Sample records for normal esophageal epithelium

  1. Characterization of the autofluorescence of normal and tumoral esophageal epithelium cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villette, Sandrine; Bourg-Heckly, Genevieve; Pigaglio, Sophie; Validire, Pierre; Grichine, Alexei; Vever-Bizet, Christine

    2003-10-01

    The objectives of this study are to characterize the autofluorescence spectra of normal and tumoral esophageal epithelial cells and to link the cellular spectra with a data basis of in vivo tissular spectra. Our preliminary results show that no difference in spectral distribution can be observed between squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and normal cells. A statistical significant difference is observed between the average intensity of the raw spectra of the different cell types. Nucleus autofluorescence presents the same spectral shape as cytoplasm, but with lower intensity.

  2. [Epithelium constitution for esophageal tissue engineering using electrospinning technology].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Lv, Jingjing; Yu, Xuechan; Kang, Cheng; Zhu, Yabin

    2013-12-01

    The basement membrane (BM) is crucial in regulating the physical and biological activities of esophageal epithelial cells which attach to the underlying BM. In order to simulate the natural construction of BM, we prepared the fibrous scaffolds using biodegradable polylactide (PLA) and silk fibroin (SF) as the materials via electrospinning technology. BM's proteins containing collagen (IV), laminin, entactin and proteoglycan were extracted from porcine esophagus and coated on the eletrospun fibers. Morphology, mechanical strength, biodegradability and cytocompatibility of the coated and uncoated scaffolds were tested and evaluated using scanning electron micrography, mechanical test system, immunofluorescence assay and western blotting with CK14 as the primary antibody. The fibrous scaffold PLA or PLA/SF, generated from the present protocol had good formation and mechanical and biodegradable properties. After coating with BM's proteins, the scaffold could enhance the growth and differentiation of esophageal epithelial cells, which would contribute to remodel and regenerate the tissue engineered epithelium and further contribute to engineer the whole esophagus in future. PMID:24660627

  3. HCl-induced cell edema in rabbit esophageal epithelium: A bumetanide-sensitive process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nelia A. Tobey; Edward J. Cragoe; Roy C. Orlando

    1995-01-01

    Background & Aims: The morphology of acid damage to esophageal epithelium is characterized by marked cell (swelling) edema. This observation suggests that, in the process of acid damage, an increase in osmotic forces develops within the cell that accounts for the increase in cell water. The aim of this study was to document that esophageal cells swell at acidic pH

  4. High Intraepithelial Eosinophil Counts in Esophageal Squamous Epithelium Are Not Specific for Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonali Rodrigo; Gebran Abboud; Daniel Oh; Steven R. DeMeester; Jeffrey Hagen; John Lipham; Tom R. DeMeester; Parakrama Chandrasoma

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVESThe histologic criterion of >20 eosinophils per high power field (hpf) is presently believed to establish the diagnosis of idiopathic eosinophilic esophagitis (IEE). This is based on data that the number of intraepithelial eosinophils in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is less than 20\\/hpf. This study tests this belief.METHODSPathology records were searched for patients who had an eosinophil count >20\\/hpf in

  5. Transcriptomic profiles differentiate normal rectal epithelium and adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hogan, J; Dejulius, K; Liu, X; Coffey, J C; Kalady, M F

    2015-05-01

    Adenocarcinoma is a histologic diagnosis based on subjective findings. Transcriptional profiles have been used to differentiate normal tissue from disease and could provide a means of identifying malignancy. The goal of this study was to generate and test transcriptomic profiles that differentiate normal from adenocarcinomatous rectum. Comparisons were made between cDNA microarrays derived from normal epithelium and rectal adenocarcinoma. Results were filtered according to standard deviation to retain only highly dysregulated genes. Genes differentially expressed between cancer and normal tissue on two-groups t test (P < 0.05, Bonferroni P value adjustment) were further analyzed. Genes were rank ordered in terms of descending fold change. For each comparison (tumor versus normal epithelium), those 5 genes with the greatest positive fold change were grouped in a classifier. Five separate tests were applied to evaluate the discriminatory capacity of each classifier. Genetic classifiers derived comparing normal epithelium with malignant rectal epithelium from pooled stages had a mean sensitivity and specificity of 99.6% and 98.2%, respectively. The classifiers derived from comparing normal and stage I cancer had comparable mean sensitivities and specificities (97% and 98%, respectively). Areas under the summary receiver-operator characteristic curves for each classifier were 0.981 and 0.972, respectively. One gene was common to both classifiers. Classifiers were tested in an independent Gene Expression Omnibus-derived dataset. Both classifiers retained their predictive properties. Transcriptomic profiles comprising as few as 5 genes are highly accurate in differentiating normal from adenocarcinomatous rectal epithelium, including early-stage disease. PMID:26011201

  6. Expression of Ki-67 in normal oral epithelium, leukoplakic oral epithelium and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Radhika, MB; Paremala, K; Sudhakara, M; Soumya, M; Gadivan, Mohsin

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objective: To demonstrate the presence, location and pattern of cell proliferation in different histological grades of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and normal oral epithelium (NOE) using an antibody directed against the Ki-67 antigen and its intensity of staining evaluated respectively. Materials and Methods: A total number of 100 archival paraffin embedded blocks obtained from Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology were studied. The case details were retrieved which consisted of histopathologically diagnosed cases of OSCC (n = 20), low risk OED (n = 30), high risk OED (n = 30) and normal appearing mucosa (n = 20) were taken as standard for comparison. Ki-67 immunostaining was detected. Ki-67 positive cells were counted in the five random high power fields in each case. Results: Ki-67 labeling Index (LI) was restricted to the basal and parabasal layers of the normal oral epithelium irrespective of age, sex and site whereas it was seen in the basal, suprabasal and spinous layers in OED. Ki-67 LI is increased in high risk cases than the low risk cases of OED. Ki-67 positive cells in OSCC were located in the periphery of the tumor nests than the center, where frequent mitoses were observed. Conclusion: The architectural alteration evaluated by Ki-67 antibody in proliferating cell distribution in the layers of epithelial dysplasias may provide useful information to evaluate the grading of OED. Ki-67 LI increased in high risk cases than low risk cases of OED. This study showed that over expression of Ki-67 antigen between well-differentiated and poorly differentiated OSCC was in accordance with histologic grade of malignancy but not in accordance with moderately differentiated OSCC. PMID:25328294

  7. Inhibition of Notch signaling enhances transdifferentiation of the esophageal squamous epithelium towards a Barrett's-like metaplasia via KLF4.

    PubMed

    Vega, Maria E; Giroux, Véronique; Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Liu, Mingen; Klein-Szanto, Andres J; Stairs, Douglas B; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Wang, Kenneth K; Wang, Timothy C; Lynch, John P; Rustgi, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is defined as an incomplete intestinal metaplasia characterized generally by the presence of columnar and goblet cells in the formerly stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus. BE is known as a precursor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Currently, the cell of origin for human BE has yet to be clearly identified. Therefore, we investigated the role of Notch signaling in the initiation of BE metaplasia. Affymetrix gene expression microarray revealed that BE samples express decreased levels of Notch receptors (NOTCH2 and NOTCH3) and one of the the ligands (JAG1). Furthermore, BE tissue microarray showed decreased expression of NOTCH1 and its downstream target HES1. Therefore, Notch signaling was inhibited in human esophageal epithelial cells by expression of dominant-negative-Mastermind-like (dnMAML), in concert with MYC and CDX1 overexpression. Cell transdifferentiation was then assessed by 3D organotypic culture and evaluation of BE-lineage specific gene expression. Notch inhibition promoted transdifferentiation of esophageal epithelial cells toward columnar-like cells as demonstrated by increased expression of columnar keratins (K8, K18, K19, K20) and glandular mucins (MUC2, MUC3B, MUC5B, MUC17) and decreased expression of squamous keratins (K5, K13, K14). In 3D culture, elongated cells were observed in the basal layer of the epithelium with Notch inhibition. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of KLF4, a potential driver of the changes observed by Notch inhibition. Interestingly, knockdown of KLF4 reversed the effects of Notch inhibition on BE-like metaplasia. Overall, Notch signaling inhibition promotes transdifferentiation of esophageal cells toward BE-like metaplasia in part via upregulation of KLF4. These results support a novel mechanism through which esophageal epithelial transdifferentiation promotes the evolution of BE. PMID:25558829

  8. Molecular and cellular features of esophageal cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuro Nishihira; Yu Hashimoto; Masafumi Katayama; Shozo Mori; Toshio Kuroki

    1993-01-01

    More than 70 cell lines were established from esophageal cancer, including 15 TE-series cell lines established by the authors. This article reviews molecular and cellular features of esophageal cancer cells from studies using these cell lines as well as primary tumors. The subjects reviewed include primary cultures of normal epithelium of the esophagus and of esophageal tumors, their growth and

  9. Cathepsin E expression by normal and premalignant cervical epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Mota, F.; Kanan, J. H.; Rayment, N.; Mould, T.; Singer, A.; Chain, B. M.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the expression of the aspartic proteinase cathepsin E and HLA-DR and the presence of HPV16 in normal squamous epithelium (n = 8) and low-grade (n = 21) and high-grade (n = 14) intraepithelial squamous lesions of the uterine cervix. Immunohistochemistry of cervical biopsies revealed that up-regulation of cathepsin E expression was related to increasing severity of the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Up-regulation of protein was associated with increased message as assessed by in situ hybridization. Langerhans cells and the majority of koilocytes did not express detectable cathepsin E levels. Although there was also an up-regulation of HLA-DR expression by cervical keratinocytes in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia lesions, as determined by immunohistochemistry, no significant correlation was found between HLA-DR and cathepsin E expression in these lesions; neither was expression of cathepsin E correlated to the presence of HPV16, detected by polymerase chain reaction. The expression of cathepsin E, an aspartic proteinase that is reported to play a role in antigen processing for presentation by class II major histocompatibility complex molecules, is associated with cellular dedifferentiation in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9094979

  10. Esophagitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... following increase your risk of esophagitis: Alcohol use Cigarette smoking Surgery or radiation to the chest (for example, treatment for lung cancer) Taking certain medications without plenty of water, especially ...

  11. Mitogenic regulation of normal and malignant breast epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Lippman, M. E.; Dickson, R. B.

    1989-01-01

    The multiple roles of both estrogenic and polypeptide regulators of mammary epithelial cell growth are reviewed in this article. Effects of both steroidal and peptide hormones are complex and involve multiple interactions with malignant cells and non-malignant host components. Initial carcinogenesis and progression of mammary epithelium to cancer probably require both proliferative stimuli (estrogen, polypeptide growth factors) and genetic damage. This condition may lead to qualitatively different hormonal responses (hormone-responsive cancer). Estrogens can be shown to induce growth-regulatory polypeptide growth factors and interact with them in hormone-dependent breast cancer. Progression of hormone-dependent (estrogen-responsive) breast cancer to hormone independence probably involves multiple mechanisms, including oncogene activation, loss of the estrogen receptor, or loss of hormone responsivity of other gene products. One direction for further therapies may be blockade of hormonal stimulation and interference with necessary activated or induced components of malignant progression such as oncogenes or polypeptide growth factor-receptor systems. PMID:2697981

  12. The effect of sildenafil on lower esophageal sphincter and body motility in normal male adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Poong-Lyul Rhee; Jae Geun Hyun; Jun Haeng Lee; Young-Ho Kim; Hee Jung Son; Jae J Kim; Seung Woon Paik; Jong Chul Rhee; Kyoo Wan Choi

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Sildenafil relaxes smooth muscle by blocking type 5 phosphodiesterase, which destroys nitric oxide-stimulated cyclic guanosine monophosphate. The aim of this study is to investigate the change of lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and body motility with the lapse of time after sildenafil infusion in normal male adults.METHODS:After basal esophageal manometry in eight healthy male adult volunteers, we infused a 50-mg tablet

  13. Thoracoscopic long myotomy in the prone position to treat rapid esophageal contractions with normal latency.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Tsutomu; Iwakiri, Katsuhiko; Matsutani, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Nobutoshi; Fujita, Itsuro; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Kawami, Noriyuki; Miyashita, Masao; Uchida, Eiji

    2015-04-01

    A 56-year-old woman with an 8-year history of dysphagia and chest pain received a diagnosis of diffuse esophageal spasm by esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM). Approximately 2 years of medical therapy was ineffective, and the patient's symptoms were worsening. Therefore, surgery was considered to be the most optimal treatment for this patient. The right thoracoscopic approach was selected because a long myotomy from the distal to proximal level of the esophagus was needed based on the HRM findings. The operation was performed in the prone position with establishment of pneumothorax. The total length of the myotomy was 16 cm, and the operation was finished within 2 hours. After the operation, the symptoms were considerably improved and no contractions were detected by HRM. The HRM findings before the operation were classified as rapid contractions with normal latency based on the 2012 Chicago classification of esophageal motility. Treatment for patients with rapid esophageal contractions with normal latency has not been previously described; however, treatment for diffuse esophageal spasm was considered to be pertinent to this patient. In conclusion, right thoracoscopic esophageal long myotomy in the prone position with establishment of pneumothorax may be useful when a proximal-level esophagomyotomy is required based on preoperative mapping by HRM. PMID:24667594

  14. Relative ion permeability of normal and cystic fibrosis nasal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, M; Gatzy, J; Boucher, R

    1983-01-01

    The raised transepithelial electric potential difference (PD) across respiratory epithelia in cystic fibrosis (CF) has suggested an abnormality in ion permeation. We characterized this abnormality further by measuring in the nasal epithelia of CF and normal subjects the concentration-PD relationship for amiloride, an inhibitor of cell Na+ permeability, and PD responses to superfusion with solutions of different composition. Amiloride was more efficacious in the CF subjects but the ED50 was not different from that of normals (approximately 2 X 10(-6) M). Na+ replacement by choline induced effects similar to those of amiloride, i.e. a greater depolarization in CF subjects. A 10-fold increase in the K+ concentration of the perfusate induced a small (less than 10 mV) depolarization in both subject populations. When Cl- in the perfusate was replaced by gluconate or SO2-(4) the nasal PD of normal subjects hyperpolarized (lumen became more negative) by approximately 35 mV. A significantly smaller response (less than 17 mV) was induced in CF homozygotes but not in heterozygotes (38 mV). The smaller response of CF subjects appears to reflect an absolute decrease in luminal surface Cl- permeability because pretreatment with amiloride did not increase the response to Cl- free solution (7 mV). Accordingly, three abnormalities (decreased Cl- permeability, raised PD, greater amiloride efficacy) have been identified in CF respiratory epithelia. Whereas "excessive" active Na+ transport can account for these abnormalities and the dessication of airway surface liquid, it is possible that a lower lumenal cell membrane Cl- permeability and inhibition of a potential path of Cl- secretion can also explain the observations. PMID:6853720

  15. Tissue Specific DNA Methylation in Normal Human Breast Epithelium and in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Avraham, Ayelet; Cho, Sean Soonweng; Uhlmann, Ronit; Polak, Mia Leonov; Sandbank, Judith; Karni, Tami; Pappo, Itzhak; Halperin, Ruvit; Vaknin, Zvi; Sella, Avishay; Sukumar, Saraswati; Evron, Ella

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a heterogeneous and tissue-specific disease. Thus, the tissue of origin reflects on the natural history of the disease and dictates the therapeutic approach. It is suggested that tissue differentiation, mediated mostly by epigenetic modifications, could guide tissue-specific susceptibility and protective mechanisms against cancer. Here we studied breast specific methylation in purified normal epithelium and its reflection in breast cancers. We established genome wide methylation profiles of various normal epithelial tissues and identified 110 genes that were differentially methylated in normal breast epithelium. A number of these genes also showed methylation alterations in breast cancers. We elaborated on one of them, TRIM29 (ATDC), and showed that its promoter was hypo-methylated in normal breast epithelium and heavily methylated in other normal epithelial tissues. Moreover, in breast carcinomas methylation increased and expression decreased whereas the reverse was noted for multiple other carcinomas. Interestingly, TRIM29 regulation in breast tumors clustered according to the PAM50 classification. Thus, it was repressed in the estrogen receptor positive tumors, particularly in the more proliferative luminal B subtype. This goes in line with previous reports indicating tumor suppressive activity of TRIM29 in estrogen receptor positive luminal breast cells in contrast to oncogenic function in pancreatic and lung cancers. Overall, these findings emphasize the linkage between breast specific epigenetic regulation and tissue specificity of cancer. PMID:24651077

  16. Gene expression abnormalities in histologically normal breast epithelium of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Anusri; King, Chialin; de la Morenas, Antonio; Perry, Victoria Kristina; Burke, Bohdana; Antoine, Gregory A; Hirsch, Erwin F; Kavanah, Maureen; Mendez, Jane; Stone, Michael; Gerry, Norman P; Lenburg, Marc E; Rosenberg, Carol L

    2008-04-01

    Normal-appearing epithelium of cancer patients can harbor occult genetic abnormalities. Data comprehensively comparing gene expression between histologically normal breast epithelium of breast cancer patients and cancer-free controls are limited. The present study compares global gene expression between these groups. We performed microarrays using RNA from microdissected histologically normal terminal ductal-lobular units (TDLU) from 2 groups: (i) cancer normal (CN) (TDLUs adjacent to untreated ER+ breast cancers (n = 14)) and (ii) reduction mammoplasty (RM) (TDLUs of age-matched women without breast disease (n = 15)). Cyber-T identified differentially expressed genes. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and comparison to independent microarray data including 6 carcinomas in situ (CIS), validated the results. Gene ontology (GO), UniProt and published literature evaluated gene function. About 127 probesets, corresponding to 105 genes, were differentially expressed between CN and RM (p < 0.0009, corresponding to FDR <0.10). 104/127 (82%) probesets were also differentially expressed between CIS and RM, nearly always (102/104 (98%)) in the same direction as in CN vs. RM. Two-thirds of the 105 genes were implicated previously in carcinogenesis. Overrepresented functional groups included transcription, G-protein coupled and chemokine receptor activity, the MAPK cascade and immediate early genes. Most genes in these categories were under-expressed in CN vs. RM. We conclude that global gene expression abnormalities exist in normal epithelium of breast cancer patients and are also present in early cancers. Thus, cancer-related pathways may be perturbed in normal epithelium. These abnormalities could be markers of disease risk, occult disease, or the tissue's response to an existing tumor. PMID:18058819

  17. Herpetic esophagitis

    SciTech Connect

    Shortsleeve, M.J.; Gauvin, G.P.; Gardner, R.C.; Greenberg, M.S.

    1981-12-01

    Four patients with herpetic esophagitis were examined. In three of them, the presenting symptom was odynophagia. Early in the course of herpetic esophagitis, shallow round and oval ulcers were seen on barium esophagograms. Later, the ulcers filled with fibrinous exudate, forming nodular plaques that projected into the esophageal lumen. Although these findings are diagnostic of esophagitis, they are not specific for a herpes virus infection. The definitive diagnosis must be established by histologic examination, which demonstrates the cytopathic effect of the herpes virus infection within the squamous epithelium.

  18. Estrogen receptor alpha expression in normal human breast epithelium is consistent over time.

    PubMed

    Khan, Seema A; Yee, Kimberly A; Kaplan, Cassandra; Siddiqui, Josephine F

    2002-12-01

    If increased expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER) in benign breast epithelium increases susceptibility to breast cancer, such overexpression should be stable over time. There are no published data regarding this important aspect of ER expression in breast epithelium. We examined the temporal consistency of ER expression in the normal breast tissue of 28 women who had 2 separate breast surgical procedures, at least 6 months apart (mean interval, 2.8 years). Paraffin embedded breast tissue blocks containing an adequate sample of normal breast epithelium and no cancer, were sectioned and processed using the 6F11 antibody and standard immunohistochemical techniques. The ER labelling index (ER LI) was calculated by counting a mean of 2,000 epithelial cells. The median ER LI at first sampling was 13.6 and at second sample 15.5, with R(2) = 0.34 and p = 0.001. The ER LI was categorized into high and low values, using a threshold of 10. Twenty-four women (85.7%) showed concordance of high and low expression between the 2 samples (p = 0.002). There were 11 women who were premenopausal at both time points. Among them, much of the variation in ER LI was explained by differences in the menstrual cycle day at the time of sampling and adding the day of cycle to the regression model substantially improved the correlation between first and second labeling indices. These data suggest that ER expression of normal breast tissue is fairly consistent over time and support the notion that overexpression of ER in normal epithelium is a constant feature of the high risk breast. PMID:12402301

  19. Effects of Sildenafil on Esophageal Motility of Normal Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauro Bortolotti; Cristina Mari; Matteo Giovannini; Silvia Pinna; Mario Miglioli

    2001-01-01

    Sildenafil shows an intense and prolonged inhibitory effect on the smooth muscle cells of corpus cavernosum arterioles by blocking phosphodiesterase type 5 that inactivates the nitric oxide-stimulated cyclic guanosine monophosphate. We investigated if this inhibitory effect is also displayed on smooth muscle cells of the esophagus. In 16 normal subjects (9 men and 7 women, mean age 34 years, range

  20. Estrogen-Initiated Transformation of Prostate Epithelium Derived from Normal Human Prostate Stem-Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wen-Yang; Shi, Guang-Bin; Lam, Hung-Ming; Hu, Dan-Ping; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Madueke, Ikenna C.; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to determine whether estrogens with testosterone support are sufficient to transform the normal human prostate epithelium and promote progression to invasive adenocarcinoma using a novel chimeric prostate model. Adult prostate stem/early progenitor cells were isolated from normal human prostates through prostasphere formation in three-dimensional culture. The stem/early progenitor cell status and clonality of prostasphere cells was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and Hoechst staining. Normal prostate progenitor cells were found to express estrogen receptor ?, estrogen receptor ?, and G protein-coupled receptor 30 mRNA and protein and were responsive to 1 nm estradiol-17? with increased numbers and prostasphere size, implicating them as direct estrogen targets. Recombinants of human prostate progenitor cells with rat urogenital sinus mesenchyme formed chimeric prostate tissue in vivo under the renal capsule of nude mice. Cytodifferentiation of human prostate progenitor cells in chimeric tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry using epithelial cell markers (p63, cytokeratin 8/18, and androgen receptor), whereas human origin and functional differentiation were confirmed by expression of human nuclear antigen and prostate-specific antigen, respectively. Once mature tissues formed, the hosts were exposed to elevated testosterone and estradiol-17? for 1–4 months, and prostate pathology was longitudinally monitored. Induction of prostate cancer in the human stem/progenitor cell-generated prostatic tissue was observed over time, progressing from normal histology to epithelial hyperplasia, prostate intraepithelial neoplasia, and prostate cancer with local renal invasion. These findings provide the first direct evidence that human prostate progenitor cells are estrogen targets and that estradiol in an androgen-supported milieu is a carcinogen for human prostate epithelium. PMID:21427218

  1. Genes Regulating Epithelial Polarity Are Critical Suppressors of Esophageal Oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Min; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Li-Li; Zhao, Run-Zhen; Ji, Hong-Long

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is an aggressive disease featured by early lymphatic and hematogenous dissemination, and is the sixth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The proper formation of apicobasal polarity is essential for normal epithelium physiology and tissue homeostasis, while loss of polarity is a hallmark of cancer development including esophageal oncogenesis. In this review, we summarized the stages of esophageal cancer development associated with the loss or deregulation of epithelial cell apicobasal polarity. Loss of epithelial apicobasal polarity exerts an indispensable role in the initiation of esophageal oncogenesis, tumor progression, and the advancement of tumors from benign to malignant. In particular, we reviewed the involvement of several critical genes, including Lkb1, claudin-4, claudin-7, Par3, Lgl1, E-cadherin, and the Scnn1 gene family. Understanding the role of apicobasal regulators may lead to new paradigms for treatment of esophageal tumors, including improvement of prognostication, early diagnosis, and individually tailored therapeutic interventions in esophageal oncology. PMID:26185530

  2. Characterizing the heterogeneity of triple-negative breast cancers using microdissected normal ductal epithelium and RNA-sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Radovich, Milan; Clare, Susan E.; Atale, Rutuja; Pardo, Ivanesa; Hancock, Bradley A.; Solzak, Jeffrey P.; Kassem, Nawal; Mathieson, Theresa; Storniolo, Anna Maria V.; Rufenbarger, Connie; Lillemoe, Heather A.; Blosser, Rachel J.; Choi, Mi Ran; Sauder, Candice A.; Doxey, Diane; Henry, Jill E.; Hilligoss, Eric E.; Sakarya, Onur; Hyland, Fiona C.; Hickenbotham, Matthew; Zhu, Jin; Glasscock, Jarret; Badve, Sunil; Ivan, Mircea; Liu, Yunlong; Sledge, George W.; Schneider, Bryan P.

    2014-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are a heterogeneous set of tumors defined by an absence of actionable therapeutic targets (ER?,PR?,HER2?). Microdissected normal ductal epithelium from healthy volunteers represents a novel comparator to reveal insights into TNBC heterogeneity and to inform drug development. Using RNA-sequencing data from our institution and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) we compared the transcriptomes of 94 TNBCs, 20 microdissected normal breast tissues from healthy volunteers from the Susan G. Komen for the Cure Tissue Bank, and 10 histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumor. Pathway analysis comparing TNBCs to optimized normal controls of microdissected normal epithelium versus classic controls composed of adjacent normal tissue revealed distinct molecular signatures. Differential gene expression of TNBC compared with normal comparators demonstrated important findings for TNBC-specific clinical trials testing targeted agents; lack of over-expression for negative studies and over-expression in studies with drug activity. Next, by comparing each individual TNBC to the set of microdissected normals, we demonstrate that TNBC heterogeneity is attributable to transcriptional chaos, is associated with non-silent DNA mutational load, and explains transcriptional heterogeneity in addition to known molecular subtypes. Finally, chaos analysis identified 146 core genes dysregulated in >90% of TNBCs revealing an over-expressed central network. In conclusion, Use of microdissected normal ductal epithelium from healthy volunteers enables an optimized approach for studying TNBC and uncovers biological heterogeneity mediated by transcriptional chaos. PMID:24292813

  3. Chronic acid exposure leads to activation of the cdx2 intestinal homeobox gene in a long-term culture of mouse esophageal keratinocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Marchetti; Elise Caliot; Eric Pringault

    2003-01-01

    To explore mechanisms whereby Malpighian keratinocytes can transdifferentiate into an intestinal-like epithelium, as observed in the early steps of Barrett's esophagus (BE) development, long-standing cultures of esophageal keratinocytes derived from normal mouse esophageal explants were developed. These cells were able to form multilayers and to differentiate on filter support by the formation of differentiated layers of basal cells (cytokeratine 14

  4. Histopathological analysis of non-malignant and malignant epithelium in achalasia of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Fujii, T; Yamana, H; Sueyoshi, S; Fujita, H; Tanaka, Y; Kubota, M; Toh, U; Mine, T; Sasahara, H; Shirouzu, K; Kato, S; Morimatsu, M

    2000-01-01

    We studied the premalignant nature of achalasia using anti-Ki-67 and anti-p53 monoclonal antibodies immunohistochemically. In this study, four patients with esophageal carcinoma and achalasia were investigated. Three tumors were pT4 (UICC pTNM) and one tumor was pT1. The majority of non-malignant esophageal epithelium showed esophagitis and/or dysplasia histologically. Esophageal epithelial cells in the lesions of esophagitis and/or dysplasia had a higher number of Ki-67-positive cells than normal epithelial cells. p53 protein was expressed in two tumors and it was not expressed in non-malignant epithelium. From these results, we found that esophageal epithelium in achalasia lesions is changed to varying degrees of esophagitis and/or dysplasia by stagnation of intake foods, and these abnormal epithelial cells showed a high proliferative state compared with the normal cells without the p53 gene mutation. We suggest that the distinct proliferative status is a cause of carcinogenesis. PMID:14601900

  5. Concanavalin A and Lens culinaris agglutinin binding patterns in normal and neoplastic sebaceous epithelium.

    PubMed

    Von Kuster, L; Liwnicz, B H; Ward, D E

    1986-08-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of normal skin, sebaceous hyperplasia, nevus sebaceus, sebaceous adenoma, and sebaceous carcinoma were studied by means of biotinylated and FITC conjugated concanavalin A (Con A) and Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA). At relatively high concentrations of these lectins, all cutaneous epithelial cells were stained. As the concentration of LCA was lowered, there was a corresponding decrease in the intensity of staining of all epithelial cells. With lowered concentrations of Con A, staining of sebaceous epithelium remained strongly positive, while staining of other epithelia decreased in a manner similar to that seen for LCA. These staining patterns were seen in normal and neoplastic tissues. Both Con A and LCA are known to bind to alpha-D-mannopyranosyl and alpha-D-glucopyranosyl residues of glycoproteins and glycolipids. The difference in staining of sebaceous epithelial cells by Con A and LCA suggests that the binding of these lectins is not determined strictly by the presence of alpha-D-mannopyranosyl or alpha-D-glucopyranosyl residues, but is modified by side-chain substitution on the monosaccharides and/or by the oligosaccharide which contains the particular monosaccharide. Whichever event is operative, a saccharide moiety is present on the surface of mature sebaceous cells which has a strong affinity for Con A. PMID:3771872

  6. Esophageal blood flow in the cat. Normal distribution and effects of acid perfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hollwarth, M.E.; Smith, M.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.

    1986-03-01

    The radioactive microsphere technique was used to estimate blood flow to different regions of the esophagus and to adjacent regions of the stomach before and after perfusion of the esophagus with hydrochloric acid (pH 1.5) for 5 min. Under resting conditions total blood flow, as well as blood flow to the mucosal-submucosal layer and the muscular layer, to both sphincters was significantly higher than to the esophageal body. Blood flow to the adjacent regions of the stomach was significantly higher than esophageal blood flow. Acid perfusion resulted in a large increase in total blood flow in both sphincters and the lower esophageal body. Gastric blood flow was not altered by acid perfusion. The esophageal hyperemia resulted primarily from an increase in blood flow to the muscular layer; mucosal-submucosal blood flow was increased only in the lower esophageal sphincter. The present study indicates that short periods (5 min) of gastroesophageal reflux may increase esophageal blood flow.

  7. NF-?B Activation in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M. M.; O'Riordan, James; Windle, Henry J.; Carton, Eleanor; Ravi, Nagunivan; Kelleher, Dermot; Reynolds, John V.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the expression of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in Barrett's epithelium and adenocarcinoma and the impact of NF-?B expression on tumor stage and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Summary Background Data: Progression of Barrett's esophagus to adenocarcinoma is associated with a wide range of cellular and molecular abnormalities. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) regulates several genes involved in inflammatory, immune and apoptotic responses, but its role in esophageal inflammation and tumorigenesis has not been reported. Methods: Mobility shift assay was used to measure NF-?B activity in nuclear extracts of fresh-frozen biopsies from tumor and uninvolved tissues (n = 30) and esophageal cell lines OE33, SKGT-4, and OE21. RelA expression was assessed by immunohistochemical staining (n = 97). The NF-?B/RelA and I?B protein expressions were also examined by Western blotting. Results: NF-?B was not expressed in normal esophageal squamous epithelium, in contrast to increased expression in 40% of patients with Barrett's epithelium. Sixty-one percent of resected tumors (n = 97) displayed NF-?B immunoreactivity, and 87.5% of the NF-?B- positive tumors were Stage IIb and III compared with only 12.5% of patients with Stage I and IIa disease (P < 0.05). The expression of NF-?B inversely correlated with major or complete pathologic responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy, with 15/20 (75%) responders in the NF-?B-negative group compared with 7/38 (18%) in the NF-?B-positive group (P < 0.00001). Moreover, incubation of esophageal cell lines OE33, SKGT-4, and OE21 with deoxycholic acid or low pH induced NF-?B expression. Conclusions: Bile acids and low pH induce NF-?B expression in esophageal cell lines. NF-?B activation is common in esophageal adenocarcinoma. In patients with Barrett's epithelium and an associated esophageal adenocarcinoma, there is a progressive expression of NF-?B through Barrett's tumorigenesis. The absence of NF-?B expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma correlates with response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and may be of value in predicting response to neoadjuvant therapy. PMID:15024310

  8. Esophageal Microbiome in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J. Kirk; Fang, Rui; Wagner, Brandie D.; Choe, Ha Na; Kelly, Caleb J.; Schroeder, Shauna; Moore, Wendy; Stevens, Mark J.; Yeckes, Alyson; Amsden, Katie; Kagalwalla, Amir F.; Zalewski, Angelika; Hirano, Ikuo; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Henry, Lauren N.; Masterson, Joanne C.; Robertson, Charles E.; Leung, Donald Y.; Pace, Norman R.; Ackerman, Steven J.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Fillon, Sophie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The microbiome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of allergic and inflammatory diseases. The mucosa affected by eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is composed of a stratified squamous epithelia and contains intraepithelial eosinophils. To date, no studies have identified the esophageal microbiome in patients with EoE or the impact of treatment on these organisms. The aim of this study was to identify the esophageal microbiome in EoE and determine whether treatments change this profile. We hypothesized that clinically relevant alterations in bacterial populations are present in different forms of esophagitis. Design In this prospective study, secretions from the esophageal mucosa were collected from children and adults with EoE, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) and normal mucosa using the Esophageal String Test (EST). Bacterial load was determined using quantitative PCR. Bacterial communities, determined by 16S rRNA gene amplification and 454 pyrosequencing, were compared between health and disease. Results Samples from a total of 70 children and adult subjects were examined. Bacterial load was increased in both EoE and GERD relative to normal subjects. In subjects with EoE, load was increased regardless of treatment status or degree of mucosal eosinophilia compared with normal. Haemophilus was significantly increased in untreated EoE subjects as compared with normal subjects. Streptococcus was decreased in GERD subjects on proton pump inhibition as compared with normal subjects. Conclusions Diseases associated with mucosal eosinophilia are characterized by a different microbiome from that found in the normal mucosa. Microbiota may contribute to esophageal inflammation in EoE and GERD. PMID:26020633

  9. Amiloride and guggulsterone suppression of esophageal cancer cell growth in vitro and in nude mouse xenografts

    PubMed Central

    GUAN, Baoxiang; HOQUE, Ashraful; XU, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma is increasing in the US and Western countries and frequent gastresophageal reflux or gastresophageal reflux disease carrying gastric acid and bile acid could contribute to esophageal adenocarcinogenesis. This study was designed to detect the expression of gastric acid-inducing gene Na + /H + exchanger-1 (NHE-1) ex vivo and then to explore targeting of NHE-1 expression or activity to control esophageal cancer cell viability in vitro and in nude mouse xenografts. The data showed that NHE-1 was highly expressed in esophageal adenocarcinoma tissues (66 of 101 cases [65.3%], but not in normal esophageal squamous cell epithelium (1 of 26 cases [3.8%]). Knockdown of NHE-1 expression using NHE-1 shRNA or inhibition of NHE-1 activity using the NHE-1 inhibitor amiloride suppressed viability and induced apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. Molecularly, amiloride inhibited expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and matrix metallopeptidase-9 but not NHE-1 mRNA in esophageal cancer cells. A combination of amiloride and guggulsterone (a natural bile acid receptor inhibitor) showed more than additive effects in suppressing esophageal cancer cell growth in vitro and in nude mouse xenografts. This study suggests that inhibition of NHE-1 expression or activity or combination of amiloride and guggulsterone could be useful in control of esophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:24999355

  10. Pigment epithelium-derived factor enhances tumor response to radiation through vasculature normalization in allografted lung cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Dong, Y; Peng, F; Yu, Z; Zuo, Y; Dai, Z; Chen, Y; Wang, J; Hu, X; Zhou, Q; Ma, H; Bao, Y; Gao, G; Chen, M

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the potential therapeutic effects of the combination of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) and radiation on lung cancer. The Lewis lung cancer (LLC) allografts in nude mice were treated with radiation, PEDF and PEDF combined with radiation. The morphologic changes of tumor vasculature and the hypoxic fraction of tumor tissues were evaluated. Significant inhibition of tumor growth was observed when radiation was applied between the 3rd and 7th day (the vasculature normalization window) after the initiation of PEDF treatment. During the vasculature normalization window, the tumor blood vessels in PEDF-treated mice were less tortuous and more uniform than those in the LLC allograft tumor treated with phosphate-buffered saline. Meanwhile, the thickness of the basement membrane was remarkably reduced and pericyte coverage was significantly increased with the PEDF treatment. We also found that tumor hypoxic fraction decreased during the 3rd to the 7th day after PEDF treatment, suggesting improved intratumoral oxygenation. Taken together, our results show that PEDF improved the effects of radiation therapy on LLC allografts by inducing a vascular normalization window from the 3rd to the 7th day after PEDF treatment. Our findings provide a basis for treating lung cancer with the combination of PEDF and radiation. PMID:25591809

  11. Four-dimensional computed tomographic analysis of esophageal mobility during normal respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Dieleman, Edith [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Senan, Suresh [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: s.senan@vumc.nl; Vincent, Andrew [Department of Bioinformatics, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lagerwaard, Frank J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Slotman, Ben J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Soernsen de Koste, John R. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-03-01

    Background: Chemo-radiotherapy for thoracic tumors can result in high-grade radiation esophagitis. Treatment planning to reduce esophageal irradiation requires organ motion to be accounted for. In this study, esophageal mobility was assessed using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Methods and Materials: Thoracic 4DCT scans were acquired on a 16-slice CT scanner in 29 patients. The outer esophageal wall was contoured in two extreme phases of respiration in 9 patients with nonesophageal malignancies. The displacement of the center of contour was measured at 2-cm intervals. In 20 additional patients with Stage I lung cancer, the esophagus was contoured in all 10 phases of each 4DCT at five defined anatomic levels. Both approaches were then applied to 4DCT scans of 4 patients who each had two repeat scans performed. A linear mixed effects model was constructed with fixed effects: measurement direction, measurement type, and measurement location along the cranio-caudal axis. Results: Measurement location and direction were significant descriptive parameters (Wald F-tests, p < 0.001), and the interaction term between the two was significant (p = 0.02). Medio-lateral mobility exceeded dorso-ventral mobility in the lower half of the esophagus but was of a similar magnitude in the upper half. Margins that would have incorporated all movement in medio-lateral and dorso-ventral directions were 5 mm proximally, 7 mm and 6 mm respectively in the mid-esophagus, and 9 mm and 8 mm respectively in the distal esophagus. Conclusions: The distal esophagus shows more mobility. Margins for mobility that can encompass all movement were derived for use in treatment planning, particularly for stereotactic radiotherapy.

  12. Continuous Nitric Oxide Synthesis by Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Normal Human Airway Epithelium in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuhua H. Guo; Hilde R. de Raeve; Thomas W. Rice; Dennis J. Stuehr; Frederic B. J. M. Thunnissen; Serpil C. Erzurum

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator of inflammatory responses in the lung and a key regulator of bronchomotor tone. An airway NO synthase (NOS; EC 1.14.13.39) has been proposed as a source of endogenous NO in the lung but has not been clearly defined. Through molecular cloning, we conclusively demonstrate that NO synthesis in normal human airways is due

  13. EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Domain Mutations Are Detected in Histologically Normal Respiratory Epithelium in Lung Cancer Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ximing Tang; Hisayuki Shigematsu; B. Nebiyou Bekele; Jack A. Roth; John D. Minna; Waun Ki Hong; Adi F. Gazdar; Ignacio I. Wistuba

    To determine whether EGFR tyrosine kinase domain muta- tions are early events in the pathogenesis of lung adenocarci- nomas, we tested for the presence of EGFR mutations in histologically normal bronchial and bronchiolar epithelia from lung adenocarcinomas bearing the common EGFR mutations. DNA was extracted from microdissected tissue obtained from 21 tumors with known EGFR mutations, 16 tumors without mutation,

  14. Mucin Gene Expression in Normal, Preneoplastic, and Neoplastic Human Gastric Epithelium1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel B. Ho; Laurie L. Shekels; Neil W. Toribara; Young S. Kim; Carolyn Lyftogt; David L. Cherwitz; Gloria A. Niehans

    1995-01-01

    Mucins synthesized by malignant cells may contribute (via decreased cellular adhesion and immune recognition) to cancer invasion and métas tases. Human mucins are derived from a heterogeneous family of genes, labeled MUCI-6. Our aim was to determine the pattern of mucin gene expression in normal, preneoplastic (intestinal metaplasia), and malignant gastric specimens. Probes and antibodies for specific mucin tandem repeat

  15. An Overview of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyojin

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease affecting both children and adults. The condition is characterized by an eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal epithelium. Symptoms of esophageal dysfunction include dysphagia, food impaction and symptoms mimicking gastroesophageal reflux disease. Endoscopic examination typically reveals mucosal fragility, ring or corrugated mucosa, longitudinal furrows, whitish plaques or a small caliber esophagus. Histologic findings of >15 eosinophils per high-power field is the diagnostic hallmark of EoE. An elimination diet, topical corticosteroids or endoscopic dilation for fibrostenotic disease serve as effective therapeutic option. PMID:25368745

  16. Ultrastructural Documentation of HLA-DR Antigen Reactivity in Normal Human Acrosyringial Epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George F. Murphy; Richard S. Shepard; Terence J. Harrist; Ben R. Bronstein; Atul K. Bhan

    1983-01-01

    We have observed that monoclonal antibodies directed against human Ia-like antigens react with a subset of epidermal keratinocytes as well as Langerhans cells in normal human skin. Membrane reactivity for HLA-DR antigen in flattened ductal keratinocytes and in adjacent cuticular cells forming the acrosyringial lumen was observed using immunoelectron microscopy. It should be recognized that Ia-positive acrosyringial keratinocytes represent a

  17. Mitogenic activity of pituitary hormones on cell cultures of normal and carcinogen-induced tumor epithelium from rat mammary glands

    PubMed Central

    Rudland, PS; Hallowes, RC; Durbin, H; Lewis, D

    1977-01-01

    Cell suspension containing normal or tumor epithelium were readily obtained by enzymatically digesting rat mammary glands from perphenazine-treated (prolactin-hypersecreting) cycling, female virgin animals or hormone- responsive mammary tumors from animal treated with dimethylbenzanthracene. Cell suspensions were fractioned into predominantly epithelial and predominantly stromal cells by their differential rates of attachment to culture dishes. Both normal mammary and tumor epithelial cells were characterized by the presence of specific cell-junctional complexes, desmosome-like structures, surface microvilli, and their ability to synthesize casein. Serum-dependent protease activity was greater in cultures derived from tumors, and cells from such cultures grew in agarose whereas those from the non-neoplastic gland did not. The addition of prolactin to the culture medium stimulated DNA synthesis in primary or secondary epithelial cultures from tumors, whereas additional insulin and hydrocortisone with prolactin were required for similar levels of DNA synthesis in cultures from non-neoplastic glands. The fraction of cells synthesizing DNA was, however, smaller than that with 10 percent serum measured in the same time period. Both growth hormone and epidermal growth factor stimulated DNA synthesis but to a lesser extent than did prolactin. Prolactin with hydrocortisone and insulin were relatively inactive in promoting DNA synthesis of the nonepithelial cells whereas pituitary fibroblast growth factor was more active. These mitogenic effects were obtained when the hormones were added to the medium at near physiological concentrations, and paralleled the known activities of the hormones in control of mammary gland growth and development in the rat. PMID:873989

  18. Intrinsic resistance triggered under acid loading within normal esophageal epithelial cells: NHE1- and ROS-mediated survival.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Young; Lee, Yeon Joo; Cho, Eun Jeong; Shin, Chang Yell; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2015-07-01

    The transition to a pathological phenotype such as Barrett's esophagus occurs via induction of resistance upon repeated contact with gastric refluxate in esophagus. This study examined the molecular changes within normal esophageal epithelial cells (EECs) under short-term acid loading and the role of these changes in defensive resistance against acidic cytotoxicity. After primary cultured EECs were exposed to pH 4-acidified medium (AM4), cell viability was determined by the MTT assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) activity were measured. Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) MEK/ERK1/2, p38 and JNK; phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) were detected by Western blot analysis or immunofluorescence staining. AM4 incubation induced intracellular ROS generation accompanied by increase in NOX activity, which was further increased by Na(+) /H(+) exchange-1 (NHE1)-dependent inhibition but was prevented by inhibition of NOX or mitochondria complex I. AM4 also induced phosphorylation of MEK/ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, PI3K/Akt, and nuclear translocation of NF-?B, and all these effects, except for p38 MAPK phosphorylation, were abolished by inhibition of ROS. ROS-dependent PI3K/Akt activation, which mediates NF-?B nuclear translocation, was inhibited by protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors and NHE1-specific inhibitor. All inhibitors of NHE, ROS, PTK, PI3K, or NF-?B further decreased AM4-induced cell viability. Acid loading in the presence of NHE1-dependent protection induced ROS generation by activating NOX and mitochondria complex I, which stimulated PTK/PI3K/Akt/NF-?B-dependent survival in EEC. Our data indicate that normal EEC initially respond to acid loading through intrinsic survival activation. PMID:25522216

  19. AFM stiffness nanotomography of normal, metaplastic and dysplastic human esophageal cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Fuhrmann; J. R. Staunton; V. Nandakumar; N. Banyai; P. C. W. Davies; R. Ros

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical stiffness of individual cells is important in tissue homeostasis, cell growth, division and motility, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the initiation of cancer. In this work, a normal squamous cell line (EPC2) and metaplastic (CP-A) as well as dysplastic (CP-D) Barrett's Esophagus columnar cell lines are studied as a model of pre-neoplastic progression in the human esophagus. We

  20. Transcriptional Analyses of Barrett's Metaplasia and Normal Upper GI Mucosae

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Michael T; Yeung, Ka Yee; Ruzzo, Walter L; Hsu, Li; Blount, Patricia L; Sullivan, Robert; Zarbl, Helmut; Delrow, Jeffrey; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Reid, Brian J

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Over the last two decades, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) has increased dramatically in the US and Western Europe. It has been shown that EAs evolve from premalignant Barrett's esophagus (BE) tissue by a process of clonal expansion and evolution. However, the molecular phenotype of the premalignant metaplasia, and its relationship to those of the normal upper gastrointestinal (GI) mucosae, including gastric, duodenal, and squamous epithelium of the esophagus, has not been systematically characterized. Therefore, we used oligonucleotide-based microarrays to characterize gene expression profiles in each of these tissues. The similarity of BE to each of the normal tissues was compared using a series of computational approaches. Our analyses included esophageal squamous epithelium, which is present at the same anatomic site and exposed to similar conditions as Barrett's epithelium, duodenum that shares morphologic similarity to Barrett's epithelium, and adjacent gastric epithelium. There was a clear distinction among the expression profiles of gastric, duodenal, and squamous epithelium whereas the BE profiles showed considerable overlap with normal tissues. Furthermore, we identified clusters of genes that are specific to each of the tissues, to the Barrett's metaplastic epithelia, and a cluster of genes that was distinct between squamous and nonsquamous epithelia. PMID:11896567

  1. Esophageal spasm

    MedlinePLUS

    Diffuse esophageal spasm; Spasm of the esophagus; Distal esophageal spasm ... Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap ...

  2. Candida esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Mathieson; Sudhir K. Dutta

    1983-01-01

    Summary Candida esophagitis is being increasingly recognized in the practice of clinical gastroenterology. The widespread use of corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and cancer chemotherapy, combined with the frequent use of endoscopy for the evaluation of esophageal symptoms, often leads to the identification ofCandida infection in this part of the gastrointestinal tract. The salient clinical features ofCandida esophagitis include odynophagia and dysphagia,

  3. [Eosinophilic esophagitis diagnostic features].

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of other causes of tissue eosinophilia. The clinical course of EoE like gastroesophageal reflux disease with eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal epithelium. EoE widely diagnosed abroad in children and adults, whereas in Russia the disease is almost never diagnosed. Upon detection of eosinophilia in the biopsy of the esophagus should exclude other causes. The correct clinical diagnosis in combination with the study of biopsy tissue of the esophagus and other laboratory methods (including allergic testing) is crucial in achieving the effectiveness of therapy EoE. PMID:25993874

  4. Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Further Reduces Normal Tissue Exposure During Definitive Therapy for Locally Advanced Distal Esophageal Tumors: A Dosimetric Study

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, James, E-mail: jwelsh@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gomez, Daniel; Palmer, Matthew B.; Riley, Beverly A.; Mayankkumar, Amin V.; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dong, Lei; Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Likhacheva, Anna; Liao, Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hofstetter, Wayne L. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Cox, James D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: We have previously found that {<=} 75% of treatment failures after chemoradiotherapy for unresectable esophageal cancer appear within the gross tumor volume and that intensity-modulated (photon) radiotherapy (IMRT) might allow dose escalation to the tumor without increasing normal tissue toxicity. Proton therapy might allow additional dose escalation, with even lower normal tissue toxicity. In the present study, we compared the dosimetric parameters for photon IMRT with that for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for unresectable, locally advanced, distal esophageal cancer. Patients and Methods: Four plans were created for each of 10 patients. IMPT was delivered using anteroposterior (AP)/posteroanterior beams, left posterior oblique/right posterior oblique (LPO/RPO) beams, or AP/LPO/RPO beams. IMRT was delivered with a concomitant boost to the gross tumor volume. The dose was 65.8 Gy to the gross tumor volume and 50.4 Gy to the planning target volume in 28 fractions. Results: Relative to IMRT, the IMPT (AP/posteroanterior) plan led to considerable reductions in the mean lung dose (3.18 vs. 8.27 Gy, p < .0001) and the percentage of lung volume receiving 5, 10, and 20 Gy (p {<=} .0006) but did not reduce the cardiac dose. The IMPT LPO/RPO plan also reduced the mean lung dose (4.9 Gy vs. 8.2 Gy, p < .001), the heart dose (mean cardiac dose and percentage of the cardiac volume receiving 10, 20, and 30 Gy, p {<=} .02), and the liver dose (mean hepatic dose 5 Gy vs. 14.9 Gy, p < .0001). The IMPT AP/LPO/RPO plan led to considerable reductions in the dose to the lung (p {<=} .005), heart (p {<=} .003), and liver (p {<=} .04). Conclusions: Compared with IMRT, IMPT for distal esophageal cancer lowered the dose to the heart, lung, and liver. The AP/LPO/RPO beam arrangement was optimal for sparing all three organs. The dosimetric benefits of protons will need to be tailored to each patient according to their specific cardiac and pulmonary risks. IMPT for esophageal cancer will soon be investigated further in a prospective trial at our institution.

  5. Cellular growth and survival are mediated by beta 1 integrins in normal human breast epithelium but not in breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Howlett, Anthony R; Bailey, Nina; Damsky, Caroline; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    1994-11-28

    We previously established a rapid three-dimensional assay for discrimination of normal and malignant human breast epithelial cells using a laminin-rich reconstituted basement membrane. In this assay, normal epithelial cells differentiate into well-organized acinar structures whereas tumor cells fail to recapitulate this process and produce large, disordered colonies. The data suggest that breast acinar morphogenesis and differentiation is regulated by cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions and that these interactions are altered in malignancy. Here, we investigated the role of ECM receptors (integrins) in these processes and report on the expression and function of potential laminin receptors in normal and tumorigenic breast epithelial cells. Immmunocytochemical analysis showed that normal and carcinoma cells in a three-dimensional substratum express profiles of integrins similar to normal and malignant breast tissues in situ. Normal cells express {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}3, {alpha}6, {beta}1 and {beta}4 integrin subunits, whereas breast carcinoma cells show variable losses, disordered expression, or down regulation of these subunits. Function-blocking experiments using inhibitory antiintegrin subunit antibodies showed a >5-fold inhibition of the formation of acinar structures by normal cells in the presence of either anti-{beta}1 or anti-{alpha}3 antibodies, whereas anti-{alpha}2 or -{alpha}6 had little or no effect. In experiments where collagen type I gels were used instead of basement membrane, acinar morphogenesis was blocked by anti-{beta}1 and -{alpha}2 antibodies but not by anti-{alpha}3. These data suggest a specificity of integrin utilization dependent on the ECM ligands encountered by the cell. The interruption of normal acinar morphogenesis by anti-integrin antibodies was associated with an inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis. Function-blocking antibodies had no inhibitory effect on the rate of tumor cell growth, survival or capacity to form colonies. Thus under our culture conditions breast acinar formation is at least a two-step process involving {beta}1-integrin-dependent cellular growth followed by polarization of the cells into organized structures. The regulation of this pathway appears to be impaired or lost in the tumor cells, suggesting that tumor colony formation occurs by independent mechanisms and that loss of proper integrinmediated cell-ECM interaction may be critical to breast tumor formation.

  6. Esophageal melanocytosis in oral opium consumption.

    PubMed

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Asadian, Fatemeh; Taghavi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal melanocytosis is a rare and benign condition, characterized by melanocytic proliferation of the esophageal squamous epithelium with heavy melanin deposition. The etiology and pathogenesis has not been exactly known but it seems to be a chronic stimulus such as gastroesophageal reflux. This condition is very rare and about 35 cases have been reported so far, most of which have been from India and Japan. Herein, we present a case of esophageal melanocytosis in a patient with long history of oral opium consumption. To the best of our knowledge, such a history has not been reported. PMID:24719715

  7. Immunohistochemical assessment of NY-ESO-1 expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma resection specimens

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Stephen J; Hng, Keng Ngee; Clark, Peter; Thistlethwaite, Fiona; Hawkins, Robert E; Ang, Yeng

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess NY-ESO-1 expression in a cohort of esophageal adenocarcinomas. METHODS: A retrospective search of our tissue archive for esophageal resection specimens containing esophageal adenocarcinoma was performed, for cases which had previously been reported for diagnostic purposes, using the systematised nomenclature of human and veterinary medicine coding system. Original haematoxylin and eosin stained sections were reviewed, using light microscopy, to confirm classification and tumour differentiation. A total of 27 adenocarcinoma resection specimens were then assessed using immunohistochemistry for NY-ESO-1 expression: 4 well differentiated, 14 moderately differentiated, 4 moderate-poorly differentiated, and 5 poorly differentiated. RESULTS: Four out of a total of 27 cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma examined (15%) displayed diffuse cytoplasmic and nuclear expression for NY-ESO-1. They displayed a heterogeneous and mosaic-type pattern of diffuse staining. Diffuse cytoplasmic staining was not identified in any of these structures: stroma, normal squamous epithelium, normal submucosal gland and duct, Barrett’s esophagus (goblet cell), Barrett’s esophagus (non-goblet cell) and high grade glandular dysplasia. All adenocarcinomas showed an unexpected dot-type pattern of staining at nuclear, paranuclear and cytoplasmic locations. Similar dot-type staining, with varying frequency and size of dots, was observed on examination of Barrett’s metaplasia, esophageal submucosal gland acini and the large bowel negative control, predominantly at the crypt base. Furthermore, a prominent pattern of apical (luminal) cytoplasmic dot-type staining was observed in some cases of Barrett’s metaplasia and also adenocarcinoma. A further morphological finding of interest was noted on examination of haematoxylin and eosin stained sections, as aggregates of lymphocytes were consistently noted to surround submucosal glands. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated for the first time NY-ESO-1 expression by esophageal adenocarcinomas, Barrett’s metaplasia and normal tissues other than germ cells. PMID:24744590

  8. Cox2 and ?-Catenin/T-cell Factor Signaling Intestinalize Human Esophageal Keratinocytes When Cultured under Organotypic Conditions12

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jianping; Crissey, Mary Ann S; Stairs, Douglas B; Sepulveda, Antonia R; Lynch, John P

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is rising in the United States. An important risk factor for EAC is the presence of Barrett esophagus (BE). BE is the replacement of normal squamous esophageal epithelium with a specialized columnar epithelium in response to chronic acid and bile reflux. However, the emergence of BE from squamous keratinocytes has not yet been demonstrated. Our research has focused on this. Wnt and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2) are two pathways whose activation has been associated with BE and progression to EAC, but their role has not been tested experimentally. To explore their contribution, we engineered a human esophageal keratinocyte cell line to express either a dominant-active Wnt effector CatCLef or a Cox2 complementary DNA. In a two-dimensional culture environment, Cox2 expression increases cell proliferation and migration, but neither transgene induces known BE markers. In contrast, when these cells were placed into three-dimensional organotypic culture conditions, we observed more profound effects. CatCLef-expressing cells were more proliferative, developed a thicker epithelium, and upregulated Notch signaling and several BE markers including NHE2. Cox2 expression also increased cell proliferation and induced a thicker epithelium. More importantly, we observed cysts form within the epithelium, filled with intestinal mucins including Muc5B and Muc17. This suggests that Cox2 expression in a three-dimensional culture environment induces a lineage of mucin-secreting cells and supports an important causal role for Cox2 in BE pathogenesis. We conclude that in vitro modeling of BE pathogenesis can be improved by enhancing Wnt signaling and Cox2 activity and using three-dimensional organotypic culture conditions. PMID:21969813

  9. The Pathophysiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Raheem, Mayumi; Leach, Steven T.; Day, Andrew S.; Lemberg, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging disease characterized by esophageal eosinophilia (>15eos/hpf), lack of responsiveness to acid-suppressive medication and is managed by allergen elimination and anti-allergy therapy. Although the pathophysiology of EoE is currently unsubstantiated, evidence implicates food and aeroallergen hypersensitivity in genetically predisposed individuals as contributory factors. Genome-wide expression analyses have isolated a remarkably conserved gene-expression profile irrespective of age and gender, suggesting a genetic contribution. EoE has characteristics of mainly TH2 type immune responses but also some TH1 cytokines, which appear to strongly contribute to tissue fibrosis, with esophageal epithelial cells providing a hospitable environment for this inflammatory process. Eosinophil-degranulation products appear to play a central role in tissue remodeling in EoE. This remodeling and dysregulation predisposes to fibrosis. Mast-cell-derived molecules such as histamine may have an effect on enteric nerves and may also act in concert with transforming growth factor-? to interfere with esophageal musculature. Additionally, the esophageal epithelium may facilitate the inflammatory process under pathogenic contexts such as in EoE. This article aims to discuss the contributory factors in the pathophysiology of EoE. PMID:24910846

  10. Esophageal actinomycosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fu-Tsan Chou; Ken-Sheng Cheng; I-Ping Chiang

    2006-01-01

    Esophageal actinomycosis is uncommon and has been reported in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. A 41-y-old man\\u000a with a history of heavy alcohol use presented with progressively worsening odynophagia and dysphagia over a 2-wk period. Upper\\u000a gastrointestinal endoscopy and esophageal biopsy revealed ulceration withActinomyces and candidal infection. After therapy with intravenous penicillin G followed by oral amoxicillin that led to clinical

  11. Infectious esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian P. Mulhall; Roy K. H. Wong

    2003-01-01

    Opinion statement  Infectious esophagitis can have significant implications in an impaired host. Described most commonly in immunocompromised\\u000a patients, infectious esophagitis can also occasionally be discovered in immunocompetent individuals in several unique clinical\\u000a settings. Evaluation of the typical presenting complaints, such as dysphagia or odynophagia, are especially important in immunocompetent\\u000a patients, and therapy should be directed at the appropriate predisposing condition and

  12. Whole Genome Expression Array Profiling Highlights Differences in Mucosal Defense Genes in Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nancarrow, Derek J.; Clouston, Andrew D.; Smithers, B. Mark; Gotley, David C.; Drew, Paul A.; Watson, David I.; Tyagi, Sonika; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Whiteman, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has become a major concern in Western countries due to rapid rises in incidence coupled with very poor survival rates. One of the key risk factors for the development of this cancer is the presence of Barrett's esophagus (BE), which is believed to form in response to repeated gastro-esophageal reflux. In this study we performed comparative, genome-wide expression profiling (using Illumina whole-genome Beadarrays) on total RNA extracted from esophageal biopsy tissues from individuals with EAC, BE (in the absence of EAC) and those with normal squamous epithelium. We combined these data with publically accessible raw data from three similar studies to investigate key gene and ontology differences between these three tissue states. The results support the deduction that BE is a tissue with enhanced glycoprotein synthesis machinery (DPP4, ATP2A3, AGR2) designed to provide strong mucosal defenses aimed at resisting gastro-esophageal reflux. EAC exhibits the enhanced extracellular matrix remodeling (collagens, IGFBP7, PLAU) effects expected in an aggressive form of cancer, as well as evidence of reduced expression of genes associated with mucosal (MUC6, CA2, TFF1) and xenobiotic (AKR1C2, AKR1B10) defenses. When our results are compared to previous whole-genome expression profiling studies keratin, mucin, annexin and trefoil factor gene groups are the most frequently represented differentially expressed gene families. Eleven genes identified here are also represented in at least 3 other profiling studies. We used these genes to discriminate between squamous epithelium, BE and EAC within the two largest cohorts using a support vector machine leave one out cross validation (LOOCV) analysis. While this method was satisfactory for discriminating squamous epithelium and BE, it demonstrates the need for more detailed investigations into profiling changes between BE and EAC. PMID:21829465

  13. [Eosinophilic esophagitis].

    PubMed

    Kusunose, Hiroaki; Ohara, Shuichi

    2015-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic condition of increasing recognition and prevalence. Because of elevated total IgE levels and high rates of concurrent allergic diseases compared with the general population, EoE appears to be an antigen-driven immunologic process that caused by allergens like food or aeroallergens. EoE is a disease that features dense intraepithelial infiltration by eosinophils which cause excessive mucosal immunologic reactions which cause several symptoms that mostly involve dysphagia. For establishment of the diagnosis, infiltration of eosinophils (? 20 eosinophils/HPF) should be identified in an esophageal mucosal biopsy specimen. In treatment of patients have a possibility of EoE, proton-pump inhibitors(PPIs) must be tried as first choice. Other proved therapeutic options include topical or systemic corticosteroids, chronic dietary elimination, and esophageal dilation, but local administration of glucocorticoids has recently been reported as useful therapy for EoE. PMID:26165084

  14. Natural history of primary eosinophilic esophagitis: a follow-up of 30 adult patients for up to 11.5 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Straumann; Hans-peter Spichtin; Leticia Grize; Kathleen A Bucher; Christoph Beglinger; Hans-uwe Simon

    2003-01-01

    Background & Aims: Primary eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic, increasingly recognized, interleukin 5-driven inflammatory disorder of the esophagus. The leading symptom in adults is uniform attacks of dysphagia, and the established histologic sign is a dense eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal epithelium. Before this study, the natural course of eosinophilic esophagitis had not been defined and information regarding potential long-term

  15. Gene expression profiles at different stages of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Zhou; Li-Qun Zhao; Mo-Miao Xiong; Xiu-Qin Wang; Guan-Rui Yang; Zong-Liang Qiu; Min Wu; Zhi-Hua Liu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the gene expression profiles in different stages of carcinogenesis of esophageal epithelium. METHODS: A microarray containing 588 cancer related genes was employed to study the gene expression profile at different stages of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma including basal cell hyperplasia, high-grade dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, early and late cancer. Principle component analysis was performed to search the

  16. Snapshot of Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Discovery A Snapshot of Esophageal Cancer Incidence and Mortality Esophageal cancer consists of two primary cancer types, ... ethnic groups have higher esophageal cancer incidence and mortality rates than women. Historically, African American men have ...

