Science.gov

Sample records for normal daily activities

  1. Personalizing energy expenditure estimation using physiological signals normalization during activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Altini, Marco; Penders, Julien; Vullers, Ruud; Amft, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we propose a generic approach to reduce inter-individual variability of different physiological signals (HR, GSR and respiration) by automatically estimating normalization parameters (e.g. baseline and range). The proposed normalization procedure does not require a dedicated personal calibration during system setup. On the other hand, normalization parameters are estimated at system runtime from sedentary and low intensity activities of daily living (ADLs), such as lying and walking. When combined with activity-specific energy expenditure (EE) models, our normalization procedure improved EE estimation by 15 to 33% in a study group of 18 participants, compared to state of the art activity-specific EE models combining accelerometer and non-normalized physiological signals. PMID:25120177

  2. The loss of independence in activities of daily living: the role of low normal cognitive function in elderly nuns.

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, P A; Snowdon, D A; Schmitt, F A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study investigated the role of low normal cognitive function in the subsequent loss of independence in activities of daily living. METHODS. Of the 678 elderly nuns who-completed cognitive and physical function assessments in 1992/93, 575 were reassessed in 1993/94. Mini-Mental State Examination scores were divided into three categories and related to loss of independence in six activities of daily living. RESULTS. Participants with low normal cognitive function at first assessment had twice the risk of losing independence in three activities of daily living by second assessment relative to those with high normal cognitive function. This relationship was largely due to a progression from low normal cognitive function at first assessment to impaired cognitive function at second assessment and was associated with an elevated risk of losing independence in the six activities. CONCLUSIONS. Progression from low normal to impaired cognitive function was associated with loss of independence in activities of daily living. Thus low normal cognitive function could be viewed as an early warning of impending cognitive impairment and loss of physical function. PMID:8561244

  3. Normal shoulder muscular activation and co-ordination during a shoulder elevation task based on activities of daily living: an electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, David H; Alizadehkhaiyat, Omid; Fisher, Anthony C; Kemp, Graham J; Roebuck, Margaret M; Frostick, Simon P

    2012-01-01

    Studies of normal shoulder function have often failed to consider the inter-relationship between different muscle groups in activities relevant to daily life. Upper limb functional status was assessed in 12 healthy male volunteers using the Functional Impairment Test-Hand, Neck, Shoulder and Arm test (FIT-HaNSA). Electromyography was then used to study the activity and coordination of 13 muscles (10 by surface electrodes, 3 by fine-wire intramuscular electrodes) around the shoulder during a dynamic movement task based on the shelf-lifting task in FIT-HaNSA. Muscles were grouped for analysis into deltoid (anterior, middle, and posterior divisions), adductors (latissimus dorsi and teres major), rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis), and elbow flexor (brachioradialis, biceps brachii) groups. There were no significant inter-session effects. Using cross-correlation analysis to investigate the whole time-course of activation, there were highly significant positive correlations (p < 0.001) between the deltoid and rotator cuff, the deltoid and adductor and the adductor and rotator cuff groups, and a significant negative correlation between the deltoid and elbow flexor groups (p = 0.031). We conclude that the deltoid, adductor, and rotator cuff muscles all contribute to the muscular component of glenohumeral joint stability. Muscular stability can be adapted as required to meet task-specific demands. PMID:21674607

  4. Daily patterns of physical activity by type 2 diabetes definition: Comparing diabetes, prediabetes, and participants with normal glucose levels in NHANES 2003–2006☆

    PubMed Central

    Steeves, Jeremy A.; Murphy, Rachel A.; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Van Domelen, Dane R.; Harris, Tamara B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Diabetes is associated with low levels of physical activity (PA), but detailed objective information about how PA patterns vary by diabetes definition is lacking. Methods PA was measured with ActiGraph accelerometers in older (60 +) adults from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 1,043) and analyzed in 2014. Diabetes definition (normal glucose levels, prediabetes, and diabetes) was assessed (fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1C, and self-report). Accelerometer data were used to characterize total activity counts (TAC) per day and hour-by-hour activity counts by diabetes definition. Multiple linear regression models explored the relationship between diabetes definition and TAC. Results Despite similar patterns of PA, diabetes participants had significantly lower TAC compared to participants with normal glucose levels and prediabetes. Diabetes participants' activity counts per hour declined more rapidly after 12 p.m., with the biggest differences between the groups occurring at 4:00 p.m. Participants with normal glucose levels and prediabetes had similar TAC and daily PA profiles. Conclusion Our novel methodology provides information about PA patterns by diabetes definition. Significantly lower TAC in the diabetes group, their significant drop in afternoon PA, and the similarity of PA between participants with normal glucose levels and prediabetes provide insight into potential targets for intervention. PMID:25909051

  5. Quantification of Daily Physical Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

  6. Daily Physical Activity Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the Daily Physical Activity (DPA) Survey was to gather school-level information from teachers and principals regarding their perceptions of DPA, thus providing a greater understanding of DPA implementation in grades 1 to 9. This study aimed to help identify the many variables that influence the attainment of the DPA outcomes and…

  7. WAPA Daily Energy Accounting Activities

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1990-10-01

    ISA (Interchange, Scheduling, & Accounting) is the interchange scheduling system used by the DOE Western Area Power Administration to perform energy accounting functions associated with the daily activities of the Watertown Operations Office (WOO). The system's primary role is to provide accounting functions for scheduled energy which is exchanged with other power companies and power operating organizations. The system has a secondary role of providing a historical record of all scheduled interchange transactions. The followingmore » major functions are performed by ISA: scheduled energy accounting for received and delivered energy; generation scheduling accounting for both fossil and hydro-electric power plants; metered energy accounting for received and delivered totals; energy accounting for Direct Current (D.C.) Ties; regulation accounting; automatic generation control set calculations; accounting summaries for Basin, Heartland Consumers Power District, and the Missouri Basin Municipal Power Agency; calculation of estimated generation for the Laramie River Station plant; daily and monthly reports; and dual control areas.« less

  8. Determination of energy expenditure during heavy exercise, normal daily activity, and sleep using the doubly-labelled-water (/sup 2/H/sub 2/ 18O) method

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, T.P.; Hoyt, R.W.; Settle, R.G.; O'Toole, M.; Hiller, W.D.

    1987-03-01

    Energy expenditure of four subjects was measured by the doubly-labelled-water (/sup 2/H/sub 2/ 18O) method to determine if energy expenditure could be determined over short periods. Three subjects were studied while they performed 8 h of heavy exercise in a laboratory environment. Urine and blood samples were taken before and after exercise. Estimated energy expended during 8 h of high-intensity exercise for three subjects was 757 +/- 118 kcal/h by the doubly-labelled-water method using urine and a two-point calculation, which compared favorably with 735 +/- 82 kcal/h obtained by respiratory gas exchange. For the fourth subject, daytime, nighttime, and daily energy expenditure was calculated by both the two-pair method and decay-curve analysis of urine and saliva samples collected in the morning and at night. Daytime and nighttime energy expenditures differed significantly (p less than 0.05).

  9. Awareness of Daily Life Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, Georgios; Metin, Barbaros; Schneider, Jutta; Markopoulos, Panos; De Ruyter, Boris

    The well-publicized aging of Western societies has prompted a growing interest into technologies that support awareness in cross-generational families. The idea of supporting continual and partly automated flow of information between seniors living alone and their social intimates has been gaining ground among researchers but even among industries. It is anticipated that such an information flow can help bridge geographical distance, discrepant lifestyles, and daily routines, potentially providing peace of mind to both parties and feelings of being connected.

  10. [Daily life activities following cerebrovascular infarct].

    PubMed

    Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Peskine, Anne

    2006-09-15

    Cerebro-vascular disease is the first cause of handicap in France. Disabilities in daily life activities are due to motor, visual and cognitive impairments following a stroke. Difficulties arise while grooming, getting dressed, eating, moving around ... the WHO presents with a new classification of functioning, that has been followed by a recent law in France. The aim is to place the handicapped citizen in daily life and not just to list his/her deficiencies. Rehabilitation after stroke has to establish functional objectives early so as to include daily life goals in re-education. PMID:17002070

  11. Evaluating the Adequacy of Simulating Maximum and Minimum Daily Air Temperature with the Normal Distribution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmel, R. D.; Richardson, C. W.; Hanson, C. L.; Johnson, G. L.

    2002-07-01

    Weather simulation models are commonly used to generate synthetic daily weather for use in studies of crop growth, water quality, water availability, soil erosion, climate change, and so on. Synthetic weather sequences are needed if long-term measured data are not available, measured data contain missing records, collection of actual data is cost or time prohibitive, or when necessary to simulate impacts of future climate scenarios. Most weather generators are capable of producing one or more components of weather such as precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, humidity, and wind speed. This study focused on one generation component, the procedure commonly used by weather simulation models to generate daily maximum and minimum temperature. The normal distribution is used by most weather generators (including USCLIMATE, WXGEN, LARS-WG, CLIMGEN, and CLIGEN) to generate daily maximum and minimum temperature values. The objective of this study was to analyze the adequacy of generating temperature data from the normal distribution. To accomplish this objective, the assumption of normality in measured daily temperatures was evaluated by testing the hypothesis that daily minimum and maximum temperature are normally distributed for each month. In addition, synthetic temperature records generated with the normal distribution were compared with measured temperature records. Based on these analyses, it was determined that measured daily maximum and minimum temperature are generally not normally distributed in each month but often are slightly skewed, which contradicts the assumption of normality used by most weather generators. In addition, generating temperature from the normal distribution resulted in several physically improbable values.

  12. Egocentric daily activity recognition via multitask clustering.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Ricci, Elisa; Liu, Gaowen; Sebe, Nicu

    2015-10-01

    Recognizing human activities from videos is a fundamental research problem in computer vision. Recently, there has been a growing interest in analyzing human behavior from data collected with wearable cameras. First-person cameras continuously record several hours of their wearers' life. To cope with this vast amount of unlabeled and heterogeneous data, novel algorithmic solutions are required. In this paper, we propose a multitask clustering framework for activity of daily living analysis from visual data gathered from wearable cameras. Our intuition is that, even if the data are not annotated, it is possible to exploit the fact that the tasks of recognizing everyday activities of multiple individuals are related, since typically people perform the same actions in similar environments, e.g., people working in an office often read and write documents). In our framework, rather than clustering data from different users separately, we propose to look for clustering partitions which are coherent among related tasks. In particular, two novel multitask clustering algorithms, derived from a common optimization problem, are introduced. Our experimental evaluation, conducted both on synthetic data and on publicly available first-person vision data sets, shows that the proposed approach outperforms several single-task and multitask learning methods. PMID:26067371

  13. Skeletal Adaptation to Daily Activity: A Biochemical Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert T.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Musculoskeletal forces generated by normal daily activity on Earth maintain the functional and structural properties of muscle and bone throughout most of one's adult life. A reduction in the level of cumulative daily loading caused by space flight, bed rest or spinal cord injury induces rapid muscle atrophy, functional changes in muscle, and bone resorption in regions subjected to the reduced loading. Bone cells in culture and bone tissue reportedly respond to a wide variety of non-mechanical and mechanical stimuli ranging, from electromagnetic fields, and hormones to small amplitude, high frequency vibrations, fluid flow, strain rate, and stress/strain magnitude. However, neither the transduction mechanism that transforms the mechanical input into a muscle or bone metabolic response nor the characteristics, of the loading history that directly or indirectly stimulates the cell is known. Identifying the factors contributing to the input stimulus will have a major impact on the design of effective countermeasures for long duration space flight. This talk will present a brief overview of current theories of bone remodeling and functional adaptation to mechanical loading. Work from our lab will be presented from the perspective of daily cumulative loading on Earth and its relationship to bone density and structure. Our objective is to use the tibia and calcaneus as model bone sites of cortical and cancellous bone adaptation, loaded daily by musculoskeletal forces in equilibrium with the ground reaction force. All materials that will be discussed are in the open scientific literature.

  14. Daily Spousal Influence on Physical Activity in Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Martire, Lynn M.; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Mogle, Jacqueline; Schulz, Richard; Brach, Jennifer; Keefe, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical activity is critical for the management of knee osteoarthritis, and the spouse may play a role in encouraging or discouraging physical activity. Purpose To examine four types of spousal influence—spouses' daily activity, autonomy support, pressure, and persuasion--on the daily physical activity of adults living with knee osteoarthritis. Methods A total of 141 couples reported their daily experiences for 22 days using a handheld computer, and wore an accelerometer to measure moderate activity and steps. Results Spouses' autonomy support for patient physical activity, as well as their own level of activity, was concurrently associated with patients' greater daily moderate activity and steps. In addition, on days when male patients perceived that spouses exerted more pressure to be active, they spent less time in moderate activity. Conclusions Couple-oriented interventions for knee osteoarthritis should target physical activity in both partners and spousal strategies for helping patients stay active. PMID:23161472

  15. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily activity assist device. (a) Identification....

  16. Manual of Alternative Procedures: Activities of Daily Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, James E.; And Others

    Intended for teachers and others providing services for moderately and severely physically and/or mentally handicapped children and young adults, the manual presents strategies, procedures, and task analyses for training in daily living skills. Section I provides an overview of tactics for teaching activities of daily living (ADL) skills,…

  17. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  18. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  19. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  20. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  1. Unsupervised daily routine and activity discovery in smart homes.

    PubMed

    Jie Yin; Qing Zhang; Karunanithi, Mohan

    2015-08-01

    The ability to accurately recognize daily activities of residents is a core premise of smart homes to assist with remote health monitoring. Most of the existing methods rely on a supervised model trained from a preselected and manually labeled set of activities, which are often time-consuming and costly to obtain in practice. In contrast, this paper presents an unsupervised method for discovering daily routines and activities for smart home residents. Our proposed method first uses a Markov chain to model a resident's locomotion patterns at different times of day and discover clusters of daily routines at the macro level. For each routine cluster, it then drills down to further discover room-level activities at the micro level. The automatic identification of daily routines and activities is useful for understanding indicators of functional decline of elderly people and suggesting timely interventions. PMID:26737536

  2. Modeling and forecasting foreign exchange daily closing prices with normal inverse Gaussian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teneng, Dean

    2013-09-01

    We fit the normal inverse Gaussian(NIG) distribution to foreign exchange closing prices using the open software package R and select best models by Käärik and Umbleja (2011) proposed strategy. We observe that daily closing prices (12/04/2008 - 07/08/2012) of CHF/JPY, AUD/JPY, GBP/JPY, NZD/USD, QAR/CHF, QAR/EUR, SAR/CHF, SAR/EUR, TND/CHF and TND/EUR are excellent fits while EGP/EUR and EUR/GBP are good fits with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test p-value of 0.062 and 0.08 respectively. It was impossible to estimate normal inverse Gaussian parameters (by maximum likelihood; computational problem) for JPY/CHF but CHF/JPY was an excellent fit. Thus, while the stochastic properties of an exchange rate can be completely modeled with a probability distribution in one direction, it may be impossible the other way around. We also demonstrate that foreign exchange closing prices can be forecasted with the normal inverse Gaussian (NIG) Lévy process, both in cases where the daily closing prices can and cannot be modeled by NIG distribution.

  3. Infilling Missing Daily Precipitation Data at Multiple Sites Using a Multivariate Truncated Normal Distribution Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, W.; Rasmussen, P. F.; Panu, U. S.

    2009-12-01

    Stochastic weather modeling is subject to a number of challenges including varied spatial-dependency and the existence of missing observations. Daily precipitation possesses unique statistical characteristics in distribution, such as the existence of high frequency of zero records and the high skewness of the distribution of precipitation amount. To address for these difficulties, a methodology based on the multivariate truncated Normal distribution model is proposed. The methodology transforms the skewed distribution of precipitation amounts at multiple sites into a multivariate Normal distribution model. The missing observations are then be estimated through the conditional mean and variance obtained from the multivariate Normal distribution model. The adequacy of the proposed model structure was first verified using a synthetic data set. Subsequently, 30 years of historical daily precipitation records from 10 Canadian meteorological stations were used to evaluate the performance of the model. The result of the evaluation shows that the proposed model reasonably can preserve the statistical characteristics of the historical records in estimated the missing records at multiple sites.

  4. Daily physical activity and type 2 diabetes: A review

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity improves glycemic control and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moderate to vigorous physical activity is recommended to manage T2D; however, patients with T2D can be physically weak, making it difficult to engage in the recommended levels of physical activity. Daily physical activity includes various activities performed during both occupational and leisure time such as walking, gardening, and housework that type 2 diabetic patients should be able to perform without considerable physical burden. This review focuses on the association between daily physical activity and T2D. Walking was the most common form of daily physical activity, with numerous studies demonstrating its beneficial effects on reducing the risk of T2D, CVD, and mortality. Walking for at least 30 min per day was shown to reduce the risk of T2D by approximately 50%. Additionally, walking was associated with a reduction in mortality. In contrast, evidence was extremely limited regarding other daily physical activities such as gardening and housework in patients with T2D. Recent studies have suggested daily physical activity, including non-exercise activity thermogenesis, to be favorably associated with metabolic risks and mortality. However, well-designed longitudinal studies are warranted to elucidate its effects on overall health. PMID:27350847

  5. Daily physical activity and type 2 diabetes: A review.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka

    2016-06-25

    Physical activity improves glycemic control and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moderate to vigorous physical activity is recommended to manage T2D; however, patients with T2D can be physically weak, making it difficult to engage in the recommended levels of physical activity. Daily physical activity includes various activities performed during both occupational and leisure time such as walking, gardening, and housework that type 2 diabetic patients should be able to perform without considerable physical burden. This review focuses on the association between daily physical activity and T2D. Walking was the most common form of daily physical activity, with numerous studies demonstrating its beneficial effects on reducing the risk of T2D, CVD, and mortality. Walking for at least 30 min per day was shown to reduce the risk of T2D by approximately 50%. Additionally, walking was associated with a reduction in mortality. In contrast, evidence was extremely limited regarding other daily physical activities such as gardening and housework in patients with T2D. Recent studies have suggested daily physical activity, including non-exercise activity thermogenesis, to be favorably associated with metabolic risks and mortality. However, well-designed longitudinal studies are warranted to elucidate its effects on overall health. PMID:27350847

  6. Perceived health status and daily activity participation of older Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sor Tho; Tengku-Aizan, Hamid; Tey, Nai Peng

    2011-07-01

    This article investigates the influence of perceived health status on the daily activity participation of older Malaysians. Data from the Survey on Perceptions of Needs and Problems of the Elderly, which was conducted in 1999, were used. The negative binomial regression results show that older persons with good perceived health status reported more varieties of daily activity participation, especially among the uneducated and those with below-average self-esteem. The multinomial logistic regression model suggests that older persons with good perceived health status tended to engage daily in paid work only or with leisure activities, whereas those perceived to have poor health were more likely to engage in leisure activities only or leisure and family role activities. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle at a younger age encourages every person to monitor and take responsibility for their own health, which is a necessary strategy to ensure active participation at an older age, and thus improve their well-being. PMID:20685663

  7. Seasonal variations in daily rhythms of activity in athletic horses.

    PubMed

    Bertolucci, C; Giannetto, C; Fazio, F; Piccione, G

    2008-07-01

    Circadian rhythms reflect extensive programming of biological activity that meets and exploits the challenges and opportunities offered by the periodic nature of the environment. In the present investigation, we recorded the total activity of athletic horses kept at four different times of the year (vernal equinox, summer solstice, autumn equinox and winter solstice), to evaluate the presence of seasonal variations of daily activity rhythms. Athletic Thoroughbred horses were kept in individual boxes with paddock. Digitally integrated measure of total activity of each mare was continuously recorded by actigraphy-based data loggers. Horse total activities were not evenly distributed over the day, but they were mainly diurnal during the year. Daily activity rhythms showed clear seasonal variations, with the highest daily amount of activity during the vernal equinox and the lowest during the winter solstice. Interestingly, the amount of activity during either photophase or scotophase changed significantly throughout the year. Circadian analysis of horse activities showed that the acrophase, the estimated time at which the peak of the rhythm occurs, did not change during the year, it always occurred in the middle of the photoperiod. Analysing the time structure of long-term and continuously measured activity and feeding could be a useful method to critically evaluate athletic horse management systems in which spontaneous locomotor activity and feeding are severely limited. Circadian rhythms are present in several elements of sensory motor and psychomotor functions and these would be taken into consideration to plan the training schedules and competitions in athletic horses. PMID:22443706

  8. Activities of Daily Living of Spanish-Speaking Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ailinger, Rita L.

    This anthropological study reports on some of the activities of daily living (ADL's) of 19 Spanish-speaking families living in a low income suburb of Washington, D.C. ADL's are defined as those functions which are performed on a usual day. Generically they include eating, sleeping, communicating, working, and recreating. In this paper, they…

  9. Cultural Orientations, Daily Activities, and Adjustment in Mexican American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Cansler, Emily

    2009-01-01

    The links between youth's daily activities and adjustment and the role of cultural practices and values in these links were studied in 469 youth from 237 Mexican American families. In home interviews, data on mothers', fathers', and two adolescent-age siblings' cultural practices (language use, social contacts) and values (for familism, for…

  10. Fostering Activities of Daily Living by Intact Nursing Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Charles E.; Glaister, Judy; Brown, Alston; Phillips, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    We assessed effectiveness of four education programs in providing nursing assistants with ability to produce a therapeutic milieu supportive of intact residents' activities of daily living, positive self-esteem and mood: (1) a combination of Orem's Systems of Nursing Care and Skinner's Applied Behavioral Analysis, (2) Applied Behavioral Analysis,…

  11. In-vivo three-dimensional knee kinematics during daily activities in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Stanley E; Jones, Stephen C; Lewis, Daniel D; Banks, Scott A; Conrad, Bryan P; Tremolada, Giovanni; Abbasi, Abdullah Z; Coggeshall, Jason D; Pozzi, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    The canine knee is morphologically similar to the human knee and thus dogs have been used in experimental models to study human knee pathology. To date, there is limited data of normal canine 3D knee kinematics during daily activities. The objective of this study was to characterize 3D in-vivo femorotibial kinematics in normal dogs during commonly performed daily activities. Using single-plane fluoroscopy, six normal dogs were imaged performing walk, trot, sit, and stair ascent activities. CT-generated bone models were used for kinematic measurement using a 3D-to-2D model registration technique. Increasing knee flexion angle was typically associated with increasing tibial internal rotation, abduction and anterior translation during all four activities. The precise relationship between flexion angle and these movements varied both within and between activities. Significant differences in axial rotation and coronal angulation were found at the same flexion angle during different phases of the walk and trot. This was also found with anterior tibial translation during the trot only. Normal canine knees accommodate motion in all planes; precise kinematics within this envelope of motion are activity dependent. This data establishes the characteristics of normal 3D femorotibial joint kinematics in dogs that can be used as a comparison for future studies. PMID:25982776

  12. Activity of Daily Living assessment through wireless sensor data.

    PubMed

    Qing Zhang; Karunanithi, Mohan; Bradford, Dana; van Kasteren, Yasmin

    2014-01-01

    Activity of Daily Living has become a clinical de facto instrument to assess daily functional status of older people living independently at home. Almost all ADLs scales are based on subjective assessment of clinical staff and self-reported responses of the elderly person. A great deal of variability in ADL assessment is likely due to the different cultural beliefs, language and education, and over-assessment of personal capability to potentially avoid negative consequences. This paper proposes automatic and objective ADLs assessment as key component of a technology platform that supports older people to live independently in their home, called Smarter Safer Homes. The objective ADL assessment is achieved through communicating data from simple non-intrusive, wireless sensors placed in a home environment. Pilot sensor data sets were collected over six months from nine independent living homes of participants aged 70+ year. The application of a clustering based, unsupervised learning method on these data sets demonstrates the potential to automatically detect five domains of activity contributing to functional independence. Furthermore, the method provides features that support elderlys self-monitoring of daily activities more regularly, that could provide the potential for timely and early intervention from family and carers. PMID:25570315

  13. Cultural orientations, daily activities, and adjustment in Mexican American youth.

    PubMed

    McHale, Susan M; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Cansler, Emily

    2009-05-01

    The links between youth's daily activities and adjustment and the role of cultural practices and values in these links were studied in 469 youth from 237 Mexican American families. In home interviews, data on mothers', fathers', and two adolescent-age siblings' cultural practices (language use, social contacts) and values (for familism, for education achievement) were collected, along with data on youth risky behavior and depressive symptoms. In 7 nightly phone calls, youth reported on their day's free time activities (i.e., sports, academics, religious activities, television viewing, and hanging out). Analyses revealed that youth who spent more time in unsupervised hanging out reported more depressive symptoms and risky behavior, and those who spent more time in academic activities reported less risky behavior. Results also indicated that more Anglo-oriented youth spent more time in sports, that more Mexican-oriented youth spent more time watching television, that fathers' familism values were related to youth's time in religious activities, and that parents' educational values were linked to youth's time in academic activities. Some evidence indicated that parents' cultural practices and values, particularly fathers', moderated the links between daily activities and youth adjustment. PMID:19636760

  14. Effect of Daily Supine LBNP Exercise on Gastrointestinal Motility During Antiorthostatic Bedrest in Normal Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; DeKerlegand, D.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Space flight alters gastrointestinal (GI) function in general, and GI motility, in particular. This can decrease appetite, affect the body's ability to absorb nutrients, fluids and electrolytes, and contribute to a negative energy balance. Antiorthostatic bed rest (ABR) has been used to simulate microgravity-induced physiological changes in human subjects. The objective of this investigation is to determine if daily supine lower body negative pressure (LBNP) exercise will maintain GI motility at near normal levels during ABR. Eight subjects participated in the study protocol consisting of an ambulatory phase scheduled before bedrest periods and two 14 day bed rest (6 deg head-down tilt) periods, once with and another time without exercise. Supine treadmill running in an LBNP chamber was used for exercise. Mouth-to-cecum transit time (MCTT) of lactulose was measured indirectly using the rise in breath hydrogen level after oral administration of lactulose (20 g) following a standard low-fiber breakfast. GI motility during ambulatory and ABR periods was assessed using MCTT data. Results of this Study indicate that GI motility during ABR without exercise decreased by 45% [MCTT +/- S.E.M. 56.2 +/- 6.0 (Ambulatory); 87.3 +/- 8.3 (ABR)]. Supine LBNP exercise did not significantly alter this reduction in GI motility during ABR [MCTT +/- S.E.M. 81.3 +/- 4.2 (Exercise); 87.3 +/- 8.3 (No Exercise)]. These results suggest that supine LBNP exercise may not be an effective countermeasure for microgravity-induced decrements in GI motility and function.

  15. Daily Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know Online Tools Enhancing Daily Life Daily Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Personal Care Incontinence Bathing ... Tweet Email | Print Create a Daily Routine Daily Plan Activities Communication Food/Eating Get Tips on Personal Care Bathing ...

  16. The Role of Daily Activities in Youths’ Stress Physiology

    PubMed Central

    McHale, Susan M.; Blocklin, Michelle K.; Walter, Kimberly N.; Davis, Kelly D.; Almeida, David M.; Klein, Laura Cousino

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study examined links between diurnal patterns of the stress hormone, cortisol, and adolescents’ time in nine common daily activities. Method During eight consecutive nightly telephone interviews, 28 youths (n = 12 girls), 10-18 years of age, reported their day’s activities. On four days, four saliva samples also were collected and assayed for cortisol. Multilevel models assessed within- and between-person associations between time in each activity and cortisol Area Under the Curve (AUC), cortisol awakening response (CAR), morning peak (30 minutes after wake up) and daily decline (morning peak to bedtime). Results Links with AUC were found for most activities; significant associations with cortisol rhythms suggested that most effects were due to anticipation of the day’s activities. Specifically, on days when youths spent more time than usual on videogames and TV they had lower AUCs, with lower morning peaks. Youths who spent more time reading (within-person) and in computer activities (between-person) had higher AUCs, with stronger CARs (within-person). Youths who slept more had lower AUCs, with lower morning peaks on both the between- and within-person levels. Amounts of time spent in clubs, and for older adolescents, sports, were also linked to lower AUCs. Finally, youths who spent more time in school/schoolwork had lower AUCs, but on days when youths spent more time than usual in school, they had higher AUCs, stronger CARs, and steeper daily declines. Conclusion Beyond their known implications for psychological adjustment, youths’ everyday activities are linked to stress physiology. PMID:23174474

  17. Factors affecting daily activities of patients with cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Zhou, Cheng-ye; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yun-feng; Zou, Chang-lin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke is the leading cause of death and long-term disability. This study was undertaken to investigate the factors influencing daily activities of patients with cerebral infarction so as to take interventional measures earlier to improve their daily activities. METHODS: A total of 149 patients with first-episode cerebral infarction were recruited into this prospective study. They were admitted to the Encephalopathy Center, Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College in Zhejiang Province from August 2008 to December 2008. The baseline characteristics of the patients and cerebral infarction risk factors on the first day of admission were recorded. White blood cell (WBC) count, plasma glucose (PG), and many others of laboratory targets were collected in the next morning. Barthel index (BI) was calculated at 2 weeks and 3 months respectively after onset of the disease at the outpatient clinic or by telephone call. Lung infection, urinary tract infection and atrial fibrillation if any were recorded on admission. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and the GCS scores were recorded within 24 hours on and after admission, at the second week, and at the third month after the onset of cerebral infarction respectively. RESULTS: The factors of BI at 2 weeks and 3 months after onset were the initial PG level, WBC count and initial NIHSS scores. Besides, urinary tract infection on admission was also the factor for BI at 3 months. CONCLUSION: Active measures should be taken to control these factors to improve the daily activities of patients with cerebral infarction. PMID:25214953

  18. Measurement of Daily Activity in Restrictive Type Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ann M.; McAlpine, Donald E.; Shirbhate, Rashmi; Manohar, Chinmay U.; Levine, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The assessment of daily activity in patients with restrictive type anorexia nervosa is limited by an absence of accurate and precise technology. We wanted to test a daily activity detecting device named, the Physical Activity Monitoring System (PAMS). Method Women participants with restrictive type anorexia nervosa (n = 8, 36 ± 11 years, 17 ± 2 kg/m2) and healthy women participants (n = 8, 30 ± 11 years, 27 ± 7 kg/m2) were asked to lie, sit and stand motionless, and walk at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mph whilst wearing PAMS. Results For all restrictive type anorexia nervosa and healthy participants, body posture was correctly detected for all measurements (300/300). There was excellent correlation of an individual’s body acceleration with walking velocity and walking energy expenditure (r2> 0.99). Conclusions The PAMS technology could serve as a tool for lending insight into the pathophysiology of restrictive type anorexia nervosa; and potentially measuring compliance with activity recommendations for medical professionals treating individuals with restrictive type anorexia nervosa. PMID:18004719

  19. Quantification of Cyclic Ground Reaction Force Histories During Daily Activity in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breit, G. A.; Whalen, R. T.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical models and experimental studies of bone remodeling suggest that bone density and structure are influenced by local cyclic skeletal tissue stress and strain histories. Estimation of long-term loading histories in humans is usually achieved by assessment of physical activity level by questionnaires, logbooks, and pedometers, since the majority of lower limb cyclic loading occurs during walking and running. These methods provide some indication of the mechanical loading history, but fail to consider the true magnitude of the lower limb skeletal forces generated by various daily activities. These techniques cannot account for individual gait characteristics, gait speed, and unpredictable high loading events that may influence bone mass significantly. We have developed portable instrumentation to measure and record the vertical component of the ground reaction force (GRFz) during normal daily activity. This equipment allows long-term quantitative monitoring of musculoskeletal loads, which in conjunction with bone mineral density assessments, promises to elucidate the relationship between skeletal stresses and bone remodeling.

  20. Method and Apparatus for Monitoring of Daily Activity in Terms of Ground Reaction Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert T. (Inventor); Breit, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A device to record and analyze habitual daily activity in terms of the history of gait-related musculoskeletal loading is disclosed. The device consists of a pressure-sensing insole placed into the shoe or embedded in a shoe sole, which detects contact of the foot with the ground. The sensor is coupled to a portable battery-powered digital data logger clipped to the shoe or worn around the ankle or waist. During the course of normal daily activity, the system maintains a record of time-of-occurrence of all non-spurious foot-down and lift-off events. Off line, these data are filtered and converted to a history of foot-ground contact times, from which measures of cumulative musculoskeletal loading, average walking- and running-specific gait speed, total time spent walking and running, total number of walking steps and running steps, and total gait-related energy expenditure are estimated from empirical regressions of various gait parameters to the contact time reciprocal. Data are available as cumulative values or as daily averages by menu selection. The data provided by this device are useful for assessment of musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health and risk factors associated with habitual patterns of daily activity.

  1. Percentage of People with at Least One Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Limitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADL) Limitation Percentage of People with at Least One Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Limitation This measure ... Age Group Percentage of People with at Least One Activities of Daily Living Limitation by Age Group ...

