jones, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    The study area is located in southern Elmore County, southwestern Idaho, and includes the Mountain Home Air Force Base located approximately 10 mi southwest of the city of Mountain Home. Chemical analyzes have been made periodically since the late 1940's on water samples from supply wells on the Air Force Base. These analyses indicate increases in specific conductance and in concentrations of nitrogen compounds, chloride, and sulfate. The purposes of this report, which was prepared in cooperation with the Department of the Air Force, are to describe the seasonal changes in water quality and water levels and to depict the directions of ground-water movement in the regional aquifer system and perched-water zones. Although data presented in this report are from both the regional ground-water system and perched-water zones, the focus is on the regional system. A previous study by the U.S. Geological Survey (Parliman and Young, 1990) describes the areal changes in water quality and water levels during the fall of 1989. During March, July, and October 1990, 141 wells were inventoried and depth to water was measured. Continuous water-level recorders were installed on 5 of the wells and monthly measurements of depth to water were made in 17 of the wells during March 1990 through February 1991. Water samples from 33 wells and 1 spring were collected during the spring and fall of 1990 for chemical analyses. Samples also were collected monthly from 11 of those wells during April to September 1990 (table 1). Selected well-construction and water-use data and measurements of depth to water for 141 wells are given in table 2 (separated sheets in envelope). Directions of ground-water movement and selected hydrographs showing seasonal fluctuations of water levels in the regional ground-water system and perched-water zones are shown on sheet 2. Changes in water levels in the regional ground-water system during March to October 1990 are shown on sheet 2.

  17. Saccadic eye movement during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uri, John J.; Linder, Barry J.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.; Thornton, William E.

    1989-01-01

    Saccadic eye movements were studied in six subjects during two Space Shuttle missions. Reaction time, peak velocity and accuracy of horizontal, visually-guided saccades were examined preflight, inflight and postflight. Conventional electro-oculography was used to record eye position, with the subjects responding to pseudo-randomly illuminated targets at 0 deg and + or - 10 deg and 20 deg visual angles. In all subjects, preflight measurements were within normal limits. Reaction time was significantly increased inflight, while peak velocity was significantly decreased. A tendency toward a greater proportion of hypometric saccades inflight was also noted. Possible explanations for these changes and possible correlations with space motion sickness are discussed.

  18. Biomarkers in orthodontic tooth movement

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A. Anand; Saravanan, K.; Kohila, K.; Kumar, S. Sathesh

    2015-01-01

    Tooth movement by orthodontic treatment is characterized by remodeling changes in the periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, and gingiva. A reflection of these phenomenons can be found in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of moving teeth, with significant elevations in the concentrations of its components like, cytokines, neurotransmitters, growth Factors, and a arachidonic acid metabolites. GCF arises at the gingival margin and can be described as a transudate or an exudate. Several studies have focused on the composition of GCF and the changes that occur during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). GCF component analysis is a non-invasive method for studying the cellular response of the underlying periodontium. Clinically, GCF can be easily collected using platinum loops, filter paper strips, gingival washings, and micropipettes. A number of GCF biomarkers involve in bone remodeling during OTM. The data suggest that knowledge of all the biomarkers present in the GCF that can be used to mark the changes in tooth that is undergoing orthodontic treatment may be of clinical usefulness leading to proper choice of mechanical stress to improve and to shorten treatment time and avoid side effects. PMID:26538871

  19. Intersubunit movement is required for ribosomal translocation

    PubMed Central

    Horan, Lucas H.; Noller, Harry F.

    2007-01-01

    Translocation of tRNA and mRNA during protein synthesis is believed to be coupled to structural changes in the ribosome. The “ratchet model,” based on cryo-EM reconstructions of ribosome complexes, invokes relative movement of the 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits in this process; however, evidence that directly demonstrates a requirement for intersubunit movement during translocation is lacking. To address this problem, we created an intersubunit disulfide cross-link to restrict potential movement. The cross-linked ribosomes were unable to carry out polypeptide synthesis; this inhibition was completely reversed upon reduction of the disulfide bridge. In vitro assays showed that the cross-linked ribosomes were specifically blocked in elongation factor G-dependent translocation. These findings show that intersubunit movement is required for ribosomal translocation, accounting for the universal two-subunit architecture of ribosomes. PMID:17360328

  20. Threat of nuclear movement. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Paine, G.M.

    1997-04-01

    While weapons of mass destruction (WMD) include biological, chemical and nuclear material, this paper will focus on the nuclear component. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, nuclear material was left throughout the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). As these new states focused on economic and social issues, security and safety of nuclear material became secondary. This change in focus has provided conditions for the illicit movement of nuclear material and expertise. CIS admissions that illegal movement has occurred have been limited; however, material and technical expertise has been found in numerous locations. The United States and Russia have initiated many notable programs, but the potential exists for continual illicit movement. As such, continual emphasis needs to be placed on stemming the movement of nuclear material and expertise.