  17. Original Article The Frequency of Lymphocytic and Reflux Esophagitis in Non-Human Primates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos A. Rubio; Edward J. Dick Jr; Abiel Orrego; Gene B. Hubbard

    We previously reported in humans a novel histologic phenotype of non-gastro-esophageal reflux disease called lymphocytic esophagitis. In this work, the esophagi of 121 non-human primates (103 baboons and 18 macaques) were investigated. 45 baboons (43.7%) and 9 macaques (50%) had lymphocytic esophagitis. The lymphocytic infiltration in the squamous epithelium involved not only papillary but also inter-papillary fields. Microscopic examination around

  18. Drug-induced esophageal strictures.

    PubMed Central

    Bonavina, L; DeMeester, T R; McChesney, L; Schwizer, W; Albertucci, M; Bailey, R T

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study of 55 patients with a benign esophageal stricture showed that in 11 patients (20%) the cause was a drug-induced lesion due to potassium chloride (3), tetracyclines (3), aspirin (2), vitamin C (1), phenytoin (1), and quinidine (1). Five of the 11 patients would have been diagnosed as having a reflux etiology of their stricture if 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring was not performed. Six patients responded to dilatation and five patients required resection or bypass. A prospective study of 18 asymptomatic volunteers showed a high incidence of esophageal lodgment of a radiolabeled medicinal capsule, with subsequent dissolution and release of the isotope. This occurred most frequently in elderly subjects and was reduced by increasing the volume of water chaser. The sites of lodgment correspond to the location of the observed strictures in the patient population. An in vitro study showed that, when the causative drugs were mixed with saliva, dissolution occurred within 60 minutes and was associated with significant changes in pH. These investigations show that drug-induced esophageal strictures are more common than previously appreciated, and can be confused with a reflux etiology. Diagnosis is suggested by a history of drug ingestion, location of the stricture, and a normal esophageal acid exposure on 24-hour pH monitoring. The severity of the esophageal injury is variable and requires dilatation to resection for therapy. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3606243

  19. Radiation esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Murro, Diana; Jakate, Shriram

    2015-06-01

    The esophagus is frequently exposed to radiation during treatment of advanced stages of common cancers such as lung, breast, and esophagus. However, symptomatic radiation esophagitis requiring endoscopic and histologic evaluation occurs quite rarely, affecting less than 1% of patients receiving radiation treatment. Symptoms occur acutely, generally within the first 2 months. Patients typically present with nonspecific symptoms such as dysphagia and odynophagia. Endoscopic changes such as erythema and ulceration are also nonspecific and nondiagnostic. Biopsies from affected areas show variable inflammatory changes and radiation-related atypia of endothelial and stromal cells. Such atypia mimics cytomegalovirus cytopathic changes, which are ruled out through absence of immunostaining. Radiation esophagitis is thus clinically unsuspected and endoscopically and histologically quite different from the more common and familiar radiation proctitis for which angioectasia is the predominant finding. PMID:26030254

  20. Esophageal Cancer Staging

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate staging of esophageal cancer is very important to achieving optimal treatment outcomes. The AJCC (American Joint Committee on Cancer) first published TNM esophageal cancer staging recommendations in the first edition of their staging manual in 1977. Thereafter, the staging of esophageal cancer was changed many times over the years. This article reviews the current status of staging of esophageal cancer. PMID:26078921

  1. Development, validation and implementation of an in vitro model for the study of metabolic and immune function in normal and inflamed human colonic epithelium.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), collectively referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are chronic immune disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The aetiology of IBD remains an enigma, but increasing evidence suggests that the development of IBD may be triggered by a disturbance in the balance between gut commensal bacteria and host response in the intestinal mucosa. It is now known that epithelial cells have the capacity to secrete and respond to a range of immunological mediators and this suggests that these cells play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Current knowledge about the intestinal epithelium has mainly been obtained using models based on animal cells, transformed human intestinal cell lines and isolated cells from resected colonic bowel segments. Species difference, malignant origin and confounders related to surgery, obviously make these cell models however less applicable for patophysiological studies. Consequently, there was a clear need for models of representative intestinal epithelial cells that would allow functional and dynamic studies of the differentiated human colonic epithelium in vitro. The primary purpose of this thesis was to explore and validate the optimal conditions for establishing a model based on short-term cultures of human colonic epithelial cells obtained from endoscopical biopsies. The cell cultures were accordingly used to describe the interplay between proinflammatory cytokines and colonic epithelium, with focus on alterations in viability, butyrate metabolism and secretion of a chemokine and metalloproteinases (MMP). Finally, the model was used to characterize expression and activation of receptors like toll like receptor (TLR)9 and peroxisome activated proliferators (PPAR)- known to be important players in regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses in human colonic epithelium. The results showed that it is possible to establish short-term cultures of representative, viable human colonic epithelial cells from endoscopic mucosal biopsies of patients with IBD. Short-time isolation by EGTA/EDTA from colonic biopsies allowed establishment of small scale cultures of epithelial cells which were viable and metabolic active for up to 48 hours in vitro. The cell model preserved important cellular metabolic and immunological functions of the human colonic epithelium, including the ability to oxidate butyrate, detoxificate phenolic compounds and secrete the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 in vitro. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interferon (IFN)-? are pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are present in increased amounts in inflamed colonic mucosa. The precise mechanisms of cytokine-mediated mucosal injury are unknown, but one might be that TNF-? and IFN-? directly impair epithelial cell function similar to effects seen on distinct target cells in other autoimmune diseases. Using the model, both cytokines were found directly to impair the viability of colonic epithelial cells and to induce secretion of IL-8 in vitro. Interestingly, the cells from inflamed IBD mucosa were less sensitive to cytokine-induced damage, which suggests that an intrinsic defense mechanism is triggered in these cells, perhaps as a result of exposure to toxic luminal factors or high local cytokine levels in vivo. TNF-? and IFN-? may also be involved in regulation of intestinal inflammation through stimulation of MMP expression and proteolytic activity. We found that colonic epithelial cells express a range of MMPs and moreover that expression of distinct MMPs is increased in cells from inflamed IBD mucosa. Using a functional peptide cleavage assay it was shown that epithelial cells secreted proteolytic active enzymes and that the functional MMP activity was increased in inflamed IBD mucosa. This suggests that colonic epithelial cells, like myofibroblasts and immune cells, may contribute to local intestinal mucosal damage, through secretion of active MMPs. Disturbance of recognition and discrimination of potentially harmful pathogens from commensals in the intestina

  2. Bile Acid Exposure Up-regulates Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 1/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Pathway in Barrett’s-Associated Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Chia-Jui; Izzo, Julie G.; Lee, Dung-Fang; Guha, Sushovan; Wei, Yongkun; Wu, Tsung-Teh; Chen, Chun-Te; Kuo, Hsu-Ping; Hsu, Jung-Mao; Sun, Hui-Lung; Chou, Chao-Kai; Buttar, Navtej S.; Wang, Kenneth K.; Huang, Peng; Ajani, Jaffer; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2008-01-01

    Barrett’s esophagus, a columnar metaplasia of the lower esophagus epithelium related to gastroesophageal reflux disease, is the strongest known risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Understanding the signal transduction events involved in esophageal epithelium carcinogenesis may provide insights into the origins of EAC and may suggest new therapies. To elucidate the molecular pathways of bile acid–induced tumorigenesis, the newly identified inflammation-associated signaling pathway involving I?B kinases ? (IKK?), tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) downstream effector S6 kinase (S6K1) was confirmed to be activated in immortalized Barrett’s CPC-A and CPC-C cells and esophageal cancer SEG-1 and BE3 cells. Phosphorylation of TSC1 and S6K1 was induced in response to bile acid stimulation. Treatment of these cells with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin or the IKK? inhibitor Bay 11-7082 suppressed bile acid–induced cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. We next used an orthotopic rat model to evaluate the role of bile acid in the progression of Barrett’s esophagus to EAC. Of interest, we found high expression of phosphorylated IKK? (pIKK?) and phosphorylated S6K1 (pS6K1) in tumor tissues and the Barrett’s epithelium compared with normal epithelium. Furthermore, immunostaining of clinical EAC tissue specimens revealed that pIKK? expression was strongly correlated with pS6K1 level. Together, these results show that bile acid can deregulate TSC1/mTOR through IKK? signaling, which may play a critical role in EAC progression. In addition, Bay 11-7082 and rapamycin may potentially be chemopreventive drugs against Barrett’s esophagus–associated EAC. PMID:18413730

  3. Influence of Ionizing Radiation on Stromal-Epithelial Communication in Esophageal Carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, Janice; Patel, Zarana; Grugan, Katharine; Rustgi, Anil; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    Esophageal cancer is the 6th leading cause of cancer death worldwide and is associated with a variety of risk factors including tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, human papilloma virus infection, and certain dietary factors such as trace mineral and vitamin deficiencies. A connection with ionizing radiation exposure is revealed by the high excess relative risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma observed in the survivors of the atomic bomb detonations in Japan. Esophageal carcinomas are also seen as secondary malignancies in patients who received radiotherapy for breast and thoracic cancers; additionally, patients with head/neck and oral squamous cell cancers are at increased risk for metachronous esophageal squamous cell cancers. This malignancy is rapidly fatal, mainly because it remains asymptomatic until late, advanced stages when the disease is rarely responsive to treatment. In normal epithelium, the stromal microenvironment is essential for the maintenance and modulation of cell growth and differentiation. Cross talk between the epithelial and stromal compartments can influence many aspects of malignant progression, including tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion and recruitment of new blood vessels. To test the hypothesis that radiation exposure plays a role in esophageal carcinogenesis via non-targeted mechanisms involving stromal-epithelial cell communication, we are studying radiation effects on hTERT-immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells and genetic variants grown in co-culture with human esophageal stromal fibrob-lasts (Okawa et al., Genes Dev. 2007. 21: 2788-2803). We examined how irradiation of stromal fibroblasts affected epithelial migration and invasion, behaviors associated with cancer promotion and progression. These assays were conducted in modified Boyden chambers using conditioned media from irradiated fibroblasts. Our results using low LET gamma radiation showed a dose-dependent increase in migration of epithelial cells when exposed to conditioned media from irradiated vs. non-irradiated fibroblasts. We also observed enhanced invasion through a basement membrane matrix in similarly treated cells. Candidate factors that me-diate these effects were identified using antibody capture arrays, and their increased secretion in irradiated fibroblasts was confirmed using ELISAs. We are currently analyzing the effect of these individual factors on epithelial migration and invasion, as well as their influence on cell survival and DNA repair. Our current studies using high-LET radiation will elucidate radiation quality effects on these processes. These results should further our understanding of the mechanisms by which radiation impacts the tissue microenvironment and how it influences cancer development processes.

  4. General Information about Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Esophageal Cancer Key Points Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant ( ... NCI Web site . Stages of Esophageal Cancer Key Points After esophageal cancer has been diagnosed, tests are ...

  5. USP9X expression correlates with tumor progression and poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ubiquitination is a reversible process of posttranslational protein modification through the action of the family of deubiquitylating enzymes which contain ubiquitin-specific protease 9x (USP9X). Recent evidence indicates that USP9X is involved in the progression of various human cancers. The aim was to detect the expression of USP9X in the progression from normal epithelium to invasive esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) and evaluate the relevance of USP9X expression to the tumor progression and prognosis. Methods In this study, USP9X immunohistochemical analysis was performed on tissues constructed from ESCC combined with either normal epithelium or adjacent precursor tissues of 102 patients. All analyses were performed by SPSS 13.0 software. Results We observed that the level of high USP9X expression increased gradually in the transformation from normal epithelium (4.0%), to low grade intraepithelial neoplasia (10.5%), then to high grade intraepithelial neoplasia (28.6%), and finally to invasive ESCC (40.2%). The expression of USP9X was found to be significantly different between the normal mucosa and ESCC (P?normal mucosa and low grade intraepithelial neoplasia (P?=?0.369), nor between high grade intraepithelial neoplasia and ESCC (p?=?0.115). Interestingly, the most intensive staining for USP9X was usually observed in the basal and lower spinous layers of the esophageal epithelium with precursor lesions which often resulted in the earliest malignant lesion. USP9X expression status was positively associated with both depth of invasion (p?=?0.046) and lymph node metastasis (p?=?0.032). Increased USP9X expression was significantly correlated to poorer survival rate in ESCC patients (p?=?0.001). When adjusted by multivariate analysis, USP9X expression (HR 2.066, P?=?0.005), together with TNM stage (HR 1.702, P?=?0.042) was an independent predictor for overall survival. Conclusions Up-regulation of USP9X plays an important role in formation and progression of precancerous lesions in ESCC and USP9X expression levels were significantly correlated with the survival of ESCC patients. Thus, USP9X could be considered as a potential biomarker and prognostic predictor for ESCC. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1945302932102737 PMID:24152793

  6. BMP-driven NRF2 activation in esophageal basal cell differentiation and eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming; Ku, Wei-Yao; Zhou, Zhongren; Dellon, Evan S.; Falk, Gary W.; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Wang, Mei-Lun; Liu, Kuancan; Wang, Jun; Katzka, David A.; Peters, Jeffrey H.; Lan, Xiaopeng; Que, Jianwen

    2015-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires balanced self-renewal and differentiation of stem/progenitor cells, especially in tissues that are constantly replenished like the esophagus. Disruption of this balance is associated with pathological conditions, including eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), in which basal progenitor cells become hyperplastic upon proinflammatory stimulation. However, how basal cells respond to the inflammatory environment at the molecular level remains undetermined. We previously reported that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway is critical for epithelial morphogenesis in the embryonic esophagus. Here, we address how this pathway regulates tissue homeostasis and EoE development in the adult esophagus. BMP signaling was specifically activated in differentiated squamous epithelium, but not in basal progenitor cells, which express the BMP antagonist follistatin. Previous reports indicate that increased BMP activity promotes Barrett’s intestinal differentiation; however, in mice, basal progenitor cell–specific expression of constitutively active BMP promoted squamous differentiation. Moreover, BMP activation increased intracellular ROS levels, initiating an NRF2-mediated oxidative response during basal progenitor cell differentiation. In both a mouse EoE model and human biopsies, reduced squamous differentiation was associated with high levels of follistatin and disrupted BMP/NRF2 pathways. We therefore propose a model in which normal squamous differentiation of basal progenitor cells is mediated by BMP-driven NRF2 activation and basal cell hyperplasia is promoted by disruption of BMP signaling in EoE. PMID:25774506

  7. INTESTINAL DIFFERENTIATION IN METAPLASTIC, NON-GOBLET COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM IN THE ESOPHAGUS

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Hejin P.; Blount, Patricia L.; Ayub, Kamrun; Das, Kiron M.; Souza, Rhonda; Spechler, Stuart; Odze, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is defined by the presence of metaplastic esophageal columnar epithelium with goblet cells within endoscopically recognizable areas of the esophagus. However, some carcinomas in BE, or from the GEJ region, develop within mucosa devoid of goblet cells. However, the biological properties, pathogenesis, and risk of malignancy of metaplastic, esophageal non-goblet columnar epithelium, is, essentially, unknown. In this study, 89 patients with metaplastic esophageal columnar epithelium were evaluated immunohistochemically for markers of intestinal differentiation, such as MUC2, DAS-1, Villin, and CDX2, a marker of gastric differentiation (MUC5AC), and Ki67, a marker of cell proliferation. Of the 89 patients, 59 had columnar metaplasia with goblet cells (BE), which were further separated into low density goblet cell and high density goblet cell groups based on the percentage of crypts with goblet cells, and 30 patients had columnar metaplasia of the esophagus without goblet cells. As controls, gastric biopsies from 19 age and sex matched patients without esophageal or gastric pathology were used. The rate of positivity of the markers and the location of Ki67 staining was evaluated only in non-goblet columnar epithelium from all patient groups. Patients with metaplastic esophageal columnar epithelium without goblet cells showed positivity for MUC5AC, MUC2, DAS-1, Villin, and CDX2 in 100%, 0%, 30%, 70%, and 43% of cases, respectively. 17% of cases showed aberrant surface Ki67 positivity. These values were significantly higher than gastric controls, which showed absence of staining for all markers except MUC5AC (100%). In patients with metaplastic esophageal columnar epithelium with goblet cells (BE) a significant increased rate of staining was observed for all markers, except MUC5AC. In addition, both MUC2 and surface Ki67 staining were significantly increased in BE patients with high density goblet cells versus those with low-density goblet cells. In a separate analysis in which metaplastic esophageal non-goblet epithelium was evaluated in areas of mucosa devoid of goblet cells compared to areas of mucosa with goblet cells, from patients who had goblet cells elsewhere in the mucosa (N=59), no significant differences were observed with regard to the percentage of cases that stained with any of the markers in the non-goblet epithelium in areas devoid of goblet cells, similar to the patient group with metaplastic esophageal epithelium without goblet cells (N=30). Similar to above, in all cases, expression of intestinal markers increased in areas of mucosa adjacent to goblet cells. This study provides evidence that metaplastic esophageal columnar epithelium without goblet cells shows phenotypic evidence of intestinal differentiation and supports the theory that squamous epithelium converts initially to non-goblet columnar epithelium prior to goblet cell metaplasia. Further prospective studies are needed to evaluate the pathogenetic sequence, natural history, and risk of malignancy of metaplastic esophageal non-goblet epithelium. PMID:19363439

  8. Molecular Pathways: Pathogenesis and clinical implications of microbiome alteration in esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liying; Francois, Fritz; Pei, Zhiheng

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma is preceded by the development of reflux-related intestinal metaplasia or Barrett’s esophagus which is a response to inflammation of the esophageal squamous mucosa, reflux esophagitis. Gastroesophageal reflux impairs the mucosal barrier in the distal esophagus, allowing chronic exposure of the squamous epithelium to the diverse microbial ecosystem or microbiome, and inducing chronic inflammation. The esophageal microbiome is altered in both esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus, characterized by a significant decrease in Gram-positive bacteria and an increase in Gram-negative bacteria in esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a major structure of the outer membrane in Gram-negative bacteria, can up-regulate gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines via activation of the TLR4 and NF-kB pathway. The potential impact of LPS on reflux esophagitis may be through relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter via iNOS and by delaying gastric emptying via COX-2. Chronic inflammation may be play a critical role in the progression from benign to malignant esophageal disease. Therefore analysis of the pathways leading to chronic inflammation in the esophagus may help to identify biomarkers in Barrett's esophagus patients for neoplastic progression and provide insight into molecular events suitable for therapeutic intervention in prevention of esophageal adenocarcinoma development in patients with reflux esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus. PMID:22344232

  9. Ambulatory 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Wiener; T. M. Morgan; J. B. Copper; D. O. Castell; J. W. Sinclair; J. E. Richter

    1988-01-01

    If 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring is to be a useful diagnostic tool, it must reliably discriminate gastroesophageal reflux patients despite daily variations in distal esophageal acid exposure. To address this issue, we studied 53 subjects (14 healthy normals, 14 esophagitis patients, and 25 patients with atypical symptoms) with two ambulatory pH tests performed within 10 days of each other. Intrasubject

  10. Esophageal stricture - benign

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stricture can be caused by: Gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) Eosinophilic esophagitis Injuries caused by an endoscope Long-term use ... returning. Surgery is rarely needed. If you have eosinophilic esophagitis, you may need to take medicines or make ...

  11. Relationships Between Eosinophilic Inflammation, Tissue Remodeling and Fibrosis in Eosinophilic Esophagitis*

    PubMed Central

    Aceves, Seema S.; Ackerman, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The clinical and pathologic features of Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EE) include extensive tissue remodeling. Increasing evidence supports a key role for the eosinophil in multiple aspects of the esophageal remodeling and fibrosis seen in this allergic disease, including epithelial hyperplasia, subepithelial fibrosis, smooth muscle hyperplasia, and angiogenesis. These structural changes contribute to the endoscopic findings of esophageal thickening, luminal narrowing, furrowing, transient and fixed rings (trachealization) and stricture, as well as the clinical features of dysmotility, dysphagia and food impactions in pediatric and adult EE. This chapter reviews the clinical implications of esophageal remodeling and fibrosis in EE and discusses the possible pathogenic mechanisms inducing and regulating these responses. We focus specifically on eosinophil and cytokine interactions with the esophageal epithelium, vascular endothelium, resident fibroblasts, and smooth muscle. Current and potential therapeutic interventions are discussed that may impact the development or resolution of chronic esophageal remodeling and fibrosis in EE. PMID:19141355

  12. Esophageal tuberculosis mimicking malignancy.

    PubMed

    Geusens, E; Verschakelen, J A; Flamaing, J; Bogaert, J; Ponette, E; Decramer, M; Baert, A L

    1996-01-01

    A case of pulmonary and esophageal tuberculosis in an 82-year-old female is presented. Esophageal tuberculosis is very rarely seen in Europe and the United States, but the disease is still endemic in India. The major differential diagnosis is esophageal malignancy. Findings that can suggest the diagnosis are tracheo-esophageal fistula formation, enlarged, centrally necrotizing lymph nodes, and a micronodular lung pattern. PMID:8797957

  13. Failed Nissen fundoplication in two patients who had persistent vomiting and eosinophilic esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris A Liacouras

    1997-01-01

    The following report describes two patients who had chronic symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux and persistent histological esophagitis, despite aggressive medical antireflux therapy, who continued to have esophagitis and remained symptomatic post antireflux surgery (Nissen fundoplication). Both patients demonstrated a severe eosinophilic esophagitis with normal gastric and duodenal histology before and after surgery. Postoperatively, each received the diagnosis of allergic enteritis

  14. Multiple esophageal rings: an association with eosinophilic esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constantinos G Siafakas; Charlotte K Ryan; Marilyn R Brown; Tracie L Miller

    2000-01-01

    Esophagitis may present endoscopically with erythema, edema, loss of vascular pattern, friability, and ulceration of the esophageal mucosa. Left untreated, chronic esophagitis may result in stricture formation. The presence of multiple concentric rings involving the entire esophagus has been cited as a chronic form of esophagitis. We present a case of an 8-yr-old boy with multiple concentric esophageal rings and

  15. Eosinophilic esophagitis as paraneoplastic syndrome in a patient with ganglioneuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Prader, S; Spalinger, J; Caduff, J; Hürlimann, S; Rischewski, J

    2015-05-01

    A 16-month-old boy presented with failure to thrive despite sufficient caloric intake, hypersalivation, abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea and blepharitis. An eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was diagnosed by esophageal biopsy. Dietary restrictions and topical steroid treatment lead to no improvement. Further diagnostic work-up revealed an intrathoracal, paraspinal ganglioneuroblastoma. After operative extirpation of the tumour, all initial symptoms resolved. An esophageal control biopsy 4 weeks after tumour resection was normal. This is the first report of eosinophilic esophagitis as part of a paraneoplastic syndrome in a patient with a malignant disease other than a carcinoma. PMID:25985452

  16. Transmissible Gastroenteritis in Feeder Pigs: Observations on the Jejunal Epithelium of Normal Feeder Pigs and Feeder Pigs Infected with TGE Virus

    PubMed Central

    Morin, M.; Morehouse, L. G.

    1974-01-01

    Light and electron microscopy findings in the jejunal mucosa of the normal feeder pig and feeder pigs infected with transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus are reported. Villi in the mid jejunum of the normal feeder pig were elongated, finger shaped and covered with a layer of columnar absorptive cells with a well developed and regular brush border. Severe lesions of villous atrophy were present in all jejunal segments of feeder swine killed 96 hours post infection with TGE virus. Atrophic villi were covered by flat to cuboidal cells with a poorly developed brush border in some areas. In other segments, cells varied in appearance from sub-columnar to columnar type of near normal appearance. The ultrastructure of the jejunal absorptive cells in the normal feeder pig was found to be similar to that described for the jejunal cells of other adult mammals. There were no significant indications of high pinocytotic activity. The epithelial cells covering the atrophic villi of TGE infected pigs had a fine structure similar to that described for the crypt cells, ranging in appearance from very immature to moderately differentiated cells. Microvilli were very short, decreased markedly in number and irregular in arrangement. The terminal web was poorly developed. Strands of rough endoplasmic reticulum were markedly diminished and an increase in free ribosomes was noted. The significance of these observations in explaining pathogenesis of TGE in feeder pigs is discussed. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:4277743

  17. The Function and Interaction of Genes Related to Esophageal Squamous Cell Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Long Chen; Su Gai Yin; Yao Song Wu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the function and interaction of genes related to esophageal squamous cell cancer and discuss esophageal cancer molecular mechanism.Methods: The gene microarray date set of esophageal was downloaded from the GEO BRB-ArrayTools and online tool was used to analysis the difference expression genes between esophageal squamous cell cancer and normal tissue, and analysis the functional and interaction of

  18. [Esophageal motility disorders].

    PubMed

    Müller, M; Gockel, I

    2015-06-01

    Esophageal motility disorders are a group of diseases that result in swallowing dysfunction due to changes in neuromuscular structures, which coordinate esophageal function. Besides achalasia, which is the best defined functional disturbance of the esophagus, there are other motility disorders, namely hypercontractile (diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker or jackhammer esophagus, hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter) and hypocontractile disorders, whose origins and disease mechanisms are not yet well understood. The main symptoms are dysphagia and thoracic pain. Diagnosis is usually made by means of esophageal manometry, while endoscopy and barium swallow are essential to exclude inflammatory or neoplastic changes. The introduction of high resolution manometry (HRM) with up to 36 pressure points that are simultaneously measured on the esophageal catheter has changed diagnosis and assessment, and has led-with the Chicago Classification-to a new functional classification of esophageal motility disorders. In the following review, the most important motility disorders of the esophagus are introduced. PMID:25940142

  19. P27 KIP1 expression indicates that steroid receptor-positive cells are a non-proliferating, differentiated subpopulation of the normal human breast epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B Clarke; A Howell; C. S Potten; E Anderson

    2000-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that steroid receptor-expressing cells are derived from the proliferative population, we examined expression of the p27KIP1 inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase activity (a differentiation marker) while tracking the fate of proliferating cells in normal human breast tissue implanted into athymic nude mice using tritiated thymidine [3H]-dT. We identified a small number of cells that appeared to have

  20. Immunohistochemical Study of the Expression of a Mr 34,000 Human Epithelium-specific Surface Glycoprotein in Normal and Malignant Tissues1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Momburg; Gerhard Moldenhauer; J. HÃ

    MonoclonalantibodyHEA125 was usedto studythe tissue distribution of an epithelial cell surface glycoproteinof M, 34,000 (Egp34). A large panelof normalandneoplastictissues was examinedforimmunoreactivity with HEA125 by means of a sensitive immunoperoxidasetechnique. HEA12S labeled most epithelial cell types throughoutthe body but did not label any nonepithelial tissue. Major exceptions were epidermal keratinocytes,gastric parietalcells, hepatocytes, thymic cortical epithe lial, and myoepithelial cells. Normal mesothelial

  1. Specificity of tumor necrosis factor toxicity for human mammary carcinomas relative to normal mammary epithelium and correlation with response to doxorubicin

    SciTech Connect

    Dollbaum, C.; Creasey, A.A.; Dairkee, S.H.; Hiller, A.J.; Rudolph, A.R.; Lin, L.; Vitt, C.; Smith, H.S. (Peralta Cancer Research Institute, Oakland, CA (USA))

    1988-07-01

    By using a unique short-term culture system capable of growing both normal and malignant breast epithelial tissue, human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) showed preferential cytotoxicity to malignant cells as compared to the corresponding nonmalignant cells. Most of the malignant specimens were sensitive to TNF with 13 of 18 specimens showing 90% inhibition of clonal growth (ID{sub 90}). In contrast, all 13 nonmalignant specimens tested clustered at the resistant end of the TNF response spectrum. This differential sensitivity to TNF was seen in three cases in which malignant and nonmalignant breast epithelial tissues from the same patient were studied. To investigate the mechanism of resistance to TNF by normal cells, the presence of receptors for TNF was determined. Five of six cultures showed specific binding of {sup 125}I-labeled TNF and there was no relationship between the degree of resistance and the degree of specific binding. Simultaneous comparison of tumor responsiveness to doxorubicin and TNF revealed a positive correlation in ID{sub 90} values; these results may have important implications for the clinical use of TNF in cancer patients heavily pretreated with doxorubicin.

  2. Diet and esophageal disease.

    PubMed

    Dawsey, Sanford M; Fagundes, Renato B; Jacobson, Brian C; Kresty, Laura A; Mallery, Susan R; Paski, Shirley; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2014-09-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on macronutrients, dietary patterns, and risk of adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus; micronutrients, trace elements, and risk of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma; the role of mate consumption in the development of squamous cell carcinoma; the relationship between energy excess and development of esophageal adenocarcinoma; and the nutritional management of the esophageal cancer patient. PMID:25266021

  3. Esophageal duplication cyst.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Reza; Asnaashari, Amir Mohammad Hashem; Afghani, Reza

    2015-03-01

    Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital mediastinal cyst. Most of these cysts become symptomatic in childhood and only rare cases remain asymptomatic until adolescence. They may produce symptoms due to esophageal and respiratory system compression, rupture, and infection. A 25-year-old man presented with pulmonary infection and bronchiectasis that did not improve with medical treatment. A diagnosis of esophageal duplication cyst was made intraoperatively. PMID:24757179

  4. Esophageal lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Janine Pichler de; Uribe, Natalia Caballero; Abulafia, Luna Azulay; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the skin, mucous membranes, nails and scalp. Esophageal lichen planus is a rarely reported manifestation of lichen planus, presenting itself commonly in middle-aged women, with symptoms such as dysphagia. We report a case of esophageal lichen planus in a 54-year-old woman associated with oral, cutaneous and ungual lichen planus. Although lichen planus is a disorder well known by dermatologists, reports of esophageal lichen planus are rare in dermatologic literature. The esophageal lichen planus is little known and underdiagnosed, with a significant delay between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis. PMID:26131872

  5. Expression of Bile Acid Transporting Proteins in Barrett’s Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Katerina; Watts, George S.; Ramsey, Lois; Holubec, Hana; Payne, Claire M.; Bernstein, Carol; Jenkins, Gareth J.; Sampliner, Richard E.; Prasad, Anil; Garewal, Harinder S.; Bernstein, Harris

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is a metaplastic lesion characterized by replacement of the normal squamous epithelium by columnar intestinal epithelium containing goblet cells. It is speculated that this process is an adaptation to protect cells from components of refluxate, such as gastric acid and bile acids. In contrast to the normal squamous epithelium, enterocytes of the distal ileum are adapted to transport bile acids from the intestinal lumen. Several bile acid transporters are utilized for effective removal of bile acids, including the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), the ileal bile acid-binding protein (IBABP), and the multidrug-resistant protein 3 (MRP3). We hypothesized that one of the possible functions of newly arising metaplastic epithelium, in the esophagus, is to transport bile acids. Our major goal was to evaluate the expression of bile acid transporters in normal squamous epithelium, BE with different grades of dysplasia, and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). METHODS A total of 101 patients were included in this study. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse transcriptase (RT)–PCR were used to detect the expression of these transporters at the mRNA and protein levels. RESULTS Our immunohistochemical studies showed that all three bile acid transporters are expressed in BE glands, but not in squamous epithelium. ASBT was found in the apical border in BE biopsies. The highest frequency of ASBT expression was in patients with nondysplastic BE (9 of 15, 60%), and a progressive loss of ASBT was observed through the stages of dysplasia. ASBT was not detected in EAC (0 of 15). IBABP staining was observed in the cytoplasm of BE epithelial surface cells. Expression of IBABP was found in 100% of nondysplastic BE (14 of 14), in 93% of low-grade dysplasia (LGD, 15 of 16), in 73% of high-grade dysplasia (HGD, 10 of 14), and in 33% of EAC (5 of 15). MRP3 was expressed in the basolateral membrane in 93% of nondysplastic BE (13 of 14), in 60% of LGD (10 of 16), and in 86% of HGD (11 of 13). Only weak MRP3 staining was detected in EAC biopsies (5 of 15, 33%). In addition, RT–PCR studies showed increased expression of mRNA coding for ASBT (6.1×), IBABP (9.1×), and MRP3 (2.4×) in BE (N = 13) compared with normal squamous epithelium (N = 15). Significantly increased mRNA levels of IBABP (10.1×) and MRP3 (2.5×) were also detected in EAC (N = 21) compared with normal squamous epithelium. CONCLUSIONS We found that bile acid transporters expression is increased in BE tissue at the mRNA and protein levels and that expression of bile acid transporter proteins decreased with progression to cancer. PMID:19174784

  6. Normalization

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-05-09

    This PowerPoint lecture, by Jason Park of San Jose State University Department of Computer Science, offers students a quick introduction to database normalization, the "process of removing redundant data from your tables in to improve storage efficiency, data integrity, and scalability." Here, visitors will find information about database normalization history and applications. With information on the normal forms, field pioneer Edgar F. Codd, and problematic tables, this presentation will be helpful in any database programming and design classroom.

  7. Drug-induced esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Zografos, G N; Georgiadou, D; Thomas, D; Kaltsas, G; Digalakis, M

    2009-01-01

    Drug-induced esophagitis is being recognized increasingly in the past few years. Since 1970 more than 650 cases have been reported worldwide caused by 30 or more medications. We have reviewed these cases with a view to classifying this disease based on underlying pathological mechanism. Drug-induced esophageal injury tends to occur at the anatomical site of narrowing, with the middle third behind the left atrium predominating (75.6%). The disease is broadly classified into two groups. The first group being transient and self-limiting as exemplified by the tetracycline group induced injury (65.8%). The second is the persistent esophagitis group, often with stricture, with two distinct entities: (i) patients on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents whose injury is aggravated by gastroesophageal reflux (21.8%) (reflux aggravated); and (ii) patients with potasium chloride and quinidine sulphate induced injury (12.4%) (persistent drug injury). Severe esophageal injury has been reported in some women taking biphosphonates as treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endoscopic findings in such patients with esophageal injury generally suggested a chemical esophagitis, with erosions or ulcerations and exudative inflammation accompanied by thickening of the esophageal wall. Most cases of medication-induced esophageal injury heal without intervention within a few days. Thus, the most important aspect of therapy is to make the correct diagnosis and then to avoid reinjury with the drug. When possible, potentially caustic oral medications should be discontinued. PMID:19392845

  8. Esophageal cancer in Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Ghavamzadeh; A Moussavi; M Jahani; M Rastegarpanah; M Iravani

    2001-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is among the 10 most frequent cancers in the world. Iran is one of the known areas with a high incidence of esophageal cancer. Most of the patients in Iran have been reported from the north and northeast regions of the country. In one survey by the Iran Cancer Institute, 9% of all cancers and 27% of gastrointestinal

  9. Esophageal pH monitoring

    MedlinePLUS

    pH monitoring - esophageal; Esophageal acidity test ... to stay in the hospital for the esophageal pH monitoring. ... Esophageal pH monitoring is used to check how much stomach acid is entering the esophagus. It also checks how ...

  10. Esophageal endosclerosis in children.

    PubMed

    Stellen, G P; Lilly, J R

    1985-11-01

    During the past 6 years, 25 consecutive patients with esophageal variceal hemorrhage were treated by esophageal endosclerosis (direct injection of varices with a sclerosing agent). The primary disease in the 25 children was portal vein thrombosis (11 patients), biliary atresia (nine patients), and hepatic cirrhosis from cystic fibrosis (three patients), alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (one patient), and neonatal hepatitis (one patient). Thirteen patients were treated during acute, major variceal hemorrhage. Esophageal endosclerosis was repeated at regular intervals until all esophageal varices were obliterated. Twenty-one patients completed therapy. Four patients died: one of a complication of therapy and three of the primary disease. Other than the one death, complications were minor. Recurrent esophageal variceal hemorrhage has not been encountered in follow-up from 9 months to 6 years after completion of therapy. PMID:3877348

  11. Frequency of eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with esophageal symptoms: a single-center Turkish experience.

    PubMed

    Altun, R; Akbas, E; Y?ld?r?m, A E; Öcal, S; Korkmaz, M; Selcuk, H

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease characterized with symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and eosinophil-predominant inflammation. There has been a dramatic increase in the diagnosis of this disease in recent years. The primary objective of this study was to determine the frequency of EoE in adult patients who were evaluated by gastroenterologists in our clinic with esophageal symptoms. Between November 2010 and May 2011, 311 adult patients who were evaluated in our clinic with esophageal symptoms were enrolled prospectively. All patients underwent endoscopy and had biopsies taken. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was excluded by either proton pump inhibitory treatment or 24-hour ambulatory pH monitorization. The diagnosis was confirmed by one independent pathologist. Frequency of EoE in patients with esophageal symptoms was 2.6% (n = 8; four men and four women). Mean age at diagnosis was 40.2 ± 8 years. Heartburn was the predominant symptom in patients (75% of the patients), and 87.5% (n = 7) of patients had more than one symptom at diagnosis. Nearly 38% of the patients (n = 3) had a history of allergic disease. Endoscopic findings were as follows: transient/fixed esophageal rings (25%), white exudates (25%), and normal appearance (50%). Median number of circulating eosinophils was 208 (93-659)/mm(3) . Median number of intraepithelial eosinophils in proximal-middle 1/3 part and distal 1/3 part of esophagus were 0 (0-50)/hpf and 37 (16-50)/hpf, respectively. In conclusion, EoE is not rare in Turkey, and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with esophageal symptoms. PMID:22925366

  12. Do We Know What Causes Eosinophilic Esophagitis? A Mechanistic Update.

    PubMed

    Runge, Thomas M; Dellon, Evan S

    2015-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) have been intensely investigated, and significant advances have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of EoE. EoE is defined as a chronic immune/antigen-mediated disease, characterized clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and histologically by an esophageal eosinophilic infiltrate. In this paper, we will review the current knowledge of EoE pathophysiology based on both animal and human data and discuss possible etiologic mechanisms from the genetic and environmental perspectives. EoE is a Th2-predominant inflammatory process triggered by allergens. Proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines recruit eosinophils and other effector cells, such as mast cells, into the esophageal epithelium, where they cause direct damage and promote esophageal remodeling. The genetic expression profile of EoE has been described, and several single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified and associated with EoE. While this genetic contribution is important, it is difficult to postulate that EoE is primarily a genetic disease. Given the rapid epidemiologic changes in the incidence and prevalence of EoE over the past two decades, environmental factors may be the driving force. While it is not known what causes EoE in an individual patient at a specific time, the current hypothesis is that there is a complex interaction between genetic factors and environmental exposures that remains to be elucidated. PMID:26205715

  13. Treatment Options by Stage (Esophageal Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Esophageal Cancer Key Points Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant ( ... NCI Web site . Stages of Esophageal Cancer Key Points After esophageal cancer has been diagnosed, tests are ...

  14. Radiation Therapy, Paclitaxel, and Carboplatin With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Esophageal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-09

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer

  15. Persistent disruption of ciliated epithelium following paediatric lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Biju; Aurora, Paul; Spencer, Helen; Elliott, Martin; Rutman, Andrew; Hirst, Robert A; O'Callaghan, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    It is unclear whether ciliary function following lung transplantation is normal or not. Our aim was to study the ciliary function and ultrastructure of epithelium above and below the airway anastomosis and the peripheral airway of children following lung transplantation. We studied the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and beat pattern, using high speed digital video imaging and ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy, of bronchial epithelium from above and below the airway anastomosis and the peripheral airway of 10 cystic fibrosis (CF) and 10 non-suppurative lung disease (NSLD) paediatric lung transplant recipients. Compared to epithelium below the anastomosis, the epithelium above the anastomosis in the CF group showed reduced CBF (median (interquartile range): 10.5 (9.0-11.4) Hz versus 7.4 (6.4-9.2) Hz; p<0.01) and increased dyskinesia (median (IQR): 16.5 (12.9-28.2)% versus 42.2 (32.6-56.4)%; p<0.01). In both CF and NSLD groups, compared with epithelium above the anastomosis, the epithelium below the anastomosis showed marked ultrastructural abnormalities (median duration post-transplant 7-12 months). Ciliary dysfunction is a feature of native airway epithelium in paediatric CF lung transplant recipients. The epithelium below the airway anastomosis shows profound ultrastructural abnormalities in both CF and NSLD lung transplant recipients, many months after transplantation. PMID:22523358

  16. Abnormalities of esophageal and gastric emptying in progressive systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Maddern, G.J.; Horowitz, M.; Jamieson, G.G.; Chatterton, B.E.; Collins, P.J.; Roberts-Thomson, P.

    1984-10-01

    Gastric and esophageal emptying were assessed using scintigraphic techniques in 12 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis and 22 normal volunteers. Esophageal emptying was significantly delayed in the patient group, with 7 of the 12 patients beyond the normal range. Gastric emptying was slower in patients than in controls, with 9 patients being outside the normal range for solid emptying and 7 patients outside the normal range for liquid emptying. Findings from gastric and esophageal emptying tests generally correlated well with symptoms of dysphagia and gastroesophageal reflux. However, 2 patients with normal emptying studies had symptomatic heartburn, and 2 patients with delay of both solid and liquid gastric emptying gave no history of gastroesophageal reflux. Delayed gastric emptying may be an important factor in the development of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis.

  17. Esophageal Rupture in a Patient With Idiopathic Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J Riou; Andrew G Nicholson; Ugo Pastorino

    1996-01-01

    Idiopathic eosinophilic esophagitis is an extremely rare condition with fewer than 20 cases described in the literature. We present a case presenting as an emergency with esophageal perforation that eventually required subtotal esophagectomy.

  18. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy and endoscopy in the diagnosis of esophageal reflux and esophagitis

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, W.P.; Van der Schaaf, A.; Grieve, J.C.

    1985-04-01

    The value of gastroesophageal (G/E) scintigraphy in the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux was assessed in 51 subjects, who presented with heartburn and had endoscopic evidence of reflux esophagitis. G/E scintigraphy was done using /sup 99m/Tc sulfur-colloid in acidified orange juice. The G/E reflux index was calculated according to previous reports. The mean (+/- SD) G/E reflux index in 18 patients with severe esophagitis and 30 patients with moderate esophagitis were 1.6% (+/- 1.5) and 3.2% (+/- 5.0), respectively. The mean G/E reflux index in 14 control subjects was 2.4% (+/- 1.1). There was no significant difference between the esophagitis and control groups. Furthermore, if 4% was taken as upper limit of normal, this will include almost all the esophagitis patients and controls. It is concluded that the G/E reflux index based on G/E scintigraphy is of little value in the diagnosis of G/E reflux.

  19. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Strictures, Impactions, Dysphagia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seema Khan; Susan R. Orenstein; Carlo Di Lorenzo; Samuel A. Kocoshis; Philip E. Putnam; Luther Sigurdsson; Theresa M. Shalaby

    2003-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis, long known to be a feature of acid reflux, has recently been described in patients with food allergies and macroscopically furrowed esophagus. The pathophysiology and optimal management of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis is unclear. We describe our clinical experience related to eosinophilic esophagitis and obstructive symptoms in children and propose etiopathogenesis and management guidelines. Twelve children with obstructive

  20. Metallothionein in human oesophagus, Barrett's epithelium and adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, P; Mathew, G; Game, P A; Myers, J C; Philcox, J C; Rofe, A M; Jamieson, G G

    2002-01-01

    The potential of the metal-binding protein, metallothionein, in assessing the progression of normal oesophagus through Barrett's to adenocarcinoma was investigated. Metallothionein was quantitatively determined in resected tissues from patients undergoing oesophagectomy for high grade dysplasia/adenocarcinoma and in biopsies from patients with Barrett's syndrome. In 10 cancer patients, metallothionein concentrations in adenocarcinoma were not significantly different from normal oesophagus, although six had elevated metallothionein concentrations in the metaplastic tissue bordering the adenocarcinoma. In 17 out of 20 non-cancer patients with Barrett's epithelium, metallothionein was significantly increased by 108% (P<0.004). There was no association between the metallothionein levels in Barrett's epithelium and the presence of inflammatory cells, metaplasia or dysplasia. Metallothionein is a marker of progression from normal to Barrett's epithelium but is not increased in oesophageal adenocarcinoma. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 533–536. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600473 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12189552

  1. Two cases of esophageal eosinophilia: eosinophilic esophagitis or gastro-esophageal reflux disease?

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Karagol, Hacer Ilbilge Ertoy; Topal, Erdem; Unlusoy, Aysel Aksu; Egritas, Odul; Gonul, Ipek Isik; Bakirtas, Arzu

    2014-05-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and gastroesophageal reflux disease are among the major causes of isolated esophageal eosinophilia. Isolated esophageal eosinophilia meeting criteria for EoE may respond to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment. This entity is termed proton pumps inhibitor responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE). Gastro-esophageal reflux is thought to comprise a subgroup of patients with PPI-REE. According to the latest guidelines, PPI responsiveness distinguishes people with PPI-REE from patients having EoE (non-responders). In this report, two unusual cases with findings belonging to both EoE and PPI-REE are discussed with known and unknown facts. PMID:24987510

  2. Can esophageal dilation be avoided in the treatment of severe esophageal stricture caused by eosinophilic esophagitis?

    PubMed

    Silva, D; Santos, F; Piedade, S; Morais-Almeida, M

    2015-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an inflammatory immune-mediated disease with predominant eosinophilic inflammation characterized by the presence of esophageal dysfunction symptoms. Treatment delay can be associated with disease complications, like esophageal strictures, that can justify the use of invasive procedures which are not deprived of side effects. We present a case report of a 14 year old child with severe esophageal stricture secondary to EoE, that was treated with topical and systemic corticosteroid before any invasive procedure was considered. After 26 weeks of medical treatment, significant improvement of esophageal dysfunction occurred with histological remission and stricture resolution. In patients with severe esophageal strictures secondary to EoE, the need for esophageal dilation procedures should be considered only after anti-inflammatory treatment. PMID:26159479

  3. Nutrition and esophageal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Cheng; N. E. Day

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and esophageal cancer is reviewed. Results from ecologic, case-control, cohort, and intervention studies are included. Most of the findings pertain more to squamous cell carcinoma than adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. The protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption is supported by a large body of evidence, especially from case-control studies. The effects of

  4. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Brazilian Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Mayra Isabel Correia; de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona; Honório, Rodrigo Schuler; de Alencar Moreno, Luís Hélder; Fortes, Mayara Carvalho; da Silva, Carlos Antônio Bruno

    2013-01-01

    We examined 11 pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis with a tardy diagnosis. The symptoms were initially thought to be related to other diseases, leading to the use of inadequate therapeutic approaches. The patients were between 3 and 17 years old (mean 7.8 ± 3.8 years), and 8 of the patients were male. Common symptoms included abdominal pain, regurgitation, difficulty in gaining weight, vomiting, dysphagia, and coughing. The mean age for the onset of symptoms was 4.3 ± 2.9 years. Endoscopic findings included normal mucosa in five (45%) patients, thickening of the mucosa with longitudinal grooves in three (27%), erosive esophagitis in two (18%), and a whitish stippling in one (9%) patient. Treatment included the use of a topical corticosteroid for 10 patients. In eight (73%) cases, the treatment made the symptoms disappear. Ten patients underwent histopathological management after treatment, with a decrease in the number of eosinophils. PMID:24106430

  5. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

  10. Comparative Analysis of Telomere Lengths and Erosion with Age in Human Epidermis and Lingual Epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken-Ichi Nakamura; Naotaka Izumiyama-Shimomura; Motoji Sawabe; Tomio Arai; Yukitoshi Aoyagi; Mutsunori Fujiwara; Eiju Tsuchiya; Yasuhito Kobayashi; Motonobu Kato; Mitsuo Oshimura; Koji Sasajima; Kei Nakachi; Kaiyo Takubo; K.-I. Nakamura

    2002-01-01

    We investigated progressive telomere shortening in normal human epidermis and lingual epithelium during aging, and attempted, in particular, to ascertain whether the telomere shortening that accompanies aging occurs at the same rate in different tissues. We studied telomeric DNA integrity, and estimated annual telomere loss, in 52 specimens of epidermis and 48 specimens of lingual epithelium collected at autopsy from

  11. Activin A expression in esophageal carcinoma and its association with tumor aggressiveness and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    WANG, ZHENHUA; ZHANG, NING; SONG, RUIFENG; FAN, RUITAI; YANG, LIUQIN; WU, LIPING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of activin A in esophageal carcinoma and its association with tumor differentiation and metastasis. A total of 57 esophageal carcinoma patients and 36 controls were included in the current study. The mRNA and protein expression levels of activin A in esophageal tumors or normal esophageal tissues were determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, the association of activin A expression with esophageal carcinoma differentiation, metastasis and recurrence postoperatively was analyzed. The mRNA and protein expression levels of activin A in esophageal carcinoma were significantly higher compared with those in normal esophageal tissues (P<0.05). The expression of activin A was higher in poorly-/moderately-differentiated esophageal tumor tissues compared with that of well-differentiated or control tissues (P<0.05). Furthermore, the expression of activin A in poorly-differentiated esophageal tumor tissues was higher compared with that of moderately-differentiated tissues (P<0.05). A positive correlation was also observed between differentiation degree and activin A expression. The expression of activin A was higher in patients with lymph node metastasis compared with those without metastasis (P<0.05). The cumulative survival rate of patients with a high expression of activin A at 1, 2 and 3 years postoperatively was significantly decreased compared with that of patients with a lower expression of activin A (P<0.05); by contrast, the cumulative recurrence rate was significantly higher in patients with a lower activin A expression (P<0.05). In conclusion, abnormal expression of activin A was detected in esophageal tumor tissues, which was correlated with the tumor differentiation, metastasis, survival and recurrence. In conclusion, activin A may be used as an auxiliary index in the diagnosis and prognosis of clinical esophageal carcinoma.

  12. CISNET: Esophageal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has been rising at an alarming rate over the past four decades. Although the absolute number of EAC cases per year remains too low to screen the general population, targeted screening may be appropriate. Heartburn, the primary symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), affects 40-60 million Americans and can lead to Barrett's esophagus (BE), a premalignant condition associated with the greatest risk of developing EAC.

  13. Hypnotherapy for Esophageal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Megan E; Keefer, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotherapy is an evidence based intervention for the treatment of functional bowel disorders, particularly irritable bowel syndrome. While similar in pathophysiology, less is known about the utility of hypnotherapy in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Esophageal disorders, most of which are functional in nature, cause painful and uncomfortable symptoms that impact patient quality of life and are difficult to treat from a medical perspective. After a thorough medical workup and a failed trial of proton pump inhibitor therapy, options for treatment are significantly limited. While the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial, two critical factors are believed to drive esophageal symptoms-visceral hypersensitivity and symptom hypervigilance. The goal of esophageal directed hypnotherapy is to promote a deep state of relaxation with focused attention allowing the patient to learn to modulate physiological sensations and symptoms that are not easily addressed with conventional medical intervention. Currently, the use of hypnosis is suitable for dysphagia, globus, functional chest pain/non-cardiac chest pain, dyspepsia, and functional heartburn. In this article the authors will provide a rationale for the use of hypnosis in these disorders, presenting the science whenever available, describing their approach with these patients, and sharing a case study representing a successful outcome. PMID:26046715

  14. Eosinophilic esophagitis in children.

    PubMed

    Trivedy, Prerna; Teitelbaum, Jonathan E

    2015-06-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a relatively common chronic immune-mediated disease of the esophagus characterized clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction that vary by age. Histologically, EoE results in marked esophageal eosinophilia despite treatment with high-dose proton pump inhibition. The cornerstone of treatment is dietary restriction and/or pharmacologic therapy, mainly with topical steroids. This review briefly describes dietary therapy, but focuses on the various medical options in the treatment of EoE, with an emphasis on steroid-based therapy. Numerous landmark studies are reviewed describing the symptomatic and histologic endpoints as well as safety data. The literature strongly supports the use of topical steroid therapy as a means of significantly decreasing eosinophilic mucosal disease. Specifically, high-dose fluticasone propionate appears to be very effective, and has been shown to result in the resolution of mucosal eosinophilia in a large percentage of treated patients. Long-term studies over many years will need to determine whether mucosal healing will change the natural history of this stricture-causing disease. In addition to topical therapy, various other drug-based therapies are reported, including newer immune-based monoclonal antibodies. PMID:25792526

  15. Bioimpedance spectroscopy: a new tool to assess early esophageal changes linked to gastroesophageal reflux disease?

    PubMed

    Lundin, P; Karpefors, M; Carlsson, K; Hansen, M B; Ruth, M

    2011-09-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy can identify pathological changes related to precancerous lesions of the cervix uteri and esophagus. It therefore has the potential to detect early reflux-related changes in the esophageal mucosa, such as dilated intercellular spaces. The reliable detection of dilated intercellular spaces at the time of endoscopy would yield a significant diagnostic advantage for separating patients with functional heartburn from the large proportion of patients with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms but no macroscopic esophagitis or pathological acid exposure. The bioimpedance of the esophageal mucosa, measured with a small caliber probe, was evaluated in a series of preclinical experiments. First, sections of rabbit esophageal epithelium were mounted in Ussing chambers and exposed to solutions at pH 7.4 or pH 1.5 for 45 minutes. Impedance measurements were taken at varying probe pressures. Second, rabbit esophageal epithelia were perfused for 45 minutes in situ with pH 1.1 or control solutions and impedance measurements taken. Samples from both in vitro and in situ experiments were taken for morphological examination by light microscopy. Finally, esophageal bioimpedance was measured in awake dogs with permanent esophagocutaneous stoma. The in situ experiments demonstrated that morphological changes in the esophageal mucosa could be discerned by the use of bioimpedance spectroscopy. The variability in resistivity was species-independent but was affected by the pressure applied to the probe. The results suggest that evaluation of bioimpedance spectroscopy for use in a clinical setting is warranted. Small morphological differences in the esophageal mucosa may be detected by the use of bioimpedance spectroscopy. PMID:21385284

  16. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section...1920 Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors is a device...

  17. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section...1920 Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors is a device...

  18. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section 868...Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors is a device that is...

  19. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section 868...Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors is a device that is...

  20. Esophageal metastasis from breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vergote, G; Ponette, E; Verschakelen, J; Baert, A L; Rutgeerts, P; Moerman, P

    1994-12-01

    A case of esophageal metastasis from a breast carcinoma is presented. Location was, as usual, midesophageal. The interval of time between breast carcinoma and the onset of esophageal symptoms was rather long. Barium swallow examination enabled correct diagnosis, whereas several series of superficial endoscopical biopsies were negative. Diagnosis was confirmed by deep endoscopical biopsy. PMID:7829460

  1. Pill-induced esophageal injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Walter Kikendall; Arnold C. Friedman; Morakinyo Anthony Oyewole; David Fleischer; Lawrence F. Johnson

    1983-01-01

    We report four cases of esophageal injury associated with the ingestion of commonly prescribed tablets or capsules. History and clinical characteristics of these cases suggest that the medications failed to transit the esophagus and acted locally to produce esophagitis. A search of English- and foreign-language medical journals documented 221 similar cases due to 26 different types of medication. While most

  2. Lichen Planus With Esophageal Involvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Valdés; A. Caparrini; J. M. Calzada

    2007-01-01

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology which may affect the esophagus. Patients with esophageal lichen planus are usually elderly women. The most frequent symptoms are dysphagia and odynophagia. There is usually concomitant oral involvement in cases of esophageal lichen planus. Endoscopic findings include erosions, exudates and stenosis. Systemic steroids are the most effective therapy for these patients.

  3. Ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring using a wireless system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E Pandolfino; Joel E Richter; Tina Ours; Jason M Guardino; Jennifer Chapman; Peter J Kahrilas

    2003-01-01

    ObjectivesLimitations of catheter-based esophageal pH monitoring are discomfort, inconvenience, and interference with normal activity. An alternative to conventional pH monitoring is the wireless Medtronic Bravo pH System. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, performance, and tolerability of this system.

  4. [The limbus epithelium in vitro].

    PubMed

    Kruse, F E; Tseng, S C

    1991-01-01

    The limbal basal epithelium contains the stem cells of the corneal epithelium. In order to study the regulation of these cells we developed models allowing their investigation. While an explant model based on n-heptanol debridement did not allow outgrowth of corneal epithelium onto culture dishes, a serum-free single-cell clonal growth supported colony growth in limbal cells. MCDB 151 medium was supplemented with insulin, transferrin, selenium, hydrocortisone, phospho-/ethanolamine and calcium. Single cells (5,000) were seeded onto 60 mm plastic dishes following combined digestion with dispase and trypsin/EDTA. Increasing CFE was noted until day 6, allowing increasing recruitment into proliferation. This model will serve as a tool for the further investigation of factors that might govern the regulation of the differentiation and proliferation of limbal epithelial cells. PMID:1855723

  5. Epithelium percentage estimation facilitates epithelial quantitative protein measurement in tissue specimens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The rapid advancement of high-throughput tools for quantitative measurement of proteins has demonstrated the potential for the identification of proteins associated with cancer. However, the quantitative results on cancer tissue specimens are usually confounded by tissue heterogeneity, e.g. regions with cancer usually have significantly higher epithelium content yet lower stromal content. Objective It is therefore necessary to develop a tool to facilitate the interpretation of the results of protein measurements in tissue specimens. Methods Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and cathepsin L (CTSL) are two epithelial proteins whose expressions in normal and tumorous prostate tissues were confirmed by measuring staining intensity with immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The expressions of these proteins were measured by ELISA in protein extracts from OCT embedded frozen prostate tissues. To eliminate the influence of tissue heterogeneity on epithelial protein quantification measured by ELISA, a color-based segmentation method was developed in-house for estimation of epithelium content using H&E histology slides from the same prostate tissues and the estimated epithelium percentage was used to normalize the ELISA results. The epithelium contents of the same slides were also estimated by a pathologist and used to normalize the ELISA results. The computer based results were compared with the pathologist’s reading. Results We found that both EpCAM and CTSL levels, measured by ELISA assays itself, were greatly affected by epithelium content in the tissue specimens. Without adjusting for epithelium percentage, both EpCAM and CTSL levels appeared significantly higher in tumor tissues than normal tissues with a p value less than 0.001. However, after normalization by the epithelium percentage, ELISA measurements of both EpCAM and CTSL were in agreement with IHC staining results, showing a significant increase only in EpCAM with no difference in CTSL expression in cancer tissues. These results were obtained with normalization by both the computer estimated and pathologist estimated epithelium percentage. Conclusions Our results show that estimation of tissue epithelium percentage using our color-based segmentation method correlates well with pathologists' estimation of tissue epithelium percentages. The epithelium contents estimated by color-based segmentation may be useful in immuno-based analysis or clinical proteomic analysis of tumor proteins. The codes used for epithelium estimation as well as the micrographs with estimated epithelium content are available online. PMID:24289299

  6. Radionuclide transit: a sensitive screening test for esophageal dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.O.; Hill, L.D.; Holmes, E.R. III; Hull, D.A.; Gannon, R.; Pope, C.E. II

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend existing nuclear medicine techniques for the diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders. A standard homogeneous bolus of 99mtechnetium sulfur colloid in water was swallowed in the supine position under the collimator of a gamma camera linked to a microprocessor. Bolus transit was recorded at 0.4-s intervals, and the movie obtained was used to analyze transit in an objective manner. Ten normal volunteers and 30 subjects with dysphagia not related to mechanical obstruction were studied with this technique. Radionuclide transit studies detected a higher incidence of esophageal motor abnormality than manometry or radiology in the dysphagia group. In addition a definitive description of the functional problem was possible in most cases. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders.

  7. Experimental reconstruction of cervical esophageal defect with artificial esophagus made of polyurethane in a dog model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H; Cui, Y; Ma, K; Gong, M; Chang, D; Wang, T

    2014-07-30

    The defect of esophagus after surgical excision in patients is usually replaced by autologous stomach, jejunum, or colon. The operation brings severe trauma and complications. Using artificial esophagus to replace the defect in situ can reduce the operative trauma, simplify the operative procedures, and decrease the influence to digestive function. A variety of experiments have been designed for developing a practical artificial esophagus. Nevertheless, a safe and reliable artificial esophagus is not yet available. The objective is to evaluate the possibility of the artificial esophagus made of non-degradable polyurethane materials being used in reconstruction of the segmental defect of cervical esophagus in beagles, observe the regeneration of esophageal tissue, and gather experience for future study. The cervical esophageal defects in 13 beagles were designed to 2-cm long and were constructed by the artificial esophagus made of non-degradable polyurethane materials. Nutrition supports were given after the operation. The operative mortality, anastomotic leakage, migration of artificial esophagus, and dysphagia were followed up. The regeneration of the esophageal tissues was evaluated by histopathology and immunohistochemical labeled streptavidin-biotin method. The surgical procedures were successfully completed in all beagles, and 12-month follow-ups were done. Only one beagle died of severe infection, and all others survived until being killed. The anastomotic leakage occurred in nine beagles, most of them (8/9) were cured after supportive therapy. The migration of artificial esophagus occurred in all 12 surviving beagles, and one artificial esophagus stayed in situ after migration. All 12 surviving beagles showed dysphagia with taking only fluid or soft food. No beagle died of malnutrition. The neo-esophagus was composed of granulation tissue, and the inner surface was covered by epithelium in 2-3 months completely. But the inner surface of neo-esophagus with artificial esophagus staying in situ after migration was not covered by epithelium, and the granulation tissue was infiltrated by a great deal of inflammatory cells. Antibodies against cytokeratin were positively expressed in epithelium of neo-esophagus. Up to 12 months after operation, antibodies against smooth muscle actin and desmin were both negatively expressed in neo-esophagus. The artificial esophagus made of non-degradable polyurethane reconstructing cervical esophageal defect is practicable. Although there are some problems, including anastomotic leakage, migration, and dysphagia, they are not lethal following good supportive therapy. The esophageal epithelium can regenerate with the supporting role of artificial esophagus. In the future, deformable artificial esophagus should be improved, and a much longer follow-up will be performed to evaluate whether the esophageal gland and skeletal muscle can regenerate. PMID:25074403

  8. [Invaginated esophageal anastomosis].