  2. Activities of daily living, instrumental activities for daily living and predictors of functional capacity of older men in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Paul Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background: An extensive search of the literature found no studies that have examined functional capacity [Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities for Daily Living (I) ADL)] of Jamaican older men as well as factors that determine their functional capacity. Aims: The current study examines 1) ADL, 2) (I) ADL), 3) self-reported health status, 4) functional capacity, and 5) factors that determine functional capacity of older men. Methods and Method: Stratified multistage probability sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 2,000 55+ year men. A132-item questionnaire was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics provide background information on the sample, cross tabulations were used to examine non-metric variables and logistic regression provides a model of predictors of functional capacity. Result: Fifty-five percent of sample indicated good current health status. Four percent was mostly satisfied with life; 21.7% had moderate dependence; 77.1% had high dependence (i.e. independence); 1.2% had low dependence; 21.9% were ages 75 years and older; 35.6% were ages 65 to 74 years and 42.6% reported ages 55 to 64 years. Functional capacity can be determined by church attendance (β=0.245; 95% CI: 0.264, 1.291); social support (β=0.129; 95% CI: 0.129, 0.258), area of residence (β=-0.060; 95% CI: -0.427, -0.061) and lastly by age of respondents. Conclusion: Ageing in explains deterioration in their (I) ADL, suggesting the challenges of ageing men's independence. More rural men were rarely satisfied with life; but more of them had a greater functional capacity than urban men. Depression was found to negatively relate to functional capacity, and church attendees had a greater functional status than non-attendees. PMID:22666693

  3. Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Impairment Is Associated with Increased Amyloid Burden

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Gad A.; Olson, Lauren E.; Frey, Meghan T.; Maye, Jacqueline; Becker, J. Alex; Rentz, Dorene M.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) impairment in Alzheimer's disease has been associated with global amyloid deposition in postmortem studies. We sought to determine whether IADL impairment is associated with increased cortical Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) retention. Methods Fifty-five subjects (19 normal older controls, NC, and 36 with mild cognitive impairment, MCI) underwent clinical assessments and dynamic PiB positron emission tomography imaging. Results A linear multiple regression model showed that greater IADL impairment was associated with greater global PiB retention in all subjects (R2 = 0.40; unstandardized partial regression coefficient, β = 5.8; p = 0.0002) and in MCI subjects only (R2 = 0.28; β = 6.1; p = 0.003), but not in NC subjects only. Conclusion These results suggest that daily functional impairment is related to greater amyloid burden in MCI. PMID:21778725

  4. Biomarkers of basic activities of daily living in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hall, James R; Johnson, Leigh A; Barber, Robert C; Vo, Hoa T; Winter, A Scott; O'Bryant, Sid E

    2012-01-01

    Functional impairment is common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related to increased caregiver burden and institutionalization. There is a dearth of research investigating the relationship between specific biomarkers and basic activities of daily living (BADLs) such as toileting, feeding, dressing, grooming, bathing, and ambulating. The present study examined the relationship between serum based biomarkers and specific ADLs in a sample of AD patients. Data were collected from 196 participants enrolled in the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium Project and diagnosed with AD. BADLs were measured using the Lawton-Brody Physical Self-Maintenance Scale. A panel of 22 biomarkers previously found to be related to AD pathology was used for the analysis. Stepwise regression modeling was used to assess the link between the biomarkers and BADLs. Results were also examined by gender. Nine of the 22 biomarkers were significantly related to BADLs. When stratified by gender, the biomarkers accounted for 32% of the variance in the males and 27% in females. The pattern of significant biomarkers differed by gender with IL 7 and Tenascin C significantly related to BADLs for females and IL 15 significantly related to BADLs for males. The results of this study indicated that a small number of serum based biomarkers are related to BADLs, and these biomarkers differed by gender. PMID:22571981

  5. Dynamic hyperinflation during activities of daily living in COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cláudia S; Nogueira, Fabiana R; Porto, Elias F; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Nascimento, Oliver A; Camelier, Aquiles; Jardim, José R

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether some activities of daily living (ADLs) usually related to dyspnea sensation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with dynamic lung hyperinflation (DH) and whether the use of simple energy conservation techniques (ECTs) might reduce this possible hyperinflation. Eighteen patients (mean age: 65.8 ± 9.8 years) with moderate-to-severe COPD performed six ADLs (walking on a treadmill, storing pots, walking 56 meters carrying a 5-kilogram weight, climbing stairs, simulating taking a shower, and putting on shoes) and had their inspiratory capacity (IC) measured before and after each task. The patients were moderately obstructed with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1): 1.4 ± 0.4 L (50% ± 12.4); FEV1/forced vital capacity: 0.4 ± 8.1; residual volume/total lung capacity: 52.7 ± 10.2, and a reduction in IC was seen after all six activities (p < 0.05): (1) going upstairs, 170 mL; (2) walking 56 meters carrying 5 kilogram weight, 150 mL; (3) walking on a treadmill without and with ECT, respectively, 230 mL and 235 mL; (4) storing pots without and with ECT, respectively, 170 mL and 128 mL; (5) taking a shower without and with ECT, respectively, 172 mL and 118 mL; and (6) putting on shoes without and with ECT, respectively, 210 mL and 78 mL). Patients with moderate to severe COPD develop DH after performing common ADLs involving the upper and lower limbs. Simple ECTs may avoid DH in some of these ADLs. PMID:25896955

  6. Adolescents’ Daily Activities and the Restorative Niches that Support Them

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Jenny J.; Aspinall, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores wellbeing from the perspective of the psychological dynamics underlying adolescents’ relationship with place. It uses a dynamic model of wellbeing called personal project analysis (PPA) which captures the concept of ‘flourishing’, defined as functioning well in your activities, strivings and interactions with the world [1]. Using PPA methods we identified adolescents’ daily activities and the ‘restorative niches’ that best support them. A series of settings (including home, urban and natural outdoor places) were explored using PPA with 45 young people (aged 11–13) living in Edinburgh, Central Scotland. Participants were asked to think of eight projects of current importance to them, to say where the project took place and to rate each project against a series of core wellbeing dimensions measuring project meaning, manageability, support and affect (how much fun, stress etc.). Latent class analysis was carried out to explore clusters—or sub-groups—in the data and to identify the significant discriminators between clusters. A three-cluster model produced the best fit with project type, project place and wellbeing indicators (fun and stress) significantly discriminating between the three clusters. The three clusters were labeled by their dominant environmental context, ‘faraway’ (e.g., beach, national parks, hills), ‘everyday’ (e.g., home, school, local streets) and ‘citywide’ (e.g., sport settings, urban town context). ‘Faraway’ and ‘citywide’ clusters had a significantly higher wellbeing content, especially for fun and stress; the ‘everyday’ cluster indicated local environs remain a dominant project place for this age group, but are associated with greater stress. We compare findings with adults and suggest that outdoor settings further afield from home have greater significance within adolescent project systems, but that support is needed to facilitate access to these places. PMID:23202680

  7. Activity of daily living for Morquio A syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Eriko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimada, Tsutomu; Sawamoto, Kazuki; Mackenzie, William G.; Theroux, Mary C.; Pizarro, Christian; Xie, Li; Miller, Freeman; Rahman, Tariq; Kecskemethy, Heidi H.; Nagao, Kyoko; Morlet, Thierry; Shaffer, Thomas H.; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Akemi; Shintaku, Haruo; Orii, Kenji E.; Orii, Koji O.; Mason, Robert W.; Montaño, Adriana M.; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of daily living (ADL) and surgical interventions in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA). The factor(s) that affect ADL are age, clinical phenotypes, surgical interventions, therapeutic effect, and body mass index. The ADL questionnaire comprises three domains: “Movement,” “Movement with cognition,” and “Cognition.” Each domain has four subcategories rated on a 5-point scale based on the level of assistance. The questionnaire was collected from 145 healthy controls and 82 patients with MPS IVA. The patient cohort consisted of 63 severe and 17 attenuated phenotypes (2 were undefined); 4 patients treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), 33 patients treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for more than a year, and 45 untreated patients. MPS IVA patients show a decline in ADL scores after 10 years of age. Patients with a severe phenotype have a lower ADL score than healthy control subjects, and lower scores than patients with an attenuated phenotype in domains of “Movement” and “Movement with cognition.” Patients, who underwent HSCT and were followed up for over 10 years, had higher ADL scores and fewer surgical interventions than untreated patients. ADL scores for ERT patients (2.5 years follow-up on average) were similar with the-age-matched controls below 10 years of age, but declined in older patients. Surgical frequency was higher for severe phenotypic patients than attenuated ones. Surgical frequency for patients treated with ERT was not decreased compared to untreated patients. In conclusion, we have shown the utility of the proposed ADL questionnaire and frequency of surgical interventions in patients with MPS IVA to evaluate the clinical severity and therapeutic efficacy compared with age-matched controls. PMID:27161890

  8. Activity of daily living for Morquio A syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Eriko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimada, Tsutomu; Sawamoto, Kazuki; Mackenzie, William G; Theroux, Mary C; Pizarro, Christian; Xie, Li; Miller, Freeman; Rahman, Tariq; Kecskemethy, Heidi H; Nagao, Kyoko; Morlet, Thierry; Shaffer, Thomas H; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Akemi; Shintaku, Haruo; Orii, Kenji E; Orii, Koji O; Mason, Robert W; Montaño, Adriana M; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of daily living (ADL) and surgical interventions in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA). The factor(s) that affect ADL are age, clinical phenotypes, surgical interventions, therapeutic effect, and body mass index. The ADL questionnaire comprises three domains: "Movement," "Movement with cognition," and "Cognition." Each domain has four subcategories rated on a 5-point scale based on the level of assistance. The questionnaire was collected from 145 healthy controls and 82 patients with MPS IVA. The patient cohort consisted of 63 severe and 17 attenuated phenotypes (2 were undefined); 4 patients treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), 33 patients treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for more than a year, and 45 untreated patients. MPS IVA patients show a decline in ADL scores after 10years of age. Patients with a severe phenotype have a lower ADL score than healthy control subjects, and lower scores than patients with an attenuated phenotype in domains of "Movement" and "Movement with cognition." Patients, who underwent HSCT and were followed up for over 10years, had higher ADL scores and fewer surgical interventions than untreated patients. ADL scores for ERT patients (2.5years follow-up on average) were similar with the-age-matched controls below 10years of age, but declined in older patients. Surgical frequency was higher for severe phenotypic patients than attenuated ones. Surgical frequency for patients treated with ERT was not decreased compared to untreated patients. In conclusion, we have shown the utility of the proposed ADL questionnaire and frequency of surgical interventions in patients with MPS IVA to evaluate the clinical severity and therapeutic efficacy compared with age-matched controls. PMID:27161890

  9. "I'll Speak in Proper Slang": Language Ideologies in a Daily Editing Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godley, Amanda J.; Carpenter, Brian D.; Werner, Cynthia A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the language ideologies--the assumptions about the nature of language, language variation, and language learning--reflected in a widespread daily editing activity often known as Daily Oral Language or Daily Language Practice. Through a yearlong ethnographic study of grammar instruction in three urban,…

  10. Variability and Stability in Daily Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity among 10 Year Old Children.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sara; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K; Chaves, Raquel N; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José A R

    2015-08-01

    Day-to-day variability and stability of children's physical activity levels across days of the week are not well understood. Our aims were to examine the day-to-day variability of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), to determine factors influencing the day-to-day variability of MVPA and to estimate stability of MVPA in children. The sample comprises 686 Portuguese children (10 years of age). MVPA was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed from measured height and weight. Daily changes in MVPA and their correlates (gender, BMI, and maturity) were modeled with a multilevel approach, and tracking was calculated using Foulkes & Davies γ. A total of 51.3% of boys and 26.2% of girls achieved 60 min/day of MVPA on average. Daily MVPA was lower during the weekend (23.6% of boys and 13.6% of girls comply with the recommended 60 min/day of MVPA) compared to weekdays (60.8% and 35.4%, boys and girls, respectively). Normal weight children were more active than obese children and no effect was found for biological maturation. Tracking is low in both boys (γ = 0.59 ± 0.01) and girls (γ = 0.56 ± 0.01). Children's MVPA levels during a week are highly unstable. In summary, boys are more active than girls, maturation does not affect their MVPA, and obese children are less likely to meet 60 min/day of MVPA. These results highlight the importance of providing opportunities for increasing children's daily MVPA on all days of week, especially on the weekend. PMID:26262632

  11. Variability and Stability in Daily Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity among 10 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sara; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Day-to-day variability and stability of children’s physical activity levels across days of the week are not well understood. Our aims were to examine the day-to-day variability of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), to determine factors influencing the day-to-day variability of MVPA and to estimate stability of MVPA in children. The sample comprises 686 Portuguese children (10 years of age). MVPA was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed from measured height and weight. Daily changes in MVPA and their correlates (gender, BMI, and maturity) were modeled with a multilevel approach, and tracking was calculated using Foulkes & Davies γ. A total of 51.3% of boys and 26.2% of girls achieved 60 min/day of MVPA on average. Daily MVPA was lower during the weekend (23.6% of boys and 13.6% of girls comply with the recommended 60 min/day of MVPA) compared to weekdays (60.8% and 35.4%, boys and girls, respectively). Normal weight children were more active than obese children and no effect was found for biological maturation. Tracking is low in both boys (γ = 0.59 ± 0.01) and girls (γ = 0.56 ± 0.01). Children’s MVPA levels during a week are highly unstable. In summary, boys are more active than girls, maturation does not affect their MVPA, and obese children are less likely to meet 60 min/day of MVPA. These results highlight the importance of providing opportunities for increasing children’s daily MVPA on all days of week, especially on the weekend. PMID:26262632

  12. Relations between Daily Activities and Adolescent Mood: The Role of Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Sally M.; Mermelstein, Robin

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the combined influences of daily activities and autonomy in activity engagement on adolescent daily positive and negative moods. Ecological momentary assessments (EMA) were used to obtain information about 8th- and 10th-grade students' (N = 517) mood, activities, and situation throughout the day. Participants responded to…

  13. Characterization of Activities of Daily Living in Individuals With Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Angela L.; Byerly, Laura K.; Vanderhill, Susan; Lambe, Susan; Wong, Sarah; Ozonoff, Al; Karlawish, Jason H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) differ from cognitively normal (NC) older adults on traditional and novel informant-based measures of activities of daily living (ADL) and to identify cognitive correlates of ADLs among participants with MCI. Design Cross-sectional. Setting University medical setting. Participants Seventy-seven participants (NC: N = 39; MCI: N = 38), 60 to 90 years old (73.5 ± 6.6 years; 53% female). Measurements Neuropsychological and ADL measures. Methods Neuropsychological tests were administered to NC and MCI participants. Informants completed the Lawton and Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and Physical Self-Maintenance Scale, including instrumental (IADL) and basic ADL (BADL) scales, as well as the Functional Capacities for Activities of Daily Living (FC-ADL), an error-based ADL measure. Results No statistically or clinically significant between-group differences emerged for the BADL or IADL subscales. However, a robust difference was noted for the FC-ADL scale (MCI errors > NC errors; F(1,75) = 13.6, p <0.001; d = 0.84). Among MCI participants, correlations revealed that a measure of verbal learning was the only neuropsychological correlate of FC-ADL total score (r =-0.39, df = 36, p = 0.007). No neuropsychological measures were significantly associated with the IADL or BADL subscale score. Conclusion Traditional measures assessing global ADLs may not be sensitive to early functional changes related to MCI; however, error-based measures may capture the subtle evolving functional decline associated with MCI. Among MCI participants, early functional difficulties are associated with verbal learning performance, possibly secondary to the hallmark cognitive impairment associated with this cohort. PMID:18332397

  14. Measuring Disability: Application of the Rasch Model to Activities of Daily Living (ADL/IADL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, T. Joseph; DeChello, Laurie M.; Garcia, Ramon; Fifield, Judith; Rothfield, Naomi; Reisine, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Performed a comparative analysis of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) items administered to 4,430 older adults and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living administered to 605 people with rheumatoid arthritis scoring both with Likert and Rasch measurement models. Findings show the superiority of the Rasch approach over the Likert method. (SLD)

  15. The contact mechanics and occurrence of edge loading in modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement during daily activities.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of edge loading in hip joint replacement has been associated with many factors such as prosthetic design, component malposition and activities of daily living. The present study aimed to quantify the occurrence of edge loading/contact at the articulating surface and to evaluate the effect of cup angles and edge loading on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR) during different daily activities. A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing system. Different cup inclination and anteversion angles were modelled and six daily activities were considered. The results showed that edge loading was predicted during normal walking, ascending and descending stairs activities under steep cup inclination conditions (≥55°) while no edge loading was observed during standing up, sitting down and knee bending activities. The duration of edge loading increased with increased cup inclination angles and was affected by the cup anteversion angles. Edge loading caused elevated contact pressure at the articulating surface and substantially increased equivalent plastic strain of the polyethylene liner. The present study suggested that correct positioning the component to avoid edge loading that may occur during daily activities is important for MoP THR in clinical practice. PMID:27056255

  16. The 'Technology - Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire': a version with a technology-related subscale

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Neira, Carlos; López, Oscar L.; Riveros, Rodrigo; Nuñez-Huasaf, Javier; Flores, Patricia; Slachevsky, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background Information and communication technology (ICT) has become an increasingly important part of daily life. The ability to use technology is becoming essential for autonomous functioning in society. Current functional scales for patients with cognitive impairment do not evaluate the use of technology. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new version of the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (ADLQ) that incorporates an ICT subscale. Method A new technology-based subscale was incorporated into the Spanish Version of the ADLQ (SV-ADLQ), entitled The Technology Version of the ADLQ (T-ADLQ). The T-ADLQ was administered to 63 caregivers of dementia patients, 21 proxies of mild cognitive impairment patients and 44 proxies of normal elderly subjects (mean age of the sample ± SD: 73.5 ± 8.30). We analysed the convergent validity, internal consistency, reliability cut-off point, sensitivity and specificity of the T-ADLQ. The results of the T-ADLQ were compared to the SV-ADLQ. Results The T-ADLQ showed significant correlations with the Mini-mental Test (MMSE), the Frontal Assesment Battery (FAB) as well as other measures of functional impairment and dementia severity (MMSE: r = −0.70; FAB: r = −0.65; Functional Assessment Questionnaire: r = 0.77; Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale: r = −0.75; Clinical Dementia Rating Scale: r = 0.72; p<0.001). The T-ADLQ showed a good reliability with a relatively high Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.861). When considering a functional impairment cut-off point greater than 29.25%, the sensitivity and specificity of the T-ADLQ were 82% and 90%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.937 for the T-ADLQ and 0.932 for the original version of the test. Conclusions The T-ADLQ revealed adequate indicators of validity and reliability for the functional assessment of activities of daily living in dementia patients. However, the inclusion of technology items in

  17. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult life span. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by…

  18. Analysis of sitting forces on stationary chairs for daily activities.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lingling; Tackett, Bob; Tor, Onder; Zhang, Jilei

    2016-04-01

    No literature related to the study of sitting forces on chairs sat on by people who weighed over 136 kg was found. The Business Institutional Furniture Manufactures Association needs force data for development of performance test standards to test chairs for users who weigh up to 181 kg. 20 participants who weighed from 136 to 186 kg completed 6 tasks on an instrumented chair in the sequence of sitting down, remaining seated and rising. Effects of sitting motion, armrest use and seat cushion thickness on vertical sitting forces and centre-of-force were investigated. Results indicated hard sitting down yielded the highest sitting force of 213% in terms of participants' body weights. Armrest use affected sitting forces of normal sitting down, but not of rising and hard sitting down. Cushion thickness affected sitting forces of normal and hard sitting down and shifting, but not of rising, static seating or stretching backward situations. Practitioner Summary: Results of the sitting force and centre-of-force data obtained for this research can help furniture manufacturers develop new product performance test standards for creating reliable engineering design and manufacturing quality and durable products to meet a niche market need. PMID:26257071

  19. (Instrumental) Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Daily living skills are important to ageing adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of these skills in older adults with ID and to investigate the influence of gender, age, level of ID and mobility on these skills. Daily living skills were measured with the Barthel Index (for Activities of…

  20. Daily Variation in Adolescents' Sleep, Activities, and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuligni, Andrew J.; Hardway, Christina

    2006-01-01

    The daily diary method was used to examine the daily dynamics of adolescent sleep time, activities, and psychological well-being among an ethnically diverse sample of over 750 adolescents approximately 14-15 years of age. Studying and stressful demands during the day were modestly but consistently associated with less sleep that evening. Receiving…

  1. [Functional disability in activities of daily living and instrumental or domestic activities of daily living in the elderly living at home in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Berthé, Abdramane; Berthé-Sanou, Lalla; Konaté, Blahima; Hien, Hervé; Tou, Fatoumata; Somda, Serge; Bayala, Éric; Drabo, Maxime; Badini-Kinda, Fatoumata; Macq, Jean

    2015-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, various studies have been conducted on severe disability in activities of daily living, instrumental or domestic activities. These studies have reported different rates without describing the social context for understanding their results. This study was conducted in Burkina Faso to fill the gaps in scientific information on disability in these areas. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study in Bobo-Dioulasso among the older population, aged 60 and above. Their functional status was evaluated using the Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF). Data analysis was done with the help of Stata. A systematic random sample of 351 aging adults was interviewed. Moderate to severe functional disability or the need for supervision or assistance was present in 7% in activities of daily living and 86% in instrumental or domestic activities of daily living. This need for assistance varied according to the different activities or items in each domain. The proportions of disability found in this study are higher than those of previous studies that measured the often severe disabilities. All persons with disability claimed to have stable human resources which help them to manage their disabilities. The social context instrumental or domestic activities of daily living are divided by generation and/or by sex. That explains some results. With this division, it's inacceptable in some family that elders and/or old men do instrumental or domestic activities of daily living as prepare meals, do laundry, carry water to wash. The variation of this division from one family to another complicates the assessment of functional disability. To best manage elders disabilities, strategies must develop to: 1) retard the resignation of the family in care of its elderly in functional disability, 2) anticipate the preparation of formal social networks, public structures to support the elderly. PMID:26707555

  2. Serum steroid concentrations remain within normal postmenopausal values in women receiving daily 6.5mg intravaginal prasterone for 12weeks.

    PubMed

    Martel, Céline; Labrie, Fernand; Archer, David F; Ke, Yuyong; Gonthier, Renaud; Simard, Jean-Nicolas; Lavoie, Lyne; Vaillancourt, Mario; Montesino, Marlene; Balser, John; Moyneur, Érick

    2016-05-01

    This study integrates all data obtained in women aged 40-80years enrolled with moderate to severe symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) who received daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% (6.5mg) dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA; prasterone) for 12weeks (n=723; ITT-S population) as compared with placebo (n=266; ITT-S population). To this end, serum steroid levels (DHEA, DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S), androst-5-ene-3β, 17β-diol (5-diol), testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione (4-dione), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estrone sulfate (E1-S), androsterone glucuronide (ADT-G), and androstane-3α, 17β-diol 17-glucuronide (3α-diol-17G)) were measured at Day 1 and Week 12 by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) following validation performed according to the FDA guidelines [1-6]. In agreement with the mechanisms of intracrinology where DHEA is exclusively transformed intracellularly into active sex steroids which act and are inactivated locally before being released as glucuronided or sulfated metabolites for elimination by the kidneys and liver, all sex steroids remained well within normal postmenopausal values following administration of intravaginal DHEA. Serum estradiol, the most relevant sex steroid, was measured after 12weeks of treatment at 3.36pg/ml (cITT-S population) or 19% below the normal postmenopausal value of 4.17pg/ml. On the other hand, serum E1-S, the best recognized marker of global estrogenic activity, shows an average value of 209pg/ml at 12 weeks compared to 220pg/ml in normal postmenopausal women. Moreover, serum ADT-G, the main metabolite of androgens, also remains well within normal postmenopausal values. The present data shows that a low daily intravaginal dose (6.5mg) of DHEA (prasterone) which is efficacious on the symptoms and signs of VVA, permits to achieve the desired local efficacy without systemic exposure, in agreement with the stringent mechanisms of menopause established after 500 million years of

  3. A survey of daily asthmatic activity patterns in Cincinnati

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    A survey was undertaken in Cincinnati to obtain information on the activity patterns of asthmatics. Because studies have demonstrated symptomatic responses to elevated levels of SO[sub 2] only during outdoor exercise, information on the behavioral patterns of asthmatics is vital for the accurate estimation of risk due to air pollution exposures. In particular, data detailing the actual likelihood of asthmatics being engaged in strenuous outdoor activity at any given time of day is essential for an accurate appraisal of response probability. This, in turn, is necessary for an accurate estimate of risk. In the absence of such activity data, those concerned with the setting of short-term SO[sub 2] regulations are required to use purely subjective judgment to estimate how many asthmatics are engaged in strenuous outdoor exercise when SO[sub 2] levels are high enough to affect them. The activity pattern data give an indication of how much such an assumption would overestimate the true response and thus the true risk associated with SO[sub 2]. Lack of information on the activity patterns of asthmatics has thus been a critical gap in the SO[sub 2] risk assessment process. The primary purpose of this survey was to fill that gap.

  4. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  5. Does Improving Exercise Capacity and Daily Activity Represent the Holistic Perspective of a New COPD Approach?

    PubMed

    Di Marco, Fabiano; Santus, Pierachille; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Blasi, Francesco; Centanni, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In COPD patients a reduced daily activity has been well documented, resulting from both respiratory and non-respiratory manifestations of the disease. An evaluation by multisensory armband has confirmed that daily physical activity is mainly associated with dynamic hyperinflation, regardless of COPD severity. This aspect is crucial, since exercise capacity is closely correlated to life expectancy. Notwithstanding the causal key role of lung impairment in the patient's symptoms, some authors have suggested that other factors, such as systemic inflammation and co-morbidities, have an important role, particularly as mortality risk factors. Many studies suggest the efficacy of bronchodilators and rehabilitation in improving exercise capacity, and, speaking in terms of daily life, in increasing the number of days in which patients are able to perform their usual activities. On this evidence, the first aim in the management of COPD should be to improve exercise capacity and daily activity since these outcomes have direct effects on patients' quality of life, co-morbidities (heart and metabolic diseases), and prognosis. Thus, improving physical activity represents a modern approach aimed at dealing with both pulmonary and systemic manifestations of the disease. It is however worth of notice to remember that in patients affected by COPD the relationship between the improvement of "potential" exercise capacity and daily physical activity has been found to be only moderate to weak. Obtaining a significant behavior modification with regard to daily physical activity, together with the optimization of therapy thus represents currently the true challenge. PMID:26457460

  6. Influence of mental practice on upper limb muscle activity and activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, JuHyung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of mental practice on muscle activity of the upper extremity and performance of daily activities in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] In this research, mental practice was conducted by 2 chronic hemiplegic stroke patients. Mental practice was conducted 30 minutes a day, 5 times a week, for 2 weeks. Evaluation was conducted 4 times before and after intervention. Muscle activity was measured using a surface electromyogram test, and the Modified Barthel Index was used to measure changes in the ability to carry out daily activities. [Results] Both the muscle activity of the upper extremity and capability to perform daily activities showed improved outcomes after mental practice was conducted. [Conclusion] Through this research, mental practice was proven to be effective in improving the muscle activity of upper extremity and capability to perform daily activities in chronic hemiplegic stroke patients. PMID:27134412

  7. Sensitivity of Daily Doses of Biologically Active Radiation, To Ozone Changes In Southern French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Casinière, A.; Touré, M. L.; Masserot, D.; Lenoble, J.; Cabot, T.; Pinedo Vega, J. L.

    Global UV irradiance spectra we re recorded each half an hour between sunrise and sunset, along the year 2000 in Briançon (1300m asl) at the CEMBREU (Centre Européen Médical Bioclimatique de Recherche et d'Enseignement Universitaire), a site of the French spectral UV network in Southern Alps. From these spectra are retrieved atmospheric transmissivities corresponding to daily doses of various biologically active radiation. A transmissivity is defined as the ratio of the ground level value of a daily dose to the extra -atmospheric value of this daily dose. The daily doses studied relate to UVB, erythema, DNA damage, and plant damage. Multiple linear correlations of the various transmissivities with the three predictors (daily sunshine fraction), µmin (cosine of the daily minimum SZA), and (daily total ozone column) assumed to be independent variables, are done for year 2000. These correlations permit to assess the mean sensitivities of the various transmissivities, to changes in for different cloud cover conditions in Briançon. The variations of each sensitivity is studied as a function of , µmin and . Comparing the results obtained with those given in the literature, we find for = 1 (that is for a strong probability of clear sky conditions) and SZA min = 45°, a radiation amplification factor (RAF) of the erythemal daily dose equal to 1.1 when = 285 DU, and to 1.4 when = 315 DU.

  8. Energy Expended by Adults with and without Intellectual Disabilities during Activities of Daily Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lante, Kerrie; Reece, John; Walkley, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the energy expenditure of adults with and without intellectual disabilities during common activities of daily living (ADL), (2) use these values to evaluate the accuracy of equivalent activity values reported in the Compendium of Physical Activities (CPA), and (3) identify ADL that may confer a health…

  9. Influence of peripheral arterial disease on daily living activities in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Franco, Fábio Gazelato de Mello; de Mattos, Luciana Diniz Nagem Janot; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Wolosker, Nelson; Nasri, Fábio; Costa, Maria Luiza Monteiro; de Carvalho, José Antônio Maluf

    2016-06-01

    Aging has been associated with decreases in physical and cognitive functions. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) has been associated with further impairments in these functions, especially in women. However, no detailed information is available indicating whether PAD leads to further impairment in these functions in elderly women. Thus, the aims of this study were 1) to compare the capacity to perform daily living activities between elderly women with and without PAD and 2) to identify the factors related with the performance in daily activities. Twenty-seven elderly women with PAD and 22 elderly non-PAD women were surveyed in a geriatric hospital. Women aged ≥65 years and with no signal of dementia were included. PAD was identified by the ankle-brachial index ≤0.90, whereas elderly non-PAD women presented ankle-brachial index >1.0. Patients were interviewed to obtain information regarding basic (Katz questionnaire) and instrumental daily living activities (Lawton-Brody scale) and performed the mini-mental state examination, handgrip strength test, and timed up and go tests. PAD and non-PAD women had similar age, clinical characteristics, handgrip strength test, and cognitive function (P > 0.05). The capacity to perform basic and instrumental daily living activities was similar between PAD and non-PAD women (P > 0.05). In PAD and non-PAD, the instrumental daily living activities were significantly correlated with cognitive function (r = 0.44, P < 0.05 and r = 0.74 and P < 0.05, respectively). PAD elderly women present similar capacity to perform basic and instrumental daily activities than non-PAD women. In addition, in both groups, the capacity to perform instrumental daily activities was related with cognitive function. PMID:27210449

  10. The Relationship between Activities of Daily Living and Life Satisfaction in the Elderly: Active Engagement as Compared to Passive Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannuzzelli, Jena; England, Eileen M.

    Daily activities and social contact were studied as influences on the life satisfaction of elderly people. It was considered that all activities might not be equal and that individuals who participate in more active activities and who have more active social contacts would score higher in life satisfaction than those who engage in inactive…

  11. Daily Activities

    MedlinePlus

    ... members who have small children, walk in the park or around schoolyards, go to school events, talk ... becoming too long. Go to a favorite restaurant, park, shopping mall, or museum. The Alzheimer’s Disease Education ...

