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1

Establishment of esophageal-like non-keratinized stratified epithelium using normal human bronchial epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Current experimental models of esophageal epithelium in vitro suffer from either poor differentiation or complicated culture systems. We have established a model to study stratified squamous epithelium in vitro, which is very similar to esophageal epithelium in vivo. A stratified squamous multilayer epithelium was formed by seeding primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells onto collagen- and fibronectin-coated trans-well inserts and then cultivating the cells under air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions in the presence of growth factors and low levels of all-trans-retinoic acid. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements revealed the presence of a tight barrier, previously only achievable with esophageal biopsies mounted in Ussing chambers. Molecular markers for desmosomes, cornified envelope, tight junctions, and mature esophageal epithelium were upregulated in the differentiating culture in parallel with functional properties, such as decreased permeability and acid resistance and restoration. Acid exposure resulted in a decrease in TEER, but following 1-h recovery the TEER values were fully restored. Treatment with all-trans-retinoic acid decreased TEER and inhibited the recovery after acid challenge. PPAR-delta agonist treatment increased TEER, and this temporary increase in TEER was consistent with an increase in involucrin mRNA. Global gene expression analysis showed that ALI-differentiated NHBE cells had expression profiles more similar to epithelial biopsies from the esophageal tissue of healthy volunteers than to any other cell line. With respect to morphology, molecular markers, barrier properties, and acid resistance, this model presents a new way to investigate barrier properties and the possible effects of different agents on human esophagus-like epithelium. PMID:21307344

Oshima, Tadayuki; Gedda, Karin; Koseki, Junichi; Chen, Xin; Husmark, Johanna; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto; Pierrou, Stefan

2011-06-01

2

Potassium conductance in rabbit esophageal epithelium.  

PubMed

K+ conductance in apical and basolateral cell membranes of rabbit esophageal epithelial cells was investigated within intact epithelium by impalement with conventional microelectrodes from luminal or serosal sides. Under steady-state conditions, K+ conductance was demonstrated in basolateral, but not apical, membranes by showing 1) membrane depolarization upon exposure to either solutions high in K+ (20-65 mM) or containing Ba2+, tetraethylammonium, or quinine, and 2) a resistance ratio that increased on exposure to high K+ solution and decreased on exposure to Ba2+, quinine, and tetraethylammonium. From exposures to high K+, the apparent K+ transference number and electromotive force generated at the basolateral membrane were calculated and found to be 0.42 +/- 0.01 and -83 +/- 3 mV, respectively. Furthermore, basolateral K+ conductance was shown to be important for maintaining resting net transepithelial Na+ absorption in that high K+ or barium inhibited the transepithelial potential difference and short-circuit current of Ussing-chambered epithelia. We conclude that under steady-state conditions the basolateral, but not apical, membranes of esophageal epithelial cells contain a K(+)-conductive pathway and that this pathway is important for active sodium absorption. PMID:8338171

Khalbuss, W E; Alkiek, R; Marousis, C G; Orlando, R C

1993-07-01

3

Keratinization of the esophageal epithelium of domesticated mammals.  

PubMed

We studied the esophageal epithelium for keratinization characteristics from samples of domesticated mammals of three nutrition groups (herbivores: horse, cattle, sheep; omnivores: pig, dog, rat; carnivores: cat) using histochemistry (keratins, disulfides), sulfur measurements, and cryo-SEM. Keratins were found in all esophageal layers of all species, except for the equine Stratum corneum. The positive reaction staining of Pan-keratin was remarkable, but decreased in intensity toward the outer layers, whereas in the pig and cat, staining was confined to the corneal layer. The herbivores revealed positive staining reactions in the upper Stratum spinosum, particularly in the sheep. Regarding single keratins, CK6 immunostating was found in most esophageal layers, but only weakly or negatively in the porcine and equine Stratum corneum. CK13 staining was restricted to the sheep and here was found in all layers. CK14 could be detected in the equine and feline Stratum basale, and upper vital layers of the dog and rat. CK17 appeared only in the Stratum spinosum and Stratum granulosum, but in all layers of the dog and cat. Disulfides reacted strongest in the Stratum corneum of the herbivores, as corroborated by the sulfur concentrations in the esophagus. Our study emphasized that keratins are very important for the mechanical stability of the epithelial cells and cell layers of the mammalian esophagus. The role of these keratins in the esophageal epithelia is of specific interest owing to the varying feed qualities and mechanical loads of different nutrition groups, which have to be countered. PMID:23948668

Meyer, Wilfried; Schoennagel, Britta; Kacza, Johannes; Busche, Roger; Hornickel, Isabelle Nina; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Schnapper, Anke