    PubMed

    Petrov, V P; Mikhalkin, M P; Rozhkov, A G

    2002-01-01

    Extirpation of the stomach accounts for 55.5% of all radical surgery for gastric cancer. Five hundred and sixty-two operations with creation of invaginated esophageal-intestinal (gastric) anastomosis were performed. The surgical technique is presented, its positive points are demonstrated. Main advantages of the invaginated anastomosis are physiologic function in postoperative period and a decreased rate of sutures insufficiency. Complications after extirpation and proximal resection of the stomach were seen in 17.6% cases, 5.9% patients died. Insufficiency of anastomosis sutures was in 8 (14%) patients, 4 (0.7%) of them died. PMID:12449573

  9. Treatment of advanced esophageal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsen, D.

    1982-12-01

    When radiation therapy is used for palliation of obstruction in patients with advanced esophageal carcinoma, an improvement in dysphagia can be expected in approximately 50% of patients. Major objective responses have rarely been quantitied but, in one study, were seen in 33% patients. Recurrence of dysphagia is usually seen within 2-6 months of treatment. Radiation toxicities and complications, even when used with palliative intent, can be substantial and include esophagitis, tracheoesophageal or esophageal-aortic fistula, mediastinitis, hemorrhage, pneumonitis, and myelosuppression. (JMT)

  10. Pharmacologic treatments for esophageal disorders.

    PubMed

    Blackshaw, L Ashley; Bordin, Dmitry S; Brock, Christina; Brokjaer, Anne; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Farmer, Adam D; Krarup, Anne Lund; Lottrup, Christian; Masharova, Antonina A; Moawad, Fouad J; Olesen, Anne Estrup

    2014-09-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on the role for ketamine and other alternative treatments in esophageal disorders; the use of linaclotide in the treatment of esophageal pain; the alginate test as a diagnostic criterion in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); the use of baclofen in treatment of GERD; the effects of opioids on the esophagus; the use of antagonists on the receptor level in GERD; the effect of local formulation of drugs on the esophageal mucosa; and the use of electroencephalographic fingerprints to predict the effect of pharmacological treatment. PMID:25266012

  11. Relevance of N-nitrosamines to esophageal cancer in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S.H.; Montesano, R.; Zhang, M.S.; Feng, L.; Luo, F.J.; Chui, S.X.; Umbenhauer, D.; Saffhill, R.; Rajewsky, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on the relevance of the N-nitrosamines to esophageal cancer in China are reviewed. Although a causal association between nitrosamines exposure and esophageal cancer in China has not yet been rigorously established, exposure of Lin-Xian subjects to nitrosamines either directly or as a result of their in vivo formation has been detected in our study. Several N-nitrosamines (NDMA, NDEA, NMBzA, NPyr, NPip, and NSAR) in gastric juice collected from Lin-Xian inhabitants have been detected. A correlation was found between the lesions of esophageal epithelium and the amount of nitrosamines present. In addition, the amounts of N-nitrosamino acids excreted in 24-hr urine of subjects in Lin-Xian were significantly higher than those in Fan-Xian, indicating a higher exposure to N-nitroso compound and their precursors of the inhabitants in the high-risk area. The effect of nitrosamines on human esophagus has been investigated at the cellular levels. The amounts of O/sup 6/-MedG in DNA of esophageal or stomach mucosa of patients from Lin-Xian were higher than that from Europe. The presence of O/sup 6/-MedG in the human fetal esophagus cultured with NMBzA was also detected. These findings indicate that the elevated levels of O/sup 6/-MedG in esophageal DNA could be the result of a recent exposure to N-nitroso compounds or a genetically determined reduced cellular capacity for repair of O/sup 6/-MedG from DNA. The hyperplasia was induced in the esophagus of human fetus that cultured with NMBzA for 2 weeks to 2 months. The intervention studies of esophageal cancer in Lin-Xian have been pursued. Intake of moderate doses of ascorbic acids by Lin-Xian subjects effectively reduced the urinary levels of N-nitrosamino acids to those found in undosed subjects in the low-risk area.

  12. Identification of signature genes for detecting hedgehog pathway activation in esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ling; Bian, Yuehong; Huang, Shuhong; Ma, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chi; Su, Xiulan; Chen, Zi-Jiang; Xie, Jingwu; Zhang, Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    The hedgehog signaling pathway plays an important role in cell growth and differentiation both in normal embryonic development and in tumors. Our previous work shows that hedgehog pathway is frequently activated in esophageal cancers. To further elucidate the role of hedgehog pathway in esophageal cancers we examined the expression of the target genes, hedgehog-interacting protein (HIP) and platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR?) and hedgehog signaling molecules, smoothened (SMO), suppressor of fused (Su(Fu)) in the specimens using in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. We found that HIP, PDGFR?, SMO and Su(Fu) gene highly expressed in the primary esophageal squamous cell carcinomas but not in normal esophageal tissue. The transcripts of HIP, PDGFR? and SMO were expressed in 13 of 15 esophageal cancers. Su(Fu) expression was missing in 2 esophageal cancers. The results from in-situ hybridization were further confirmed by RT-PCR. Our results revealed a set of genes for detecting hedgehog signaling activation in esophageal cancer. PMID:21210262

  13. HtrA1 expression associated with the occurrence and development of esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purposes of this study were to measure both the mRNA and protein expression levels of high-temperature requirement serine peptidase 1 (HtrA1) in human esophageal cancer tissues and their adjacent, comparatively normal esophageal tissues. Methods The expression levels of HtrA1 mRNA and protein in both tissue types were measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) and Western blotting. The clinical and pathological correlation between HtrA1 expression levels and the occurrence and development of esophageal cancer was analyzed. Results The expression levels of HtrA1 mRNA and protein in esophageal carcinoma were significantly lower than the levels expressed in their adjacent normal esophageal tissue (p?esophageal tumor cells expressed lower HtrA1 mRNA and protein expression levels (p?esophageal cancer. PMID:22935172

  14. White specks in the esophageal mucosa: an endoscopic manifestation of non-reflux eosinophilic esophagitis in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel R Lim; Sandeep K Gupta; Joseph M Croffie; Marian D Pfefferkorn; Jean P Molleston; Mark R Corkins; Mary M Davis; Philip P Faught; Steven J Steiner; Joseph F Fitzgerald

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundWhite specks in the esophageal mucosa have been observed in children with eosinophilic esophagitis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between white specks in the esophageal mucosa and allergic (non-reflux) eosinophilic esophagitis.

  15. Heat treatment of human esophageal tissues: Effect on esophageal cancer detection using oxygenated hemoglobin diffuse reflectance ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Q. L.; Guo, Z. Y.; Si, J. L.; Wei, H. J.; Yang, H. Q.; Wu, G. Y.; Xie, S. S.; Guo, X.; Zhong, H. Q.; Li, L. Q.; Li, X. Y.

    2011-03-01

    The main objective of the present work is to study the influence of heat treatment on the esophageal cancer detection using the diffuse reflectance (DR) spectral intensity ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) absorption bands to distinguish the epithelial tissues of normal human esophagus and moderately differentiated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) at different heat treatment temperature of 20, 37, 42, 50, and 60°C, respectively. The DR spectra for the epithelial tissues of the normal esophagus and ESCC in vitro at different heat-treatment temperature in the wavelength range 400-650 nm were measured with a commercial optical fiber spectrometer. The results indicate that the average DR spectral intensity overall enhancement with concomitant increase of heat-treatment temperature for the epithelial tissues of normal esophagus and ESCC, but the average DR spectral intensity for the normal esophageal epithelial tissues is relatively higher than that for ESCC epithelial tissues at the same heat-treatment temperature. The mean R540/R575 ratios of ESCC epithelial tissues were always lower than that of normal esophageal epithelial tissues at the same temperature, and the mean R540/R575 ratios of the epithelial tissues of the normal esophagus and ESCC were decreasing with the increase of different heat-treatment temperatures. The differences in the mean R540/R575 ratios between the epithelial tissues of normal esophagus and ESCC were 13.33, 13.59, 11.76, and 11.11% at different heat-treatment temperature of 20, 37, 42, and 50°C, respectively. These results also indicate that the DR intensity ratio R540/R575 of the hemoglobin bands is a useful tool for discrimination between the epithelial tissues of normal esophagus and ESCC in the temperature range from room temperature to 50°C, but it was non-effective at 60°C or over 60°C.

  16. Neuropilins: expression and roles in the epithelium.

    PubMed

    Wild, Jonathan R L; Staton, Carolyn A; Chapple, Keith; Corfe, Bernard M

    2012-04-01

    Initially found expressed in neuronal and then later in endothelial cells, it is well established that the transmembrane glycoproteins neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and neuropilin-2 (NRP2) play essential roles in axonal growth and guidance and in physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Neuropilin expression and function in epithelial cells has received little attention when compared with neuronal and endothelial cells. Overexpression of NRPs is shown to enhance growth, correlate with invasion and is associated with poor prognosis in various tumour types, especially those of epithelial origin. The contribution of NRP and its ligands to tumour growth and metastasis has spurred a strong interest in NRPs as novel chemotherapy drug targets. Given NRP's role as a multifunctional co-receptor with an ability to bind with disparate ligand families, this has sparked new areas of research implicating NRPs in diverse biological functions. Here, we review the growing body of research demonstrating NRP expression and role in the normal and neoplastic epithelium. PMID:22414290

  17. Esophageal stenting in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Mahesh Kumar; White, Russell E

    2014-09-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on nutritional support during chemoradiation, esophageal stents before surgery, and stenting the cervical esophagus. PMID:25266018

  18. Caustic ingestion and esophageal function

    SciTech Connect

    Cadranel, S.; Di Lorenzo, C.; Rodesch, P.; Piepsz, A.; Ham, H.R. (Children University Hospital, Brussels (Belgium))

    1990-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate esophageal motor function by means of krypton-81m esophageal transit scintigraphy and to compare the results with the functional and morphological data obtained by means of triple lumen manometry and endoscopy. In acute and subacute stages of the disease, all clinical, anatomical, and functional parameters were in good agreement, revealing significant impairment. In chronic stages, the severity of the dysphagia was not correlated to the importance of the residual stenosis. Conversely, 81mKr esophageal transit and manometric's findings were in good agreement with the clinical symptoms, during the entire follow-up period ranging between 3 months to 7 years. The 81mKr test is undoubtedly the easiest and probably the most physiological technique currently available for long-term functional evaluation of caustic esophagitis.

  19. Drugs Approved for Esophageal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for esophageal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  20. Neurogenesis in the Olfactory Epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bettina Malnic; Lucia Armelin-Correa

    \\u000a The olfactory sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium generally live for only about 30–60 days. In addition, they are\\u000a constantly killed by environmental insults such as pathogens and toxic substances and therefore need to be replaced throughout\\u000a adult life. This unique capability of neuronal regeneration is due to the presence of olfactory stem cells localized in the\\u000a basal layer of

  1. Hyperthermochemoradiotherapy and esophageal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimachi, K.; Inokuchi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Cancer of the esophagus still poses considerable treatment problems, with a poor 5-year survival rate after surgery, an even worse outlook after radiation and surgery, and a not very satisfactory response to chemotherapy. After several years of continued research, in 1983 we developed a Radio Frequency System with endotract electrode and thermosensors for administering hyperthermochemoradiotherapy to patients with carcinoma of the esophagus. Results in 129 patients are discussed. Immediate improvement of subjective complaints and decrease or elimination of the cancer lesion are so distinct that this treatment, by means of an endotract antenna, shows promise as a modality for esophageal lesions and may find application in diseases such as colorectal cancer or carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

  2. Hyperthermochemoradiotherapy and esophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sugimachi, K; Inokuchi, K

    1986-01-01

    Cancer of the esophagus still poses considerable treatment problems, with a poor 5-year survival rate after surgery, an even worse outlook after radiation and surgery, and a not very satisfactory response to chemotherapy. After several years of continued research, in 1983 we developed a Radio Frequency System with endotract electrode and thermosensors for administering hyperthermochemoradiotherapy to patients with carcinoma of the esophagus. Results in 129 patients are discussed. Immediate improvement of subjective complaints and decrease or elimination of the cancer lesion are so distinct that this treatment, by means of an endotract antenna, shows promise as a modality for esophageal lesions and may find application in diseases such as colorectal cancer or carcinoma of the uterine cervix. PMID:2430326

  3. Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: An emerging problem with unique esophageal features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon W Potter; Kia Saeian; Benson T Massey; Richard A Komorowski; Reza Shaker; Walter J Hogan

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundEosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammatory condition in which there is dense eosinophilic infiltration of the surface lining of the esophagus. Reports of eosinophilic esophagitis pertain almost exclusively to pediatric populations. However, eosinophilic esophagitis is emerging as a clinical affliction of adults. This report describes the clinical and endoscopic findings of eosinophilic esophagitis in the largest cohort of adult patients reported

  4. Skip navigation Wireless System Tracks Esophageal Reflux

    E-print Network

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    better testing than catheters now used MedlinePlus: Wireless System Tracks Esophageal Reflux URL: http://www.nlm.nih.gov Esophageal Reflux URL: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_51164.html #12;

  5. Effects of Tear Substitutes on Conjunctival Epithelium of Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pasquale Aragona; Antonio Micali; Grazia Paladino; Felicia Ferreri; Domenico Puzzolo

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The effects of the administration of three tear substitutes on normal conjunctival epithelium of the mouse, with particular regard to goblet cells, were studied. Methods: Three-month-old Swiss CD 1 mice were divided into four groups of 7 animals each. Group 1 was untreated (control). The other animals were treated with the instillation of 5 drops\\/day for 10 days as

  6. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate Staphylococcus aureus interactions with intestinal epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donavon J. Hess; Michelle J. Henry-Stanley; Stanley L. Erlandsen; Carol L. Wells

    2006-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can be internalized by non-professional phagocytes, and may colonize the intestine in normal and antibiotic-treated individuals. Intestinal colonization may depend on the interactions of S. aureus with the intestinal epithelium. The best described mechanism of S. aureus binding to eukaryotic cells involves S. aureus fibronectin binding proteins (FnBPs), using fibronectin as a bridging molecule to ?1 integrins on

  7. Esophageal perforation during or after conformal radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hai-yan; Ma, Xiu-mei; Ye, Ming; Hou, Yan-li; Xie, Hua-Ying; Bai, Yong-rui

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors and prognosis for patients with esophageal perforation occurring during or after radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma. We retrospectively analyzed 322 patients with esophageal carcinoma. These patients received radiotherapy for unresectable esophageal tumors, residual tumors after operation, or local recurrence. Of these, 12 had radiotherapy to the esophagus before being admitted, 68 patients had concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT), and 18 patients had esophageal perforation after RT (5.8%). Covered self-expandable metallic stents were placed in 11 patients. Two patients continued RT after stenting and control of infection; one of these suffered a new perforation, and the other had a massive hemorrhage. The median overall survival was 2 months (0–3 months) compared with 17 months in the non-perforation group. In univariate analysis, the Karnofsky performance status (KPS) being ?70, age younger than 60, T4 stage, a second course of radiotherapy to the esophagus, extracapsular lymph nodes (LN) involving the esophagus, a total dose >100 Gy (biologically effective dose?10), and CRT were risk factors for perforation. In multivariate analysis, age younger than 60, extracapsular LN involving the esophagus, T4 stage, and a second course of radiotherapy to the esophagus were risk factors. In conclusion, patients with T4 stage, extracapsular LN involving the esophagus, and those receiving a second course of RT should be given particular care to avoid perforation. The prognosis after perforation was poor. PMID:24914102

  8. Genetic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yi-Bo; Chen, Zhao-Li; Li, Jia-Gen; Hu, Xue-Da; Shi, Xue-Jiao; Sun, Zeng-Miao; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Zi-Ran; Li, Zi-Tong; Liu, Zi-Yuan; Zhao, Yu-Da; Sun, Jian; Zhou, Cheng-Cheng; Yao, Ran; Wang, Su-Ya; Wang, Pan; Sun, Nan; Zhang, Bai-Hua; Dong, Jing-Si; Yu, Yue; Luo, Mei; Feng, Xiao-Li; Shi, Su-Sheng; Zhou, Fang; Tan, Feng-Wei; Qiu, Bin; Li, Ning; Shao, Kang; Zhang, Li-Jian; Zhang, Lan-Jun; Xue, Qi; Gao, Shu-Geng; He, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the deadliest cancers. We performed exome sequencing on 113 tumor-normal pairs, yielding a mean of 82 non-silent mutations per tumor, and 8 cell lines. The mutational profile of ESCC closely resembles those of squamous cell carcinomas of other tissues but differs from that of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulation were mutated in 99% of cases by somatic alterations of TP53 (93%), CCND1 (33%), CDKN2A (20%), NFE2L2 (10%) and RB1 (9%). Histone modifier genes were frequently mutated, including KMT2D (also called MLL2; 19%), KMT2C (MLL3; 6%), KDM6A (7%), EP300 (10%) and CREBBP (6%). EP300 mutations were associated with poor survival. The Hippo and Notch pathways were dysregulated by mutations in FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 or FAT4 (27%) or AJUBA (JUB; 7%) and NOTCH1, NOTCH2 or NOTCH3 (22%) or FBXW7 (5%), respectively. These results define the mutational landscape of ESCC and highlight mutations in epigenetic modulators with prognostic and potentially therapeutic implications. PMID:25151357

  9. Anti-IL-5 Therapy Reduces Mast Cells and IL-9 Cells in Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Iris M.; Anilkumar, A. Andrew; Newbury, Robert O.; Bhagat, Monica; Beppu, Lisa Y.; Dohil, Ranjan; Broide, David H.; Aceves, Seema S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic entity of increasing worldwide prevalence. IL-5 is essential for eosinophil trafficking and anti-IL-5 therapy decreases esophageal eosinophilia. EoE is associated with a prominent mast cell infiltration. Objective We investigated whether anti-IL-5 (mepolizumab) treatment reduced esophageal mast cell accumulation in pediatric EoE biopsy specimens from a previous randomized anti-IL-5 trial. Methods A sub-analysis was completed for children treated with 0.55, 2.5, or 10mg/kg of mepolizumab monthly for 12 weeks followed by no treatment until week 24. Quantitative immunochemistry was used to assess eosinophils, tryptase-positive mast cells, IL-9+ cells, and mast cell-eosinophil couplets prior to and following treatment. Results 43 patient biopsies had adequate tissue for paired analysis. 40% of subjects responded to anti-IL-5 (defined as <15 eosinophils per hpf following mepolizumab therapy) and 77% of all subjects had decreased numbers of mast cells following anti-IL-5. In responders, epithelial mast cells decreased from 62 to 19 per hpf (p<0.001), were significantly lower than in non-responders following therapy (p<0.05), and correlated with eosinophil numbers (r=0.75, p<0.0001). Mast cells and eosinophils were found in couplets prior to therapy and these were significantly decreased only in responders following anti-IL-5 (p<0.001). Esophageal eosinophils comprised the majority of cells that made the mast cell growth factor IL-9. IL-9+ cells decreased from 102 to 71 per hpf (p<0.001) following anti-IL-5. Conclusions Pediatric EoE patients had significantly fewer mast cells, IL-9+ cells, and mast cell-eosinophil couplets in the esophageal epithelium following anti-IL-5 therapy. Since eosinophils were one source of IL-9, they may support esophageal mastocytosis. PMID:23623266

  10. Emerging management concepts for eosinophilic esophagitis in children.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G; Nethercote, Mark; Rosenbaum, Jeremy; Allen, Katrina J

    2011-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a newly recognized condition that appears to be increasing in incidence for as yet unknown reasons. It can occur at any age and presents both to gastroenterologists and allergists. Clinical manifestations range from gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting, feeding difficulties, dysphagia or food bolus impaction) to co-existing atopic conditions (asthma, allergic rhinitis or eczema). The diagnosis requires demonstration of at least 15 eosinophils per high power field on esophageal histology, usually in the context of resistance to proton pump inhibitor treatment or a normal 24-h esophageal pH monitoring study. The differential diagnosis between EoE and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can be problematic as there is significant clinical overlap between both conditions. Although difficult-to-manage esophageal strictures are well recognized in patients with long-standing EoE, little is known about risk factors for the development of this complication. There is a paucity of data on both the natural history and optimal long-term management of EoE. Current treatment options include food allergen elimination diets, use of topical aerosolized corticosteroids, or a combination of the two. Pediatric case studies have been provided to illustrate the complexity of decision points that often arise in the management of these patients. This paper aims to discuss the various strategies currently available to clinicians in the management of EoE and highlights gaps in the current evidence base that urgently require further research. PMID:21545525

  11. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotypes and HLA haplotypes in Japanese patients with esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Seishiro; Sasahara, Katsuyuki; Kinekawa, Fumihiko; Uchida, Naohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Kurokohchi, Kazutaka; Murota, Masayuki; Touge, Tetsuo; Kawauchi, Kazuyoshi; Oda, Syuji; Kuriyama, Shigeki

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) genotypes and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes contribute to the risk for esophageal cancer. We examined ALDH2 genotypes and HLA haplotypes in 29 Japanese patients with esophageal cancer. The ratio of patients who experienced current or former intense vasodilatation upon consuming alcohol (flushing type) was much higher in individuals with the inactive form of ALDH2 encoded by the ALDH2(2)/2(2) or ALDH2(1)/2(2) genotype than in those with the active form of ALDH2 encoded by the ALDH2(1)/2(1) genotype. The ratio of inactive ALDH2 was significantly higher in patients with esophageal cancer than in control normal subjects, suggesting that alcoholics with inactive ALDH2 were susceptible to esophageal cancer. HLA haplotypes A24, A26, B54, B61 and DR9 were prevalent in patients with esophageal cancer (82.8, 24.1, 34.5, 37.9 and 44.8%, respectively). HLA haplotype of A24 and inactive ALDH2 were simultaneously found in 58.6% of patients with esophageal cancer. Furthermore, we found other primary malignancies in 6 of 29 (20.7%) patients with esophageal cancer, and 4 of these 6 patients had both the inactive form of ALDH2 and the HLA A24 haplotype. The present study showed the high prevalence of the inactive form of ALDH2 and HLA haplotypes A24, A26, B54, B61 and DR9 in Japanese patients with esophageal cancer. Therefore, the examination of genotypes of ALDH2 loci and HLA haplotypes may allow the early detection of esophageal cancer in the Japanese population. PMID:12168074

  12. A Treatment Option for Esophageal Intramural Pseudodiverticulosis

    PubMed Central

    Jodorkovsky, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (EIPD) is a rare condition often presenting with esophageal strictures. Treatment is often limited to endoscopic dilatation and treatment of the underlying esophageal pathology. We present a case of a patient with longstanding GERD on famotidine (she experienced anaphylaxis with proton pump inhibitors [PPIs]) who presented with dysphagia and weight loss. Work-up revealed a diagnosis of EIPD with a 5-mm mid-esophageal stricture. Therapy with dilatation was unsuccessful until the addition of sucralfate, after which dilatation was successful and symptoms resolved. In patients who are unable to take PPIs, the addition of sucralfate may enhance the success of dilatations of esophageal strictures and EIPD.

  13. Sloughing Esophagitis: A Not So Common Entity

    PubMed Central

    Akhondi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sloughing esophagitis, also known as esophagitis dissecans superficialis, is a very rare and underdiagnosed entity with unknown incidence rate. It can be associated with bullous dermatoses and medications such as central nervous system depressants and those causing esophageal injury. CASE REPORT: A 55-years-old woman was recovering from renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis when she developed dysphagia and odynophagia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsy was performed for suspected bullous pemphigus and confirmed sloughing esophagitis. She improved with intravenous steroids. CONCLUSIONS: Sloughing Esophagitis should enter our differential diagnosis more frequently. It is mostly a benign, self-limiting process but when associated with bullous dermatoses will require steroid treatment. PMID:25598761

  14. Photodynamic therapy for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yano, Tomonori; Hatogai, Ken; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Yoda, Yusuke; Kaneko, Kazuhiro

    2014-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment that uses a photosensitizing drug that is administered to the patient, localized to a tumor, and then activated with a laser to induce a photochemical reaction to destroy the cell. PDT using porfimer sodium followed by excimer dye laser irradiation is approved as a curative treatment for superficial esophageal cancer in Japan. While endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is currently more popular for esophageal cancer, there is evidence to support PDT as an alternative treatment and as a salvage treatment for local failure after chemoradiotherapy (CRT). A photosensitizing agent has also been developed that requires a shorter sun shade period after administration, and studies are currently underway to establish an esophageal cancer indication for this next-generation PDT in Japan. PMID:25333005

  15. Photodynamic therapy for esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hatogai, Ken; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Yoda, Yusuke; Kaneko, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment that uses a photosensitizing drug that is administered to the patient, localized to a tumor, and then activated with a laser to induce a photochemical reaction to destroy the cell. PDT using porfimer sodium followed by excimer dye laser irradiation is approved as a curative treatment for superficial esophageal cancer in Japan. While endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is currently more popular for esophageal cancer, there is evidence to support PDT as an alternative treatment and as a salvage treatment for local failure after chemoradiotherapy (CRT). A photosensitizing agent has also been developed that requires a shorter sun shade period after administration, and studies are currently underway to establish an esophageal cancer indication for this next-generation PDT in Japan. PMID:25333005

  16. Targeted imaging of esophageal neoplasia with a fluorescently labeled peptide: First in-human results

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Matthew B.; Joshi, Bishnu P.; Lu, Shaoying; Piraka, Cyrus; Khondee, Supang; Elmunzer, B. Joseph; Kwon, Richard S.; Beer, David G.; Appelman, Henry; Turgeon, D. Kim; Wang, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma is rising rapidly in incidence, and usually develops from Barrett’s esophagus, a precursor condition commonly found in patients with chronic acid reflux. Pre-malignant lesions are challenging to detect on conventional screening endoscopy because of their flat appearance. Molecular changes can be used to improve detection of early neoplasia. We have developed a peptide that binds specifically to high-grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. We first applied the peptide ex vivo to esophageal specimens from 17 patients to validate specific binding. Next, we performed confocal endomicroscopy in vivo in 25 human subjects after topical peptide administration and found 3.8-fold greater fluorescence intensity for esophageal neoplasia compared with Barrett’s esophagus and squamous epithelium with 75% sensitivity and 97% specificity. No toxicity was attributed to the peptide in either animal or patient studies. Therefore, our first-in-humans results show that this targeted imaging agent is safe, and may be useful for guiding tissue biopsy and for early detection of esophageal neoplasia and potentially other cancers of epithelial origin, such as bladder, colon, lung, pancreas, and stomach. PMID:23658246

  17. [Exfoliative esophagitis while taking dabigatran].

    PubMed

    Scheppach, Wolfgang; Meesmann, Malte

    2015-04-01

    History | A 77-year-old woman was admitted with severe chest pain, heartburn, dysphagia and odynophagia. She had been on dabigatran for 13 months due to atrial fibrillation and arterial hypertension. Investigations and findings | Endoscopy of the esophagus revealed sloughing of mucosal casts, predominantly in the upper half of the organ. Treatment and course | The patient was placed on pantoprazol, local anaesthetic antacid and i.?v. fluids. Dabigatran was discontinued. The symptoms disappeared within 3 days. Control endoscopy after 12 days showed complete healing of the esophageal mucosa. Conclusion | The intake of dabigatran was associated with exfoliative esophagitis, possibly due to caustic tissue damage by prolonged drug contact. PMID:25826037

  18. Airway Epithelium Stimulates Smooth Muscle Proliferation

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    Airway Epithelium Stimulates Smooth Muscle Proliferation Nikita K. Malavia1, Christopher B. Raub2 of Chemical, Biochemical Engineering and Material Science, 2 Department of Biomedical Engineering, and 3 between the airway epithelium and stroma is evident during embryogenesis, and both epithelial shedding

  19. Eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with esophageal atresia and chronic dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Kassabian, Sirvart; Baez-Socorro, Virginia; Sferra, Thomas; Garcia, Reinaldo

    2014-12-21

    Esophageal atresia (EA) is defined as a discontinuity of the lumen of the esophagus repaired soon after birth. Dysphagia is a common symptom in these patients, usually related to stricture, dysmotility or peptic esophagitis. We present 4 cases of patients with EA who complained of dysphagia and the diagnosis of Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was made, ages ranging from 9 to 16 years. Although our patients were on acid suppression years after their EA repair, they presented with acute worsening of dysphagia. Esophogastroduodenoscopy and/or barium swallow did not show stricture and biopsies revealed elevated eosinophil counts consistent with EoE. Two of 4 patients improved symptomatically with the topical steroids. It is important to note that all our patients have asthma and 3 out of 4 have tested positive for food allergies. One of our patients developed recurrent anastomotic strictures that improved with the treatment of the EoE. A previous case report linked the recurrence of esophageal strictures in patients with EA repair with EoE. Once the EoE was treated the strictures resolved. On the other hand, based on our observation, EoE could be present in patients without recurrent anastomotic strictures. There appears to be a spectrum in the disease process. We are suggesting that EoE is a frequent concomitant problem in patients with history of congenital esophageal deformities, and for this reason any of these patients with refractory reflux symptoms or dysphagia (with or without anastomotic stricture) may benefit from an endoscopic evaluation with biopsies to rule out EoE. PMID:25548504

  20. The importance of pancreatic embryonic epithelium for mesenchyme-to-epithelial transition during islet development.

    PubMed

    Jayanthi, N V G; Rowan-Hull, A M; Teague, W J; Johnson, P R V

    2005-10-01

    Stem or progenitor cells are a promising potential alternative source of pancreatic islets for transplantation in the treatment of juvenile-onset diabetes. However, to derive islets from such cells, it is important to elucidate the mechanisms of normal pancreatic development. Previous work in our laboratory has shown that, contrary to previous thinking, pancreatic mesenchyme when combined with pancreatic epithelium can contribute cells to islets. However, the signals and role of individual tissues involved in this mesenchyme-to-epithelial transition (MET) have yet to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MET can occur in the absence of pancreatic epithelium. Chick and quail eggs were incubated for 4 days and the dorsal pancreatic buds and stomach rudiments were microdissected. Mesenchyme and epithelium of the organ rudiments were separated after collagenase treatment. Separated pancreatic mesenchyme were cultured alone and in combination with stomach (nonpancreatic). After 7 days of culture, the specimens were analysed using immunohistochemistry for quail-specific nucleolar antigen (QCPN), insulin, and islet precursor cell marker (ISL-1). Pancreatic mesenchyme when cultured in the absence of epithelium did not differentiate into islets, but differentiated into fibroblast-like cells. When pancreatic mesenchyme were cultured in combination with stomach epithelium, there was no evidence of mesenchymally derived islets. We have demonstrated that pancreatic mesenchyme require pancreatic epithelium to differentiate into islet cells. These findings further increase our understanding of normal pancreatic islet development and may help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of MET in islet development. PMID:16298636

  1. Esophageal manifestations of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Lucendo, A J

    2011-09-01

    Celiac disease (CD) may often be associated with various motor disorders affecting the different segments of the digestive tract, including the esophagus. Although it has not been universally reported, some available evidences indicate that pediatric and adult celiac patients could manifest a higher frequency of esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease-related symptoms compared to nonceliac patients. In addition, several published studies have consistently shown the efficacy of a gluten-free diet in rapidly controlling esophageal symptoms and in preventing their recurrence. Since the participation of gluten in the esophageal symptoms of CD seems clear, its intimate mechanisms have yet to be elucidated, and several hypothesis have been proposed, including the specific immune alterations characterizing CD, the reduction in nutrient absorption determining the arrival of intact gluten to distal gastrointestinal segments, and various dysregulations in the function of gastrointestinal hormones and peptides. Recent studies have suggested the existence of a possible relationship between CD and eosinophilic esophagitis, which should be more deeply investigated. PMID:21438963

  2. Surgical Management of Esophageal Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CAROLYN E. REED

    Surgical management of esophageal carcinoma is reviewed. The anatomy and biology are briefly mentioned, since these factors mitigate against the success of surgery. Staging, the key to proper treatment allocation and prog- nosis, is discussed, including the use of endoscopic ultra- sonography, positron emission tomography, and thoracoscopy\\/laparoscopy. Patient selection and preparation for surgery are important considerations. Surgical tech- niques are

  3. Promoter methylation of HIN-1 in the progression to esophageal squamous cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingzhou; Ren, Jingli; Brock, Malcolm V; Herman, James G; Carraway, Hetty E

    2008-11-01

    HIN-1 (High in normal-1) is a tumor suppressor gene that is highly expressed in many epithelial tissues, including breast lung, trachea, pancreas, prostrate and salivary gland. Inactivation of HIN-1 expression by promoter methylation is frequent in many epithelial carcinomas and carcinoma-in-situ, including breast, lung and nasopharyngeal. Because HIN-1 silencing commences at an early stage of malignant transformation in these tissues, it may be a useful marker for tumor presence. The status of HIN-1 regulation in esophageal cancer has not been previously reported. Thus, we analyzed 18 esophageal cancer cell lines for HIN-1 expression and methylation by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and methylation specific PCR (MSP). HIN-1 gene silencing and promoter methylation was present in 13 (72%) of the cell lines. Bisulfite-treated sequencing confirmed the methylation status in cell lines and demonstrated dense methylation of HIN-1 throughout the promoter region. Epigenetic changes of HIN-1 were examined throughout the progression of carcinogenesis in esophageal squamous lesions through analysis of archived surgical specimens from patients with normal esophageal mucosa (n = 17), grade I dysplasia (n = 39), grade II dysplasia (n = 12), grade III dysplasia (n = 9), and invasive squamous esophageal cancer (n = 126). Methylation of HIN-1 was present in 0% of normal mucosa, 31% of grade I dysplasia, 33% of grade II dysplasia, 44% of grade III dysplasia, and 50% of esophageal cancer specimens analyzed. These studies demonstrate HIN-1 silencing is associated with dense promoter region hypermethylation in esophageal cancer and suggest that methylation of HIN-1 is an early event in dysplastic transformation. PMID:19098448

  4. Changes in the esophageal mucosa of patients with non erosive reflux disease: How far have we gone?

    PubMed Central

    Triantos, Christos; Koukias, Nikolaos; Karamanolis, Georgios; Thomopoulos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The normal esophageal mucosa creates a protective epithelial barrier that constrains the acidic reflux in the esophageal lumen. Microscopic findings and functional studies indicate that this barrier might be impaired in patients with non erosive reflux disease (NERD) but not in patients with functional heartburn (FH). Whereas endoscopy and pH monitoring are the most important diagnostic tools in the diagnosis of NERD, recent studies suggest that esophageal biopsies might have a complementary role. Particularly in the differential diagnosis between NERD and FH, the application of histological severity scores showed very promising results. Further evaluation of the scores could lead to routine application of histology in specific NERD populations. PMID:26019440

  5. WISP-1 contributes to fractionated irradiation-induced radioresistance in esophageal carcinoma cell lines and mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Li; Li, Hai-Ying; Zheng, Si-Si; Zhao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells that survive fractionated irradiation can be radioresistant and cause tumor recurrence. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of radioresistance in cancer cells remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of WISP-1 in the development of radioresistance in esophageal carcinoma during fractionated irradiation. Radioresistant esophageal cancer cells were generated from normal esophageal cancer cells via fractionated irradiation, and expression levels of related proteins were determined by Western blot. Radiosensitivity of cells was established by clonogenic cell survival assays, and cell cycle distribution was evaluated by flow cytometry. Protein distributions were determined by immunofluorescence, and cell toxicity was evaluated by cell counting kit-8 assays. In vivo validations were performed in a xenograft transplantation mouse model. Our data indicate that WISP-1 plays an important role in the development of radioresistance in esophageal cancer cells during fractionated irradiation. The overexression of WISP-1 in esophageal cancer cells was associated with radioresistance. Depletion of extracellular WISP-1 by antibody neutralizing reversed radioresistance and directly induced mitotic catastrophe resulting in cell death. WISP-1 may be a candidate therapeutic target in the treatment of recurrent esophageal carcinoma after radiotherapy. PMID:24728101

  6. WISP-1 Contributes to Fractionated Irradiation-Induced Radioresistance in Esophageal Carcinoma Cell Lines and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Si-Si; Zhao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells that survive fractionated irradiation can be radioresistant and cause tumor recurrence. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of radioresistance in cancer cells remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of WISP-1 in the development of radioresistance in esophageal carcinoma during fractionated irradiation. Radioresistant esophageal cancer cells were generated from normal esophageal cancer cells via fractionated irradiation, and expression levels of related proteins were determined by Western blot. Radiosensitivity of cells was established by clonogenic cell survival assays, and cell cycle distribution was evaluated by flow cytometry. Protein distributions were determined by immunofluorescence, and cell toxicity was evaluated by cell counting kit-8 assays. In vivo validations were performed in a xenograft transplantation mouse model. Our data indicate that WISP-1 plays an important role in the development of radioresistance in esophageal cancer cells during fractionated irradiation. The overexression of WISP-1 in esophageal cancer cells was associated with radioresistance. Depletion of extracellular WISP-1 by antibody neutralizing reversed radioresistance and directly induced mitotic catastrophe resulting in cell death. WISP-1 may be a candidate therapeutic target in the treatment of recurrent esophageal carcinoma after radiotherapy. PMID:24728101

  7. Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis following repair of esophageal atresia and tracheo-esophageal fistula.

    PubMed

    Seguier-Lipszyc, Emmanuelle; Klin, Baruch

    2014-01-01

    Two cases of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) developed after a few weeks of repair of an esophageal atresia and tracheo-esophageal fistula (EA and TEF). Both cases were dealt successfully with laparoscopic pyloromyotomy. PMID:26023501

  8. [Esophageal Cancer Initially Presenting as Severe Paraneoplastic Hypercalcemia Requiring Hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hye Shin; Yun, Jong Min; Lee, Yeong Bok; Ko, Yu Mi; Lee, Jung Eun; Won, Hye Sung; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Young Ok

    2015-06-25

    Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia without bone metastasis occurs rarely in esophageal cancer. A 75-year-old man was admitted for general weakness and lethargy. Laboratory data showed high serum calcium level (corrected calcium 14.6 mg/dL), low parathyroid hormone level (3.3 pg/mL) and high parathyroid hormone-related peptide level (3.5 pmol/L). Esophagogastroscopy showed a malignant tumor in the esophagus. Histology showed moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Bone scan showed no evidence of bone metastasis. Since the patient's calcium levels remained high and mental state did not show improvement despite intravenous fluid therapy, diuretics and intravenous bisphosphonate, hemodialysis was started. After hemodialysis treatment, the serum calcium level subsequently normalized and his mental status improved. Herein, we report a rare case of paraneoplastic hypercalcemia in a patient with esophageal cancer. PMID:26087691

  9. The Changing Face of Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Melhado, Rachel E.; Alderson, Derek; Tucker, Olga

    2010-01-01

    The two main histological esophageal cancer types, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, differ in incidence, geographic distribution, ethnic pattern and etiology. This article focuses on epidemiology with particular reference to geographic and temporal variations in incidence, along with a review of the evidence supporting environmental and genetic factors involved in esophageal carcinogenesis. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus remains predominantly a disease of the developing world. In contrast, esophageal adenocarcinoma is mainly a disease of western developed societies, associated with obesity and gastro-esophageal reflux disease. There has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma in developed countries in parallel with migration of both esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas towards the gastro-esophageal junction. PMID:24281163

  10. Fragility of the esophageal mucosa: A pathognomonic endoscopic sign of primary eosinophilic esophagitis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Straumann; Livio Rossi; Hans-Uwe Simon; Pius Heer; Hans-Peter Spichtin; Christoph Beglinger

    2003-01-01

    Background: Primary eosinophilic esophagitis, a chronic inflammatory disorder of the esophagus, evokes recurrent dysphagia. Endoscopy is often unremarkable, and no consensus exists regarding management of resultant dysphagia. The response of a series of patients with primary eosinophilic esophagitis to dilation is reported together with a description of a possibly pathognomonic sign: fragile esophageal mucosa, for which the term “crêpe-paper” mucosa

  11. Temporal evolution in caveolin 1 methylation levels during human esophageal carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Esophageal cancer ranks eighth among frequent cancers worldwide. Our aim was to investigate whether and at which neoplastic stage promoter hypermethylation of CAV1 is involved in human esophageal carcinogenesis. Methods Using real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP), we examined CAV1 promoter hypermethylation in 260 human esophageal tissue specimens. Real-time RT-PCR and qMSP were also performed on OE33 esophageal cancer cells before and after treatment with the demethylating agent, 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC). Results CAV1 hypermethylation showed highly discriminative ROC curve profiles, clearly distinguishing esophageal adenocarcinomas (EAC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) from normal esophagus (NE) (EAC vs. NE, AUROC?=?0.839 and p?normalized methylation value (NMV) were significantly higher in Barrett’s metaplasia (BE), low-grade and high-grade dysplasia occurring in BE (D), EAC, and ESCC than in NE (all p?esophageal carcinomas and is associated with early neoplastic progression in Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:24885118

  12. Corrosive Esophagitis Caused by Ingestion of Picosulfate

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jae Yong; Kang, Ho Suk; Kim, Seong Eun; Park, Ji Won; Moon, Sung Hoon; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Park, Choong Kee

    2015-01-01

    Corrosive esophagitis is characterized by caustic injury due to the ingestion of chemical agents, mainly alkaline substances such as detergents. Esophageal bleeding, perforation, or stricture can be worsened by high-degree corrosive esophagitis. Picosulfate is a commonly used laxative frequently administered for bowel preparation before colonoscopy or colon surgery. Picosulfate powder should be completely dissolved in water before ingestion because the powder itself may cause chemical burning of the esophagus and stomach. Here, we report a case of corrosive esophagitis due to the ingestion of picosulfate powder that was not completely dissolved in water. PMID:25674529

  13. Esophageal Stenosis Associated With Tumor Regression in Radiotherapy for Esophageal Cancer: Frequency and Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Atsumi, Kazushige [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shioyama, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: shioyama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Arimura, Hidetaka [Department of Health Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Terashima, Kotaro [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Matsuki, Takaomi [Department of Health Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Nonoshita, Takeshi; Tsurumaru, Daisuke; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Asai, Kaori; Matsumoto, Keiji [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital at Beppu, Oita (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine clinical factors for predicting the frequency and severity of esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: The study group consisted of 109 patients with esophageal cancer of T1-4 and Stage I-III who were treated with definitive radiotherapy and achieved a complete response of their primary lesion at Kyushu University Hospital between January 1998 and December 2007. Esophageal stenosis was evaluated using esophagographic images within 3 months after completion of radiotherapy. We investigated the correlation between esophageal stenosis after radiotherapy and each of the clinical factors with regard to tumors and therapy. For validation of the correlative factors for esophageal stenosis, an artificial neural network was used to predict the esophageal stenotic ratio. Results: Esophageal stenosis tended to be more severe and more frequent in T3-4 cases than in T1-2 cases. Esophageal stenosis in cases with full circumference involvement tended to be more severe and more frequent than that in cases without full circumference involvement. Increases in wall thickness tended to be associated with increases in esophageal stenosis severity and frequency. In the multivariate analysis, T stage, extent of involved circumference, and wall thickness of the tumor region were significantly correlated to esophageal stenosis (p = 0.031, p < 0.0001, and p = 0.0011, respectively). The esophageal stenotic ratio predicted by the artificial neural network, which learned these three factors, was significantly correlated to the actual observed stenotic ratio, with a correlation coefficient of 0.864 (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study suggested that T stage, extent of involved circumference, and esophageal wall thickness of the tumor region were useful to predict the frequency and severity of esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer.

  14. The junctional epithelium originates from the odontogenic epithelium of an erupted tooth

    PubMed Central

    Yajima-Himuro, Sara; Oshima, Masamitsu; Yamamoto, Gou; Ogawa, Miho; Furuya, Madoka; Tanaka, Junichi; Nishii, Kousuke; Mishima, Kenji; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Tsuji, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2014-01-01

    The junctional epithelium (JE) is an epithelial component that is directly attached to the tooth surface and has a protective function against periodontal diseases. In this study, we determined the origin of the JE using a bioengineered tooth technique. We transplanted the bioengineered tooth germ into the alveolar bone with an epithelial component that expressed green fluorescence protein. The reduced enamel epithelium from the bioengineered tooth fused with the oral epithelium, and the JE was apparently formed around the bioengineered tooth 50 days after transplantation. Importantly, the JE exhibited green fluorescence for at least 140 days after transplantation, suggesting that the JE was not replaced by oral epithelium. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the origin of the JE was the odontogenic epithelium, and odontogenic epithelium-derived JE was maintained for a relatively long period. PMID:24785116

  15. Successful Use of Esophageal Stent Placement to Treat a Postoperative Esophageal Stricture in a Toddler

    PubMed Central

    Gebrail, Rami

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal atresia (EA) is the most common type of gastrointestinal atresia. The most common variant (type C) consists of a blind esophageal pouch with a fistula between the trachea and the distal esophagus. Surgical repair can be complicated by the development of benign stricture. Most strictures are amenable to dilation, but refractory strictures may require surgical intervention. A 24-month-old boy born with tracheoesophageal fistula and EA underwent surgical repair on day 1 of life. He developed esophageal stricture that responded to esophageal stent placement. Endoscopic biliary accessories can be safely used to dilate refractory esophageal strictures in children, and should be considered prior to seeking other complex alternatives.

  16. The 'skinny' on eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Katzka, David A

    2015-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis--a disease that even most physicians know little about--is becoming increasingly common. Often starting in childhood with eating difficulties and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, it progresses with increasing inflammation, fibrosis, and strictures until the esophagus is visibly narrowed on radiography. Early recognition and treatment with an allergen-avoidance diet and steroids are critical to avoiding or postponing complications. PMID:25897596

  17. Esophageal metastasis of breast carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Wada; Nobuko Harada; Kazuhiro Ohara; Hironori Kawata; Hironori Iwasaki; Yuuichiro Kawamura; Takashi Gomi; Masahiro Ohtoshi; Yasuaki Nakashima

    2009-01-01

    Esophageal metastasis from primary breast cancer is an unusual manifestation. We recently treated a patient with dysphagia,\\u000a whose breast cancer had been treated in the distant past. A 70-year-old woman had been followed regularly in our outpatient\\u000a clinic for 14 years after her primary breast cancer treatment, with no apparent tumor recurrence. After 2 years absence, she\\u000a consulted our clinic with progressive

  18. The management of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Greenhawt, Matthew; Aceves, Seema S; Spergel, Jonathan M; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic, chronic esophageal inflammatory disease resistant to acid suppressive therapy and is associated with variable symptoms indicative of upper gastrointestinal dysfunction. Per current guidelines established by The International Group of Eosinophil Researchers (TIGERS), the diagnosis is made in symptomatic patients after a biopsy that confirms a peak eosinophil level of ?15 eosinophils/high-powered field (HPF). The esophagus is distinguished by pronounced tissue eosinophilia in which dietary antigens are key inciting factors for disease pathogenesis; EoE being reversed by elimination of triggering food allergens suggests that the disease is mediated in part by allergic sensitization to foods. Moreover, experimental EoE in mice can be induced not only via food exposure but also via aeroallergen exposure. Consistent with an allergic etiology rather than an acid-induced esophagitis, swallowed glucocorticoids are effective for the treatment of EoE. Evaluation by an allergist is a recommended part of the diagnostic workup, especially for management of allergic comorbidities. Clinical practice for the evaluation of patients with EoE mainly relies on prick skin tests due to the ease and validation of these tests in the context of immediate hypersensitivity. However, both atopy patch testing and serum IgE testing have been used in EoE. Herein, we reviewed the basic clinical features of EoE with a focus on the approach to diagnosing causative food allergens and to dietary therapy. PMID:24565538

  19. Capillaries in the epithelium of pterygium

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, P.; Sekundo, W.

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To present new morphological observations of intraepithelial capillaries in pterygium and to provide some explanations for this phenomenon.?METHODS—The ultrastructural features of pterygia from 26 patients were examined. Surgically excised tissue was processed for conventional light and transmission electron microscopy.?RESULTS—Individual capillaries within the epithelium of the anterior half towards the head of pterygia were identified in 11 specimens out of 26 pterygia examined (42.3%). The perivascular connective tissue of the intraepithelial capillaries contained fibroblasts, collagen fibrils, and elastin-like material. Epithelial cells surrounding these capillaries showed defects in the basal lamina in contrast with the continuous basal lamina of the endothelium. In the intercellular space of the epithelium an amorphous substance, occasional fibroblast processes, and collagen fibrils were frequently observed.?CONCLUSION—Capillaries in the epithelium of pterygia are rare, but not exceptional. The ingrowth of these vessels from the stroma into the epithelium can be interpreted as a reaction to hypoxia or deficiency of any other substance transported via the bloodstream. Apparently, the perivascular connective tissue can be used by ingrowing fibroblasts as a migration pathway. The migrating fibroblasts appear to use the defects of the epithelial basal lamina (whether partially or complete) in order to reach the intercellular space. It is possible that collagen fibrils in the epithelial intercellular space have been laid down by fibroblasts which contribute to the pathological dedifferentiation of the conjunctival epithelium.?? Keywords: pterygium; ultrastructure; epithelium; blood vessels PMID:9536887

  20. [Ultrastructural study on the epithelium of ligated oviducts in reproductive women].

    PubMed

    Li, J; Chen, X

    1993-06-01

    The epithelium of normal and ligated oviducts in nine reproductive women was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed. The cilia of the epithelium were twisted and adhered on to the mucosa 0.5 cm from both the distal and proximal ends of the ligation scar. In the localized mucosa, the epithelial cells were irregular, and numerous microvilli and cilia were lost. However the microvilli and cilia of the epithelium were normal on mucosa 1.0 cm from the blocked oviducts. In the present experiment, oviductal stomata were reported on the epithelium of the hydrosalpinx for the first time. These oviductal stomata, located among some secretory cells, might be connected with the lymphatic capillaries of the oviducts. On the mucosa of the hydrosalpinx, numerous cilia were lost, and microvilli were abundant on the surface of the secretory cells. It might be possible that some secretory cells on the mucosa of the hydrosalpinx are evolved from ciliated cells. In addition, the pathogeny of the hydrosalpinx is discussed. This study shows: A) The transportation of the ovum is compromised due to damage to the cilia and microvilli of the oviductal epithelium, and this might be an important cause of continued infertility following reversal of sterilization; B) It is necessary to remove mucosa at least 0.5 cm from both the distal and proximal tubal segments of the ligation scar during the operation of end-to-end anastomosis; C) The oviductal stomata may be involved in draining hydrops from the hydrosalpinx. PMID:8222002

  1. High-resolution EUS in children with eosinophilic “allergic” esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor L. Fox; Samuel Nurko; Jonathan E. Teitelbaum; Kamran Badizadegan; Glenn T. Furuta

    2003-01-01

    Background: The pathophysiology of dysphagia associated with eosinophilic esophagitis is unknown. This study investigated possible anatomic alterations in children with eosinophilic esophagitis in comparison with healthy children by using high-resolution EUS to precisely measure individual tissue layers of the esophagus. Methods: Children with eosinophilic esophagitis (n = 11) and control children (n = 8) without esophagitis were prospectively evaluated by

  2. Esophagitis: old histologic concepts and new thoughts.

    PubMed

    Grin, Andrea; Streutker, Catherine J

    2015-06-01

    Context .- Inflammatory lesions of the esophagus are a diverse group, often with nonspecific histologic findings. These benign changes can produce diagnostic difficulties for pathologists. Objective .- To discuss the typical histologic findings of a variety of the most common causes of esophagitis (reflux, eosinophilic esophagitis, infections, medications) along with less common issues such as sloughing esophagitis and skin disorders involving the squamous mucosa. Data Sources .- The literature has been reviewed to discuss histologic definitions of current and developing issues in the area of esophagitis. Conclusions .- Histologic features are not entirely sensitive and specific for inflammatory esophageal disorders. Awareness of these problems is essential; clinical and endoscopic information can be very useful in distinguishing among the various lesions. PMID:26030241

  3. Limited Restoration of Cystic Fibrosis Lung Epithelium In Vivo with Adult Bone Marrow-derived Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Loi; Travis Beckett; Kaarin K. Goncz; Benjamin T. Suratt; Daniel J. Weiss

    Rationale: Recent literature suggests that adult bone marrow- derived cells can localize to lung and acquire immunophenotypic characteristics of lung epithelial cells. We speculated this might be a potential therapeutic approach for correcting defective lung epithelium in cystic fibrosis. Objective: To determine whether adult bone marrow-derived cells containing normal cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance reg- ulator protein (CFTR) could repopulate lung

  4. Inherited Retinal Dystrophy: Primary Defect in Pigment Epithelium Determined with Experimental Rat Chimeras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Mullen; Matthew M. Lavail

    1976-01-01

    Chimeric rats were produced by the aggregation of embryos of the pinkeyed, retinal dystrophic RCS strain with those of pigmented, normal rats. In the mosaic eyes, patches of neural retina with abnormal and degenerated photoreceptors were present only opposite patches of nonpigmented, mutant pigment epithelium. This indicates that the retinal dystrophy gene acts in the pigment epithelial cell rather than

  5. THE EFFECT OF SO2 ON THE UPTAKE OF PARTICLES BY MOUSE BRONCHIAL EPITHELIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In three experiments, the authors have explored the uptake and transport of collidal gold (Au) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) by normal and SO2-injured bronchial epithelium. In the first experiment mice were exposed to a 2-hr aerosol of Au; in the second experiment, mice were exposed to ...

  6. A Unique Case of a Patient with Rectal Cancer Who Developed Benign Esophageal Stenosis after Localized Rectal Radiation and Systemic Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Elie; Cheesman, Antonio; Hammami, Muhammad; Taylor, Jason R.; Poddar, Nishant; Garrett, Robert W.; Alkaade, Samer

    2015-01-01

    Acute esophagitis and esophageal strictures typically occur after local radiation therapy to the thoracic field. Toxicity is usually limited to the field of radiation and potentially augmented by concomitant use of chemotherapy, however esophageal stricturing due to chemotherapy alone is exceedingly rare. Gastrointestinal toxicity has been previously reported in the setting of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy with abnormal thymidylate synthase or dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activities. We present a unique case of isolated chemotherapy-induced esophageal stricture in the setting of stage IIIa rectal adenocarcinoma which presented shortly after initiation of treatment with 5-FU-based chemotherapy in a patient with normal thymidylate synthase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase assays. These findings prompt further investigation of pathways and potential risk factors leading to esophageal toxicity in patients treated with 5-FU-based chemotherapy. PMID:25802497

  7. Effect of Curculigo orchioides on reflux esophagitis by suppressing proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Ku, Sae-Kang; Kim, Jae-Soo; Seo, Young-Bae; Kim, Yong-Ung; Hwang, Seung-Lark; Lee, Young-Chul; Yang, Chae-Ha; Kim, Hui-Young; Seo, Bu-Il; Park, Ji-Ha; Min, You-Hong; Roh, Seong-Soo

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effects of Curculigo orchioides rhizome (curculiginis rhizome) on acute reflux esophigitis (RE) in rats that are induced by pylorus and forestomach ligation operation. Proinflammatory cytokine, as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 were all assayed and the expression of TNF-? and COX2 analyzed by RT-PCR. The esophagic tissue damage of reflux esophagitis rat was increased compared to that of normal intact group. However, the esophagic damage percentage from the extract of curculiginis rhizoma (ECR) 600 mg/kg and ECR 300 mg/kg were significantly lower than that of the RE control group. Administration of ?-tocopherol (30 mg/kg) and ECR (600 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 150 mg/kg) had a significant effect on the gastric acid pH in rats with induced reflux esophagitis (p < 0.05). The treatment with ECR significantly reduced the production of cytokines TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 levels compared to the model group (p < 0.05). The expression of TNF-? and COX2 in the intact esophageal mucosa was low while those of the RE control group were significantly higher due to an inflammatory reaction in the esophagus. Compare to the model group, treatment with ?-tocopherol or ECR significantly inhibited the expression levels of COX2 and TNF-? in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory and protective effects of ECR could attenuate the severity of reflux esophagitis and prevent esophageal mucosal damage. PMID:23227795

  8. Esophageal early basaloid squamous carcinoma with unusual narrowband imaging magnified endoscopy findings

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Yugo; Kato, Motohiko; Hayashi, Yoshito; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Shinzaki, Shinichiro; Nishida, Tsutomu; Tsujii, Masahiko; Morii, Eiichi; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Basaloid squamous carcinoma (BSC) is a rare variant of esophageal cancer. There are very few reports of “early” BSC. Here we report a case of early BSC with unusual findings by narrowband imaging magnified endoscopy (NBI-ME). A 70-year-old man with a middle thoracic esophageal tumor was referred to our hospital. White-light endoscopy revealed a reddish depressed lesion 5 mm in diameter having a subepithelial tumor-like prominence with a gentle rising slope. NBI-ME revealed irregular loop-shaped microvessels coexistent with thick irregularly branched non-looped vessels. Iodine staining revealed a pale brown lesion. We performed endoscopic submucosal dissection for diagnostic treatment. Histologic examination showed the proliferation of basal cell-like hyperchromatic tumor cells in the lamina propria and with slight invasion into the submucosa at a depth of 320 ?m. The tumor cells formed solid nests and microcystic structures, containing an Alcian blue-positive mucoid matrix. The surface was covered with squamous epithelium without cellular atypia. Thin vessels were observed in the intra-epithelial papilla and thick vessels were observed around the solid nests beneath the epithelium. Based on these findings together, we diagnosed the lesion as BSC. In this case, the NBI-ME findings differed from those of typical squamous cell carcinoma in that both non-invasive cancer-like irregular loop-shaped microvessels coexisted with massively invasive cancer-like thick non-looped vessels. We speculate that the looped and non-looped vessels observed by NBI-ME histologically corresponded to thin vessels in the intra-epithelial papilla and thick vessels around the tumor nests, respectively. These NBI-ME findings might be a feature of early esophageal BSC. PMID:25253974

  9. Free jejunal segment for treatment of cervical esophageal stricture in a dog.

    PubMed

    Gregory, C R; Gourley, I M; Bruyette, D S; Schultz, L J

    1988-07-15

    A 2-year-old female Chinese Shar Pei was admitted with a 20-cm cervical esophageal stricture that was untreatable by conventional medical and surgical methods. A free jejunal segment was used to replace the strictured portion of the esophagus. Twenty-one months after surgery, the dog was able to eat liquefied canned dog food with minimal regurgitation and was maintaining normal body weight. Free jejunal transfer offers a treatment method for otherwise fatal esophageal lesions that are not responsive to conventional methods of medical and surgical treatment. PMID:3403353

  10. Esophageal Cancer Dose Escalation Using a Simultaneous Integrated Boost Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, James, E-mail: jwelsh@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Palmer, Matthew B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Liao Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Swisher, Steven G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Allen, Pamela K.; Settle, Steven H.; Gomez, Daniel; Likhacheva, Anna; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We previously showed that 75% of radiation therapy (RT) failures in patients with unresectable esophageal cancer are in the gross tumor volume (GTV). We performed a planning study to evaluate if a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique could selectively deliver a boost dose of radiation to the GTV in patients with esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using four different approaches (two-dimensional conformal radiotherapy [2D-CRT] to 50.4 Gy, 2D-CRT to 64.8 Gy, intensity-modulated RT [IMRT] to 50.4 Gy, and SIB-IMRT to 64.8 Gy) and optimized for 10 patients with distal esophageal cancer. All plans were constructed to deliver the target dose in 28 fractions using heterogeneity corrections. Isodose distributions were evaluated for target coverage and normal tissue exposure. Results: The 50.4 Gy IMRT plan was associated with significant reductions in mean cardiac, pulmonary, and hepatic doses relative to the 50.4 Gy 2D-CRT plan. The 64.8 Gy SIB-IMRT plan produced a 28% increase in GTV dose and comparable normal tissue doses as the 50.4 Gy IMRT plan; compared with the 50.4 Gy 2D-CRT plan, the 64.8 Gy SIB-IMRT produced significant dose reductions to all critical structures (heart, lung, liver, and spinal cord). Conclusions: The use of SIB-IMRT allowed us to selectively increase the dose to the GTV, the area at highest risk of failure, while simultaneously reducing the dose to the normal heart, lung, and liver. Clinical implications warrant systematic evaluation.

  11. Laparoscopic anatomy of the region of the esophageal hiatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. R. Kuster; F. A. Innocenti

    1997-01-01

    Background: The wide patient acceptance of hiatal and gastroesophageal surgery performed by laparoscopy has suddenly generated a large\\u000a volume of procedures frequently done by surgeons with limited experience in this area. This has resulted in an excessive number\\u000a of complications. Knowledge of the normal and pathologic laparoscopic anatomy is essential for safe dissection around the\\u000a esophageal hiatus.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: This description

  12. Surface-enhanced Raman spectra of hemoglobin for esophageal cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xue; Diao, Zhenqi; Fan, Chunzhen; Guo, Huiqiang; Xiong, Yang; Tang, Weiyue

    2014-03-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of hemoglobin from 30 esophageal cancer patients and 30 healthy persons have been detected and analyzed. The results indicate that, there are more iron ions in low spin state and less in high for the hemoglobin of esophageal cancer patients than normal persons, which is consistent with the fact that it is easier to hemolyze for the blood of cancer patients. By using principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminate analysis, we can get a three-dimensional scatter plot of PC scores from the SERS spectra of healthy persons and cancer patients, from which the two groups can be discriminated. The total accuracy of this method is 90%, while the diagnostic specificity is 93.3% and sensitivity is 86.7%. Thus SERS spectra of hemoglobin analysis combined with PCA may be a new technique for the early diagnose of esophageal cancer.