  12. The Daily Lives of Adolescents with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: Discretionary Time Use and Activity Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Kuo, Hsin-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the daily lives, particularly discretionary time, of adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We describe the activities and activity partners of adolescents, the factors associated with their discretionary time use, and the impact of time use on their autism symptoms. Mothers of 103 adolescents with an ASD completed…

  13. Daily Physical Activity for Children and Youth: A Review and Synthesis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    A Daily Physical Activity (DPA) Initiative was implemented in all schools in Alberta starting in September 2005. The expected outcome of the DPA Initiative is to increase the activity levels and healthy habits of students and, in part, address related issues such as chronic disease. As part of the first tier of the DPA Initiative evaluation study,…

  14. The Status of Daily Physical Activity in Northern Ontario's Elementary Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickwood, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The importance of daily physical activity (DPA) for children and youth is highlighted in Canada's Active Healthy Kids annual report on fitness. Since 2005, this report has revealed that elementary-aged students are spending most of their waking hours stationary, in front of screens (phones, televisions, computers). To counteract this trend, the…

  15. Gender Differences in the Daily Physical Activities of Danish School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Glen; Pfister, Gertrud; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the daily physical activities of Danish children with a focus on describing and explaining gender differences. Accelerometer measurements of physical activity in different contexts, as well as questionnaire data, were collected from more than 500 children at pre-school and later at third grade. The study…

  16. Daily activity level buffers stress-glycemia associations in older sedentary NIDDM patients.

    PubMed

    Aikens, K S; Aikens, J E; Wallander, J L; Hunt, S

    1997-08-01

    Examined glycemic associations with medical variables, activity, daily stress, and mood state in 72 older patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). On three occasions over a 2-week observation period, subjects provided measures of everyday life stress, negative mood state, and daily activities. At the end of this period, fructosamine was assayed to measure glycemic control throughout the assessment period. After controlling for medical variables (age, illness duration, body mass index, caloric intake, and activity) and the main effects of psychological factors (stress; anxious, angry, and depressed mood states), stress interacted with activity such that glycemic elevation was positively associated with stress for subjects below the activity median but not for those above the median. This was unattributable to any overall activity-related differences in fructosamine, stress, or mood. None of the mood states interacted with activity. The findings suggest that extremely low levels of activity may strengthen life stress-glycemia associations in NIDDM. PMID:9298436

  17. A daily process analysis of intentions and physical activity in college students.

    PubMed

    Conroy, David E; Elavsky, Steriani; Doerksen, Shawna E; Maher, Jaclyn P

    2013-10-01

    Social-cognitive theories, such as the theory of planned behavior, posit intentions as proximal influences on physical activity (PA). This paper extends those theories by examining within-person variation in intentions and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as a function of the unfolding constraints in people's daily lives (e.g., perceived time availability, fatigue, soreness, weather, overeating). College students (N = 63) completed a 14-day diary study over the Internet that rated daily motivation, contextual constraints, and MVPA. Key findings from multilevel analyses were that (1) between-person differences represented 46% and 33% of the variability in daily MVPA intentions and behavior, respectively; (2) attitudes, injunctive norms, self-efficacy, perceptions of limited time availability, and weekend status predicted daily changes in intention strength; and (3) daily changes in intentions, perceptions of limited time availability, and weekend status predicted day-to-day changes in MVPA. Embedding future motivation and PA research in the context of people's daily lives will advance understanding of individual PA change processes. PMID:24197717

  18. Optogenetic activation of normalization in alert macaque visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Nassi, Jonathan J.; Avery, Michael C.; Cetin, Ali H.; Roe, Anna W.; Reynolds, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Normalization has been proposed as a canonical computation that accounts for a variety of nonlinear neuronal response properties associated with sensory processing and higher cognitive functions. A key premise of normalization is that the excitability of a neuron is inversely proportional to the overall activity level of the network. We tested this by optogenetically activating excitatory neurons in alert macaque primary visual cortex and measuring changes in neuronal activity as a function of stimulation intensity, with or without variable-contrast visual stimulation. Optogenetic depolarization of excitatory neurons either facilitated or suppressed baseline activity, consistent with indirect recruitment of inhibitory networks. As predicted by the normalization model, neurons exhibited sub-additive responses to optogenetic and visual stimulation, which depended lawfully on stimulation intensity and luminance contrast. We conclude that the normalization computation persists even under the artificial conditions of optogenetic stimulation, underscoring the canonical nature of this form of neural computation. PMID:26087167

  19. Client-centered home modifications improve daily activity performance of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Susan; Landsbaum, Amanda; Palmer, Janice; Somerville, Emily K.; Morris, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Remaining at home is a high priority for many older adults, but the capacity to “age in place” often is threatened by environmental barriers. Purpose To describe a client-centered occupational therapy, home modification intervention program and examine the impact of the intervention on daily activity performance over time. Methods Using a competence-environmental press framework, a client-centered home modification program for older adults was implemented. In this quasi-experimental, single group prospective study, participants’ subjective ratings of daily activity performance were evaluated before and after the intervention (baseline/post/post). Findings After home modification, participants’ perception of their daily activity performance at home improved significantly and was maintained 2 years post-modification. Implications Home modification may benefit older adults attempting to age in place. PMID:19757729

  20. Daily heat stress treatment rescues denervation-activated mitochondrial clearance and atrophy in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Yuki; Kitaoka, Yu; Matsunaga, Yutaka; Hoshino, Daisuke; Hatta, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic nerve injury or motor neuron disease leads to denervation and severe muscle atrophy. Recent evidence indicates that loss of mitochondria and the related reduction in oxidative capacity could be key mediators of skeletal muscle atrophy. As our previous study showed that heat stress increased the numbers of mitochondria in skeletal muscle, we evaluated whether heat stress treatment could have a beneficial impact on denervation-induced loss of mitochondria and subsequent muscle atrophy. Here, we report that daily heat stress treatment (mice placed in a chamber with a hot environment; 40°C, 30 min day−1, for 7 days) rescues the following parameters: (i) muscle atrophy (decreased gastrocnemius muscle mass); (ii) loss of mitochondrial content (decreased levels of ubiquinol–cytochrome c reductase core protein II, cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and IV and voltage-dependent anion channel protein); and (iii) reduction in oxidative capacity (reduced maximal activities of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) in denervated muscle (produced by unilateral sciatic nerve transection). In order to gain a better understanding of the above mitochondrial adaptations, we also examined the effects of heat stress on autophagy-dependent mitochondrial clearance (mitophagy). Daily heat stress normalized denervation-activated induction of mitophagy (increased mitochondrial microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain3-II (LC3-II) with and without blocker of autophagosome clearance). The molecular basis of this observation was explained by the results that heat stress attenuated the denervation-induced increase in key proteins that regulate the following steps: (i) the tagging step of mitochondrial clearance (increased mitochondrial Parkin, ubiquitin-conjugated, P62/sequestosome 1 (P62/SQSTM1)); and (ii) the elongation step of autophagosome formation (increased Atg5–Atg12 conjugate and Atg16L). Overall, our results contribute to the better

  1. Low-intensity daily walking activity is associated with hippocampal volume in older adults.

    PubMed

    Varma, Vijay R; Chuang, Yi-Fang; Harris, Gregory C; Tan, Erwin J; Carlson, Michelle C

    2015-05-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is associated with memory impairment and dementia and serves as a key biomarker in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. Physical activity, one of the most promising behavioral interventions to prevent or delay cognitive decline, has been shown to be associated with hippocampal volume; specifically increased aerobic activity and fitness may have a positive effect on the size of the hippocampus. The majority of older adults, however, are sedentary and have difficulty initiating and maintaining exercise programs. A modestly more active lifestyle may nonetheless be beneficial. This study explored whether greater objectively measured daily walking activity was associated with larger hippocampal volume. We additionally explored whether greater low-intensity walking activity, which may be related to leisure-time physical, functional, and social activities, was associated with larger hippocampal volume independent of exercise and higher-intensity walking activity. Segmentation of hippocampal volumes was performed using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain's Software Library (FSL), and daily walking activity was assessed using a step activity monitor on 92, nondemented, older adult participants. After controlling for age, education, body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the Mini Mental State Exam, we found that a greater amount, duration, and frequency of total daily walking activity were each associated with larger hippocampal volume among older women, but not among men. These relationships were specific to hippocampal volume, compared with the thalamus, used as a control brain region, and remained significant for low-intensity walking activity, independent of moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity and self-reported exercise. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to explore the relationship between objectively measured daily walking activity and hippocampal volume in an older adult population. Findings

  2. Self-Selected Walking Speed is Predictive of Daily Ambulatory Activity in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Addie; Fulk, George D; Beets, Michael W; Herter, Troy M; Fritz, Stacy L

    2016-04-01

    Daily ambulatory activity is associated with health and functional status in older adults; however, assessment requires multiple days of activity monitoring. The objective of this study was to determine the relative capabilities of self-selected walking speed (SSWS), maximal walking speed (MWS), and walking speed reserve (WSR) to provide insight into daily ambulatory activity (steps per day) in community-dwelling older adults. Sixty-seven older adults completed testing and activity monitoring (age 80.39 [6.73] years). SSWS (R2 = .51), MWS (R2 = .35), and WSR calculated as a ratio (R2 = .06) were significant predictors of daily ambulatory activity in unadjusted linear regression. Cutpoints for participants achieving < 8,000 steps/day were identified for SSWS (≤ 0.97 m/s, 44.2% sensitivity, 95.7% specificity, 10.28 +LR, 0.58 -LR) and MWS (≤ 1.39 m/s, 60.5% sensitivity, 78.3% specificity, 2.79 +LR, 0.50 -LR). SSWS may be a feasible proxy for assessing and monitoring daily ambulatory activity in older adults. PMID:26371593

  3. The contributing role of physical education in youth’s daily physical activity and sedentary behavior

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background School physical education (PE) is considered as an effective channel for youth to accumulate moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and reduce sedentary time. The purpose of this study was to determine the contributing role of PE in daily MVPA and sedentary time among youth. Methods The study recruited 67 sixth grade children (29 boys; Mean age = 11.75) from two suburban schools at a U.S. Midwest state, 48 of whom contributed ≥10 hours of physical activity (PA) data per day were included for analysis. An objective monitoring tool (i.e., Sensewear armband monitor) was used to capture the participants’ MVPA and sedentary time for 7–14 days. Pearson product–moment correlation analysis (r), multi-level regression analyses, and analysis of variance were conducted for data analysis. Results MVPA and sedentary time in PE showed significant positive associations with daily MVPA and sedentary time, respectively (r = 0.35, p < 0.01; r = 0.55, p < 0.01). Regression analyses revealed that one minute increase in MVPA and sedentary behavior in PE was associated with 2.04 minutes and 5.30 minutes increases in daily MVPA and sedentary behavior, respectively, after controlling for sex and BMI. The participants demonstrated a significantly higher level of MVPA (p = .05) but similar sedentary time (p = 0.61) on PE days than on non-PE days. Boys had significantly more daily MVPA (p < .01) and less sedentary time (p < .01) than girls; while higher BMI was associated with more sedentary time (p < .01). Conclusions PE displayed a positive contribution to increasing daily MVPA and decreasing daily sedentary time among youth. Active participation in PE classes increases the chance to be more active and less sedentary beyond PE among youth. PMID:24495714

  4. African American women's experiences with physical activity in their daily lives.

    PubMed

    Nies, M A; Vollman, M; Cook, T

    1999-02-01

    Sedentary behavior is a major public health problem for African American women. A qualitative study used focus groups to explore African American women's experiences with physical activity in their daily lives. Women aged 35-50 were recruited to participate in the focus groups. Transcripts from the focus groups were coded and analyzed. African American women's facilitators of physical activity were daily routine, practical and convenient activities, personal safety, child care, weight loss, stress reduction, knowledge and commitment, enjoyment, pets, family and peer support, home and work facilities, and daylight and climate conditions. Barriers to physical activity were lack of child care, no person to exercise with, competing responsibilities, lack of space in the home, inability to use exercise facilities at work, lack of motivation, fatigue, and unsafe neighborhood. This information will provide the basis for generating new strategies to increase physical activity for African American women in the community. PMID:10074819

  5. Factors in Daily Physical Activity Related to Calcaneal Mineral Density in Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, Teresa M.; Whalen, Robert T.; Cleek, Tammy M.; Vogel, John M.; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the factors in daily physical activity that influence the mineral density of the calcaneus, we recorded walking steps and the type and duration of exercise in 43 healthy 26-to 51-yr-old men. Areal (g/sq cm) calcaneal bone mineral density (CBMD) was measured by single energy x-ray densitometry. Subjects walked a mean (+/- SD) of 7902(+/-2534) steps per day or approximately 3.9(+/-1.2) miles daily. Eight subjects reported no exercise activities. The remaining 35 subjects spent 143(2-772) (median and range) min/wk exercising. Twenty-eight men engaged in exercise activities that generate single leg peak vertical ground reaction forces (GRF(sub z)) of 2 or more body weights (high loaders, HL), and 15 reported exercise or daily activities that typically generate GRF(sub z) less than 1.5 body weights (low loaders, LL). CBMD was 12% higher in HL than LL (0.668 +/- 0.074 g/sq cm vs 0.597 +/- 0.062 g/sq cm, P less than 0.004). In the HL group, CBMD correlated to reported minutes of high load exercise (r = 0.41, P less than 0.03). CBMD was not related to the number of daily walking steps (N = 43, r = 0.03, NS). The results of this study support the concept that the dominant factor in daily physical activity relating to bone mineral density is the participation in site specific high loading activities, i.e., for the calcaneus, high calcaneal loads.

  6. Strategies of Daily Living Rehabilitative Activities for Post Stroke Patients at Minia University Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaky, Hend Elham Mohamed; EL-Lateef Mohammad, Zienab Abd; EL-Labban, Abdou Saad Taha; Ahmed, Gahen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stroke is a leading cause of disability. Rehabilitation aims to hasten and maximize recovery from stroke by treating the disabilities caused by the stroke. Therefore, the aim of this study determine the post stroke patients' knowledge and practices in relation to disease and activities of daily living before the implementation of…

  7. Seasonal and Daily Variation in Physical Activity among Three-Year-Old Finnish Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soini, Anne; Tammelin, Tuija; Sääkslahti, Arja; Watt, Anthony; Villberg, Jari; Kettunen, Tarja; Mehtälä, Anette; Poskiparta, Marita

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess seasonal, daily, and gender variations in children's physical activity (PA). ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers were used to record the three-year-old children's PA levels for five consecutive days in autumn and winter. Complete data for both seasons were obtained for 47 children. Despite a…

  8. Who Will Present It during the Broadcast? A Case Study at a Daily Activity Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichenberg, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The present study is an investigation of a daily activity centre (DA). The overall aim was to build a grounded theory that could explain why this particular DA deviated from the norms of Swedish group homes and DAs described in previous studies. These studies have suggested that the staff stuck to old routines, such as letting the participants…

  9. Social Networks and Daily Activities of Street Youth in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Regina; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Studied the social networks and daily activities of children and adolescents living or working on the streets of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Found that youngsters who lived at home and worked on the street appeared to be experiencing orderly development despite their impoverished circumstances. Youngsters who lived on the streets, however, showed…

  10. Evaluation of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Greek Patients with Advanced Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Panagiotoua, Irene; Roumeliotou, Anna; Symeonidi, Matina; Galanos, Antonis; Kouvaris, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Translation of the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was carried out and its psychometric properties were assessed in a Greek sample of patients with advanced cancer. The scale was translated with the forward-backward procedure into the Greek language. It was initially administered to 136 advanced cancer patients. To assess…

  11. Optimal Normal Tissue Sparing in Craniospinal Axis Irradiation Using IMRT With Daily Intrafractionally Modulated Junction(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Kusters, Johannes M.A.M.; Louwe, Rob J.W.; Kollenburg, Peter G.M. van; Kunze-Busch, Martina C.; Gidding, Corrie E.M.; Lindert, Erik J. van; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Janssens, Geert O.R.J.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To develop a treatment technique for craniospinal irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with improved dose homogeneity at the field junction(s), increased target volume conformity, and minimized dose to the organs at risk (OARs). Methods and Materials: Five patients with high-risk medulloblastoma underwent CT simulation in supine position. For each patient, an IMRT plan with daily intrafractionally modulated junction(s) was generated, as well as a treatment plan based on conventional three-dimensional planning (3DCRT). A dose of 39.6 Gy in 22 daily fractions of 1.8 Gy was prescribed. Dose-volume parameters for target volumes and OARs were compared for the two techniques. Results: The maximum dose with IMRT was <107% in all patients. V{sub <95} and V{sub >107} were <1 cm{sup 3} for IMRT compared with 3-9 cm{sup 3} for the craniospinal and 26-43 cm{sup 3} for the spinal-spinal junction with 3DCRT. These observations corresponded with a lower homogeneity index and a higher conformity index for the spinal planning target volume with IMRT. IMRT provided considerable sparing of acute and late reacting tissues. V{sub 75} for the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction, and intestine was 81%, 81%, and 22% with 3DCRT versus 5%, 0%, and 1% with IMRT, respectively. V{sub 75} for the heart and thyroid was 42% and 32% vs. 0% with IMRT. Conclusion: IMRT with daily intrafractionally modulated junction results in a superior target coverage and junction homogeneity compared with 3DCRT. A significant dose reduction can be obtained for acute as well as late-reacting tissues.

  12. Disability in instrumental activities of daily living among older adults: gender differences

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Tiago da Silva; Corona, Ligiana Pires; Nunes, Daniella Pires; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze gender differences in the incidence and determinants of disability regarding instrumental activities of daily living among older adults. METHODS The data were extracted from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Wellbeing and Ageing) study. In 2000, 1,034 older adults without difficulty in regarding instrumental activities of daily living were selected. The following characteristics were evaluated at the baseline: sociodemographic and behavioral variables, health status, falls, fractures, hospitalizations, depressive symptoms, cognition, strength, mobility, balance and perception of vision and hearing. Instrumental activities of daily living such as shopping and managing own money and medication, using transportation and using the telephone were reassessed in 2006, with incident cases of disability considered as the outcome. RESULTS The incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living was 44.7/1,000 person/years for women and 25.2/1,000 person/years for men. The incidence rate ratio between women and men was 1.77 (95%CI 1.75;1.80). After controlling for socioeconomic status and clinical conditions, the incidence rate ratio was 1.81 (95%CI 1.77;1.84), demonstrating that women with chronic disease and greater social vulnerability have a greater incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living. The following were determinants of the incidence of disability: age ≥ 80 and worse perception of hearing in both genders; stroke in men; and being aged 70 to 79 in women. Better cognitive performance was a protective factor in both genders and better balance was a protective factor in women. CONCLUSIONS The higher incidence density of disability in older women remained even after controlling for adverse social and clinical conditions. In addition to age, poorer cognitive performance and conditions that adversely affect communication disable both genders. Acute events, such as a stroke

  13. Persons with mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease managing daily activities via verbal instruction technology.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; La Martire, Maria L; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Pinto, Katia; Minervini, Mauro G

    Four studies assessed the effectiveness of verbal instructions presented via technology in helping persons with mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease perform daily activities. The first 2 studies were replication efforts concerning morning bathroom routine and table setting and included 4 and 2 participants, respectively. The third study targeted coffee preparation with 3 participants. The fourth study assessed maintenance and generalization of morning bathroom routine and dressing with 1 participant. Nonconcurrent multiple baseline designs served for the first 3 studies and a 5-month postintervention data collection for the fourth study. Verbal instructions for the activity steps presented via technology were effective in helping the participants of the first 3 studies reacquire basic daily activities and the participant of the fourth study retain the reacquired activities across time and settings. These results suggest that the approach reported may be a useful strategy for helping persons with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19106276

  14. Detection of Early Morning Daily Activities with Static Home and Wearable Wireless Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, Nuri Firat; Min, Cheol-Hong; Tewfik, Ahmed; Vanderpool, David

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes a flexible, cost-effective, wireless in-home activity monitoring system for assisting patients with cognitive impairments due to traumatic brain injury (TBI). The system locates the subject with fixed home sensors and classifies early morning bathroom activities of daily living with a wearable wireless accelerometer. The system extracts time- and frequency-domain features from the accelerometer data and classifies these features with a hybrid classifier that combines Gaussian mixture models and a finite state machine. In particular, the paper establishes that despite similarities between early morning bathroom activities of daily living, it is possible to detect and classify these activities with high accuracy. It also discusses system training and provides data to show that with proper feature selection, accurate detection and classification are possible for any subject with no subject specific training.

  15. Momentary Affective States Are Associated with Momentary Volume, Prospective Trends, and Fluctuation of Daily Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kanning, Martina K.; Schoebi, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Several interventions aiming to enhance physical activity in everyday life showed mixed effects. Affective constructs are thought to potentially support health behavior change. However, little is known about within-subject associations between momentary affect and subsequent physical activity in everyday life. This study analyzed the extent to which three dimensions of affective states (valence, calmness, and energetic arousal) were associated with different components of daily activity trajectories. Sixty-five undergraduates’ students (Age: M = 24.6; SD = 3.2; females: 57%) participated in this study. Physical activity was assessed objectively through accelerometers during 24 h. Affective states assessments were conducted randomly every 45 min using an e-diary with a six-item mood scale that was especially designed for ambulatory assessment. We conducted three-level multi-level analyses to investigate the extent to which momentary affect accounted for momentary volume, prospective trends, and stability vs. fluctuation of physical activity in everyday life. All three affect dimensions were significantly associated with momentary activity volumes and prospective trends over 45 min periods. Physical activity didn’t fluctuate freely, but featured significant autocorrelation across repeated measurements, suggesting some stability of physical activity across 5-min assessments. After adjusting for the autoregressive structure in physical activity assessments, only energetic arousal remained a significant predictor. Feeling energized and awake was associated with an increased momentary volume of activity and initially smaller but gradually growing decreases in subsequent activity within the subsequent 45 min. Although not related to trends in physical activity, higher valence predicted lower stability in physical activity across subsequent 45 min, suggesting more short-term fluctuations in daily activity the more participants reported positive affective valence. The

  16. Daily testosterone and gonadotropin levels are similar in azoospermic and nonazoospermic normal men administered weekly testosterone: implications for male contraceptive development.

    PubMed

    Amory, J K; Anawalt, B D; Bremner, W J; Matsumoto, A M

    2001-01-01

    Weekly intramuscular administration of testosterone esters such as testosterone enanthate (TE) suppresses gonadotropins and spermatogenesis and has been studied as a male contraceptive. For unknown reasons, however, some men fail to achieve azoospermia with such regimens. We hypothesized that either 1) daily circulating serum fluoroimmunoreactive gonadotropins were higher or testosterone levels were lower during the weekly injection interval, or 2) monthly circulating bioactive gonadotropin levels were higher in nonazoospermic men. We therefore analyzed daily testosterone and fluoroimmunoreactive gonadotropin levels as well as pooled monthly bioactive and fluoroimmunoreactive gonadotropin levels in normal men receiving chronic TE injections and correlated these levels with sperm production. After a 3-month control period, 51 normal men were randomly assigned to receive intramuscular TE at 25 mg (n = 10), 50 mg (n = 9), 100 mg (n = 10), 300 mg (n = 10), or placebo (n = 12) weekly for 6 months. After 5 months of testosterone administration, morning testosterone and fluoroimmunoreactive follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were measured daily for a 1-week period between TE injections. In addition, fluoroimmunoreactive and bioactive FSH and LH levels were measured in pooled monthly blood samples drawn just before the next TE injection. In the 100-mg and 300-mg TE groups, mean monthly fluoroimmunoreactive FSH and LH levels were suppressed by 86%-97%, bioactive FSH and LH levels by 62%-80%, and roughly half the subjects became azoospermic. In the 1-week period of month 6, daily testosterone levels between TE injections were within the normal range in men receiving placebo, or 25 or 50 mg of weekly TE, but were significantly elevated in men receiving 100 or 300 mg of weekly TE. At no point during treatment, however, were there significant differences in daily testosterone or fluoroimmunoreactive gonadotropin levels, or monthly bioactive

  17. Realtime recognition of complex human daily activities using human motion and location data.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chun; Sheng, Weihua

    2012-09-01

    Daily activity recognition is very useful in robot-assisted living systems. In this paper, we proposed a method to recognize complex human daily activities which consist of simultaneous body activities and hand gestures in an indoor environment. A wireless power-aware motion sensor node is developed which consists of a commercial orientation sensor, a wireless communication module, and a power management unit. To recognize complex daily activities, three motion sensor nodes are attached to the right thigh, the waist, and the right hand of a human subject, while an optical motion capture system is used to obtain his/her location information. A three-level dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) is implemented to model the intratemporal and intertemporal constraints among the location, body activity, and hand gesture. The body activity and hand gesture are estimated using a Bayesian filter and a short-time Viterbi algorithm, which reduces the computational complexity and memory usage. We conducted experiments in a mock apartment environment and the obtained results showed the effectiveness and accuracy of our method. PMID:22434793

  18. A Daily Process Analysis of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Perceived Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Patrick T.; Maher, Jaclyn P.; Doerksen, Shawna E.; Elavsky, Steriani; Rebar, Amanda L.; Conroy, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the role of both physical activity and sedentary behavior in daily perceptions of cognitive abilities and whether these relations exist within-person, between-person, or both. Design Non-experimental, intensive longitudinal research using ecological momentary assessments. Method College students wore accelerometers and provided end-of-day reports on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and perceived cognitive abilities for 14 days. Results Across self-reports and objective measures of behavior, daily deviations in physical activity were positively associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Daily deviations in self-reported, but not objectively-assessed, sedentary behavior also were negatively associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Contrary to previous research, overall levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviors were not associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Conclusions These findings indicate that physical activity has a within- rather than between-person association with perceived cognitive abilities although between-person associations effects may require longer monitoring periods to manifest. Further research is needed to establish the direction of causality and resolve whether the nature (rather than quantity) of sedentary activities influences cognition. PMID:25419176

  19. Daily activity during stability and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During most COPD exacerbations, patients continue to live in the community but there is little information on changes in activity during exacerbations due to the difficulties of obtaining recent, prospective baseline data. Methods Patients recorded on daily diary cards any worsening in respiratory symptoms, peak expiratory flow (PEF) and the number of steps taken per day measured with a Yamax Digi-walker pedometer. Exacerbations were defined by increased respiratory symptoms and the number of exacerbations experienced in the 12 months preceding the recording of daily step count used to divide patients into frequent (> = 2/year) or infrequent exacerbators. Results The 73 COPD patients (88% male) had a mean (±SD) age 71(±8) years and FEV1 53(±16)% predicted. They recorded pedometer data on a median 198 days (IQR 134–353). At exacerbation onset, symptom count rose by 1.9(±1.3) and PEF fell by 7(±13) l/min. Mean daily step count fell from 4154(±2586) steps/day during a preceding baseline week to 3673(±2258) step/day during the initial 7 days of exacerbation (p = 0.045). Patients with larger falls in activity at exacerbation took longer to recover to stable level (rho = −0.56; p < 0.001). Recovery in daily step count was faster (median 3.5 days) than for exacerbation symptoms (median 11 days; p < 0.001). Recovery in step count was also faster in untreated compared to treated exacerbation (p = 0.030). Daily step count fell faster over time in the 40 frequent exacerbators, by 708 steps/year, compared to 338 steps/year in 33 infrequent exacerbators (p = 0.002). Conclusions COPD exacerbations reduced physical activity and frequent exacerbations accelerate decline in activity over time. PMID:24885188

  20. Metabolic Cost of Daily Activities and Effect of Mobility Impairment in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Knaggs, Jeffrey D; Larkin, Kelly A; Manini, Todd M

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES There is a shortage of information on metabolic costs of daily physical activities in older adults and the effect of having mobility impairments. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate metabolic equivalent (MET) values on common daily tasks in men and women aged > 70 years compared to normative criteria. A secondary purpose was to determine the effect of having mobility impairments. DESIGN Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING University based research clinic PARTICIPANTS Forty-five participants aged 70 to 90 years of age (mean: 76.3 ± 5.1) volunteered to complete 17 daily activities, each lasting 10 minutes. MEASUREMENTS Oxygen consumption (VO2 = ml•kg−1•min−1) was measured through a mask by a portable gas analyzer and MET values were calculated as measured VO2/3.5 ml•kg−1•min−1. Values were compared to both normative values and between participants with and without mobility impairments. RESULTS Compared to the established normative criteria, measured METs were different in 14 of 17 tasks performed. Compared to measured METs, normative values underestimated walking leisurely (0.87 ± 0.12 METs) walking briskly (0.87 ± 0.12 METs ), and bed making (1.07 ± 0.10 METs ), but overestimated gardening (1.46 ± 0.12 METs) and climbing stairs (0.73 ± 0.18). Participants with impairments had significantly lower METs while gardening, vacuuming/sweeping, stair climbing, and walking briskly. However, when METs were adjusted for performance speed the metabolic costs were 16–27% higher for those with mobility impairments. CONCLUSION Compared to normative values, metabolic costs of daily activities are substantially different in older adults and having mobility impairments increases this metabolic cost. These results may have implications for practitioners to appropriately prescribe daily physical activities for healthy and mobility impaired older adults. PMID:22091979

  1. Daily acute intermittent hypoxia elicits functional recovery of diaphragm and inspiratory intercostal muscle activity after acute cervical spinal injury

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete-Opazo, A.; Vinit, S; Dougherty, B.J.; Mitchell, G.S.

    2015-01-01

    A major cause of mortality after spinal cord injury is respiratory failure. In normal rats, acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) induces respiratory motor plasticity, expressed as diaphragm (Dia) and second external intercostal (T2 EIC) long-term facilitation (LTF). Dia (not T2 EIC) LTF is enhanced by systemic adenosine 2A (A2a) receptor inhibition in normal rats. We investigated the respective contributions of Dia and T2 EIC to daily AIH-induced functional recovery of breathing capacity with/without A2a receptor antagonist (KW6002, i.p.) following C2 hemisection (C2HS). Rats received daily AIH (dAIH: 10, 5-min episodes, 10.5% O2; 5-min normoxic intervals; 7 successive days beginning 7 days post-C2HS) or daily normoxia (dNx) with/without KW6002, followed by weekly (reminder) presentations for 8 weeks. Ventilation and EMGs from bilateral diaphragm and T2 EIC muscles were measured with room air breathing (21% O2) and maximum chemoreceptor stimulation (MCS: 7% CO2, 10.5% O2). dAIH increased tidal volume (Vt) in C2HS rats breathing room air (dAIH + vehicle: 0.47 ± 0.02, dNx + vehicle: 0.40 ± 0.01ml/100 g; p<0.05) and MCS (dAIH + vehicle: 0.83 ± 0.01, dNx + vehicle: 0.73 ± 0.01ml/100g; p<0.001); KW6002 had no significant effect. dAIH enhanced contralateral (uninjured) diaphragm EMG activity, an effect attenuated by KW6002, during room air breathing and MCS (p<0.05). Although dAIH enhanced contralateral T2 EIC EMG activity during room air breathing, KW6002 had no effect. dAIH had no statistically significant effects on diaphragm or T2 EIC EMG activity ipsilateral to injury. Thus, two weeks post-C2HS: 1) dAIH enhances breathing capacity by effects on contralateral diaphragm and T2 EIC activity; and 2) dAIH-induced recovery is A2a dependent in diaphragm, but not T2 EIC. Daily AIH may be a useful in promoting functional recovery of breathing capacity after cervical spinal injury, but A2a receptor antagonists (eg. caffeine) may undermine its effectiveness shortly after

  2. Ambient Information Systems to Support the Elderly in Carrying Out Their Activities of Daily Living

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Vázquez, Juan Pablo; Rodríguez, Marcela D.

    As they age, older adult's present losses in their functional capabilities which cause them can't continue performing their activities of daily living (ADL) independently at home. We propose Ambient Information Systems (AIS) as appropriate pervasive devices to promote their independent living. Therefore our aim is to determine the utility and usability of AIS to support the independent life of older adults by helping them to perform their activities. In this paper we present preliminary results of a case study that we carried out for understanding the problems and needs that older adults face in doing some of their activities of daily living. In particular, we present results regarding the elderly problems to adhere to their medication prescription. Based on these results we propose AIS to support older adults to medicate. Finally, we present the design attributes incorporated into this AIS, which were identified from the design taxonomies of AIS reported in the literature.

  3. Robust Sounds of Activities of Daily Living Classification in Two-Channel Audio-Based Telemonitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ambikairajah, Eliathamby; Celler, Branko

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the area of home telemonitoring, the challenge of automatically detecting the sound signatures of activities of daily living of an elderly patient using nonintrusive and reliable methods remains. This paper investigates the classification of eight typical sounds of daily life from arbitrarily positioned two-microphone sensors under realistic noisy conditions. In particular, the role of several source separation and sound activity detection methods is considered. Evaluations on a new four-microphone database collected under four realistic noise conditions reveal that effective sound activity detection can produce significant gains in classification accuracy and that further gains can be made using source separation methods based on independent component analysis. Encouragingly, the results show that recognition accuracies in the range 70%–100% can be consistently obtained using different microphone-pair positions, under all but the most severe noise conditions. PMID:23710171

  4. A useful method for measuring daily physical activity by a three-direction monitor.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, A; Hara, Y; Findley, T W; Yoncmoto, K

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a three-direction accelerometer is useful for measuring daily physical activity. Physical activity, being an important part of human behavior, may be related to various aspects of health and disease. In this study, the relationship between the intensity of each action and the three-direction accelerometer (Actigraph) output was compared in 10 healthy subjects under free-living conditions. Subjects wore the Actigraph on their non-dominant wrist and filled out a physical activity check list (self-report) throughout the daytime. Daily physical activities were classified into six categories according to different intensities. The differences of the Actigraph output among each of the six categories were significant by the Kruskal-Wallis analysis (p = 0.001). The Actigraph output appeared to correlate highly with the intensity of actions by the Spearman Rank test (r = 0.95, p < 0.05). The Actigraph output was over-estimated while the subjects were typing, driving and being a passenger in a motor vehicle. The Actigraph was shown to be a useful and convenient device for measuring daily physical activity. PMID:9084104

  5. Development of an instrument for measuring activities of daily living in persons with suspected cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Maria M; Marcusson, Jan; Wressle, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    Background According to the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, structured assessment of function and activity has high priority when evaluating suspected cognitive impairment or dementia. Aim/objectives The aim was to develop and psychometrically test an instrument to measure the ability to perform activities of daily living tasks in patients with suspected cognitive impairment. Material and methods The Cognitive Impairment in Daily Life (CID) instrument (for self-reported and informant-based assessments) has been developed in several phases. Content validity was achieved through five expert panels using a Content Validity Index (CVI). The content was tested further in a pilot study of 49 patients and 49 relatives from primary care or a specialist memory clinic. Results Content validity was good with a CVI index of 0.83. All patients considered that the included activities were relevant to them and reflected the difficulties they were experiencing. Most relatives considered the activities included in the instrument as adequate and captured the patients' difficulties in daily life. Some adjustments of the tasks and scale were suggested and these were implicated after each phase. In general, relatives reported that patients had more difficulties performing the activities than the patients reported themselves. Conclusion The CID instrument seems promising in terms of content validity. Further testing of reliability and construct validity is ongoing. PMID:26853384

  6. Dependence for basic and instrumental activities of daily living after hip fractures.

    PubMed

    González-Zabaleta, Jorge; Pita-Fernandez, Salvador; Seoane-Pillado, Teresa; López-Calviño, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Zabaleta, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to determine basic activities of daily living (Barthel Index) and instrumental activities of daily living (Lawton-Brody Index) before and after hip fracture. Follow-up study of patients (n=100) with hip fracture, operated at Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de A Coruña (Spain). Period January/2009-December/2011. Demographic characteristic of the patients, Charlson Index, Glomerular filtration rate, Barthel index, Lawton index, type of proximal femur fracture and surgical treatment delay were recorded. Multivariate regression was performed. Informed patient consent and ethical review approval were obtained. Before fracture were independent for activities of daily living (ADL) a 38.0%, at 90 days were 15.4%. The Barthel index score decreased from 75.2±28.2 to 56.5±31.8) (p<0.0001). If we consider the age, gender, comorbidity (Charlson index), renal function, fracture type and surgical delay objectify the only independent variable to predict dependency effect is age. If we also consider the Barthel score objectify the variable that significantly modifies that score at 90 days is the baseline value of the index. The prevalence of independence for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) at the baseline moment is 11% and at 90 days is decreased to 2.2%. There is a decrease in the independence effect in all activities. The variable predictor of independence for all activities after taking into consideration age, sex, comorbidity, fracture type, surgical delay and renal function is the baseline score of the Barthel and Lawton index. PMID:25465506

  7. Seasonal variation in daily activity patterns of free-ranging European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus).