2014-01-01

4

Cell proliferation of esophageal squamous epithelium in erosive and non-erosive reflux disease  

PubMed Central

AIM: To elucidate cell proliferation in erosive reflux disease (ERD) and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), we evaluated markers in squamous epithelial cells. METHODS: Thirty-four consecutive patients with gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-related symptoms (21 NERD and 13 ERD) were evaluated for the enrolment into the study. All patients underwent 24-h pH monitoring, standard endoscopy, and biopsy for histological evaluation. The expression of cyclins D and A was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from isolated epithelial cells. In all samples, analysis of the isolated cell population revealed the presence of epithelial cells only. RESULTS: Real-time RT-PCR showed that, in patients with ERD, the relative expression of cyclin D1 mRNA in esophageal epithelium was strongly decreased in comparison with NERD patients. The mean value of relative expression of cyclin D1 mRNA in NERD patients was 3.44 ± 1.9, whereas in ERD patients, it was 1.32 ± 0.87 (P = 0.011). Real-time RT-PCR showed that, in patients with ERD, relative expression of cyclin A mRNA in esophageal epithelium was decreased in comparison with that in NERD patients (2.31 ± 2.87 vs 0.66 ± 1.11). The mean bromodeoxyuridine labeling index in the NERD patients was 5.42% ± 1.68%, whereas in ERD patients, it was 4.3% ± 1.59%. CONCLUSION: We confirmed reduced epithelial proliferation in ERD compared with NERD patients, and that individuals who develop ERD are characterized by weaker epithelial cell proliferation. PMID:22110280

Calabrese, Carlo; Montanaro, Lorenzo; Liguori, Giuseppina; Brighenti, Elisa; Vici, Mauela; Gionchetti, Paolo; Rizzello, Fernando; Campieri, Massimo; Derenzini, Massimo; Trerè, Davide

2011-01-01

5

Normal 24Hr ambulatory esophageal pH values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the most sensitive and specific test for diagnosing gastroesophageal reflux disease, normal standards for prolonged esophageal pH monitoring are based on small sample sizes with questions raised about the effects of pH electrode, older age, gender, and methods of data analysis on pH variables. Recently three groups have established normal data bases using similar methodology. Multiple regression and nonparametric

Joel E. Richter; Laurence A. Bradley; Tom R. DeMeester; Wallace C. Wu

1992-01-01

6

NORMAL GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE F344 RAT NASAL TRANSITIONAL/RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract The nasal epithelium is an important target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity in rodents. Gene expression profiles were determined in order to provide normal baseline data for nasal transitional/respiratory epithelium from healthy rats. Ce...

7

Expression of Ki-67 in normal oral epithelium, leukoplakic oral epithelium and oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Aims and Objective: To demonstrate the presence, location and pattern of cell proliferation in different histological grades of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and normal oral epithelium (NOE) using an antibody directed against the Ki-67 antigen and its intensity of staining evaluated respectively. Materials and Methods: A total number of 100 archival paraffin embedded blocks obtained from Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology were studied. The case details were retrieved which consisted of histopathologically diagnosed cases of OSCC (n = 20), low risk OED (n = 30), high risk OED (n = 30) and normal appearing mucosa (n = 20) were taken as standard for comparison. Ki-67 immunostaining was detected. Ki-67 positive cells were counted in the five random high power fields in each case. Results: Ki-67 labeling Index (LI) was restricted to the basal and parabasal layers of the normal oral epithelium irrespective of age, sex and site whereas it was seen in the basal, suprabasal and spinous layers in OED. Ki-67 LI is increased in high risk cases than the low risk cases of OED. Ki-67 positive cells in OSCC were located in the periphery of the tumor nests than the center, where frequent mitoses were observed. Conclusion: The architectural alteration evaluated by Ki-67 antibody in proliferating cell distribution in the layers of epithelial dysplasias may provide useful information to evaluate the grading of OED. Ki-67 LI increased in high risk cases than low risk cases of OED. This study showed that over expression of Ki-67 antigen between well-differentiated and poorly differentiated OSCC was in accordance with histologic grade of malignancy but not in accordance with moderately differentiated OSCC. PMID:25328294

Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Radhika, MB; Paremala, K; Sudhakara, M; Soumya, M; Gadivan, Mohsin

2014-01-01

8

Inhibition of Notch signaling enhances transdifferentiation of the esophageal squamous epithelium towards a Barrett's-like metaplasia via KLF4.  