  13. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated expression is associated with tobacco smoke exposure in esophageal cancer tissues and benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide in cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Liang, Zheng D; Wu, Tsung T; Cao, Liyu; Zhang, Hongfu; Xu, Xiao-Chun

    2007-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is a substantial health problem because of its usually late stage at diagnosis and poor prognosis. Tobacco smoking and alcohol use are the most important risk factors in the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Our previous study demonstrated the binding of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE), a carcinogen present in tobacco smoke and environmental pollution, to the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. To understand how this binding affects the alteration of ATM expression and to identify biomarkers for the detection of esophageal cancer, we analyzed ATM mRNA expression in tissue specimens from patients with esophageal SCC and premalignant lesions using in situ hybridization. We then performed in vitro experiments to verify and extend our ex vivo observations. We found that ATM expression was increased in esophageal SCC and its premalignant lesions when compared with normal tissues and that increased ATM expression was associated with tobacco smoke exposure and tumor de-differentiation. Moreover, BPDE induced ATM expression in esophageal SCC cell lines in a time-dependent manner. In summary, the BPDE in tobacco smoke may be responsible for increased ATM expression in premalignant and malignant esophageal tissues. Our findings suggest that the ATM gene should be further evaluated as a biomarker for the early detection of esophageal cancer and tobacco use in patients. PMID:17019709

  14. Status of epigenetic chromatin modification enzymes and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk in northeast Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Virendra; Singh, Laishram C; Singh, Avninder P; Sharma, Jagannath; Borthakur, Bibhuti B; Debnath, Arundhati; Rai, Avdhesh K; Phukan, Rup K; Mahanta, Jagadish; Kataki, Amal C; Kapur, Sujala; Saxena, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer incidence is reported in high frequency in northeast India. The etiology is different from other population at India due to wide variations in dietary habits or nutritional factors, tobacco/betel quid chewing and alcohol habits. Since DNA methylation, histone modification and miRNA-mediated epigenetic processes alter the gene expression, the involvement of these processes might be useful to find out epigenetic markers of esophageal cancer risk in northeast Indian population. The present investigation was aimed to carryout differential expression profiling of chromatin modification enzymes in tumor and normal tissue collected from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Differential mRNA expression profiling and their validation was done by quantitative real time PCR and tissue microarray respectively. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the epidemiological data. mRNA expression data was analyzed by Student t-test. Fisher exact test was used for tissue microarray data analysis. Higher expression of enzymes regulating methylation (DOT1L and PRMT1) and acetylation (KAT7, KAT8, KAT2A and KAT6A) of histone was found associated with ESCC risk. Tissue microarray done in independent cohort of 75 patients revealed higher nuclear protein expression of KAT8 and PRMT1 in tumor similar to mRNA expression. Expression status of PRMT1 and KAT8 was found declined as we move from low grade to high grade tumor. Betel nut chewing, alcohol drinking and dried fish intake were significantly associated with increased risk of esophageal cancer among the study subject. Study suggests the association of PRMT1 and KAT8 with esophageal cancer risk and its involvement in the transition process of low to high grade tumor formation. The study exposes the differential status of chromatin modification enzymes between tumor and normal tissue and points out that relaxed state of chromatin facilitates more transcriptionally active genome in esophageal carcinogenesis.

  15. Recovery of the ciliated epithelium following acute bronchiolitis in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, J; Rutman, A; O'Callaghan, C

    2005-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the longitudinal changes in the ciliated respiratory epithelium of infants following viral bronchiolitis. A study was undertaken to investigate the time required for the ciliated epithelium to return to normal following bronchiolitis in infants treated with inhaled steroids or placebo. Methods: Thirty one previously healthy term infants were studied as part of a clinical trial to determine the effect of 12 weeks of treatment with inhaled fluticasone (FP) or placebo via a spacer device (17 FP, 14 placebo). Nineteen healthy children aged 0–6 years previously studied in our department were used as controls. Nasal biopsy specimens were taken from infants with bronchiolitis and ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was measured before treatment and repeated 3, 6, 12, and 24 weeks later. The epithelial ultrastructure was examined by transmission electron microscopy and a normal errors mixed model based on normal controls was used to examine the time for cilia to return to normal in bronchiolitic infants. Results: The mean CBF of infants with bronchiolitis (in Hz) at weeks 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 were 0.5 (n = 4), 10.9 (n = 4), 12.0 (n = 9), 11.9 (n = 8), and 12.1 (n = 7) in the placebo group and 10.6 (n = 6), 11.4 (n = 9), 8.8 (n = 8), 10.9 (n = 4), and 13.2 (n = 7) in the FP group. The time for the epithelial ultrastructure to normalise was as follows: epithelial integrity score (13.1 weeks), % ciliated cells with loss of cilia (14.0 weeks), and % epithelial cells with abnormalities in projection (16.7 weeks) or mitochondria (15.9 weeks). Inhaled steroids had no significant effects on CBF or epithelial ultrastructure. Conclusion: Ciliary loss and epithelial abnormalities persist on average for 13–17 weeks following acute bronchiolitis in infancy. PMID:15994267

  16. Radioprotective Effects of Amifostine on Acute and Chronic Esophageal Injury in Rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Thrasher, Bradley A.; Jackson, Isabel L.; Brizel, Marla B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Brizel, David M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)], E-mail: david.Brizel@duke.edu

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the protective benefit of amifostine against esophageal injury from fractionated radiation in a rodent model. Methods: Fractionated or sham esophageal irradiation was administered to Fisher-344 rats for 5 consecutive daily fractions of 9 Gy using 150 kV X-rays. Animals received an intraperitoneal injection of amifostine or placebo 30 min before each fraction. Histopathologic analyses for mucosal thickness, submucosal collagen deposition, activation of macrophages, oxidative stress and expression/activation of integrin{alpha}v{beta}6 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} were performed 5 days and 10 weeks after irradiation. Results: Pre-RT mean mucosal thickness was 35 {mu}m in both the placebo and the amifostine groups. Five days post-RT, mean mucosal thicknesses were 30 {mu}m in the placebo group versus 37 {mu}m in the amifostine group (p = 0.024). At 10 weeks post-RT, the group receiving amifostine experienced a significant decrease in tunica muscularis damage (p = 0.002), submucosal collagen deposition (p = 0.027), and macrophage accumulation (p = 0.026) when compared with the placebo group. The levels of immunoreactivity for oxidative stress, TGF-{beta}, and integrin{alpha}v{beta}6 were significantly decreased 10 weeks post-RT in the group receiving amifostine treatment compared with placebo group. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that amifostine given before each radiation fraction protects against acute and chronic esophageal injury in a rodent model. Protection of the mucosal epithelium integrity by amifostine prevents integrin{alpha}v{beta}6 expression which reduces TGF-{beta} activation and subsequent development of chronic esophageal injury in this model. Further investigation is necessary to determine the clinical relevance of these findings.

  17. Esophagitis: Incidence and Risk of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma—A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annmarie Lassen; Jesper Hallas; Ove B Schaffalitzky de Muckadell

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:Although symptoms of reflux are common, our knowledge of the epidemiology and natural history of gastroesophageal reflux disease is sparse. The risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma is increased among patients with acid reflux, but the contribution of Barrett's lesions is unknown.METHODS:With the aim to estimate the incidence of diagnosed endoscopic esophagitis lesions and the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma among patients with

  18. Gastro-esophageal Reflux and Esophageal Motility Disorders in Morbidly Obese Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Suter; G. Dorta; V. Giusti; J. M. Calmes

    2004-01-01

    Background: Morbid obesity has long been considered as a contributing factor to gastro-esophageal reflux, but the literature\\u000a contains conflicting data on the subject. The authors studied a large number of morbidly obese candidates for bariatric surgery\\u000a with objective means, in order to better define the incidence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and esophageal motility\\u000a disorders in this population. Methods: Morbidly

  19. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

  20. Connexins form functional hemichannels in porcine ciliary epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Shahidullah, Mohammad; Delamere, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    The expression of connexins in the ciliary epithelium is consistent with gap junctions between the pigmented (PE) and nonpigmented ciliary epithelium (NPE) that form when connexon hemichannels from adjacent cells pair to form a channel. Here we present evidence that suggests undocked connexons may form functional hemichannels that permit exchange of substances between NPE and the aqueous humor. Intact porcine eyes were perfused via the ciliary artery and propidium iodide (PI) (MW 668) was added to the aqueous humor compartment as a tracer. After calcium-free solution containing PI was introduced into the aqueous humor compartment for 30 min, fluorescence microscopy revealed PI in the NPE cell layer. PI entry into the NPE was inhibited by calcium and by the connexin antagonist 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (18-AGA). Studies also were carried out with cultured porcine NPE. Under normal conditions, little PI entered the cultured cells but calcium-free medium stimulated PI accumulation and the entry was inhibited by 18-AGA. In cells loaded with calcein (MW 622), calcium-free solution stimulated calcein exit. 18-AGA partially suppressed calcein exit in calcium-free medium. Connexin 43 and connexin 50 proteins were detected by western blot analysis in both native and cultured NPE. In the intact eye, immunolocalization studies revealed connexin 50 at the basolateral, aqueous humor-facing, margin of the NPE. In contrast, connexin 43 was observed at the junction of the PE and NPE layer and on the basolateral membrane of PE. The results point to functional hemichannels at the NPE basolateral surface. It is feasible that hemichannels might contribute to the transfer of substances between the ciliary epithelium cytoplasm and aqueous humor. PMID:24262135

  1. Severe Ulcerative Esophagitis Induced by Crizotinib Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Jamie; Bajaj, Rajesh; Spurling, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Crizotinib is an oral tyrosine-kinase inhibitor that inhibits anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) in gene-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In 2011, the Food and Drug Administration approved crizotinib for treatment of locally advanced or metastatic ALK-positive NSCLC. The crizotinib adverse events profile included esophageal disorders in 11% of patients treated during trial phases I, II, and III, but none of them had severe events. We describe the development of severe ulcerative esophagitis secondary to crizotinib therapy and the re-introduction of therapy at a lower dose without recurrence of esophageal symptoms.

  2. Resection of esophageal carcinoma during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    ?ahin, Murat; Kocaman, Gökhan; Özkan, Murat; Yüksel, Cabir; Enön, Serkan; Kutlay, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma diagnosed during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. A 26-year-old pregnant patient was referred to our hospital with dysphagia. A thorough examination showed a tumor in the esophagus. Laparotomy, thoracotomy, and cervical exploration were performed. There are only 2 cases reported in the literature about esophageal carcinoma diagnosed during pregnancy and treated surgically. However, ethical dilemmas arise in managing such situations. Here we report a case of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed at 27 weeks of gestation in which surgical resection was performed successfully. PMID:25555961

  3. Medical management of esophageal reflux.

    PubMed Central

    Hirschowitz, B. I.

    1994-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux of varying severity is a common disorder for which medical attention is sought at all levels, from pharmacists to specialist physicians and surgeons. This brief overview represents my current understanding of reflux, its effects on the esophagus and my personal approach to treatment of these disorders. Of necessity, because the literature is so extensive (a Medline search on reflux from 1966 to 1993 yielded over 1500 papers.), I have relied in places on the extensive review by Marks and Richter [1]. My paper emphasizes the evaluation and treatment of patients with symptomatic reflux, esophagitis and its complications. It describes why it is important to grade the disorders so that the treatment used is appropriate to the severity of the disease. The more severe the disease, the more specific the diagnostic information needed and the more exacting the treatment. Various treatments and outcomes of therapy are discussed, and a role for surgery is defined. The essence of effective medical treatment of esophagitis is to reduce acidity of the refluxate to a level outside the optimum proteolytic pH range of pepsin, i.e. greater than pH 3.5. PMID:7502531

  4. Effect of Slip Time in Forming Neo-Esophageal Stenosis After Replacement of a Thoracic Esophagus With Nitinol Artificial Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xian-Liang; Liang, Jian-Hui

    2015-07-01

    Attempts have been made to investigate the effect of slip time of nitinol artificial esophagus for forming neo-esophageal stenosis after replacement of a thoracic esophagus with nitinol artificial esophagus in 20 experimental pigs. The pigs whose slip time was less than 90 days postoperatively had severe dysphagia (Bown's III) immediately after they were fed, and the dysphagia aggravated gradually later on (Bown's III-IV). The pigs whose slip time was more than 90 days postoperatively had mild/moderate dysphagia (Bown's I-II) immediately after they were fed, and the dysphagia relieved gradually later on (Bown's II-I-0). The ratios between the diameter of neo-esophagus in different slip time and normal esophagus were 25% (at 2 months postoperatively), 58% (at 4 months postoperatively), and 93% (at 6 months postoperatively), respectively. The relationship between nitinol artificial esophagus slip time and neo-esophageal stenosis showed a positive correlation. After replacement of a thoracic esophagus with nitinol artificial esophagus, the artificial esophageal slip time not only affected the original diameter of the neo-esophagus immediately, but also affected the neo-esophageal scar stricture forming process later on. The narrowing of neo-esophagus is caused by overgrowth of scar tissue. But there is the positive correlation between artificial esophagus slip time and neo-esophageal stenosis, so this can be a way of overcoming neo-esophageal stenosis by delaying slip time of artificial esophagus. PMID:25809956

  5. Overexpression of FOXO3, MYD88, and GAPDH Identified by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization in Esophageal Cancer Is Associated with Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Mottaghi-Dastjerdi, Negar; Setayesh, Neda; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Ebrahimifard, Farzaneh; Sepehrizadeh, Zargham

    2014-01-01

    To find genes involved in tumorigenesis and the development of esophageal cancer, the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method was used to identify genes that are overexpressed in esophageal cancer tissues compared to normal esophageal tissues. In our SSH library, the forkhead box O3 (FOXO3), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MYD88) genes were the most highly upregulated genes, and they were selected for further studies because of their potential role in the induction of autophagy. Upregulation of these genes was also observed in clinical samples using qRT-PCR. In addition, coexpression analysis of the autophagy-related genes Beclin1, ATG12, Gabarapl, PIK3C3, and LC3 demonstrated a significant correlation between the differentially overexpressed genes and autophagy. Autophagy is an important mechanism in tumorigenesis and the development of chemoresistance in cancer cells. The upregulation of FOXO3, GAPDH, and MYD88 variants in esophageal cancer suggests a role for autophagy and provides new insight into the biology of esophageal cancer. We propose that FOXO3, GAPDH, and MYD88 are novel targets for combating autophagy in esophageal cancer. PMID:24527027

  6. Oncocytic transformation of choroid plexus epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Kepes

    1983-01-01

    In a 27-year-old woman who died of Leigh's disease, adult form, autopsy revealed in addition to the usual morphological changes of that condition, marked oncocytic transformation of choroid plexus epithelium in all cerebral ventricles: the cytoplasm of epithelial cells was enlarged, eosinophilic, and filled with fine granules. By electron microscopy the granules were granules. By electron microscopy the granules were

  7. The normal anatomy around the oesophagogastric junction: A

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Ron

    beneath the squamous epithelium, the normal squamous epithelium, columnar islands in squamous-lined mucosa, squamous islands in CLO and newly reported metaplastic changes in the OGJ zone. The nature of the OGJ: Columnar-lined oesophagus; Oesophagogastric junction; Barrett's oesophagus; Squamous metaplasia; Columnar

  8. Esophageal papilloma: Flexible endoscopic ablation by radiofrequency.

    PubMed

    Del Genio, Gianmattia; Del Genio, Federica; Schettino, Pietro; Limongelli, Paolo; Tolone, Salvatore; Brusciano, Luigi; Avellino, Manuela; Vitiello, Chiara; Docimo, Giovanni; Pezzullo, Angelo; Docimo, Ludovico

    2015-03-16

    Squamous papilloma of the esophagus is a rare benign lesion of the esophagus. Radiofrequency ablation is an established endoscopic technique for the eradication of Barrett esophagus. No cases of endoscopic ablation of esophageal papilloma by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) have been reported. We report a case of esophageal papilloma successfully treated with a single session of radiofrequency ablation. Endoscopic ablation of the lesion was achieved by radiofrequency using a new catheter inserted through the working channel of endoscope. The esophageal ablated tissue was removed by a specifically designed cup. Complete ablation was confirmed at 3 mo by endoscopy with biopsies. This case supports feasibility and safety of as a new potential indication for Barrx(TM) RFA in patients with esophageal papilloma. PMID:25789102

  9. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EE) or (EoE)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... These include asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and food allergy. EoE has also been shown to occur in ... often part of the EoE evaluation. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Food Allergies Adverse immune responses to food are the main ...

  10. Cervical esophageal hemangioma combined with thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Cheol; Kim, Jeong Won; Lee, Yong Jik; Lee, Seong Rok; Park, Chang-Ryul; Jung, Jong-Pil

    2011-08-01

    Hemangiomas that arise in cervical esophagus are extremely rare, representing 3.3% of all benign esophageal tumors. Although endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and potassium titanyl phosphate/yttrium aluminum garnet (KTP/YAG) laser therapy have been used with success for small tumors, the safety and efficacy in the case of large tumors remains uncertain. We report the successful resection of cervical esophageal hemangioma through a cervical esophagotomy in a patient with thyroid cancer who needed a cervical collar incision. PMID:22263178

  11. Transcriptome analysis and molecular signature of human retinal pigment epithelium

    E-print Network

    Abecasis, Goncalo

    Transcriptome analysis and molecular signature of human retinal pigment epithelium N.V. Strunnikova December 14, 2009; Revised March 3, 2010; Accepted March 30, 2010 Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is an aging-associated multifactorial disease that affects the photoreceptor-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE

  12. Fine structure of the coelomic epithelium of Sagitta elegans (Chaetognatha)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Welsch; Volker Storch

    1982-01-01

    The coelomic space in the trunk of the arrow worm Sagitta elegans is lined by a thin epithelium, which may be termed coelomic epithelium. The visceral part of this epithelium is composed of flat cells characterized by thin and thick myofilaments, which constitute the circular musculature of the gut. In addition mitochondria, rough ER, and smooth walled cisterns, as well

  13. Role of proton pump inhibitor on esophageal carcinogenesis and pancreatic acinar cell metaplasia development: an experimental in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Dall'Olmo, Luigi; Fassan, Matteo; Dassie, Elisa; Scarpa, Marco; Realdon, Stefano; Cavallin, Francesco; Cagol, Matteo; Battaglia, Giorgio; Pizzi, Marco; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Franceschinis, Erica; Pasut, Gianfranco; Rugge, Massimo; Zaninotto, Giovanni; Realdon, Nicola; Castoro, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Chronic gastro-duodenal reflux in the esophagus is a major risk for intestinal metaplasia and Barrett's adenocarcinoma. A role for chronic use of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) in the increased incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in Western countries has been previously suggested. The aim of this work was to study the effect of chronic administration of omeprazole (a proton pump inhibitor) per os in a model of reflux induced esophageal carcinogenesis. One week after esophago-gastro-jejunostomy, 115 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive 10 mg/Kg per day of omeprazole or placebo, 5 days per week. The esophago-gastric specimens were collected 28 ± 2 weeks after randomization and analyzed in a blinded fashion. Mortality and esophageal metaplasia rates did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.99 for mortality, p = 0.36 for intestinal metaplasia and p = 0.66 for multi-layered epithelium). Gastric pancreatic acinar cell metaplasia (PACM) was more frequently observed in PPI-treated rats (p = 0.003). Severe ulcer lesions significantly prevailed in the placebo group (p = 0.03). Locally invasive esophageal epithelial neoplasia were observed in 23/39 PPI-treated versus 14/42 placebo-animals (p = 0.03). In conclusion, chronic omeprazole treatment improved the healing of esophageal ulcerative lesions. Locally invasive neoplastic lesions and PACM prevailed among PPI-treated animals. However, neither an effect on the overall mortality nor on the incidence of pre-neoplastic lesions was observed in this work. PMID:25415190

  14. Effect of total laryngectomy on esophageal motility

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, J.B.; Fisher, S.R.; Meyers, W.C.; Christian, K.C.; Postlethwait, R.W.; Jones, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    Total laryngectomy for cancer can result in dysphagia and altered esophageal motility. Manometric changes in the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), and in proximal and distal esophageal function have been reported. However, most studies have failed to take into account radiation therapy and appropriate controls. We selected ten male patients (54.3 +/- 1.9 yr) for longitudinal manometric evaluation prior to laryngectomy then at two weeks and again six months later. No patient received preoperative radiation therapy, had a previous history of esophageal surgery, or developed a postoperative wound infection or fistula. Seven of ten patients had positive nodes and received 6,000-6,600 rads postoperative radiation therapy. Preoperatively 4 of 10 patients complained of dysphagia which did not significantly change following surgery and radiation. Two of three patients who did not complain of dysphagia preoperatively and received radiation postoperatively developed dysphagia. No patient without dysphagia preoperatively who received no radiation therapy developed symptoms. Our studies show that laryngectomy causes alterations in the UES resting and peak pressures but not in the proximal or distal esophagus, or the lower esophageal sphincter. These data also imply radiation therapy may be associated with progressive alterations in motility and symptomatology. Further study regarding the effects of radiation on esophageal motility and function are urged.

  15. Long-Term Outcomes of Simultaneous Skin and Bowel Flaps for Esophageal Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Atsushi; Liem, Anita A; Yang, Chun-Fan; Chen, Wency; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2015-08-01

    Esophageal reconstruction can be performed with skin or bowel flaps. The choice of flap remains controversial, as the long-term outcomes of skin flaps cannot always be assessed in patients with limited life expectancies due to advanced malignancy, unlike the pediatric and benign cases which have had esophageal reconstruction using bowel flaps. We report the long-term clinical and histopathological outcomes in a series of 45 cases repaired with combined skin and bowel flaps.Four patients developed symptomatic strictures after corrosive esophageal injuries were repaired with a combination of a tubed free radial forearm fasciocutaneous flap and a pedicled bowel flap. On average, 24 years had passed since uneventful initial esophageal reconstructions. Barium esophagograms were obtained in all cases and pathological examination was performed upon all surgical specimens.The cutaneous portions of the reconstructed esophagus exhibited a variety of findings on barium examination. Each of the 4 cases developed an esophagocutaneous fistula after revision; an average of 4 surgeries was required to close these fistulae. The inner surfaces of the portion of esophagus repaired with skin flaps showed extensive ulceration, polypoid lesions, and fibrosis. Pathology specimens from skin flaps showed extensive acute and chronic inflammation, microabscesses, fibrosis, and acanthosis, with depletion and degeneration of the pilosebaceous units. By contrast, adjacent parts of the esophagus repaired with bowel were widely patent with normal appearing mucosa.Our findings indicate that a bowel flap is durable with good tolerance to gastrointestinal content over long periods, whereas skin flaps often developed morphological changes and could not maintain long-term esophageal function without eventual stricture and dysphagia. We therefore recommend use of bowel flaps for esophageal reconstruction in patients with long life expectancy. PMID:25003411

  16. Morphological Alterations of the Palpebral Conjunctival Epithelium in a Dry Eye Model

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Johanna Tukler; De Paiva, Cintia S.; Farley, William; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Burns, Alan R.; Bergmanson, Jan P.G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the normal palpebral conjunctival histology in C57BL/6 mice, and the structural changes that occur in a dry eye model. Methods 24 male and female C57BL/6 mice, 8 untreated (UT) and 16 exposed to experimental ocular surface desiccating stress (DS). Ocular dryness was induced by administration of scopolamine hydrobromide (0.5 mg/0.2 ml) QID for 5 (DS5) or 10 (DS10) days. Counts and measurements were obtained using anatomical reference points and goblet cell density was investigated with a variety of stains. Results Near the junction between the lid margin and the normal palpebral conjunctiva, the epithelium had an average thickness of 45.6±10.5?m, 8.8±2.0 cell layers, versus 37.7±5.6?m, 7.4±1.3 layers in DS10 (P<0.05). In the goblet cell populated palpebral region the normal epithelium was thicker (P<0.05) than in DS5 and DS10. In the control, 43% of the goblet cells were covered by squamous epithelium, compared to 58% (DS5) and 63% (DS10) (P<0.05). A decreased number of Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) and Alcian blue stained goblet cells was observed in the dry eye. Not all goblet cells stained with PAS and Alcian blue. Conclusions The mouse palpebral conjunctival epithelium was structurally similar to the human. After DS the palpebral conjunctival epithelium decreased in thickness and goblet cell access to the surface appeared to be inhibited by surrounding epithelial cells, potentially slowing down their migration to the surface. Differential staining with PAS and Alcian blue suggests there may be different subtypes of conjunctival goblet cells. PMID:23146932

  17. Management of refractory Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Mukkada, Vincent A.; Furuta, Glenn T.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Whereas most children and adults respond to traditional EoE treatments, such as exclusion of dietary allergens or the use of topical steroids, a small fraction may not. Methods Based on clinical experiences and review of the literature, the aim of this work is to provide practical advice to care for ‘refractory’ patients with EoE. Results The approach to this type of patient continues to evolve and decision-making should consider a number of issues including the patient's age, lack of complete understanding of the natural history of this disease, risks of monitoring and side effects of treatments. Next, one needs to define the term refractory, in that this can refer either to persistent symptoms, or to continued inflammation in the face of presumably effective drug or diet therapy. Before considering alternative treatments, it is important to rule out any other cause of persistent symptoms. For instance, could they be related to an occult esophageal narrowing not identified at the time of endoscopy? Esophagrams may be necessary to identify localized or longitudinal narrowing that could be amenable to dilation. If symptoms and inflammation are persistent and no narrowing is appreciated, an elemental diet can be considered but the long term use of this in older children and adults may be difficult. Prednisone or systemic steroids may be indicated to induce remission but side effects and complications associated with chronic use are limiting. Finally, the use of immunosuppression or biological agents has been reported in case reports and studies; use of these may be limited by side effects or the need to utilize compassionate use protocols. Conclusions As the scope of esophageal eosinophilia continues to evolve, the clinical and molecular characterization of new clinical phenotypes will be important so that new therapeutic targets can be identified. PMID:24603397

  18. Odors Discrimination by Olfactory Epithelium Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingjun; Hu, Ning; Ye, Weiwei; Zhang, Fenni; Wang, Hua; Wang, Ping

    2011-09-01

    Humans are exploring the bionic biological olfaction to sense the various trace components of gas or liquid in many fields. For achieving the goal, we endeavor to establish a bioelectronic nose system for odor detection by combining intact bioactive function units with sensors. The bioelectronic nose is based on the olfactory epithelium of rat and microelectrode array (MEA). The olfactory epithelium biosensor generates extracellular potentials in presence of odor, and presents obvious specificity under different odors condition. The odor response signals can be distinguished with each other effectively by signal sorting. On basis of bioactive MEA hybrid system and the improved signal processing analysis, the bioelectronic nose will realize odor discrimination by the specific feature of signals response to various odors.

  19. Isolated toad skin epithelium: Transport characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Rawlins; L. Mateu; F. Fragachan; G. Whittembury

    1970-01-01

    A procedure that allows areas up to 1 cm2 of the epithelium to be separated from the corium of the toad skin is described. For several hours the preparation maintains the transport characteristics of the isolated intact skin, namely electrical potential differences up to 100 mV (outer side negative) and short-circuit currents up to 80 µAmp\\/cm2, which are equal to

  20. Neurotrophin expression in the adult olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Feron, F; Bianco, J; Ferguson, I; Mackay-Sim, A

    2008-02-27

    Published reports of neurotrophin expression in the olfactory system are incomplete because of missing data and conflicting results. Previous studies used a variety of fixation procedures and antibodies on different species and different ages. The aim of the present study was to examine expression of neurotrophins and their receptors using optimized methodologies: five methods of fixation, multiple antibodies, a variety of immunochemical protocols, and RT-PCR. We show here that (i) transcripts for all neurotrophins and their receptors are found in the adult olfactory epithelium; (ii) all neurotrophins are expressed in the supporting cells and the neuronal layers of the undisturbed adult olfactory epithelium while NT4 is found additionally in the horizontal basal cells; (iii) neurotrophin immunoreactivity required a fixative that included parabenzoquinone (not used in previous studies of olfactory tissue); (iv) TrkB and TrkC are restricted to the globose basal cell and neuron layers while TrkA is found in the horizontal basal cells and in the supporting cells where it co-localizes with the low affinity receptor for NGF (p75NTR). These findings confirm that neurotrophins are produced within the olfactory epithelium, suggesting autocrine and paracrine regulation of olfactory neurogenesis. PMID:18234155

  1. Barrier properties of cultured retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Rizzolo, Lawrence J

    2014-09-01

    The principal function of an epithelium is to form a dynamic barrier that regulates movement between body compartments. Each epithelium is specialized with barrier functions that are specific for the tissues it serves. The apical surface commonly faces a lumen, but the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) appears to be unique by a facing solid tissue, the sensory retina. Nonetheless, there exists a thin (subretinal) space that can become fluid filled during pathology. RPE separates the subretinal space from the blood supply of the outer retina, thereby forming the outer blood-retinal barrier. The intricate interaction between the RPE and sensory retina presents challenges for learning how accurately culture models reflect native behavior. The challenge is heightened by findings that detail the variation of RPE barrier proteins both among species and at different stages of the life cycle. Among the striking differences is the expression of claudin family members. Claudins are the tight junction proteins that regulate ion diffusion across the spaces that lie between the cells of a monolayer. Claudin expression by RPE varies with species and life-stage, which implies functional differences among commonly used animal models. Investigators have turned to transcriptomics to supplement functional studies when comparing native and cultured tissue. The most detailed studies of the outer blood-retinal barrier have focused on human RPE with transcriptome and functional studies reported for human fetal, adult, and stem-cell derived RPE. PMID:24731966

  2. Esophageal cancer as second primary tumor after breast cancer radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatrix Scholl; Ernane D Reis; Abderrahim Zouhair; Igor Chereshnev; Jean-Claude Givel; Michel Gillet

    2001-01-01

    Background: An increased risk of esophageal cancer has been reported in survivors of breast cancer treated with radiotherapy. This study further characterizes this association.Methods: Through hospital databases, 118 patients (109 men, 9 women) treated for esophageal cancer between 1985 and 1993 were identified, of whom 37 had 60 synchronous or metachronous cancers. 5 women had primary esophageal cancer after having

  3. Ultrasonic esophagoprobe for TNM staging of highly stenosing esophageal carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth F. Binmoeller; Hans Seifert; Uwe Seitz; Jakob R. Izbicki; Mitsuhiro Kida; Nib Soehendra

    1995-01-01

    Background: Endosonographic staging of esophageal carcinoma may be limited in one third of cases by tumor stenoses that cannot be traversed with conventional echoendoscopes. We designed and evaluated a new endosonographic instrument (ultrasonic esophagoprobe) for TNM staging of highly stenosing esophageal carcinomas.Methods: Eighty-seven consecutive patients (64 men, mean age 61 years) with highly stenosing esophageal carcinomas were studied with the

  4. Relationship among esophageal dysfunction, diabetic gastroenteropathy, and peripheral neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. O. H. Russell; R. Gannan; J. Coatsworth; R. Neilsen; F. Allen; L. D. Hill; C. E. Pope

    1983-01-01

    Esophageal motor function was tested in 12 patients with a clinical diagnosis of diabetic gastroenteropathy by radionuclide transit (RT) studies. Other insulin-dependent diabetics with and without symptoms of peripheral neuropathy but with no symptoms of gastrointestinal disease were similarly studied. Eleven of the 12 patients with gastroenteropathy were found to have abnormal esophageal function, even though only five had esophageal

  5. Case Report Alendronate-induced Esophagitis in an Elderly Woman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria Gómez; Shu-Yuan Xiao

    Ingestion of alendronate sodium (Fosamax) had been reported to sometimes cause erosive or ulcerative esophagitis. Despite its widespread use and several case reports describing the clinical and endoscopic presentation, there has been limited discussion on the histologic appearances of the esophagitis caused by the medication. Here we describe one case of an elderly woman who presented with alendronate-induced esophagitis. The

  6. Comparative Genomic Hybridization of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    E-print Network

    Lin, Chi-Hung

    Comparative Genomic Hybridization of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Correlations between aberrations of 46 samples of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (EC-SCC) were analyzed by comparative genomic of the Department of Health, Taiwan, Re- public of China), and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (EC

  7. Conservative surgical treatment of reflux esophagitis and esophageal stricture.

    PubMed Central

    Herrington, J L; Wright, R S; Edwards, W H; Sawyers, J L

    1975-01-01

    During a recent 3-year period, 17 consecutive patients were seen with advanced fibrotic esophageal strictures secondary to alkaline-acid-pepsin reflux. From detailed preoperative evaluations alone it was impossible to determine whether therapy should consist of excisional surgery, esophagogastroplasty or intra-operative dilatation with correction of reflux. Only at operation could the length, extent, degree and severity of the stricture be fully determined. Each of the 17 patients was treated by controlled dilatation, coupled with an antireflux procedure. This simplified approach proved successful on strictures thought preoperatively to be undilatable. It appears that this conservative approach is applicable to many advanced strictures and excisional and plastic procedures should be reserved for those cases that prove unyielding to intraoperative dilatation. The true appraisal of a reflux stricture and the choice of surgical procedure is best determined at the operating table. Images Fig. 5A. Fig. 5B. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. Fig. 18. Fig. 19. Fig. 20. Fig. 21. PMID:1130874

  8. Proton Beam Therapy and concurrent chemotherapy for esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Steven H.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Wei, Caimiao; Myles, Bevan; Guo, Xiaomao; Palmer, Matthew; Mohan, Radhe; Swisher, Stephen G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Cox, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a promising modality for the management of thoracic malignancies. We report our preliminary experience of treating esophageal cancer patients with concurrent chemotherapy (CChT) and PBT at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Materials/Methods This is an analysis of 62 esophageal cancer patients enrolled on a prospective study evaluating normal tissue toxicity from CChT/PBT from 2006 to 2010. Patients were treated with Passive Scattering PBT with 2 or 3 field beam arrangement using 180–250 MV protons. We used the method of Kaplan and Meier to assess time to event outcomes and compared the distributions between groups using the log-rank test. Results The median follow-up time was 20.1 months for survivors. The median age was 68 years (range 38–86). Most were males (82%), had adenocarcinomas (76%) and had stage II-III disease (84%). The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gray-Equivalence (Gy(RBE)) (range 36–57.6). The most common grade 2–3 acute toxicities from CChT/PBT were esophagitis (46.8%), fatigue (43.6%), nausea (33.9%), anorexia (30.1%), and radiation dermatitis (16.1%). There were two cases of grade 2 and 3 radiation pneumonitis and two grade 5 toxicities. A total of 29 patients (46.8%) received preoperative CChT/PBT with one postoperative death. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate for the surgical cohort was 28%, and the pCR and near CR rate (0–1% residual cells) was 50%. While there were significantly fewer local-regional recurrences in the preoperative group (3/29) as compared to the definitive CChT/PBT group (16/33) (log-rank test p=0.005), there were no differences in DM free interval or OS between the two groups. Conclusions This is the first report of patients treated with PBT/CChT for esophageal cancer. Our data suggest that this modality is associated with a few severe toxicities but the pathologic response and clinical outcomes are encouraging. Prospective comparison with more traditional approach is warranted. PMID:22417808

  9. FOLFOX-6 Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Esophagectomy and Post-operative Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-16

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastric Cardia; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer

  10. Eosinophilic esophagitis -- clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Lucendo Villarín, A J

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a chronic inflammatory, immunoallergic disease of the esophagus that represents the most common eosinophilic gut disease. Understanding and diagnosis regarding this condition have greatly increased in recent years, particularly in Europe and North America, in parallel with other allergic disorders. It consists of dense esophageal infiltration with eosinophils in the absence of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER). It involves individuals at all ages, and is particularly common in males during childhood and up to the 5th decade of life. It manifests with chronic, intermittent esophageal symptoms that predominantly include dysphagia, food impaction episodes, and GER-attributable complaints that do not respond to antisecretory therapy. Endoscopically, EE is a polymorphous disease that presents with various changes in esophageal caliber, and subtle changes in mucosal appearance, which lead to biopsy collection as a key procedure for diagnosis. Management must be multidisciplinary, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, allergologists, and also nutrition specialists in pediatric cases. Regarding therapy, dietary food restrictions are especially useful in the management of pediatric EE, but effectiveness is lower in the adult, maybe because of a greater involvement of air allergens. Drug use is standard, particularly involving topical steroids, which may revert manifestations and histological lesions, even though recurrence following discontinuation is common. PMID:19335033

  11. Microbiome in Reflux Disorders and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liying; Chaudhary, Noami; Baghdadi, Jonathan; Pei, Zhiheng

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has increased dramatically in the United States and Europe since the 1970s without apparent cause. Although specific host factors can affect risk of disease, such a rapid increase in incidence must be predominantly environmental. In the stomach, infection with Helicobacter pylori has been linked to chronic atrophic gastritis, an inflammatory precursor of gastric adenocarcinoma. However, the role of H. pylori in the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma is not well established. Meanwhile, several studies have established that a complex microbiome in the distal esophagus might play a more direct role. Transformation of the microbiome in precursor states to esophageal adenocarcinoma—reflux esophagitis and Barrett’s metaplasia—from a predominance of gram-positive bacteria to mostly gram-negative bacteria raises the possibility that dysbiosis is contributing to pathogenesis. However, knowledge of the microbiome in esophageal adenocarcinoma itself is lacking. Microbiome studies open a new avenue to the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of reflux disorders. PMID:24855009

  12. Initiation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a murine 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide and alcohol carcinogenesis model.

    PubMed

    Osei-Sarfo, Kwame; Urvalek, Alison M; Tang, Xiao-Han; Scognamiglio, Theresa; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2015-03-20

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) are very common, aggressive tumors, and are often associated with alcohol and tobacco abuse. Because ESCCs exhibit high recurrence rates and are diagnosed at late stages, identification of prognostic and drug targets for prevention and treatment is critical. We used the 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) murine model of oral carcinogenesis and the Meadows-Cook model of alcohol abuse to assess changes in the expression of molecular markers during the initial stages of ESCC. Combining these two models, which mimic chronic alcohol and tobacco abuse in humans, we detected increased cellular proliferation (EGFR and Ki67 expression), increased canonical Wnt signaling and downstream elements (?-catenin, FoxM1, and S100a4 protein levels), changes in cellular adhesive properties (reduced E-cadherin in the basal layer of the esophageal epithelium), and increased levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and p38. Additionally, we found that treatment with ethanol alone increased the numbers of epithelial cells expressing solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter, member 1) (SLC2A1) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), and increased the phosphorylation of p38. Thus, we identified both 4-NQO- and ethanol-specific targets in the initial stages of esophageal carcinogenesis, which should lead to the development of potential markers and therapeutic targets for human ESCC. PMID:25714027

  13. Initiation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a murine 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide and alcohol carcinogenesis model

    PubMed Central

    Osei-Sarfo, Kwame; Scognamiglio, Theresa; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) are very common, aggressive tumors, and are often associated with alcohol and tobacco abuse. Because ESCCs exhibit high recurrence rates and are diagnosed at late stages, identification of prognostic and drug targets for prevention and treatment is critical. We used the 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) murine model of oral carcinogenesis and the Meadows-Cook model of alcohol abuse to assess changes in the expression of molecular markers during the initial stages of ESCC. Combining these two models, which mimic chronic alcohol and tobacco abuse in humans, we detected increased cellular proliferation (EGFR and Ki67 expression), increased canonical Wnt signaling and downstream elements (?-catenin, FoxM1, and S100a4 protein levels), changes in cellular adhesive properties (reduced E-cadherin in the basal layer of the esophageal epithelium), and increased levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and p38. Additionally, we found that treatment with ethanol alone increased the numbers of epithelial cells expressing solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter, member 1) (SLC2A1) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), and increased the phosphorylation of p38. Thus, we identified both 4-NQO- and ethanol-specific targets in the initial stages of esophageal carcinogenesis, which should lead to the development of potential markers and therapeutic targets for human ESCC. PMID:25714027

  14. Transplantation of fetal retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration with subfoveal neovascularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peep V. Algvere; Lennart Berglin; Peter Gouras; Yaohua Sheng

    1994-01-01

    Background: Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is caused by abnormal retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and may be complicated by choroidal neovascularization. The object of treatment would be to replace the diseased RPE with normal human RPE. • Method: Five patients with ARMD (preoperative visual acuity 0.08–0.2) underwent removal of subretinal fibrovascular membranes using pars plana vitrectomy techniques. Human fetal RPE (15–17

  15. Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Associates With Neuropathy and Fibrosis in Pancreatic Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamar Samkharadze; Mert Erkan; Carolin Reiser-Erkan; Ihsan Ekin Demir; Bo Kong; Güralp O Ceyhan; Christoph W Michalski; Irene Esposito; Helmut Friess; Jörg Kleeff

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a noninhibitory member of the serine protease inhibitor gene family with neuroprotective, neuroproliferative, and anti-angiogenic functions. Its role in pancreatic fibrosis and neuropathy is unknown.METHODS:The expression and localization of PEDF were assessed by quantitative real-time (RT)-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative image analysis and correlated with neural and microvessel densities (MVDs) in the normal pancreas (n=20) and

  16. Retinoid Status Controls the Appearance of Reserve Cells and Keratin Expression in Mouse Cervical Epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadine Darwiche; Giulia Celli; Linda Sly; Francesca Lancillotti; Luigi M. De Luca

    We describe an animai model to induce the histogenesis of squamous metaplasia of the cervical columnar epithelium, a condition usually pre ceding cervical neoplasia. This model is based on dietary retinoid deple tion in female mice. Control sibling mice fed the same diet but with all-irans-retinoic acid (at 3 ug\\/g diet) showed the normal endocervical epithelial and glandular columnar morphology,

  17. Disruption of the upper female reproductive tract epithelium by nonoxynol-9.

    PubMed

    Dayal, Molina B; Wheeler, James; Williams, Carmen J; Barnhart, Kurt T

    2003-10-01

    Spermicides containing nonoxynol-9 (N-9) may increase HIV transmission. In women, intravaginal N-9 is found in the uterus shortly after its insertion. Exposure of the female upper reproductive tract to N-9 may alter epithelial integrity, thereby increasing HIV transmission risk. Our goal was to characterize the histological effects of N-9 on uterine epithelium in an animal model. Female mice were exposed to intravaginal or intrauterine Advantage-S (N-9), Replens, K-Y(R) jelly or water. After various exposure times, mice were sacrificed and stained uterine tissue sections were analyzed by a pathologist blinded to treatment.Intravaginal and intrauterine N-9 administration resulted in disruption of uterine epithelium compared to Replens, K-Y jelly or water. N-9 caused rapid (within 10 min), focal, uterine epithelial sloughing and complete epithelial loss within 24 h. Epithelial regeneration began 48 h after exposure N-9 and was completely restored within 72 h; the new epithelial layer, however, was composed of cuboidal cells instead of normally present columnar cells. In addition, hemorrhage and necrosis were present are all time points examined. Our results demonstrate for the first time that N-9 has a deleterious effect on uterine epithelium. Although these results were observed in a mouse model, similar disruption of the upper reproductive tract epithelium in women by N-9 may facilitate HIV infection and serve as an unrecognized portal of human HIV transmission. PMID:14572891

  18. Morphological and Functional Features of Hepatic Cyst Epithelium in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro, Domenico; Onori, Paolo; Alpini, Gianfranco; Franchitto, Antonio; Jefferson, Douglas M.; Torrice, Alessia; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Stefanelli, Fabrizio; Mancino, Maria Grazia; Strazzabosco, Mario; Angelico, Mario; Attili, Adolfo; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the morphological and functional features of hepatic cyst epithelium in adult autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In six ADPKD patients, we investigated the morphology of cyst epithelium apical surface by scanning electron microscopy and the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF1 receptors (IGF1-R), growth hormone receptor, the proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and pAKT by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Proliferation of liver cyst-derived epithelial cells was evaluated by both MTS proliferation assay and [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA. The hepatic cyst epithelium displayed heterogeneous features, being normal in small cysts (<1 cm), characterized by rare or shortened cilia in 1- to 3-cm cysts, and exhibiting the absence of both primary cilia and microvilli in large cysts (>3 cm). Cyst epithelium showed marked immunohistochemical expression of ER, growth hormone receptor, IGF1, IGF1-R, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and pAKT. IGF1 was 10-fold more enriched in the hepatic cyst fluid than in serum. Serum-deprived liver cyst-derived epithelial cells proliferated when exposed to 17?-estradiol and IGF1 and when exposed to human cyst fluid. ER or IGF1-R antagonists inhibited the proliferative effect of serum readmission, cyst fluid, 17?-estradiol, and IGF1. Our findings could explain the role of estrogens in accelerating the progression of ADPKD and may suggest a potential benefit of therapeutic strategies based on estrogen antagonism. PMID:18202196

  19. Comparative properties of untreated and N -nitrosobenzylmethyl-amine-transformed rat esophageal epithelial cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary D. Stoner; Merrill S. Babcock; Maureen M. Mc Corquodale; William T. Gunning; Roubadeh Jamasbi; Neilma Budd; Bharati Hukku

    1989-01-01

    Summary  A culture system utilizing rat esophageal epithelial cells has been developed. Four normal and eightN-nitrosobenzylmethylamine-treated lines were compared with respect to chromosome number, anchorage-independent growth in agarose,\\u000a and tumorigenic potential in syngenic rats. All cell lines were aneuploid with nine in the near-tetraploid range and three\\u000a in the near-diploid range. No relation between tumorigenic potential and chromosome number or structure

  20. Herpetic esophagitis in immunocompetent medical student.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Andréia Vidica; Bonfim, Vinícius Mendes; de Alencar, Luciana Rodrigues; Pinto, Sebastião Alves; de Araújo Filho, João Alves

    2014-01-01

    Esophagitis caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) is often documented during periods of immunosuppression in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); it is rare in immunocompetent diagnosed patients. Case reports of herpetic esophagitis in students of health sciences are extremely rare. The disease presents with a clinical picture characterized by acute odynophagia and retrosternal pain without obvious causes and ulcers, evidenced endoscopically in the middistal esophagus. Diagnosis depends on endoscopy, biopsies for pathology studies, and immunohistochemistry techniques. The disease course is often benign; however, treatment with acyclovir speeds the disappearance of symptoms and limits the severity of infection. In this report, we present a case of herpetic esophagitis in an immunocompetent medical student, with reference to its clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment. The disease may have manifested as a result of emotional stress experienced by the patient. PMID:24707416

  1. Advances in clinical management of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Dellon, Evan S; Liacouras, Chris A

    2014-12-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune/antigen-mediated clinicopathologic condition that has become an increasingly important cause of upper gastrointestinal morbidity in adults and children over the past 2 decades. It is diagnosed based on symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, the presence of at least 15 eosinophils/high-power field in esophageal biopsy specimens, and exclusion of competing causes of esophageal eosinophilia, including proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. We review what we have recently learned about the clinical aspects of EoE, discussing the clinical, endoscopic, and histological features of EoE in adults and children. We explain the current diagnostic criteria and challenges to diagnosis, including the role of gastroesophageal reflux disease and proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. It is also important to consider the epidemiology of EoE (with a current incidence of 1 new case per 10,000 per year and prevalence of 0.5 to 1 case per 1000 per year) and disease progression. We review the main treatment approaches and new treatment options; EoE can be treated with topical corticosteroids, such as fluticasone and budesonide, or dietary strategies, such as amino acid-based formulas, allergy test-directed elimination diets, and nondirected empiric elimination diets. Endoscopic dilation has also become an important tool for treatment of fibrostenotic complications of EoE. There are a number of unresolved issues in EoE, including phenotypes, optimal treatment end points, the role of maintenance therapy, and treatment of refractory EoE. The care of patients with EoE and the study of the disease span many disciplines; EoE is ideally managed by a multidisciplinary team of gastroenterologists, allergists, pathologists, and dieticians. PMID:25109885

  2. Volume regulation and basolateral co-transport of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions in frog skin epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans H. Ussing

    1985-01-01

    Frog skin epithelium, which is normally almost tight to chloride, acquires a basolateral leakiness to chloride during osmotic swelling. By measuring the epithelial thickness (volume) after equilibration first with half thiocyanate Ringer, and then full thiocyanate Ringer, one obtains the chloride-free volume. Partial or full recovery of the volume and cellular chloride concentration occurs only when the inside of the

  3. Elevated DNA polymerase iota (Poli) is involved in the acquisition of aggressive phenotypes of human esophageal squamous cell cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Haoyao; Zou, Shitao; Zhang, Shuyu; Liu, Biao; Meng, Xingjun; Li, Xiaoqing; Yu, Jian; Wu, Jinchang; Zhou, Jundong

    2015-01-01

    DNA polymerase iota (Pol?) can repair several types of DNA damage but has extremely low fidelity. Previous studies have shown an aberrantly elevated Pol? expression in human esophageal squamous cell cancer tissues. However, there were few reports describing the role of Pol? in esophageal cancer progression. Based on Real-time PCR assay, we found Pol? expression was up-regulated in esophageal cancer tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues and overexpression of Pol? was correlated to lymph node metastasis. Clonogenic assay and transwell chamber assay showed that overexpression of Pol? had higher clongenic capability and invasive tendency in human esophageal squamous cell cancer cells. Expression of cyclin D1, an important cell cycle regulator, was found to be associated with that of Pol? in tissue samples and cancer cells as analyzed by real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and imunofluorescence assay. Flow cytometry analysis further showed that cell cycle distribution was altered in Pol? overexpressing cells. These results indicated that expression of Pol? correlates significantly with tumor proliferation and invasion. We conclude that Pol? is involved in the degree of aggressiveness of human esophageal squamous cell cancer. PMID:26097541

  4. Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: distinguishing features from gastroesophageal reflux disease: a study of 41 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy R Parfitt; James C Gregor; Neville G Suskin; Hani A Jawa; David K Driman

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults is a recently described entity occurring in young males with dysphagia, in whom esophageal biopsies show eosinophilic infiltration. This study defines the clinical and histological features of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, distinguishing it from gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal biopsies from patients with dysphagia or esophagitis were reviewed blindly, and assessed for: epithelial eosinophil counts, presence of

  5. Epithelium and Associated Lymphocytes of Developing Human Fetal Appendix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack L. Haar

    1977-01-01

    The epithelium and lamina propria of the human fetal appendix between 7.5 and 18 weeks of gestation was examined with electron microscopy. At 7.5 weeks the epithelium was composed of stratified columnar cells; scattered mesenchymal cells appeared in the lamina propria. By 13.5 weeks of gestation the epithelium was composed of simple columnar cells with a microvillous surface, goblet cells

  6. Inter-observer Variability in Esophageal Body Measurements with High Resolution Manometry among New Physician Users

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Erick; Rife, Christopher; Clayton, Steven; Naas, Peter; Nietert, Paul; Castell, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Goals To evaluate inter-observer variability among four new physician users on measures of esophageal body function. Background Esophageal high resolution manometry (HRM) allows observation of esophageal motility via pressure topography plots. Little is known about the inter-observer variability among physicians. Study Two resident and two fellow level physicians each interpreted 10 liquid swallows of 20 esophageal HRM studies (n=200 swallows) using the BioVIEW Analysis Suite (Sandhill Scientific, Inc.). Studies evaluated were from patients referred for evaluation of dysphagia but found to have normal esophageal manometry and complete liquid bolus transit. Physicians received an orientation session and reviewed recent literature. Each physician recorded contractile front velocity (CFV) and distal contractile integral (DCI) for each liquid swallow. STATISTICS: Inter-observer agreements for CFV and DCI were assessed by intraclass correlation (ICC) values. Linear correlations between measurements by two readers were assessed using linear regression modeling techniques. Results CFV and DCI values of up to 200 data points were analyzed. Four reader results for CFV and DCI showed strong agreement although stronger for DCI measures (ICC=0.94; 0.91 - 0.98) in comparison to CFV (ICC=0.79; 0.52 - 0.82). Further correlation was performed with two readers; readers 1 and 2 revealed excellent correlation for DCI (r=0.95, p<0.001) and good correlation for CFV (r=0.61, p<0.001). Conclusions With a thorough orientation session, good to excellent agreement for CFV and DCI measurements can be obtained from new physician users. CFV measures exhibit greater inter-observer variability possibly due to the artifact produced by intraesophageal pressurization. PMID:22647828

  7. IgG4-Related Esophageal Disease Presenting as Esophagitis Dissecans Superficialis With Chronic Strictures.

    PubMed

    Dumas-Campagna, Myriam; Bouchard, Simon; Soucy, Genevieve; Bouin, Mickael

    2014-08-01

    IgG4-related disease is a recently recognized autoimmune systemic disorder that has been described in various organs. The disease is characterized histologically by a dense lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate of IgG4-positive cells, storiform fibrosis and can be associated with tumefactive lesions. IgG4-related disease involving the upper gastrointestinal tract is rare and only two previous case reports have reported IgG4-related esophageal disease. We report the case of a 63-year-old female patient with a long-standing history of severe dysphagia and odynophagia with an initial diagnosis of reflux esophagitis. Symptoms persisted despite anti-acid therapy and control esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed endoscopic images consistent with esophagitis dissecans superficialis (sloughing esophagitis). An underlying autoimmune process was suspected and immunosuppressant agents were tried to control her disease. The patient eventually developed disabling dysphagia secondary to multiple chronic esophageal strictures. A diagnosis of IgG4-related disease was eventually made after reviewing esophageal biopsies and performing an immunohistochemical study with an anti-IgG4 antibody. Treatment attempts with corticosteroids and rituximab was not associated with a significant improvement of the symptoms of dysphagia and odynophagia, possibly because of the chronic nature of the disease associated with a high fibrotic component. Our case report describes this unique case of IgG4-related esophageal disease presenting as chronic esophagitis dissecans with strictures. We also briefly review the main histopathological features and treatment options in IgG4-related disease. PMID:24883156

  8. Clinical features of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Miehlke, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) may affect individuals at any age with a predominance for Caucasian males. The clinical manifestation of EoE is strongly age dependent. While dysphagia and food impaction are typical lead symptoms in adults and adolescents, infants often present with unspecific symptoms such as feeding problems, abdominal pain and vomiting. Some EoE patients may also experience heartburn. Therefore, EoE should always be considered in cases of heartburn refractory to antireflux therapy. Concomitant allergic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis and eczema are prevalent. Peripheral eosinophilia and elevated total serum IgE values are found in up to 50 and 70% of cases, respectively. Endoscopic features of EoE are variable and none of them is pathognomonic. Frequent findings are mucosal edema, furrows, exudates and corrugated rings. These endoscopic abnormalities have high specificities (90-95%), but low sensitivities (15-48%). A novel grading and classification system for the endoscopic assessment of EoE has been proposed which includes fixed rings, exudates, furrows and edema as major features. This classification system demonstrated good interobserver agreement among pediatric and adult gastroenterologists, and presents a useful tool to standardize endoscopic assessments and to further investigate the relation between endoscopic manifestation, clinical activity and response to treatment in EoE. Long-term follow-up studies have shown that EoE is a chronic disease causing recurrent dysphagia in the majority of cases. The prevalence of strictures significantly increases with the duration of disease, which stresses the importance of early diagnosis and consequent treatment of EoE. PMID:24603382

  9. Supragastric Belching: Prevalence and Association With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Esophageal Hypomotility

    PubMed Central

    Koukias, Nikolaos; Woodland, Philip; Yazaki, Etsuro; Sifrim, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Supragastric belching (SGB) is a phenomenon during which air is sucked into the esophagus and then rapidly expelled through the mouth. Patients often complain of severely impaired quality of life. Our objective was to establish the prevalence of excessive SGB within a high-volume gastrointestinal physiology unit, and evaluate its association with symptoms, esophageal motility and gastresophageal reflux disease. Methods We established normal values for SGB by analyzing 24-hour pH-impedance in 40 healthy asymptomatic volunteers. We searched 2950 consecutive patient reports from our upper GI Physiology Unit (from 2010–2013) for SGB. Symptoms were recorded by a standardized questionnaire evaluating for reflux, dysphagia, and dyspepsia symptoms. We reviewed the predominant symptoms, 24-hour pH-impedance and high-resolution esophageal manometry results. Results Excessive SGB was defined as > 13 per 24 hours. We identified 100 patients with excessive SGB. Ninety-five percent of these patients suffered from typical reflux symptoms, 86% reported excessive belching, and 65% reported dysphagia. Forty-one percent of patients with excessive SGB had pathological acid reflux. Compared to the patients with normal acid exposure these patients trended towards a higher number of SGB episodes. Forty-four percent of patients had esophageal hypomotility. Patients with hypomotility had a significantly higher frequency of SGB compared to those with normal motility (118.3 ± 106.1 vs 80.6 ± 75.7, P = 0.020). Conclusions Increased belching is rarely a symptom in isolation. Pathological acid exposure and hypomotility are associated with more SGB frequency. Whether SGB is a disordered response to other esophageal symptoms or their cause is unclear. PMID:26130635

  10. Phenotypes and clinical context of hypercontractility in high resolution esophageal pressure topography (EPT)

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Sabine; Pandolfino, John E; Chen, Joan; Boris, Lubomyr; Luger, Daniel; Kahrilas, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds & Aims This study aimed to refine the criteria for esophageal hypercontractility in high resolution esophageal pressure topography (EPT) and examine the clinical context in which it occurs. Subjects & Methods 72 control subjects were used to define the threshold for hypercontractility as a distal contractile integral (DCI) greater than observed in normals. 2,000 consecutive EPT studies were reviewed to find patients exceeding this threshold. Concomitant EPT and clinical variables were explored. Results The greatest DCI value observed in any swallow among the control subjects was 7,732 mmHg-s-cm; the threshold for hypercontractility was established as a swallow with DCI >8,000 mmHg-s-cm. 44 patients were identified with a median maximal DCI of 11,077 mmHg-s-cm, all with normal contractile propagation and normal distal contractile latency, thereby excluding achalasia and distal esophageal spasm. Hypercontractility was associated with multipeaked contractions in 82% of instances leading to the name Jackhammer Esophagus . Dysphagia was the dominant symptom although subsets of patients had hypercontractility in the context of EGJ outflow obstruction, reflux disease, or as an apparent primary motility disorder. Conclusion We describe an extreme phenotype of hypercontractility characterized in EPT by the occurrence of at least a single contraction with DCI > 8,000 mmHg-s-cm, a value not encountered in control subjects. This phenomenon, branded Jackhammer Esophagus was usually accompanied by dysphagia and occurred both in association with other esophageal pathology (EGJ outflow obstruction, reflux disease) or as an isolated motility disturbance. Further studies are required to define the pathophysiology and treatment of this disorder. PMID:21931377

  11. Detection of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Cathepsin B Activity in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wei; Ma, Lie; Zhe, Hong; Bao, Cihang; Wang, Nana; Yang, Shaoqi; Wang, Kai; Cao, Fangli; Cheng, Yanna; Cheng, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Despite great progress in treatment, the prognosis for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains poor, highlighting the importance of early detection. Although upper endoscopy can be used for the screening of esophagus, it has limited sensitivity for early stage disease. Thus, development of new diagnosis approach to improve diagnostic capabilities for early detection of ESCC is an important need. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using cathepsin B (CB) as a novel imaging target for the detection of human ESCC by near-infrared optical imaging in nude mice. Methods Initially, we examined specimens from normal human esophageal tissue, intraepithelial neoplasia lesions, tumor in situ, ESCC and two cell lines including one human ESCC cell line (Eca-109) and one normal human esophageal epithelial cell line (HET-1A) for CB expression by immunohistochemistry and western blot, respectively. Next, the ability of a novel CB activatable near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) probe detecting CB activity presented in Eca-109 cells was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. We also performed in vivo imaging of tumor bearing mice injected with the CB probe and ex vivo imaging of resected tumor xenografts and visceral organs using a living imaging system. Finally, the sources of fluorescence signals in tumor tissue and CB expression in visceral organs were identified by histology. Results CB was absent in normal human esophageal mucosa, but it was overexpressed in ESCC and its precursor lesions. The novel probe for CB activity specifically detected ESCC xenografts in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions CB was highly upregulated in human ESCC and its precursor lesions. The elevated CB expression in ESCC allowed in vivo and in vitro detection of ESCC xenografts in nude mice. Our results support the usefulness of CB activity as a potential imaging target for the detection of human ESCC. PMID:24618814

  12. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Interactions with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Edaire; Souza, Rhonda F.; Spechler, Stuart Jon

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Early authorities on eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) deemed it crucial to distinguish this disorder from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, it has become clear that GERD and EoE are not mutually exclusive disorders, and that their interactions can be complex. The notion that GERD and EoE can be distinguished by the response to PPI treatment is based on the assumption that gastric acid suppression is the only important therapeutic effect of PPIs, and therefore only GERD can respond to PPIs. This assumption appears to be incorrect for two major reasons. First, there are multiple mechanisms whereby PPI-induced acid reduction might benefit patients with EoE. Second, PPIs have acid-independent, anti-inflammatory effects that might be beneficial both for GERD and for EoE. Since the PPIs have multiple effects that might benefit both diseases, for patients who have esophageal symptoms and esophageal eosinophilia, we feel that a clinical and/or histological response to PPIs does not rule in GERD, and does not rule out EoE. However, we do recommend a trial of PPI therapy for patients with symptomatic esophageal eosinophilia, even if the diagnosis of EoE seems clear-cut. PMID:24813513

  13. Esophageal cancer revealing a tracheal diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Miao; Wang, Heng; Wu, Wen-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Tracheal diverticulum is a benign entity characterized by single or multiple invaginations of the tracheal wall, and is rarely encountered in clinical practice but frequently in postmortem examination as an incidental finding. Its combination with esophageal cancer is extremely rare. In this case report, we present a patient with these two lesions and analyze their correlation. PMID:25973258

  14. Esophageal function testing: beyond manometry and impedance.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Ravinder K

    2014-10-01

    Manometry and impedance provide only surrogate information regarding longitudinal wall function and are focused on contractile amplitude and lumen content. Ultrasound imaging provides a unique perspective of esophageal function by providing important information regarding longitudinal muscle contraction. Laser Doppler assessment of perfusion may be an important complementary tool to assess abnormal wall blood perfusion as a possible mechanism of pain. PMID:25216911

  15. Eosinophilic esophagitis: asthma of the esophagus?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AMINDRA S. ARORA; Kiyoshi Yamazaki

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is rapidly emerging as a distinct disease entity in both pediatric and adult gastroenterology. The typical clinical presentation includes solid food dysphagia in young men who have an atopic predisposition. Food impaction necessitating endoscopic intervention is common. EE should be suspected, in particular, in patients with unexplained dysphagia or those with no response to antacid or anti-acid

  16. Histomorphological and Immunophenotypic Features of Pill-Induced Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Hwan; Kim, Won; Lee, Kook Lae; Byeon, Sun-ju; Choi, Euno; Chang, Mee Soo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate histomorphological and immunophenotypic features in pill-induced esophagitis. We comparatively evaluated the histomorphological, immunophenotypic features of pill-induced esophagitis vs. reflux esophagitis, as well as clinical information and endoscopic findings. Fifty-two tissue pieces from 22 cases of pill-induced esophagitis, 46 pieces from 20 reflux esophagitis, and 16 pieces from 14 control samples were subjected to immunohistochemistry for inflammatory infiltrates (CD3 for T lymphocyte, CD20 for B lymphocyte, CD56 for NK cell, CD68 for macrophage, CD117 for mast cell) and eosinophil chemotaxis-associated proteins (Erk, leptin, leptin receptor, pSTAT3, phospho-mTOR). As a result, Histomorphology showed that a diffuse pattern of dilated intercellular spaces was more frequently observed in pill-induced esophagitis, while reactive atypia and subepithelial papillary elongation were more often found in reflux esophagitis (P < 0.05, respectively). Interestingly, intraepithelial eosinophilic microabscess, intraepithelial pustule and diffuse pattern of dilated intercellular spaces were observed in 14% (3 cases), 9% (2 cases) and 32% (7 cases) of pill-induced esophagitis, respectively, but in no cases of reflux esophagitis. Regarding intraepithelial inflammatory infiltrates in pill-induced esophagitis, T lymphocytes were the most common cells, followed by eosinophil; 11 and 7 in one x400 power field, respectively. Intraepithelial pSTAT3-positive pattern was more frequently observed in pill-induced esophagitis than in reflux esophagitis, at 45% (10 cases) versus 10% (2 cases), respectively (P < 0.05). Considering the distal esophageal lesion only, intraepithelial pustule, diffuse dilated intercellular spaces and stromal macrophages were more frequently found in distal pill-induced esophagitis, whereas reactive atypia and intraepithelial mast cells in reflux esophagitis (P < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, diffuse dilated intercellular spaces, intraepithelial eosinophil microabscess, pustule, T lymphocytes, eosinophils, and pSTAT3 positivity can be added to histopathological features of pill-induced esophagitis, other than non-specific ulcer. Besides, distal pill-induced esophagitis may be histopathologically differentiated from reflux esophagitis. PMID:26047496

  17. Directional Secretomes Reflect Polarity-Specific Functions in an In Vitro Model of Human Bronchial Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Sankoorikal, Binu-John V.; Johnson, Eric; Seneviratne, Angelo N.; Zurko, Jessica; Brown, Kristy J.; Hathout, Yetrib; Rose, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    The polarity of the conducting airway epithelium is responsible for its directional secretion. This is an essential characteristic of lung integrity and function that dictates interactions between the external environment (apical) and subepithelial structures (basolateral). Defining the directional secretomes in the in vitro human bronchial epithelial (HBE) differentiated model could bring valuable insights into lung biology and pulmonary diseases. Normal primary HBE cells (n = 3) were differentiated into respiratory tract epithelium. Apical and basolateral secretions (24 h) were processed for proteome profiling and pathway analysis. A total of 243 proteins were identified in secretions from all HBE cultures combined. Of these, 51% were classified as secreted proteins, including true secreted proteins (36%) and exosomal proteins (15%). Close examination revealed consistent secretion of 69 apical proteins and 13 basolateral proteins and differential secretion of 25 proteins across all donors. Expression of Annexin A4 in apical secretions and Desmoglein-2 in basolateral secretions was validated using Western blot or ELISA in triplicate independent experiments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study defining apical and basolateral secretomes in the in vitro differentiated HBE model. The data demonstrate that epithelial polarity directs protein secretion with different patterns of biological processes to the apical and basolateral surfaces that are consistent with normal bronchial epithelium homeostatic functions. Applying this in vitro directional secretome model to lung diseases may elucidate their molecular pathophysiology and help define potential therapeutic targets. PMID:24010916

  18. Does surgery correct esophageal motor dysfunction in gastroesophageal reflux

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.O.; Pope, C.E.; Gannan, R.M.; Allen, F.D.; Velasco, N.; Hill, L.D.