    PubMed

    Everts, Lammina G; Strijkstra, Arjen M; Hut, Roelof A; Hoffmann, Ilse E; Millesi, Eva

    2004-01-01

    Daily aboveground activity of European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus) in their natural habitat was recorded with a visual scanning procedure during the active seasons of 1992 and 1993. Activity patterns were analyzed with respect to time of year and to the animal's reproductive state. Aboveground activity started on average 3.9 h (SD 0.6 h, n = 37 days) after civil twilight at dawn and ended on average 3.2 h (SD 0.9 h, n = 37 days) before civil twilight at dusk. Between onset and offset of activity, 54% was spent aboveground, of which 73% was spent foraging. Activity patterns were influenced by photoperiod, rainfall, and by reproductive state. During mating, reproductively active males started activity earlier than females and reproductively inactive males. For females, time spent foraging was high during lactation. The midpoint of daily activity was at 12:16 h (SD 0.37 h, n = 37 days). Activity patterns of European ground squirrels thus appear robustly positioned in the middle of the photoperiod. PMID:15129824

  8. Sialyltransferase activity in normal and atherosclerotic human aorta intima.

    PubMed

    Gracheva, E V; Samovilova, N N; Golovanova, N K; Il'inskaya, O P; Tararak, E M; Prokazova, N V

    2001-04-01

    Sialyltransferase activity has been determined in Golgi membrane fractions isolated from atherosclerotic and normal intima of human aorta by measuring the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) from CMP-NeuAc to asialofetuin. The asialofetuin-sialyltransferase activity was found to be twofold higher in the atherosclerotic intima than in the normal intima. The mean value of the apparent Michaelis constant (Km) for the sialylating enzyme in both tissues did not differ and was 57 microM. In contrast, the maximal velocity (Vmax) was 2-fold higher for the atherosclerotic intima than for the normal intima. These results suggest that expression of asialofetuin-sialyltransferases of the aortal intima may be increased in atherosclerosis. PMID:11403646

  9. Alkaline phosphatase activity in normal and inflamed dental pulps.

    PubMed

    Spoto, G; Fioroni, M; Rubini, C; Tripodi, D; Di Stilio, M; Piattelli, A

    2001-03-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) seems to be important in the formation of mineralized tissues. High levels of ALP have been demonstrated in dental pulp cells. In the present study ALP activity was analyzed in normal healthy human dental pulps, in reversible pulpitis, and in irreversible pulpitis. Enzymatic ALP control values for the normal healthy pulps were 110.96+/-20.93. In the reversible pulpitis specimens the ALP activity increased almost eight times to 853.6+/-148.27. In the irreversible pulpitis specimens the values decreased sharply to 137.15+/-21.28 and were roughly equivalent to those seen in normal healthy pulps. The differences between the groups (control vs. reversible pulpitis and reversible pulpitis vs. irreversible pulpitis) were statistically significant. These results could point to a role of ALP in the initial pulp response after injury. PMID:11487147

  10. Possible mechanisms of normal amylase activity in hyperlipemic pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Mishkin, S.; Bates, J.; O'Hashi, J.; Schneider, P.; Sniderman, A. D.; Wolf, R. O.

    1976-01-01

    Lipemic serum from three patients with acute pancreatitis and type IV hyperlipemia was fractionated into very-low-density lipoproteins and clear serum. Amylase activity (determined by the Phadebas method) in the component fractions did not exceed that in the original lipemic serum. Addition of these fractions or VLDL and chylomicrons from asymptomatic patients with hyperlipemia to nonlipemic serum from patients with "routine acute pancreatitis" did not inhibit amylase activity or alter the electrophoretic mobility of amylase isoenzymes. Therefore the normal amylase activity often observed in hyperlipemic pancreatitis does not result from an inhibition of amylase activity by serum lipoproteins. Images FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:206333

  11. An Experiential Learning Activity Demonstrating Normal and Phobic Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canu, Will H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an activity for an undergraduate abnormal psychology course that used student-generated data to illustrate normal versus clinically significant anxiety responses related to specific phobias. Students (N = 37) viewed 14 images of low- or high-anxiety valence and rated their subjective response to each. Discussion in a…

  12. Daily intake of Lactobacillus casei Shirota increases natural killer cell activity in smokers.

    PubMed

    Reale, Marcella; Boscolo, Paolo; Bellante, Veronica; Tarantelli, Chiara; Di Nicola, Marta; Forcella, Laura; Li, Qing; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Muraro, Raffaella

    2012-07-01

    Dietary probiotics supplementation exerts beneficial health effects. Since cigarette smoking reduces natural killer (NK) activity, we evaluated the effect of Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) intake on NK cytotoxic activity in male smokers. The double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study was conducted on seventy-two healthy Italian blue-collar male smokers randomly divided for daily intake of LcS powder or placebo. Before and after 3 weeks of intake, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and NK activity and CD16⁺ cells' number were assessed. Daily LcS intake for 3 weeks significantly increased NK activity (P < 0.001). The increase in NK activity was paralleled by an increase in CD16⁺ cells (P < 0.001). Before intake, NK cytotoxic activity inversely correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked (R - 0.064). LcS intake prevented the smoke-dependent expected NK activity reduction. The analysis of the distribution of changes in smoke-adjusted NK activity demonstrated that the positive variations were significantly associated with LcS intake, while the negative variations were associated with placebo intake (median value of distributions of differences, 20.98 lytic unit (LU)/10⁷ cells for LcS v. - 4.38 LU/10⁷ cells for placebo, P = 0.039). In conclusion, 3 weeks of daily LcS intake in Italian male smokers was associated with a higher increase in cytotoxic activity and CD16⁺ cells' number in comparison to the placebo intake group. PMID:22142891

  13. Improving assessment of daily energy expenditure by identifying types of physical activity with a single accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, A G; Plasqui, G; Goris, A H C; Westerterp, K R

    2009-09-01

    Accelerometers are often used to quantify the acceleration of the body in arbitrary units (counts) to measure physical activity (PA) and to estimate energy expenditure. The present study investigated whether the identification of types of PA with one accelerometer could improve the estimation of energy expenditure compared with activity counts. Total energy expenditure (TEE) of 15 subjects was measured with the use of double-labeled water. The physical activity level (PAL) was derived by dividing TEE by sleeping metabolic rate. Simultaneously, PA was measured with one accelerometer. Accelerometer output was processed to calculate activity counts per day (AC(D)) and to determine the daily duration of six types of common activities identified with a classification tree model. A daily metabolic value (MET(D)) was calculated as mean of the MET compendium value of each activity type weighed by the daily duration. TEE was predicted by AC(D) and body weight and by AC(D) and fat-free mass, with a standard error of estimate (SEE) of 1.47 MJ/day, and 1.2 MJ/day, respectively. The replacement in these models of AC(D) with MET(D) increased the explained variation in TEE by 9%, decreasing SEE by 0.14 MJ/day and 0.18 MJ/day, respectively. The correlation between PAL and MET(D) (R(2) = 51%) was higher than that between PAL and AC(D) (R(2) = 46%). We conclude that identification of activity types combined with MET intensity values improves the assessment of energy expenditure compared with activity counts. Future studies could develop models to objectively assess activity type and intensity to further increase accuracy of the energy expenditure estimation. PMID:19556460

  14. Wear Testing of Moderate Activities of Daily Living Using In Vivo Measured Knee Joint Loading

    PubMed Central

    Reinders, Jörn; Sonntag, Robert; Vot, Leo; Gibney, Christian; Nowack, Moritz; Kretzer, Jan Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Resumption of daily living activities is a basic expectation for patients provided with total knee replacements. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of different activities on the wear performance. In this study the wear performance under application of different daily activities has been analyzed. In vivo load data for walking, walking downstairs/upstairs, sitting down/standing up, and cycling (50 W & 120 W) has been standardized for wear testing. Wear testing of each activity was carried out on a knee wear simulator. Additionally, ISO walking was tested for reasons of comparison. Wear was assessed gravimetrically and wear particles were analyzed. In vivo walking produced the highest overall wear rates, which were determined to be three times higher than ISO walking. Moderate wear rates were determined for walking upstairs and downstairs. Low wear rates were determined for standing up/sitting down and cycling at power levels of 50 W and 120 W. The largest wear particles were observed for cycling. Walking based on in vivo data has been shown to be the most wear-relevant activity. Highly demanding activities (stair climbing) produced considerably less wear. Taking into account the expected number of loads, low-impact activities like cycling may have a greater impact on articular wear than highly demanding activities. PMID:25811996

  15. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Patterns of Participation in Daily Physical and Play Activities

    PubMed Central

    Memari, Amir Hossein; Panahi, Nekoo; Ranjbar, Elaheh; Moshayedi, Pouria; Shafiei, Masih; Kordi, Ramin; Ziaee, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) indicates several neurodevelopmental impairments which may end in impairments in motor or physical activities. Daily physical activity involvement was investigated in a total of 83 children (52 boys and 31 girls) with ASD aged 6–15 years. Results indicated that only 10 (12%) of children with ASD were physically active. Children were predominantly engaged in solitary play rather than social play activities. Gender, family income, and household structure were found to be associated with activity scores. Financial burden and lack of opportunities were noted as the leading barriers to physical activities. In conclusion, findings indicated a low rate of physical activity participation in children with ASD that is closely associated with sociodemographic variables. PMID:26171247

  16. Sleep, daily activity rhythms and postpartum mood: A longitudinal study across the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Krawczak, Elizabeth M; Minuzzi, Luciano; Simpson, William; Hidalgo, Maria Paz; Frey, Benicio N

    2016-01-01

    Women with a diagnosis of bipolar and major depressive disorders are at higher risk to develop postpartum depression. The primary objective of this longitudinal study was to determine whether daily activity rhythms and sleep parameters differ between women with and without a history of a mood disorder across the perinatal period. A secondary objective was to determine whether changes in these parameters were associated with postpartum mood. In total, 33 women were included in this study, 15 of which had a history of a mood disorder (high-risk group) and 18 who did not (low-risk group). Sleep and daily rhythms were assessed subjectively and objectively during the third trimester (≥26 weeks gestation) and again at 6-12 weeks postpartum. Mood was also assessed at both time points. Women in the high-risk group showed greater subjective daily rhythms and sleep disturbances across the perinatal period. Objective sleep efficiency was worse in the high-risk group in the postpartum period. Changes in both subjective daily rhythms and objective sleep efficiency were predictive of changes in depressive symptoms across the perinatal period. These findings encourage the development of preventative therapeutics to ensure circadian rhythm and sleep stability throughout the perinatal period. PMID:27097327

  17. Biomechanical Characteristics of Hand Coordination in Grasping Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming-Jin; Xiong, Cai-Hua; Xiong, Le; Huang, Xiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Hand coordination can allow humans to have dexterous control with many degrees of freedom to perform various tasks in daily living. An important contributing factor to this important ability is the complex biomechanical architecture of the human hand. However, drawing a clear functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination is challenging. It is not understood which biomechanical characteristics are responsible for hand coordination and what specific effect each biomechanical characteristic has. To explore this link, we first inspected the characteristics of hand coordination during daily tasks through a statistical analysis of the kinematic data, which were collected from thirty right-handed subjects during a multitude of grasping tasks. Then, the functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination was drawn by establishing the clear corresponding causality between the tendinous connective characteristics of the human hand and the coordinated characteristics during daily grasping activities. The explicit functional link indicates that the biomechanical characteristic of tendinous connective architecture between muscles and articulations is the proper design by the Creator to perform a multitude of daily tasks in a comfortable way. The clear link between the structure and the function of the human hand also suggests that the design of a multifunctional robotic hand should be able to better imitate such basic architecture. PMID:26730579

  18. Biomechanical Characteristics of Hand Coordination in Grasping Activities of Daily Living.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Jin; Xiong, Cai-Hua; Xiong, Le; Huang, Xiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Hand coordination can allow humans to have dexterous control with many degrees of freedom to perform various tasks in daily living. An important contributing factor to this important ability is the complex biomechanical architecture of the human hand. However, drawing a clear functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination is challenging. It is not understood which biomechanical characteristics are responsible for hand coordination and what specific effect each biomechanical characteristic has. To explore this link, we first inspected the characteristics of hand coordination during daily tasks through a statistical analysis of the kinematic data, which were collected from thirty right-handed subjects during a multitude of grasping tasks. Then, the functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination was drawn by establishing the clear corresponding causality between the tendinous connective characteristics of the human hand and the coordinated characteristics during daily grasping activities. The explicit functional link indicates that the biomechanical characteristic of tendinous connective architecture between muscles and articulations is the proper design by the Creator to perform a multitude of daily tasks in a comfortable way. The clear link between the structure and the function of the human hand also suggests that the design of a multifunctional robotic hand should be able to better imitate such basic architecture. PMID:26730579

  19. Home Accidents and Assistance in Daily Activities of Older Women in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkal, Sibel; Sahin, Hande

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the relation between incidents of at-home accidents and the assistance in daily activities of women age of 65+ living in the area of Dikmen Akpinar Health Care Unit in Ankara-Turkey. Of the women, 49.2% had experienced a home accident in the last 12 months. More than half of these accidents were caused by falling. Women over…

  20. Optimizing Populations of SAI Tactile Mechanoreceptors to Enable Activities of Daily Living.

    PubMed

    Rivest, Isabelle I; Gerling, Gregory J

    2011-07-11

    At present, the dense network of peripheral afferents between finger and brain and the large size of engineered sensors preclude the recreation of biologically observed afferent populations. This work uses a validated computational model of cutaneous skin and tactile afferents to evaluate sparse populations in performing tasks required in activities of daily living. Using a model (3D finite element representation of fingertip skin, linear bi-phasic transduction function, and leaky-integrate-and-fire neuronal model), we systematically varied populations of tactile receptors in dimensions of density (100, 45, 20, and 10 sensors/cm(2)) and size (diameter 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mm) to determine if a given modeled population can discriminate spheres and cylinders representative of objects used in activities of daily living. Using a scoring system which allows for direct comparisons between the populations, our results indicate that a population must have at least 20 sensors per cm(2) to maintain response resolution in these activities of daily living and that larger-sized sensors do not degrade response resolution. PMID:22582034

  1. Effect of activities of daily living status on resuming driving after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Park, Myoung-Ok; Jung, Bong-Keun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of the activities of daily living status on resuming driving after stroke. [Subjects] Thirty-one participants with stroke, who visited in Korean national rehabilitation centers, were included in this study. [Methods] The activities of daily living performance and the driving ability of the participants were assessed with the Korean-Modified Barthel Index in combination with the results obtained by using a driving simulator. [Results] Significant correlations were noted among the Korean-Modified Barthel Index, on-road driving total score, reaction time, speed anticipation tests, judgment tests, and steering wheel-pedal operation tests. Results of Stepwise multiple regression also revealed that the Korean-Modified Barthel Index total score and speed anticipation, with an R2 of 52.9%. In other words, as the Korean-Modified Barthel Index total score and speed anticipation score increased and the driving performance score also increased in patients who had suffered a stroke. [Conclusion] The activities of daily living status was positively correlated with the patients’ post stroke driving ability. PMID:26834346

  2. Optimizing Populations of SAI Tactile Mechanoreceptors to Enable Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Rivest, Isabelle I.; Gerling, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    At present, the dense network of peripheral afferents between finger and brain and the large size of engineered sensors preclude the recreation of biologically observed afferent populations. This work uses a validated computational model of cutaneous skin and tactile afferents to evaluate sparse populations in performing tasks required in activities of daily living. Using a model (3D finite element representation of fingertip skin, linear bi-phasic transduction function, and leaky-integrate-and-fire neuronal model), we systematically varied populations of tactile receptors in dimensions of density (100, 45, 20, and 10 sensors/cm2) and size (diameter 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mm) to determine if a given modeled population can discriminate spheres and cylinders representative of objects used in activities of daily living. Using a scoring system which allows for direct comparisons between the populations, our results indicate that a population must have at least 20 sensors per cm2 to maintain response resolution in these activities of daily living and that larger-sized sensors do not degrade response resolution. PMID:22582034

  3. Neural correlates of reduced awareness in instrumental activities of daily living in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Amanzio, Martina; D'Agata, Federico; Palermo, Sara; Rubino, Elisa; Zucca, Milena; Galati, Antonello; Pinessi, Lorenzo; Castellano, Giancarlo; Rainero, Innocenzo

    2016-10-01

    A decline in instrumental activities of daily living has been described as the earliest functional deficit in patients with neurodegenerative disease. It embraces specific competencies such as: "recalling the date and telephone calls, orienting to new places, remembering the location of objects at home, understanding conversation and the plot of a movie, keeping belongings in order, doing mental calculations and handling money, remembering appointments and shopping lists and performing clerical work". Since changes in instrumental daily living activities are one of the descriptors of behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia, we decided to investigate the neural correlates of a reduced awareness in this specific domain in twenty-three consecutive behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia patients. Gray matter volume changes associated with a reduced awareness for the instrumental domain, assessed using a validated caregiver-patient discrepancy questionnaire, were examined. Interestingly, we found disabilities in instrumental daily living activities and a reduced awareness of these to be related to medial prefrontal cortex atrophy, where the mid-cingulate cortices, dorsal anterior insula and cuneous play an important role. Importantly, if the executive system does not function correctly, the comparator mechanism of action self-monitoring does not detect mismatches between the current and previous performance states stored in the personal database, and produces a reduced awareness for the instrumental domain. PMID:27534380

  4. Persons with moderate Alzheimer's disease use simple technology aids to manage daily activities and leisure occupation.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Renna, Caterina; Pinto, Katia; De Vanna, Floriana; Caffò, Alessandro O; Stasolla, Fabrizio

    2014-09-01

    Two studies assessed technology-aided programs to support performance of daily activities and selection/activation of music items with patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease. In Study I, four patients were presented with activity-related pictorial instructions via a computer fitted with inexpensive, commercial software. In Study II, four patients were (a) presented with different music options and (b) allowed to select and activate the preferred option via a microswitch response. Study I showed that each patient learned to perform the two activities available with percentages of correct responses exceeding 85 by the end of the intervention. Study II showed that all patients learned to choose and activate music options. Psychology students, employed in a social validation check, scored the patients' behavior within the program better than their behavior in a control situation. The relevance and usability of simplified pictorial-instruction programs and music choice programs for patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease were discussed. PMID:24881006

  5. Comparison of sympathetic nerve activity normalization procedures in conscious rabbits.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sandra L; Lim, Kyungjoon; Moretti, John-Luis; Head, Geoffrey A

    2016-05-01

    One of the main constraints associated with recording sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in both humans and experimental animals is that microvolt values reflect characteristics of the recording conditions and limit comparisons between different experimental groups. The nasopharyngeal response has been validated for normalizing renal SNA (RSNA) in conscious rabbits, and in humans muscle SNA is normalized to the maximum burst in the resting period. We compared these two methods of normalization to determine whether either could detect elevated RSNA in hypertensive rabbits compared with normotensive controls. We also tested whether either method eliminated differences based only on different recording conditions by separating RSNA of control (sham) rabbits into two groups with low or high microvolts. Hypertension was induced by 5 wk of renal clipping (2K1C), 3 wk of high-fat diet (HFD), or 3 mo infusion of a low dose of angiotensin (ANG II). Normalization to the nasopharyngeal response revealed RSNA that was 88, 51, and 34% greater in 2K1C, HFD, and ANG II rabbits, respectively, than shams (P < 0.05), but normalization to the maximum burst showed no differences. The RSNA baroreflex followed a similar pattern whether RSNA was expressed in microvolts or normalized. Both methods abolished the difference between low and high microvolt RSNA. These results suggest that maximum burst amplitude is a useful technique for minimizing differences between recording conditions but is unable to detect real differences between groups. We conclude that the nasopharyngeal reflex is the superior method for normalizing sympathetic recordings in conscious rabbits. PMID:26921439

  6. The Harvard Automated Phone Task: new performance-based activities of daily living tests for early Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Gad A.; Dekhtyar, Maria; Bruno, Jonathan M.; Jethwani, Kamal; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Impairment in activities of daily living is a major burden for Alzheimer’s disease dementia patients and caregivers. Multiple subjective scales and a few performance-based instruments have been validated and proven to be reliable in measuring instrumental activities of daily living in Alzheimer’s disease dementia but less so in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. Objective To validate the Harvard Automated Phone Task, a new performance-based activities of daily living test for early Alzheimer’s disease, which assesses high level tasks that challenge seniors in daily life. Design In a cross-sectional study, the Harvard Automated Phone Task was associated with demographics and cognitive measures through univariate and multivariate analyses; ability to discriminate across diagnostic groups was assessed; test-retest reliability with the same and alternate versions was assessed in a subset of participants; and the relationship with regional cortical thickness was assessed in a subset of participants. Setting Academic clinical research center. Participants One hundred and eighty two participants were recruited from the community (127 clinically normal elderly and 45 young normal participants) and memory disorders clinics at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital (10 participants with mild cognitive impairment). Measurements As part of the Harvard Automated Phone Task, participants navigated an interactive voice response system to refill a prescription (APT-Script), select a new primary care physician (APT-PCP), and make a bank account transfer and payment (APT-Bank). The 3 tasks were scored based on time, errors, and repetitions from which composite z-scores were derived, as well as a separate report of correct completion of the task. Results We found that the Harvard Automated Phone Task discriminated well between diagnostic groups (APT-Script: p=0.002; APT-PCP: p<0.001; APT-Bank: p=0

  7. The promise of mHealth: daily activity monitoring and outcome assessments by wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Dobkin, Bruce H; Dorsch, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Mobile health tools that enable clinicians and researchers to monitor the type, quantity, and quality of everyday activities of patients and trial participants have long been needed to improve daily care, design more clinically meaningful randomized trials of interventions, and establish cost-effective, evidence-based practices. Inexpensive, unobtrusive wireless sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, and pressure-sensitive textiles, combined with Internet-based communications and machine-learning algorithms trained to recognize upper- and lower-extremity movements, have begun to fulfill this need. Continuous data from ankle triaxial accelerometers, for example, can be transmitted from the home and community via WiFi or a smartphone to a remote data analysis server. Reports can include the walking speed and duration of every bout of ambulation, spatiotemporal symmetries between the legs, and the type, duration, and energy used during exercise. For daily care, this readily accessible flow of real-world information allows clinicians to monitor the amount and quality of exercise for risk factor management and compliance in the practice of skills. Feedback may motivate better self-management as well as serve home-based rehabilitation efforts. Monitoring patients with chronic diseases and after hospitalization or the start of new medications for a decline in daily activity may help detect medical complications before rehospitalization becomes necessary. For clinical trials, repeated laboratory-quality assessments of key activities in the community, rather than by clinic testing, self-report, and ordinal scales, may reduce the cost and burden of travel, improve recruitment and retention, and capture more reliable, valid, and responsive ratio-scaled outcome measures that are not mere surrogates for changes in daily impairment, disability, and functioning. PMID:21989632

  8. The Promise of mHealth: Daily Activity Monitoring and Outcome Assessments by Wearable Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Dobkin, Bruce H.; Dorsch, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Mobile health tools that enable clinicians and researchers to monitor the type, quantity, and quality of everyday activities of patients and trial participants have long been needed to improve daily care, design more clinically meaningful randomized trials of interventions, and establish cost-effective, evidence-based practices. Inexpensive, unobtrusive wireless sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, and pressure-sensitive textiles, combined with Internet-based communications and machine-learning algorithms trained to recognize upper- and lower-extremity movements, have begun to fulfill this need. Continuous data from ankle triaxial accelerometers, for example, can be transmitted from the home and community via WiFi or a smartphone to a remote data analysis server. Reports can include the walking speed and duration of every bout of ambulation, spatiotemporal symmetries between the legs, and the type, duration, and energy used during exercise. For daily care, this readily accessible flow of real-world information allows clinicians to monitor the amount and quality of exercise for risk factor management and compliance in the practice of skills. Feedback may motivate better self-management as well as serve home-based rehabilitation efforts. Monitoring patients with chronic diseases and after hospitalization or the start of new medications for a decline in daily activity may help detect medical complications before rehospitalization becomes necessary. For clinical trials, repeated laboratory-quality assessments of key activities in the community, rather than by clinic testing, self-report, and ordinal scales, may reduce the cost and burden of travel, improve recruitment and retention, and capture more reliable, valid, and responsive ratio-scaled outcome measures that are not mere surrogates for changes in daily impairment, disability, and functioning. PMID:21989632

  9. Eccentric Viewing Training in the Home Environment: Can It Improve the Performance of Activities of Daily Living?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukicevic, Meri; Fitzmaurice, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Macular degeneration has a severe impact on a person's ability to perform activities of daily living. This study investigated the impact of in-home training in eccentric viewing on near acuity and performance of activities of daily living. The results suggest that eccentric viewing can ameliorate the impact of the loss of vision that is due to…

  10. A Study of Activities of Daily Living and Employment in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Yu, Shu-Ning; Yu, Ya-Tsu

    2012-01-01

    Research on daily living activities and employment levels of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Taiwan is limited. The aims of the study were to investigate outcomes related to functional independence and employment among people with ASD in Taiwan. We investigated the daily living activities and the employment status of 81 adults (age…

  11. Nordic Walking improves daily physical activities in COPD: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In patients with COPD progressive dyspnoea leads to a sedentary lifestyle. To date, no studies exist investigating the effects of Nordic Walking in patients with COPD. Therefore, the aim was to determine the feasibility of Nordic Walking in COPD patients at different disease stages. Furthermore we aimed to determine the short- and long-term effects of Nordic Walking on COPD patients' daily physical activity pattern as well as on patients exercise capacity. Methods Sixty COPD patients were randomised to either Nordic Walking or to a control group. Patients of the Nordic Walking group (n = 30; age: 62 ± 9 years; FEV1: 48 ± 19% predicted) underwent a three-month outdoor Nordic Walking exercise program consisting of one hour walking at 75% of their initial maximum heart rate three times per week, whereas controls had no exercise intervention. Primary endpoint: daily physical activities (measured by a validated tri-axial accelerometer); secondary endpoint: functional exercise capacity (measured by the six-minute walking distance; 6MWD). Assessment time points in both groups: baseline, after three, six and nine months. Results After three month training period, in the Nordic Walking group time spent walking and standing as well as intensity of walking increased (Δ walking time: +14.9 ± 1.9 min/day; Δ standing time: +129 ± 26 min/day; Δ movement intensity: +0.40 ± 0.14 m/s2) while time spent sitting decreased (Δ sitting time: -128 ± 15 min/day) compared to baseline (all: p < 0.01) as well as compared to controls (all: p < 0.01). Furthermore, 6MWD significantly increased compared to baseline (Δ 6MWD: +79 ± 28 meters) as well as compared to controls (both: p < 0.01). These significant improvements were sustained six and nine months after baseline. In contrast, controls showed unchanged daily physical activities and 6MWD compared to baseline for all time points. Conclusions Nordic Walking is a feasible, simple and effective physical training modality

  12. The Daily Activity Report (DAR) a Novel Measure of Functional Outcome for Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Velligan, Dawn I; Mintz, Jim; Sierra, Cynthia; Martin, Mona L; Fredrick, Megan; Maglinte, Gregory A; Corey-Lisle, Patricia K

    2016-05-01

    The assessment of real-world functional outcomes in clinical trials for medications targeting negative symptoms and cognitive impairment is extremely important. We tested the psychometric properties of the Daily Activity Report (DAR), a novel assessment of productive daily activity. We administered the DAR and additional assessments of functional outcome, functional capacity, cognition and symptomatology to 50 individuals with schizophrenia at 2 time points, 1 month apart and to 25 healthy controls. The DAR records a person's daily activity for 7 consecutive days based upon phone calls made 3 times a day. A total score and scores in 3 domains; instrumental activities (ie, independent living), social and work or school related activities are generated for the DAR. Inter-item consistency was high 0.89-0.94 for each domain and 0.88 overall. Test-retest reliability across 1 month for the total DAR score was 0.67,P< .0001. The total DAR score as well as scores for social activity and nondomestic work/school differed significantly between control and patient participants (P< .0001). DAR domain scores were associated with negative symptoms and functional outcomes, but the primary score related to these measures was the work/school dimension of the DAR. DAR scores were only weakly and nonsignificantly related to positive symptoms. This study provides preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the DAR using interviewer administration. The development of a patient reported version of the DAR using smart phone technology with automatic scoring is the next step. PMID:26712856

  13. The Daily Activity Report (DAR) a Novel Measure of Functional Outcome for Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Velligan, Dawn I.; Mintz, Jim; Sierra, Cynthia; Martin, Mona L.; Fredrick, Megan; Maglinte, Gregory A.; Corey-Lisle, Patricia K.

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of real-world functional outcomes in clinical trials for medications targeting negative symptoms and cognitive impairment is extremely important. We tested the psychometric properties of the Daily Activity Report (DAR), a novel assessment of productive daily activity. We administered the DAR and additional assessments of functional outcome, functional capacity, cognition and symptomatology to 50 individuals with schizophrenia at 2 time points, 1 month apart and to 25 healthy controls. The DAR records a person’s daily activity for 7 consecutive days based upon phone calls made 3 times a day. A total score and scores in 3 domains; instrumental activities (ie, independent living), social and work or school related activities are generated for the DAR. Inter-item consistency was high 0.89–0.94 for each domain and 0.88 overall. Test–retest reliability across 1 month for the total DAR score was 0.67, P < .0001. The total DAR score as well as scores for social activity and nondomestic work/school differed significantly between control and patient participants (P < .0001). DAR domain scores were associated with negative symptoms and functional outcomes, but the primary score related to these measures was the work/school dimension of the DAR. DAR scores were only weakly and nonsignificantly related to positive symptoms. This study provides preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the DAR using interviewer administration. The development of a patient reported version of the DAR using smart phone technology with automatic scoring is the next step. PMID:26712856

  14. Motivation and intention to integrate physical activity into daily school life: the JAM World Record event.

    PubMed

    Vazou, Spyridoula; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P

    2014-11-01

    Research on the motivation of stakeholders to integrate physical activity into daily school life is limited. The purpose was to examine the motivation of stakeholders to participate in a world record physical activity event and whether motivation was associated with future intention to use activity breaks during the daily school life and future participation in a similar event. After the 2012 JAM (Just-a-Minute) World Record event, 686 adults (591 women; 76.1% participated for children <10 years) completed measures of motivational regulations and future intention to (a) use the activity breaks and (b) participate in the event. High intrinsic motivation and low extrinsic motivation and amotivation for participation in the next event were reported. Hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for age, gender, and occupation, showed that intrinsic forms of motivation positively predicted, whereas amotivation negatively predicted, future intention to participate in the event and use the activity breaks. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that school-related participants were more intrinsically motivated and intended to use the activity breaks and repeat the event more than those who were not affiliated with a school. Nonschool participants reported higher extrinsic motivation and amotivation than school-related participants. PMID:25001232

  15. A Predictive Model of Daily Seismic Activity Induced by Mining, Developed with Data Mining Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubowski, Jacek

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the development and evaluation of a predictive classification model of daily seismic energy emissions induced by longwall mining in sector XVI of the Piast coal mine in Poland. The model uses data on tremor energy, basic characteristics of the longwall face and mined output in this sector over the period from July 1987 to March 2011. The predicted binary variable is the occurrence of a daily sum of tremor seismic energies in a longwall that is greater than or equal to the threshold value of 105 J. Three data mining analytical methods were applied: logistic regression,neural networks, and stochastic gradient boosted trees. The boosted trees model was chosen as the best for the purposes of the prediction. The validation sample results showed its good predictive capability, taking the complex nature of the phenomenon into account. This may indicate the applied model's suitability for a sequential, short-term prediction of mining induced seismic activity.

  16. Daily dynamics of cellulase activity in arable soils depending on management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrent'eva, E. V.; Semenov, A. M.; Zelenev, V. V.; Chzhun, Yu.; Semenova, E. V.; Semenov, V. M.; Namsaraev, B. B.; van Bruggen, A. H. C.

    2009-08-01

    The daily dynamics of cellulase activity was studied during 27 days by the cellophane membrane method on soils managed using the conventional high-input farming system (application of mineral fertilizers and pesticides) and the biological conservation farming system (application of organic fertilizers alone) in a microfield experiment. The regular oscillatory dynamics of the cellulase activity were revealed and confirmed by the harmonic (Fourier) analysis. The oscillatory dynamics of the cellulase activity had a self-oscillatory nature and was not directly caused by the disturbing impacts of both the uncontrolled (natural) changes in the temperature and moisture (rainfall) and the controlled ones (the application of different fertilizers). The disturbing impacts affected the oscillation amplitude of the cellulase activity but not the frequency (periods) of the oscillations. The periodic oscillations of the cellulase activity were more significant in the soil under the high-input management compared to the soil under the biological farming system.