    1981-09-01

    The high incidence of dysphagia in patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (GER) but no evidence of peptic stricture suggests esophageal motor dysfunction. Conventional methods for detecting dysfunction (radiologic and manometric examinations) often fail to detect abnormality in these patients. Radionuclide transit (RT), a new method for detecting esophageal motor dysfunction, was used to prospectively assess function in 29 patients with symptomatic GER uncomplicated by stricture before and three months after antireflux surgery (HILL). The preoperative incidence of dysphagia and esophageal dysfunction was 73% and 52%, respectively. During operation (Hill repair), intraoperative measurement of the lower esophageal sphincter pressure was performed and the LESP raised to levels between 45 and 55 mmHg. The preoperative lower esophageal sphincter pressure was raised from a mean of 8.6 mmHg, to mean of 18.5 mmHg after operation. No patient has free reflux after operation. Postoperative studies on 20 patients demonstrated persistence of all preoperative esophageal dysfunction despite loss of dysphagia. RT has demonstrated a disorder of esophageal motor function in 52% of patients with symptomatic GER that may be responsible for impaired esophageal clearance. This abnormality is not contraindication to surgery. The results indicate that construction of an effective barrier to reflex corrects symptoms of reflux, even in the presence of impaired esophageal transit. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test for assessment of esophageal function.

  19. Non-invasive Predictors of Esophageal Varices

    PubMed Central

    Cherian, Jijo V.; Deepak, Nandan; Ponnusamy, Rajesh Prabhu; Somasundaram, Aravindh; Jayanthi, V.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim: Current guidelines recommend screening cirrhotic patients with an endoscopy to detect esophageal varices and to institute prophylactic measures in patients with large esophageal varices. In this study, we aimed at identifying non-endoscopic parameters that could predict the presence and grades of esophageal varices. Patients and Methods: In a prospective study, 229 newly diagnosed patients with liver cirrhosis, without a history of variceal bleeding, were included. Demographic, clinical, biochemical and ultrasonographic parameters were recorded. Esophageal varices were classified as small and large, at endoscopy. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were done to identify independent predictors for the presence and grades of varices. Results: Of the 229 patients (141 males; median age 42 years; range 17-73 years) with liver cirrhosis, 97 (42.3%) had small and 81 (35.4%) had large varices. On multivariate analysis, low platelet count (Odd’s Ratio [OR], 4.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-14.9), Child Pugh class B/C (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.8-6.3), spleen diameter (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.6-11.9) and portal vein diameter (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-5.3) were independent predictors for the presence of varices. Likewise, for the presence of large esophageal varices, low platelet count (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-5.2), Child Pugh class B/C (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.3-6.5) and spleen diameter (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.6-6.0) were the independent risk factors. Conclusion: The presence and higher grades of varices can be predicted by a low platelet count, Child-Pugh class B/C and spleen diameter. These may be considered as non-endoscopic predictors for the diagnosis and management of large grade varices. PMID:21196656

  20. Serological identification of TROP2 by recombinant cDNA expression cloning using sera of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Kazue; Shimada, Hideaki; Ochiai, Takenori; Kuboshima, Mari; Kuroiwa, Namiko; Okazumi, Shinichi; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Nomura, Fumio; Takiguchi, Masaki; Hiwasa, Takaki

    2004-12-20

    We applied serological analysis of recombinant cDNA expression libraries (SEREX) to cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to identify tumor antigens. One of the clones identified was TROP2, which is known as calcium signal transducer. To evaluate the clinical significance of serum anti-TROP2 antibodies (s-TROP2-Abs) in patients with esophageal SCC, the presence of s-TROP2-Abs was analyzed by Western blotting using bacterially expressed TROP2 protein. We found that 23 of 75 (31%) patients were positive for s-TROP2-Abs. Positivity in terms of s-TROP2-Abs showed a significant association with tumor size but not with other clinicopathological features. The protein expression levels of TROP2 were much higher in esophageal SCC cell lines as compared to those in normal esophageal mucosa and its immortalized cells although the mRNA expression levels were not necessarily elevated in malignant cell lines and tissues. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the expression of TROP2 protein in esophageal SCC specimens was noticeably higher than that found in mild hyperplasia of esophageal mucosae. Thus, s-TROP2-Abs seemed useful in the diagnosis of SCC and may be a candidate for serum tumor markers. PMID:15386348

  1. [Acid and non-acid gastro-esophageal reflux in newborns. Preliminar results using intraluminal impedance].

    PubMed

    López Alonso, M; Moya, M J; Cabo, J A; Ribas, J; Macías, M C; Silny, J; Sifrim, D

    2005-07-01

    Preterm infants present often Gastroesophageal refluxes (GER). Esophageal pH monitoring to reflux detection is of limited use in this infants because their gastric pH is normally higher than 4 for 90% of the time. Other methods such as the Intraluminal Impedance Technique (MII) technique and the use of micromanometric catheters try to palliate the difficulties for measuring GER by pH monitoring. The aim of this study, in a first step, was to obtain the normal Intraluminal Impedance values on control children and, in a second step, to study the relationship between GER and cardiorespiratory episodes using simultaneous recording of the end-tidal fraction of expired CO2, 02 saturation by pulse-oximetry, respiratory frequency, esophageal impedance and manometry, gastro-esophageal pHmetry, and electrocardiography in selected patients. Data from simultaneous pH and Intraluminal Impedance during 24 hours in 7 control preterms showed 89 acid refluxes, 192 non-acid refluxes, 79.36% of all refluxes reached the proximal esophagus. Therefore the impedance is an innocuous method which opens new horizons in the study of such a common illness as the GER in the preterm infants. PMID:16209372

  2. Oropharyngeal/Esophageal Candidiasis ("Thrush")

    MedlinePLUS

    ... how it can be prevented… Sources of Infection Candida species are normal inhabitants of the mouth, throat… Diagnosis & Testing See your healthcare provider… Treatment & Outcomes Antifungal treatment… Additional Information Resources and publications… ...

  3. Diffuse esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis and nutcracker esophagus in a 54-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Walker, S; Hippéli, R; Goës, R

    1990-02-01

    Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis, which was first described by Mendl et al. in 1960, is characterized by multiple small flask-shaped outpouchings in the esophageal wall. The pseudodiverticula represent dilated excretory ducts of deep mucous glands in the esophagus. The etiology of this rare condition is unknown. Hiatal hernias, gastroesophageal reflux, esophageal strictures, candida esophagitis, herpes esophagitis, diabetes mellitus, and chronic alcoholism have been found associated with intramural pseudodiverticulosis. We report the second case of esophageal hypermotility in intramural pseudodiverticulosis. PMID:2107356

  4. Comparative properties of untreated and N-nitrosobenzylmethyl-amine-transformed rat esophageal epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Stoner, G D; Babcock, M S; McCorquodale, M M; Gunning, W T; Jamasbi, R; Budd, N; Hukku, B

    1989-10-01

    A culture system utilizing rat esophageal epithelial cells has been developed. Four normal and eight N-nitrosobenzylmethylamine-treated lines were compared with respect to chromosome number, anchorage-independent growth in agarose, and tumorigenic potential in syngeneic rats. All cell lines were aneuploid with nine in the near-tetraploid range and three in the near-diploid range. No relation between tumorigenic potential and chromosome number or structure was apparent. Similarly, anchorage-independent growth in agarose did not correlate with tumorigenic potential. Three of the 12 immortalized lines (two carcinogen-treated and 1 untreated) induced well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas in syngeneic rats. These tumors had weak metastatic potentials suggesting that tumorigenic potential and metastatic ability are separately controlled. These cell lines will be useful for the investigation of factors involved in the conversion of immortalized rat esophageal epithelial cell lines to lines of high metastatic potential. PMID:2808222

  5. Challenges and opportunities for tissue-engineering polarized epithelium.

    PubMed

    Paz, Ana C; Soleas, John; Poon, James C H; Trieu, Dennis; Waddell, Thomas K; McGuigan, Alison P

    2014-02-01

    The epithelium is one of the most important tissue types in the body and the specific organization of the epithelial cells in these tissues is important for achieving appropriate function. Since many tissues contain an epithelial component, engineering functional epithelium and understanding the factors that control epithelial maturation and organization are important for generating whole artificial organ replacements. Furthermore, disruption of the cellular organization leads to tissue malfunction and disease; therefore, engineered epithelium could provide a valuable in vitro model to study disease phenotypes. Despite the importance of epithelial tissues, a surprisingly limited amount of effort has been focused on organizing epithelial cells into artificial polarized epithelium with an appropriate structure that resembles that seen in vivo. In this review, we provide an overview of epithelial tissue organization and highlight the importance of cell polarization to achieve appropriate epithelium function. We next describe the in vitro models that exist to create polarized epithelium and summarize attempts to engineer artificial epithelium for clinical use. Finally, we highlight the opportunities that exist to translate strategies from tissue engineering other tissues to generate polarized epithelium with a functional structure. PMID:23789630

  6. Pendrin immunoreactivity in the gill epithelium of a euryhaline elasmobranch

    E-print Network

    Evans, David H.

    Pendrin immunoreactivity in the gill epithelium of a euryhaline elasmobranch PETER M. PIERMARINI,1. Evans. Pendrin immunoreactivity in the gill epithelium of a euryhaline elasmobranch. Am J Physiol Regul immunoreactivity was present in the gills of a euryhaline elasmobranch (Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina), and 2

  7. Origin of Ameloblastoma From Basal Cells of the Oral Epithelium- Establishing the Relation Using Neuroectodermal Markers

    PubMed Central

    Suneela, S; Narayan, T V; Shreedhar, Balasundari; Mohanty, Leeky; Shenoy, Sadhana; Swaminathan, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Basal cell layer of the oral epithelium has been rightfully regarded as a potential source of odontogenic tumours and cysts, but, without substantial evidence. Also, whether the basal cell layer retains within it, some properties of ectomesenchyme, which was imbibed during the early embryogenesis and hence its neuroectodermal relation, is not known. Here, an attempt is made to establish the hidden neuroectodermal potential of the oral epithelium, especially the basal layer, by observing the expression of known neuroectodermal markers, NSE (Neuron Specific Enolase), Synaptophysin and CD99. The expression of the same markers has also been studied in Ameloblastoma, connecting it with oral epithelium, in turn establishing basal cell layer as a potential source of Ameloblastoma. Materials and Methods: Sections of formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue samples of 20 cases of Ameloblastoma and 10 cases of Normal Retromolar mucosa, were stained immunohistochemically with NSE, Synaptophysin, CD99 and also with CK-19 and evaluated for positive expression. Results: Positive reaction was obtained in all the cases of Ameloblastoma and NRM (Normal Retromolar mucosa) with NSE, all the cases of Ameloblastoma and eight cases of NRM with Synaptophysin and in six cases of Ameloblastoma and NRM with CD99. The staining was diffuse and more marked in case of NSE than Synaptophysin and CD99. CK19 staining done to assure that the tissue antigenicity was maintained was positive in all the samples. Interpretation and Conclusion: A strong relationship between the neuroectoderm, Ameloblastoma and the basal layer of the oral epithelium is established by the study. It favours the hypothesis that the basal cell layer of oral mucosa may be the sought out culprit in most cases of the Ameloblastomas, especially those occurring in the non-tooth bearing area. This would call for the need to incorporate additional therapy in the form of mucosal striping along with the conventional treatment. PMID:25478446

  8. Barrier function of airway tract epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Shyamala; Comstock, Adam T; Sajjan, Uma S

    2013-01-01

    Airway epithelium contributes significantly to the barrier function of airway tract. Mucociliary escalator, intercellular apical junctional complexes which regulate paracellular permeability and antimicrobial peptides secreted by the airway epithelial cells are the three primary components of barrier function of airway tract. These three components act cooperatively to clear inhaled pathogens, allergens and particulate matter without inducing inflammation and maintain tissue homeostasis. Therefore impairment of one or more of these essential components of barrier function may increase susceptibility to infection and promote exaggerated and prolonged innate immune responses to environmental factors including allergens and pathogens resulting in chronic inflammation. Here we review the regulation of components of barrier function with respect to chronic airways diseases. PMID:24665407

  9. Robot assisted thoracoscopic resection of giant esophageal leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Compean, Steven D.; Gaur, Puja; Kim, Min P.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Esophageal leiomyoma represents the most common benign esophageal tumor. Robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery has provided ability to remove it successfully using a minimally invasive approach. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 63-year old female with history of chronic chest pain presented with an esophageal mass on chest CT and endoscopic ultrasound. Robot-assisted surgery was performed using three robot arms, a camera and an assistant port. A 10 cm leiomyoma was enucleated and removed through a 2 cm myotomy. Completion endoscopy confirmed integrity of the esophagus. Patient's chest pain resolved postoperatively, and she was discharged on postoperative day 3. DISCUSSION Our case describes successful removal of the giant esophageal leiomyoma (10 cm) by robot assisted minimally invasive resection through a 2 cm myotomy. CONCLUSION Use of robot allows for removal of large esophageal leiomyoma. The improved dexterity and patient outcome offered by robot suggests its potential as the mainstay technique for giant esophageal leiomyoma removal. PMID:25460487

  10. [Current status of nuclear medicine. Clinical application of FDG-PET for cancer diagnosis. Esophageal cancer].

    PubMed

    Noboru, Oriuchi

    2002-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is a tool for the imaging and evaluation of glucose metabolism. This technique has recently become available in more than thirty hospitals and has been approved under Japan's national health insurance program. FDG uptake correlates with glucose utilization in tissue and is widely used for evaluating malignant tumors as well as brain function and myocardial viability. FDG-PET is useful for the diagnosis of lung cancer, colon cancer, esophageal cancer, malignant lymphoma, malignant melanoma, head and neck cancer, myocardial viability, and epileptic focus. A brief summary of the application and utility of FDG-PET for esophageal carcinoma is described in this article. Because of its limited spatial resolution, FDG-PET is not able to evaluate the invasiveness of primary tumors and small lesions. However, the uptake of FDG correlates with the aggressiveness of the tumor and the prognosis of patients with esophageal carcinoma. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of lymph node staging is higher than that with CT. FDG-PET has the advantage of being able to detect distant metastases on a single occasion. Evaluation of the response to therapy and of recurrence is also possible by means of FDG-PET. There is some normal uptake and physiological distribution of FDG in many organs. Physiological status has an effect on the uptake of FDG in normal organs, and, consequently, on lesion uptake. Understanding of these characteristics makes this procedure a useful diagnostic modality for the management of patients with esophageal carcinoma. PMID:12073632

  11. Multi-susceptibility genes associated with the risk of the development stages of esophageal squamous cell cancer in Feicheng County

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of multi-genotype polymorphisms with the stepwise progression of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) and the possibility of predicting those at higher risk. Methods A total of 1,004 subjects were recruited from Feicheng County, China, between Jan. 2004 and Dec. 2007 and examined by endoscopy for esophageal lesions. These subjects included 270 patients with basal cell hyperplasia (BCH), 262 patients with esophageal squamous cell dysplasia (ESCD), 226 patients with ESCC, and 246 controls with Lugol-voiding area but diagnosed as having normal esophageal squamous epithelial cells by histopathology. The genotypes for CYP2E1 G1259C, hOGG1 C326G, MTHFR C677T, MPO G463A, and ALDH2 allele genes were identified in blood samples collected from all participants. Results The alleles ALDH2 and MTHFR C677T were critical for determining individual susceptibility to esophageal cancer. Compared to the ALDH 1*1 genotype, the ALDH 2*2 genotype was significantly associated with increased risks of BCH, ESCD, and ESCC. However, the TT genotype of MTHFR C677T only increased the risk of ESCC. Further analysis revealed that the combination of the high-risk genotypes 2*2/1*2 of ALDH 2 and TT/TC of MTHFR C677T increased the risk of BCH by 4.0 fold, of ESCD by 3.7 fold, and ESSC by 8.72 fold. The generalized odds ratio (ORG) of the two combined genotypes was 1.83 (95%CI: 1.55-2.16), indicating a strong genetic association with the risk of carcinogenic progression in the esophagus. Conclusions The study demonstrated that the genotypes ALDH2*2 and MTHFR 677TT conferred elevated risk for developing esophageal carcinoma and that the two susceptibility genotypes combined to synergistically increase the risk. PMID:21672255

  12. Esophageal perforation. An unusual presentation with a benign clinical course.

    PubMed

    DeLuca, R F; Tedesco, F J; Ballan, K; Wortzel, E; Rogers, A I

    1977-04-01

    A case of esophageal perforation occurring in a 75-year-old man is presented. The clinical presentation was benign and the diagnosis of esophageal perforation was made incidental to an upper gastrointestinal barium examination. Conservative management consisting of nasogastric suctioning, antibiotics and antacids was effective in minimizing the clinical course. This represents a rare instance of a successful nonsurgical approach to esophageal perforation. PMID:879153

  13. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Gang Jiang; Jiang-Bo Tang; Chun-Lian Chen; Bao-Xing Liu; Xiang-Ning Fu; Zhi-Hui Zhu; Wei Qu; Katherine Cianflone; Michael P. Waalkes; Dao-Wen Wang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was expressed in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting, immunohistoc- hemistry and immunofluorescence were used to assess the expression level of COX-2 in esophageal tissue. RESULTS: COX-2 mRNA levels were increased by >80-fold in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma when compared to adjacent noncancerous tissue. COX-2 protein

  14. Altered esophageal pain threshold in irritable bowel syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Costantini; Giacomo Carlo Sturniolo; Giovanni Zaninotto; Renata D'Incà; Rita Polo; Remo Naccarato; Ermanno Ancona

    1993-01-01

    Gut motility disorders and altered pain perception were reported in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). To verify foregut involvement in IBS, we studied 30 patients using esophageal manometry and 24-hr pH monitoring of the distal esophagus. Two subgroups of patients underwent esophageal provocative tests (bethanechol 50 µg\\/kg subcutaneously and esophageal balloon distension test). Twelve healthy volunteers formed a control

  15. Botulinum toxin use in pediatric esophageal achalasia: A case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M Walton; G Tougas

    1997-01-01

    Esophageal achalasia (EA) has been historically treated by esophageal dilatation or myotomy with or without fundoplication. Botulinum toxin (Botox-Allergan) use in pediatric EA has not been previously described. The authors' objective was to observe the efficacy of botulinum toxin injection into the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) for EA. An 11-year-old boy presented with a 9-month history of frequent pneumonia, productive

  16. Esophageal motility impairment in plummer-vinson syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto O. Dantas; Marcia G. Villanova

    1993-01-01

    Summary We report the case of a 41-year-old woman with Plummer-Vinson syndrome and an esophageal motility disorder. She complained of dysphagia and odynophagia and had cheilitis, glossitis, and hypochromic anemia. An esophageal motility study showed low amplitude of contraction and high intrabolus pressure in the esophageal body. After iron replacement, the patient was free from symptoms, and a new motility

  17. Molecular factors related to metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutaka Shimada; Fumiaki Sato

    2007-01-01

    The aggressive behavior of esophageal cancer leads to a low survival rate for patients with this disease. Isolated esophageal\\u000a cancer cells seem to have the potential for regrowth and metastasis. To control the metastasis of esophageal carcinoma, detailed\\u000a analysis of various molecular and biological factors should be done in each patient. Recent progress in molecular biology\\u000a has revealed that oncogenes,

  18. Do Airway Epithelium Air–Liquid Cultures Represent the In Vivo Airway Epithelium Transcriptome?

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Anna; Tilley, Ann E.; Shaykhiev, Renat; Wang, Rui; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    Human airway epithelial cells cultured in vitro at the air–liquid interface (ALI) form a pseudostratified epithelium that forms tight junctions and cilia, and produces mucin. These cells are widely used in models of differentiation, injury, and repair. To assess how closely the transcriptome of ALI epithelium matches that of in vivo airway epithelial cells, we used microarrays to compare the transcriptome of human large airway epithelial cells cultured at the ALI with the transcriptome of large airway epithelium obtained via bronchoscopy and brushing. Gene expression profiling showed that global gene expression correlated well between ALI cells and brushed cells, but with some differences. Gene expression patterns mirrored differences in proportions of cell types (ALIs have higher percentages of basal cells, whereas brushed cells have higher percentages of ciliated cells), that is, ALI cells expressed higher levels of basal cell–related genes, and brushed cells expressed higher levels of cilia-related genes. Pathway analysis showed that ALI cells had increased expression of cell cycle and proliferation genes, whereas brushed cells had increased expression of cytoskeletal organization and humoral immune response genes. Overall, ALI cells provide a good representation of the in vivo airway epithelial transcriptome, but for some biologic questions, the differences between in vitro and in vivo environments need to be considered. PMID:20525805

  19. Endoscopic palliation of advanced esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mocanu, A; Bârla, R; Hoara, P; Constantinoiu, S

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer represents one of the most aggressive digestive tumors, with a survival rate at 5 years of only 10%. Globally, during the last three decades, there has been an increasing incidence of the esophageal cancer, approx. 400,000 new esophageal cancers being currently diagnosed annually. This represents the eighth leading cause of cancer incidence and the sixth leading cause of cancer death overall. Taking into account the population’s global aging and thus, the increase in the number of patients who will not bear surgery, PCT and radiation, or the fact that they do not want it especially because of deficiencies and associated pathology, the endoscopic ablative techniques with palliation purposes represent the alternative. If we refer to the Western Europe countries and North America, we notice an increase of esophageal adenocarcinoma rate versus squamous cancer. As for the Asian region, referring in particular to China and Japan, 9 out of 10 esophageal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. For at least half of the patients with EC (esophageal cancer) there is no hope of healing because of the advanced regional malignant invasion (T3-4, N+, M+) with no chemo and radiotherapy response, poor preoperative patients’ conditions or systemic metastasis. The low life expectancy does not justify the risky medical procedures, the goal of the therapy consisting in the improvement of the quality of life by eliminating dysphagia (reestablishing oral feeding) which represents the most common complication of EC, the respiratory tract complication caused by eso-tracheal fistulas or by eliminating chest pain. To treat dysphagia, which is the main target of palliation, combined methods like endoscopic, chemo and radio-therapy, can be used, each one with indications, benefits and risks. Abbreviations: SEPS = self expanding plastic stent, SREMS = self expanding metal stent, EBRT = Endoscopic brachy radiotherapy, EUS = Ultra sound endoscopy, CT = Computer tomograph, UGE = Upper gastro endoscopy, PET-CT = Positron Emission Tomography, APC = argon plasma coagulation, PDT = photo dynamic therapy, PCT = Poli-chemotherapy, RT = Radio-therapy PMID:25866578

  20. Esophageal Motor Disorders in Terms of High-Resolution Esophageal Pressure Topography: What Has Changed?

    PubMed Central

    Kahrilas, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of high-resolution manometry (HRM) is to use sufficient pressure sensors such that intraluminal pressure can be monitored as a continuum along luminal length much as time is viewed as a continuum in conventional manometry. When HRM is coupled with pressure topography plots, pressure amplitude is transformed into spectral colors with isobaric conditions indicated by same-colored regions on the display. Together, these technologies are called high-resolution esophageal pressure topography (HREPT). HREPT has several advantages compared with conventional manometry, the technology that it was designed to replace. (i) The contractility of the entire esophagus can be viewed simultaneously in a uniform format, (ii) standardized objective metrics can be systematically applied for interpretation, and (iii) topographic patterns of contractility are more easily recognized and have greater reproducibility than with conventional manometry. Compared with conventional manometry, HREPT has improved sensitivity for detecting achalasia, largely due to the objectivity and accuracy with which it identifies impaired esophagogastric junction (EGJ) relaxation. In addition, it has led to the subcategorization of achalasia into three clinically relevant subtypes based on the contractile function of the esophageal body: classic achalasia, achalasia with esophageal compression, and spastic achalasia. Headway has also been made in understanding hypercontractile conditions, including diffuse esophageal spasm and a newly described entity, spastic nutcracker. Ultimately, clinical experience will be the judge, but it seems likely that HREPT data, along with its well-defined functional implications, will improve the clinical management of esophageal motility disorders. PMID:20179690

  1. Esophageal Carcinoma in African Americans: A Five-Decade Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hassan Ashktorab; Zahra Nouri; Mehdi Nouraie; Hadi Razjouyan; Edward E. Lee; Ehsan Dowlati; El-Waleed El-Seyed; Adeyinka Laiyemo; Hassan Brim; Duane T. Smoot

    Background  Esophageal cancer accounts for a considerable proportion of carcinomas of the upper gastrointestinal tract in African Americans.\\u000a Our aim was to describe the epidemiology of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) among\\u000a African Americans in the last five decades.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 601 records of patients with documented esophageal cancer between 1959 and 2007 at Howard University

  2. Investigation of intra-esophageal air kinetics and esophageal sphincters in patients with total laryngectomy during esophageal speech.

    PubMed

    Bozan, Aykut; Vardar, Rukiye; Akyildiz, Serdar; Kirazli, Tayfun; Ogut, Fatih; Yildirim, Esra; Bor, Serhat

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the air kinetics of well- and poor-speaking patients and their upper (UES) and lower (LES) esophageal sphincter pressures . The esophageal speech capability of 23 total laryngectomy patients was assessed with the Wepman scale. LES and UES points and pressures were measured, and air kinetics were compared. All patients were male, with an average age of 58 years. Both the LES and UES pressures were not statistically different between good-speaking and poor-speaking patients (p > 0.05). The ability to speak was estimated only by looking at tracings. Good speakers are able to retain air successfully and on a long-term basis between the upper and lower esophageal sphincters. During short and/or rapid speech, these patients are able to rapidly suck and then expel the air from their upper esophagus. During long speeches, after sucking the air into their distal esophagus, they used the air in the upper part of the esophagus during the speech, only later seeming to fill the lower esophagus with the air as a possible reserve in the stomach. It has been shown that the basic requirement for speaking is the capacity to suck and store the air within the esophagus. For successful speech, the air should be stored inside the esophagus. MII technology contributes to our understanding of speech kinetics and occupies an important place in patient training as a biofeedback technique. PMID:25763572

  3. Roles of Lung Epithelium in Neutrophil Recruitment during Pneumococcal Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazuko; Ahyi, Ayele-Nati N.; Pepper-Cunningham, Zachary A.; Ferrari, Joseph D.; Wilson, Andrew A.; Jones, Matthew R.; Quinton, Lee J.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial cells line the respiratory tract and interface with the external world. Epithelial cells contribute to pulmonary inflammation, but specific epithelial roles have proven difficult to define. To discover unique epithelial activities that influence immunity during infection, we generated mice with nuclear factor-?B RelA mutated throughout all epithelial cells of the lung and coupled this approach with epithelial cell isolation from infected and uninfected lungs for cell-specific analyses of gene induction. The RelA mutant mice appeared normal basally, but in response to pneumococcus in the lungs they were unable to rapidly recruit neutrophils to the air spaces. Epithelial cells expressed multiple neutrophil-stimulating cytokines during pneumonia, all of which depended on RelA. Cytokine expression by nonepithelial cells was unaltered by the epithelial mutation of RelA. Epithelial cells were the predominant sources of CXCL5 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), whereas nonepithelial cells were major sources for other neutrophil-activating cytokines. Epithelial RelA mutation decreased whole lung levels of CXCL5 and GM-CSF during pneumococcal pneumonia, whereas lung levels of other neutrophil-recruiting factors were unaffected. Defective neutrophil recruitment in epithelial mutant mice could be rescued by administration of CXCL5 or GM-CSF. These results reveal a specialized immune function for the pulmonary epithelium, the induction of CXCL5 and GM-CSF, to accelerate neutrophil recruitment in the infected lung. PMID:24010952

  4. Roles of lung epithelium in neutrophil recruitment during pneumococcal pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuko; Ahyi, Ayele-Nati N; Pepper-Cunningham, Zachary A; Ferrari, Joseph D; Wilson, Andrew A; Jones, Matthew R; Quinton, Lee J; Mizgerd, Joseph P

    2014-02-01

    Epithelial cells line the respiratory tract and interface with the external world. Epithelial cells contribute to pulmonary inflammation, but specific epithelial roles have proven difficult to define. To discover unique epithelial activities that influence immunity during infection, we generated mice with nuclear factor-?B RelA mutated throughout all epithelial cells of the lung and coupled this approach with epithelial cell isolation from infected and uninfected lungs for cell-specific analyses of gene induction. The RelA mutant mice appeared normal basally, but in response to pneumococcus in the lungs they were unable to rapidly recruit neutrophils to the air spaces. Epithelial cells expressed multiple neutrophil-stimulating cytokines during pneumonia, all of which depended on RelA. Cytokine expression by nonepithelial cells was unaltered by the epithelial mutation of RelA. Epithelial cells were the predominant sources of CXCL5 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), whereas nonepithelial cells were major sources for other neutrophil-activating cytokines. Epithelial RelA mutation decreased whole lung levels of CXCL5 and GM-CSF during pneumococcal pneumonia, whereas lung levels of other neutrophil-recruiting factors were unaffected. Defective neutrophil recruitment in epithelial mutant mice could be rescued by administration of CXCL5 or GM-CSF. These results reveal a specialized immune function for the pulmonary epithelium, the induction of CXCL5 and GM-CSF, to accelerate neutrophil recruitment in the infected lung. PMID:24010952

  5. Eosinophils in the Esophagus—Peptic or Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis? Case Series of Three Patients with Esophageal Eosinophilia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Ngo; Glenn T. Furuta; Donald A. Antonioli; Victor L. Fox

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:Scattered eosinophils in the distal esophagus traditionally provide the hallmark for peptic esophagitis, but the upper limit of eosinophils and the longitudinal extent of peptic inflammation along the esophagus are unknown. Recently, adults and children with upper intestinal symptoms and >20 eosinophils\\/high-power field (eos\\/HPF) have been given the diagnosis of allergic esophagitis. Standardized diagnostic criteria for allergic esophagitis are lacking

  6. Esophageal perforation in a sword swallower.

    PubMed

    Scheinin, S A; Wells, P R

    2001-01-01

    We present the case of a 59-year-old man who sustained an esophageal perforation as a result of sword swallowing. An esophagogram established the diagnosis, and surgical repair was attempted. However, 19 days later, a persistent leak and deterioration of the patient's condition necessitated a transhiatal esophagectomy with a left cervical esophagogastrostomy. The patient recovered and has resumed his daily activities at the circus, with the exception of sword swallowing. This case report presents an unusual mechanism for a potentially lethal injury. Our search of the English-language medical literature revealed no other report of esophageal perforation resulting from sword swallowing. Management of such an injury is often difficult, and a favorable outcome is dependent on prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:11330747

  7. Esophageal Perforation in a Sword Swallower

    PubMed Central

    Scheinin, Scott A.; Wells, Patrick R.

    2001-01-01

    We present the case of a 59-year-old man who sustained an esophageal perforation as a result of sword swallowing. An esophagogram established the diagnosis, and surgical repair was attempted. However, 19 days later, a persistent leak and deterioration of the patient's condition necessitated a transhiatal esophagectomy with a left cervical esophagogastrostomy. The patient recovered and has resumed his daily activities at the circus, with the exception of sword swallowing. This case report presents an unusual mechanism for a potentially lethal injury. Our search of the English-language medical literature revealed no other report of esophageal perforation resulting from sword swallowing. Management of such an injury is often difficult, and a favorable outcome is dependent on prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:11330747

  8. Peroral endoscopic myotomy for esophageal achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Haruhiro; Ikeda, Haruo; Sato, Hiroki; Sato, Chiaki; Hokierti, Chananya

    2014-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is one of the alternative treatment for achalasia. Due to concept of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), it becomes popular and widely accepted. With the endoluminal technique, submucosal tunnel was created followed by endoscopic myotomy. POEM is not only indicated in classical achalasia but also other abnormal esophageal motility disorders. Moreover, failures of endoscopic treatment or surgical attempted cases are not contraindicated for POEM. The second attempted POEM is also safe and technically feasible. Even though the legend of success of POEM is fruitful, the possible complications are very frightened. Good training and delicate practice will reduce rate of complications. This review provides a summary of current state-of-the-art of POEM, including indication equipments, technique and complications. This perfect procedure may become the treatment of choice of achalasia and some esophageal motility disorders in the near future. PMID:25333007

  9. Successful tubes treatment of esophageal fistula

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ning; Chen, Wei-xing; Li, You-ming; Xiang, Zhun; Gao, Ping; Fang, Ying

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the merits of “tubes treatment” for esophageal fistula (EF). Methods: A 66-year-old female who suffered from a bronchoesophageal and esophagothoratic fistula underwent a successful “three tubes treatment” (close chest drainage, negative pressure suction at the leak, and nasojejunal feeding tube), combination of antibiotics, antacid drugs and nutritional support. Another 55-year-old male patient developed an esophagopleural fistula (EPF) after esophageal carcinoma operation. He too was treated conservatively with the three tubes strategy as mentioned above towards a favorable outcome. Results: The two patients recovered with the tubes treatment, felt well and became able to eat and drink, presenting no complaint. Conclusion: Tubes treatment is an effective basic way for EF. It may be an alternative treatment option. PMID:17910112

  10. Medical management of iatrogenic esophageal perforations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan D. Madanick

    2008-01-01

    Opinion statement  Esophageal perforation is an uncommon, potentially disastrous occurrence with high mortality rates even when managed with\\u000a surgery. Over the past few decades, several case series have shown that nonoperative management is a feasible option in some\\u000a patients, although the criteria for selecting such patients are neither firmly established nor accepted by all those who manage\\u000a these critical patients. The

  11. Significance of feeding dysfunction in eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Menard-Katcher, Calies; Henry, Michelle; Furuta, Glenn T; Atkins, Dan; Maune, Nancy Creskoff; Haas, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    Feeding dysfunction is a frequent presenting symptom of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Here we present 3 children of various ages whose manifestations of EoE associated feeding dysfunction led to significant and life altering impact on their growth and development. Early identification of presenting symptoms of EoE will allow for prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatments. Recognition of salient features of dysfunction and treatment by feeding therapists and nutritionists led to symptom resolution and growth. PMID:25152606

  12. Ambulatory esophageal pH testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Patrick Shoenut; Clifford S. Yaffe

    1996-01-01

    Over a 30-month period, 867 esophageal pH studies were conducted in a Canadian teaching hospital; of these, 315 tests were recorded in patients who were first-time referrals having no chest or upper gastrointestinal surgery and taking no medication that would affect the results. Patients were referred by gastroenterologists, general surgeons, ENT surgeons, thoracic surgeons, and a miscellaneous group. Patients were

  13. Total Thoracic Esophagectomy for Esophageal Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir A Anikin; Kieran G McManus; Alastair N Graham; James A McGuigan

    1997-01-01

    Background: Many current methods of esophageal resection have drawbacks that result in inadequate proximal resection, inadequate lymphadenectomy, and difficult gastric and splenic access. We describe a technique that allows reliable and safe access to the chest, abdomen, and neck.Study Design: From 1988 to 1995, 113 patients (82 men; mean age 65.3 ± 4.5 years) with carcinoma of the esophagus or

  14. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: Pathology and prognosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroko Ide; Tsutomu Nakamura; Kazuhiko Hayashi; Takeshi Endo; Ataru Kobayashi; Reiki Eguchi; Fujio Hanyu

    1994-01-01

    Between 1985 and 1992 a total of 403 patients with resected thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were evaluated histopathologically, and various pathologic findings related to survival were examined. Concerning depth of tumor invasion, 8 (2%) cases were pTis, 110 (27%) were pT1, 48 (12%) were pT2, 202 (50%) were pT3, and 35 (9%) were pT4. Lymphatic invasion was detected in

  15. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Infants and Toddlers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott P. Pentiuk; Claire Kane Miller; Ajay Kaul

    2007-01-01

    Feeding refusal is often described in conjunction with the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) in pediatric patients;\\u000a however, there are little data regarding the specific clinical manifestations and effective management of this condition in\\u000a very young children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presentation of EE in infants and toddlers referred to the\\u000a Interdisciplinary Feeding Team Clinic

  16. Tight junction composition is altered in the epithelium of polycystic kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Alan S. L.; Kanzawa, Sanae Alice; Usorov, Alexander; Lantinga-van Leeuwen, Irma S.; Peters, Dorien J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Kidney cysts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) undergo progressive enlargement together with luminal fluid secretion. This involves active, uphill transcellular Cl? transport which drives passive Na+ and water secretion. Implicit in this mechanism is the assumption that the paracellular permeability of the cyst epithelium to Cl? must be very low. Claudins are tight junction (TJ) transmembrane proteins that determine the ion selectivity of paracellular barriers. The aim of this study was to determine the expression and localization of claudins within renal cysts in a mouse hypomorphic model of ADPKD and in human patients. We found that the majority of cysts were of collecting duct origin. Claudins normally expressed in collecting duct (3, 4, 7, 8 and 10) were found in small cysts. However, only claudin-7 persisted at substantive levels in the dedifferentiated epithelium of large, presumably late-stage cysts, where it was localized both at the TJ and basolaterally. The constititutively expressed TJ proteins, ZO-1 and occludin, were also abundantly expressed and correctly localized, suggesting that the basic infrastructure of the TJ is preserved. A previous study suggested that claudin-7 may function as a paracellular Cl? barrier. We postulate that the role of claudin-7 in ADPKD is to seal the paracellular route in Cl?-secreting cyst epithelium, preventing backleak of Cl?, and that it thereby plays a permissive role in fluid secretion and cyst growth. PMID:18666097

  17. Tissue specific loss of A-type lamins in the gastrointestinal epithelium can enhance polyp size.

    PubMed

    Wang, Audrey S; Kozlov, Serguei V; Stewart, Colin L; Horn, Henning F

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear lamina, comprised of the A and B-type lamins, is important in maintaining nuclear shape and in regulating key nuclear functions such as chromatin organization and transcription. Deletion of the A-type lamins results in genome instability and many cancers show altered levels of A-type lamin expression. Loss of function mutations in the mouse Lmna gene result in early postnatal lethality, usually within 3-5 weeks of birth making an analysis of the role of lamins in carcinogenesis difficult. To circumvent early lethality, and determine the role of the A-type lamins in specific tissues in older mice we derived a conditional allele of Lmna(FL/FL) (floxed). Lmna(FL/FL) was specifically deleted in the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium by crossing the Lmna(FL/FL) mice with Villin-Cre mice. Mice lacking Lmna in the GI are overtly normal with no effects on overall growth, longevity or GI morphology. On a GI specific sensitized (Apc(Min/+)) background, polyp numbers are unchanged, but polyp size is slightly increased, and only in the duodenum. Our findings reveal that although A-type lamins are dispensable in the postnatal GI epithelium, loss of Lmna under malignant conditions may, to a limited extent, enhance polyp size indicating that A-type lamins may regulate cell proliferation in the transformed GI epithelium. PMID:25578479

  18. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and excision repair cross complement-1 (ERCC1) expression in esophageal cancers and response to cisplatin and irinotecan based chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bharthuar, Anubha; Black, Jennifer D.; Levea, Charles; Malhotra, Usha; Mashtare, Terry L.; Iyer, Renuka

    2014-01-01

    Background Esophageal cancer patients face a dismal outcome despite tri-modality management and median survival remains 15-18 months. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is an ATP-dependent efflux protein associated with chemotherapy resistance. The role of BCRP expression in esophageal cancer and normal esophageal cells is not known. Excision repair cross complement-1 (ERCC1) overexpression has been correlated with poorer response to cisplatin based chemotherapy. We examined the expression of BCRP and ERCC1 in patients with esophageal cancer and correlated it with survival in patients receiving irinotecan and cisplatin based chemotherapy. Methods With IRB approval, 40 cases of esophageal cancer diagnosed from 2004-2008, were stained for BCRP and ERCC1 expression by immunohistochemistry and scored by a pathologist blinded to clinical data. Baseline demographics, therapy given and survival data were collected and correlated with BCRP and ERCC1 expression. Fisher’s exact test was used to determine association between BCRP and ERCC1 expression and demographics. Cox proportional hazards model was used for association of BCRP and ERCC1 with survival. Results On immunohistochemistry, 30/40 cancers (75%) expressed BCRP. Interestingly, down-regulation of BCRP expression in tumor compared with normal cells was seen in 40% of patients. ERCC1 positivity was seen in 15/30 cases (50%). Median overall survival (OS) was 19 months with no difference in survival between BCRP positive and negative patients (P=0.13) or ERCC1 positive and negative patients (P=0.85). Estimated hazard ratio (HR) of death for BRCP positive patients was 2.29 (95% CI: 0.79-6.64) and for ERCC1 positive patients was 1.09 (95% CI: 0.46-2.56). There was no association of BCRP and ERCC1 expression with disease stage, age, gender or histology. For patients who received cisplatin and irinotecan as first line chemotherapy, there was no difference in survival based on BCRP or ERCC1 status. Conclusions BCRP expression is seen in a majority of esophageal cancers and normal esophageal mucosa. ERCC1 expression is seen in about half of the patients with esophageal cancer. Irinotecan based studies with esophageal and gastric cancer suggest response rates of 14-65%. Whether the 40% of tumors in our study found with down regulation of BCRP expression, constitute a majority of these responders needs to be prospectively validated in a larger data set. It should include markers such as ERCC1 predicting response to 5-fluorouracil and platinum based chemotherapy, to enable individualizing therapy for this cancer. PMID:25083297

  19. Direction of neutrophil movements by Campylobacter-infected intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Helen; Cogan, Tristan; Humphrey, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli together represent the leading bacterial cause of human enteritis. However, the pathogenesis of this disease is poorly understood. Infection results in the formation of crypt abscesses resulting from the migration of neutrophils across the intestinal epithelium and into the intestinal crypts. In this study, we model this process in vitro and show that Campylobacter infection of epithelium results in a quantifiable increase in the directed movement of neutrophils from the basolateral to apical surface of the epithelium. This process is dependent on both bacterially derived n-formyl peptides and on the host cell enzyme 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX). PMID:20934530

  20. Discussing the influence of electrode location in the result of esophageal prolonged pH monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a large consensus to preserve the distance of 5 cm above the proximal border of the lower esophageal sphincter (PBLES) as appropriate to the location of the electrode of the pH-metry. The main objective of this study is to determine whether placement of the electrode below the recommended location achieves a significant difference in the calculation of the DeMeester score. Methods The study was made up of 60 GERD patients and 20 control subjects. They were submitted to esophageal manometry and to pH-metric examination with two pH-metric catheters contained antimony electrodes - the distal was positioned 3 cm above the PBLES, leaving the other 5 cm away from it. Results LES pressure (LESP) in the GERD group was significantly lower than in the control group (P?=?0.005). Normal mean DeMeester score was observed simultaneously in the control group, by both the electrodes, but abnormal DeMeester score was much more expressive when observed by the distal electrode in the GERD group. There were significant differences as for DeMeester score, of patients with GERD from that of the control group and of distal from the proximal electrode in the GERD group. Conclusions Acid reflux is directly related to lower levels of LESP. Lower location of the catheter may strongly affect the results of prolonged esophageal pH monitoring in GERD patients. PMID:24708547

  1. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms not responding to proton pump inhibitor: GERD, NERD, NARD, esophageal hypersensitivity or dyspepsia?

    PubMed Central

    Bashashati, Mohammad; Hejazi, Reza A; Andrews, Christopher N; Storr, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common gastrointestinal process that can generate symptoms of heartburn and chest pain. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the gold standard for the treatment of GER; however, a substantial group of GER patients fail to respond to PPIs. In the past, it was believed that acid reflux into the esophagus causes all, or at least the majority, of symptoms attributed to GER, with both erosive esophagitis and nonerosive outcomes. However, with modern testing techniques it has been shown that, in addition to acid reflux, the reflux of nonacid gastric and duodenal contents into the esophagus may also induce GER symptoms. It remains unknown how weakly acidic or alkaline refluxate with a pH similar to a normal diet induces GER symptoms. Esophageal hypersensitivity or functional dyspepsia with superimposed heartburn may be other mechanisms of symptom generation, often completely unrelated to GER. Detailed studies investigating the pathophysiology of esophageal hypersensitivity are not conclusive, and definitions of the various disease states may overlap and are often confusing. The authors aim to clarify the pathophysiology, definition, diagnostic techniques and medical treatment of patients with heartburn symptoms who fail PPI therapy. PMID:24719900

  2. Involvement of interleukin-18 in the pathogenesis of human eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, Rituraj; Rajavelu, Priya; Ventateshaiah, Sathisha Upparahalli; Shukla, Jai Shankar; Zaidi, Asifa; Mariswamy, Siddesha Jalahalli; Mattner, Jochen; Fortgang, Ilana; Kowalczyk, Monika; Balart, Luis; Shukla, Anshi; Mishra, Anil

    2015-04-01

    IL-18 is induced in food allergy and EoE is food allergen-induced disease. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis whether IL-18 is involved in food allergen-induced EoE pathogenesis. Accordingly, we examined normal SPT+ and SPT- EoE patient blood and biopsy samples for IL-18, IL-18R?, ICAM and VCAM expression. Herein, we show increased IL-18 level is highly significant in food allergen SPT+ compared to SPT- EoE patients. We also report that IL-18R?+ cells and mRNA levels are induced in the esophageal biopsies of EoE patients and blood IL-18 levels correlate with esophageal eosinophilia (P<0.01). Additionally, we report that the levels of esophageal eosinophil and mast cells correlate with ICAM expression in human EoE. Mechanistically, we show that IL-18 in vitro stimulates iNKT cells and endothelial cells and induce eosinophil active cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. We provide the evidence that IL-18 is critical cytokine involved in activation of iNKT cells and ICAM in promoting human EoE. PMID:25638412

  3. Effects of Vitamin D Receptor Knockout on Cornea Epithelium Gap Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaowen; Watsky, Mitchell A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Gap junctions are present in all corneal cell types and have been shown to have a critical role in cell phenotype determination. Vitamin D has been shown to influence cell differentiation, and recent work demonstrates the presence of vitamin D in the ocular anterior segment. This study measured and compared gap junction diffusion coefficients among different cornea epithelium phenotypes and in keratocytes using a noninvasive technique, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), and examined the influence of vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockout on epithelial gap junction communication in intact corneas. Previous gap junction studies in cornea epithelium and keratocytes were performed using cultured cells or ex vivo invasive techniques. These invasive techniques were unable to measure diffusion coefficients and likely were disruptive to normal cell physiology. Methods. Corneas from VDR knockout and control mice were stained with 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA). Gap junction diffusion coefficients of the corneal epithelium phenotypes and of keratocytes, residing in intact corneas, were detected using FRAP. Results. Diffusion coefficients equaled 18.7, 9.8, 5.6, and 4.2 ?m2/s for superficial squamous cells, middle wing cells, basal cells, and keratocytes, respectively. Corneal thickness, superficial cell size, and the superficial squamous cell diffusion coefficient of 10-week-old VDR knockout mice were significantly lower than those of control mice (P < 0.01). The superficial cell diffusion coefficient of heterozygous mice was significantly lower than control mice (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Our results demonstrate differences in gap junction dye spread among the epithelial cell phenotypes, mirroring the epithelial developmental axis. The VDR knockout influences previously unreported cell-to-cell communication in superficial epithelium. PMID:24722695

  4. TLR-mediated Induction of Pro-allergic Cytokine IL-33 in Ocular Mucosal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lili; Lu, Rong; Zhao, Guiqiu; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Li, De-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin (IL) 33 has been recently identified as a ligand to the ST2 receptor that mediates Th2-dominant allergic inflammation. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated innate immunity in IL-33 induction by mucosal epithelium. Human corneal tissues and cultured primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) were treated with a variety of viral or bacterial components without or with different inhibitors to evaluate the IL-33 regulation and signaling pathways. The level of mRNA expression was determined by reverse transcription and real time PCR, and protein was measured by ELISA, immunostaining and Western blotting. IL-33 mRNA and protein were largely induced by various microbial components, mainly by polyI:C and flagellin, the ligands to TLR3 and TLR5, respectively in human corneal epithelium ex vivo and in vitro cultures. Pro-IL-33 protein was normally restricted inside cells, and could be secreted outside when activated by ATP. The PolyI:C induced IL-33 production was blocked by TLR3 antibody or TRIF Inhibitory peptide, while flagellin stimulated IL-33 was blocked by TLR5 antibody or MyD88 Inhibitory peptide. Interestingly, I?B-? inhibitor (BAY11-7082) or NF-?B inhibitor (quinazoline) blocked NF-?B p65 protein nuclear translocation, and suppressed IL-33 production induced by PolyI:C and flagellin. These findings demonstrate that IL-33, an epithelium-derived pro-allergic cytokine, is induced by microbial ligands through TLR-mediated innate signaling pathways, suggesting a possible role of mucosal epithelium in Th2-dominant allergic inflammation. PMID:21684348

  5. Human vomeronasal epithelium development: An immunohistochemical overview.

    PubMed

    Dénes, Lóránd; Pap, Zsuzsanna; Szántó, Annamária; Gergely, István; Pop, Tudor Sorin

    2015-06-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is the receptor structure of the vomeronasal system (VNS) in vertebrates. It is found bilaterally in the submucosa of the inferior part of the nasal septum. There are ongoing controversies regarding the functionality of this organ in humans. In this study we propose the immunohistochemical evaluation of changes in components of the human vomeronasal epithelium during foetal development. We used 45 foetuses of different age, which were included in three age groups. After VNO identification immunohistochemical reactions were performed using primary antibodies against the following: neuron specific enolase, calretinin, neurofilament, chromogranin, synaptophysin, cytokeratin 7, pan-cytokeratin and S100 protein. Digital slides were obtained and following colorimetric segmentation, surface area measurements were performed. The VNO was found in less than half of the studied specimens (42.2%). Neuron specific enolase and calretinin immunoexpression showed a decreasing trend with foetal age, while the other neural/neuroendocrine markers were negative in all specimens. Cytokeratin 7 expression increased with age, while Pan-Ctk had no significant variations. S100 protein immunoexpression also decreased around the VNO. The results of the present work uphold the theory of regression of the neuroepithelium that is present during initial stages of foetal development. PMID:26132837

  6. Use of anti-inflammatory drugs and lower esophageal sphincter relaxing drugs and risk of esophageal and gastric cancers

    PubMed Central

    Fortuny, Joan; Johnson, Christine; Bohlke, Kari; Chow, Wong-Ho; Hart, Gene; Kucera, Gena; Mujumdar, Urvi; Ownby, Dennis; Wells, Karen; Yood, Marianne Ulcickas; Engel, Lawrence S.

    2007-01-01

    Background and aims The incidence of esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma has increased in western countries in recent decades for largely unknown reasons. We investigated whether use of lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxing drugs was related to an increased risk of esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, and whether use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was related to a reduced risk of esophageal and gastric cancers. Methods We examined these associations using administrative databases in a case-control study in two integrated health care delivery systems. Cases were incident esophageal adenocarcinomas (n= 163) and squamous cell carcinomas (n= 114), and gastric cardia (n= 176) and non-cardia adenocarcinomas (n= 320), diagnosed between 1980 and 2002 in one health system and between 1993 and 2002 in the other. Matched controls (n= 3996) were selected. Complete prescription information was available for the study period. Results Prescription of corticosteroids was associated with a decreased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (OR= 0.6, 95% CI= 0.4-0.9), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OR= 0.4, 95% CI= 0.2-0.6) and gastric non-cardia carcinoma (OR= 0.4, 95% CI=0.3-0.6). Ever use of pharmacy-purchased aspirin was associated with 30-60% decreased risks of the studied cancers. As a group, LES-relaxing drugs showed little evidence of association with increased risk of any esophageal or gastric cancer. Conclusions Corticosteroid and aspirin use were associated with significantly decreased risks of esophageal and gastric cancer. Lower esophageal sphincter relaxing drugs as a group did not affect these risks, although we had limited power to assess individual drugs. The possibility that corticosteroids and aspirin may reduce esophageal cancer risk warrants further consideration. PMID:17644046

  7. Prognostic factors for the survival of patients with esophageal cancer in Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghadimi, Mahmood Reza; Rasouli, Mahboobeh; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Mohammad, Kazem

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer is the 8th most common cancer and the 6th leading cause of cancer-related death, worldwide. In Iran, the high incidence rates of this type of cancer have been reported from the Caspian Sea region. This study aimed at assessing the factors affecting survival of patients with esophageal cancer in neighbor provinces around Caspian Sea using parametric and semi-parametric models with univariate gamma frailty model. METHODS: In this study, we performed a prospective review of 359 patients presenting with esophageal cancer from 1990 to 1991. The data were obtained using the Cancer Registry information existed in Babol research center in Iran. Study participants were followed-up until 2006 for a period of 15 years. Hazard ratio was used to interpret the risk of death. The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) was considered as a criterion to select the best model(s). RESULTS: Of the 359 patients, 225 (62.7%) were male with a mean age of 60.0 years and 134 (37.3%) were female with a mean age of 55.3 at the time of diagnosis. 1- , 3- and 5-year survival rates after diagnosis were 23%, 15% and 13% , respectively. Comparison between Cox and parametric models of AIC showed that the overall fitting was improved under parametric models. Among parametric models, the log-logistic model with gamma frailty provided better performance than other models. Using this model, we found that gender (p=0.012) and family history of cancer (p= 0.003) were significant predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Since the proportionality assumption of the Cox model was not held (p = 0.01), the Cox regression model was not an appropriate choice for analyzing our data. According to our findings, log logistic model with gamma frailty could be considered as a useful statistical model in survival analysis of patients with esophageal cancer rather than Cox and log-normal models. PMID:22973319

  8. MicroRNAs and esophageal cancer--implications for pathogenesis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Mayne, George C; Hussey, Damian J; Watson, David I

    2013-01-01

    There are several microRNAs that have been consistently reported to be differentially expressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma vs. normal squamous tissue, with prognostic associations for miR-21 (invasion, positive nodes, decreased survival), miR-143 (disease recurrence, invasion depth), and miR-375 (inversely correlated with advanced stage, distant metastasis, poor overall survival, and disease-free survival). There is also evidence that miR-375 regulates gene expression associated with resistance to chemotherapy. Hence, microRNA expression assays have the potential to provide clinically relevant information about prognosis and potential response to chemotherapy in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Results are inconsistent, however, for microRNAs across different studies for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) vs. its precursor lesion Barrett's esophagus. These inconsistencies may partly result from pathological and/or molecular heterogeneity in both Barrett's esophagus and EAC, but may also result from differences in study designs or different choices of comparator tissues. Despite these inconsistencies, however, several mRNA/protein targets have been identified, the cancer related biology of some of these targets is well understood, and there are clinico-pathological associations for some of these mRNA targets. MicroRNAs also have potential for use in therapy for esophageal cancers. The development of new delivery methods, such as minicells and autologous microvesicles, and molecular modifications such as the addition of aromatic benzene pyridine analogs, have facilitated the exploration of the effects of therapeutic microRNAs in vivo. These approaches are producing encouraging results, with one technology in a phase I/IIa clinical trial. PMID:23092342

  9. Comparisons of Esophageal Function Tests between Chinese and British Patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Leach, Samantha; Hao, Jian Yu; Shang, Zhan Min; Hobson, Anthony Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the esophageal function tests in British and Chinese patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Methods. Patients with GERD were selected from the functional gut clinic, London, and digestive department, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, after taking the examinations of High-resolution Manometry and Impedance (HRiM) and 24-hour Multi-Channel Intraluminal Impedance and pH Recording (MII/pH) between 2013 and 2014. Chinese healthy volunteers who undertook HRiM were also selected as control group. Results. Fifty-nine British and 82 Chinese patients with GERD and 62 Chinese healthy volunteers were entered. Values for British patients, Chinese patients, and healthy volunteers were as follows: Lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) 16.0 ± 8.6, 16.5 ± 10.0, and 26.4 ± 10.9?mmHg, peristalsis (normal/small break/large break) 24/12/23, 44/10/28, and 57/1/4, total bolus transit time (TBTT) 7.3 ± 1.3, 7.6 ± 1.2, and 6.9 ± 0.9?s, and complete bolus transit rate (CBTR) 66.7 ± 37.8, 61.7 ± 36.4, and 90.3 ± 14.0%, respectively. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that age, gender, and ethnicity did not have significant effect on LESP, TBTT, esophageal peristalsis, and CBTR in patients with GERD. Conclusions. British and Chinese patients with GERD presented similar values of LESP, TBTT, and impaired esophageal peristalsis and CBTR. PMID:25784929

  10. A novel approach to cancer staging: application to esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Blackstone, Eugene H.; Apperson-Hansen, Carolyn; Rice, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    A novel 3-step random forests methodology involving survival data (survival forests), ordinal data (multiclass forests), and continuous data (regression forests) is introduced for cancer staging. The methodology is illustrated for esophageal cancer using worldwide esophageal cancer collaboration data involving 4627 patients. PMID:19502615

  11. Evolving Options in the Management of Esophageal Perforation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clayton J. Brinster; Sunil Singhal; Lawrence Lee; M. Blair Marshall; Larry R. Kaiser; John C. Kucharczuk

    2004-01-01

    Esophageal perforation remains a devastating event that is difficult to diagnose and manage. The majority of injuries are iatrogenic and the increasing use of endo- scopic procedures can be expected to lead to an even higher incidence of esophageal perforation in coming years. Accurate diagnosis and effective treatment depend on early recognition of clinical features and accurate interpretation of diagnostic

  12. Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma: the scope of the problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Levine; J. B. Herman; E. E. Furth

    1995-01-01

    Conclusion  Barrett's esophagus is probably a more common condition than previously recognized. Although the classic radiologic findings of Barrett's esophagus are present in only a small percentage of patients, this condition should be suspected whenever reflux esophagitis or peptic strictures are demonstrated on double-contrast esophagography. Recent literature also suggests that Barrett's carcinomas comprise up to 50% of all esophageal cancers. Because

  13. Photodynamic Therapy for Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qumseya, Bashar J; David, Waseem; Wolfsen, Herbert C

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in patients with Barrett's esophagus and esophageal carcinoma. We describe the history of PDT, mechanics, photosensitizers for PDT in patients with esophageal disease. Finally, we discuss its utility and limitations in this setting. PMID:23423151

  14. Vitamin supplement use and risk for oral and esophageal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanine Barone; Emanuela Taioli; James R. Hebert; Ernst L. Wynder

    1992-01-01

    In a hospital?based case?control study, 290 oral cancer cases and 133 esophageal cancer cases were queried as to smoking status, alcohol consumption, and dietary exposures, including vitamin supplement history. Among oral cancer cases, vitamin E use appeared to exert a protective effect. Vitamins C and E had protective effects among esophageal cancer cases. When stratified by smoking status, the protective

  15. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Red on Microscopy, White on Endoscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Straumann; Hans-Peter Spichtin; Kathleen A. Bucher; Pius Heer; Hans-Uwe Simon

    2004-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The presenting symptom of eosinophilic esophagitis, a chronic TH2-type inflammatory disease, is uniform dysphagia attacks. Histology reveals a dense mucosal infiltration with eosinophils. Unfortunately, endoscopic findings are often unremarkable or misleading. This study characterizes the endoscopic manifestations of eosinophilic esophagitis and analyzes the nature and clinical features of the frequently observed white alterations. Methods: Thirty adult patients (22 males,

  16. Clinical and Endoscopic Features of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Croese; Stephen K. Fairley; John W. Masson; André K. H. Chong; David A. Whitaker; Peter A. Kanowski; Neal I. Walker

    2003-01-01

    BackgroundEosinophilic esophagitis in adults is regarded as unusual, being diagnosed mostly in young men presenting with dysphagia. Mucosal furrows are a sentinel endoscopic feature. This study examined the demographic and clinical profile of adults with eosinophilic esophagitis seen from 1981 to 2002.

  17. Evaluation of MTHFR677C>T Polymorphism in Prediction and Prognosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Case-Control Study in a Northern Indian Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meenakshi Umar; Rohit Upadhyay; Rohini Khurana; Shaleen Kumar; Uday Chand Ghoshal; Balraj Mittal

    2010-01-01

    Early diagnosis and better prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still a challenge. Besides environmental risk factors, nutritional deficiencies have an established role in pathogenesis of ESCC. Folate deficiency and functional polymorphisms in folate metabolizing genes such as methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T may have oncogenic role through disruption of normal DNA methylation pattern, synthesis, and impaired DNA

  18. Stem cell function in the mouse corneal epithelium 

    E-print Network

    Mort, Richard Lester

    2007-11-27

    Limbal stem cells maintain the corneal epithelium through a process of clonal growth and ordered migration. In X-inactivation mosaic female mice, that express LacZ from one of their X-chromosomes, random clumps of ...

  19. Imaging a functional tumorigenic biomarker in the transformed epithelium

    E-print Network

    Craik, Charles S.

    Imaging a functional tumorigenic biomarker in the transformed epithelium Aaron M. Le proteolysis associated with cancer represent functional biomarkers for moni- toring tumorigenesis. One attractive extracellular biomarker is the transmembrane serine protease matriptase. Found on the surface

  20. [Atrophy of retinal pigment epithelium after macular hole surgery].

    PubMed

    Cerbulescu, Beatrice; Cârstocea, B; Buliga, Simona; Gheorghieva, Valeria; Taina, Ana-Lavinia

    2010-01-01

    We present three cases of macular hole. After macular surgery we observed good anatomical results (closed macular holes) but poor functional results. We try to identified the element who produced atrophy of retinal pigment epithelium. PMID:20540371

  1. Steroid signalling in the human ovarian surface epithelium wound healing 

    E-print Network

    Papacleovoulou, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    The human ovarian surface epithelium (hOSE) is a cell monolayer that covers the surface of the ovary. Natural events like incessant ovulation, associated reproductive hormone action prior to and post-ovulation, along ...

  2. Downregulation of E-cadherin in the reparative epithelium of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Hanby, A M; Chinery, R; Poulsom, R; Playford, R J; Pignatelli, M

    1996-03-01

    E-cadherin, an epithelial adhesion molecule, is critical for the maintenance of cell polarity and differentiation. We studied the distribution of E-cadherin in normal gut and in enteric ulceration to test the hypothesis that the motility of regenerative epithelium over ulcers is associated with a decrease in E-cadherin expression. Sections of normal stomach, small intestine, and colon were examined for E-cadherin distribution using the antibody HECD-1 and compared with the pattern seen in peptic ulceration and Crohn's disease. A subset was examined by in situ hybridization using 35S radiolabeled E-cadherin riboprobes. A wounding system employing the HT-29 cell line was used as an in vitro model of early healing. In the normal gut uniform strong basolateral staining was seen. Areas of ulceration showed a patchy reduction in membrane localized E-cadherin in regenerating epithelium, even though E-cadherin mRNA was demonstrable in this population. In wounded confluent HT29 layers, migrating cells also showed reduced E-cadherin immunostaining. These data support the notion that the motility of restitutive epithelial cells may relate to altered patterns of E-cadherin and that this may play an important role in the reconstitution of epithelial integrity after mucosal injury. PMID:8774128

  3. Proton pump inhibitor responsive esophageal eosinophilia, a distinct disease entity?

    PubMed Central

    Munday, William; Zhang, Xuchen

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested the existence of a patient population with esophageal eosinophilia that responds to proton pump inhibitor therapy. These patients are being referred to as having proton pump inhibitor responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE), which is currently classified as a distinct and separate disease entity from both gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). The therapeutic effect of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) on PPI-REE is thought to act directly at the level of the esophageal mucosa with an anti-inflammatory capacity, and completely independent of gastric acid suppression. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the mechanistic data of the proposed immune modulation/anti-inflammatory role of the PPI at the esophageal mucosa, and the existence of PPI-REE as a distinct disease entity from GERD and EoE. PMID:25132757

  4. Neutral morphogenetic activity of epithelium in heterologous tissue recombinations.

    PubMed

    Arechaga, J; Karcher-Djuricic, V; Ruch, J V

    1983-01-01

    To assess the existence of specific and nonspecific epithelial instructions for mesenchymal cell differentiation we compared homospecific and heterospecific mouse and quail tissue recombinations. In heterospecific recombinants between trypsin-dissociated mouse molar mesenchyme and quail epithelia neither odontoblasts nor chondrocytes differentiated. Cartilage appeared if the quail epithelium was contaminated with homologous limb mesenchyme and odontoblasts differentiated if the mouse dental epithelium was contaminated with dental papilla cells. PMID:6662289

  5. Non-Thermal Electromagnetic Radiation Damage to Lens Epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elvira Bormusov; Usha P. Andley; Naomi Sharon; Levi Schachter; Assaf Lahav; Ahuva Dovrat

    2008-01-01

    High frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and other modern devices has the potential to damage eye tissues, but its effect on the lens epithelium is unknown at present. The objective of this study was to investigate the non-thermal effects of high frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation (1.1GHz, 2.22 mW) on the eye lens epithelium in situ. Bovine lenses were

  6. Live long and prosper: the enterprise of understanding diseased epithelium.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Avital; Moraes, Christopher

    2015-05-11

    The epithelium is a particularly complicated and dynamic tissue, and dysregulation of epithelial structure and function is a hallmark of several lung diseases. Motivated by the life and recent passing of Leonard Nimoy, we highlight several recent studies that explore the nuanced relationship between the epithelium and disease progression. Specifically, we focus on recent innovative and integrative approaches that shed new light on epithelial wounding, healing, and development. PMID:25872488

  7. Extracellular matrix stiffness and composition jointly regulate the induction of malignant phenotypes in mammary epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Koshy, Sandeep T.; Branco da Cunha, Cristiana; Shin, Jae-Won; Verbeke, Catia S.; Allison, Kimberly H.; Mooney, David J.

    2014-10-01

    In vitro models of normal mammary epithelium have correlated increased extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness with malignant phenotypes. However, the role of increased stiffness in this transformation remains unclear because of difficulties in controlling ECM stiffness, composition and architecture independently. Here we demonstrate that interpenetrating networks of reconstituted basement membrane matrix and alginate can be used to modulate ECM stiffness independently of composition and architecture. We find that, in normal mammary epithelial cells, increasing ECM stiffness alone induces malignant phenotypes but that the effect is completely abrogated when accompanied by an increase in basement-membrane ligands. We also find that the combination of stiffness and composition is sensed through ?4 integrin, Rac1, and the PI3K pathway, and suggest a mechanism in which an increase in ECM stiffness, without an increase in basement membrane ligands, prevents normal ?6?4 integrin clustering into hemidesmosomes.

  8. Overexpression of interleukin-8 receptor 2 (IL-8R2) indicates better prognosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma procession.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bing; Zhao, Hui; Che, Jian-Bo; Wang, Hao-Jie; Shi, Gong-Ning

    2014-08-01

    Researches have showed that interleukin family or receptors play a role in many human tumor progressions including esophageal carcinoma. In this study, we examined the expression of interleukin-8 receptor 2 (IL-8R2) and analyze the relationship between it and esophageal carcinoma clinical characteristics. IL-8R2 protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence arrays and was analyzed further via Western blot and qRT-PCR analysis in frozen tissues. The correlation between their expression levels and clinical characteristics were evaluated by Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test. Via Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazard models, overall survival (OS) was analyzed. Compared with normal esophageal tissue, IL-8R2 protein was overexpressed significantly in esophageal cancer (p < 0.05) and was observed both in cytoplasm and nuclear. The lower expression of IL-8R2 protein was observed with higher p staging of esophageal cancer, and the significant association between them was confirmed (p = 0.000), and in advanced p T stage, the similar result was obtained (p = 0.015); however, compared with lymph node metastasis-negative group, it is no significant difference in positive group (p = 0.152). In a Kaplan-Meier analysis, compared with IL-8R2 low expression, IL-8R2 high expression identified a group of patients with the longest OS. Cox proportional hazard models revealed that IL-8R2 predicted long time to OS. The higher expression of IL-8R2 was found in early esophageal carcinoma, which may indicate that IL-8R2 plays an important role and is better prognostic factor in esophageal cancer development. PMID:24972913

  9. Bevacizumab and Combination Chemotherapy Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Esophageal or Stomach Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-03-17

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus; Stage IA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer

  10. The development of the primitive epithelium and true tegument in the cercaria of Schistosoma mansoni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth A. Meuleman; Paulina J. Holzmann

    1975-01-01

    The formation of the final cercarial tegument of Schistosoma mansoni is preceded by that of a so-called primitive epithelium. The primitive epithelium is derived from the tegument of the daughter sporocyst. The final cercarial tegument is formed from peripherally located somatic cells of the cercarial embryo, which expand and coalesce beneath the primitive epithelium. The primitive epithelium degenerates and disappears.

  11. Advanced esophageal cancer with tracheobronchial fistula successfully treated by?esophageal bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Masahiro; Ishiguro, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Takeyama, Hiromitsu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction When esophageal cancer infiltrates the respiratory tract and forms a fistula, a patient’s quality of life falls remarkably. Abstinence from oral feeding is necessary to prevent respiratory complications including pneumonia. Surgery is sometimes necessary to maintain quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine clinical outcomes of esophageal cancer complicated by tracheobronchial fistula. Presentation of case Twelve patients who underwent esophageal bypass between 2006 and 2011 in our hospital were studied. Patient characteristics, therapeutic course, outcome, and operation type were compared. Six patients among 8 who could not tolerate oral feeding could do so after bypass surgery. Ten patients were able to enjoy oral intake up until the last few days of life. Three patients survived for more than 10 months. In spite of undergoing an operation, 1 patient survived for only 2 months and another for 4 months. The only complication was postoperative delirium in 1 patient. Discussion While surgical bypass is more invasive than procedures such as endoscopic stenting, we had few complications after operative intervention and were able to maintain quality of life in our patients. Conclusion This bypass procedure is a treatment option for patients with tracheobronchial fistula from advanced esophageal cancer. PMID:25765740

  12. Reflux Esophagitis: Sequelae and Differential Diagnosis in Infants and Children Including Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverly Barrett Dahms

    2004-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common condition in infants and children and has many clinical mimics. Most pediatric pathology departments process many mucosal biopsies from the proximal gastrointestinal tract to evaluate the presence or absence of reflux esophagitis. Since this subject was last reviewed in the 1997 edition of Perspectives in Pediatric Pathology devoted to gastrointestinal diseases in children

  13. Current endoscopic methods of radical therapy in early esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mocanu, A; Bârla, R; Hoara, P; Constantinoiu, S

    2015-01-01

    During the last three decades, there has been an increasing incidence of the esophageal cancer at the global level, approx. 400,000 new esophageal cancers being currently diagnosed annually. This is the eighth leading cause of cancer incidence and the sixth leading cause of cancer death overall. If we refer to the countries of Western Europe and North America, we could see an increase in the esophageal adenocarcinoma in detriment of squamous cancer. As for the Asian region, referring in particular to China and Japan, 9 out of 10 esophageal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. Considering that the incidence of gastric cancer in Japan is very high, the endoscopic screenings performed inevitably led to an increased rate of early detection of esophageal cancer, reaching approximately 20% of all esophageal cancers detected. This has led to the possibility of developing therapeutic endoscopic techniques with radical visa that we will describe while presenting comparative data from literature. Currently, however, there are not enough data on the effectiveness of these types of therapies, compared to surgery, in order to be transformed into standard therapeutic endoscopic treatment for early esophageal cancer. However, the combined therapy, resection/ endoscopic ablation + chemoradiotherapy, appears as an alternative to be taken into account. Abbreviations EEC = esophageal early cancer, BE = Barrett’s esophagus, HGD = High-grade dysphagia, EUS = Ultra sound endoscopy, CT = Computer tomograph, UGE = Upper gastro endoscopy, PET-CT = Positron Emission Tomography, FNAB = Fine needle aspiration biopsy, EMR = Esophageal mucosal resection, ESD = Esophageal submucosal dissection, SCC = Squamous cellular cancer, PCT = Poli-chemotherapy, RT- Radio-therapy. PMID:25866570

  14. Characterization of Posttranslational Modifications of Human A33 Antigen, a Novel Palmitoylated Surface Glycoprotein of Human Gastrointestinal Epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerd Ritter; Leonard S. Cohen; Edouard C. Nice; Bruno Catimel; Antony W. Burgess; Robert L. Moritz; Hong Ji; Joan K. Heath; Sara J. White; Sydney Welt; Lloyd J. Old; Richard J. Simpson

    1997-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody (mAb) A33 recognizes a differentiation antigen (A33) expressed in normal human gastrointestinal epithelium and in 95% of human colon cancers. Murine mAb A33 shows specific targeting of colon cancer in humans and a humanized A33 antibody is currently being evaluated in the clinic. The cDNA for the human A33 antigen has recently been cloned, and sequence comparison indicated

  15. Circumferential intramural esophageal dissection successfully treated by endoscopic procedure and metal stent insertion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seong Hun Kim; Seung-Ok Lee

    2005-01-01

    Spontaneous intramural esophageal dissection is a rare disorder characterized by a lengthy laceration between the mucosal\\u000a and submucosal layers of the esophageal wall, without perforation. The majority of previously reported cases of spontaneous\\u000a intramural esophageal dissection were partial, and the circumferential type of intramural esophageal dissection has not been\\u000a reported previously. Most spontaneous intramural esophageal dissection responds to conservative management,

  16. High dose intravenous methylprednisolone resolves esophageal stricture resistant to balloon dilatation with intralesional injection of dexamethasone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuyuki Morikawa; Toshiro Honna; Tatsuo Kuroda; Koji Watanabe; Hideaki Tanaka; Hajime Takayasu; Akihiro Fujino; Hiroko Tanemura; Makoto Matsukubo

    2008-01-01

    One of the most serious problems in patients with long-gap esophageal atresia or corrosive esophagitis is esophageal stricture,\\u000a which may require esophageal resection and replacement. We describe two cases with persistent esophageal stricture successfully\\u000a managed by high dose intravenous methylprednisolone following balloon dilatation. High-dose methylprednisolone with gradual\\u000a tapering (daily 25, 15, 10, 5, 2 mg\\/kg for 4 days each) plus cimetidine and

  17. Characterization of the global profile of genes expressed in cervical epithelium by Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Riggins, Gregory; Vázquez-Ortiz, Guelaguetza; Moreno, José; Arreola, Hugo; Hidalgo, Alfredo; Piña-Sanchez, Patricia; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2005-01-01

    Background Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) is a new technique that allows a detailed and profound quantitative and qualitative knowledge of gene expression profile, without previous knowledge of sequence of analyzed genes. We carried out a modification of SAGE methodology (microSAGE), useful for the analysis of limited quantities of tissue samples, on normal human cervical tissue obtained from a donor without histopathological lesions. Cervical epithelium is constituted mainly by cervical keratinocytes which are the targets of human papilloma virus (HPV), where persistent HPV infection of cervical epithelium is associated with an increase risk for developing cervical carcinomas (CC). Results We report here a transcriptome analysis of cervical tissue by SAGE, derived from 30,418 sequenced tags that provide a wealth of information about the gene products involved in normal cervical epithelium physiology, as well as genes not previously found in uterine cervix tissue involved in the process of epidermal differentiation. Conclusion This first comprehensive and profound analysis of uterine cervix transcriptome, should be useful for the identification of genes involved in normal cervix uterine function, and candidate genes associated with cervical carcinoma. PMID:16171524

  18. Emerging Therapeutic Options for Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Timothy; Stephen, Sindu; Borum, Marie L.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the esophagus that often occurs in atopic persons. Management strategies include pharmacotherapy, dietary modification, and endoscopic therapy, although patients will often have a relapsing and remitting course. Currently, the primary pharmacotherapy for EoE consists of corticosteroids. Immuno-modulators, leukotriene antagonists, biologies, and monoclonal antibodies are currently under study for treatment of EoE. The role of immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic reactions has been well documented and may provide insight into the etiology and effective therapy of EoE. PMID:24803874

  19. Cell sheets engineering for esophageal regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Nobuo; Yamato, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Recently, cell-based therapies, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering have been progressing rapidly. We have developed a novel strategy for regenerative medicine to recover tissue functions using temperature-responsive cell culture surfaces. To overcome of conventional methods such as the usage of single-cell suspension injection, we have applied transplantable cell sheets fabricated with temperature-responsive culture surfaces for cell delivery. In the field of gastroenterology, transplantable cell sheets from autologous oral mucosal epithelial cells can prevent esophageal stricture following extensive endoscopic mucosal resection. PMID:25333004

  20. Esophageal hypomotility and spastic motor disorders: current diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Valdovinos, Miguel A; Zavala-Solares, Monica R; Coss-Adame, Enrique

    2014-11-01

    Esophageal hypomotility (EH) is characterized by abnormal esophageal peristalsis, either from a reduction or absence of contractions, whereas spastic motor disorders (SMD) are characterized by an increase in the vigor and/or propagation velocity of esophageal body contractions. Their pathophysiology is not clearly known. The reduced excitation of the smooth muscle contraction mediated by cholinergic neurons and the impairment of inhibitory ganglion neuronal function mediated by nitric oxide are likely mechanisms of the peristaltic abnormalities seen in EH and SMD, respectively. Dysphagia and chest pain are the most frequent clinical manifestations for both of these dysfunctions, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is commonly associated with these motor disorders. The introduction of high-resolution manometry (HRM) and esophageal pressure topography (EPT) has significantly enhanced the ability to diagnose EH and SMD. Novel EPT metrics in particular the development of the Chicago Classification of esophageal motor disorders has enabled improved characterization of these abnormalities. The first step in the management of EH and SMD is to treat GERD, especially when esophageal testing shows pathologic reflux. Smooth muscle relaxants (nitrates, calcium channel blockers, 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitors) and pain modulators may be useful in the management of dysphagia or pain in SMD. Endoscopic Botox injection and pneumatic dilation are the second-line therapies. Extended myotomy of the esophageal body or peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) may be considered in highly selected cases but lack evidence. PMID:25376746

  1. Endoscopic assessment and management of early esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hammoud, Ghassan M; Hammad, Hazem; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma affects more than 450000 people worldwide and the incidence is rapidly increasing. In the United States and Europe, esophageal adenocarcinoma has superseded esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in its incidence. Esophageal cancer has a high mortality rates secondary to the late presentation of most patients at advanced stages. Endoscopic screening is recommended for patients with multiple risk factors for cancer in Barrett’s esophagus. These risk factors include chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease, hiatal hernia, advanced age, male sex, white race, cigarette smoking, and obesity. The annual risk of esophageal cancer is approximately 0.25% for patients without dysplasia and 6% for patients with high-grade dysplasia. Twenty percent of all esophageal adenocarcinoma in the United States is early stage with disease confined to the mucosa or submucosa. The significant morbidity and mortality of esophagectomy make endoscopic treatment an attractive option. The American Gastroenterological Association recommends endoscopic eradication therapy for patients with high-grade dysplasia. Endoscopic modalities for treatment of early esophageal adenocarcinoma include endoscopic resection techniques and endoscopic ablative techniques such as radiofrequency ablation, photodynamic therapy and cryoablation. Endoscopic therapy should be precluded to patients with no evidence of lymphovascular invasion. Local tumor recurrence is low after endoscopic therapy and is predicted by poor differentiation of tumor, positive lymph node and submucosal invasion. Surgical resection should be offered to patients with deep submucosal invasion. PMID:25132925

  2. Control of growth and squamous differentiation in normal human bronchial epithelial cells by chemical and biological modifiers and transferred genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Pfeifer; J. F. Lechner; T. Masui; R. R. Reddel; G. E. Mark; C. C. Harris

    1989-01-01

    The majority of human lung cancers arise from bronchial epithelial cells. The normal pseudostratified bronchial epithelium is composed of basal, mucous, and ciliated cells. This multi-differentiated epithelium usually responds to xenobiotics and physical injury by undergoing basal cell hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia. One step of the multistage process of carcinogenesis is thought to involve aberrations in control

  3. Infrared micro-spectroscopy for cyto-pathological classification of esophageal cells.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Douglas; Miljkovi?, Miloš; Bird, Benjamin; Lenau, Kathleen; Old, Oliver; Almond, Max; Kendall, Catherine; Lloyd, Gavin; Shepherd, Neil; Barr, Hugh; Stone, Nick; Diem, Max

    2015-04-01

    We report results from a study utilizing infrared spectral cytopathology (SCP) to detect abnormalities in exfoliated esophageal cells. SCP has been developed over the past decade as an ancillary tool to classical cytopathology. In SCP, the biochemical composition of individual cells is probed by collecting infrared absorption spectra from each individual, unstained cell, and correlating the observed spectral patterns, and the variations therein, against classical diagnostic methods to obtain an objective, machine-based classification of cells. In the past, SCP has been applied to the analysis and classification of cells exfoliated from the cervix and the oral cavity. In these studies, it was established that SCP can distinguish normal and abnormal cell types. Furthermore, SCP can differentiate between truly normal cells, and cells with normal morphology from the vicinity of abnormalities. Thus, SCP may be a valuable tool for the screening of early stages of dysplasia and pre-cancer. PMID:25594077

  4. Benign Esophageal Stricture in a Tropical African Population

    PubMed Central

    Ajao, Oluwole G.; Solanke, Toriola F.

    1978-01-01

    In North America, the most common causes of benign esophageal stricture are hiatal hernia and reflux esophagitis. These are localized to the lower end of the esophagus. At the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, the most common cause of benign esophageal stricture is ingestion of corrosives. The ingestion is accidental, suicidal, or for medicinal purposes. This stricture is long, narrow, and irregular. Most extend from the cervical esophagus to the cardioesophageal junction. A surgical procedure that has given good results is the use of left colon pedicled on the left colic artery for retrosternal isoperistaltic esophagocoloplasty. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:702578

  5. LPS induces translocation of TLR4 in amniotic epithelium.

    PubMed

    Adams, K M; Lucas, J; Kapur, R P; Stevens, A M

    2007-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediates lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced immune responses, which may contribute to preterm labor associated with intraamniotic gram-negative bacterial infections. The study objective was to investigate gestational age and LPS-induced changes in TLR4 subcellular localization within amniotic epithelium, the first line of host defense against intraamniotic bacteria. TLR4 localization in amniotic epithelium was assessed using immunohistochemistry on 24 placentas of different gestational ages: first trimester (n=6), second trimester (n=6), and third trimester (n=12). Immunofluorescence was used to determine TLR4 localization following ex vivo LPS stimulation of amnion from women undergoing cesarean section without labor at term. TLR4 was expressed in the cytoplasm of amniotic epithelium starting at 9weeks with apical polarization by 25weeks gestation. TLR4 localization to the basal membrane was significantly associated with chorioamnionitis (p=0.01). After LPS stimulation, TLR4 was expressed sequentially within the apical membrane, cytoplasm, and finally in the basal cellular compartment. This suggests that TLR4 expression in amniotic epithelium is poised to monitor amniotic fluid for pathogens. TLR4 translocation to the basal membrane may decrease LPS signaling early in an infection, but allow the amniotic epithelium to remain competent to invasive or intracellular bacteria. PMID:17055575

  6. GP130-STAT3 Regulates Epithelial Cell Migration and Is Required for Repair of the Bronchiolar Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Kida, Hiroshi; Mucenski, Michael L.; Thitoff, Angela R.; Le Cras, Timothy D.; Park, Kwon-Sik; Ikegami, Machiko; Müller, Werner; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Following injury, bronchiolar cells undergo rapid squamous metaplasia, followed by proliferation and re-establishment of the complex columnar epithelium that is characteristic of the normal airway. Mechanisms that regulate the repair of bronchiolar epithelium are of considerable relevance for understanding the pathogenesis of both acute and chronic lung diseases associated with airway remodeling. This study was designed to identify the role of the GP130-STAT3 signaling pathway during repair of the bronchiolar epithelium. STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and GP130 (glycoprotein 130) were each selectively deleted from the pulmonary epithelial cells of transgenic mice in vivo, producing Stat3?/? and Gp130?/? mice, respectively. Airway injury was induced in adult mice by administration of naphthalene, a toxicant of nonciliated respiratory epithelial cells (Clara cells). Nuclear STAT3 staining was induced in bronchiolar epithelial cells following naphthalene-mediated injury in control (Stat3flox/flox) mice. Whereas nearly complete repair of the bronchiolar epithelium was observed in control mice within 13 days, restoration of cell shape, cell density, and the pattern of ciliated and nonciliated cells did not occur in the peripheral bronchioles of either Stat3?/? or Gp130?/? mice. Expression of dominant-negative STAT3 inhibited airway epithelial cell migration during repair in vitro; wild-type STAT3 expression activated such migration. In the present study, we show that GP130-STAT3 signaling functions in a cell-autonomous manner to restore cell shape and numbers required for repair of the bronchiolar epithelium following injury. PMID:18467707

  7. [Esophageal diseases: gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett's esophagus, achalasia and eosinophilic esophagitis].

    PubMed

    Calvet, Xavier; Villoria, Albert

    2013-10-01

    Important new advances were presented in esophageal disease in Digestive Disease Week 2013. A highlight was confirmation of the high efficacy of weight loss to treat symptoms of reflux and an interesting pilot study suggesting that a simple ligature with supra- and infracardial bands could be an effective technique in esophageal reflux. If the excellent results and safety and efficacy of this technique are confirmed in the long term, it could revolutionize the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Also of note this year was the presentation of multiple studies validating a new technique, peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for the endoscopic treatment of achalasia. This technique seems to have excellent efficacy and safety. PMID:24160952

  8. Overexpression of CD9 correlates with tumor stage and lymph node metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Jian; Gao, Yi; Xu, Jing; Sheng, Wenjiong; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping; Ji, Jiang; Zhang, Liyuan; Tian, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide. CD9 has been reported to play a critical role in cell motility, growth and metastasis of multiple cancers. The present study investigated the clinicopathological features of CD9, and its biological characteristics in ESCC. Methods: Fifteen normal esophageal tissue specimens, fifty-three ESCC adjacent tissues and one hundred and four ESCC tissues were included in this study. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), the expression levels of CD9 were evaluated among different samples. And its clinicopathological parameters and its prognostic factors were analyzed. Western blotting was used to measure CD9 expression and colony formation was performed to determine the effect of CD9 on cell growth in ESCC TE-1 cells. Results: Compared with normal esophageal tissues and tumor adjacent tissues, CD9 expression level is significantly higher in ESCC tissues. CD9 expression correlated with tumor stage (P = 0.022) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.019) in ESCC patients. Furthermore, the small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of CD9 expression in TE-1 cells resulted in increased proliferation as evidenced by increased colony number and colony size. Conclusion: CD9 expression is upregulated in ESCC tissues and its expression is correlated with tumor stage and lymph node metastasis in ESCC patients. CD9 suppresses the proliferation of TE-1 cells. CD9 may present a potential in tumor progression in ESCC.

  9. Berberine protects against esophageal mucosal damage in reflux esophagitis by suppressing proinflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    CHOO, BYUNG KIL; ROH, SEONG-SOO

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of berberine (BB) in a rat model of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), induced by pylorus and forestomach ligation. We evaluated cytotoxicity and proinflammatory biomarkers (nitric oxide, interleukin (IL)-1? and prostaglandin E2) in RAW 264.7 cells in vitro and anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. A total of 54 Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups: intact control rats; reflux esophagitis (RE) control rats; RE rats treated with 20 mg/kg omeprazole and RE rats treated with BB at doses of 20, 40 and 60 mg/kg, respectively. All rats were fasted. RE was induced by pylorus and forestomach ligation one hour subsequent to the oral treatment. Six hours subsequent to the surgery, the rats were sacrificed, blood was collected from the abdominal vein and the esophagus and stomach were dissected. The gastric volume and the pH of the gastric juice were evaluated, prior to the esophagus being cut longitudinally and an inner mucosal area being imaged, to analyze mucosal damage indices. Proinflammatory biomarkers in the serum, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, while the mRNA expression of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 was analyzed using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Esophagic tissue damage in the BB groups was dose-dependently decreased compared with that in the RE control group. This result was consistent with significant reductions in the levels of proinflammatory biomarkers in the serum and in the expression of proinflammatory mRNA, specifically, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and PAI-1. The results suggest that the anti-inflammatory and protective effects of BB may attenuate the severity of RE and prevent esophageal mucosal damage, in addition to validating the use of BB as a pharmacological treatment for esophageal reflux disease. PMID:24137243

  10. Multiple Rapid Swallow Responses During Esophageal High-Resolution Manometry Reflect Esophageal Body Peristaltic Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Shaker, Anisa; Stoikes, Nathaniel; Drapekin, Jesse; Kushnir, Vladimir; Brunt, L. Michael; Gyawali, C. Prakash

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Dysphagia may develop following antireflux surgery as a consequence of poor esophageal peristaltic reserve. We hypothesized that suboptimal contraction response following multiple rapid swallows (MRS) could be associated with chronic transit symptoms following antireflux surgery. METHODS Wet swallow and MRS responses on esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) were characterized collectively in the esophageal body (distal contractile integral (DCI)), and individually in each smooth muscle contraction segment (S2 and S3 amplitudes) in 63 patients undergoing antireflux surgery and in 18 healthy controls. Dysphagia was assessed using symptom questionnaires. The MRS/wet swallow ratios were calculated for S2 and S3 peak amplitudes and DCI. MRS responses were compared in patients with and without late postoperative dysphagia following antireflux surgery. RESULTS Augmentation of smooth muscle contraction (MRS/wet swallow ratios > 1.0) as measured collectively by DCI was seen in only 11.1% with late postoperative dysphagia, compared with 63.6% in those with no dysphagia and 78.1% in controls (P?0.02 for each comparison). Similar results were seen with S3 but not S2 peak amplitude ratios. Receiver operating characteristics identified a DCI MRS/wet swallow ratio threshold of 0.85 in segregating patients with late postoperative dysphagia from those with no postoperative dysphagia with a sensitivity of 0.67 and specificity of 0.64. CONCLUSIONS Lack of augmentation of smooth muscle contraction following MRS is associated with late postoperative dysphagia following antireflux surgery, suggesting that MRS responses could assess esophageal smooth muscle peristaltic reserve. Further research is warranted to determine if antireflux surgery needs to be tailored to the MRS response. PMID:24019081

  11. Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus associated with esophagitis dissecans superficialis.

    PubMed

    Yogarajah, Meera; Sivasambu, Bhradeev; Jaffe, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus is one of the rare autoantibody mediated skin manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) demonstrating subepidermal blistering with neutrophilic infiltrate histologically. We present a case of a 40-year-old Hispanic female who presented with a several months' history of multiple blistering pruritic skin lesions involving the face and trunk, a photosensitive rash over the face and neck, swelling of the right neck lymph node, and joint pain involving her elbows and wrist. Her malady was diagnosed as bullous systemic lupus erythematosus based on the immunological workup and biopsy of her skin lesions. The patient also complained of odynophagia and endoscopy revealed esophagitis dissecans superficialis which is a rare endoscopic finding characterized by sloughing of the esophageal mucosa. The bullous disorders typically associated with esophagitis dissecans superficialis are pemphigus and rarely bullous pemphigoid. However, this is the first reported case of bullous systemic lupus erythematosus associated with esophagitis dissecans superficialis. PMID:25821624

  12. Bullous Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Associated with Esophagitis Dissecans Superficialis

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus is one of the rare autoantibody mediated skin manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) demonstrating subepidermal blistering with neutrophilic infiltrate histologically. We present a case of a 40-year-old Hispanic female who presented with a several months' history of multiple blistering pruritic skin lesions involving the face and trunk, a photosensitive rash over the face and neck, swelling of the right neck lymph node, and joint pain involving her elbows and wrist. Her malady was diagnosed as bullous systemic lupus erythematosus based on the immunological workup and biopsy of her skin lesions. The patient also complained of odynophagia and endoscopy revealed esophagitis dissecans superficialis which is a rare endoscopic finding characterized by sloughing of the esophageal mucosa. The bullous disorders typically associated with esophagitis dissecans superficialis are pemphigus and rarely bullous pemphigoid. However, this is the first reported case of bullous systemic lupus erythematosus associated with esophagitis dissecans superficialis. PMID:25821624

  13. Esophageal involvement of pemphigus vulgaris associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sooyun; Park, Soo Jung; Kim, Sun Wook; Jin, Moo-Nyun; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Hyun Ju; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il

    2014-09-01

    Esophageal involvement of pemphigus vulgaris is rare, and when present, the most common presenting symptoms reported in the medical literature are odynophagia and dysphagia. Here, we present two cases of pemphigus vulgaris presenting with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage because of esophageal involvement of the disease. In case 1, a 41-year-old female patient with a prior diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris presented with hematemesis. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed diffuse mucosal exfoliation and oozing bleeding of the oropharynx and esophagus. The patient recovered after the administration of high-dose corticosteroids and immunosuppressants. In case 2, a 30-year-old female patient with known pemphigus vulgaris also presented with hematemesis, showing similar endoscopic findings to the first case. She also responded to the same treatment. Esophageal involvement of pemphigus vulgaris responds to high-dose corticosteroids and immunosuppressants. Thus, in patients with pemphigus vulgaris with signs or symptoms of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, an early endoscopy for the evaluation of esophageal involvement is beneficial. PMID:25325007

  14. Esophageal cancer presenting as a brain metastasis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    SPALLONE, ALDO; IZZO, CHIARA

    2013-01-01

    Carcinoma of unknown primary origin (CUP) is defined as the histological diagnosis of metastasis without the detection of a primary tumor. The incidence of CUP in all patients with a malignant disease has been reported to be between 3 and 15%. Esophageal cancer is the third most common type of cancer of the digestive tract and the seventh most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The overall incidence of the disease is highest in males >50 years old. Brain metastases have been reported in only 1.7–3.6% of all patients with different types of esophageal cancer. Brain metastasis as the presenting form of esophageal carcinoma is highly uncommon. The present study reports the case of a patient with an unknown primary tumor who presented with a cerebral metastasis, without extra-neurological symptoms. The CUP was subsequently diagnosed as an esophageal carcinoma. PMID:24137398

  15. [Management of the esophageal candidiasis by the primary care physician].

    PubMed

    Behrens, Garance; Bocherens, Astrid; Senn, Nicolas

    2014-05-14

    Esophageal candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic infections in patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This pathology is also found in patients without overt immunodeficiency. Other risk factors are known to be associated with this disease like inhaled or systemic corticosteroid treatment or proton-pump inhibitors and H2 receptor antagonists. In the absence of identified risk factors, a primary immune deficiency should be sought. Prevention of esophageal candidiasis is based primarily on the identification of risk factors, and a better control of them. This article presents a review of the physiopathology, clinical presentation and management of esophageal candidiasis by primary care physicians. We will also discuss ways of preventing esophageal candidiasis when necessary. PMID:24930154

  16. Buspirone, a new drug for the management of patients with ineffective esophageal motility?

    PubMed

    Scheerens, Charlotte; Tack, Jan; Rommel, Nathalie

    2015-06-01

    Ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) is the most frequently encountered esophageal motility disorder. Patients may present with a variety of symptoms, such as dysphagia, heartburn, odynophagia, and regurgitation. Over the past years, the landscape of esophageal motility testing has been revolutionized; however, our current treatment options for IEM still remain limited. Previous studies have suggested that buspirone, a serotonin receptor agonist, enhances esophageal peristalsis and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) function. Recent work provides the first evidence that buspirone may influence LES resting pressure in patients with systemic sclerosis. Future research should evaluate whether the beneficial effects of buspirone also apply to the broad clinical entity of esophageal dysphagia patients with IEM. PMID:26137300

  17. Buspirone, a new drug for the management of patients with ineffective esophageal motility?

    PubMed Central

    Scheerens, Charlotte; Tack, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) is the most frequently encountered esophageal motility disorder. Patients may present with a variety of symptoms, such as dysphagia, heartburn, odynophagia, and regurgitation. Over the past years, the landscape of esophageal motility testing has been revolutionized; however, our current treatment options for IEM still remain limited. Previous studies have suggested that buspirone, a serotonin receptor agonist, enhances esophageal peristalsis and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) function. Recent work provides the first evidence that buspirone may influence LES resting pressure in patients with systemic sclerosis. Future research should evaluate whether the beneficial effects of buspirone also apply to the broad clinical entity of esophageal dysphagia patients with IEM. PMID:26137300

  18. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for esophageal/gastroesophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nurkin, Steven J.; Fong, Mei Ka; Groman, Adrienne; Flaherty, Leayn; Malhotra, Usha; LeVea, Charles M.; Yendamuri, Sai; Warren, Graham W.; Nava, Hector R.; May, Kilian S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Esophageal/gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma is increasingly treated with trimodality therapy. We present our experience using carboplatin/paclitaxel and radiotherapy followed by surgery. Methods Consecutive patients with distal esophageal/GEJ adenocarcinoma (?T2 or N+) treated from July 2010 to October 2011 were identified. Treatment included neoadjuvant carboplatin/paclitaxel with concurrent radiotherapy (CRT) to 50.4 Gy using an IMRT technique and then Ivor Lewis esophagogastrectomy (ILE). PET/CT was performed prior to and after CRT. Patient/treatment characteristics and tumor response were analyzed. Results Over this timeframe, 16 patients completed trimodality therapy. All were male, median age of 60 years (45-72 years). All tumors were grade 2-3 with mean tumor length of 4.4 cm (1-9 cm). A median of 6 cycles (5-9 cycles) neoadjuvant carboplatin/paclitaxel were administered. Average time from diagnosis to CRT completion was 76 days (44-141 days) and 60 days (35-92 days) from CRT end to surgery. Neoadjuvant CRT was well tolerated with mean weight loss of 3.9 kg. All pts had R0 resections. No anastomotic leaks or perioperative mortality occurred. Mean hospital stay was 13 days (8-28 days). Pathologic complete response (pCR) was seen in 38% of patients, microscopic residual disease (isolated tumor cells or <2 mm) in 31%, and macroscopic residual disease remained in 31%. Mean SUV reduction was 41% (0-100%). Of 11 patients with ?35% SUV decrease, 45% had pCR and 27% had microscopic residual disease. Three patients had signet ring features. Of these, 2 had no SUV reduction and all had gross residual disease, including the only patient with positive nodal disease. Conclusions Trimodality therapy utilizing concurrent carboplatin/paclitaxel and radiotherapy to 50.4 Gy followed by surgery was well tolerated and resulted in significant pathologic complete response or minimal residual disease. Further investigation of predictive factors for response is needed to best tailor therapy in the management of esophageal/GEJ adenocarcinoma. PMID:23730509

  19. TGF? signaling inhibits goblet cell differentiation via SPDEF in conjunctival epithelium.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Heather A; Liu, Chia-Yang; Attia, Aria C; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A; Zhang, Yujin; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Guasch, Géraldine

    2014-12-01

    The ocular surface epithelia, including the stratified but non-keratinized corneal, limbal and conjunctival epithelium, in concert with the epidermal keratinized eyelid epithelium, function together to maintain eye health and vision. Abnormalities in cellular proliferation or differentiation in any of these surface epithelia are central in the pathogenesis of many ocular surface disorders. Goblet cells are important secretory cell components of various epithelia, including the conjunctiva; however, mechanisms that regulate goblet cell differentiation in the conjunctiva are not well understood. Herein, we report that conditional deletion of transforming growth factor ? receptor II (Tgfbr2) in keratin 14-positive stratified epithelia causes ocular surface epithelial hyperplasia and conjunctival goblet cell expansion that invaginates into the subconjunctival stroma in the mouse eye. We found that, in the absence of an external phenotype, the ocular surface epithelium develops properly, but young mice displayed conjunctival goblet cell expansion, demonstrating that TGF? signaling is required for normal restriction of goblet cells within the conjunctiva. We observed increased expression of SAM-pointed domain containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) in stratified conjunctival epithelial cells in Tgfbr2 cKO mice, suggesting that TGF? restricted goblet cell differentiation directly by repressing Spdef transcription. Gain of function of Spdef in keratin 14-positive epithelia resulted in the ectopic formation of goblet cells in the eyelid and peripheral cornea in adult mice. We found that Smad3 bound two distinct sites on the Spdef promoter and that treatment of keratin 14-positive cells with TGF? inhibited SPDEF activation, thereby identifying a novel mechanistic role for TGF? in regulating goblet cell differentiation. PMID:25377551

  20. Loss of Notch1 disrupts the barrier repair in the corneal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Movahedan, Asadolah; Afsharkhamseh, Neda; Sagha, Hossein M; Shah, Jarna R; Milani, Behrad Y; Milani, Farnoud Y; Logothetis, Hercules D; Chan, Chi-Chao; Djalilian, Ali R

    2013-01-01

    The corneal epithelium is the outermost layer of the cornea that directly faces the outside environment, hence it plays a critical barrier function. Previously, conditional loss of Notch1 on the ocular surface was found to cause inflammation and keratinization of the corneal epithelium. This was in part attributed to impaired vitamin A metabolism, loss of the meibomian glands and recurrent eyelid trauma. We hypothesized that Notch1 plays an essential role in the corneal epithelial barrier function and is a contributing factor in the pathologic changes in these mice. Notch1 was conditionally deleted in adult Notch1(flox/flox), K14-Cre-ERT(+/-) mice using hydroxy-tamoxifen. The results indicated that conditional deletion of Notch1 on the ocular surface leads to progressive impairment of the epithelial barrier function before the onset of corneal opacification and keratinization. Loss of the barrier was demonstrated both by an increase in in vivo corneal fluorescein staining and by enhanced penetration of a small molecule through the epithelium. Corneal epithelial wounding resulted in significant delay in recovery of the barrier function in conditional Notch1(-/-) mice compared to wild type. Mice with conditional deletion of Notch1 did not demonstrate any evidence of dry eyes based on aqueous tear production and had normal conjunctival goblet cells. In a calcium switch experiment in vitro, Notch1(-/-) cells demonstrated delayed membrane localization of the tight junction protein ZO-1 consistent with a defect in the epithelial tight junction formation. These findings highlight the role of Notch1 in epithelial differentiation and suggest that intrinsic defects in the corneal epithelial barrier recovery after wounding is an important contributing factor to the development of inflammatory keratinization in Notch1(-/-) mice. PMID:23874882

  1. Successful treatment with alectinib after crizotinib-induced esophageal ulceration.

    PubMed

    Yoneshima, Yasuto; Okamoto, Isamu; Takano, Tomotsugu; Enokizu, Aimi; Iwama, Eiji; Harada, Taishi; Takayama, Koichi; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2015-06-01

    Crizotinib was the first clinically available inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase ALK, and next-generation ALK inhibitors, such as alectinib, are now under development. Although crizotinib is generally well tolerated, severe esophageal injury has been reported as a rare but serious adverse event of crizotinib therapy. We now describe the successful treatment with alectinib of a patient who developed crizotinib-induced esophageal ulceration. PMID:25837798

  2. Paraneoplastic cutaneous lupus secondary to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Koritala, Thoyaja; Tworek, Joseph; Schapiro, Brian; Zolotarevsky, Eugene

    2015-06-01

    Sporadic subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) in an elderly man does not fit a typical demographic for the disease process. Using the McLean's criteria we were able to establish a temporal relationship between the patient's diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and his dermatosis, both of which responded to cytotoxic chemotherapy. The clinical presentation and progression of the clinical illness is supportive of a very unusual and not previously reported paraneoplastic SCLE secondary to esophageal SCC. PMID:26029469

  3. Esophageal ruptures: triage using the systemic inflammatory response syndrome score

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kouichi Furugaki; Junichi Yoshida; Koji Hokazono; Takuya Emoto; Jo Nakashima; Mayumi Ohyama; Toshiyuki Ishimitsu; Masahiro Shinohara; Kenichi Matsuo

    2011-01-01

    Esophageal rupture is a rare entity. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment may threaten the patient’s life. The decision for\\u000a surgical or nonsurgical treatment, however, remains controversial because advocates of both treatments have reported comparable\\u000a results. To quantify the decision making, we suggest the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) score for triage of\\u000a an esophageal rupture. Using this criterion for

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection inhibits reflux esophagitis by inducing atrophic gastritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoyuki Koike; Shuichi Ohara; Hitoshi Sekine; Katsunori Iijima; Katsuaki Kato; Tooru Shimosegawa; Takayoshi Toyota

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Although it is widely accepted that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is an important cause of atrophic gastritis, few studies have examined the relationship between H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and the occurrence of reflux esophagitis. The present study was aimed to examine the relationship between H. pylori infection, atrophic gastritis, and reflux esophagitis in Japan.METHODS:A total of 175 patients with

  5. Esophageal manometrics in patients with angina-like chest pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas L. Brand; Doris Martin; Charles E. Pope

    1977-01-01

    Fifty-eight patients with angina-like chest pain had esophageal manometric testing. Forty-three had no evidence of coronary artery disease at the time of referral or at subsequent contact; 15 patients were proven to have coronary artery disease. High-amplitude contraction waves were the most frequently found manometric abnormality (15 patients). Less frequent were increased duration of contractions, achalasia, and diffuse esophageal spasm;

  6. Androgens and esophageal cancer: What do we know?

    PubMed Central

    Sukocheva, Olga A; Li, Bin; Due, Steven L; Hussey, Damian J; Watson, David I

    2015-01-01

    Significant disparities exist between genders for the development and progression of several gastro-intestinal (GI) diseases including cancer. Differences in incidence between men vs women for colon, gastric and hepatocellular cancers suggest a role for steroid sex hormones in regulation of GI carcinogenesis. Involvement of intrinsic gender-linked mechanisms is also possible for esophageal adenocarcinoma as its incidence is disproportionally high among men. However, the cause of the observed gender differences and the potential role of androgens in esophageal carcinogenesis remains unclear, even though the cancer-promoting role of androgen receptors (AR) shown in other cancers such as prostate and bladder suggests this aspect warrants exploration. Several studies have demonstrated expression of ARs in esophageal cancer. However, only one study has suggested a potential link between AR signaling and outcome - poorer prognosis. Two groups have analyzed data from cohorts with prostate cancer and one of these found a decreased incidence of esophageal squamous and adenocarcinoma after androgen deprivation therapy. However, very limited information is available about the effects of androgen and AR-initiated signaling on esophageal cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Possible mechanisms for androgens/AR involvement in the regulation of esophageal cancer growth are considered, and the potential use of AR as a prognostic factor and clinical target is highlighted, although insufficient evidence is available to support clinical trials of novel therapies. As esophageal adenocarcinoma is a gender linked cancer with a large male predominance further studies are warranted to clarify the role of androgens and ARs in shaping intracellular signaling and genomic responses in esophageal cancer. PMID:26034350

  7. Beneficial Effects of Immediate Enteral Nutrition After Esophageal Cancer Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Aiko; Yutaka Yoshizumi; Yoshiaki Sugiura; Tomokazu Matsuyama; Yoshihisa Naito; Junichi Matsuzaki; Tadaaki Maehara

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of immediate enteral nutrition (EN) on nutritional status, immunological\\u000a competence, and the suppression of excessive inflammatory responses in patients following esophageal cancer surgery. Twenty-four\\u000a patients who underwent the same elective operation for thoracic esophageal carcinoma were randomized into an immediate enteral\\u000a nutrition (IEN) group who received EN from postoperative day (POD) 1

  8. Esophageal cancer: staging system and guidelines for staging and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Survival of esophageal cancer is improving but remains poor. Esophageal cancer stage is based on depth of tumor invasion, involvement of regional lymph nodes, and the presence or absence of metastatic disease. Appropriate work-up is critical to identify accurate pre-treatment staging so that both under-treatment and unnecessary treatment is avoided. Treatment strategy should follow guideline recommendations, and generally should be developed after multidisciplinary evaluation. PMID:24876933

  9. Usefulness of intralesional triamcinolone in treatment of benign esophageal strictures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakesh Kochhar; Govind K. Makharia

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: The cornerstone treatment for benign esophageal strictures is endoscopic dilation. There are reports suggesting that intralesional corticosteroid injection decreases the frequency of endoscopic dilation. Methods: Seventy-one patients (mean age 42.39 [17.52] years; range, 13-78 years) with benign esophageal strictures (corrosive 29, peptic 14, anastomotic 19, radiation-induced 9) were recruited for this study. All were being managed with a program

  10. Variability in Diagnostic Criteria for Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan S. Dellon; Ademola Aderoju; John T. Woosley; Robert S. Sandler; Nicholas J. Shaheen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging clinicopathologic entity defined by abnormal esophageal eosinophilic infiltration. Our understanding of this disease is hampered by the lack of a uniform diagnostic standard. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the range of diagnostic strategies and histologic criteria in the EoE literature.METHODS:The MEDLINE-indexed literature from 1950 through December 31, 2006 was independently

  11. Viewpoints on Acid-Induced Inflammatory Mediators in Esophageal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Harnett, Karen M; Rieder, Florian; Behar, Jose

    2010-01-01

    We have focused on understanding the onset of gastroesophageal reflux disease by examining the mucosal response to the presence of acid in the esophageal lumen. Upon exposure to HCl, inflammation of the esophagus begins with activation of the transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subfamily member-1 (TRPV1) in the mucosa, and production of IL-8, substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and platelet activating factor (PAF). Production of SP and CGRP, but not PAF, is abolished by the neural blocker tetrodotoxin suggesting that SP and CGRP are neurally released and that PAF arises from non neural pathways. Epithelial cells contain TRPV1 receptor mRNA and protein and respond to HCl and to the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin with production of PAF. PAF, SP and IL-8 act as chemokines, inducing migration of peripheral blood leukocytes. PAF and SP activate peripheral blood leukocytes inducing the production of H2O2. In circular muscle, PAF causes production of IL-6, and IL-6 causes production of additional H2O2, through activation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases. Among these, NADPH oxidase 5 cDNA is significantly up-regulated by exposure to PAF; H2O2 content of esophageal and lower esophageal sphincter circular muscle is elevated in human esophagitis, causing dysfunction of esophageal circular muscle contraction and reduction in esophageal sphincter tone. Thus esophageal keratinocytes, that constitute the first barrier to the refluxate, may also serve as the initiating cell type in esophageal inflammation, secreting inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines and affecting leukocyte recruitment and activity. PMID:21103419

  12. Physiological COX-2 Expression in Breast Epithelium Associates with COX-2 Levels in Ductal Carcinoma in Situ and Invasive Breast Cancer in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Fornetti, Jaime; Jindal, Sonali; Middleton, Kara A.; Borges, Virginia F.; Schedin, Pepper

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression is implicated in increased risk and poorer outcomes in breast cancer in young women. We investigated COX-2 regulation in normal premenopausal breast tissue and its relationship to malignancy in young women. Quantitative COX-2 immunohistochemistry was performed on adjacent normal and breast cancer tissues from 96 premenopausal women with known clinical reproductive histories, and on rat mammary glands with distinct ovarian hormone exposures. COX-2 expression in the normal breast epithelium varied more than 40-fold between women and was associated with COX-2 expression levels in ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive cancer. Normal breast COX-2 expression was independent of known breast cancer prognostic indicators, including tumor stage and clinical subtype, indicating that factors regulating physiological COX-2 expression may be the primary drivers of COX-2 expression in breast cancer. Ovarian hormones, particularly at pregnancy levels, were identified as modulators of COX-2 in normal mammary epithelium. However, serial breast biopsy analysis in nonpregnant premenopausal women suggested relatively stable baseline levels of COX-2 expression, which persisted independent of menstrual cycling. These data provide impetus to investigate how baseline COX-2 expression is regulated in premenopausal breast tissue because COX-2 levels in normal breast epithelium may prove to be an indicator of breast cancer risk in young women, and predict the chemopreventive and therapeutic efficacy of COX-2 inhibitors in this population. PMID:24518566

  13. Reconstruction techniques for hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming; He, Xiaotian; Wu, Duoguang; Han, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of perioperative complications in patients with hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal carcinoma who underwent three types of esophageal defect reconstruction procedures. Methods Clinical data from 105 patients with hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal carcinoma who were treated at SUN YAT-SEN Memorial Hospital from January 2003 to February 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Among these patients, 45 underwent a pectoral major muscle skin flap reconstruction following carcinoma resection (group A); 32 patients were treated with stomach replacement of the esophagus (group B), and 28 patients were treated with tube stomach replacement of the esophagus (group C). The incidences of perioperative complications were compared among these three groups. Results The incidences of anastomotic leakage, neck swelling, and incision infection were significantly lower in group C than in group A (P<0.05). The incidences of anastomotic leakage, reflux esophagitis, and thoracic stomach syndrome were significantly lower in group C than in group B (P<0.05). Conclusions Tube stomach replacement of the esophagus in the setting of hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal carcinoma reduced the incidence of complications; therefore, it is a reasonable procedure for the management of esophageal defects. PMID:25922724

  14. Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program discusses Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease, or GERD, including the anatomy of the digestive system, causes and effects, signs and symptoms, possible complications, and treatment options for GERD with their benefits and side effects. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  15. Characteristics of brain metastases from esophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takahiro; Kuroda, Jun-ichiro; Takezaki, Tatsuya; Shinojima, Naoki; Hide, Takuichiro; Makino, Keishi; Nakamura, Hideo; Yano, Shigetoshi; Nishi, Toru; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Esophageal carcinoma (EC) is a major malignancy with a poor prognosis. Although esophageal cancers rarely metastasize to the brain, the number of patients diagnosed with brain metastases (BM) from EC is steadily increasing. Therefore, the risk factors for BM from EC should be known. Here we reviewed our experiences and the previous literature regarding BM from EC. Methods: Between 2000 and 2013, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical features and neurological findings of 19 patients diagnosed with and treated for BM from EC to determine the clinical risk factors and features. Results: In all patients, the lesions were partially or completed located in the thoracic esophagus, and the average size of the EC lesion at diagnosis was 5.8 ± 2.9 cm, which was smaller than the previously reported size of EC lesions accompanied by BM. Patients without lung metastases were more common than those with lung metastases. The lesions in the 13 patients included squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) in 9 (69.2%) and small cell carcinoma (SmCC) in 3 (23.0%). Six patients were not examined. Although there was no trend toward a higher incidence of BM in patients with adenocarcinoma and SqCC, this trend was observed in patients with SmCC. Excluding a single patient with SmCC, all patients had beyond stage III disease at EC diagnosis. Conclusions: Our study suggests that BM can occur in patients with EC lesions smaller than those previously reported; moreover, SmCC may be a risk factor for BM from EC. PMID:25317352

  16. Maturation and beyond: proteins in the developmental continuum from enamel epithelium to junctional epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Ganss, Bernhard; Abbarin, Nastaran

    2014-01-01

    Enamel, covering the surface of teeth, is the hardest substance in mammals. It is designed to last a lifetime in spite of severe environmental challenges. Enamel is formed in a biomineralization process that is essentially divided into secretory and maturation stages. While the molecular events of enamel formation during the secretory stage have been elucidated to some extent, the mechanisms of enamel maturation are less defined, and little is known about the molecules present beyond the maturation stage. Several genes, all located within the secreted calcium-binding phosphoprotein (SCPP) gene cluster, were recently shown to be expressed during the developmental continuum from maturation stage ameloblasts to junctional epithelium (JE). This review introduces four such genes and their protein products, and presents our current state of knowledge on their roles, primarily in enamel formation and JE biology. The discovery of these proteins, and a more detailed analysis of their biological functions, will likely contribute to a more thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms of enamel maturation and dentogingival attachment. PMID:25309457

  17. Electrophysiological Effects of Corticosteroids on the Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl-Friedrich Arndt; Anouar Sari; Magali Ferre; Eric Parrat; Didier Courtas; Jerome De Seze; Jean-Claude Hache; Regis Matran

    PURPOSE. As corticosteroids appear to intervene in pathogene- sis of central serous chorioretinopathy, ion transport changes within the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) might be involved. Electrophysiological responses to corticosteroid administration were recorded in vivo and in vitro. METHODS. Clinical study: The standing ocular potential was recorded during intravenous (IV) infusion of glucose 5% and glucose 5% 1 prednisolone 0.2% in

  18. Quantum Dot Distribution in the Olfactory Epithelium After Nasal Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzotto, D.; De Marchis, S.

    2010-10-01

    Nanoparticles are used in a wide range of human applications from industrial to bio-medical fields. However, the unique characteristics of nanoparticles, such as the small size, large surface area per mass and high reactivity raises great concern on the adverse effects of these particles on ecological systems and human health. There are several pioneer studies reporting translocation of inhaled particulates to the brain through a potential neuronal uptake mediated by the olfactory nerve (1, 2, 3). However, no direct evidences have been presented up to now on the pathway followed by the nanoparticles from the nose to the brain. In addition to a neuronal pathway, nanoparticles could gain access to the central nervous system through extracellular pathways (perineuronal, perivascular and cerebrospinal fluid paths). In the present study we investigate the localization of intranasally delivered fluorescent nanoparticles in the olfactory epithelium. To this purpose we used quantum dots (QDs), a model of innovative fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals commonly used in cell and animal biology (4). Intranasal treatments with QDs were performed acutely on adult CD1 mice. The olfactory epithelium was collected and analysed by confocal microscopy at different survival time after treatment. Data obtained indicate that the neuronal components of the olfactory epithelium are not preferentially involved in QDs uptake, thus suggesting nanoparticles can cross the olfactory epithelium through extracellular pathways.

  19. Introduction The vertebrate retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE)

    E-print Network

    Tabin, Cliff

    5139 Introduction The vertebrate retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) derive from domains forms the peripheral retina, a region that gives rise to several pigmented and nonpigmented, in a mixed genetic background, the progressive appearance of pigmented cells in the neural retina

  20. Conditional gene expression in the respiratory epithelium of the mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Karina T. Perl; Jay W. Tichelaar; Jeffrey A. Whitsett

    2002-01-01

    Transgenic mouse models mediating conditional temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression to the respiratory epithelium were developed utilizing the reverse tetracycline transactivator (rtTA) expressed under the control of SP-C and CCSP promoters. Luciferase activity was detected in the lungs of fetal and adult double transgenic mice but was not detected in other tissues or in single transgenic mice. In

  1. Transcriptional Regulation of Neurogenesis in the Olfactory Epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danette J. Nicolay; J. Ronald Doucette; Adil J. Nazarali

    2006-01-01

      1. The olfactory epithelium (OE) is a simple structure that gives rise to olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) throughout life.2. Numerous transcription factors (TFs) are expressed in regions of the OE which contain progenitor cells and OSNs. The function of some of these TFs in OSN development has been elucidated with the aide of transgenic knockout mice.3. We review here the

  2. Electrophysiological effects of basolateral [Na+] in Necturus gallbladder epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GUILLERMO A. ALTENBERG; JAMES S. STODDARD

    1992-01-01

    In Necturus gallbladder epithelium, lowering serosal (Na ÷) ((Na+)3 reversibly hyperpolarized the basolateral cell membrane voltage (Vc,) and reduced the fractional resistance of the apical membrane (fR~). Previous results have suggested that there is no sizable basolateral Na + conductance and that there are apical Ca~+-activated K ÷ channels. Here, we studied the mechanisms of the electro- physiological effects of

  3. Microwave effect on camphor binding to rat olfactory epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Philippova; V. I. Novoselov; M. F. Bystrova; S. I. Alekseev

    1988-01-01

    Microwave radiation decreased specific camphor binding to a membrane fraction of rat epithelium but not to a Triton X-100 extract of this fraction. Inhibition of the ligand binding did not depend on the modulation frequency of the microwave field in the region 1-100 Hz and was not a linear function of specific absorption rate (SAR). The decreased ligand binding was

  4. Molecular and pharmacological characterization of muscarinic receptors in retinal pigment epithelium: role in light-adaptive

    E-print Network

    Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    Molecular and pharmacological characterization of muscarinic receptors in retinal pigment epithelium: role in light-adaptive pigment movements Prasad V. Phatarpekar, Simon F. Durdan, Chad M. Copeland pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill fish. Pigment granule

  5. Gene Expression Analysis of Zebrafish Melanocytes, Iridophores, and Retinal Pigmented Epithelium Reveals

    E-print Network

    Mitra, Rob

    Gene Expression Analysis of Zebrafish Melanocytes, Iridophores, and Retinal Pigmented Epithelium of America Abstract In order to facilitate understanding of pigment cell biology, we developed a method to concomitantly purify melanocytes, iridophores, and retinal pigmented epithelium from zebrafish, and analyzed

  6. Gastric mesenchymal myofibroblasts maintain stem cell activity and proliferation of murine gastric epithelium in vitro.