  17. Standardized activities of daily living in presence of sub-acute low-back pain: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Jacob H; Svarrer, Heine; Laessoe, Uffe; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam; Madeleine, Pascal

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate how sub-acute low-back pain (LBP) patients differed with respect to control in movements and muscle activation during standardized tasks representing daily living activities, and explore relationships between cognition and measured motor performance. Linear and nonlinear parameters were computed from kinetics, kinematics and muscle activity recorded for 12 sub-acute patients and 12 healthy matched controls during trunk flexion, sit-to-stand from a chair and lifting a box. Cognitive variables were collected to explore relationships with biomechanical parameters. For trunk flexion, left external abdominal oblique muscle activity level was lower for patients compared with controls (p < 0.05), whereas sample entropy (complexity) was higher (p < 0.05). Normalized mutual information was lower for patients compared with controls for left and right erector spinae (p < 0.05). Level of activity of left external abdominal oblique correlated negatively with cognitive ignoring and positively with catastrophizing (p ≤ 0.05), and catastrophizing also correlated positively with functional connectivity of abdominal muscles (p < 0.05). Signs of reorganization in muscle activation pointed towards different synergistic actions in trunk muscles in sub-acute LBP patients compared with controls. The interplay with maladaptive cognition suggested that in the subacute stage of LBP, both biomechanical and cognitive factors should be taken into account. PMID:22995335

  18. Hypoglycemic activity of Ailanthus excelsa leaves in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, W; Genta, S; Said, A; Farag, A; Rashed, K; Sánchez, S

    2008-03-01

    The hypoglycemic activity of a 70% methanol extract from the leaves of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (Simaroubaceae) was studied in normal, transiently hyperglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of the extract at doses of 14, 70 and 350 mg/kg body weight caused no significant changes in fasting blood glucose levels of normal rats. In an oral glucose tolerance test, the extract produced a significant decrease in glycemia 90 min after the glucose pulse. Daily administration of A. excelsa extract for 60 days produced a significant hypoglycemic effect in diabetic animals. In addition, this treatment improved the altered renal function observed in diabetic control rats. This study suggests that Ailanthus leaf extract could be potentially useful for post-prandial hyperglycemia treatment. PMID:18058975

  19. Oestradiol Exposure Early in Life Programs Daily and Circadian Activity Rhythms in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Royston, S E; Bunick, D; Mahoney, M M

    2016-01-01

    Hormone signalling during critical periods organises the adult circadian timekeeping system by altering adult hormone sensitivity and shaping fundamental properties of circadian rhythmicity. However, the timing of when developmental oestrogens modify the timekeeping system is poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that alterations in postnatal oestrogenic signalling organise adult daily activity rhythms, we utilised aromatase knockout mice (ArKO), which lack the enzyme required for oestradiol synthesis. ArKO and wild-type (WT) males and females were administered either oestradiol (E) or oil (OIL) daily for the first 5 postnatal days (p1-5E and p1-5OIL , respectively) because this time encompasses the emergence of clock gene rhythmicity and light responsiveness in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a bilateral hypothalamic structure regarded as the 'master oscillator'. After sexual maturation, gonadectomy and exogenous oestradiol supplementation, locomotor parameters were assessed. We determined that altered oestrogenic signalling in early life exerts organisational control over the expression of daily and circadian activity rhythms in adult mice. Specifically, p1-5E reduced total wheel running activity in male and female ArKO and female WT mice but had no effect on WT male activity levels. In females, wheel running was consolidated by p1-5E to the early versus late evening, a phenomenon characteristic of male mice. The time of peak activity was advanced by p1-5E in WT and ArKO females but not males. P1-5E shortened the length of the active phase (alpha) in WT males but had no effect on ArKO males or females of either genotypes. Finally, p1-5E altered the magnitude of photic-induced shifts, suggesting that developmental oestrogenic signalling impacts adult circadian functions. In the present study, we further define both a critical period of development of the adult timekeeping system and the role that oestrogenic signalling plays in the expression of daily and

  20. Probabilistic learning from incomplete data for recognition of activities of daily living in smart homes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; McClean, Sally I; Scotney, Bryan W

    2012-05-01

    Learning behavioral patterns for activities of daily living in a smart home environment can be challenged by the limited number of training data that may be available. This may be due to the infrequent repetition of routine activities (e.g., once daily), the expense of using observers to label activities, and the intrusion that would be caused by the presence of observers over long time periods. It is important, therefore, to make as much use of any labeled data that are collected, however, incomplete these data may be. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for learning behavioral patterns for multi-inhabitants living in a single smart home environment, by making full use of all limited labeled activities, including incomplete data resulting from unreliable low-level sensors in this environment. Through maximum-likelihood estimation, using Expectation-Maximization, we build a model that captures both environmental uncertainties from sensor readings and user uncertainties, including variations in how individuals carry out activities. Our algorithm outperforms models that cannot handle data incompleteness, with increasing performance gains as incompleteness increases. The approach also enables the impact of particular sensors to be assessed and can thus inform sensor maintenance and deployment. PMID:22411044

  1. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living: Compensation Scale

    PubMed Central

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Parsey, Carolyn; Lamb, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The Instrumental Activities of Daily Living – Compensation (IADL-C) scale was developed to capture early functional difficulties and to quantify compensatory strategy use that may mitigate functional decline in the aging population. The IADL-C was validated in a sample of cognitively healthy older adults (N=184) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N=92) and dementia (N=24). Factor analysis and Rasch item analysis led to the 27-item IADL-C informant questionnaire with four functional domain subscales (money and self-management, home daily living, travel and event memory, and social skills). The subscales demonstrated good internal consistency (Rasch reliability 0.80 to 0.93) and test-retest reliability (Spearman coefficients 0.70 to 0.91). The IADL-C total score and subscales showed convergent validity with other IADL measures, discriminant validity with psychosocial measures, and the ability to discriminate between diagnostic groups. The money and self management subscale showed notable difficulties for individuals with MCI, whereas difficulties with home daily living became more prominent for dementia participants. Compensatory strategy use increased in the MCI group and decreased in the dementia group. PMID:25344901

  2. Reliability and validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Zbogar, Dominik; Eng, Janice J; Miller, William C; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Verrier, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the test–retest reliability and convergent validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation. Design: Observational study. Setting: Two inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation centres. Subjects: Participants (n = 106) were recruited from consecutive admissions to rehabilitation. Methods: Physical activity during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation stay was recorded on two days via (1) wrist accelerometer, (2) hip accelerometer if ambulatory, and (3) self-report (Physical Activity Recall Assessment for People with Spinal Cord Injury questionnaire). Spearman’s correlations and Bland–Altman plots were utilized for test–retest reliability. Correlations between physical activity measures and clinical measures (functional independence, hand function, and ambulation) were performed. Results: Correlations for physical activity measures between Day 1 and Day 2 were moderate to high (ρ = 0.53–0.89). Bland–Altman plots showed minimal bias and more within-subject differences in more active individuals and wide limits of agreement. None of these three physical activity measures correlated with one another. A moderate correlation was found between wrist accelerometry counts and grip strength (ρ = 0.58) and between step counts and measures of ambulation (ρ = 0.62). Functional independence was related to wrist accelerometry (ρ = 0.70) and step counts (ρ = 0.56), but not with self-report. Conclusion: The test–retest reliability and convergent validity of the instrumented measures suggest that wrist and hip accelerometers are appropriate tools for use in research studies of daily physical activity in the spinal cord injury rehabilitation setting but are too variable for individual use.

  3. Brain cholinesterase activity of apparently normal wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are potent anticholinesterase substances that have killed large numbers of wild birds of various species. Cause of death is diagnosed by demonstration of depressed brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity in combination with chemical detection of anticholinesterase residue in the affected specimen. ChE depression is determined by comparison of the affected specimen to normal ChE activity for a sample of control specimens of the same species, but timely procurement of controls is not always possible. Therefore, a reference file of normal whole brain ChE activity is provided for 48 species of wild birds from North America representing 11 orders and 23 families for use as emergency substitutes in diagnosis of anticholinesterase poisoning. The ChE values, based on 83 sets of wild control specimens from across the United States, are reproducible provided the described procedures are duplicated. Overall, whole brain ChE activity varied nearly three-fold among the 48 species represented, but it was usually similar for closely related species. However, some species were statistically separable in most families and some species of the same genus differed as much as 50%.

  4. Daily rhythms of digestive enzyme activity and gene expression in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) during ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Mata-Sotres, José Antonio; Moyano, Francisco Javier; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Yúfera, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    In order to identify daily changes in digestive physiology in developing gilthead seabream larvae, the enzyme activity (trypsin, lipases and α-amylase) and gene expression (trypsinogen-try, chymotrypsinogen-ctrb, bile salt-activated lipase-cel1b, phospholipase A2-pla2 and α-amylase-amy2a) were measured during a 24h cycle in larvae reared under a 12h light/12h dark photoperiod. Larvae were sampled at 10, 18, 30 and 60days post-hatch. In each sampling day, larvae were sampled every 3h during a complete 24h cycle. The enzyme activity and gene expression exhibited a marked dependent behavior to the light/darkness cycle in all tested ages. The patterns of activity and expression of all tested enzymes were compared to the feeding pattern found in the same larvae, which showed a rhythmic feeding pattern with a strong light synchronization. In the four tested ages, the activities of trypsin, and to a lesser extent lipases and amylase, were related to feeding activity. Molecular expression of the pancreatic enzymes tended to increase during the night, probably as an anticipation of the forthcoming ingestion of food that will take place during the next light period. It follows that the enzymatic activities are being regulated at translational and/or post-translational level. The potential variability of enzyme secretion along the whole day is an important factor to take into account in future studies. A particularly striking consequence of the present results is the reliability of studies based in only one daily sample taken at the same hour of the day, as those focused to assess ontogeny of digestive enzymes. PMID:26987267

  5. RemoTable: Sharing Daily Activities and Moods Using Smart Furniture.

    PubMed

    Wallbaum, Torben; Heuten, Wilko; Boll, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Social Interaction and the feeling of emotional closeness to beloved ones is mainly driven by the communication with each other. For patients suffering from a serious disease due to intense mood changes, it is difficult to keep regular contact with relatives. This affects the need for direct and verbal communication with relatives. To continue the participation in each others lives, we have developed a concept to share daily activities, current moods and presence information using a smart living room table. A first lab study with a prototype showed promising results with regard to expressiveness, joy of use, and usability. PMID:27534325

  6. Association between daily activities, process skills, and motor skills in community-dwelling patients after left hemiparetic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sinae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between daily activities, information processing, and motor skills in individuals with hemineglect after having a left hemiparetic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] The instrumental activities of daily living of 35 patients (22 male and 13 female; age: 57.1 ± 16.9 years) with hemineglect after having a left hemiparetic stroke were assessed by using three clinical measurement tools, including activity card sorting, assessment of motor and process skills, and the modified Barthel Index. [Results] The results of the regression analysis indicated that the patients’ processing skills in instrumental activities of daily living after having a left hemiparetic stroke were reduced. Participation in leisure and social activities was also affected as assessed by using the modified Barthel Index. [Conclusion] This study supports the clinical need for rehabilitation intervention after a left hemiparetic stroke to improve patients’ processing skills and independence in performing activities of daily living. PMID:27390426

  7. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which…

  8. Evaluation of a Smartphone-based Human Activity Recognition System in a Daily Living Environment.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Edward D; Tundo, Marco D; Baddour, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    An evaluation method that includes continuous activities in a daily-living environment was developed for Wearable Mobility Monitoring Systems (WMMS) that attempt to recognize user activities. Participants performed a pre-determined set of daily living actions within a continuous test circuit that included mobility activities (walking, standing, sitting, lying, ascending/descending stairs), daily living tasks (combing hair, brushing teeth, preparing food, eating, washing dishes), and subtle environment changes (opening doors, using an elevator, walking on inclines, traversing staircase landings, walking outdoors). To evaluate WMMS performance on this circuit, fifteen able-bodied participants completed the tasks while wearing a smartphone at their right front pelvis. The WMMS application used smartphone accelerometer and gyroscope signals to classify activity states. A gold standard comparison data set was created by video-recording each trial and manually logging activity onset times. Gold standard and WMMS data were analyzed offline. Three classification sets were calculated for each circuit: (i) mobility or immobility, ii) sit, stand, lie, or walking, and (iii) sit, stand, lie, walking, climbing stairs, or small standing movement. Sensitivities, specificities, and F-Scores for activity categorization and changes-of-state were calculated. The mobile versus immobile classification set had a sensitivity of 86.30% ± 7.2% and specificity of 98.96% ± 0.6%, while the second prediction set had a sensitivity of 88.35% ± 7.80% and specificity of 98.51% ± 0.62%. For the third classification set, sensitivity was 84.92% ± 6.38% and specificity was 98.17 ± 0.62. F1 scores for the first, second and third classification sets were 86.17 ± 6.3, 80.19 ± 6.36, and 78.42 ± 5.96, respectively. This demonstrates that WMMS performance depends on the evaluation protocol in addition to the algorithms. The demonstrated protocol can be used and tailored for evaluating human activity

  9. The Thermal Activity of Normal and Malignant Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Li-Yao

    1998-01-01

    The usefulness of metabolic heat measurements in quantifying the response of a solid tumour to anticancer treatment was evaluated. The heat production characteristic of malignant tissues, as measured from human stomach, breast and liver cancer samples, was observed to be inconsistent, and its value could be higher or lower than that of its normal tissue of origin. The various thermal activity responses of an experimental rat hepatoma to hepatic artery ligation, cryotherapy, intra-arterial (i.a) Adriamycin (2.4 mg/ kg), i.a. Norcantharidin (0.5 mg/kg) were next studied. The tumour/liver (T/L) ratio of untreated tumour-bearing rats was 0.83 but this fell to a minimum at 24 h in both the hepatic artery ligation and the cryosurgery groups. In these two groups marked fluctuations in the heat production of normal liver occurred with poor recovery of the T/ L ratio even at 2--3 weeks. In the Adriamycin group, the T/L ratio dropped to a minimum at 5 days, and in the Norcantharidin group, at 3 days. Minimal disturbances in the thermal activity of liver tissue occured in these two chemotherapy groups and the T/L ratio recovered by 3 weeks. Norcantharidin appeared as efficacious as Adriamycin in the treatment of hepatoma when evaluated in terms of thermal activity. PMID:9893237

  10. Effects of sitting time associated with media consumption on physical activity patterns and daily energy expenditure of Saudi school students.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Iqbal, Zaheen A

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to assess the effect of daily sitting time during media consumption on physical fitness, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body composition indices of Saudi school children. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 180 healthy Saudi school students (8-18 years) were included in this study. Sitting time, total energy expenditure, and levels of physical activity were evaluated with pre-validated internet based questionnaires. Body composition indices were evaluated using anthropometric analysis. [Results] Out of the studied participants, only 22.2% of students were physically inactive. Children with moderate and active physical scores demonstrated less sedentary behavior (TV viewing and computer usage), lower body composition values (BMI, WC, WHtR), and higher TEE than sedentary or mild activity level participants. Boys showed higher fitness scores and less sedentary behavior than girls. Media sitting time among the studied subjects correlated negatively with physical scores and positively with body composition. [Conclusion] The data presented here suggests that poor physical fitness, lower TEE, and longer sitting times differentially influence normal body composition indices among school children which may lead to overweight or obese individuals. Thus, decreasing sitting time during media consumption and enhancing physical activity may play a pivotal role in preventing obesity in young children. PMID:26504298

  11. Effects of sitting time associated with media consumption on physical activity patterns and daily energy expenditure of Saudi school students

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Iqbal, Zaheen A.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to assess the effect of daily sitting time during media consumption on physical fitness, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body composition indices of Saudi school children. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 180 healthy Saudi school students (8–18 years) were included in this study. Sitting time, total energy expenditure, and levels of physical activity were evaluated with pre-validated internet based questionnaires. Body composition indices were evaluated using anthropometric analysis. [Results] Out of the studied participants, only 22.2% of students were physically inactive. Children with moderate and active physical scores demonstrated less sedentary behavior (TV viewing and computer usage), lower body composition values (BMI, WC, WHtR), and higher TEE than sedentary or mild activity level participants. Boys showed higher fitness scores and less sedentary behavior than girls. Media sitting time among the studied subjects correlated negatively with physical scores and positively with body composition. [Conclusion] The data presented here suggests that poor physical fitness, lower TEE, and longer sitting times differentially influence normal body composition indices among school children which may lead to overweight or obese individuals. Thus, decreasing sitting time during media consumption and enhancing physical activity may play a pivotal role in preventing obesity in young children. PMID:26504298

  12. Level of asthma control and its impact on activities of daily living in asthma patients in Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Gazzotti, Mariana Rodrigues; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Montealegre, Federico; Fish, James; Jardim, José Roberto

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of asthma on activities of daily living and on health status in patients with controlled, partially controlled, or uncontrolled asthma in Brazil. METHODS: We used data related to 400 patients in four Brazilian cities (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, and Curitiba), obtained in a survey conducted throughout Latin America in 2011. All study subjects were > 12 years of age and completed a standardized questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. The questions addressed asthma control, hospitalizations, emergency room visits, and school/work absenteeism, as well as the impact of asthma on the quality of life, sleep, and leisure. The level of asthma control was determined in accordance with the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria. RESULTS: Among the 400 respondents, asthma was controlled in 37 (9.3%), partially controlled in 226 (56.5%), and uncontrolled in 137 (34.2%). The numbers of patients with uncontrolled or partially controlled asthma who visited the emergency room, who were hospitalized, and who missed school/work were higher than were those of patients with controlled asthma (p = 0.001, p = 0.05, and p = 0.01, respectively). Among those with uncontrolled asthma, the impact of the disease on activities of daily living, sleep, social activities, and normal physical exertion was greater than it was among those with controlled or partially controlled asthma (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In Brazil, asthma treatment should be monitored more closely in order to increase treatment adherence and, consequently, the level of asthma control, which can improve patient quality of life and minimize the negative impact of the disease. PMID:24310625

  13. The effect of voice ambulatory biofeedback on the daily performance and retention of a modified vocal motor behavior in participants with normal voices

    PubMed Central

    Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ambulatory biofeedback has potential to improve carryover of newly-established vocal motor behaviors into daily life outside of the clinic and warrants systematic research that is lacking in the literature. This proof-of-concept study was designed to establish an empirical basis for future work in this area by formally assessing whether ambulatory biofeedback reduces daily vocal intensity (performance) and the extent to which this change remains after biofeedback removal (retention). Method Six participants with normal voices wore the KayPENTAX Ambulatory Phonation Monitor for three baseline days followed by four days with biofeedback provided on odd days. Results Compared to baseline days, participants exhibited a statistically significant decrease in mean vocal intensity (4.4 dB) and an increase in compliance (16.8 percentage points) when biofeedback was provided above a participant-specific intensity threshold. After biofeedback removal, mean vocal intensity and compliance reverted back to baseline levels. Conclusions These findings suggest that although current ambulatory biofeedback approaches have potential to modify a vocal motor behavior, the modified behavior may not be retained after biofeedback removal. Future work calls for the testing of more innovative ambulatory biofeedback approaches based on motor control and learning theories to improve retention of a desired vocal motor behavior. PMID:25765862

  14. Scheduled Daily Mating Induces Circadian Anticipatory Activity Rhythms in the Male Rat

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Glenn J.; Opiol, Hanna; Marchant, Elliott G.; Pavlovski, Ilya; Mear, Rhiannon J.; Hamson, Dwayne K.; Mistlberger, Ralph E.

    2012-01-01

    Daily schedules of limited access to food, palatable high calorie snacks, water and salt can induce circadian rhythms of anticipatory locomotor activity in rats and mice. All of these stimuli are rewarding, but whether anticipation can be induced by neural correlates of reward independent of metabolic perturbations associated with manipulations of food and hydration is unclear. Three experiments were conducted to determine whether mating, a non-ingestive behavior that is potently rewarding, can induce circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in male rats provided scheduled daily access to steroid-primed estrous female rats. In Experiment 1, rats anticipated access to estrous females in the mid-light period, but also exhibited post-coital eating and running. In Experiment 2, post-coital eating and running were prevented and only a minority of rats exhibited anticipation. Rats allowed to see and smell estrous females showed no anticipation. In both experiments, all rats exhibited sustained behavioral arousal and multiple mounts and intromissions during every session, but ejaculated only every 2–3 days. In Experiment 3, the rats were given more time with individual females, late at night for 28 days, and then in the midday for 28 days. Ejaculation rates increased and anticipation was robust to night sessions and significant although weaker to day sessions. The anticipation rhythm persisted during 3 days of constant dark without mating. During anticipation of nocturnal mating, the rats exhibited a significant preference for a tube to the mating cage over a tube to a locked cage with mating cage litter. This apparent place preference was absent during anticipation of midday mating, which may reflect a daily rhythm of sexual reward. The results establish mating as a reward stimulus capable of inducing circadian rhythms of anticipatory behavior in the male rat, and reveal a critical role for ejaculation, a modulatory role for time of day, and a potential confound role

  15. Scheduled daily mating induces circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Landry, Glenn J; Opiol, Hanna; Marchant, Elliott G; Pavlovski, Ilya; Mear, Rhiannon J; Hamson, Dwayne K; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2012-01-01

    Daily schedules of limited access to food, palatable high calorie snacks, water and salt can induce circadian rhythms of anticipatory locomotor activity in rats and mice. All of these stimuli are rewarding, but whether anticipation can be induced by neural correlates of reward independent of metabolic perturbations associated with manipulations of food and hydration is unclear. Three experiments were conducted to determine whether mating, a non-ingestive behavior that is potently rewarding, can induce circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in male rats provided scheduled daily access to steroid-primed estrous female rats. In Experiment 1, rats anticipated access to estrous females in the mid-light period, but also exhibited post-coital eating and running. In Experiment 2, post-coital eating and running were prevented and only a minority of rats exhibited anticipation. Rats allowed to see and smell estrous females showed no anticipation. In both experiments, all rats exhibited sustained behavioral arousal and multiple mounts and intromissions during every session, but ejaculated only every 2-3 days. In Experiment 3, the rats were given more time with individual females, late at night for 28 days, and then in the midday for 28 days. Ejaculation rates increased and anticipation was robust to night sessions and significant although weaker to day sessions. The anticipation rhythm persisted during 3 days of constant dark without mating. During anticipation of nocturnal mating, the rats exhibited a significant preference for a tube to the mating cage over a tube to a locked cage with mating cage litter. This apparent place preference was absent during anticipation of midday mating, which may reflect a daily rhythm of sexual reward. The results establish mating as a reward stimulus capable of inducing circadian rhythms of anticipatory behavior in the male rat, and reveal a critical role for ejaculation, a modulatory role for time of day, and a potential confound role for

  16. Relationship of Having Hobbies and a Purpose in Life With Mortality, Activities of Daily Living, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Community-Dwelling Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background This study’s aim was to clarify the relationship of having hobbies and a purpose in life (PIL; in Japanese, ikigai) with mortality and a decline in the activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) among the community-dwelling elderly. Methods Prospective observational data from residents aged ≥65 years who were at increased risk for death (n = 1853) and developing a decline in ADL (n = 1254) and IADL (n = 1162) were analyzed. Cox proportional hazard models were used for mortality analysis of data from February 2011 to November 2014. ADL and IADL were evaluated using the Barthel Index and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, respectively. ADL and IADL were assessed at baseline and follow-up and were evaluated using logistic regression models. Fully adjusted models included terms for age, gender, BMI, income, alcohol intake, smoking history, number of chronic diseases, cognitive function, and depression. Results During the follow-up of eligible participants, 248 had died, 119 saw a decline in ADL, and 178 saw a decline in IADL. In fully adjusted models, having neither hobbies nor PIL was significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47–2.94), decline in ADL (odds ratio 2.74; 95% CI, 1.44–5.21), and decline in IADL (odds ratio 1.89; 95% CI, 1.01–3.55) compared to having both hobbies and PIL. Conclusions Although effect modifications by cognitive functioning and depression cannot be ruled out, our findings suggest that having hobbies and PIL may extend not only longevity, but also healthy life expectancy among community-dwelling older adults. PMID:26947954

  17. Evaluation of the physical activity of anesthesiologists in the operating room during daily work using a triaxial accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hidenori; Kawamata, Tomoyuki; Gen-No, Hirokazu; Nose, Hiroshi; Kawamata, Mikito

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate daily exercise is recommended to remain healthy for adults, including medical professionals. In this study, the authors quantified daily physical activity of anesthesiologists in the operating room using a newly developed triaxial accelerometer, Jukudai Mate. During daily work, mean±SD energy expenditure of staff was 576±181 kcal and was significantly higher than that of residents (400±95 kcal; p=007). The mean intensities of hourly physical activity of the staff and residents were estimated to be approximately 1.9 and 1.7 metabolic equivalents (METs), respectively. None of the anesthesiologists had more than 3 METs in intensity of physical activity. We concluded that the physical activity of anesthesiologists during daily work can be classified as light intensity. To promote and maintain health, anesthesiologists need physical activity of moderate or vigorous intensity off the job. PMID:24965320

  18. Older Adults with Diabetes and Osteoarthritis and Their Spouses: Effects of Activity Limitations, Marital Happiness, and Social Contacts on Partners' Daily Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Susanne Olsen; Yorgason, Jeremy B.

    2009-01-01

    Using daily diary data from 28 later life couples where one spouse had diabetes and osteoarthritis, we examined crossover effects of target spouses' daily activity limitations and their partners' daily mood. On days when target spouses' daily activity limitations were higher than average, partners' positive mood decreased and negative mood…

  19. Daily variation in the electrophysiological activity of mouse medial habenula neurones

    PubMed Central

    Sakhi, Kanwal; Belle, Mino D C; Gossan, Nicole; Delagrange, Philippe; Piggins, Hugh D

    2014-01-01

    AbstractIntrinsic daily or circadian rhythms arise through the outputs of the master circadian clock in the brain's suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) as well as circadian oscillators in other brain sites and peripheral tissues. SCN neurones contain an intracellular molecular clock that drives these neurones to exhibit pronounced day–night differences in their electrical properties. The epithalamic medial habenula (MHb) expresses clock genes, but little is known about the bioelectric properties of mouse MHb neurones and their potential circadian characteristics. Therefore, in this study we used a brain slice preparation containing the MHb to determine the basic electrical properties of mouse MHb neurones with whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology, and investigated whether these vary across the day–night cycle. MHb neurones (n = 230) showed heterogeneity in electrophysiological state, ranging from highly depolarised cells (∼ −25 to −30 mV) that are silent with no membrane activity or display depolarised low-amplitude membrane oscillations, to neurones that were moderately hyperpolarised (∼40 mV) and spontaneously discharging action potentials. These electrical states were largely intrinsically regulated and were influenced by the activation of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. When considered as one population, MHb neurones showed significant circadian variation in their spontaneous firing rate and resting membrane potential. However, in recordings of MHb neurones from mice lacking the core molecular circadian clock, these temporal differences in MHb activity were absent, indicating that circadian clock signals actively regulate the timing of MHb neuronal states. These observations add to the extracellularly recorded rhythms seen in other brain areas and establish that circadian mechanisms can influence the membrane properties of neurones in extra-SCN sites. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that the MHb may

  20. Performance of daily activities by older adults with dementia: the role of an assistive robot.

    PubMed

    Begum, Momotaz; Wang, Rosalie; Huq, Rajibul; Mihailidis, Alex

    2013-06-01

    Older adults with cognitive impairment often have difficulties in remembering the proper sequence of activities of daily living (ADLs) or how to use the tools necessary to perform ADLs. They, therefore, require reminders in a timely fashion while performing ADLs. This is a very stressful situation for the caregivers of people with dementia. In this paper we describe a pilot study where a tele-operated assistive robot helps a group of older adults with dementia (OAwD) to perform an ADL, namely making a cup of tea in the kitchen. Five OAwD along with their caregivers participated in this study which took place in a simulated-home setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and usability of a robotic system in assisting the OAwD to perform ADL in a home setting. The findings from this study will contribute to achieve our ultimate goal of designing a full-fledged assistive robot that assists OAwD aging in their own homes. The assistive robots designed for people with dementia mostly focus on companionship. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first attempt to design an assistive robot which will provide step-by-step guidance to people with dementia in their activities of daily living. PMID:24187224

  1. A new clinical tool for assessing numerical abilities in neurological diseases: numerical activities of daily living

    PubMed Central

    Semenza, Carlo; Meneghello, Francesca; Arcara, Giorgio; Burgio, Francesca; Gnoato, Francesca; Facchini, Silvia; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Clementi, Maurizio; Butterworth, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to build an instrument, the numerical activities of daily living (NADL), designed to identify the specific impairments in numerical functions that may cause problems in everyday life. These impairments go beyond what can be inferred from the available scales evaluating activities of daily living in general, and are not adequately captured by measures of the general deterioration of cognitive functions as assessed by standard clinical instruments like the MMSE and MoCA. We assessed a control group (n = 148) and a patient group affected by a wide variety of neurological conditions (n = 175), with NADL along with IADL, MMSE, and MoCA. The NADL battery was found to have satisfactory construct validity and reliability, across a wide age range. This enabled us to calculate appropriate criteria for impairment that took into account age and education. It was found that neurological patients tended to overestimate their abilities as compared to the judgment made by their caregivers, assessed with objective tests of numerical abilities. PMID:25126077

  2. A new clinical tool for assessing numerical abilities in neurological diseases: numerical activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Semenza, Carlo; Meneghello, Francesca; Arcara, Giorgio; Burgio, Francesca; Gnoato, Francesca; Facchini, Silvia; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Clementi, Maurizio; Butterworth, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to build an instrument, the numerical activities of daily living (NADL), designed to identify the specific impairments in numerical functions that may cause problems in everyday life. These impairments go beyond what can be inferred from the available scales evaluating activities of daily living in general, and are not adequately captured by measures of the general deterioration of cognitive functions as assessed by standard clinical instruments like the MMSE and MoCA. We assessed a control group (n = 148) and a patient group affected by a wide variety of neurological conditions (n = 175), with NADL along with IADL, MMSE, and MoCA. The NADL battery was found to have satisfactory construct validity and reliability, across a wide age range. This enabled us to calculate appropriate criteria for impairment that took into account age and education. It was found that neurological patients tended to overestimate their abilities as compared to the judgment made by their caregivers, assessed with objective tests of numerical abilities. PMID:25126077

  3. Delayed yet persistent effects of daily risperidone on activity in developing rats.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Rachel M; Gannon, Matthew A; Griffith, Molly S; Bardgett, Mark E

    2016-08-01

    Early-life administration of risperidone, the most widely used antipsychotic drug in children, leads to persistently elevated locomotor activity in adult rats. This study determined whether and when elevated locomotor activity emerges during developmental risperidone administration. Developing and adult rats were administered daily injections of risperidone (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg) or vehicle for 4 weeks beginning at postnatal days 14 and 74, respectively. Starting with the first injection and every 7 days thereafter, locomotor activity was measured immediately after the injection and 20 min before the next day's injection. Activity was also recorded 1 week after the final injection. Risperidone markedly decreased locomotor activity in developing and adult rats immediately after injection. Within 24 h after their first injection, adult rats administered risperidone showed greater activity levels. In contrast, developing rats did not show compensatory hyperactivity until the beginning of the fourth week of risperidone administration. One week after the final risperidone injection, there was no evidence of hyperactivity in the adult rats maintained on risperidone, but developing rats administered risperidone, especially females, showed greater activity levels relative to vehicle-administered controls. In comparison with adult rats, the emergence of compensatory hyperactivity during long-term antipsychotic drug administration is delayed in developing rats, but persists after treatment cessation. PMID:26960160

  4. Gender Differences in Pain-Physical Activity Linkages among Older Adults: Lessons Learned from Daily Life Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Amy; Ashe, Maureen C.; DeLongis, Anita; Graf, Peter; Khan, Karim M.; Hoppmann, Christiane A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many older adults know about the health benefits of an active lifestyle, but, frequently, pain prevents them from engaging in physical activity. The majority of older adults experience pain, a complex experience that can vary across time and is shaped by sociocultural factors like gender. Objectives. To describe the time-varying associations between daily pain and physical activity and to explore differences in these associations between women and men. Methods. One hundred and twenty-eight community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older were asked to report their pain levels three times daily over a 10-day period and wear an accelerometer to objectively capture their daily physical activity (step counts and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity). Results. Increased daily step counts and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity were associated with increased daily pain, especially among women. Confirming past literature and contrasting findings for daily pain reports, overall pain levels across the study period were negatively associated with minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Conclusions. Findings highlight that pain is significantly associated with physical activity in old age. The nature of this association depends on the time scale that is considered and differs between women and men. PMID:27445599

  5. Gender Differences in Pain-Physical Activity Linkages among Older Adults: Lessons Learned from Daily Life Approaches.

    PubMed

    Ho, Amy; Ashe, Maureen C; DeLongis, Anita; Graf, Peter; Khan, Karim M; Hoppmann, Christiane A

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many older adults know about the health benefits of an active lifestyle, but, frequently, pain prevents them from engaging in physical activity. The majority of older adults experience pain, a complex experience that can vary across time and is shaped by sociocultural factors like gender. Objectives. To describe the time-varying associations between daily pain and physical activity and to explore differences in these associations between women and men. Methods. One hundred and twenty-eight community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older were asked to report their pain levels three times daily over a 10-day period and wear an accelerometer to objectively capture their daily physical activity (step counts and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity). Results. Increased daily step counts and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity were associated with increased daily pain, especially among women. Confirming past literature and contrasting findings for daily pain reports, overall pain levels across the study period were negatively associated with minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Conclusions. Findings highlight that pain is significantly associated with physical activity in old age. The nature of this association depends on the time scale that is considered and differs between women and men. PMID:27445599

  6. Association of total daily physical activity with disability in community-dwelling older persons: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Based on findings primarily using self-report measures, physical activity has been recommended to reduce disability in old age. Collecting objective measures of total daily physical activity in community-dwelling older adults is uncommon, but might enhance the understanding of the relationship of physical activity and disability. We examined whether greater total daily physical activity was associated with less report of disability in the elderly. Methods Data were from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a longitudinal prospective cohort study of common, age-related, chronic conditions. Total daily physical activity was measured in community-dwelling participants with an average age of 82 using actigraphy for approximately 9 days. Disability was measured via self-reported basic activities of daily living (ADL). The odds ratio and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) were determined for the baseline association of total daily physical activity and ADL disability using a logistic regression model adjusted for age, education level, gender and self-report physical activity. In participants without initial report of ADL disability, the hazard ratio and 95% CI were determined for the relationship of baseline total daily physical activity and the development of ADL disability using a discrete time Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for demographics and self-report physical activity. Results In 870 participants, the mean total daily physical activity was 2. 9 × 105 counts/day (range in 105 counts/day = 0.16, 13. 6) and the mean hours/week of self-reported physical activity was 3.2 (SD = 3.6). At baseline, 718 (82.5%) participants reported being independent in all ADLs. At baseline, total daily physical activity was protective against disability (OR per 105 counts/day difference = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.47, 0.65). Of the participants without baseline disability, 584 were followed for 3.4 years on average. Each 105 counts/day additional total daily physical activity

  7. Vision based assistive technology for people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs): an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As'ari, M. A.; Sheikh, U. U.