    PubMed

    Katano, Takahito; Ootani, Akifumi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanida, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Ozeki, Keiji; Kataoka, Hiromi; Joh, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Stem cells are influenced by a microenvironmental niche that includes mesenchymal cells. We established a novel long-term method for primary mouse glandular stomach culture with mesenchymal myofibroblasts to investigate gastric epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. A gastric mesenchymal myofibroblast (GMF) cell line was established from mouse glandular stomach. Glandular stomach cells from neonatal mice and GMF cells were co-cultured in a collagen gel. Cultured stomach cells yielded expanding sphere-like structures. In the GMF co-culture system, the number and size of gastrospheres were increased compared with control cultures (P = 0.009 and 0.008, respectively). Immunohistochemistry showed cells positive for human gastric mucin, HIK1083, and chromogranin A, indicating differentiation into surface mucous cells, mucous neck cells, and enteroendocrine cells, respectively. RNA in situ hybridization for Lgr5 showed Lgr5(+) stem cells in the cultured gastrospheres. Lgr5(+) cells were observed persistently in the epithelium of gastrospheres in the GMF co-culture system for 2 months. GMFs allowed the cultured gastric epithelium to maintain active proliferation similar to that seen in vivo. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that Gas1 expression was higher in GMFs (P = 0.0445), and Hoxc8, Notch1, and Sox10 expressions were higher in intestinal mesenchymal myofibroblasts (P = 0.0003, 0.0143, and 0.0488, respectively). We show the potential role of GMFs in sustaining Lgr5(+) stem cell activity and affecting normal gastric epithelial differentiation and proliferation. PMID:25546442

  7. HOXA10 Inhibits Kruppel-Like Factor 9 Expression in the Human Endometrial Epithelium1

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hongling; Sarno, Jennifer; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2010-01-01

    Kruppel-like factor 9 (KLF9) is a zinc finger transcription factor that regulates estrogen and progesterone action by modulating the activity of progesterone receptor (PGR). The transition from proliferative to secretory endometrial epithelium involves loss of estrogen receptor/PGR expression and loss of direct response to sex steroids. HOXA10 partially mediates progesterone responsiveness in the endometrium. Here, we demonstrate that HOXA10 directly regulates KLF9 in endometrial epithelial cells and not in stromal cells. Immunohistochemistry performed on endometrial tissue obtained from normal, reproductive-age women revealed that KLF9 expression was decreased in the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle compared to the proliferative phase. In vitro, HOXA10 transfection of human endometrial epithelial cells (Ishikawa), but not stromal cells (HESC), resulted in a greater than 50% decrease in KLF9 mRNA and protein expression. Reporter constructs driven by the KLF9 promoter were repressed by cotransfection with HOXA10. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to demonstrate direct binding of HOXA10 to the KLF9 promoter. Targeted mutation of the HOXA10-binding site in the KLF9 promoter resulted in loss of HOXA10 binding and loss of repression by HOXA10 in reporter assays. HOXA10 directly and selectively repressed KLF9 expression in endometrial epithelial cells. HOXA10 repression of KLF9 likely contributes to the loss of sex steroid responsiveness in secretory-phase endometrial epithelium. PMID:20463357

  8. A microfluidic device to apply shear stresses to polarizing ciliated airway epithelium using air flow.

    PubMed

    Trieu, Dennis; Waddell, Thomas K; McGuigan, Alison P

    2014-11-01

    Organization of airway epithelium determines ciliary beat direction and coordination for proper mucociliary clearance. Fluidic shear stresses have the potential to influence ciliary organization. Here, an in vitro fluidic flow system was developed for inducing long-term airflow shear stresses on airway epithelium with a view to influencing epithelial organization. Our system consists of a fluidic device for cell culture, integrated into a humidified airflow circuit. The fluidic device has a modular design and is made from a combination of polystyrene and adhesive components incorporated into a 6-well filter membrane insert. We demonstrate the system operates within physiologically relevant shear and pressure ranges and estimate the shear stress exerted on the epithelial cell layer as a result of air flow using a computational model. For both the bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS2B and primary human tracheal airway epithelial cells, we demonstrate that cells remain viable within the device when exposed to airflow for 24?h and that normal differentiation and cilia formation occurs. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of our device for exploring the impact of exposing cells to airflow: our tool enables quantification of cytoskeletal organization, and is compatible with in situ bead assays to assess the orientation of cilia beating. PMID:25553181

  9. ?-Catenin–SOX2 signaling regulates the fate of developing airway epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Shuichi; Chen, Huaiyong; Que, Jianwen; Brockway, Brian L.; Drake, Jeffrey A.; Snyder, Joshua C.; Randell, Scott H.; Stripp, Barry R.

    2012-01-01

    Wnt–?-catenin signaling regulates cell fate during organ development and postnatal tissue maintenance, but its contribution to specification of distinct lung epithelial lineages is still unclear. To address this question, we used a Cre recombinase (Cre)-LoxP approach to activate canonical Wnt signaling ectopically in developing lung endoderm. We found that persistent activation of canonical Wnt signaling within distal lung endoderm was permissive for normal development of alveolar epithelium, yet led to the loss of developing bronchiolar epithelium and ectasis of distal conducting airways. Activation of canonical Wnt led to ectopic expression of a lymphoid-enhancing factor and a T-cell factor (LEF and TCF, respectively) and absence of SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2) and tumor protein p63 (p63) expression in proximal derivatives. Conditional loss of SOX2 in airways phenocopied epithelial differentiation defects observed with ectopic activation of canonical Wnt. Our data suggest that Wnt negatively regulates a SOX2-dependent signaling program required for developmental progression of the bronchiolar lineage. PMID:22421361

  10. Wnt-Responsive Lgr5+ Globose Basal Cells Function as Multipotent Olfactory Epithelium Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mengfei; Tian, Shenghe; Yang, Xiaoling; Lane, Andrew P.; Reed, Randall R.

    2014-01-01

    Persistent neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium provides a unique model to study neural stem cell self-renewal and fate determination. In the olfactory neuroepithelium, globose basal cells (GBCs) are considered to be the direct progenitors of olfactory neurons. However, the study of neurogenesis from GBCs has been impeded by the paucity of GBC-specific markers. Here we report that Lgr5, a recently discovered adult stem cell marker, is exclusively expressed in GBCs in neonatal and adult mice. Lgr5+ cells display characteristics of cycling stem cells, including Ki67 expression and EdU incorporation. Lineage tracing analysis demonstrates that Lgr5+ GBCs regenerate multiple cell types under normal turnover condition or after olfactory lesion. Furthermore, upregulation or downregulation of Wnt signaling in vivo indicates a key role of Wnt signaling not only in maintaining Lgr5+ cell proliferation and promoting neuroregeneration, but also in delaying sensory neuron maturation. Together, our observations provided new insights into the dynamics of neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium. PMID:24920630

  11. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    PubMed

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. PMID:24993944

  12. Targeted deletion of Dicer disrupts lens morphogenesis, corneal epithelium stratification, and whole eye development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Piatigorsky, Joram

    2009-01-01

    Dicer, a ribonuclease essential for miRNA processing, is expressed abundantly in developing mouse cornea and lens. We studied the roles of Dicer and miRNAs in eye development by conditionally deleting the Dicer gene in the mouse lens and corneal epithelium. Adult Dicer conditional null (DicerCN) mice had severe microphthalmia with no discernible lens and a poorly stratified corneal epithelium. Targeted deletion of Dicer effectively inhibited miRNA processing in the developing lens at 12.5 day of embryogenesis (E12.5). Lens development initiated normally but underwent progressive dystrophy between E14.5 and E18.5. Microarray analysis revealed activation of P53 signaling in DicerCN lenses at E13.5, consistent with increased apoptosis and reduced cell proliferation between E12.5 and E14.5. Expression of Pax6 and other lens developmental transcription factors were not greatly affected between E12.5 and E14.5 but decreased as the lens degenerated. Our data indicated an indispensible role for Dicer and miRNAs in lens and corneal development. PMID:19681134

  13. Expression of Bmi-1 and PAI-1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ya-Lou; Chen, Hong-Ming; Pu, Hong-Wei; Ma, Wen-Jing; Li, Xiao-Mei; Ma, Hong; Chen, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the correlation between invasiveness, migration and prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and expression of the B-cell-specific Moloney leukemia virus insert site 1 (Bmi-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). METHODS: Eighty previously untreated patients who underwent surgical excision of ESCC were included. The expression of Bmi-1 and PAI-1 was examined immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary tissue specimens. The relationships between the expression of Bmi-1 and PAI-1, the clinicopathologic features of ESCC, and the survival rate of ESCC patients were also discussed. The correlation between Bmi-1 and PAI-1 protein expression in ESCC was analyzed. The relationship between Bmi-1 and PAI-1 expression and ESCC prognosis was evaluated using a Cox regression model and Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis. RESULTS: The rates of positive Bmi-1 and PAI-1 expression in ESCC were higher than those in normal esophageal tissue (P < 0.05). The expression of Bmi-1 and PAI-1 was correlated with depth of invasion and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05), but not with patient age, tumor size or nationality (P > 0.05). The expression of Bmi-1 was positively correlated with that of PAI-1 (P < 0.05). The 10-year overall survival rate for all patients was 20% (16/80). Univariate Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with high expression of esophageal PAI-1 and Bmi-1 had lower survival, however, the difference was not statistically significant. Cox multivariate analysis showed that PAI-1 and Bmi-1 were not independent factors for survival rate, while the depth of tumor invasion and metastasis were independent factors affecting patient survival. CONCLUSION: The expression of Bmi-1 and PAI-1 plays a role in ESCC progression, and may be used as a prognostic marker in ESCC. PMID:24833884

  14. Inflammatory and microRNA Gene Expression as Prognostic Classifiers of Barrett's Associated Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Giang Huong; Schetter, Aaron J.; Chou, David B.; Bowman, Elise D.; Zhao, Ronghua; Hawkes, Jason E.; Mathe, Ewy A.; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Zhao, Yiqiang; Budhu, Anuradha; Hagiwara, Nobutoshi; Wang, Xin Wei; Miyashita, Masao; Casson, Alan G.; Harris, Curtis C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Esophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive and deadly forms of cancer; highlighting the need to identify biomarkers for early detection and prognostic classification. Our recent studies have identified inflammatory gene and microRNA signatures derived from tumor and nontumor tissues as prognostic biomarkers of hepatocellular, lung, and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Here, we examine the relationship between expression of these inflammatory genes and miRNA expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma and patient survival. Experimental Design We measured the expression of 23 inflammation-associated genes in tumors and adjacent normal tissues from 93 patients (58 Barrett's and 35 Sporadic adenocarcinomas) by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. These data were used to build an inflammatory risk model, based on multivariate Cox regression, to predict survival in a training cohort (n=47). We then determined if this model could predict survival in a cohort of 46 patients. Expression data for miRNA-375 was available for these patients and was combined with inflammatory gene expression. Results IFN?, IL-1?, IL-8, IL-21, IL-23, and PRG expression in tumor and nontumor samples were each associated with poor prognosis based on Cox regression ([Z-score]>1.5) and therefore, were used to generate an inflammatory risk score (IRS). Patients with a high IRS had poor prognosis compared to those with a low IRS in the training (P=0.002) and test (P=0.012) cohorts. This association was stronger in the group with Barrett's history. When combining with miRNA-375, the combined IRS/miR signature was an improved prognostic classifier than either one alone. Conclusion Transcriptional profiling of inflammation-associated genes and miRNA expression in resected esophageal Barrett's associated adenocarcinoma tissues may have clinical utility as predictors of prognosis. PMID:20947516

  15. Clinical esophageal pH recording: A technical review for practice guideline development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J Kahrilas; Eamonn M. M Quigley

    1996-01-01

    Our present concept of peptic esophagitis dates back to 1935, when Winkelstein suggested that gastric secretions were the cause of mucosal damage observed in peptic esophagitis.1GASTROENTEROLOGY 1996;110-1982-1996

  16. Gene Expression Profiling of Zebrafish Embryonic Retinal Pigment Epithelium In Vivo

    E-print Network

    Ma, Ping

    Gene Expression Profiling of Zebrafish Embryonic Retinal Pigment Epithelium In Vivo Yuk Fai Leung,1 on the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a thin layer of cells that underlies the neural retina. Despite its im. 2007;48:881­890) DOI:10.1167/iovs.06- 0723 The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a thin monolayer

  17. Does Dysphagia Indicate Recurrence of Benign Esophageal Strictures?

    PubMed Central

    Borgström, Anders; Fork, Frans-Thomas; Lövdahl, Eje

    1995-01-01

    Esophageal dilatation in dysphagic patients with benign strictures is usually considered successful if the patients' dysphagia is alleviated. However, the relation between dysphagia and the diameter of a stricture is not well understood. Moreover, the dysphagia may also be caused by an underlying esophageal motor disorder. In order to compare symptoms and objective measurements of esophageal stricture, 28 patients were studied with interview and a radiologic esophagram. The latter included swallowing of a solid bolus. All patients underwent successful balloon dilatation at least one month prior to this study. Recurrence of a stricture with a diameter of less than 13 mm was diagnosed by the barium swallow in 21 patients. Recurrence of dysphagia was seen in 15 patients. Thirteen patients denied any swallowing symptoms. Chest pain was present in 9 patients. Of 15 patients with dysphagia 2 (13%) had no narrowing but severe esophageal dysmotility. Of 13 patients without dysphagia 9 (69%) had a stricture with a diameter of 13 mm or less. Of 21 patients with a stricture of 13 mm or less 14 (67%) were symptomatic while 7 (33%) were asymptomatic. Four of 11 patients with retrosternal pain had a stricture of less than 10 mm. Three patients with retrosternal pain and obstruction had severe esophageal dysmotility. Whether or not the patients have dysphagia may be more related to diet and eating habits than to the true diameter of their esophageal narrowing. We conclude that the clinical history is non-reliable for evaluating the results of esophageal stricture dilatation. In order to get an objective measurement of therapeutic outcome, barium swallow including a solid bolus is recommended. PMID:18493375

  18. Esophageal reflexes modulate frontoparietal response in neonates: Novel application of concurrent NIRS and provocative esophageal manometry

    PubMed Central

    Pakiraih, Joanna F.; Hasenstab, Kathryn A.; Dar, Irfaan; Gao, Xiaoyu; Bates, D. Gregory; Kashou, Nasser H.

    2014-01-01

    Central and peripheral neural regulation of swallowing and aerodigestive reflexes is unclear in human neonates. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive method to measure changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbD). Pharyngoesophageal manometry permits evaluation of aerodigestive reflexes. Modalities were combined to investigate feasibility and to test neonatal frontoparietal cortical changes during pharyngoesophageal (visceral) stimulation and/or swallowing. Ten neonates (45.6 ± 3.0 wk postmenstrual age, 4.1 ± 0.5 kg) underwent novel pharyngoesophageal manometry concurrent with NIRS. To examine esophagus-brain interactions, we analyzed cortical hemodynamic response (HDR) latency and durations during aerodigestive provocation and esophageal reflexes. Data are presented as means ± SE or percent. HDR rates were 8.84 times more likely with basal spontaneous deglutition compared with sham stimuli (P = 0.004). Of 182 visceral stimuli, 95% were analyzable for esophageal responses, 38% for HDR, and 36% for both. Of analyzable HDR (n = 70): 1) HbO concentration (?mol/l) baseline 1.5 ± 0.7 vs. 3.7 ± 0.7 poststimulus was significant (P = 0.02), 2) HbD concentration (?mol/l) between baseline 0.1 ± 0.4 vs. poststimulus ?0.5 ± 0.4 was not significant (P = 0.73), and 3) hemispheric lateralization was 21% left only, 29% right only, and 50% bilateral. During concurrent esophageal and NIRS responses (n = 66): 1) peristaltic reflexes were present in 74% and HDR in 61% and 2) HDR was 4.75 times more likely with deglutition reflex vs. secondary peristaltic reflex (P = 0.016). Concurrent NIRS with visceral stimulation is feasible in neonates, and frontoparietal cortical activation is recognized. Deglutition contrasting with secondary peristalsis is related to cortical activation, thus implicating higher hierarchical aerodigestive protective functional neural networks. PMID:24789204

  19. Esophageal reflexes modulate frontoparietal response in neonates: Novel application of concurrent NIRS and provocative esophageal manometry.

    PubMed

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Pakiraih, Joanna F; Hasenstab, Kathryn A; Dar, Irfaan; Gao, Xiaoyu; Bates, D Gregory; Kashou, Nasser H

    2014-07-01

    Central and peripheral neural regulation of swallowing and aerodigestive reflexes is unclear in human neonates. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive method to measure changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbD). Pharyngoesophageal manometry permits evaluation of aerodigestive reflexes. Modalities were combined to investigate feasibility and to test neonatal frontoparietal cortical changes during pharyngoesophageal (visceral) stimulation and/or swallowing. Ten neonates (45.6 ± 3.0 wk postmenstrual age, 4.1 ± 0.5 kg) underwent novel pharyngoesophageal manometry concurrent with NIRS. To examine esophagus-brain interactions, we analyzed cortical hemodynamic response (HDR) latency and durations during aerodigestive provocation and esophageal reflexes. Data are presented as means ± SE or percent. HDR rates were 8.84 times more likely with basal spontaneous deglutition compared with sham stimuli (P = 0.004). Of 182 visceral stimuli, 95% were analyzable for esophageal responses, 38% for HDR, and 36% for both. Of analyzable HDR (n = 70): 1) HbO concentration (?mol/l) baseline 1.5 ± 0.7 vs. 3.7 ± 0.7 poststimulus was significant (P = 0.02), 2) HbD concentration (?mol/l) between baseline 0.1 ± 0.4 vs. poststimulus -0.5 ± 0.4 was not significant (P = 0.73), and 3) hemispheric lateralization was 21% left only, 29% right only, and 50% bilateral. During concurrent esophageal and NIRS responses (n = 66): 1) peristaltic reflexes were present in 74% and HDR in 61% and 2) HDR was 4.75 times more likely with deglutition reflex vs. secondary peristaltic reflex (P = 0.016). Concurrent NIRS with visceral stimulation is feasible in neonates, and frontoparietal cortical activation is recognized. Deglutition contrasting with secondary peristalsis is related to cortical activation, thus implicating higher hierarchical aerodigestive protective functional neural networks. PMID:24789204

  20. Contractile profile of esophageal and gastric fundus strips in experimental doxorubicin-induced esophageal atresia

    PubMed Central

    Capeto, F.A.; Lima, F.J.B.; Okoba, W.; Ramos, F.L.; Messias, T.F.A.; Rigonatto, G.A.; Sbragia, L.; Magalhães, P.J.C.; Melo-Filho, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal atresia (EA) is characterized by esophageal and gastric motility changes secondary to developmental and postsurgical damage. This study evaluated the in vitro contractile profile of the distal esophagus and gastric fundus in an experimental model of EA induced by doxorubicin (DOXO). Wistar pregnant rats received DOXO 2.2 mg/kg on the 8th and 9th gestational days. On day 21.5, fetuses were collected, sacrificed, and divided into groups: control, DOXO without EA (DOXO-EA), and DOXO with EA (DOXO+EA). Strips from the distal esophagus and gastric fundus were mounted on a wire myograph and isolated organ-bath system, respectively, and subjected to increasing concentrations of carbamylcholine chloride (carbachol, CCh). The isolated esophagus was also stimulated with increasing concentrations of KCl. In esophagus, the concentration-effect curves were reduced in response to CCh in the DOXO+EA and DOXO-EA groups compared to the control group (P<0.05). The maximum effect values (Emax) for DOXO+EA and DOXO-EA were significantly lower than control (P<0.05), but the half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) values were not significantly different when the three groups were compared (P>0.05). In response to KCl, the distal esophagus samples in the three groups were not statistically different with regard to Emax or EC50 values (P>0.05). No significant difference was noted for EC50 or Emax values in fundic strips stimulated with CCh (P>0.05). In conclusion, exposure of dams to DOXO during gestation inhibited the contractile behavior of esophageal strips from offspring in response to CCh but not KCl, regardless of EA induction. The gastric fundus of DOXO-exposed offspring did not have altered contractile responsiveness to cholinergic stimulation. PMID:25760030

  1. MMP-2 and DcR3 expression in esophageal cancer tissue and correlation with patient survival

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Ran; Du, Ya-Qi; Wang, Ying; Chen, Yu-Shuai; Wang, Bing-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to explore the expression of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) and the matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in esophageal carcinoma and their relationship with patient survival. Methods: The EnVisionTM immunohistochemistry method was used to examine DcR3 and MMP-2 expression in 150 surgical biopsies of esophageal carcinoma. Expression level was compared with clinical indices and with patient survival. Results: In cancer tissues, the positive expression rate of DcR3 and MMP-2 was 54.00% and 54.67% respectively; this was higher than levels in adjacent normal tissue. DcR3 and MMP-2 were positively correlated with carcinoma size, lymphatic metastasis, invasion degree, clinical stage and 3-year survival. DcR3 and MMP-2 were not correlated with gender, age and tumor degree of differentiation. DcR3 and MMP-2 were positively correlated between in the two groups (r = 0.37, P < 0.01). Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that higher rates of DcR3 and MMP-2 expression correlated with lower survival. Conclusions: Determining DcR3 and MMP-2 expression may be useful for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of patients with esophageal carcinoma. PMID:24040480

  2. NORMAL NASAL GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS USING CDNA ARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normal Nasal Gene Expression Levels Using cDNA Array Technology. The nasal epithelium is a target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. To detect and analyze genetic events which contribute to nasal tumor development, we first defined the gene expressi...

  3. Nuclear Matrix Proteins in Normal and Breast Cancer Cells1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parvinderjit S. Khanuja; Jeffrey E. Lehr; Herbert D. Soule; Suresh K. Gehani; Anthony C. Noto; Sajal Choudhury; Ruey Chen; Kenneth J. Pienta

    The progression from normal breast epithelium to a malignant pheno- type may depend on changes in genetic events as well as failure of host mechanisms. Intermediate biomarkers are needed to more effectively identify malignant progression as well as to develop the potential for more specific treatments and prevention strategies. The nuclear matrix is the RNA-protein network which forms the skeleton

  4. Pralatrexate and Oxaliplatin in Treating Patients With Unresectable or Metastatic Esophageal, Stomach, or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-05

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus; Stage III Esophageal Cancer; Stage III Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  5. Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Esophageal Cancer Patients in Northwest Iran - Very Low Incidence of Adenocarcinomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yousef Bafandeh; Shahriar Hashemzadeh; Mohsen Sokouti; Heidar Esmaili

    2006-01-01

    Aims: Iran is one of the known countries with a high incidence of esophageal cancer in Asia .We have recently shown that the incidence of Barrett's esophagus , a precancerous lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma (AC) is very low in the north -west of the country . Therefore, we hypothesized that esophageal AC would also be lower than in the Western

  6. Clinical Symptoms in Endoscopic Reflux Esophagitis: Evaluation in 8031 Adult Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuyo Okamoto; Ryuichi Iwakiri; Mitsuru Mori; Megumi Hara; Kayoko Oda; Akiko Danjo; Akifumi Ootani; Hiroyuki Sakata; Kazuma Fujimoto

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between symptoms and endoscopic findings in reflux esophagitis. Subjects, 8031 persons without medication for gastrointestinal disease, were briefly asked about the presence of heartburn, dysphagia, odynophagia, and acid regurgitation by associated medical staff before endoscopy for assessment of esophagitis utilizing the Los Angeles Classification. Endoscopically, 1199 (14.9%) were classified as positive reflux esophagitis,

  7. Thoughts on the Complex Relationship Between Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart Jon Spechler; Robert M. Genta; Rhonda F. Souza

    2007-01-01

    Recent data suggest that the interaction between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and eosinophilic esophagitis can be complex, and that the notion of establishing a clear distinction between the two disorders may be too simplistic. There are at least four situations in which GERD might be associated with esophageal eosinophils: (a) GERD causes esophageal injury that results in a mild eosinophilic

  8. Clarifying Normalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  9. Modulation of morphological changes of endometrial surface epithelium by administration of composite root extract in albino rat.

    PubMed

    Sarma, H N; Mahanta, H C

    2000-07-01

    In the present investigation, we attempted to study the modulation of morphological changes of endometrial surface epithelium by Scanning Electron Microscope (SCEM) in the adult albino rat after oral administration of roots extract. The origin of this experiment lies in the fact that the dry powdered roots of five plants, i.e., Plumbago rosea, Borassus flabellifer, Carica papaya (male), Dolichos lablab, and Shorea robusta in mixed form, has been traditionally used by the folk women of this region through oral route during the first seven days of a menstrual cycle to prevent conception. Ethanolic crude extract of these roots in composite form which has been referred to here as composite root extract (CRE) was administered to the adult female albino rat in a dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight/day through oral route continuously for 12 days starting from proestrous. The observations under SCEM showed that administration of the CRE induced morphological changes of the endometrial surface epithelium in albino rat uterus. The characteristic smooth regular pattern of normal epithelium appears to have been changed at places by haphazardly oriented groups of cells and loss of microvilli indicating a disorganized picture. This structural disparity has been thought to affect the smooth functioning of nidatory preparation in the endometrium. PMID:11024229

  10. Hypersensitivity to acid is associated with impaired esophageal mucosal integrity in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease with and without esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Weijenborg, Pim W; Smout, André J P M; Verseijden, Caroline; van Veen, Henk A; Verheij, Joanne; de Jonge, Wouter J; Bredenoord, Albert J

    2014-08-01

    Increased esophageal sensitivity and impaired mucosal integrity have both been described in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, but the relationship between hypersensitivity and mucosal integrity is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate acid sensitivity in patients with erosive and nonerosive reflux disease and control subjects to determine the relation with functional esophageal mucosal integrity changes as well as to investigate cellular mechanisms of impaired mucosal integrity in these patients. In this prospective experimental study, 12 patients with nonerosive reflux disease, 12 patients with esophagitis grade A or B, and 11 healthy control subjects underwent an acid perfusion test and upper endoscopy. Mucosal integrity was measured during endoscopy by electrical tissue impedance spectroscopy and biopsy specimens were analyzed in Ussing chambers for transepithelial electrical resistance, transepithelial permeability and gene expression of tight junction proteins and filaggrin. Patients with nonerosive reflux disease and esophagitis were more sensitive to acid perfusion compared with control subjects, having a shorter time to perception of heartburn and higher perceived intensity of heartburn. In reflux patients, enhanced acid sensitivity was associated with impairment of in vivo and vitro esophageal mucosal integrity. Mucosal integrity was significantly impaired in patients with esophagitis, displaying higher transepithelial permeability and lower extracellular impedance. Although no significant differences in the expression of tight junction proteins were found in biopsies among patient groups, mucosal integrity parameters in reflux patients correlated negatively with the expression of filaggrin. In conclusion, sensitivity to acid is enhanced in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, irrespective of the presence of erosions, and is associated with impaired esophageal mucosal integrity. Mucosal integrity of the esophagus is associated with the expression of filaggrin. PMID:24924748

  11. Inter-observer agreement for diagnostic classification of esophageal motility disorders defined in high-resolution manometry.

    PubMed

    Fox, M R; Pandolfino, J E; Sweis, R; Sauter, M; Abreu Y Abreu, A T; Anggiansah, A; Bogte, A; Bredenoord, A J; Dengler, W; Elvevi, A; Fruehauf, H; Gellersen, S; Ghosh, S; Gyawali, C P; Heinrich, H; Hemmink, M; Jafari, J; Kaufman, E; Kessing, K; Kwiatek, M; Lubomyr, B; Banasiuk, M; Mion, F; Pérez-de-la-Serna, J; Remes-Troche, J M; Rohof, W; Roman, S; Ruiz-de-León, A; Tutuian, R; Uscinowicz, M; Valdovinos, M A; Vardar, R; Velosa, M; Wa?ko-Czopnik, D; Weijenborg, P; Wilshire, C; Wright, J; Zerbib, F; Menne, D

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution esophageal manometry (HRM) is a recent development used in the evaluation of esophageal function. Our aim was to assess the inter-observer agreement for diagnosis of esophageal motility disorders using this technology. Practitioners registered on the HRM Working Group website were invited to review and classify (i) 147 individual water swallows and (ii) 40 diagnostic studies comprising 10 swallows using a drop-down menu that followed the Chicago Classification system. Data were presented using a standardized format with pressure contours without a summary of HRM metrics. The sequence of swallows was fixed for each user but randomized between users to avoid sequence bias. Participants were blinded to other entries. (i) Individual swallows were assessed by 18 practitioners (13 institutions). Consensus agreement (?2/18 dissenters) was present for most cases of normal peristalsis and achalasia but not for cases of peristaltic dysmotility. (ii) Diagnostic studies were assessed by 36 practitioners (28 institutions). Overall inter-observer agreement was 'moderate' (kappa 0.51) being 'substantial' (kappa > 0.7) for achalasia type I/II and no lower than 'fair-moderate' (kappa >0.34) for any diagnosis. Overall agreement was somewhat higher among those that had performed >400 studies (n = 9; kappa 0.55) and 'substantial' among experts involved in development of the Chicago Classification system (n = 4; kappa 0.66). This prospective, randomized, and blinded study reports an acceptable level of inter-observer agreement for HRM diagnoses across the full spectrum of esophageal motility disorders for a large group of clinicians working in a range of medical institutions. Suboptimal agreement for diagnosis of peristaltic motility disorders highlights contribution of objective HRM metrics. PMID:25185507

  12. Susceptibility of lung epithelium to neutrophil elastase: protection by native inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Bingle, L.; Richards, R. J.; Fox, B.; Masek, L.; Guz, A.

    1997-01-01

    The development of emphysema is thought to be due to an imbalance of proteases (especially neutrophil elastase [NE]) and antiproteases with loosening of the respiratory epithelium as an early event. We investigated the effect of NE on respiratory epithelial cell adherence in vitro , in the presence of varying concentrations and combinations of native inhibitors, ?-1-proteinase inhibitor (PI) and secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI). SLPI was two to 12 times more effective than PI at preventing the effects of NE, especially when enzyme:inhibitor ratios were almost equivalent. Even when the concentration of SLPI was only 10% of the total (as in normal peripheral lung secretions), it gave greater protection than PI alone. This suggests that SLPI plays an important role in controlling neutrophil elastaseinduced inflammation and tissue damage. PMID:18472869

  13. Retinal Dystrophy Resulting from Ablation of RXR? in the Mouse Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Mikiro; Metzger, Daniel; Picaud, Serge; Hindelang, Colette; Simonutti, Manuel; Sahel, José; Chambon, Pierre; Mark, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin A (retinol) actions in eye development are mediated by retinoic acid receptors (RARs and RXRs). Using the Cre/loxP system, we have selectively ablated RXR? in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a cell monolayer critically involved in visual retinoid renewal and phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments. In the mutant (RXR? rpe?/?) mice, RPE cells are morphologically and functionally abnormal and display decreased expression of proteins involved in the visual retinoid cycle, namely RPE65, CRALBP, and RGR. RXR? rpe?/? mice also show alterations of photoreceptor cells including: 1) decrease in their number; 2) outer segment shortening and disorganization, and 3) reduced light responses in electroretinograms. These results indicate that RXR? is required for normal maturation of the RPE, which is known to play essential roles in photoreceptor cell function and survival, and point to a possible involvement of RXR? signaling pathways in the RPE in human retinal diseases. PMID:14742273

  14. Volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy for esophageal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Vivekanandan, Nagarajan, E-mail: viveknaren@hotmail.com [Department of Medical Physics, Cancer Institute, Chennai (India); Sriram, Padmanaban; Syam Kumar, S.A.; Bhuvaneswari, Narayanan; Saranya, Kamalakannan [Department of Medical Physics, Cancer Institute, Chennai (India)

    2012-04-01

    A treatment planning study was performed to evaluate the performance of volumetric arc modulation with RapidArc (RA) against 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques for esophageal cancer. Computed tomgraphy scans of 10 patients were included in the study. 3D-CRT, 4-field IMRT, and single-arc and double-arc RA plans were generated with the aim to spare organs at risk (OAR) and healthy tissue while enforcing highly conformal target coverage. The planning objective was to deliver 54 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) in 30 fractions. Plans were evaluated based on target conformity and dose-volume histograms of organs at risk (lung, spinal cord, and heart). The monitor unit (MU) and treatment delivery time were also evaluated to measure the treatment efficiency. The IMRT plan improves target conformity and spares OAR when compared with 3D-CRT. Target conformity improved with RA plans compared with IMRT. The mean lung dose was similar in all techniques. However, RA plans showed a reduction in the volume of the lung irradiated at V{sub 20Gy} and V{sub 30Gy} dose levels (range, 4.62-17.98%) compared with IMRT plans. The mean dose and D{sub 35%} of heart for the RA plans were better than the IMRT by 0.5-5.8%. Mean V{sub 10Gy} and integral dose to healthy tissue were almost similar in all techniques. But RA plans resulted in a reduced low-level dose bath (15-20 Gy) in the range of 14-16% compared with IMRT plans. The average MU needed to deliver the prescribed dose by RA technique was reduced by 20-25% compared with IMRT technique. The preliminary study on RA for esophageal cancers showed improvements in sparing OAR and healthy tissue with reduced beam-on time, whereas only double-arc RA offered improved target coverage compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT plans.

  15. A human esophageal epithelial cell model for study of radiation induced cancer and DNA repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, Janice; Patel, Zarana; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    For cancer risk assessment in astronauts and for countermeasure development, it is essential to understand the molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis and how these mechanisms are influenced by exposure to the types of radiation found in space. We are developing an in vitro model system for the study of radiation-induced initiation and progression of esophageal carcinoma. Development of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is associated with radiation exposure, as revealed by the significant enhanced in incidence rates for this type of cancer in the survivors of the atomic bomb detonations in Japan. It is also associated with poor nutritional status and micronutrient deficiencies, which are also important issues for long duration spaceflight. The possible synergies between nutritional issues and radiation exposure are unknown. Here we present the results of preliminary characterization of both normal and hTERT-immortalized esophageal epithelial cells grown in 2-dimensional culture. We analyzed DNA repair capacity by measuring the kinetics of formation and loss of gamma-H2AX foci following radiation exposure. Additionally, we analyzed induction of chromosomal aberrations using 3-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Data were generated using both low LET (gamma rays) and high LET ions (1000 MeV/nucleon iron.

  16. Relaxation of insulin-like growth factor 2 gene imprinting in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mori, M; Inoue, H; Shiraishi, T; Mimori, K; Shibuta, K; Nakashima, H; Mafune, K; Tanaka, Y; Ueo, H; Barnard, G F; Sugimachi, K; Akiyoshi, T

    1996-11-15

    Paternal allele-specific expression is identified for the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene. Relaxation or loss of IGF2 imprinting, however, has been reported in several neoplasms. We studied the expression of IGF2 mRNA in 35 squamous cancers of the esophagus and searched for the presence or absence of relaxation of IGF2 imprinting. In 28 (80%) cases, IGF2 mRNA was overexpressed in the tumor tissues (T) compared to the normal tissues (N). The patients whose tumor invaded the adventitia showed a higher T/N ratio than those whose tumor was restricted to the musculi propria layer. Heterozygosity was determined by using the Apa I polymorphism in exon 9. Thirteen of 35 cases showed heterozygosity. In these 13 cases, a similar analysis was performed on cDNA obtained by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Consequently, 7 cases disclosed relaxation of IGF2 imprinting in the tumor tissue. The cases of esophageal cancer with relaxation of IGF2 imprinting showed a higher T/N ratio and deeper invasion than those without relaxation. The results suggest that overexpression of IGF2 mRNA plays an important role in esophageal cancer and, in certain cases, is associated with relaxation of IGF2 imprinting. PMID:8945613

  17. Conventional X-ray examination in esophageal cancer: an opinion.

    PubMed

    Ponette, E; Dekeyzer, M; Van Steen, A; Lerut, T; Broeckaert, L; Geboes, K

    1991-01-01

    Double contrast is the best radiological technique for the detection of small esophageal cancer. Gastrografin is indicated when a blind mediastinal fistula is suspected; in cases of choking or suspicion of a fistula with the airways, a low osmotic hydrosoluble Iodium compound must be used. Conventional radiology and endoscopy are complementary techniques for the detection of esophageal cancer, as some lesions may be missed or misinterpreted by both. The need for endoscopic biopsy being incontestable for diagnostic confirmation and characterization, radiology presents some advantages over classic esophagoscopy for preoperative and the general pretherapeutic staging of esophageal carcinoma: assessment of topographical relation with the surrounding organs is possible and with the upper esophageal sphincter is easier; appreciation of tumoral extension along the longitudinal axis (tumor length, gastric invasion) remains mostly possible even in cases of severe stenosis; tumoral extension along the transverse axis (kinking, fistula) may be evaluated; detection of a second tumor or concomitant pathology distally from a stenosing tumor is mostly possible; moreover radiology is important before starting radiotherapy; and finally, previous radiology may reduce the (small) risk of endoscopic perforation. Radiology is indispensable or indicated in the posttherapeutic follow-up of esophageal carcinoma, as well after surgery as after endoscopic interventions, radiotherapy or chemotherapy. PMID:1797799

  18. Free radical scavengers prevent reflux esophagitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Wetscher, G J; Hinder, P R; Bagchi, D; Perdikis, G; Redmond, E J; Glaser, K; Adrian, T E; Hinder, R A

    1995-06-01

    Free radical damage in reflux esophagitis of rats induced by 24-hr duodenojejunal ligation was studied. Oxygen free radicals were selectively blocked. Groups were: sham operation, reflux, reflux + superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, dimethylthiourea, allopurinol, and inactivated SOD or inactivated catalase alone or in the combination SOD + catalase or SOD + catalase + dimethylthiourea + allopurinol. Macroscopic esophagitis was inhibited only by SOD, alone or in combination with other agents. Esophageal mucosal lipid peroxidation was 10-fold increased in the reflux group compared to the sham group (P < 0.05). This response was damped by SOD > catalase (P < 0.05) but not by the inactivated enzymes, dimethylthiourea or allopurinol. SOD + catalase showed no significant improvement on SOD alone. Total inhibition of lipid peroxidation was achieved by combining all scavengers. Total glutathione (GSH) in the esophageal mucosa was stimulated by reflux. This response was inhibited by scavengers equivalent to their efficacy in preventing lipid peroxidation. It is concluded that reflux esophagitis is associated with free radical release with O2- being the main source. Free radicals appear to stimulate GSH production in this prolonged oxidative stress. PMID:7781450

  19. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR validation of differential mRNA expression of SPARC, FADD, Fascin, COL7A1, CK4, TGM3, ECM1, PPL and EVPL in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nan Hu; Luxia Qian; Ying Hu; Jian-Zhong Shou; Chaoyu Wang; Carol Giffen; Quan-Hong Wang; Yuan Wang; Alisa M Goldstein; Michael Emmert-Buck; Philip R Taylor

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most malignant tumors and typically presents at an advanced and rapidly fatal stage. To better understand the role of genetics in the etiology and prevention of ESCC and to identify potential susceptibility genes as well as early detection markers, we previously compared tumor and matched normal tissues from ESCC patients

  20. Xerophilusin B induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells and does not cause toxicity in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ran; Chen, Zhaoli; Zhou, Chengcheng; Luo, Mei; Shi, Xuejiao; Li, Jiagen; Gao, Yibo; Zhou, Fang; Pu, Jianxin; Sun, Handong; He, Jie

    2015-01-23

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer in the world and ranks as the sixth leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Esophageal cancer has a poor prognosis partially due to its low sensitivity to chemotherapy agents, and the development of new therapeutic agents is urgently needed. Here, the antitumor activity of a natural ent-kaurane diterpenoid, xerophilusin B (1), which was isolated from Isodon xerophilus, a perennial herb frequently used in Chinese folk medicine for tumor treatment, was investigated. Compound 1 exhibited antiproliferative effects against esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner with lower toxicity against normal human and murine cell lines. In vivo studies demonstrated that 1 inhibited tumor growth of a human esophageal tumor xenograft in BALB/c nude mice without significant secondary adverse effects, indicating its safety in treating ESCC. Furthermore, 1 induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and promoted apoptosis through mitochondrial cytochrome c-dependent activation of the caspase-9 and caspase-3 cascade pathway in ESCC cell lines. In conclusion, the observations herein reported showed that 1 is a potential chemotherapeutic agent for ESCC and merits further preclinical and clinical investigation for cancer drug development. PMID:25555195

  1. C-Met Inhibitor AMG 337, Oxaliplatin, Leucovorin Calcium, and Fluorouracil in Treating Patients With Advanced Stomach or Esophageal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-16

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Gastrointestinal Cancer; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  2. Distinct afferent innervation patterns within the human proximal and distal esophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Woodland, Philip; Aktar, Rubina; Mthunzi, Engelbert; Lee, Chung; Peiris, Madusha; Preston, Sean L; Blackshaw, L Ashley; Sifrim, Daniel

    2015-03-15

    Little is known about the mucosal phenotype of the proximal human esophagus. There is evidence to suggest that the proximal esophagus is more sensitive to chemical and mechanical stimulation compared with the distal. This may have physiological relevance (e.g., in prevention of aspiration of gastroesophageal refluxate), but also pathological relevance (e.g., in reflux perception or dysphagia). Reasons for this increased sensitivity are unclear but may include impairment in mucosal barrier integrity or changes in sensory innervation. We assessed mucosal barrier integrity and afferent nerve distribution in the proximal and distal esophagus of healthy human volunteers. In 10 healthy volunteers baseline proximal and distal esophageal impedance was measured in vivo. Esophageal mucosal biopsies from the distal and proximal esophagus were taken, and baseline transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was measured in Ussing chambers. Biopsies were examined immunohistochemically for presence and location of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive nerve fibers. In a further four healthy volunteers we investigated for colocalization of CGRP and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 immunoreactivity in nerve fibers. Baseline impedance was higher in the proximal than in the distal esophagus [2,936 ? (SD578) vs. 2,229 ? (SD821); P = 0.03], however, baseline TER was not significantly different between them. Mucosal CGRP-immunoreactive nerves were found in the epithelium of both proximal and distal esophagus, but were located more superficially in the proximal mucosa compared with the distal [11.5 (SD7) vs. 21.7 (SD5) cell layers from lumen, P = 0.002] 19% of proximal, and 10% of distal mucosal PGP-immunoreactive fibers colocalized with CGRP. PGP-immunoreactive fibers were also significantly closer to the luminal surface in the proximal compared with the distal esophagus (P < 0.001). We conclude that mucosal barrier integrity is similar in proximal and distal esophagus, but proximal mucosal afferent nerves are in a more superficial location. The enhanced sensitivity to reflux-evoked symptoms of the proximal esophagus most likely has an anatomical basis. PMID:25573174

  3. Kinetics of nucleoside uptake by the basolateral side of the sheep choroid plexus epithelium perfused in situ.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Ivanka; Segal, Malcolm; Djuricic, Bogdan; Redzic, Zoran

    2008-03-01

    Sheep choroid plexus epithelium expresses equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENT) 1 and 2 and concentrative nucleoside transporter 2 at the transcript level. This study aimed to explore the kinetics and functional role of these transporters at the basolateral side of the sheep choroid plexus epithelium perfused in situ. The cellular uptake of [(3)H]adenosine and [(3)H]uridine was insensitive to 1 microm nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI), and the uptake of [(3)H]adenosine was reduced significantly when 10 microm NBTI was present in low-Na(+) Ringer solution. This might suggest that ENT2, a transporter sensitive to micromolar NBTI, is functionally active at the basolateral side of the choroid plexus epithelium while ENT1, a transporter sensitive to nanomolar NBTI, is not active. When low-Na(+) Ringer solution was used for the in situ perfusion, the Na(+) concentration in the venous effluent decreased to 14 mm; under these conditions the maximal uptake (U(max)) of [(3)H]adenosine and [(3)H]uridine did not change significantly when compared with the U(max) obtained when Ringer solution that contained 145 mm Na(+) was used. Kinetic analysis revealed apparent Michaelis-Menten constants (K(m,app)) for cellular uptake of [(3)H]adenosine, [(3)H]inosine and [(3)H]thymidine of 1.2 +/- 0.2, 15.7 +/- 2.6 and 3.8 +/- 0.9 microm, respectively. The HPLC and HPLC-fluorometric analysis of the sheep plasma and cerebrospinal fluid revealed nanomolar concentrations of adenosine and thymidine and micromolar levels of inosine and nucleobases. Considering the estimated K(m,app) values, it appears that under normal conditions inosine is the more important nucleoside substrate for uptake by the basolateral membrane of the choroid plexus epithelium than other nucleosides. PMID:18039975

  4. Evidence for multiple roles for grainyhead-like 2 in the establishment and maintenance of human mucociliary airway epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xia; Vockley, Christopher M.; Pauli, Florencia; Newberry, Kimberly M.; Xue, Yan; Randell, Scott H.; Reddy, Timothy E.; Hogan, Brigid L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Most of the airways of the human lung are lined by an epithelium made up of ciliated and secretory luminal cells and undifferentiated basal progenitor cells. The integrity of this epithelium and its ability to act as a selective barrier are critical for normal lung function. In other epithelia, there is evidence that transcription factors of the evolutionarily conserved grainyheadlike (GRHL) family play key roles in coordinating multiple cellular processes required for epithelial morphogenesis, differentiation, remodeling, and repair. However, only a few target genes have been identified, and little is known about GRHL function in the adult lung. Here we focus on the role of GRHL2 in primary human bronchial epithelial cells, both as undifferentiated progenitors and as they differentiate in air–liquid interface culture into an organized mucociliary epithelium with transepithelial resistance. Using a dominant-negative protein or shRNA to inhibit GRHL2, we follow changes in epithelial phenotype and gene transcription using RNA sequencing or microarray analysis. We identify several hundreds of genes that are directly or indirectly regulated by GRHL2 in both undifferentiated cells and air–liquid interface cultures. Using ChIP sequencing to map sites of GRHL2 binding in the basal cells, we identify 7,687 potential primary targets and confirm that GRHL2 binding is strongly enriched near GRHL2-regulated genes. Taken together, the results support the hypothesis that GRHL2 plays a key role in regulating many physiological functions of human airway epithelium, including those involving cell morphogenesis, adhesion, and motility. PMID:23690579

  5. Expression, Tissue Distribution and Function of miR-21 in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nouraee, Nazila; Van Roosbroeck, Katrien; Vasei, Mohammad; Semnani, Shahriar; Samaei, Nader Mansour; Naghshvar, Farshad; Omidi, Abbas Ali; Calin, George A.; Mowla, Seyed Javad

    2013-01-01

    Objective MiR-21 is an oncomir expressed by malignant cells and/or tumor microenvironment components. In this study we focused on understanding the effects of stromal miR-21 on esophageal malignant cells. Design MiR-21 expression was evaluated in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from patients with esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) by quantitative RT-PCR. MiR-21 tissue distribution was visualized with in situ hybridization. A co-culture system of normal fibroblasts and esophageal cancer cells was used to determine the effects of fibroblasts on miR-21 expression levels, and on SCC cell migration and invasion. Results MiR-21 was overexpressed in SCCs, when compared to the adjacent non-tumor tissues (P?=?0.0007), and was mainly localized in the cytoplasm of stromal cells adjacent to malignant cells. Accordingly, miR-21 expression was increased in tumors with high versus low stromal content (P?=?0.04). When co-cultured with normal fibroblasts, miR-21 expression was elevated in SCC cells (KYSE-30), while its expression was restricted to fibroblasts when co-cultured with adenocarcinoma cells (OE-33 and FLO-1). MiR-21 was detected in conditioned media of cancer cell lines, illustrating the release of this miRNA into the environment. Co-culturing with normal fibroblasts or addition of fibroblast conditioned media caused a significant increase in cell migration and invasion potency of KYSE-30 cells (P<0.0001). In addition, co-culturing cancer cells with fibroblasts and expression of miR-21 induced the expression of the cancer associated fibroblast (CAF) marker S100A4. Conclusions MiR-21 expression is mostly confined to the SCC stroma and its release from fibroblasts influences the migration and invasion capacity of SCC cells. Moreover, miR-21 may be an important factor in “activating” fibroblasts to CAFs. These findings provide new insights into the role of CAFs and the extracellular matrix in tumor microenvironment formation and in tumor cell maintenance, and suggest miR-21 may contribute to cellular crosstalk in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:24039846

  6. Relationships Between Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Human Respiratory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Albert M.; Clyde, Wallace A.

    1971-01-01

    The interaction was studied between Mycoplasma pneumoniae and its natural host cell, the human respiratory epithelium. Organized, ciliated cells provided by fetal trachea in organ culture enabled examination of the host-parasite relationship by light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy. Impairment of cellular function was reflected by disorganization and loss of ciliary motion; this was associated with a sequence of cytopathological changes denoting progressive cell injury. The organisms were found concentrated on the luminal surface of ciliated epithelium and cells lining the submucosal glands. A differentiated portion of the Mycoplasma, consisting of an extension of the unit membrane containing an electron-dense core surrounded by a lucent space, served as the means of attachment to host cells. The findings suggest that the pathogenicity of M. pneumoniae depends upon intimate extracellular infection with production of functional and structural changes initiated by host cell membrane injury. Images PMID:16558038

  7. Regeneration of the mammalian inner ear sensory epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Dongguang; Yamoah, Ebenezer N.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review will focus on “self-repair” of mammalian inner ear sensory epithelium including (1) recruiting the in situ proliferation and differentiation of endogenous cells at the damaged site and (2) the autologous transplantation Recent findings Self-repair refers to a favorable structural and functional outcome of damaged inner ear sensory epithelium. Our advanced ability of manipulating the fate of inner ear sensory cells makes in situ proliferation a possible candidate of hearing restoration. A practical alternative of the unavoidable immune rejection is to introduce autologous cells. Ependymal cells, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, and olfactory sheath cells have been recognized as promising sources, which will spur ongoing efforts to evaluate the new cell sources for cell replacement therapy. Summary Further exploration of the innate advantages of in situ proliferation and using novel cell sources for autologous transplantation may serve as rehearsals for clinical trials in the near future. PMID:19617827

  8. Identification of Novel Inducible Genes in Airway Epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa M. Schwiebert; Jeffrey L. Mooney; Stephanie Van Horn; Anirudh Gupta; Robert P. Schleimer

    1997-01-01

    DNA differential display analysis (DD-PCR) was utilized to identify genes that are expressed in airway epithelium and are relevant to airway inflammation; cytokine-mediated induction of gene expression and inhibition of that induction by glucocorticoids were the criteria for selection. The IB3-1 cell line was cul- tured in the presence of tumor necrosis factor- a (TNF- a ), dexamethasone, or dimethyl

  9. Morphological and functional characteristics of human gingival junctional epithelium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to observe the morphological characteristics and identify the function characteristics of junctional epithelium (JE) tissues and cultured JE cells. Methods Paraffin sections of human molar or premolar on the gingival buccolingual side were prepared from 6 subjects. HE staining and image analysis were performed to measure and compare the morphological difference among JE, oral gingival epithelium (OGE) and sulcular epithelium (SE). Immunohistochemistry was applied to detect the expression pattern of cytokeratin 5/6, 7, 8/18, 10/13, 16, 17, 19, and 20 in JE, OGE and SE. On the other hand, primary human JE and OGE cells were cultured in vitro. Cell identify was confirmed by histology and immunohistochemistry. In a co-culture model, TEM was used to observe the attachment formation between JE cells and tooth surface. Results Human JE was a unique tissue which was different from SE and OGE in morphology. Similarly, morphology of JE cells was also particular compared with OGE cells cultured in vitro. In addition, JE cells had a longer incubation period than OGE cells. Different expression of several CKs illustrated JE was in a characteristic of low differentiation and high regeneration. After being co-cultured for 14 d, multiple cell layers, basement membrane-like and hemidesmosome-like structures were appeared at the junction of JE cell membrane and tooth surface. Conclusions JE is a specially stratified epithelium with low differentiation and high regeneration ability in gingival tissue both in vivo and in vitro. In co-culture model, human JE cells can form basement membrane-like and hemidesmosome-like structures in about 2 weeks. PMID:24708739

  10. Microsatellite instability in inflamed and neoplastic epithelium in ulcerative colitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Ishitsuka; H Kashiwagi; F Konishi

    2001-01-01

    Background—Several genetic alterations have been documented in dysplasia and cancer developing in ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the microsatellite instability (MSI) status has rarely been described, especially in the inflamed epithelium of UC.Aims—To study MSI status during neoplastic and inflammatory changes in UC.Methods—Seventy five surgically resected samples of colorectal mucosa, taken from 16 colectomy specimens of patients with UC were examined:

  11. An etiological role for aeroallergens and eosinophils in experimental esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Anil; Hogan, Simon P.; Brandt, Eric B.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2001-01-01

    Eosinophil infiltration into the esophagus is observed in diverse diseases including gastroesophageal reflux and allergic gastroenteritis, but the processes involved are largely unknown. We now report an original model of experimental esophagitis induced by exposure of mice to respiratory allergen. Allergen-challenged mice develop marked levels of esophageal eosinophils, free eosinophil granules, and epithelial cell hyperplasia, features that mimic the human disorders. Interestingly, exposure of mice to oral or intragastric allergen does not promote eosinophilic esophagitis, indicating that hypersensitivity in the esophagus occurs with simultaneous development of pulmonary inflammation. Furthermore, in the absence of eotaxin, eosinophil recruitment is attenuated, whereas in the absence of IL-5, eosinophil accumulation and epithelial hyperplasia are ablated. These results establish a pathophysiological connection between allergic hypersensitivity responses in the lung and esophagus and demonstrate an etiologic role for inhaled allergens and eosinophils in gastrointestinal inflammation. PMID:11134183

  12. Esophageal and esophagogastric junction cancers, version 1.2015.

    PubMed

    Ajani, Jaffer A; D'Amico, Thomas A; Almhanna, Khaldoun; Bentrem, David J; Besh, Stephen; Chao, Joseph; Das, Prajnan; Denlinger, Crystal; Fanta, Paul; Fuchs, Charles S; Gerdes, Hans; Glasgow, Robert E; Hayman, James A; Hochwald, Steven; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Ilson, David H; Jaroszewski, Dawn; Jasperson, Kory; Keswani, Rajesh N; Kleinberg, Lawrence R; Korn, W Michael; Leong, Stephen; Lockhart, A Craig; Mulcahy, Mary F; Orringer, Mark B; Posey, James A; Poultsides, George A; Sasson, Aaron R; Scott, Walter J; Strong, Vivian E; Varghese, Thomas K; Washington, Mary Kay; Willett, Christopher G; Wright, Cameron D; Zelman, Debra; McMillian, Nicole; Sundar, Hema

    2015-02-01

    Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Adenocarcinoma is more common in North America and Western European countries, originating mostly in the lower third of the esophagus, which often involves the esophagogastric junction (EGJ). Recent randomized trials have shown that the addition of preoperative chemoradiation or perioperative chemotherapy to surgery significantly improves survival in patients with resectable cancer. Targeted therapies with trastuzumab and ramucirumab have produced encouraging results in the treatment of advanced or metastatic EGJ adenocarcinomas. Multidisciplinary team management is essential for patients with esophageal and EGJ cancers. This portion of the NCCN Guidelines for Esophageal and EGJ Cancers discusses management of locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and EGJ. PMID:25691612

  13. An Update on Modern Approaches to Localized Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, James; Amini, Arya; Likhacheva, Anna; Erasmus, Jeremy; Gomez, Daniel; Davila, Marta; Mehran, Reza J; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Bhutani, Manoop; Ajani, Jaffer A

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal cancer treatment continues to be a topic of wide debate. Based on improvements in chemotherapy drugs, surgical techniques, and radiotherapy advances, esophageal cancer treatment approaches are becoming more specific to the stage of the tumor and the overall performance status of the patient. While surgery continues to be the standard treatment option for localized disease, the current direction favors multimodality treatment including both radiation and chemotherapy with surgery. In the next few years, we will continue to see improvements in radiation techniques and proton treatment, with more minimally invasive surgical approaches minimizing postoperative side effects, and the discovery of molecular biomarkers to help deliver more specifically targeted medication to treat esophageal cancers. PMID:21365188

  14. [Rubber-band ligation of esophageal and cardiac varices].

    PubMed

    Arnon, R; Zimmerman, J; Keret, D; Lysy, J; Wengrower, D; Fich, A; Goldin, E

    1993-01-15

    Esophageal sclerotherapy was the treatment of choice for bleeding esophageal varices in the past decade. It is effective for treating acute variceal bleeding, as well as eradicating esophageal varices for secondary prevention of bleeding. However, in more than 20% of patients sclerotherapy involves complications, some of which are serious. The high complication rate suggested the development of a new method that should be at least as effective and as easy to perform as sclerotherapy, but with fewer complications and side-effects. Endoscopic variceal ligation was developed at the University of Colorado and described in 1986. It is reported to control active variceal bleeding in about 90% of patients, and to eradicate varices in about 80% of surviving patients. Complications are rare. We have adapted the method in our unit and here describe out preliminary experience in 11 patients. PMID:8436323

  15. [Esophageal toxicity of radiation therapy: clinical risk factors and management].

    PubMed

    Challand, T; Thureau, S; Dubray, B; Giraud, P

    2012-09-01

    Acute radiation-induced esophagitis includes all clinical symptoms (odynophagia, dysphagia) occurring within 90 days after thoracic irradiation start. Its severity can be graded using RTOG and CTCAE scales. The clinical risk factors are: age, female gender, initial performance status, pre-therapeutic body mass index, pre-therapeutic dysphagia, tumoral and nodal stage, delivered dose, accelerated hyperfractionned radiotherapy, concomitant association of chemotherapy to radiotherapy and response to the treatment. The dosimetric parameters predictive of esophagitis are: mean dose, V(20Gy), V(30Gy), V(40Gy), V(45Gy) and V(50Gy). Amifostine is the only drug to have a proven radioprotective efficacy (evidence level C, ESMO recommendation grade III). The medical management of esophagitis associates a diet excluding irritant food, medication against gastroesophageal reflux, analgesic treatment according to the WHO scale and management of dehydration and denutrition by enteral feeding. PMID:22925486

  16. Eosinophilic esophagitis: a practical approach to diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Molina-Infante, Javier; Lucendo, Alfredo J

    2014-11-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has emerged as a common cause of dysphagia and food impaction in children and adults. A trial of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy is a mandatory diagnostic first step, given that at least one third of patients with suspected EoE will have PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. Once EoE is diagnosed, short-and long-term therapeutic decision making may rely on patient symptoms, phenotype (inflammatory vs fibrostenotic) and preferences. Currently, the most reliable therapeutic targets are mucosal healing and caliber abnormalities resolution. Topical steroids followed by endoscopic dilation are recommended in symptomatic narrow caliber esophagus/strictures, whereas either topical steroids or dietary therapy are good short-term options for mucosal inflammation. Maintenance anti-inflammatory therapy is necessary to prevent esophageal fibrotic remodeling and stricture formation. PMID:24830679

  17. The Oxidant Role of 4-Hydroxynonenal in Corneal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Longlong; Zong, Rongrong; Zhou, Jing; Ge, Lianping; Zhou, Tong; Ma, Jian-xing; Liu, Zuguo; Zhou, Yueping

    2015-01-01

    4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE or HNE) is a main endogenous product of cellular lipid peroxidation in tissues and is reported to play pathogenic roles in eye diseases. Here we investigated the association between 4-HNE and oxidative stress in the corneal epithelium. 4-HNE suppressed the cell viability of human corneal epithelial cells (HCE) in a concentration dependent manner. 4-HNE significantly increased the level of 3-Nitrotyrosine (3-NT), a marker of oxidative stress, in HCE cells and corneal epithelium of rats by immunofluorescent staining and Western blot analysis. To its underlying mechanistic on ROS system, 4-HNE elevated the ROS generation enzyme NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) and induced the activation of NF-E2–related factor-2 (NRF2) and its downstream effectors: NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone 1) (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP). Furthermore, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant and ROS scavenger, antagonized the inhibitory and oxidant effects of 4-HNE on the corneal epithelial cells. In conclusion, 4-HNE plays an oxidant role in the corneal epithelium and this work provides a new strategy for the pathogenesis and treatment of corneal diseases. PMID:26023743

  18. The oxidant role of 4-hydroxynonenal in corneal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Longlong; Zong, Rongrong; Zhou, Jing; Ge, Lianping; Zhou, Tong; Ma, Jian-Xing; Liu, Zuguo; Zhou, Yueping

    2015-01-01

    4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE or HNE) is a main endogenous product of cellular lipid peroxidation in tissues and is reported to play pathogenic roles in eye diseases. Here we investigated the association between 4-HNE and oxidative stress in the corneal epithelium. 4-HNE suppressed the cell viability of human corneal epithelial cells (HCE) in a concentration dependent manner. 4-HNE significantly increased the level of 3-Nitrotyrosine (3-NT), a marker of oxidative stress, in HCE cells and corneal epithelium of rats by immunofluorescent staining and Western blot analysis. To its underlying mechanistic on ROS system, 4-HNE elevated the ROS generation enzyme NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) and induced the activation of NF-E2-related factor-2 (NRF2) and its downstream effectors: NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone 1) (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP). Furthermore, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant and ROS scavenger, antagonized the inhibitory and oxidant effects of 4-HNE on the corneal epithelial cells. In conclusion, 4-HNE plays an oxidant role in the corneal epithelium and this work provides a new strategy for the pathogenesis and treatment of corneal diseases. PMID:26023743

  19. Esophagitis in Sprague-Dawley rats is mediated by free radicals.

    PubMed

    Wetscher, G J; Perdikis, G; Kretchmar, D H; Stinson, R G; Bagchi, D; Redmond, E J; Adrian, T E; Hinder, R A

    1995-06-01

    Free radical-mediated esophagitis was studied during duodenogastroesophageal reflux (mixed reflux) or acid reflux in rats. The influence of reflux on esophageal glutathione levels was also examined. Mixed reflux caused more gross mucosal injury than acid reflux. Gross mucosal injury occurred in the mid-esophagus. Total glutathione (GSH) in the esophageal mucosa of control rats was highest in the distal esophagus. The time course of esophageal GSH in rats treated by mixed reflux showed a significant decrease 4 hr after initiation of reflux, followed by a significant increase from the 12th hour on. Mucosal GSH was increased in both reflux groups after 24 hr but significantly more so in the mixed than in the acid reflux group. The free radical scavenger superoxide dismutase (SOD) prevented esophagitis and was associated with decreased GSH levels. GSH depletion by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) prevented esophagitis and stimulated SOD production in the esophageal mucosa. It is concluded that gastroesophageal reflux is associated with oxidative stress in the esophageal mucosa. The lower GSH levels in the mid-esophagus may predispose to damage in this area. Duodenogastroesophageal reflux causes more damage than pure acid reflux. Oxidative stress leads to GSH depletion of the esophageal mucosa in the first few hours following damage but then stimulates GSH production. GSH depletion by BSO does not worsen esophagitis since it increases the esophageal SOD concentration. PMID:7781451

  20. A Novel Approach to Management of Esophageal Pill Impaction

    PubMed Central

    Caufield, Sean; Lavery, Eric; Partridge, Brett

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old male presented with symptoms of acute esophageal obstruction immediately after swallowing an 800-mg ibuprofen tablet. Multiple attempts to extract the pill with a variety of traditional endoscopic retrieval devices were unsuccessful. We successfully destroyed the pill using a threaded-tip biliary stent retrieval device to drill a hole in the center of the pill, which allowed us to use a rat-tooth forceps to crush the pill. This case report demonstrates a novel use of this device in a challenging esophageal pill extraction.