    2012-04-01

    The rapid development of intelligent assistive technology for replacing a human caregiver in assisting people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs) promises in the reduction of care cost especially in training and hiring human caregiver. The main problem however, is the various kinds of sensing agents used in such system and is dependent on the intent (types of ADLs) and environment where the activity is performed. In this paper on overview of the potential of computer vision based sensing agent in assistive system and how it can be generalized and be invariant to various kind of ADLs and environment. We find that there exists a gap from the existing vision based human action recognition method in designing such system due to cognitive and physical impairment of people with dementia.

  8. Behavioral Intention to Use a Virtual Instrumental Activities of Daily Living System Among People With Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Richard; White, Marga; Diamond, Paul

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavioral intention to use (BIU) regarding a virtual system for practicing instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among people with stroke. METHOD. Fourteen people who had sustained a stroke used a virtual world–based system over four sessions to participate in virtual occupations of preparing meals and putting away groceries. To investigate intention to use the technology, participants responded to a questionnaire based on the Technology Acceptance Model and were interviewed about the experience. RESULTS. Analysis of questionnaire responses revealed favorable attitudes toward the technology and statistically significant correlations between these attitudes and positive BIU. Analysis of qualitative data revealed four themes to support system use: Use of the affected arm increased, the virtual practice was enjoyable, the technology was user-friendly, and the system reflected real-life activities. CONCLUSION. This study shows that participants reported a positive BIU for the virtual system for practicing IADLs. PMID:25871604

  9. Has the Alberta daily physical activity initiative been successfully implemented in Calgary schools?

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Christine Diane; Cantell, Marja; Dewey, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In September 2005, the Alberta government introduced the daily physical activity (DPA) initiative, which requires that students from grades 1 to 9 be physically active in school for a minimum of 30 min per day. OBJECTIVE: To obtain information on whether and how the DPA initiative has been implemented in Calgary schools. METHODS: Information was obtained through a descriptive survey. Principals and vice-principals from elementary schools participated in an interview, in which they were asked questions about the DPA initiative, their definition of physical activity, the types of activities that fulfilled the DPA requirement, and barriers to increasing physical activity and physical education. RESULTS: 98.2% of respondents reported being aware of the DPA initiative; 100% of respondents reported it being successfully implemented. The leading responses to the question, “How do you define physical activity?” were “moving/movement” (43.5%), “increasing the heart rate” (32.7%) and “being active” (29%). 78.2% of participants responded that physical education was the only type of activity that fulfilled the DPA requirement; the other participants reported that recess, intramurals and DPA periods organized by the teacher also counted. 69.1% and 61.1% of respondents, respectively, stated that there were barriers to increasing physical education and physical activity. A lack of time in the curriculum, a lack of space and a lack of funding were the most frequently reported barriers. CONCLUSION: According to principal and vice-principal reports, the DPA initiative has been successfully implemented in elementary schools in Calgary. This suggests that government initiatives directed at increasing physical activity at school could result in increasing the actual amount of physical activity that children participate in. However, prospective longitudinal research directly measuring the amount of physical activity that children engage in is needed to

  10. Higher daily physical activity is associated with higher osteocalcin levels in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Saydi E.; Frohnert, Brigitte I.; Thomas, William; Kelly, Aaron S.; Nathan, Brandon M.; Polgreen, Lynda E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise stimulates bone remodeling and improves insulin sensitivity (Si), even without associated weight loss. Osteocalcin (OCN), a bone-derived protein, is associated with improved Si. Purpose We examined how daily physical activity is associated with OCN and Si. Methods Physical activity was measured through questionnaires completed in Minneapolis from 2010 to 2012. A physical activity score (PAQsum) was calculated to quantify physical activity (range 1–5). OCN and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were measured by ELISA. Si was measured by the insulin modified frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test. Results The mean PAQsum value was 2.4 ± 0.8 in 47 participants (12–17.9 years old). PAQsum was positively associated with OCN (p = 0.006). Participants with PAQsum <  2 had significantly lower OCN levels compared to participants with PAQsum >  2 (p < 0.02). Obesity did not modify the association between PAQsum and OCN. There was no statistically significant association between PAQsum and Si or between OCN and Si, even after adjustment for percent body fat. Conclusions OCN is higher in more physically active individuals. More research is needed to clarify the relationship between OCN, physical activity and Si. PMID:26236583

  11. Cardio-respiratory and daily activity monitor based on FMCW Doppler radar embedded in a wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Postolache, Octavian; Girão, Pedro Silva; Postolache, Gabriela; Gabriel, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Unobtrusive monitoring of the cardio-respiratory and daily activity for wheelchair users became nowadays an important challenge, considering population aging phenomena and the increasing of the elderly with chronic diseases that affect their motion capabilities. This work reports the utilization of FMCW (frequency modulated continuous wave) Doppler radar sensors embedded in a manual wheelchair to measure the cardiac and respiratory activities and the physical activity of the wheelchair user. Another radar sensor is included in the system in order to quantify the motor activity through the wheelchair traveled distance, when the user performs the manual operation of the wheelchair. A conditioning circuit including active filters and a microcontroller based primary processing module was designed and implemented to deliver the information through Bluetooth communication protocol to an Android OS tablet computer. The main capabilities of the software developed using Android SDK and Java were the signal processing of Doppler radar measurement channel signals, graphical user interface, data storage and Wi-Fi data synchronization with remote physiological and physical activity database. PMID:22254706

  12. The Relationship between Older Adults’ Risk for a Future Fall and Difficulty Performing Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Mamikonian-Zarpas, Ani; Laganá, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Functional status is often defined by cumulative scores across indices of independence in performing basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL/IADL), but little is known about the unique relationship of each daily activity item with the fall outcome. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the level of relative risk for a future fall associated with difficulty with performing various tasks of normal daily functioning among older adults who had fallen at least once in the past 12 months. The sample was comprised of community-dwelling individuals 70 years and older from the 1984–1990 Longitudinal Study of Aging by Kovar, Fitti, and Chyba (1992). Risk analysis was performed on individual items quantifying 6 ADLs and 7 IADLs, as well as 10 items related to mobility limitations. Within a subsample of 1,675 older adults with a history of at least one fall within the past year, the responses of individuals who reported multiple falls were compared to the responses of participants who had a single fall and reported 1) difficulty with walking and/or balance (FRAIL group, n = 413) vs. 2) no difficulty with walking or dizziness (NDW+ND group, n = 415). The items that had the strongest relationships and highest risk ratios for the FRAIL group (which had the highest probabilities for a future fall) included difficulty with: eating (73%); managing money (70%); biting or chewing food (66%); walking a quarter of a mile (65%); using fingers to grasp (65%); and dressing without help (65%). For the NDW+ND group, the most noteworthy items included difficulty with: bathing or showering (79%); managing money (77%); shopping for personal items (75%); walking up 10 steps without rest (72%); difficulty with walking a quarter of a mile (72%); and stooping/crouching/kneeling (70%). These findings suggest that individual items quantifying specific ADLs and IADLs have substantive relationships with the fall outcome among older adults who have difficulty with

  13. Specific cognitive functions and depressive symptoms as predictors of activities of daily living in older adults with heterogeneous cognitive backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Jonas J.; Diniz, Breno S.; Bicalho, Maria A.; Albuquerque, Maicon Rodrigues; Nicolato, Rodrigo; de Moraes, Edgar N.; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive functioning influences activities of daily living (ADL). However, studies reporting the association between ADL and neuropsychological performance show inconsistent results regarding what specific cognitive domains are related to each specific functional domains. Additionally, whether depressive symptoms are associated with a worse functional performance in older adults is still under explored. We investigated if specific cognitive domains and depressive symptoms would affect different aspects of ADL. Participants were 274 older adults (96 normal aging participants, 85 patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 93 patients probable with mild Alzheimer’s disease dementia) with low formal education (∼4 years). Measures of ADL included three complexity levels: Self-care, Instrumental-Domestic, and Instrumental-Complex. The specific cognitive functions were evaluated through a factorial strategy resulting in four cognitive domains: Executive Functions, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory, and Visuospatial Abilities. The Geriatric Depression Scale measured depressive symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis showed executive functions and episodic memory as significant predictors of Instrumental-Domestic ADL, and executive functions, episodic memory and language/semantic memory as predictors of Instrumental-Complex ADL (22 and 28% of explained variance, respectively). Ordinal regression analysis showed the influence of specific cognitive functions and depressive symptoms on each one of the instrumental ADL. We observed a heterogeneous pattern of association with explained variance ranging from 22 to 38%. Different instrumental ADL had specific cognitive predictors and depressive symptoms were predictive of ADL involving social contact. Our results suggest a specific pattern of influence depending on the specific instrumental daily living activity. PMID:26257644

  14. Once daily versus three times daily mesalazine granules in active ulcerative colitis: a double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, non-inferiority trial

    PubMed Central

    Kruis, W; Kiudelis, G; Rácz, I; Gorelov, I A; Pokrotnieks, J; Horynski, M; Batovsky, M; Kykal, J; Boehm, S; Greinwald, R; Mueller, R

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the therapeutic equivalence and safety of once daily (OD) versus three times daily (TID) dosing of a total daily dose of 3 g Salofalk (mesalazine) granules in patients with active ulcerative colitis. Design: A randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel group, multicentre, international, phase III non-inferiority study. Setting: 54 centres in 13 countries. Patients: 380 patients with confirmed diagnosis of established or first attack of ulcerative colitis (clinical activity index (CAI)>4 and endoscopic index ⩾4 at baseline) were randomised and treated. Interventions: 8-week treatment with either 3 g OD or 1 g TID mesalazine granules. Main outcome measures: Clinical remission (CAI⩽4) at study end. Results: 380 patients were evaluable for efficacy and safety by intention-to-treat (ITT); 345 for per protocol (PP) analysis. In the ITT population, 79.1% in the OD group (n = 191) and 75.7% in the TID group (n = 189) achieved clinical remission (p<0.0001 for non-inferiority). Significantly more patients with proctosigmoiditis achieved clinical remission in the OD group (86%; n = 97) versus the TID group (73%; n = 100; p = 0.0298). About 70% of patients in both treatment groups achieved endoscopic remission, and 35% in the OD group and 41% in the TID group achieved histological remission. About 80% of all patients preferred OD dosing. Similar numbers of adverse events occurred in 55 patients (28.8%) in the OD group and in 61 patients (32.3%) in the TID group, indicating that the two dosing regimens were equally safe and well tolerated. Conclusions: OD 3 g mesalazine granules are as effective and safe as a TID 1 g schedule. With respect to the best possible adherence of patients to the treatment, OD dosing of mesalazine should be the preferred application mode in active ulcerative colitis. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00449722 PMID:18832520

  15. Effect of weighted vest suit worn during daily activities on running speed, jumping power, and agility in young men.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, Timo; Ruotsalainen, Ilona; Virmavirta, Mikko

    2012-11-01

    Previous weighted vest interventions using exercise in addition to hypergravity have been successful in improving postural balance and power production capacity. The purpose of this study was to investigate if hypergravity alone in daily activities excluding sporting activities is effective in improving neuromuscular performance in young adults. Eight male subjects (age = 32 [SD: 6] years, height = 178 [5] cm, and body mass = 81 [8] kg) wore weighted vests 3 d·wk for 3 weeks during waking hours, excluding sporting activities. Control group comprised 9 male subjects (age = 32 [6] years, height = 179 [5] cm, and body mass = 83 [9] kg). Performance was assessed with countermovement jump (body mass normalized peak power), figure-of-8 running test (running time), and running velocity test at baseline and at the end of the intervention. At baseline, the groups did not differ from each other (multivariate analysis of variance [MANOVA] p = 0.828). A significant group × time interaction (MANOVA F = 5.1, p = 0.015) was observed for performance variables. Analysis of covariance indicated that the intervention improved the figure-of-8 running time (p = 0.016) (-2.2 vs. 0.5%), whereas normalized peak power (0.0 vs. 1.6%) and running velocity (1.3 vs. 0.1%) were unaffected (p ≥ 0.095). Wearing weighted vests was effective in slightly improving agility-related performance in young men. Because the effect was small, applying hypergravity only during exercise probably suffices. It appears that a proper volume and intensity of hypergravity could be in the order of 5-10% body weight vest worn during up to 50% of the training sessions for a period of 3-4 weeks. PMID:22266642

  16. Accelerometry predicts daily energy expenditure in a bird with high activity levels

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Kyle H.; Le Vaillant, Maryline; Kato, Akiko; Speakman, John R.; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Animal ecology is shaped by energy costs, yet it is difficult to measure fine-scale energy expenditure in the wild. Because metabolism is often closely correlated with mechanical work, accelerometers have the potential to provide detailed information on energy expenditure of wild animals over fine temporal scales. Nonetheless, accelerometry needs to be validated on wild animals, especially across different locomotory modes. We merged data collected on 20 thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) from miniature accelerometers with measurements of daily energy expenditure over 24 h using doubly labelled water. Across three different locomotory modes (swimming, flying and movement on land), dynamic body acceleration was a good predictor of daily energy expenditure as measured independently by doubly labelled water (R2 = 0.73). The most parsimonious model suggested that different equations were needed to predict energy expenditure from accelerometry for flying than for surface swimming or activity on land (R2 = 0.81). Our results demonstrate that accelerometers can provide an accurate integrated measure of energy expenditure in wild animals using many different locomotory modes. PMID:23256182

  17. Assessment of executive dysfunction during activities of daily living in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Semkovska, Maria; Bédard, Marc-André; Godbout, Lucie; Limoge, Frédérique; Stip, Emmanuel

    2004-08-01

    Many neuropsychological studies have described deficits of memory and executive functions in patients with schizophrenia, and the severity of these deficits seems to be determinant in predicting the community outcome of these patients [Schizophr. Bull. 26 (2000) 119]. However, neuropsychological evaluation does not provide valuable information about how the cognitive deficits directly affect daily living, that is, which cognitive deficit affects which behavior. The present study aimed at determining whether executive dysfunction in schizophrenia could be directly measured by analyzing three activities of daily living (ADL), in addition to assessing the ecological validity of commonly used neuropsychological tests. Within specific ADL (choosing a menu, shopping the ingredients, cooking a meal), the sequences of behaviors that have been performed by 27 control subjects and 27 patients with schizophrenia were both analyzed by using a preset optimal sequence of behavior. When compared with control subjects, patients with schizophrenia showed more omissions when choosing the menu, more sequencing and repetitions errors during the shopping task, and more planning, sequencing, repetition and omission errors during the cooking task. These behavioral errors correlated significantly with negative, but not with positive symptoms of the patients. Furthermore, they also correlated with the poor performances on executive neuropsychological tests, especially those sensitive to shifting and sequencing abilities, but not with memory tests. These results suggest that executive deficits in schizophrenia may specifically affect ADL and that such deficits can be quantitatively assessed with a behavioral scale of action sequences. PMID:15469200

  18. A robotic system to train activities of daily living in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Guidali, Marco; Duschau-Wicke, Alexander; Broggi, Simon; Klamroth-Marganska, Verena; Nef, Tobias; Riener, Robert

    2011-10-01

    In the past decade, several arm rehabilitation robots have been developed to assist neurological patients during therapy. Early devices were limited in their number of degrees of freedom and range of motion, whereas newer robots such as the ARMin robot can support the entire arm. Often, these devices are combined with virtual environments to integrate motivating game-like scenarios. Several studies have shown a positive effect of game-playing on therapy outcome by increasing motivation. In addition, we assume that practicing highly functional movements can further enhance therapy outcome by facilitating the transfer of motor abilities acquired in therapy to daily life. Therefore, we present a rehabilitation system that enables the training of activities of daily living (ADL) with the support of an assistive robot. Important ADL tasks have been identified and implemented in a virtual environment. A patient-cooperative control strategy with adaptable freedom in timing and space was developed to assist the patient during the task. The technical feasibility and usability of the system was evaluated with seven healthy subjects and three chronic stroke patients. PMID:21796422

  19. Pattern of physical activity among persons with type 2 diabetes with special consideration to daily routine

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Rozina; Younis, Bilal Bin; Masood, Junaid; Tahira, Maham; Khurhsid, Saima

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Physical activity is essential in maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Physical activity can improve general health, quality of life and diabetes management. The aim and objective of the study was to assess the physical activity trends in daily routine of people with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Two hundred persons with diabetes from four different clinical settings were included to access the trends of physical activity using a customized questionnaire EPIC-2. Pattern of physical activity was assessed across a set of domains including sleep time, hours of TV watch, preferred mode of transport for specific distance and household activities. Data was analyzed using SPSS 21. Results: Out of 200 persons with diabetes, 104(52%) were male and 96 (48%) were female. Out of the total sample of patients, 85 (81.7%) Male and 80 (83.3%) female patients preferred walk to cover a distance of less than one mile. There was a significant difference in selection of mode of transport for all other specified distance, esp. in female patients with both age groups. There was insignificant difference for physical activity pattern related to household activities in young and elderly male subjects. The mean sleeping time for younger male subjects on weekend was 464.31± 88.88 minutes/day and for elder it was 418.65± 102.66 minutes/day while for young female subjects was 476.25± 113.74 minutes/day and in female elderly subjects it was 420.62± 120.62 minutes/day respectively. Conclusion: In type 2 diabetics we observed a low level of physical activity which may be detrimental for the control of diabetes mellitus. PMID:27022382

  20. Neighborhoods, daily activities, and measuring health risks experienced in urban environments.

    PubMed

    Basta, Luke A; Richmond, Therese S; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2010-12-01

    Studies of place and health often classify a subject's exposure status according to that which is present in their neighborhood of residence. One's neighborhood is often proxied by designating it to be an administratively defined unit such as census tract, to make analysis feasible. Although it is understood that residential space and actual lived space may not correspond and therefore exposure misclassification may result, few studies have the opportunity to investigate the implications of this issue concretely. A population-based case-control study that is currently underway provides one such opportunity. Adolescent victims of assault in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, and a control sample of adolescents drawn randomly from the community are being enrolled to study how alcohol consumption and time spent nearby alcohol outlets - individual-level and environmental-level risk factors for violence, respectively - over the course of daily activities relate to the likelihood of being assaulted. Data from a rapport-building exercise consist of hand-drawn sketches that subjects drew on street maps when asked to indicate the area considered their neighborhood. The main data consist of self-reported, detailed paths of the routes adolescents traveled from one location to the next over the course of one full day. Having noticed interesting patterns as the data collection phase proceeds, we present here an analysis conducted with the data of 55 control subjects between 15 and 19 years old. We found that hand-drawn neighborhoods and activity paths did not correspond to census tract boundaries, and time subjects spent in close proximity to alcohol outlets during their daily activities was not correlated with the prevalence of alcohol outlets in the census tract of their residence. This served as a useful example demonstrating how classifying subjects as exposed based solely on the prevalence of the exposure in the geographic area of their residence may misrepresent the

  1. Prediction of motor outcomes and activities of daily living function using diffusion tensor tractography in acute hemiparetic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Imura, Takeshi; Nagasawa, Yuki; Inagawa, Tetsuji; Imada, Naoki; Izumi, Hiroaki; Emoto, Katsuya; Tani, Itaru; Yamasaki, Hiroyuki; Ota, Yuichiro; Oki, Shuichi; Maeda, Tadanori; Araki, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The efficacy of diffusion tensor imaging in the prediction of motor outcomes and activities of daily living function remains unclear. We evaluated the most appropriate diffusion tensor parameters and methodology to determine whether the region of interest- or tractography-based method was more useful for predicting motor outcomes and activities of daily living function in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Diffusion tensor imaging data within 10 days after stroke onset were collected and analyzed for 25 patients. The corticospinal tract was analyzed. Fractional anisotropy, number of fibers, and apparent diffusion coefficient were used as diffusion tensor parameters. Motor outcomes and activities of daily living function were evaluated on the same day as diffusion tensor imaging and at 1 month post-onset. [Results] The fractional anisotropy value of the affected corticospinal tract significantly correlated with the motor outcome and activities of daily living function within 10 days post-onset and at 1 month post-onset. Tthere were no significant correlations between other diffusion tensor parameters and motor outcomes or activities of daily living function. [Conclusion] The fractional anisotropy value of the affected corticospinal tract obtained using the tractography-based method was useful for predicting motor outcomes and activities of daily living function in stroke patients. PMID:26157225

  2. Daily Activity and Nest Occupation Patterns of Fox Squirrels (Sciurus niger) throughout the Year

    PubMed Central

    Wassmer, Thomas; Refinetti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the general activity and nest occupation patterns of fox squirrels in a natural setting using temperature-sensitive data loggers that measure activity as changes in the microenvironment of the animal. Data were obtained from 25 distinct preparations, upon 14 unique squirrels, totaling 1385 recording days. The animals were clearly diurnal, with a predominantly unimodal activity pattern, although individual squirrels occasionally exhibited bimodal patterns, particularly in the spring and summer. Even during the short days of winter (9 hours of light), the squirrels typically left the nest after dawn and returned before dusk, spending only about 7 hours out of the nest each day. Although the duration of the daily active phase did not change with the seasons, the squirrels exited the nest earlier in the day when the days became longer in the summer and exited the nest later in the day when the days became shorter in the winter, thus tracking dawn along the seasons. During the few hours spent outside the nest each day, fox squirrels seemed to spend most of the time sitting or lying. These findings suggest that fox squirrels may have adopted a slow life history strategy that involves long periods of rest on trees and short periods of ground activity each day. PMID:26963918

  3. Assessing Daily Physical Activity in Older Adults: Unraveling the Complexity of Monitors, Measures, and Methods.

    PubMed

    Schrack, Jennifer A; Cooper, Rachel; Koster, Annemarie; Shiroma, Eric J; Murabito, Joanne M; Rejeski, W Jack; Ferrucci, Luigi; Harris, Tamara B

    2016-08-01

    At the 67th Gerontological Society of America Annual Meeting, a preconference workshop was convened to discuss the challenges of accurately assessing physical activity in older populations. The advent of wearable technology (eg, accelerometers) to monitor physical activity has created unprecedented opportunities to observe, quantify, and define physical activity in the real-world setting. These devices enable researchers to better understand the associations of physical activity with aging, and subsequent health outcomes. However, a consensus on proper methodological use of these devices in older populations has not been established. To date, much of the validation research regarding device type, placement, and data interpretation has been performed in younger, healthier populations, and translation of these methods to older populations remains problematic. A better understanding of these devices, their measurement properties, and the data generated is imperative to furthering our understanding of daily physical activity, its effects on the aging process, and vice versa. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the highlights of the preconference workshop, including properties of the different types of accelerometers, the methodological challenges of employing accelerometers in older study populations, a brief summary of ongoing aging-related research projects that utilize different types of accelerometers, and recommendations for future research directions. PMID:26957472

  4. Daily Activity and Nest Occupation Patterns of Fox Squirrels (Sciurus niger) throughout the Year.

    PubMed

    Wassmer, Thomas; Refinetti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the general activity and nest occupation patterns of fox squirrels in a natural setting using temperature-sensitive data loggers that measure activity as changes in the microenvironment of the animal. Data were obtained from 25 distinct preparations, upon 14 unique squirrels, totaling 1385 recording days. The animals were clearly diurnal, with a predominantly unimodal activity pattern, although individual squirrels occasionally exhibited bimodal patterns, particularly in the spring and summer. Even during the short days of winter (9 hours of light), the squirrels typically left the nest after dawn and returned before dusk, spending only about 7 hours out of the nest each day. Although the duration of the daily active phase did not change with the seasons, the squirrels exited the nest earlier in the day when the days became longer in the summer and exited the nest later in the day when the days became shorter in the winter, thus tracking dawn along the seasons. During the few hours spent outside the nest each day, fox squirrels seemed to spend most of the time sitting or lying. These findings suggest that fox squirrels may have adopted a slow life history strategy that involves long periods of rest on trees and short periods of ground activity each day. PMID:26963918

  5. Disabilities and Activities of Daily Living Among Veterans With Old Hip Disarticulation and Transpelvic Amputation

    PubMed Central

    Kachooei, Amir Reza; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohamad Hosein; Hallaj Moghadam, Mohamad; Fattahi, Asieh-sadat; Razi, Shiva; Salehi, Maryam; Azema, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Iran-Iraq imposed war lasted eight years and was one of the longest wars of the last century. Twenty-three years have passed since the war ended, but little has been discussed about the long-term results of war amputations in the literature. Objectives: In this long-term study, we have evaluated the activities of daily living among veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on Iran-Iraq war veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations in Iran. Eighty-four (96.5%) veterans out of 87 registered veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations participated in the study. The degree of independence for activities of daily living (ADL) was assessed by the Barthel index. The degree of independence for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was assessed by the Lawton-Brody scale. Results: The average follow-up time was 26.6 ± 3.7 years. The average age of veterans was 44.1±7 years old. Of 84 amputees, 57 (67.85%) had limitations in at least one domain of the ADL. The most common single item that affected the patients was ascending and descending stairs seen in 45 (78.9%) veterans, followed by eating seen in 4 (7.01%) veterans. In addition, 70 (83.33%) had limitations in at least one domain of the IADL. The most common single item that affected the veterans was shopping seen in 56 (80%), followed by responsibility for own medications seen in 13 (18.57%) veterans. Spearman correlation coefficient of the sum scores of ADL and IADL showed an intermediate to strong correlation (r = 0.58). Conclusions: Increasing dependency in ADL is accompanied by increasing dependency in IADL. In the past, the duty of health care providers was saving the life of veterans due to injuries while at present, because these injuries occurred in young and healthy individuals, the need for increased function is being highlighted. PMID:25032170

  6. Motion analysis of the glenohumeral joint during activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Lovern, B; Stroud, L A; Ferran, N A; Evans, S L; Evans, R O; Holt, C A

    2010-12-01

    The shoulder complex has a larger range of motion (ROM) than any other joint complex in the human body, leaving it prone to numerous injuries. Objective kinematic analysis could yield useful functional insights that may assist clinical practice. Non-invasive optoelectronic motion analysis techniques have been used to assess the shoulders of five healthy subjects performing ROM tasks and 10 functional tasks of daily living. The four most demanding tasks - touching the side and back of the head, brushing the opposite side of the head, lifting an object to shoulder height and lifting an object to head height, required 78%, 60%, 61% and 71%, respectively, of the glenohumeral elevation necessary for full abduction in the scapular plane for the 10 shoulders. This has implications for clinical practice where maximum arm elevation is commonly used to determine a patient's ability to return to work and other everyday activities. PMID:21153974

  7. Three-dimensional motion of the upper extremity joints during various activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Junya; Masuda, Tadashi; Koyama, Takayuki; Nakamaru, Koji; Isozaki, Koji; Okawa, Atsushi; Morita, Sadao

    2010-11-16

    Highly reliable information on the range of motion (ROM) required to perform activities of daily living (ADL) is important to allow rehabilitation professionals to make appropriate clinical judgments of patients with limited ROM of the upper extremity joints. There are, however, no data available that take full account of corrections for gimbal-lock and soft tissue artifacts, which affect estimation errors for joint angles. We used an electromagnetic three-dimensional tracking system (FASTRAK) to measure the three-dimensional ROM of the upper extremity joints of healthy adults (N=20, age range 18-34) during 16 ADL movement tasks. The ROM required for the performance of each movement was shown in terms of the joint angle at the completion of the task, using a new definition of joint angle and regression analysis to compensate for estimation errors. The results of this study may be useful in setting goals for the treatment of upper extremity joint function. PMID:20727523

  8. Mapping the Daily Progression of Large Wildland Fires Using MODIS Active Fire Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veraverbeke, Sander; Sedano, Fernando; Hook, Simon J.; Randerson, James T.; Jin, Yufang; Rogers, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    High temporal resolution information on burned area is a prerequisite for incorporating bottom-up estimates of wildland fire emissions in regional air transport models and for improving models of fire behavior. We used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire product (MO(Y)D14) as input to a kriging interpolation to derive continuous maps of the evolution of nine large wildland fires. For each fire, local input parameters for the kriging model were defined using variogram analysis. The accuracy of the kriging model was assessed using high resolution daily fire perimeter data available from the U.S. Forest Service. We also assessed the temporal reporting accuracy of the MODIS burned area products (MCD45A1 and MCD64A1). Averaged over the nine fires, the kriging method correctly mapped 73% of the pixels within the accuracy of a single day, compared to 33% for MCD45A1 and 53% for MCD64A1.

  9. Assessment of impairment in activities of daily living in mild cognitive impairment using an individualized scale.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Giseli de Fátima Dos Santos; Oliveira, Alexandra Martini; Chaves, Juliana Aparecida Dos Santos; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente; Aprahamian, Ivan; Nunes, Paula Villela

    2016-07-01

    Mild impairment in activities of daily living (ADL) can occur in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), but the nature and extent of these difficulties need to be further explored. The Canadian occupational performance measure (COPM) is one of the few individualized scales designed to identify self-perceived difficulties in ADL. The present study investigated impairments in ADL using the COPM in elderly with MCI. A total of 58 MCI patients were submitted to the COPM for studies of its validity and reliability. The COPM proved a valid and consistent instrument for evaluating ADL in elderly MCI patients. A total of 74.6% of the MCI patients reported difficulties in ADL. Of these problems, 41.2% involved self-care, 31.4% productivity and 27.4% leisure. This data further corroborates recent reports of possible functional impairment in complex ADL in MCI. PMID:27487375

  10. Activities of Daily Living in Mexican American Caregivers: The Key to Continuing Informal Care

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Bronwynne C.; Belyea, Michael J.; Coon, David W.; Ume, Ebere

    2013-01-01

    La familia drives elder care in Mexican–American (MA) families, but nursing home placement can result from day-to-day caregiving demands that increase caregiver difficulty with activities of daily living (ADLs). Using life course perspective, this article describes the initial data wave of 31 MA caregivers from a descriptive, longitudinal, mixed-methods study of 110 MA caregivers and care recipients over 15 months in their caregiving trajectories. Fifteen of 31 caregivers consistently indicated “no help needed” on the Katz ADL, whereas all but one reported “help needed” during semistructured interviews with cultural brokers. In addition to the discrepancy between results on the Katz ADL and interviews, findings include consideration of nursing home placement by moderately acculturated caregivers and minimization of their illnesses by caregivers. Additional methods of MA caregiver assessment may be needed due to the questionable accuracy of the Katz ADL; additional research should explore minimization and acculturation in MA caregivers. PMID:22740307

  11. [Dependency for activities of daily living in the elderly in Catalonia, Spain].

    PubMed

    Brugulat-Guiteras, Pilar; Puig-Oriol, Xavier; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Séculi-Sánchez, Elisa; Salvà-Casanovas, Antoni

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this article is to estimate the disabilty prevalence for the activities of daily living (ADL), the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and the use of health services, distinguishing between the population receiving assistance for ADL and not. Cross-sectional study (Encuesta de Salud de Cataluña [ESCA] 2006). We have analyzed 17 ADL. Differences among proportions are estimated with a 95% confidence interval to characterize the analysis groups. Logistic regression describes the explanatory variables about getting help or not. Disabilty prevalence for the ADL: 26.6% men and 48.2% in women. Of these, 79.6% is getting help. There is a socioeconomic gradient in prevalence, not being observed in relation to assistance or not. We must deepen our understanding of the phenomenon and its evolution to which the ESCA is an essential tool. PMID:22310361

  12. Smart adaptable system for older adults' Daily Life Activities Management - The ABLE platform.

    PubMed

    Giokas, Kostas; Anastasiou, Athanasios; Tsirmpas, Charalampos; Koutsouri, Georgia; Koutsouris, Dimitris; Iliopoulou, Dimitra

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a system (ABLE) that will act as the main platform for a number of low-cost, mature technologies that will be integrated in order to create a dynamically adaptive Daily Life Activities Management environment in order to facilitate the everyday life of senior (but not exclusively) citizens at home. While the main target group of ABLE's users is the ageing population its use can be extended to all people that are vulnerable or atypical in body, intellect or emotions and are categorized by society as disabled. The classes of assistive products that are well defined in the international standard, ISO9999 such as assistive products for personal medical treatment, personal care and protection, communication, information and reaction and for personal mobility, will be easily incorporated in our proposed platform. Furthermore, our platform could integrate and implement the above classes under several service models that will be analyzed further. PMID:25571318

  13. An Evidence-Based Adoption of Technology Model for Remote Monitoring of Elders’ Daily Activities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    What benefit will new technologies offer if they are inadequately or not used? This work presents a meta-synthesis of adoption of technology related findings from four innovative monitoring intervention research studies with older adults and their informal and/or formal caregivers. Each study employed mixed methods analyses that lead to an understanding of the key variables that influenced adoption of telephone and Internet based wireless remote monitoring technologies by elders and their caregivers. The studies were all conducted in “real world” homes ranging from solo residences to multi-story independent living residential buildings. Insights gained came from issues not found in controlled laboratory environments but in the complex interplay of family-elder-staff dynamics around balancing safety and independence. Findings resulted in an adoption of technology model for remote monitoring of elders’ daily activities derived from evidence based research to advance both practical and theoretical development in the field of gerontechnology. PMID:21423843

  14. Prolonged daily light exposure increases body fat mass through attenuation of brown adipose tissue activity

    PubMed Central

    Kooijman, Sander; van den Berg, Rosa; Ramkisoensing, Ashna; Boon, Mariëtte R.; Kuipers, Eline N.; Loef, Marieke; Zonneveld, Tom C. M.; Lucassen, Eliane A.; Sips, Hetty C. M.; Chatzispyrou, Iliana A.; Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; Meijer, Johanna H.; Coomans, Claudia P.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of circadian rhythmicity is associated with obesity and related disorders, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Specifically, prolonged artificial light exposure associates with obesity in humans, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we report that increasing the daily hours of light exposure increases body adiposity through attenuation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity, a major contributor of energy expenditure. Mice exposed to a prolonged day length of 16- and 24-h light, compared with regular 12-h light, showed increased adiposity without affecting food intake or locomotor activity. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that prolonged day length decreases sympathetic input into BAT and reduces β3-adrenergic intracellular signaling. Concomitantly, prolonging day length decreased the uptake of fatty acids from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, as well as of glucose from plasma selectively by BAT. We conclude that impaired BAT activity is an important mediator in the association between disturbed circadian rhythm and adiposity, and anticipate that activation of BAT may overcome the adverse metabolic consequences of disturbed circadian rhythmicity. PMID:25964318

  15. How Accurately Can Your Wrist Device Recognize Daily Activities and Detect Falls?

    PubMed Central

    Gjoreski, Martin; Gjoreski, Hristijan; Luštrek, Mitja; Gams, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    Although wearable accelerometers can successfully recognize activities and detect falls, their adoption in real life is low because users do not want to wear additional devices. A possible solution is an accelerometer inside a wrist device/smartwatch. However, wrist placement might perform poorly in terms of accuracy due to frequent random movements of the hand. In this paper we perform a thorough, large-scale evaluation of methods for activity recognition and fall detection on four datasets. On the first two we showed that the left wrist performs better compared to the dominant right one, and also better compared to the elbow and the chest, but worse compared to the ankle, knee and belt. On the third (Opportunity) dataset, our method outperformed the related work, indicating that our feature-preprocessing creates better input data. And finally, on a real-life unlabeled dataset the recognized activities captured the subject’s daily rhythm and activities. Our fall-detection method detected all of the fast falls and minimized the false positives, achieving 85% accuracy on the first dataset. Because the other datasets did not contain fall events, only false positives were evaluated, resulting in 9 for the second, 1 for the third and 15 for the real-life dataset (57 days data). PMID:27258282

  16. Caste-specific visual adaptations to distinct daily activity schedules in Australian Myrmecia ants.

    PubMed

    Narendra, Ajay; Reid, Samuel F; Greiner, Birgit; Peters, Richard A; Hemmi, Jan M; Ribi, Willi A; Zeil, Jochen

    2011-04-22

    Animals are active at different times of the day and their activity schedules are shaped by competition, time-limited food resources and predators. Different temporal niches provide different light conditions, which affect the quality of visual information available to animals, in particular for navigation. We analysed caste-specific differences in compound eyes and ocelli in four congeneric sympatric species of Myrmecia ants, with emphasis on within-species adaptive flexibility and daily activity rhythms. Each caste has its own lifestyle: workers are exclusively pedestrian; alate females lead a brief life on the wing before becoming pedestrian; alate males lead a life exclusively on the wing. While workers of the four species range from diurnal, diurnal-crepuscular, crepuscular-nocturnal to nocturnal, the activity times of conspecific alates do not match in all cases. Even within a single species, we found eye area, facet numbers, facet sizes, rhabdom diameters and ocelli size to be tuned to the distinct temporal niche each caste occupies. We discuss these visual adaptations in relation to ambient light levels, visual tasks and mode of locomotion. PMID:20926444

  17. Caste-specific visual adaptations to distinct daily activity schedules in Australian Myrmecia ants

    PubMed Central

    Narendra, Ajay; Reid, Samuel F.; Greiner, Birgit; Peters, Richard A.; Hemmi, Jan M.; Ribi, Willi A.; Zeil, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Animals are active at different times of the day and their activity schedules are shaped by competition, time-limited food resources and predators. Different temporal niches provide different light conditions, which affect the quality of visual information available to animals, in particular for navigation. We analysed caste-specific differences in compound eyes and ocelli in four congeneric sympatric species of Myrmecia ants, with emphasis on within-species adaptive flexibility and daily activity rhythms. Each caste has its own lifestyle: workers are exclusively pedestrian; alate females lead a brief life on the wing before becoming pedestrian; alate males lead a life exclusively on the wing. While workers of the four species range from diurnal, diurnal-crepuscular, crepuscular-nocturnal to nocturnal, the activity times of conspecific alates do not match in all cases. Even within a single species, we found eye area, facet numbers, facet sizes, rhabdom diameters and ocelli size to be tuned to the distinct temporal niche each caste occupies. We discuss these visual adaptations in relation to ambient light levels, visual tasks and mode of locomotion. PMID:20926444

  18. How Accurately Can Your Wrist Device Recognize Daily Activities and Detect Falls?

    PubMed

    Gjoreski, Martin; Gjoreski, Hristijan; Luštrek, Mitja; Gams, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    Although wearable accelerometers can successfully recognize activities and detect falls, their adoption in real life is low because users do not want to wear additional devices. A possible solution is an accelerometer inside a wrist device/smartwatch. However, wrist placement might perform poorly in terms of accuracy due to frequent random movements of the hand. In this paper we perform a thorough, large-scale evaluation of methods for activity recognition and fall detection on four datasets. On the first two we showed that the left wrist performs better compared to the dominant right one, and also better compared to the elbow and the chest, but worse compared to the ankle, knee and belt. On the third (Opportunity) dataset, our method outperformed the related work, indicating that our feature-preprocessing creates better input data. And finally, on a real-life unlabeled dataset the recognized activities captured the subject's daily rhythm and activities. Our fall-detection method detected all of the fast falls and minimized the false positives, achieving 85% accuracy on the first dataset. Because the other datasets did not contain fall events, only false positives were evaluated, resulting in 9 for the second, 1 for the third and 15 for the real-life dataset (57 days data). PMID:27258282

  19. The dosimetric impact of daily setup error on target volumes and surrounding normal tissue in the treatment of prostate cancer with intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Algan, Ozer; Jamgade, Ambarish; Ali, Imad; Christie, Alana; Thompson, J. Spencer; Thompson, David; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Herman, Terence

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of daily setup error and interfraction organ motion on the overall dosimetric radiation treatment plans. Twelve patients undergoing definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments for prostate cancer were evaluated in this institutional review board-approved study. Each patient had fiducial markers placed into the prostate gland before treatment planning computed tomography scan. IMRT plans were generated using the Eclipse treatment planning system. Each patient was treated to a dose of 8100 cGy given in 45 fractions. In this study, we retrospectively created a plan for each treatment day that had a shift available. To calculate the dose, the patient would have received under this plan, we mathematically 'negated' the shift by moving the isocenter in the exact opposite direction of the shift. The individualized daily plans were combined to generate an overall plan sum. The dose distributions from these plans were compared with the treatment plans that were used to treat the patients. Three-hundred ninety daily shifts were negated and their corresponding plans evaluated. The mean isocenter shift based on the location of the fiducial markers was 3.3 {+-} 6.5 mm to the right, 1.6 {+-} 5.1 mm posteriorly, and 1.0 {+-} 5.0 mm along the caudal direction. The mean D95 doses for the prostate gland when setup error was corrected and uncorrected were 8228 and 7844 cGy (p < 0.002), respectively, and for the planning target volume (PTV8100) was 8089 and 7303 cGy (p < 0.001), respectively. The mean V95 values when patient setup was corrected and uncorrected were 99.9% and 87.3%, respectively, for the PTV8100 volume (p < 0.0001). At an individual patient level, the difference in the D95 value for the prostate volume could be >1200 cGy and for the PTV8100 could approach almost 2000 cGy when comparing corrected against uncorrected plans. There was no statistically significant difference in the D35 parameter

  20. Relationship Between Grip and Pinch Strength and Activities of Daily Living in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jung Hyun; Seo, Kyung Mook; Kim, Don-Kyu; Shin, Hyun Iee; Shin, Hye Eun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between grip and pinch strength and independence in activities of daily living (ADL) in stroke patients. Methods Medical records of 577 stroke patients from January 2010 to February 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients' grip and pinch strength of both hemiplegic and non-hemiplegic hands and the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) score were collected. These patients were divided into three groups: group A (onset duration: ≤3 months), group B (onset duration: >3 months and <2 years), and group C (onset duration: ≥2 years). The correlation between grip and pinch strength and the K-MBI score was analyzed. Results In group A (95 patients), the K-MBI score was significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the grip and pinch strength of both hands in patients with right hemiplegia. Significant (p<0.05) correlation between the K-MBI score and the grip and pinch strength of the hemiplegic hand was shown in patients with left hemiplegia. In group B (69 patients) and group C (73 patients), the K-MBI score was significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the grip and pinch strength of the hemiplegic hand. Conclusion Stroke patients in subacute stage mainly performed activities of daily living using their dominant hand. However, independence in ADL was associated with the strength of the affected dominant hand. For stroke patients in chronic and late chronic stages, their hand power of the affected hand was associated with independence in ADL regardless whether the dominant hand was affected. PMID:26605173

  1. Breakfast consumption and physical activity in adolescents: daily associations and hourly patterns123

    PubMed Central

    van Sluijs, Esther MF; Ridgway, Charlotte L; Steele, Rebekah M; Prynne, Celia J; Stephen, Alison M; Bamber, Diane J; Dunn, Valerie J; Goodyer, Ian M; Ekelund, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association between breakfast consumption and physical activity (PA) is inconclusive. Objective: We aimed to investigate daily associations and hourly patterns of PA and breakfast consumption in British adolescents. Design: Daily PA [accelerometry-derived moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA)] and breakfast consumption (diet diary) were measured simultaneously over 4 d in 860 adolescents (boys: 43.4%; mean ± SD age: 14.5 ± 0.5 y). Associations between MVPA and breakfast consumption were assessed by using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression separately by sex and for weekends and weekdays. Hourly patterns of MVPA by breakfast consumption status were displayed graphically, and differences were tested by using ANOVA. Multilevel linear regression was used to investigate differences in log MVPA on days when 570 inconsistent breakfast consumers ate or skipped breakfast. Results: On weekends, boys and girls with higher MVPA were more likely to eat breakfast [OR (95% CI): boys, 1.78 (1.30, 2.45) (P < 0.001); girls, 2.30 (1.66, 3.08) (P < 0.001)] when adjusted for socioeconomic status, percentage of body fat, and total energy intake. Peak hourly MVPA differed for breakfast consumers compared with nonconsumers on weekends (P < 0.001). Inconsistent breakfast consumers did more MVPA on days when they ate breakfast [exponentiated β coefficients (95% CIs): 1.2 (1.0, 1.5) on weekdays and 1.4 (1.1, 1.8) on weekends for boys and 1.6 (1.3, 2.1) on weekends for girls; all P < 0.03]. Conclusions: Eating breakfast was associated with higher MVPA on weekends. The time of peak MVPA differed between breakfast consumers and nonconsumers on weekends. Breakfast consumption at weekends is worth additional investigation to potentially inform PA promotion in adolescents. PMID:24284440

  2. Upper extremity coordination strategies depending on task demand during a basic daily activity.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Flávia Pessoni F M; Santiago, Paulo Roberto Pereira; Zampar, Ana Carolina; Pinola, Lívia Nahas; Fonseca, Marisa de Cássia Registro

    2015-10-01

    Injury conditions affecting the upper extremity may lead to severe functional impairment and an accurate evaluation is needed in order to select the most effective treatment in a rehabilitation program. This study focused on simultaneous electromyographic and kinematic analysis to assess movement patterns of upper extremity during a basic daily activity, considering different demands existing within the task. Twenty-five healthy subjects, average age 19.8 ys SD 1.7 ys, with no upper extremity impairment, were assessed by means of electromyography (EMG) and a 3D motion capture system while performing a task that required reach, transport and release. Integrated EMG (iEMG), timing of muscle onset and active range of motion (AROM) were calculated for each subject. Data were compared within each phase and between the three phases and a repeated measure ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. We found early activation of upper trapezius associated with high activity of serratus anterior for proximal stability while anterior deltoid and triceps brachii performed shoulder flexion and elbow extension, in Reach phase. In Transport phase there was early and higher activation of upper trapezius, higher muscle activity of almost all muscles and increased AROM of all joints. No change in flexion/extension wrist posture with increased forearm muscles activity were identified as the main control strategy to keep optimal grasping. Triceps brachii was found to act as an important synergist in shoulder abduction and extension in free load conditions. Such information can lead clinicians to more specific assessment and subsequent better intervention in upper extremity rehabilitation. PMID:26282047

  3. Doing Well: A SEM Analysis of the Relationships between Various Activities of Daily Living and Geriatric Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katt, James A.; Speranza, Linda; Shore, Wendy; Saenz, Karen H.; Witta, E. Lea

    2009-01-01

    An existing large data set, the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) with the subsequent addition of the Consumption and Activities Mail Survey (CAMS) data, provides a rich data set for the examination of the activities of older adults. In this study HRS and CAMS data are used to examine relationships between various activities of daily living (ADLs)…

  4. The hypotensive effect of acute and chronic AMP-activated protein kinase activation in normal and hyperlipidemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Fiona H.; Ewart, Marie-Ann; McNaughton, Eilidh; Cooney, Josephine; Spickett, Corinne M.; Kennedy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is present in the arterial wall and is activated in response to cellular stressors that raise AMP relative to ADP/ATP. Activation of AMPK in vivo lowers blood pressure but the influence of hyperlipidemia on this response has not been studied. ApoE−/− mice on high fat diet for 6 weeks and age-matched controls were treated with the AMPK activator, AICAR daily for two weeks. Under anesthesia, the carotid artery was cannulated for blood pressure measurements. Aortic tissue was removed for in vitro functional experiments and AMPK activity was measured in artery homogenates by Western blotting. ApoE−/− mice had significantly raised mean arterial pressure; chronic AICAR treatment normalized this but had no effect in normolipidemic mice, whereas acute administration of AICAR lowered mean arterial pressure in both groups. Chronic AICAR treatment increased phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase in normolipidemic but not ApoE−/− mice. In aortic rings, AMPK activation induced vasodilation and an anticontractile effect, which was attenuated in ApoE−/− mice. This study demonstrates that hyperlipidemia dysregulates the AMPK pathway in the arterial wall but this effect can be reversed by AMPK activation, possibly through improving vessel compliance. PMID:26196300

  5. Garment-based detection of falls and activities of daily living using 3-axis MEMS accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyan, M. N.; Tay, Francis E. H.; Manimaran, M.; Seah, K. H. W.

    2006-04-01

    This paper studied the detection of falls and activities of daily living (ADL) with two objectives: (1) minimum number of sensors for a broad range of activities and (2) maximize the comfort of the wearer for long term use. We used a garment to provide long term comfort for the wearer, with a 3-axis MEMS accelerometer on the shoulder position, as a wearable platform. ADL were detected in time-frequency domain and summation of absolute peak values of 3-D acceleration signals was used as feature in fall detection. 6 male and female subjects performed approximately five-hour long experiment. Sensitivity of 94.98% and specificity of 98.83% for altogether 1495 activities were achieved. Our garment-based detection system fulfilled the objective of providing the comfort of the wearer in long term monitoring of falls and ADL with high sensitivity. In fall detection, our device can summon medical assistances via SMS (Short Message Service). This detection system can raise fall alarm (fall SMS) automatically to individuals to get a shortened interval of the arrival of assistance.

  6. Association between physical activity in daily life and pulmonary function in adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Miriane Lilian; Barbosa, Alan Carlos Brisola; Spina, Giovanna Domingues; Sperandio, Evandro Fornias; Arantes, Rodolfo Leite; Gagliardi, Antonio Ricardo de Toledo; Romiti, Marcello; Dourado, Victor Zuniga

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL) is associated with pulmonary function in adult smokers. Methods: We selected 62 adult smokers from among the participants of an epidemiological study conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil. The subjects underwent forced spirometry for pulmonary function assessment. The level of PADL was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and triaxial accelerometry, the device being used for seven days. The minimum level of PADL, in terms of quantity and intensity, was defined as 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Correlations between the studied variables were tested with Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient, depending on the distribution of the variables. We used linear multiple regression in order to analyze the influence of PADL on the spirometric variables. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Evaluating all predictors, corrected for confounding factors, and using pulmonary function data as outcome variables, we found no significant associations between physical inactivity, as determined by accelerometry, and spirometric indices. The values for FVC were lower among the participants with arterial hypertension, and FEV1/FVC ratios were lower among those with diabetes mellitus. Obese participants and those with dyslipidemia presented with lower values for FVC and FEV1. Conclusions: Our results suggest that there is no consistent association between physical inactivity and pulmonary function in adult smokers. Smoking history should be given special attention in COPD prevention strategies, as should cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities. PMID:27167434

  7. Daily Steps in Midlife and Older Adults: Relationship with Demographic, Self-Rated Health, and Self-Reported Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payn, Tamara; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Hutto, Brent; Vena, John E.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Blair, Steven N.; Hooker, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between average daily step counts and age, body mass index (BMI), self-reported physical activity (PA) level, and perceived health was determined in 85 middle-aged and older adults who wore a pedometer for 7 consecutive days. Average daily steps were significantly (p less than 0.05) correlated with BMI (r = -0.26), age (r = -0.44)…

  8. Energy Expenditures for Activities of Daily Living in Korean Young Adults: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the energy expenditure (EE) of Korean young adults based on activities refined to a deskbound lifestyle. Methods Sixty-four healthy office workers aged between 25 and 46 years participated in this study. EE was expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET). Participants were evaluated in terms of their EE during physical activities of sleeping (n=22), typing (n=37), folding laundry (n=34), dishwashing (n=32), studying (n=18), mopping (n=35), walking (n=33), stair climbing (n=23), and running (n=29). Volume of oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry K4b2 (COSMED). The results were compared to the established Compendium MET. Results The MET of activities were: sleeping, 1.24±0.43; typing, 1.35±0.25; folding laundry, 1.58±0.51; dishwashing, 2.20±0.51; studying, 2.11±0.90; mopping, 2.72±0.69; walking at 4 km/hr, 3.48±0.65; stair climbing of five stories, 6.18±1.08; and running at 8 km/hr, 7.57±0.57. The values of typing and mopping were similar to those in the Compendium, whereas those of sleeping, folding laundry, dishwashing, studying, walking, stair climbing and running were different. Conclusion To our knowledge, this estimation of EE in MET during activities of daily living is the first data of young adults in Korea. These data could be used as a reference to modify the guidelines of physical activities for the age group examined in this study. PMID:27606280

  9. Shoulder Electromyography Measurements During Activities of Daily Living and Routine Rehabilitation Exercises.

    PubMed

    Gurney, A Burke; Mermier, Christine; LaPlante, Michael; Majumdar, Aditi; O'Neill, Kathleen; Shewman, Todd; Gurney, James G

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background The activity of the rotator cuff muscles has not previously been measured with indwelling electromyography (EMG) comparing ambulation and other movements. Knowledge of the relative contribution of these muscles during various tasks may help to guide rehabilitation progression. Objective To measure activity of the rotator cuff muscles and other shoulder muscles during normal ambulation, shirt and sling donning and doffing, and rehabilitation tasks commonly performed after rotator cuff surgery. Methods In 28 volunteers (15 men, 13 women; mean age, 32.2 years), indwelling EMG activity was measured in the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis muscles during various tasks; and surface EMG activity was measured in the middle deltoid, biceps, and upper trapezius muscles. Results Using median EMG activity, in general, donning and doffing a shirt or sling recruited the rotator cuff muscles more than the other 7 tasks tested. Self-ranging motion using pulleys, especially in the scapular plane, was also consistently associated with greater recruitment of the shoulder muscles. Pendulum exercises, passive range of motion by a physical therapist, and self-ranging motion with a dowel recruited the shoulder muscles to a lesser extent. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that rehabilitation tasks such as pendulum exercises, passive range of motion by a physical therapist, and self-ranging motion with a dowel show low EMG activity, whereas pulleys in the sagittal plane and scapular plane show greater activity. Scapular plane activity was consistently higher than sagittal plane activity. Of all the tasks assessed, ambulation without a sling and donning and doffing a sling and a shirt consistently showed the highest activity. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(5):375-383. Epub 6 Apr 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6090. PMID:27049599

  10. Assessing Upper Extremity Motor Function in Practice of Virtual Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Richard J.; Lichter, Matthew D.; Krepkovich, Eileen T.; Ellington, Allison; White, Marga; Diamond, Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the criterion validity of measures of upper extremity (UE) motor function derived during practice of virtual activities of daily living (ADLs). Fourteen hemiparetic stroke patients employed a Virtual Occupational Therapy Assistant (VOTA), consisting of a high-fidelity virtual world and a Kinect™ sensor, in four sessions of approximately one hour in duration. An Unscented Kalman Filter-based human motion tracking algorithm estimated UE joint kinematics in real-time during performance of virtual ADL activities, enabling both animation of the user’s avatar and automated generation of metrics related to speed and smoothness of motion. These metrics, aggregated over discrete sub-task elements during performance of virtual ADLs, were compared to scores from an established assessment of UE motor performance, the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Spearman’s rank correlation analysis indicates a moderate correlation between VOTA-derived metrics and the time-based WMFT assessments, supporting the criterion validity of VOTA measures as a means of tracking patient progress during an UE rehabilitation program that includes practice of virtual ADLs. PMID:25265612

  11. Daily parental knowledge of youth activities is linked to youth physical symptoms and HPA functioning.

    PubMed

    Lippold, Melissa A; Davis, Kelly D; McHale, Susan M; Almeida, David M

    2016-03-01

    Considerable evidence documents linkages between parental knowledge of youth activities and youth risky behavior. We extended this research to determine whether parental knowledge was associated with youth physical health, including reports of physical symptoms (e.g., headaches, stomachaches) and a biomarker of hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning (i.e., salivary cortisol levels). Participants were children of employees in the Information Technology division of a Fortune 500 company (N = 132, mean age youth = 13.39 years, 55% female) who participated in a daily diary study. Data were collected via telephone calls on 8 consecutive evenings. On 4 study days, cortisol samples were collected at 4 time points (waking, 30 min after waking, before dinner, bedtime). Multilevel models revealed that, at the between-person level, youth whose parents had higher average knowledge about their activities, exhibited lower bedtime cortisol levels. Furthermore, at the within-person level, on days when parents displayed more knowledge than usual (relative to their own 8-day average), youth had lower before-dinner cortisol than usual. Linkages between average parental knowledge and physical health symptoms were moderated by youth age: Younger but not older adolescents whose parents were more knowledgeable had fewer physical health symptoms, on average. A next step is to identify the processes that underlie these associations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26751757

  12. Recognition of Activities of Daily Living with Egocentric Vision: A Review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi-Hoa-Cuc; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Florez-Revuelta, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Video-based recognition of activities of daily living (ADLs) is being used in ambient assisted living systems in order to support the independent living of older people. However, current systems based on cameras located in the environment present a number of problems, such as occlusions and a limited field of view. Recently, wearable cameras have begun to be exploited. This paper presents a review of the state of the art of egocentric vision systems for the recognition of ADLs following a hierarchical structure: motion, action and activity levels, where each level provides higher semantic information and involves a longer time frame. The current egocentric vision literature suggests that ADLs recognition is mainly driven by the objects present in the scene, especially those associated with specific tasks. However, although object-based approaches have proven popular, object recognition remains a challenge due to the intra-class variations found in unconstrained scenarios. As a consequence, the performance of current systems is far from satisfactory. PMID:26751452

  13. Range of Motion Requirements for Upper-Limb Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Lisa Smurr; Cowley, Jeffrey; Wilken, Jason M.; Resnik, Linda

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We quantified the range of motion (ROM) required for eight upper-extremity activities of daily living (ADLs) in healthy participants. METHOD. Fifteen right-handed participants completed several bimanual and unilateral basic ADLs while joint kinematics were monitored using a motion capture system. Peak motions of the pelvis, trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist were quantified for each task. RESULTS. To complete all activities tested, participants needed a minimum ROM of −65°/0°/105° for humeral plane angle (horizontal abduction–adduction), 0°–108° for humeral elevation, −55°/0°/79° for humeral rotation, 0°–121° for elbow flexion, −53°/0°/13° for forearm rotation, −40°/0°/38° for wrist flexion–extension, and −28°/0°/38° for wrist ulnar–radial deviation. Peak trunk ROM was 23° lean, 32° axial rotation, and 59° flexion–extension. CONCLUSION. Full upper-limb kinematics were calculated for several ADLs. This methodology can be used in future studies as a basis for developing normative databases of upper-extremity motions and evaluating pathology in populations. PMID:26709433

  14. [The use of assistive technology in the daily activities of children with disabilities].

    PubMed

    Varela, Renata Cristina Bertolozzi; Oliver, Fátima Corrêa

    2013-06-01

    The scope of this study is to understand the use of assistive technology in the everyday life of children with disabilities, based on the concept of everyday life as a space for expression of particularity and generality of individuals. It was developed from documentary research of medical records, application of a form, observation of daily activities of children and their families and semi-structured interviews. Five children were studied, representatives in age, sex, diagnosis and use of technological resources, who were attended in primary healthcare units in São Paulo. The resources are used in homes, schools and other environments and their use is influenced by family and social relations and by the possibility of accessing products and services. It was established that the everyday activities and the use of resources are organized according to the time, space, ways in which children and, mainly, their caregivers act, showing the presence of pragmatism, economy and spontaneity typical of everyday life. The results revealed elements that can guide the practice of professionals working with assistive technology and can contribute to enable the appraisal of providing equipment in the Unified Health System. PMID:23752543

  15. Recognition of Activities of Daily Living with Egocentric Vision: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thi-Hoa-Cuc; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Florez-Revuelta, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Video-based recognition of activities of daily living (ADLs) is being used in ambient assisted living systems in order to support the independent living of older people. However, current systems based on cameras located in the environment present a number of problems, such as occlusions and a limited field of view. Recently, wearable cameras have begun to be exploited. This paper presents a review of the state of the art of egocentric vision systems for the recognition of ADLs following a hierarchical structure: motion, action and activity levels, where each level provides higher semantic information and involves a longer time frame. The current egocentric vision literature suggests that ADLs recognition is mainly driven by the objects present in the scene, especially those associated with specific tasks. However, although object-based approaches have proven popular, object recognition remains a challenge due to the intra-class variations found in unconstrained scenarios. As a consequence, the performance of current systems is far from satisfactory. PMID:26751452

  16. Relations of morale and physical function to advanced activities of daily living in health promotion class participants

    PubMed Central

    Yajima, Masahide; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the relations of morale and physical function to the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living. [Subjects] The subjects were 86 elderly community residents participating in health promotion classes. [Methods] A questionnaire survey on age, gender, presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living, and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale score was conducted, in addition to assessment of fitness, consisting of measurement of height, body weight, grip and knee extensor muscle strength, functional reach, one-leg standing time, and Timed Up and Go test. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living as a dependent variable. [Results] Grip strength and Timed Up and Go time were identified as variables influencing the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living. [Conclusion] Physical function represented by grip strength and Timed Up and Go time was higher among subjects performing advanced activities of daily living. PMID:27065541

  17. [A statistical analysis of factors influencing standing balance, activity of daily living and ambulation in hemiplegic patients].

    PubMed

    Nogaki, H

    1992-04-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate several factors influencing standing balance, activity of daily living and ambulation in hemiplegic patients after cerebro-vascular diseases. A statistical analysis of 121 hemiplegic patients with unilateral supratentorial lesions showed that age, severity of muscle weakness of involved or uninvolved extremities, unilateral spatial neglect and the sense of toe position had influence on standing balance, activity of daily living or ambulation. The patients were divided into five groups based on the degree of unilateral spatial neglect, evaluated by their copies of two daisies who omitted more than three quarters, three quarters, half, one quarter and none of the figures were defined as the USN-4, USN-3, USN-2, USN-1 and no involvement groups, respectively. Those who belonged to the USN-2 group had significantly lower scores for activity of daily living than those who belonged to the no involvement group. In the USN-2 group, 7 of the 8 patients could not keep standing for 50 seconds, while in the no involvement group, this was the case in only 1 of the 15 patients. Activity of daily living scores or sway area during standing showed no statistically significant differences between the USN-1 and no involvement groups. These results suggested that severe or moderate unilateral spatial neglect is one of the most important factors influencing standing balance and activity of daily living. PMID:1614008

  18. Characteristics of the Activity-Affect Association in Inactive People: An Ambulatory Assessment Study in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    von Haaren, Birte; Loeffler, Simone Nadine; Haertel, Sascha; Anastasopoulou, Panagiota; Stumpp, Juergen; Hey, Stefan; Boes, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Acute and regular exercise as well as physical activity (PA) is related to well-being and positive affect. Recent studies have shown that even daily, unstructured physical activities increase positive affect. However, the attempt to achieve adherence to PA or exercise in inactive people through public health interventions has often been unsuccessful. Most studies analyzing the activity-affect association in daily life, did not report participants’ habitual activity behavior. Thus, samples included active and inactive people, but they did not necessarily exhibit the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Therefore the present study investigated whether the association between PA and subsequent affective state in daily life can also be observed in inactive individuals. We conducted a pilot study with 29 inactive university students (mean age 21.3 ± 1.7 years) using the method of ambulatory assessment. Affect was assessed via electronic diary and PA was measured with accelerometers. Participants had to rate affect every 2 h on a six item bipolar scale reflecting the three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence, and calmness. We calculated activity intensity level [mean Metabolic Equivalent (MET) value] and the amount of time spent in light activity over the last 15 min before every diary prompt and conducted within-subject correlations. We did not find significant associations between activity intensity and the three mood dimensions. Due to the high variability in within-subject correlations we conclude that not all inactive people show the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Analyzing the PA-affect association of inactive people was difficult due to little variance and distribution of the assessed variables. Interactive assessment and randomized controlled trials might help solving these problems. Future studies should examine characteristics of affective responses of inactive people to PA in daily life. General assumptions

  19. Memory Performance, Health Literacy, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living of Community Residing Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.; Mackert, Michael; Becker, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background Health literacy is associated with cognitive function across multiple domains in older adults, and these older adults may face special memory and cognitive challenges that can limit their health literacy and, in turn, their ability to live independently. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate if an association existed among health literacy, memory performance, and performance-based functional ability in community-residing older adults. Methods Forty-five adults participated in this study. Designed to reflect everyday memory, the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) bridges laboratory-based measures of memory and assessments obtained by self-report and observation. The RBMT classifies individuals into four categories of memory performance: normal, poor, mildly impaired, and severely impaired. The participants were recruited in the two categories of normal (≥22) or impaired (≤16) category on the RBMT. The sample consisted of 14 who were in the impaired category and 31 in the normal group. Their average age was 77.11 years, and their average number of years of education was 15.33 years. Health literacy scores measured with the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine. Results Health literacy scores were high (M = 65.09, SD = 2.80). Thirty-four participants or 76% of the sample scored a 66 out of a possible score of 80. Pearson correlations were calculated for the study variables. Health literacy scores with education and cognition (.30), memory performance groups (normal vs. poor; .25), and performance-based instrumental activities (.50) were associated significantly. Discussion The development of a broader assortment of health literacy instruments would improve the ability of researchers to both compare studies and build on the knowledge and results of others. PMID:22166912

  20. Technology-Aided Verbal Instructions to Help Persons with Mild or Moderate Alzheimer's Disease Perform Daily Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Tatulli, Emanuela; Rigante, Valeria; Zonno, Nadia; Perilli, Viviana; Pinto, Katia; Minervini, Mauro G.