  1. Paraneoplastic cutaneous lupus secondary to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tworek, Joseph; Schapiro, Brian; Zolotarevsky, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) in an elderly man does not fit a typical demographic for the disease process. Using the McLean’s criteria we were able to establish a temporal relationship between the patient’s diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and his dermatosis, both of which responded to cytotoxic chemotherapy. The clinical presentation and progression of the clinical illness is supportive of a very unusual and not previously reported paraneoplastic SCLE secondary to esophageal SCC. PMID:26029469

  2. Recent advances in the recognition and management of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Eustace, Gregory; Gui, Xianyong; Iacucci, Marietta

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and recognition of eosinophilic esophagitis is increasing. Pathophysiological understanding of eosinophilic esophagitis is improving and an immunological reaction to ingested food is likely to play a significant role. Patients present with dysphagia and food bolus obstruction. Both histological and endoscopic criteria have been developed and validated. Dietary therapy, topical steroid therapy, proton pump inhibitors and endoscopic dilation are the main approaches to therapy; however, novel targeted therapies are being developed. Among the food items commonly implicated are wheat, dairy, nuts, soy, shellfish and eggs. A multidisciplinary approach to management in dedicated clinics may yield the best results. PMID:26076223

  3. A case of eosinophilic esophagitis caused by a cedar ball.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Keiko; Izumi, Toshinobu; Yaku, Hiroaki; Okada, Hirokazu; Tsubosaka, Mako; Okada, Yuki; Ikemura, Takahiro; Kawase, Yoshito

    2015-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman presented to our hospital with chief complaints of a strange sensation in her pharynx, dysphagia, and odynophagia. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed multiple aphthae in the esophagus and she was diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis based on the results of biopsy. Swallowing therapy with fluticasone was scheduled; however, she subsequently developed urticaria. She was treated with systemic steroid therapy at another hospital, which improved her symptoms and endoscopic images. A detailed history revealed that she had experienced significant facial edema after making a cedar ball. It was considered that the eosinophilic esophagitis was possibly caused by cedar pollen. PMID:26050724

  4. Esophageal perforation after radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Manouchehri, Namdar; Turner, Simon R; Lockwood, Evan; Sterns, Laurence D; Bédard, Eric Lr

    2014-11-01

    A 69-year-old man underwent left atrial radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation. After 10 minutes, the procedure was terminated due to pericardial tamponade secondary to perforation during mapping. Pericardiocentesis resolved the tamponade. Ablation was completed one week later, and the patient was discharged. Two days later, he presented with odynophagia. Computed tomography demonstrated small bilateral pleural effusions. He was judged to be stable and was discharged again, but returned 2 days later with chest pain. He was found to have esophageal perforation with empyema, which was repaired using a muscle patch and esophageal stenting, successfully treating the lesion with minimal morbidity. PMID:24887888

  5. Normal Distribution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lowry, Richard, 1940-

    Generate a graphic and numerical display of the properties of the Normal Distribution. For a unit normal distribution, with M=0 and SD=�±1, enter 0 and 1 at the prompt. For a distribution with M=100 and SD=�±15, enter 100 and 15. And so forth

  6. Cerium oxide nanoparticles protect gastrointestinal epithelium from radiation-induced damage by reduction of reactive oxygen species and upregulation of superoxide dismutase 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jimmie Colon; Nelson Hsieh; Amber Ferguson; Patrick Kupelian; Sudipta Seal; D. Wayne Jenkins; Cheryl H. Baker

    2010-01-01

    The ability of rare earth cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles to confer radioprotection against gastrointestinal epithelium was examined. The pretreatment of normal human colon cells (CRL 1541) with varying concentrations of CeO2 nanoparticles 24 hours before single-dose radiation exposure conferred protection from radiation-induced cell death by reducing the amount of reactive oxygen species produced and increasing the expression of superoxide dismutase

  7. Genetic Features of Metachronous Esophageal Cancer Developed in Hodgkin’s Lymphoma or Breast Cancer Long-Term Survivors: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Boldrin, Elisa; Rumiato, Enrica; Fassan, Matteo; Cappellesso, Rocco; Rugge, Massimo; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Ruol, Alberto; Alfieri, Rita; Cagol, Matteo; Castoro, Carlo; Amadori, Alberto; Saggioro, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Background Development of novel therapeutic drugs and regimens for cancer treatment has led to improvements in patient long-term survival. This success has, however, been accompanied by the increased occurrence of second primary cancers. Indeed, patients who received regional radiotherapy for Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (HL) or breast cancer may develop, many years later, a solid metachronous tumor in the irradiated field. Despite extensive epidemiological studies, little information is available on the genetic changes involved in the pathogenesis of these solid therapy-related neoplasms. Methods Using microsatellite markers located in 7 chromosomal regions frequently deleted in sporadic esophageal cancer, we investigated loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MSI) in 46 paired (normal and tumor) samples. Twenty samples were of esophageal carcinoma developed in HL or breast cancer long-term survivors: 14 squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) and 6 adenocarcinomas (EADC), while 26 samples, used as control, were of sporadic esophageal cancer (15 ESCC and 11 EADC). Results We found that, though the overall LOH frequency at the studied chromosomal regions was similar among metachronous and sporadic tumors, the latter exhibited a statistically different higher LOH frequency at 17q21.31 (p = 0.018). By stratifying for tumor histotype we observed that LOH at 3p24.1, 5q11.2 and 9p21.3 were more frequent in ESCC than in EADC suggesting a different role of the genetic determinants located nearby these regions in the development of the two esophageal cancer histotypes. Conclusions Altogether, our results strengthen the genetic diversity among ESCC and EADC whether they occurred spontaneously or after therapeutic treatments. The presence of histotype-specific alterations in esophageal carcinoma arisen in HL or breast cancer long-term survivors suggests that their transformation process, though the putative different etiological origin, may retrace sporadic ESCC and EADC carcinogenesis. PMID:25611972

  8. Management of an aorto-esophageal fistula, complicating a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm endovascularly repaired.

    PubMed

    Georvasili, Vaia K; Bali, Christina; Peroulis, Michalis; Kouvelos, George; Avgos, Stavros; Godevenos, Dimitris; Liakakos, Theodoros; Matsagkas, Miltiadis

    2014-05-18

    Aorto-esophageal fistula (AEF) is a rare but devastating complication of thoracic aorta endovascular repair (TEVAR). We report a case of a 64-year-old male who presented with chest pain and high CRP levels 10 months after TEVAR for a 9 cm diameter descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. The diagnosis of an AEF was confirmed and the patient was treated conservatively with broad spectrum antibiotics and total parental alimentation. After control of sepsis was achieved, esophagectomy with gastric tube reconstruction was performed and an omental pedicle was used to cover the aortic wall. No intervention to the aorta was made at that time due to the potentially infected mediastinum. The patient's recovery was uneventful and 2 years postoperatively he is in good condition and lives a normal life. Esophagectomy seems to be a mandatory stage of treatment in the setting of AEF. In cases where signs of graft infection are persistent, aortic surgery might be also necessary. PMID:24838140

  9. Influence of hyperoxia on in vitro growth of rabbit middle ear epithelium and auditory meatal epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Peter Schousboe; Therese Ovesen; Thomas Ledet

    1997-01-01

    The oxygen partial pressure of middle ear gas increases more than 3-fold upon insertion of ventilation tubes, while the carbon dioxide partial pressure decreases. Whereas the middle ear gas is normally equilibrated to venous gases and has an oxygen partial pressure of 43 mmHg, 138 mmHg is measured in ventilated ears. The present study was undertaken to compare the effects

  10. Telomerase Variant A279T Induces Telomere Dysfunction and Inhibits Non-Canonical Telomerase Activity in Esophageal Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuwei; Calado, Rodrigo; Rao, Mahadev; Hong, Julie A.; Meeker, Alan K.; Dumitriu, Bogdan; Atay, Scott; McCormick, Peter J.; Garfield, Susan H.; Wangsa, Danny; Padilla-Nash, Hesed M.; Burkett, Sandra; Zhang, Mary; Kunst, Tricia F.; Peterson, Nathan R.; Xi, Sichuan; Inchauste, Suzanne; Altorki, Nasser K.; Casson, Alan G.; Beer, David G.; Harris, Curtis C.; Ried, Thomas; Young, Neal S.; Schrump, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although implicated in the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory disorders and hematologic malignancies, telomerase mutations have not been thoroughly characterized in human cancers. The present study was performed to examine the frequency and potential clinical relevance of telomerase mutations in esophageal carcinomas. Methods Sequencing techniques were used to evaluate mutational status of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and telomerase RNA component (TERC) in neoplastic and adjacent normal mucosa from 143 esophageal cancer (EsC) patients. MTS, flow cytometry, time lapse microscopy, and murine xenograft techniques were used to assess proliferation, apoptosis, chemotaxis, and tumorigenicity of EsC cells expressing either wtTERT or TERT variants. Immunoprecipitation, immunoblot, immunofluorescence, promoter-reporter and qRT-PCR techniques were used to evaluate interactions of TERT and several TERT variants with BRG-1 and ?-catenin, and to assess expression of cytoskeletal proteins, and cell signaling. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization and spectral karyotyping techniques were used to examine telomere length and chromosomal stability. Results Sequencing analysis revealed one deletion involving TERC (TERC del 341-360), and two non-synonymous TERT variants [A279T (2 homozygous, 9 heterozygous); A1062T (4 heterozygous)]. The minor allele frequency of the A279T variant was five-fold higher in EsC patients compared to healthy blood donors (p<0.01). Relative to wtTERT, A279T decreased telomere length, destabilized TERT-BRG-1-?-catenin complex, markedly depleted ?-catenin, and down-regulated canonical Wnt signaling in cancer cells; these phenomena coincided with decreased proliferation, depletion of additional cytoskeletal proteins, impaired chemotaxis, increased chemosensitivity, and significantly decreased tumorigenicity of EsC cells. A279T expression significantly increased chromosomal aberrations in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) following Zeocin™ exposure, as well as Li Fraumeni fibroblasts in the absence of pharmacologically-induced DNA damage. Conclusions A279T induces telomere dysfunction and inhibits non-canonical telomerase activity in esophageal cancer cells. These findings warrant further analysis of A279T expression in esophageal cancers and premalignant esophageal lesions. PMID:24983628

  11. Early diagnosis of esophageal cancer. Analysis of 11 cases of esophageal mucosal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Misumi, A; Harada, K; Murakami, A; Arima, K; Kondo, H; Akagi, M; Yagi, Y; Ikeda, T; Kobori, Y; Matsukane, H

    1989-01-01

    We reviewed 11 patients with esophageal mucosal carcinoma in various aspects to improve the early diagnosis of the disease. Eighteen lesions measuring 0.5 to 5.0 cm were confirmed histologically in the 11 cases. Histologically 10 of the 18 lesions were carcinomas in situ (ep cancer), and the other 8 lesions were carcinomas confined to the mucosa other than ep cancer (mm cancer); all 18 lesions were squamous cell carcinomas. Six (85.7%) of the seven mm cancers showed abnormal radiographic findings regardless of the size. Similarly these findings were noted on four of five (80%) ep carcinomas 2 cm or larger in size. All 15 lesions diagnosed before operation showed abnormal findings on conventional endoscopy regardless of the size and depth of transmural invasion. Morphologic change was observed in 9 lesions (53.3%), while 13 (86.7%) showed color change; most of the lesions (80%) were manifested as redness. Dyeing of the resected specimen with Lugol solution (Katayama Chemical Industries, Osaka, Japan) showed all 18 cancerous lesions as unstained areas. Among the 18 lesions, two lesions were unstained areas, which agreed with the areas determined histologically. An additional lesion was visible with dye endoscopy as an unstained area but it was not visible with radiography or conventional endoscopy. Dye endoscopy using Lugol solution is very important because it allows detection and evaluation of the extent of esophageal mucosal cancer. Images Figs. 3A and B. Fig. 4. Figs. 5A and B. Figs. 6A and B. Figs. 7A and B. Figs. 8A and B. Figs. 9A and B. Fig. 10. PMID:2589886

  12. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang-Biao; Shi, Hong-Can; Shu, Yu-Sheng; Shi, Wei-Ping; Lu, Shi-Chun; Zhang, Xiang-Yan; Tu, Shao-Song

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To retrospectively evaluate our experience with the diagnosis and surgical resection of esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). METHODS: Between January 2003 and August 2014, five esophageal GIST cases were admitted to our hospital. In this study, the hospital records, surgery outcomes, tumor recurrence and survival of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 45.6 years (range: 12-62 years). Three patients presented with dysphagia, and one patient presented with chest discomfort. The remaining patient was asymptomatic. Four patients were diagnosed with esophageal GISTs by a preoperative endoscopic biopsy. Three patients underwent esophagectomy, and two patients underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. The mean operating time was 116 min (range: 95-148 min), and the mean blood loss was 176 mL (range: 30-300 mL). All tumors were completely resected. The mean length of postoperative hospital stay was 8.4 d (range: 6-12 d). All patients recovered and were discharged successfully. The median postoperative follow-up duration was 48 mo (range: 29-72 mo). One patient was diagnosed with recurrence, one patient was lost to follow-up, and three patients were asymptomatic and are currently being managed with close radiologic and clinical follow-up. CONCLUSION: Surgery is the standard, effective and successful treatment for esophageal GISTs. Long-term follow-up is required to monitor recurrence and metastasis. PMID:25987788

  13. Intrathoracic esophageal perforation: The merit of primary repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard I. Whyte; Mark D. Iannettoni; Mark B. Orringer

    1995-01-01

    Between 1976 and 1993, 22 patients with intrathoracic esophageal perforations, none associated with carcinoma, underwent primary repair regardless of the interval between perforation and the time of repair. Eighteen perforations were iatrogenic and four were spontaneous. The interval from perforation to operation was less than 12 hours in 10 patients, 12 to 24 hours in 3, and more than 24

  14. Nitinol Esophageal Stents: New Designs and Clinical Indications

    SciTech Connect

    Strecker, Ernst-Peter; Boos, Irene; Vetter, Sylvia; Strohm, Michael; Domschke, Sigurd [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Diakonissen-Krankenhaus, Diakonissenstr. 28, D-76191 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1996-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical use of covered and noncovered, knitted nitinol stents in patients presenting new stent indications. Methods: Self-expandable, knitted nitinol stents were implanted in four patients for treatment of dysphagia. In two patients who had malignant strictures and had esophago-respiratory fistulae and in one patient with an esophagocutaneous fistula, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stents were implanted. One patient received a noncovered stent, but a retrograde approach through a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) fistula had to be chosen for recanalization of an esophageal occlusion. Two patients received stents for treatment of benign strictures. Results: Recanalization of the stricture and stent implantation were performed under fluoroscopic control without any procedure-related morbidity or mortality. Dysphagia improved in all patients and the esophageal fistulae could be sealed off by covered stents. During a maximum follow-up of 18 months, there was no stent migration or esophageal perforation. Complications observed were stent stenosis due to food impaction (1/4) and benign stent stenosis (2/2). Most complications could be treated by the interventional radiologist. Conclusion: Self-expandable, covered Nitinol stents provide an option for the treatment of dysphagia combined with esophageal fistulae. In combination with interventional radiology techniques, even complex strictures are accessible. For benign strictures, the value of stent treatment has not yet been proven.

  15. Coincidence of Nutritional Habits and Esophageal Cancer in Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Wolfgarten; U. Rosendahl; T. Nowroth; J. Leers; R. Metzger; A. H. Hölscher; E. Bollschweiler

    2001-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The incidence rates for adenocarcinoma (AC) of the esophagus have risen rapidly in Western nations, whereas the incidence rates for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) have remained nearly stable. There are studies about body mass index, smoking, alcohol, and development of AC or SCC. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in nutritional habits of patients

  16. Etiology and chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary D. Stoner; Ashok Gupta

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the human esophagus has a multifactorial etiology involving several environ- mental and\\/or genetic factors. Current modalities of therapy for this disease offer poor survival and cure rates. Although a number of approaches could be undertaken to reduce the occurrence of esophageal SCC, including changes in lifestyle and improved nutrition, such approaches are not easily implemented.

  17. Esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula associated with situs inversus totalis.

    PubMed

    Barman, Shibsankar; Mandal, Kartik Chandra; Shukla, Ram Mohan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath

    2014-06-01

    Esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula with situs inversus totalis is an extremely rare association. We are presenting a case of a preterm neonate suffering from similar condition. Fistula ligation with primary repair was done via left thoracotomy to avoid technical difficulties. Preoperative echocardiography should be done to confirm dextrocardia and disposition of the aortic arch. PMID:25177126

  18. Preparation and characterization of a biologic scaffold from esophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Keane, Timothy J; Londono, Ricardo; Carey, Ryan M; Carruthers, Christopher A; Reing, Janet E; Dearth, Christopher L; D'Amore, Antonio; Medberry, Christopher J; Badylak, Stephen F

    2013-09-01

    Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are commonly used to facilitate a constructive remodeling response in several types of tissue, including the esophagus. Surgical manipulation of the esophagus is often complicated by stricture, but preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the use of an ECM scaffold can mitigate stricture and promote a constructive outcome after resection of full circumference esophageal mucosa. Recognizing the potential benefits of ECM derived from homologous tissue (i.e., site-specific ECM), the objective of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and assess the in-vivo remodeling properties of ECM from porcine esophageal mucosa. The developed protocol for esophageal ECM preparation is compliant with previously established criteria of decellularization and results in a scaffold that maintains important biologic components and an ultrastructure consistent with a basement membrane complex. Perivascular stem cells remained viable when seeded upon the esophageal ECM scaffold in-vitro, and the in-vivo host response showed a pattern of constructive remodeling when implanted in soft tissue. PMID:23777917

  19. Cyclosporine in the management of esophageal lichen planus

    PubMed Central

    Chaklader, M; Morris-Larkin, C; Gulliver, W; McGrath, J

    2009-01-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is an uncommon disorder of unknown etiology, mostly affecting patients in their fifth and sixth decade of life. It is believed to be an autoimmune process involving T cells directed against basal keratinocytes. It affects the skin, nails, oral pharynx and genitals. Esophageal involvement is quite rare and can cause strictures, ulcerations and squamous cell cancer. The present article describes the case of a 54-year-old woman who was referred for assessment of dysphagia that initially occurred with solids, which then progressed to soft foods but spared liquids. The patient reported a weight loss of 9.1 kg. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed and she was subsequently diagnosed with pill esophagitis. At the same time, she was also diagnosed with oral LP, with no involvement of the esophagus. She was treated with a proton pump inhibitor that resolved her gastrointestinal symptoms. The symptoms returned one year later and a repeat esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed white plaques due to LP. She was treated with intermittent glucocorticoids. Diagnosis of esophageal LP is crucial for the proper treatment. Some patients may require systemic immunosuppression and mechanical dilation to prevent weight loss. Surveillance endoscopies should be performed to monitor for squamous cell cancer. Cyclosporine has been used for genital and oral LP, but the present case is the first in which it has been used successfully to treat esophageal LP. PMID:19826643

  20. Preparation and Characterization of a Biologic Scaffold from Esophageal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Timothy J.; Londono, Ricardo; Carey, Ryan M.; Carruthers, Christopher A.; Reing, Janet E.; Dearth, Christopher L.; D’Amore, Antonio; Medberry, Christopher J.; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2013-01-01

    Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are commonly used to facilitate a constructive remodeling response in several types of tissue, including the esophagus. Surgical manipulation of the esophagus is often complicated by stricture, but preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the use of an ECM scaffold can mitigate stricture and promote a constructive outcome after resection of full circumference esophageal mucosa. Recognizing the potential benefits of ECM derived from homologous tissue (i.e., site-specific ECM), the objective of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and assess the in-vivo remodeling properties of ECM from porcine esophageal mucosa. The developed protocol for esophageal ECM preparation is compliant with previously established criteria of decellularization and results in a scaffold that maintains important biologic components and an ultrastructure consistent with a basement membrane complex. Perivascular stem cells remained viable when seeded upon the esophageal ECM scaffold in vitro, and the in-vivo host response showed a pattern of constructive remodeling when implanted in soft tissue. PMID:23777917

  1. Palliative Chemotherapy Does Not Improve Survival in Metastatic Esophageal Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoine Adenis; Nicolas Penel; Samy Horn; Sophie Dominguez; Marie Vanhuyse; Xavier Mirabel

    2010-01-01

    Background: The role of chemotherapy in metastatic esophageal carcinoma (MEC) remains a matter of debate. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the survival impact of chemotherapy after stratification for prognostic factors. Methods: Consecutive patients with MEC (1995 to 2008) were randomly assigned to a development (n = 171) and a validation cohort (n = 113). We had

  2. Esophageal foreign body in a 2-day-old calf

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    A 2-day-old male Charolais crossbred calf presented with a section of an esophageal feeding tube partially obstructing his esophagus. External palpation of the neck confirmed the location of the obstruction to be within the cervical esophagus. A rumenotomy was performed and the foreign body was successfully removed. PMID:20592832

  3. [Tracheoesophageal fistula after the removal of esophageal foreign body].

    PubMed

    Szmeja, Z; Kruk-Zagajewska, A; Wa?niewska, E

    1999-01-01

    A case of 18 years old male with tracheoesophageal fistula as a result of esophageal foreign body (chestnut) is described. Foreign body was removed using esophagoscopy. Bronchofiberoscopy performed because of difficulties with swallowing and frequent airway infections revealed tracheoesophageal fistula. Fistula was closed from intratracheal access. Symptoms of dysfagia disappeared after surgery. PMID:10689920

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Roshandel, Gholamreza; Semnani, Shahryar; Malekzadeh, Reza; Dawsey, Sanford M

    2012-11-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is the 8th most common cancer and the 6th most frequent cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common type of EC. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been suggested as a risk factor for developing ESCC. In this paper we will review different aspects of the relationship between PAH exposure and ESCC. PAHs are a group of compounds that are formed by incomplete combustion of organic matter. Studies in humans have shown an association between PAH exposure and development of ESCC in many populations. The results of a recent case-control study in a high risk population in northeastern Iran showed a dramatic dose-response relationship between PAH content in non-tumor esophageal tissue (the target tissue for esophageal carcinogenesis) and ESCC case status, consistent with a causal role for PAH exposure in the pathogenesis of ESCC.  Identifying the main sources of exposure to PAHs may be the first and most important step in designing appropriate PAH-reduction interventions for controlling ESCC, especially in high risk areas. Coal smoke and drinking mate have been suggested as important modifiable sources of PAH exposure in China and Brazil, respectively. But the primary source of exposure to PAHs in other high risk areas for ESCC, such as northeastern Iran, has not yet been identified. Thus, environmental studies to determining important sources of PAH exposure should be considered as a high priority in future research projects in these areas. PMID:23102250

  5. Doctors, Engineers Develop New Wireless System To Detect Esophageal Reflux

    E-print Network

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    that takes photos as it goes through the digestive tract, and Bravo capsule, another wireless systemDoctors, Engineers Develop New Wireless System To Detect Esophageal Reflux Science Daily -- UT Southwestern Medical Center doctors and UT Arlington engineers have developed a wireless monitoring system

  6. Clinical and immunopathologic effects of swallowed fluticasone for eosinophilic esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J Noel; Philip E Putnam; Margaret H Collins; Amal H Assa’ad; Jesus R Guajardo; Sean C Jameson; Marc E Rothenberg

    2004-01-01

    Background & Aims: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a recently recognized clinical disorder that is understood poorly. We aimed to determine the efficacy of swallowed fluticasone propionate on the immunopathologic features associated with EE. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 20 pediatric patients with EE. Inclusion criteria specified a peak eosinophil density of ?24 cells per 400× field in the

  7. Endoscopy in eosinophilic esophagitis: “feline” esophagus and perforation risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitchell Kaplan; Ece A. Mutlu; Shriram Jakate; Keith Bruninga; John Losurdo; Joseph Losurdo; Ali Keshavarzian

    2003-01-01

    Background & Aims: Idiopathic eosinophilic esophagitis is an underdiagnosed disease with typical endoscopic findings, which have not been well described. Methods: Charts and pathology reports at two tertiary care centers from June 1993 to April 2002 were reviewed to describe the endoscopic findings of this disease and to correlate them with clinical characteristics. Eight patients were identified as having eosinophilic

  8. An Audit of Endoscopic Complications in Adult Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew S. Cohen; Adam B. Kaufman; Juan P. Palazzo; Daniel Nevin; Anthony J. DiMarino; Sidney Cohen

    2007-01-01

    Background & Aims: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in adults, characterized by the triad of dysphagia, a ringed esophagus, and mucosal eosinophilic infiltration, has asso- ciated complications that include vertical mucosal lacera- tions, instrumental perforation, and emesis-induced rup- ture. The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features can be used to predict the risk for development

  9. Biopsy-negative malignant esophageal stricture: diagnosis by endoscopic ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas O. Faigel; Clifford Deveney; Daniel Phillips; M. Brian Fennerty

    1998-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) of the esophagus has been used primarily in staging biopsy-proven cancers. Its use as a primary diagnostic modality for esophageal malignancy has not been previously described. We report our recent experience in four patients with dysphagia and endoscopic biopsies negative for malignancy, including one patient with clinical and manometric features suggestive of achalasia. In all cases, EUS

  10. Molecular, genetic, and cellular bases for treating eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Marc E

    2015-05-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was historically distinguished from gastroesophageal reflux disease on the basis of histology and lack of responsiveness to acid suppressive therapy, but it is now appreciated that esophageal eosinophilia can respond to proton pump inhibitors. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to risk for EoE, particularly early-life events. Disease pathogenesis involves activation of epithelial inflammatory pathways (production of eotaxin-3 [encoded by CCL26]), impaired barrier function (mediated by loss of desmoglein-1), increased production and/or activity of transforming growth factor-?, and induction of allergic inflammation by eosinophils and mast cells. Susceptibility has been associated with variants at 5q22 (TSLP) and 2p23 (CAPN14), indicating roles for allergic sensitization and esophageal specific protease pathways. We propose that EoE is a unique disease characterized by food hypersensitivity; strong hereditability influenced by early-life exposures and esophageal-specific genetic risk variants; and allergic inflammation and that the disease is remitted by disrupting inflammatory and T-helper type 2 cytokine-mediated responses and through dietary elimination therapy. PMID:25666870

  11. KCNE2 forms potassium channels with KCNA3 and KCNQ1 in the choroid plexus epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Roepke, Torsten K.; Kanda, Vikram A.; Purtell, Kerry; King, Elizabeth C.; Lerner, Daniel J.; Abbott, Geoffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is crucial for normal function and mechanical protection of the CNS. The choroid plexus epithelium (CPe) is primarily responsible for secreting CSF and regulating its composition by mechanisms currently not fully understood. Previously, the heteromeric KCNQ1-KCNE2 K+ channel was functionally linked to epithelial processes including gastric acid secretion and thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Here, using Kcne2?/? tissue as a negative control, we found cerebral expression of KCNE2 to be markedly enriched in the CPe apical membrane, where we also discovered expression of KCNQ1. Targeted Kcne2 gene deletion in C57B6 mice increased CPe outward K+ current 2-fold. The Kcne2 deletion-enhanced portion of the current was inhibited by XE991 (10 ?M) and margatoxin (10 ?M) but not by dendrotoxin (100 nM), indicating that it arose from augmentation of KCNQ subfamily and KCNA3 but not KCNA1 K+ channel activity. Kcne2 deletion in C57B6 mice also altered the polarity of CPe KCNQ1 and KCNA3 trafficking, hyperpolarized the CPe membrane by 9 ± 2 mV, and increased CSF [Cl?] by 14% compared with wild-type mice. These findings constitute the first report of CPe dysfunction caused by cation channel gene disruption and suggest that KCNE2 influences blood-CSF anion flux by regulating KCNQ1 and KCNA3 in the CPe.—Roepke, T. K., Kanda, V. A., Purtell, K., King, E. C., Lerner, D. J., Abbott, G. W. KCNE2 forms potassium channels with KCNA3 and KCNQ1 in the choroid plexus epithelium. PMID:21859894

  12. Normal Distribution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students adjust the standard deviation and sample size of a normal distribution to see how it will affect a histogram of that distribution. This activity allows students to explore the effect of changing the sample size in an experiment and the effect of changing the standard deviation of a normal distribution. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

  13. Endoscopic evaluation of gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, D.

    1999-01-01

    Endoscopy is, currently, the initial investigation of choice for the investigation of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in clinical practice and clinical research. Erosion severity is predictive of a patient's response to therapy and of the likelihood of relapse after therapy. It is, therefore, important to grade the severity of erosive reflux esophagitis, particularly in the context of clinical trials. The Savary-Miller endoscopic classification system is used widely but usage and interpretation are very variable. The "MUSE" (metaplasia [M], ulceration [U], stricturing [S] and erosions [E]) classification provides clear definitions of the relevant endoscopic features, and it is based on a standardized report form, which allows the endoscopist to make a clear record of esophagitis severity. Recent studies confirm that endoscopists can identify erosions or mucosal breaks, ulcers, strictures, and metaplasia reproducibly. The "L.A." (Los Angeles) classification describes four grades of esophagitis severity (A to D), based on the extent of esophageal lesions known as "mucosal breaks," but it does not record the presence or severity of other GERD lesions. Thus, for patients with "complicated" reflux disease, the "MUSE" classification offers a more comprehensive description of esophagitis severity. Endoscopy is not universally applicable: 40 to 60 percent of patients with typical reflux symptoms do not have esophageal erosions and are now considered to have "endoscopy negative reflux disease" (ENRD). Thus, endoscopy is not the final arbiter as to a diagnosis of reflux disease, and it is not, therefore, a necessary prerequisite to therapy. Endoscopy is indicated at first presentation for patients with alarm symptoms referable to the upper gastrointestinal tract. It has also been proposed that all patients with chronic GERD should have a "once-in-a-lifetime" endoscopy; in the absence of Barrett's esophagus or other complications, no follow-up is required unless the patient's symptoms change significantly. A surveillance program with multiple biopsies should be instituted if there is evidence of Barrett's esophagus. Endoscopic evaluation should document the presence and extent of esophageal erosions using the L.A. or MUSE classification systems; complications should also be documented and may be recorded using the MUSE classification. Non-erosive changes such as erythema may be ignored on the basis of present evidence, and there are no clear data to support the use of endoscopic biopsies for the diagnosis of GERD. PMID:10780570

  14. Response of macaque bronchiolar epithelium to ambient concentrations of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Harkema, J.R.; Plopper, C.G.; Hyde, D.M.; St. George, J.A.; Wilson, D.W.; Dungworth, D.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Recently, we reported that exposure to ambient concentrations of ozone, near the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard (0.12 ppm), induced significant nasal epithelial lesions in a non-human primate, the bonnet monkey. The present study defines the effects of ambient concentrations of ozone on the surface epithelium lining respiratory bronchioles and on the underlying bronchiolar interstitium in these same monkeys. Bonnet monkeys were exposed to filtered air or to 0.15 or 0.30 ppm ozone 8 hours/day for 6 or 90 days. At the end of exposures, monkeys were anesthetized and killed by exsanguination. Microdissected bronchiolar airways of infusion-fixed lungs were evaluated morphometrically by light microscopy and quantitatively by scanning and transmission electron microscopy for ozone-induced epithelial changes. Hyperplasia of nonciliated, cuboidal epithelial cells and intraluminal accumulation of macrophages characterized ozone-induced lesions in respiratory bronchioles. There were no significant differences in epithelial thickness or cell numbers among ozone-exposed groups. Ozone-exposed epithelium was composed of 80% cuboidal and 20% squamous cells compared with 40% cuboidal and 60% squamous cells in filtered air controls. In addition, the arithmetic mean thickness of the surface epithelium, a measure of tissue mass per unit area of basal lamina, was significantly increased in all of the ozone-exposed groups. The number of cuboidal epithelial cells per surface area of basal lamina was increased above control values by 780% after 6 days exposure to 0.15 ppm, 777% after 90 days to 0.15 ppm, and 996% after 90 days exposure to 0.30 ppm. There was also a significant ozone-induced increase in the thickness of the bronchiolar interstitium that was due to an increase in both cellular and acellular components.

  15. Nonequilibrium thermodynamic model of the rat proximal tubule epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, A M

    1983-01-01

    The rat proximal tubule epithelium is represented as well-stirred, compliant cellular and paracellular compartments bounded by mucosal and serosal bathing solutions. With a uniform pCO2 throughout the epithelium, the model variables include the concentrations of Na, K, Cl, HCO3, H2PO4, HPO4, and H, as well as hydrostatic pressure and electrical potential. Except for a metabolically driven Na-K exchanger at the basolateral cell membrane, all membrane transport within the epithelium is passive and is represented by the linear equations of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In particular, this includes the cotransport of Na-Cl and Na-H2PO4 and countertransport of Na-H at the apical cell membrane. Experimental constraints on the choice of ionic conductivities are satisfied by allowing K-Cl cotransport at the basolateral membrane. The model equations include those for mass balance of the nonreacting species, as well as chemical equilibrium for the acidification reactions. Time-dependent terms are retained to permit the study of transient phenomena. In the steady state the energy dissipation is computed and verified equal to the sum of input from the Na-K exchanger plus the Gibbs free energy of mass addition to the system. The parameter dependence of coupled water transport is studied and shown to be consistent with the predictions of previous analytical models of the lateral intercellular space. Water transport in the presence of an end-proximal (HCO3-depleted) luminal solution is investigated. Here the lower permeability and higher reflection coefficient of HCO3 enhance net sodium and water transport. Due to enhanced flux across the tight junction, this process may permit proximal tubule Na transport to proceed with diminished energy dissipation. PMID:6652211

  16. Expression of signaling components in embryonic eyelid epithelium.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qinghang; Jin, Chang; Chen, Yinglei; Chen, Jing; Medvedovic, Mario; Xia, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Closure of an epithelium opening is a critical morphogenetic event for development. An excellent example for this process is the transient closure of embryonic eyelid. Eyelid closure requires shape change and migration of epithelial cells at the tip of the developing eyelids, and is dictated by numerous signaling pathways. Here we evaluated gene expression in epithelial cells isolated from the tip (leading edge, LE) and inner surface epithelium (IE) of the eyelid from E15.5 mouse fetuses by laser capture microdissection (LCM). We showed that the LE and IE cells are different at E15.5, such that IE had higher expression of muscle specific genes, while LE acquired epithelium identities. Despite their distinct destinies, these cells were overall similar in expression of signaling components for the "eyelid closure pathways". However, while the LE cells had more abundant expression of Fgfr2, Erbb2, Shh, Ptch1 and 2, Smo and Gli2, and Jag1 and Notch1, the IE cells had more abundant expression of Bmp5 and Bmpr1a. In addition, the LE cells had more abundant expression of adenomatosis polyposis coli down-regulated 1 (Apcdd1), but the IE cells had high expression of Dkk2. Our results suggest that the functionally distinct LE and IE cells have also differential expression of signaling molecules that may contribute to the cell-specific responses to morphogenetic signals. The expression pattern suggests that the EGF, Shh and NOTCH pathways are preferentially active in LE cells, the BMP pathways are effective in IE cells, and the Wnt pathway may be repressed in LE and IE cells via different mechanisms. PMID:24498290

  17. Prolactin effects on ion transport across cultured mouse mammary epithelium.

    PubMed

    Bisbee, C A

    1981-03-01

    Prolactin is a known osmoregulatory hormone in lower vertebrates, and recent evidence indicates that this hormone modulates ionic concentrations in milk. In an ultrastructurally and biochemically differentiated primary cell culture system in which mouse mammary epithelium is maintained on floating collagen gels, prolactin causes an increase in short-circuit current (Isc) of monolayers of cells derived from midpregnant (24.6 to 48.0 microA . cm-2) and lactating (10.4 to 16.1 microA . cm-2) glands. Transepithelial potential differences (basal side ground) average about -12 mV and are similar to those seen in vivo. Prelactating mammary epithelial cell cultures have transepithelial resistances ranging from 374 omega . cm2 (prolactin present) to 507 omega . cm2 (prolactin absent), and lactating cell cultures have resistances averaging almost 1,000 omega . cm2. Prolactin effects require at most one day of culture maintenance in prolactin-containing medium, and the effects are not due to known contamination of prolactin preparations with arginine vasopressin or growth hormone. Medium concentrations of prolactin as low as 1 ng/ml can elicit these effects. In prelactating cell cultures not treated with prolactin, the Isc is equal to the rate of sodium absorption. Prolactin increases sodium absorption fourfold but increases Isc only twofold. Clearly, prolactin induces other active transport; neither potassium nor chloride movements can account for this additional transport. Resistance values, current-voltage plots, and permeability coefficients indicate that in vitro mammary epithelium is a moderately "tight" tissue. Comparisons with intact glands indicate that in vitro mammary epithelium closely resembles its in vivo counterpart. Floating collagen gel cultures appear suitable for elucidating transport properties in cellularly heterogeneous and structurally complex mammalian tissues. PMID:7011046

  18. Inactivation of LGI1 expression accompanies early stage hyperplasia of prostate epithelium in the TRAMP murine model of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cowell, John K; Head, Karen; Kunapuli, Padmaja; Vaughan, Mary; Karasik, Ellen; Foster, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The LGI1 gene has been implicated in tumor cell invasion through regulation of the ERK pathway. To determine whether human prostate cancer cells (PC3, 22RV, Du145) are similarly affected by exposure to LGI1, we conducted scratch wound assays and demonstrated that the secreted LGI1 protein can reduce cell motility, an essential component of invasion and metastasis. These studies have now been extended to an in vivo mouse model of prostate cancer. Using a BAC transgenic mouse expressing a GFP reporter gene under the control of cis regulatory elements, we demonstrated that LGI1 is highly expressed in the normal prostate epithelium. To determine whether loss of LGI1 expression is associated with development and progression of murine prostate cancer, we bred the GFP reporter BAC transgenic mice with TRAMP mice which undergo early hyperplasia and progressive stages of prostate cancer. In the F1 animals, although the surrounding normal prostate epithelium expressed high levels of LGI1 in the double transgenic mice, the LGI1 gene had been inactivated even at the earliest stages of hyperplasia. This observation supports the suggestion that inactivation of LGI1 in certain cell types is related to tumor progression. Taken together these results suggest that LGI1 may be an important molecule for the arrest of prostate cancer cell invasion and possibly as a biomarker for early detection of prostate hyperplasia. PMID:19778537

  19. Methoxychlor Induces Proliferation of the Mouse Ovarian Surface Epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel A. Symonds; Dragana Tomic; Kimberly P. Miller; Jodi A. Flaws

    2005-01-01

    Whilethepesticidemethoxychlor(MXC)hasavarietyofadverse effectsonthefemalereproductivesystem,theeffectsofMXConthe ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) are unknown. Thus, this study testedthehypothesisthatMXCaltersthegrowthoftheOSE.Mouse OSE cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion and cultured with vehicle, 3 mM of MXC, or 3 mM of 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1,- trichloroethane(HPTE)for14days.Afterculture,proliferationand apoptosis were assessed by measurement of cell density, immuno- histochemistry, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell den- sity was 66% greater for MXC-treated cells and 95% greater

  20. Immune defense mechanisms in the Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Pukkila-Worley, Read; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells provide an essential line of defense for Caenorhabditis elegans against ingested pathogens. Because nematodes consume microorganisms as their food source, there has presumably been selection pressure to evolve and maintain immune defense mechanisms within the intestinal epithelium. Here we review recent advances that further define the immune signaling network within these cells and suggest mechanisms used by the nematode to monitor for infection. In reviewing studies of pathogenesis that use this simple model system, we hope to illustrate some of the basic principles of epithelial immunity that may also be of relevance in higher order hosts. PMID:22236697

  1. Esophageal Motion During Radiotherapy: Quantification and Margin Implications

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Randi J.; Paskalev, Kamen; Litwin, Samuel; Price, Robert; Feigenberg, Steven J.; Konski, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate inter- and intra-fraction esophageal motion in the right-left (RL) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions using computed tomography (CT) in esophageal cancer patients. Methods and Materials Eight patients underwent CT simulation and CT-on-rails imaging before and after radiotherapy. Inter-fraction displacement was defined as differences between pre-treatment and simulation images. Intra-fraction displacement was defined as differences between pre- and post-treatment images. Images were fused using bone registries, adjusted to the carina. The mean, average of the absolute, and range of esophageal motion were calculated in RL and AP directions, above and below the carina. Results Thirty-one CT image sets were obtained. The incidence of esophageal inter-fraction motion ?5 was 24% and ?10 mm was 3%; intra-fraction motion ? 5mm was 13% and ?10 mm was 4%. The average RL motion was 1.8±5.1 mm, favoring leftward movement, and the average AP motion was 0.6±4.8 mm, favoring posterior movement. Average absolute motion was 4.2 mm or less in RL and AP directions. Motion was greatest in the RL direction above the carina. Coverage of 95% of esophageal mobility requires 12mm left, 8mm right, 10mm posterior, and 9mm anterior margins. Conclusion In all directions, the average of the absolute inter-fraction and intra-fraction displacement was 4.2 mm or less. These results support a 12 mm left, 8 mm right, 10 mm posterior, and 9 mm anterior margin for ITV and can guide margins for future IMRT trials to account for organ motion and set up error in 3-dimesional planning. PMID:20095993

  2. Identification of glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) protein as a novel tumor-associated antigen and its autoantibody in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Qi; Peng, Bo; Shao, Qing; Qian, Wei; Zhang, Jian-Ying

    2014-11-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the main form of esophageal malignancy. The approach for early diagnosis of this malignancy is very limited. In the present study, we first evaluated glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1), a protein related to metabolism, as a tumor-associated antigen in ESCC, and we also evaluated its autoantibody as a potential biomarker in early detection of ESCC. First, immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of GSTO1 protein expression in esophageal tissues showed that the percentage of positive staining of GSTO1 in ESCC tissues was 87.5% while there was no positive staining in adjacent tissues or normal tissues, indicating that overexpression of GSTO1 is closely related to ESCC. Then, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that the frequency of detectable autoantibody against GSTO1 in patients' sera totals 44.8%. In contrast, the frequency of detectable autoantibody was only 6.7% in normal human sera (p < 0.01). To further evaluate our ELISA results, western blotting and immunofluorescence assay were also performed. The results were consistent with the data from ELISA. In conclusion, the current study has demonstrated that GSTO1 protein is overexpressed in ESCC and can induce a detectable autoantibody response, which may serve as a potential biomarker in the early detection of ESCC. PMID:25085586

  3. Comparison of air-coupled balloon esophageal and anorectal manometry catheters with solid-state esophageal manometry and water-perfused anorectal manometry catheters.

    PubMed

    Fang, John C; Hilden, Kristen; Tuteja, Ashok K; Peterson, Kathryn A

    2004-10-01

    Clinical gastrointestinal manometry studies are currently performed with multilumen water-perfused polyvinyl or strain gauge sensor solid-state catheters. A disposable catheter incorporating air-filled balloons has been developed with performance characteristics suitable for esophageal and anorectal manometry studies. Our aim was to compare esophageal and anorectal pressure measurements using this newly developed catheter with measurements obtained using standard solid-state or water-perfused catheters. Measurements of resting LES pressure, esophageal contraction amplitudes, and anorectal rest and squeeze pressures were obtained in 10 healthy volunteers using a solid-state esophageal catheter, a water-perfused anorectal catheter, and air-filled balloon esophageal and anorectal catheters. Correlation coefficient analysis demonstrated that LES pressures, esophageal contraction amplitudes, and anorectal resting and squeeze pressures were not significantly among between the different catheters. We conclude that recently developed air-filled balloon esophageal and anorectal manometry catheters provide very similar measurements of LES, esophageal body, and anorectal sphincter pressures compared to presently used manometry catheters. PMID:15573923

  4. Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase Type-1 Synthesizes Retinyl Esters in the Retina and Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Kaylor, Joanna J.; Radu, Roxana A.; Bischoff, Nicholas; Makshanoff, Jacob; Hu, Jane; Lloyd, Marcia; Eddington, Shannan; Bianconi, Tran; Bok, Dean; Travis, Gabriel H.

    2015-01-01

    Retinyl esters represent an insoluble storage form of vitamin A and are substrates for the retinoid isomerase (Rpe65) in cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The major retinyl-ester synthase in RPE cells is lecithin:retinol acyl-transferase (LRAT). A second palmitoyl coenzyme A-dependent retinyl-ester synthase activity has been observed in RPE homogenates but the protein responsible has not been identified. Here we show that diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1) is expressed in multiple cells of the retina including RPE and Müller glial cells. DGAT1 catalyzes the synthesis of retinyl esters from multiple retinol isomers with similar catalytic efficiencies. Loss of DGAT1 in dgat1 -/- mice has no effect on retinal anatomy or the ultrastructure of photoreceptor outer-segments (OS) and RPE cells. Levels of visual chromophore in dgat1 -/- mice were also normal. However, the normal build-up of all-trans-retinyl esters (all-trans-RE’s) in the RPE during the first hour after a deep photobleach of visual pigments in the retina was not seen in dgat1 -/- mice. Further, total retinyl-ester synthase activity was reduced in both dgat1 -/- retina and RPE. PMID:25974161

  5. Cultured human ocular surface epithelium on therapeutic contact lenses

    PubMed Central

    Girolamo, Nick Di; Chui, Jeanie; Wakefield, Denis; Coroneo, Minas T

    2007-01-01

    Background This study was initiated after observation of some intriguing epithelial growth properties of contact lenses used as a bandage for patients after pterygium surgery. Aim To determine the efficacy of culturing human ocular surface epithelial cells on therapeutic contact lenses in autologous serum with a view of using this system to transfer epithelial cells to patients with persistent corneal or limbal defects. Methods Excess graft tissue resected from patients undergoing pterygium surgery (n?=?3) consisting of limbal epithelium was placed on siloxane–hydrogel contact lenses (lotrafilcon A and balafilcon A). Limbal explants were cultured in media with 10% autologous serum. Morphology, proliferative capacity and cytokeratin profile were determined by phase contrast, light and electron microscopy, and immunohistochemical analysis. Results Lotrafilcon A contact lenses sustained proliferation and migration from limbal tissue. Cells became confluent after 10–14?days and consisted of 2–3 layers with a corneal phenotype (CK3+/CK12+/CK19?) and a propensity to proliferate (p63+). Electron microscopy showed microvilli on the apical surface with adhesive projections, indicating that these cells were stable and likely to survive for a long term. Growth was not observed from limbal explants cultured on balafilcon A contact lenses. Conclusion A method for culturing human ocular surface epithelium on contact lenses that may facilitate expansion and transfer of autologous limbal epithelial cells while avoiding the risks associated with transplanting allogeneic tissue has been developed. This technique may be potentially useful for the treatment of patients with limbal stem cell deficiency. PMID:16987897

  6. The epithelium in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: breaking the barrier

    PubMed Central

    Camelo, Ana; Dunmore, Rebecca; Sleeman, Matthew A.; Clarke, Deborah L.

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive disease of unknown etiology characterized by a dysregulated wound healing response that leads to fatal accumulation of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix (ECM) in the lung, which compromises tissue architecture and lung function capacity. Injury to type II alveolar epithelial cells is thought to be the key event for the initiation of the disease, and so far both genetic factors, such as mutations in telomerase and MUC5B genes as well as environmental components, like cigarette smoking, exposure to asbestos and viral infections have been implicated as potential initiating triggers. The injured epithelium then enters a state of senescence-associated secretory phenotype whereby it produces both pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic factors that contribute to the wound healing process in the lung. Immune cells, like macrophages and neutrophils as well as activated myofibroblasts then perpetuate this cascade of epithelial cell apoptosis and proliferation by release of pro-fibrotic transforming growth factor beta and continuous deposition of ECM stiffens the basement membrane, altogether having a deleterious impact on epithelial cell function. In this review, we describe the role of the epithelium as both a physical and immunological barrier between environment and self in the homeostatic versus diseased lung and explore the potential mechanisms of epithelial cell injury and the impact of loss of epithelial cell permeability and function on cytokine production, inflammation, and myofibroblast activation in the fibrotic lung. PMID:24454287

  7. Selective gene expression by rat gastric corpus epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, M.; Stengel, A.; Sachs, G.

    2011-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is divided into several segments that have distinct functional properties, largely absorptive. The gastric corpus is the only segment thought of as largely secretory. Microarray hybridization of the gastric corpus mucosal epithelial cells was used to compare gene expression with other segments of the columnar GI tract followed by statistical data subtraction to identify genes selectively expressed by the rat gastric corpus mucosa. This provides a means of identifying less obvious specific functions of the corpus in addition to its secretion-related genes. For example, important properties found by this GI tract comparative transcriptome reflect the energy demand of acid secretion, a role in lipid metabolism, the large variety of resident neuroendocrine cells, responses to damaging agents and transcription factors defining differentiation of its epithelium. In terms of overlap of gastric corpus genes with the rest of the GI tract, the distal small bowel appears to express many of the gastric corpus genes in contrast to proximal small and large bowel. This differential map of gene expression by the gastric corpus epithelium will allow a more detailed description of major properties of the gastric corpus and may lead to the discovery of gastric corpus cell differentiation genes and those mis-regulated in gastric carcinomas. PMID:21177383

  8. Hormonal regulation of bicarbonate secretion in the biliary epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro, D.; Gigliozzi, A.; Fraioli, F.; Romeo, R.; Papa, E.; Delle Monache, M.; Capocaccia, L.

    1997-01-01

    Bicarbonate excretion in bile is a major function of the biliary epithelium. It is driven by the apically located Cl-/HCO3- exchanger which is functionally coupled with a cAMP-dependent Cl- channel (CFTR). A number of hormones and/or neuropeptides with different mechanisms and at different intracellular levels regulate, in concert, the processes underlying bicarbonate excretion in the biliary epithelium. Secretin induces a bicarbonate rich choleresis by stimulating the activity of the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger by cAMP and protein kinase A mediated phosphorylation of CFTR regulatory domain. Protein phosphatase 1/2A are involved in the run-down of secretory stimulus after secretin removal. Acetylcholine potentiates secretin-choleresis by inducing a Ca(++)-calcineurin mediated "sensitization" of adenyl cyclase to secretin. Bombesin and vasoactive intestinal peptide also enhance the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger activity, but the intracellular signal transduction pathway has not yet been defined. Somatostatin and gastrin inhibit basal and/or secretin-stimulated bicarbonate excretion by down-regulating the secretin receptor and decreasing cAMP intracellular levels induced by secretin. PMID:9626762

  9. The growth and differentiation of transitional epithelium in vitro

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    The development of rat transitional epithelial cells grown on conventional non-permeable surfaces was compared with development on permeable collagen supports. On glass or plastic surfaces, cells grew as expanding nomolayer sheets. Once confluent, growth continued with a bilayer being formed in most areas and apical cells being continuously sloughed off. Although most cells were interconnected by desmosomes, and junctional complexes were formed, no other indications of differentiation were observed. After 2-3 wk of growth, division stopped and cel death ensued. In contrast, single-cell suspensions plated on collagen-coated nylon disks reassociated into multicellular islands and commenced growth. Mitoses were confined to the basal cells in contact with the permeable substrate. The islands developed into epithelial trilayers, tapering to monolayers along spreading edges. Once the islands were confluent, stratification was completed and appeared similar to that observed in vivo. Germinal cells formed a basal lamina, and the upper layer was composed of large, flattened cells with an unusually thick asymmetrical plasma membrane on the apical surface. Electron microscopic and radioactive tracers demonstrated "leaky" zonulae occludentes with a restricted permeability to small molecules. The movement of urea was retarded in comparison to water. Unlike the slow turnover of adult epithelium in vivo, maturation and sloughing of apical cells were measurable. Transfer of cells could be effected and growth maintained for up to 4 mo. These results may indicate the necessity of a nutrient-permeable growth surface for the polarized differentiation of adult transitional epithelium. PMID:574872

  10. Various Upper Endoscopic Findings of Acute Esophageal Thermal Injury Induced by Diverse Food: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu Mi; Kim, Ji Young; Song, Hyun Jung; Koo, Hoon Sup; Song, Kyung Ho; Kim, Yong Seok; Huh, Kyu Chan

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal thermal injury caused by food has been reported to occur mostly after drinking hot liquid food, and is known to produce alternating white and red linear mucosal bands. In addition, thermal injury caused by ingestion of hot solid foods is documented to be a cause of esophageal ulcers or pseudomembranes. From January 2006 to August 2012, five patients with suspected esophageal thermal injury underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsy. A "candy-cane" appearance was observed in one case, pseudomembrane was observed in two cases, an esophageal ulcer was observed in one case, and a friable and edematous mucosa was noted in one case. We believe that the endoscopic findings of esophageal thermal injury depend on the following factors: causative materials, amount of food consumed, exposure period, and time to endoscopy after the incident. Therefore, physicians who encounter patients with suspected esophageal thermal injury should carefully take the patient's history considering these factors. PMID:25325006

  11. Recurrent cervical esophageal stenosis after colon conduit failure: use of myocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Sa, Young Jo; Kim, Young Du; Kim, Chi Kyung; Park, Jong Kyung; Moon, Seok Whan

    2013-01-14

    A 53-year-old male developed cervical esophageal stenosis after esophageal bypass surgery using a right colon conduit. The esophageal bypass surgery was performed to treat multiple esophageal strictures resulting from corrosive ingestion three years prior to presentation. Although the patient underwent several endoscopic stricture dilatations after surgery, he continued to suffer from recurrent esophageal stenosis. We planned cervical patch esophagoplasty with a pedicled skin flap of sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle. Postoperative recovery was successful, and the patient could eat a solid meal without difficulty and has been well for 18 mo. SCM flap esophagoplasty is an easier and safer method of managing complicated and recurrent cervical esophageal strictures than other operations. PMID:23345956

  12. Co-Infection with Paracoccidioidomycosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Report of a Case with Esophageal Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Brunaldi, Mariângela O.; Rezende, Rosamar E. F.; Zucoloto, Sérgio; Garcia, Sérgio B.; Módena, José L. P.; Machado, Alcyone A.

    2010-01-01

    Paracoccidioiodomycosis (PCM) is a systemic and deep mycosis endemic in Latin America, especially in Brazil. In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), PCM can manifest with prominent involvement of the reticuloendothelial system. There are no reports in the literature of esophageal involvement by PCM in that population. We report a case of PCM with pulmonary and esophageal involvement without radiologic evidence of an esophageal-bronchial fistula in an HIV-infected patient. PMID:20519606

  13. Co-infection with paracoccidioidomycosis and human immunodeficiency virus: report of a case with esophageal involvement.

    PubMed

    Brunaldi, Mariângela O; Rezende, Rosamar E F; Zucoloto, Sérgio; Garcia, Sérgio B; Módena, José L P; Machado, Alcyone A

    2010-06-01

    Paracoccidioiodomycosis (PCM) is a systemic and deep mycosis endemic in Latin America, especially in Brazil. In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), PCM can manifest with prominent involvement of the reticuloendothelial system. There are no reports in the literature of esophageal involvement by PCM in that population. We report a case of PCM with pulmonary and esophageal involvement without radiologic evidence of an esophageal-bronchial fistula in an HIV-infected patient. PMID:20519606

  14. Effect of Freeze-Dried Berries on the Development of Reflux-Induced Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harini S. Aiyer; Yan Li; Jack N. Losso; Chenfei Gao; Suzanne C. Schiffman; Stephen P. Slone; Robert C. G. Martin

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in humans is increasing more rapidly than any other malignancy in the United States. Animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of freeze-dried berry supplementation on carcinogen-induced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in rats; however, no such studies have been done in esophagoduodenal anastomosis (EDA), an animal model for reflux-induced esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) development. Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley

  15. Fluconazole compared with endoscopy for human immunodeficiency virus- infected patients with esophageal symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CM Wilcox; LN Alexander; WS Clark; SE Thompson

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The best initial treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with esophageal symptoms is unknown. The outcome, including safety and cost-effectiveness, of fluconazole compared with endoscopy as a treatment strategy for HIV-infected patients with new-onset esophageal symptoms was evaluated. METHODS: During a 53-month period, 134 HIV-infected patients with esophageal symptoms were randomized prospectively to groups receiving either

  16. Right atrial invasion by metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma with direct connection to liver.

    PubMed

    Nomani, Ali Zohair; Toori, Kaleem Ullah

    2014-05-01

    Common causes of right sided intra-cardiac atrial masses include primary cardiac tumors (atrial myxoma), atrial thrombus, tumor thrombus with hepatocellular or other thoracoabdominal cancers and metastatic lesions. Invasion of atria by gastrointestinal tumors is rare and that with esophageal ones seldom observed. Esophageal cancers rather present with dysphagia, odynophagia or systemic symptoms. Due to the lack of a serosal layer, esophageal tumors usually spread early in their course. Typical sites of spread include liver, gut, mediastinum, lungs and draining lymph nodes. We report a case of metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma presenting with direct extension of metastatic tumor thrombus from liver to right atrium via inferior vena cava. PMID:24906258

  17. Sudden death of an alcoholic elderly man with acute esophageal necrosis (black esophagus).

    PubMed

    Unuma, Kana; Harada, Kazuki; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Uemura, Koichi

    2011-10-10

    We report a fatal case of acute esophageal necrosis (black esophagus) in an elderly male with alcohol abuse who was found dead with coffee-ground vomiting. A postmortem examination revealed severe anemia and marked black coloring of the esophagus from the upper to the bottom end. This was accompanied by histologic evidence of extensive mucosal necrosis. Alcohol abuse and esophagitis-related vomiting were both considered to be factors that led to the acute fatal esophageal necrosis. The cause of death was undetermined. We discuss the possible role of acute esophageal necrosis in the cause of sudden death. PMID:21684699

  18. Esophagitis, Treatment-Related Toxicity in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Ad, Voichita; Ohri, Nitin; Werner-Wasik, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Radiation esophagitis represents a significant complication experienced by non-small cell cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving thoracic irradiation. The objective of the current review was to assess the clinical and dosimetrical parameters that may predict radiation esophagitis. Methods Studies were identified by searching PubMed electronic databases. Both prospective and retrospective studies were included. Information regarding clinical and dosimetrical parameters predicting for radiation-induced esophagitis was extracted and analyzed. Results The esophageal clinical and dosimetric parameters that best predict acute esophagitis remain unclear. In many reports, Vx (the volume of esophagus receiving x Gy) stands out, with values of x ranging from 20–70 Gy. Other studies conclude that the maximal dose received by any point of the esophagus is the best predictor of esophagitis. Another metric implicated with esophageal toxicity in some reports is the proportion of the esophageal circumference or surface area that receives high doses of radiation. Conclusions Technological advancements in patient immobilization, setup verification, and radiotherapy delivery are increasingly being employed to limit the toxicity of thoracic irradiation. Future efforts are required to determine how these complex techniques should best be implemented to minimize the risks of acute and long-term esophageal injury. PMID:21864251

  19. Effects of wheat germ agglutinin on human gastrointestinal epithelium: Insights from an experimental model of immune/epithelial cell interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrina, Chiara Dalla [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15-CV1, I-37134 Verona (Italy); Perbellini, Omar [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Verona, I-37134 Verona (Italy); Scupoli, Maria Teresa [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Verona, I-37134 Verona (Italy); Interdepartmental Laboratory for Medical Research, University of Verona, I-37134 Verona (Italy); Tomelleri, Carlo [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Verona, I-37134 Verona (Italy); Zanetti, Chiara; Zoccatelli, Gianni; Fusi, Marina; Peruffo, Angelo; Rizzi, Corrado [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15-CV1, I-37134 Verona (Italy); Chignola, Roberto [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15-CV1, I-37134 Verona (Italy)], E-mail: roberto.chignola@univr.it

    2009-06-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is a plant protein that binds specifically to sugars expressed, among many others, by human gastrointestinal epithelial and immune cells. WGA is a toxic compound and an anti-nutritional factor, but recent works have shown that it may have potential as an anti-tumor drug and as a carrier for oral drugs. To quantitate the toxicity threshold for WGA on normal epithelial cells we previously investigated the effects of the lectin on differentiated Caco2 cells, and showed that in the micromolar range of concentrations WGA could alter the integrity of the epithelium layer and increase its permeability to both mannitol and dextran. WGA was shown to be uptaken by Caco2 cells and only {approx} 0.1% molecules were observed to cross the epithelium layer by transcytosis. Here we show that at nanomolar concentrations WGA is unexpectedly bioactive on immune cells. The supernatants of WGA-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) can alter the integrity of the epithelium layer when administered to the basolateral side of differentiated Caco2 cells and the effects can be partially inhibited by monoclonal antibodies against IL1, IL6 and IL8. At nanomolar concentrations WGA stimulates the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and thus the biological activity of WGA should be reconsidered by taking into account the effects of WGA on the immune system at the gastrointestinal interface. These results shed new light onto the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset of gastrointestinal disorders observed in vivo upon dietary intake of wheat-based foods.

  20. A fragile X mosaic male with a cryptic full mutation detected in epithelium but not in blood

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, A.; Yadvish, K.N.; Spence, W.C. [Genetics and IVF Institute, Fairfax, VA (United States)] [and others] [Genetics and IVF Institute, Fairfax, VA (United States); and others

    1996-08-09

    Individuals with developmental delay who are found to have only fragile X premutations present an interpretive dilemma. The presence of the premutation could be an unrelated coincidence, or it could be a sign of mosaicism involving a full mutation in other tissues. To investigate three cases of this type, buccal epithelium was collected on cytology brushes for Southern blot analysis. In one notable case, the blood specimen of a boy with developmental delay was found to have a premutation of 0.1 extra kb, which was shown by PCR to be an allele of 60 {+-} 3 repeats. There was no trace of a full mutation. Mosaicism was investigated as an explanation for his developmental delay, although the condition was confounded by prematurity and other factors. The cheek epithelium DNA was found to contain the premutation, plus a methylated full mutation with expansions of 0.9 and 1.5 extra kb. The three populations were nearly equal in frequency but the 1.5 kb expansion was the most prominent. Regardless of whether this patient has clinical signs of fragile X syndrome, he illustrates that there can be gross tissue-specific differences in molecular subpopulations in mosaic individuals. Because brain and epithelium are more closely related embryonically than are brain and blood, cryptic full mutations in affected individuals may be evident in epithelial cells while being absent or difficult to detect in blood. This phenomenon may explain some typical cases of the fragile X phenotype associated with premutations or near-normal DNA findings. 21 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.