    2010-01-01

    These two studies extended previous research on the use of verbal instructions and support technology for helping persons with mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease perform daily activities. Study I included seven participants who were to carry out one of two previously targeted activities (i.e., either coffee preparation or table setting). Study…

  1. The Relationships between Weather-Related Factors and Daily Outdoor Physical Activity Counts on an Urban Greenway

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Dana; Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between weather and outdoor physical activity (PA). An online weather source was used to obtain daily max temperature [DMT], precipitation, and wind speed. An infra-red trail counter provided data on daily trail use along a greenway, over a 2-year period. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine associations between PA and weather, while controlling for day of the week and month of the year. The overall regression model explained 77.0% of the variance in daily PA (p < 0.001). DMT (b = 10.5), max temp-squared (b = −4.0), precipitation (b = −70.0), and max wind speed (b = 1.9) contributed significantly. Conclusion: Aggregated daily data can detect relationships between weather and outdoor PA. PMID:21556205

  2. Occupational therapy for patients with problems in personal activities of daily living after stroke: systematic review of randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Avril; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Gladman, J R F; Donkervoort, Mireille; Edmans, Judi; Gilbertson, Louise; Jongbloed, Lyn; Logan, Pip; Sackley, Catherine; Walker, Marion; Langhorne, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine whether occupational therapy focused specifically on personal activities of daily living improves recovery for patients after stroke. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources The Cochrane stroke group trials register, the Cochrane central register of controlled trials, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycLIT, AMED, Wilson Social Sciences Abstracts, Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation, Arts and Humanities Citation Index, Dissertations Abstracts register, Occupational Therapy Research Index, scanning reference lists, personal communication with authors, and hand searching. Review methods Trials were included if they evaluated the effect of occupational therapy focused on practice of personal activities of daily living or where performance in such activities was the target of the occupational therapy intervention in a stroke population. Original data were sought from trialists. Two reviewers independently reviewed each trial for methodological quality. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results Nine randomised controlled trials including 1258 participants met the inclusion criteria. Occupational therapy delivered to patients after stroke and targeted towards personal activities of daily living increased performance scores (standardised mean difference 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.32, P=0.01) and reduced the risk of poor outcome (death, deterioration or dependency in personal activities of daily living) (odds ratio 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.51 to 0.87, P=0.003). For every 100 people who received occupational therapy focused on personal activities of daily living, 11 (95% confidence interval 7 to 30) would be spared a poor outcome. Conclusions Occupational therapy focused on improving personal activities of daily living after stroke can improve performance and reduce the risk of deterioration in these abilities. Focused occupational therapy should be available to everyone who has had a stroke. PMID

  3. The impact of menstrual cycle-related physical symptoms on daily activities and psychological wellness among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    van Iersel, Kirsten C; Kiesner, Jeff; Pastore, Massimiliano; Scholte, Ron H J

    2016-06-01

    Associations between perimenstrual physical and psychological symptoms have not been adequately studied among adolescent girls. The purpose of the present study was to test a mediation hypothesis postulating that perimenstrual disengagement from daily activities would mediate the association between physical symptoms and psychological symptoms. A non-clinical sample of N = 208 Italian adolescent girls (age M = 16.68 years) completed a 95-item online retrospective questionnaire regarding perimenstrual symptoms, and how these symptoms affect their daily activities. Structural Equation Modeling was used to test the mediation hypothesis. Results showed that physical and psychological symptoms were strongly associated. More importantly, results supported the hypothesis that perimenstrual disengagement from daily activities mediates the association between physical symptoms and psychological symptoms, but only for depressed mood and cognitive symptoms. This study provides support for a novel theoretical framework linking diverse aspects of menstrual cycle change. Longitudinal research is needed to replicate these findings. PMID:27017504

  4. PRIDE for PLAY: Personal Responsibility in Daily Effort for Participation in Lifelong Activity for Youths. A Singaporean Context

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Singapore, a developed city state of four million people is experiencing the pitfalls that come with rapid modernisation and economic progress- elevated disease risk factors among adults and young people. Weekly compulsory physical education classes of 70 minutes in schools and the associated sports activities after classes are inadequate to meet emergent physical activity guidelines of a daily accumulation of at least 90 minutes of physical activity of at least moderate intensity. Daily play sessions that are exclusive of an active daily recess, physical education classes taught by trained specialists and after-school sport sessions, can provide many developmental and holistic health benefits that may carry over into adulthood. A school environment that is play-encouraging, play-enabling and play-inviting can be a useful, innovative and natural way of inculcating a love for movement and help redress a serious trend of physical activity insufficiency while youngsters engage electronic gaming activities. Pilot initiatives for the PRIDE (personal responsibility in daily effort) for PLAY (participation in lifelong activity for youths) programme is a radicalised approach in a number of primary schools in Singapore to infuse daily physical play of between 20 to 45 minutes during curriculum hours. The hope is that PRIDE for PLAY will reap benefits of improved holistic health of youngsters- better physical, social, emotional and mental attributes. While PRIDE for PLAY is no panacea to all of the ills of modernisation, it will go some way in helping the students of tomorrow to be physically healthy, socially more engaged and tolerant of others, mentally more apt to problem-solve and emotionally more proficient to embrace working life in adulthood. Key pointsPhysical play is natural among young people and a daily dose of play can help young people meet daily requirements for accumulated physical activity of at least 90 minutes and at least of a moderate intensity.Play is

  5. Disaggregating Activities of Daily Living Limitations for Predicting Nursing Home Admission

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Joelle H; Mitchell, Olivia S; Koh, Benedict S K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether disaggregated activities of daily living (ADL) limitations better predict the risk of nursing home admission compared to conventionally used ADL disability counts. Data Sources We used panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) for years 1998–2010. The HRS is a nationally representative survey of adults older than 50 years (n = 18,801). Study Design We fitted Cox regressions in a continuous time survival model with age at first nursing home admission as the outcome. Time-varying ADL disability types were the key explanatory variables. Principal Findings Of the six ADL limitations, bathing difficulty emerged as the strongest predictor of subsequent nursing home placement across cohorts. Eating and dressing limitations were also influential in driving admissions among more recent cohorts. Using simple ADL counts for analysis yielded similar adjusted R2s; however, the amount of explained variance doubled when we allowed the ADL disability measures to time-vary rather than remain static. Conclusions Looking beyond simple ADL counts can provide health professionals insights into which specific disability types trigger long-term nursing home use. Functional disabilities measured closer in time carry more prognostic power than static measures. PMID:25256014

  6. Predicting functional outcome after stroke: the influence of neglect on basic activities in daily living.

    PubMed

    Nijboer, Tanja; van de Port, Ingrid; Schepers, Vera; Post, Marcel; Visser-Meily, Anne

    2013-01-01

    One prominent deficit resulting from stroke is visuo-spatial neglect, which has been associated with slower and more attenuated recovery patterns of sensory-motor impairment as well as limitations in activities of daily living (ADL). The aim of the current study was to further specify the relationship between neglect and recovery of different domains of ADL. One hundred eighty four patients were assessed with the Functional Independence Measure in the first week of inpatient rehabilitation, and again at 6, 12, and 36 months post-stroke. On average, neglect patients scored significantly lower on Self-care, Transfers, and Locomotion compared to non-neglect patients, but these differences became smaller with progress of time. Overall, no differences between groups were found for Sphincter control and Cognition. Patients with more severe neglect scored significantly lower on Self-care and Transfers compared to patients with mild neglect. During rehabilitation, it would be of importance to test for independence in ADL domains in neglect in order to define realistic treatment goals. The current findings could be taken into account in early multidisciplinary intervention planning in the sub-acute phase, to optimize regaining ADL. PMID:23675336

  7. Daily energy expenditure and physical activity in survivors of childhood malignancy.

    PubMed

    Warner, J T; Bell, W; Webb, D K; Gregory, J W

    1998-05-01

    Changes in body composition, in particular the onset of obesity, may result from reductions in total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) as a consequence of relative physical inactivity. Children previously treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) become obese, yet the mechanism remains undefined. TDEE and physical activity levels [PAL = TDEE/basal metabolic rate (BMR)] were measured in 34 long-term survivors of ALL and compared with results from 21 survivors of other malignancies and 32 healthy sibling control subjects using the flex-heart rate technique. Body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The median TDEE was reduced in the ALL group (150 kJ x kg d(-1)) compared with other malignancies and controls (207 and 185 kJ x kg d(-1), respectively, p < 0.01). This reduction was accounted for mainly by a relative decrease in the PAL of the ALL group (1.24) compared with both other malignancies and controls (1.58 and 1.47, respectively, p < 0.01). TDEE and PAL were correlated with percentage body fat (r = -0.39, p < 0.001 and r = -0.24, p < 0.05, respectively). Obesity in survivors of ALL may, in part, be explained by a reduction in TDEE as a consequence of reduced PAL. The cause of such reduction is uncertain. PMID:9585006

  8. FALL-RELATED ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING AND BEHAVIOUR DISTURBANCES IN DEMENTIA.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Taro; Hayashi, Akiko; Matsuo, Shinsuke; Shinoda, Kunihiko; Konishi, Isamu; Makio, Haruna; Tsuji, Miwa

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the activities of daily living and behaviour disturbances related to inpatients and outpatients with dementia experiencing falls. Patients diagnosed with dementia belonging to 18 facilities which consented to the study were subjected. The study involved "whether or not the patient has fallen in the past 12 months", "Barthel Index (B.I)", and "Dementia Behaviour Disturbance Scale (DBD)" and other data from 325 people in 18 facilities who had been diagnosed with dementia. The ratio of subjects who had fallen to those who had not was 113:212. The results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the study items related to falls including the DBD item of "making unwarranted accusations" had an OR = 1.445, 95% CI (1.133-1.843), the DBD item of "refusing to eat" had an OR = 0.699, 95% CI (0.521- 0.938), the B.I item of "feeding" had OR = 1.115, 95% CI (1.032-1.204) and the B.I item of "bathing" had OR = 0.782, 95% CI (0.671-0.912). Integral characteristics of dementia patients who have fallen are assumed to be making unwarranted accusations, having a low rate of refusing to eat, being able to eat alone and requiring attention when bathing. PMID:27501537

  9. Ability in daily activities after early supported discharge models of stroke rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Taule, Tina; Strand, Liv Inger; Assmus, Jörg; Skouen, Jan Sture

    2015-01-01

    Abstract More knowledge is needed about how different rehabilitation models in the municipality influence stroke survivors’ ability in activities of daily living (ADL). Objectives: To compare three models of outpatient rehabilitation; early supported discharge (ESD) in a day unit, ESD at home and traditional treatment in the municipality (control group), regarding change in ADL ability during the first three months after stroke. Methods: A group comparison study was designed within a randomized controlled trial. Included participants were tested with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) at baseline and discharged directly home. Primary and secondary outcomes were the AMPS and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results and conclusions: Included were 154 participants (57% men, median age 73 years), and 103 participants completed the study. There were no significant group differences in pre–post changed ADL ability measured by the AMPS. To find the best rehabilitation model to improve the quality of stroke survivors’ motor and process skills needs further research. Patients participating in the ESD rehabilitation models were, compared with traditional treatment, significantly associated with improved ADL ability measured by the mRS when controlling for confounding factors, indicating that patients with social needs and physical impairment after stroke may benefit from ESD rehabilitation models. PMID:26005768

  10. Prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living in female adolescent students

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Alaine Souza; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato; Gomes, Mayra Ruana de A.; de Almeida, Ludmila Remígio; de Souza, Gabriely Feitosa F.; Cunha, Samara Barreto; Pitangui, Ana Carolina R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL) in female adolescent students. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified according to the International Headache Society criteria. The chi-square test was used to verify possible associations, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: After the exclusion of 24 questionnaires that did not met the inclusion criteria, 204 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of the adolescents was 14.0±1.4 years. The prevalence of headache was 87.7%. Of the adolescents with headache, 0.5% presented migraine without pure menstrual aura; 6.7%, migraine without aura related to menstruation; 1.6%, non-menstrual migraine without aura; 11.7%, tension-type headache and 79.3%, other headaches. Significant associations were found between pain intensity and the following variables: absenteeism (p=0.001); interference in ADL (p<0.001); medication use (p<0.001); age (p=0.045) and seek for medical care (p<0.022). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of headache in female adolescents observed in this study was high, with a negative impact in ADL and school attendance. PMID:25119759

  11. The Effects of Resident and Nursing Home Characteristics on Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jye; Kane, Robert L.; Eberly, Lynn E.; Virnig, Beth A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Existing studies on the relationships between impairments and activities of daily living (ADLs) in nursing home residents have serious limitations. This study examines the relationships among admission impairments, including pain, depression, incontinence, balance, and falls, and follow-up ADLs, as well as the effect of the nursing home on follow-up ADLs of extended-stay nursing home residents. Methods This longitudinal cohort study consisted of 4,942 extended-stay residents who were admitted into 377 Minnesota nursing homes during 2004. General linear mixed models were used for all analyses, with 14 resident-level and 8 facility-level control variables. Results Incontinence and balance function at admission were significantly associated with increases in ADL dependence at follow-up. Individual nursing homes had independent effects on all three ADL models. Similar findings were found after facility-level control variables were added. Conclusions Incontinence predicts subsequent ADL functional levels. The relationship between balance dysfunction and subsequent ADL dependence could be causal. Future studies of the causal relationships between impairments and ADL should examine the effectiveness of impairment interventions on ADL as well as these relationships in different subgroups of nursing home residents. PMID:19201787

  12. Physical strain during activities of daily living of patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenburg-van Tilborg, E M; Horstman, A M; Zwarts, B; de Groot, S

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physical strain of activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) compared with healthy controls. Seventeen patients with CAD and 15 controls performed a graded exercise bicycle test and 5 ADL tasks: walking with/without load, vacuum cleaning, undressing, and walking stairs. Peak heart rate (HRpeak) and peak oxygen uptake (VO(2) peak) were determined during the bicycle test. Heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (VO(2)) were continuously measured during all ADL tasks. Physical strain during ADL tasks was calculated using HR and VO(2) response, expressed relative to individual HR and VO(2) reserves (%HRR, %VO(2) R, respectively). Perceived strain was measured using the Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale. HRpeak and VO(2) peak were lower (P<0·001) in patients. Patients performed the ADL tasks slower and with lower absolute VO(2), except for undressing. HR was only higher in patients during stair climbing. No differences in RPE scores were found between both groups, except for undressing. However, physical strain was significantly higher in patients (mean %VO(2) R ranged from 43% to 51%; mean %HRR ranged from 38% to 47%) compared with controls (mean %VO(2) R: 14% to 30%; mean %HRR: 14% to 29%) for all ADL tasks. In general, ADL tasks were performed slower and with higher physical strain in patients with CAD compared with controls. PMID:23815382

  13. An introductory study of common grasps used by adults during performance of activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Margarita; Sancho-Bru, J L; Gracia-Ibáñez, V; Pérez-González, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a descriptive survey on human grasps. Sixty-four videos were selected to represent tasks performed in the main areas of activities of daily living (ADL) (personal care, meal preparation, eating, housekeeping, etc.). All the participants were right-handed. Elementary grasps were identified for each hand, and the grasp type (from a 9-type classification), the hands involved, and the duration were registered for each case. The results show that the most commonly used grasps are: pinch, non-prehensile, cylindrical, lateral pinch and lumbrical. The presence of these grasps in the areas of ADL is, however, very different (e.g., pinch is widely used in food preparation and very little in driving). Some grasps were used more frequently with one hand or when both hands were used simultaneously (e.g., special pinch was hardly used by the left hand). Knowing the grasp types most frequently used in ADL is essential to be able to assess grasp rehabilitation processes or hand prostheses development. PMID:24878351

  14. Loneliness in elderly individuals, level of dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and influential factors.

    PubMed

    Hacihasanoğlu, Rabia; Yildirim, Arzu; Karakurt, Papatya

    2012-01-01

    This study has been carried out to investigate the level of loneliness, determine the level of dependence in the ADL and influential factors in the elderly people. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 Family Healthcare Centers (FHC) located in central Erzincan, Turkey between March and June 2010. The data of the research was collected using a questionnaire that determined the descriptive and UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). Mean score of the UCLA-LS was determined as 51.59 ± 4.44. It was determined that 2% of the elderly ADL were completely dependent, 14.5% were semi-dependent. Factors such as being old, a widow/divorced, having a lower level of education and/or income, living alone, having a chronic disease, poor self-perceived health, lack of visits by relatives or acquaintances, dissatisfaction with the place of living, and being fully dependent while performing daily activities were determined as factors which increased the level of loneliness. Furthermore, factors such as being old, a female, a widow/divorced, living together with a daughter/son, having a chronic disease and poor self-perceived health were found to be influential in dependency. Elderly people who are alone and dependent in fulfilling their ADL should be monitored more closely. PMID:21514680

  15. Is surviving enough? Coping and impact on activities of daily living among melanoma patients with lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, K D; Chiang, Y J; Armer, J; Heppner, P P; Mungovan, K; Ross, M I; Gershenwald, J E; Lee, J E; Royal, R E; Lucci, A; Cormier, J N

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the impact of lymphoedema (defined as ≥ 10% limb volume change) on quality of life (QOL), ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and coping in 277 melanoma patients. Limb volume was measured prospectively, pre-operatively and every 3-6 months for 18 months post-operatively using a perometer. Three questionnaires were administered to measure QOL, coping and impact on ADLs. Statistical analyses were conducted using longitudinal logistic regression models. At 18 months, the cumulative incidence of lymphoedema was 31% in patients with upper extremity nodal basin treatment and 40% in lower extremity nodal basin treatment patients. Patients with lower extremity lymphoedema reported lower QOL scores than those with upper extremity lymphoedema. Over 18 months, both groups with mild and moderate lymphoedema showed improvement in coping [odds ratio (OR): 6.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.30-13.47] and performance of ADLs (OR: 7.46, CI: 3.38-16.47). Over the course of 18 months, men were found to have poorer coping scores than women (OR: 2.91, CI: 1.35-6.27). Lymphoedema was associated with improvement in coping over time (P = 0.08) and a higher reported interference with ADLs (OR: 2.53, CI: 1.29-4.97). Patient education about lymphoedema at the time of surgical consent may improve self-efficacy and coping ability. Effective management of lymphoedema may improve patient QOL and reduce interference with ADLs. PMID:25809989

  16. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children

    PubMed Central

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which children spent a majority of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings combined with relatively low amounts of teacher-directed activity, and a Structured-Balanced pattern in which children spent relatively equal proportions of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings and teacher-directed small- and whole-group activities. Daily routine profiles were associated with program type and curriculum use but not with measures of process quality. Children in Structured-Balanced classrooms had more opportunities to engage in language and literacy and math activities, whereas children in High Free-Choice classrooms had more opportunities for gross motor and fantasy play. Being in a Structured-Balanced classroom was associated with children’s language scores but profiles were not associated with measures of children’s math reasoning or socio-emotional behavior. Consideration of teachers’ structuring of daily routines represents a valuable way to understand nuances in the provision of learning experiences for young children in the context of current views about developmentally appropriate practice and school readiness. PMID:22665945

  17. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children.

    PubMed

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which children spent a majority of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings combined with relatively low amounts of teacher-directed activity, and a Structured-Balanced pattern in which children spent relatively equal proportions of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings and teacher-directed small- and whole-group activities. Daily routine profiles were associated with program type and curriculum use but not with measures of process quality. Children in Structured-Balanced classrooms had more opportunities to engage in language and literacy and math activities, whereas children in High Free-Choice classrooms had more opportunities for gross motor and fantasy play. Being in a Structured-Balanced classroom was associated with children's language scores but profiles were not associated with measures of children's math reasoning or socio-emotional behavior. Consideration of teachers' structuring of daily routines represents a valuable way to understand nuances in the provision of learning experiences for young children in the context of current views about developmentally appropriate practice and school readiness. PMID:22665945

  18. Daily and seasonal variations of radon activity measured in Mystery Cave

    SciTech Connect

    Lively, R.S. ); Krafthefer, B. ); Netherton, W. )

    1993-03-01

    Mystery Cave, southeastern Minnesota, is the site of an ongoing study of how radon and radon progeny are affected by meteorological changes in and about the dave. Data on radon, radon progeny, temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, wind speed and direction, and rainfall are collected at 4-hour intervals at different locations within and just outside the cave. During winter months, average ambient radon levels ranged from 5 to 200 pCi/L. Transient levels above 500 pCi/L tended to correlate with failing barometric pressure, but not with the magnitude of [Delta]P. In summer, average ambient radon increased to around 300 pCi/L with short-term levels exceeding 500 pCi/L. Fluctuations related to temperature were also noted. Radon progeny generally correlate with radon and both showed rates of change faster than ingrowth or decay. In addition to the time variations in the radon activity levels, pulses were observed between monitoring locations. The probable correlation of radon-activity transport with aboveground meteorological changes and preliminary data on cave airflow is being studied. Previous grab sampling with Lucas cells and integrating alpha-track devices did not show either the 10- to 100-fold daily fluctuations or the pulses. As more continuous data become available, it is increasingly evident that radon fluctuates on time scales that range from hours to years, in response to conditions both inside and outside the cave system. Funding for this project was approved by the Minnesota legislature ML 1991, Chapter 264, Art. 1, Sec. 14, subd. 3 (I) as recommended by the Legislative Commission on Minnesota Resources from the Minnesota Future Resources Fund.

  19. Patient-level improvements in pain and activities of daily living after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lewallen, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To study patient-level improvements in pain and limitations of key activities of daily living (ADLs) after primary or revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods. We analysed prospectively collected data from the Mayo Clinic Total Joint Registry for improvements in index knee pain severity and limitations in three key ADLs (walking, climbing stairs and rising from a chair) from pre-operative to 2 and 5 years post-TKA. Results. The primary TKA cohort consisted of 7229 responders pre-operatively, 7139 at 2 years and 4234 at 5 years post-operatively. The revision TKA cohort consisted of 1206 responders pre-operatively, 1533 at 2 years and 881 at 5 years post-operatively. In the primary TKA cohort, important pain reduction to mild or no knee pain at 2 years was reported by 92% with moderate pre-operative pain and 93% with severe pre-operative pain; respective proportions were 91% and 91% at 5 years follow-up. For revision TKA, respective proportions were 71% and 66% at 2 years and 68% and 74% at 5 years. Three per cent with no/mild pre-operative overall limitation and 19% with moderate/severe pre-operative overall limitation had moderate/severe overall activity limitation 2 years post-operatively; at 5 years the respective proportions were 4% and 22%. Respective proportions for revision TKA were up to 3% and 32% at 2 years and 4% and 34% at 5 years. Conclusion. Our study provides comprehensive data for patient-level improvements in pain and key ADLs. These data can be used to inform patients pre-operatively of expected outcomes, based on pre-operative status, which may further help patients set realistic goals for improvements after TKA. PMID:24162150

  20. Daily energy expenditure and physical activity measured in Parkinson's disease patients with and without weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss, which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated resting energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REF) and physical activit...

  1. Social participation and independence in activities of daily living: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Encarnación; Lázaro, Angelina; Sánchez-Sánchez, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Background It is today widely accepted that participation in social activities contributes towards successful ageing whilst, at the same time, maintaining independence in the activities of daily living (ADLs) is the sine qua non for achieving that end. This study looks at people aged 65 and over living in an urban area in Spain who retain the ability to attend Social Centres providing recreational facilities. The aim of this paper is to quantify independence and identify the risk factors involved in its deterioration. Methods The sample size was calculated using the equation for proportions in finite populations based on a random proportional sample type, absolute error (e) = 0.05, α = 0.05, β = 0.1, p = q = 0.5. Two-stage sampling was used. In the first place, the population was stratified by residence and a Social Centre was randomly chosen for each district. In the second stage, individuals were selected in a simple random sample without replacement in proportion to the number of members at each social centre. A multivariate logistical regression analysis takes functional ADL capacity as the dependent variable. The choice of predictive variables was made using a bivariate correlation matrix. Among the estimators obtained, Nagelkerke's R2 coefficient, and the Odds ratio (CI 95%) were considered. Sensitivity and 1-specificity were adopted to present the results in graphic form. Results Out of this sample, 63.7% were fully capable of carrying out ADLs, while the main factors contributing to deterioration, identified on the basis of a logistic regression model, are in order of importance, poor physical health, poor mental health, age (above 75 years) and gender (female). The model employed has a predictive value of 88% and 92% (depending on the age range considered) with regard to the independence in ADLs. Conclusion A review of the few Spanish works using similar methodology shows that the percentage of non-institutionalised persons who are independent enough to

  2. Effects of a cognitive-enhancement group training program on daily living activities, cognition, and depression in the demented elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cho, MiLim; Kim, DeokJu; Chung, JaeYeop; Park, JuHyung; You, HeeCheon; Yang, YeongAe

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The effects of a cognitive enhancement group training program on daily living activities, cognition, and depression in the demented elderly population of a local Korean community were investigated. [Subjects and Methods] The study included 22 elderly subjects who were 65 years of age or older, had been diagnosed with dementia, and were attending a daily care center in K City, Republic of Korea. Eleven subjects participated in the program, which was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks for a total of 16 sessions. Eleven subjects in a non-training group did not receive any interventions. [Results] The MMSE-K, MBI and KDS scores of all of the eleven subjects who participated in the program improved, and the improvements were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Cognitive enhancement group training programs may have positive effects on daily living activities, cognition, and depression. PMID:25931707

  3. Lab mice in the field: unorthodox daily activity and effects of a dysfunctional circadian clock allele.

    PubMed

    Daan, Serge; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Albrecht, Urs; Schmutz, Isabelle; Daan, Moritz; Daan, Berte; Rienks, Froukje; Poletaeva, Inga; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Vyssotski, Alexei; Lipp, Hans-Peter

    2011-04-01

    Daily patterns of animal behavior are potentially of vast functional importance. Fitness benefits have been identified in nature by the association between individual timing and survival or by the fate of individuals after experimental deletion of their circadian pacemaker. The recent advances in unraveling the molecular basis of circadian timing enable new approaches to natural selection on timing. The investigators report on the effect and fate of the mutant Per2(Brdm1) allele in 4 replicate populations of house mice in a seminatural outside environment over 2 years. This allele is known to compromise circadian organization and entrainment and to cause multiple physiological disturbances. Mice (N=250) bred from Per2(Brdm1) heterozygotes were implanted subcutaneously with transponders and released in approximately Mendelian ratios in four 400 m(2) pens. An electronic system stored the times of all visits to feeders of each individual. The study first demonstrates that mice are not explicitly nocturnal in this natural environment. Feeding activity was predominantly and sometimes exclusively diurnal and spread nearly equally over day and night under the protective snow cover in winter. The effect of Per2(Brdm1) on activity timing is negligible compared to seasonal changes in all genotypes. Second, the Per2(Brdm1) allele did not have persistent negative effects on fitness. In the first year, the allele gradually became less frequent by reducing survival. New cohorts captured had the same Per2(Brdm1) frequency as the survivors from previous cohorts, consistent with an absence of an effect on reproduction. In the second year, the allele recovered to about its initial frequency (0.54). These changes in selective advantage were primarily due to female mice, as females lived longer and the sex ratio dropped to about 25% males in the population. While it is unknown which selective advantage led to the recovery, the results caution against inferences from laboratory

  4. Linking possible selves and behavior: do domain-specific hopes and fears translate into daily activities in very old age?

    PubMed

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Gerstorf, Denis; Smith, Jacqui; Klumb, Petra L

    2007-03-01

    We used time-sampling information from a subsample of the Berlin Aging Study (N=83; M=81.1 years) to investigate the link between possible selves in three domains (health, everyday cognition, and social relations) and performance of daily activities. In the domains of health and social relations, hoped-for selves were associated with higher probabilities of performing daily activities in those domains. There were no associations in the cognitive domain or between feared selves and activities. Individuals who engaged in hope-related activities reported concurrent higher positive affect and subsequently had a higher probability of survival over a 10-year period. These findings speak to important associations between beliefs about possible selves and activities in advanced old age and the value of considering associations between microlevel and macrolevel indicators of successful aging. PMID:17379670

  5. Dynamic analysis of the upper limb during activities of daily living: comparison of methodologies.

    PubMed

    Masjedi, Milad; Duffell, Lynsey D

    2013-12-01

    Often researchers use kinematics and kinetics to evaluate the effect of limb pathology. The net forces and moments that cause motion depend on kinematics, body segment parameters and the external loads applied. This study aimed to evaluate the discrepancies caused by different methods and assumptions of kinetic analysis. Dynamic analysis was performed on 12 subjects with no known pathology while performing 12 activities of daily living. The recursive Newton-Euler method, along with two robotic models containing 7 and 14 degrees of freedom representing the upper limb, was used to calculate the net forces and moments across the shoulder. The data were calculated using different body segment parameter values from the literature and, in order to concentrate on the effects of kinematics only, these results were presented as both a percentage of the body weight and a novel technique using constant body segment parameter. The greatest net forces and moments on the glenohumeral joint were observed for lifting a 2-kg shopping bag task (forces: 60 ± 8 N and moments: 18 ± 2 N m) and the lowest was observed for drinking (forces: 40 ± 8 N and moments: 6 ± 1 N m). Overall, the results from different techniques (recursive Newton-Euler vs robotic 14 degrees of freedom) were similar, while the 7-DoF model showed less agreement. The use of different body segment parameter values resulted in a maximum increase of 25% in the glenohumeral moment. Following normalisation of the body segment parameter, dynamic parameters were found to have less variation. In order to focus on the effect of variation in movement in dynamic study, it is therefore necessary to normalise the body segment parameter. PMID:24006042

  6. Using Claims Data to Predict Dependency in Activities of Daily Living as a Proxy for Frailty

    PubMed Central

    Faurot, Keturah R.; Funk, Michele Jonsson; Pate, Virginia; Brookhart, M. Alan; Patrick, Amanda; Hanson, Laura C.; Castillo, Wendy Camelo; Stürmer, Til

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Estimating drug effectiveness and safety among older adults in population-based studies using administrative healthcare claims can be hampered by unmeasured confounding due to frailty. A claims-based algorithm that identifies patients likely to be dependent, a proxy for frailty, may improve confounding control. Our objective was to develop an algorithm to predict dependency in activities of daily living (ADL) in a sample of Medicare beneficiaries. Methods Community-dwelling respondents to the 2006 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, >65 years old, with Medicare Part A, B, home health, and hospice claims were included. ADL dependency was defined as needing help with bathing, eating, walking, dressing, toileting, or transferring. Potential predictors were demographics, ICD-9 diagnosis/procedure and durable medical equipment codes for frailty-associated conditions. Multivariable logistic regression was to predict ADL dependency. Cox models estimated hazard ratios for death as a function of observed and predicted ADL dependency. Results Of 6391 respondents, 57% were female, 88% white, and 38% were ≥80. The prevalence of ADL dependency was 9.5%. Strong predictors of ADL dependency were charges for a home hospital bed (OR=5.44, 95% CI=3.28–9.03) and wheelchair (OR=3.91, 95% CI=2.78–5.51). The c-statistic of the final model was 0.845. Model-predicted ADL dependency of 20% or greater was associated with a hazard ratio for death of 3.19 (95% CI: 2.78, 3.68). Conclusions An algorithm for predicting ADL dependency using healthcare claims was developed to measure some aspects of frailty. Accounting for variation in frailty among older adults could lead to more valid conclusions about treatment use, safety, and effectiveness. PMID:25335470

  7. Temperature fluctuations in the lower limbs of young and elderly individuals during activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Borisov, Vladimir V; Lin, David C

    2014-09-01

    Age-related deficiencies in thermoregulation diminish the capacity to defend against heat loss under conditions often encountered during activities of daily living (ADL). A potential consequence of these deficiencies is that elderly individuals could have colder lower limbs, which would exacerbate the age-related decline in plantarflexor contractile properties and compromise recovery from a tripping incident. Moreover, a common self-perception among the elderly is that their limbs are cold. However, this impression has never been documented, especially under ADL conditions. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that elderly individuals have lower plantarflexor temperatures than their younger counterparts. Skin temperatures above the plantarflexors of elderly and young individuals were continuously recorded during ADL in the winter months and compared under three conditions: quiescent indoor temperature, during a cold challenge, and the recovery period subsequent to the cold challenge. For quiescent indoor periods, differences in skin temperature between the two groups were not statistically significant. During cold exposures, both age and exposure duration were statistically significant factors related to the decrease in skin temperature, with the elderly group maintaining warmer temperatures. In the recovery period following short duration cold exposures, a statistically significant difference between the two groups for the decrease in skin temperature persisted for the first 9min of recovery. The results do not support the hypothesis that the lower limbs of elderly participants are colder. Higher limb temperatures observed in elderly participants were consistent with previous studies of age-related thermoregulatory changes, indicating that deficiencies in vasoconstriction are persistent in ADL. PMID:24909351

  8. Impact of depression and activities of daily living on the fear of falling in Korean community-dwelling elderly.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyung Rim; Kang, Younhee; Kim, Mi Young; Jung, Dukyoo; Kim, Jeong Soo; Hong, Chong Min; Yun, Eun Suk; Ma, Rye Won

    2010-12-01

    This study determined the predictors of the fear of falling (FOF) in 213 South Korean community-dwelling elderly. The Fall Efficacy Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Korean Geriatric Depression Screening Scale, and Barthel Index were used to measure the FOF, sleep quality, depression, and activities of daily living, respectively. In addition, information regarding the participants' demographic details and the number of types of medication was collected. The data were analyzed by using hierarchical regression. The general regression model, with the FOF as a dependent variable, was statistically significant. The FOF variance was partially explained. Depression and activities of daily living significantly influenced the FOF. Thus, the results indicate that the FOF in community-dwelling elderly Koreans is affected by depression and activities of daily living. Therefore, an older adult with recognized signs of depression must be provided with more appropriate care and the allocation of specific interventional strategies in order to maintain activities of daily living should be developed to manage the FOF. PMID:21210929

  9. Effects of mirror therapy combined with motor tasks on upper extremity function and activities daily living of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Kim, Donghoon; Lee, Kyoungbo; Kim, Youlim

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mirror therapy combined with exercise tasks on the function of the upper limbs and activities of daily living. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five stroke patients who were receiving physical therapy at K Hospital in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, were classified into a mirror therapy group (n=12) and a conventional therapy group (n=13). The therapies were applied for 30 minutes per day, five times per week, for a total of four weeks. Upper limb function was measured with the Action Research Arm test, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and the Box and Block test, and activities of daily living were measured with the Functional Independence Measure. A paired test was performed to compare the intragroup differences between before training and after four weeks of therapy, and an independent t-test was performed to compare the differences between the two groups before and after four weeks of therapy. [Results] In the intragroup comparison, both groups showed significant differences between measurements taken before and after four weeks of therapy. In the intergroup comparison, the mirror therapy group showed significant improvements compared with the conventional therapy group, both in upper limb function and activities of daily living. [Conclusion] The findings of this study demonstrated that mirror therapy is more effective than conventional therapy for the training of stroke patients to improve their upper limb function and activities of daily living. PMID:27065534

  10. Post-stroke depression inhibits improvement in activities of daily living in patients in a convalescent rehabilitation ward

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Kenji; Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Daisuke; Midorikawa, Manabu; Makiyama, Yasushi; Shimoda, Kaori; Tozato, Fusae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] There have been no investigations into the improvement of activities of daily living among patients suffering from post-stroke depression on admission to convalescent rehabilitation wards in Japan. This study aimed to assess the improvement of activities in daily living in patients with or without post-stroke depression at the time of admission to a convalescent rehabilitation ward. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 108 stroke patients divided into two groups according to their Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item short form scores. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Functional Independence Measure. The degree of improvement on the Functional Independence Measure was defined as the difference between scores on admission and at discharge. [Results] The Functional Independence Measure gain score was significantly different from the Functional Independence Measure total score. There was a significant interaction between time period and post-stroke depression factors for the Functional Independence Measure total score. A multiple regression analysis revealed a significant association between Geriatric Depression Scale score and Functional Independence Measure total score. [Conclusion] The present study suggests that post-stroke depression has a negative impact on recovery of activities of daily living and on rehabilitation outcomes in a convalescent rehabilitation ward setting.