PubMed

Barrett's esophagus (BE) is defined as an incomplete intestinal metaplasia characterized generally by the presence of columnar and goblet cells in the formerly stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus. BE is known as a precursor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Currently, the cell of origin for human BE has yet to be clearly identified. Therefore, we investigated the role of Notch signaling in the initiation of BE metaplasia. Affymetrix gene expression microarray revealed that BE samples express decreased levels of Notch receptors (NOTCH2 and NOTCH3) and one of the the ligands (JAG1). Furthermore, BE tissue microarray showed decreased expression of NOTCH1 and its downstream target HES1. Therefore, Notch signaling was inhibited in human esophageal epithelial cells by expression of dominant-negative-Mastermind-like (dnMAML), in concert with MYC and CDX1 overexpression. Cell transdifferentiation was then assessed by 3D organotypic culture and evaluation of BE-lineage specific gene expression. Notch inhibition promoted transdifferentiation of esophageal epithelial cells toward columnar-like cells as demonstrated by increased expression of columnar keratins (K8, K18, K19, K20) and glandular mucins (MUC2, MUC3B, MUC5B, MUC17) and decreased expression of squamous keratins (K5, K13, K14). In 3D culture, elongated cells were observed in the basal layer of the epithelium with Notch inhibition. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of KLF4, a potential driver of the changes observed by Notch inhibition. Interestingly, knockdown of KLF4 reversed the effects of Notch inhibition on BE-like metaplasia. Overall, Notch signaling inhibition promotes transdifferentiation of esophageal cells toward BE-like metaplasia in part via upregulation of KLF4. These results support a novel mechanism through which esophageal epithelial transdifferentiation promotes the evolution of BE. PMID:25558829

Vega, Maria E; Giroux, Véronique; Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Liu, Mingen; Klein-Szanto, Andres J; Stairs, Douglas B; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Wang, Kenneth K; Wang, Timothy C; Lynch, John P; Rustgi, Anil K

2014-12-15

9

Molecular and cellular features of esophageal cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 70 cell lines were established from esophageal cancer, including 15 TE-series cell lines established by the authors. This article reviews molecular and cellular features of esophageal cancer cells from studies using these cell lines as well as primary tumors. The subjects reviewed include primary cultures of normal epithelium of the esophagus and of esophageal tumors, their growth and

Tetsuro Nishihira; Yu Hashimoto; Masafumi Katayama; Shozo Mori; Toshio Kuroki

1993-01-01

10

STUDIES OF NORMAL GENE EXPRESSION IN THE RAT NASAL EPITHELIUM USNG CDNA ARRAY TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies of Normal Gene Expression in the Rat Nasal Epithelium Using cDNA Array The nasal epithelium is an important target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity .Gene expression data are being used increasingly for studies of such conditions. In or...

11

Detection of human cytomegalovirus in normal and neoplastic breast epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes a persistent life-long infection, and can cause severe pathology in the fetus and the immunocompromised host1. Breast milk is the primary route of transmission in humans worldwide, and breast epithelium is thus a likely site of persistent infection and\\/or reactivation, though this phenomenon has not previously been demonstrated. Increasing evidence indicates HCMV infection can modulate

Lualhati E Harkins; Lisa A Matlaf; Liliana Soroceanu; Katrin Klemm; William J Britt; Wenquan Wang; Kirby I Bland; Charles S Cobbs

2010-01-01

12

Tissue resistance in the normal and diseased esophagus.  

PubMed

This paper presents commentaries on reflux-induced injury of human esophageal epithelium; inflammation in human reflux esophagitis; motor consequences of reflux-induced inflammation in esophageal epithelium; the microscopic morphology of esophageal squamous epithelium; intraluminal impedance in the evaluation of the esophageal mucosa; endoscopic tissue morphology of esophageal squamous epithelium; and the developmental biology of esophageal squamous epithelium. PMID:24117643

Bellizzi, Andrew M; Nardone, Gerardo; Compare, Debora; Bor, Serhat; Capanoglu, Doga; Farré, Ricard; Neumann, Helmut; Neurath, Markus F; Vieth, Michael; Chen, Hao; Chen, Xiaoxin

2013-10-01

13

Effect of atropine on the frequency of reflux and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in normal subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims Low basal lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure is believed to be an important mechanism of reflux. The effects of atropine on the frequency and mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux under the experimental conditions of a low basal LES pressure in 13 normal subjects were studied. Methods LES pressure, esophageal pressures, esophageal pH, and crural diaphragm electromyogram were recorded

Ravinder K. Mittal; Richard Holloway; John Dent

1995-01-01

14

Distinct immunohistochemical findings in columnar epithelium of esophageal inlet patch and of Barrett's esophagus.  

PubMed

Immunohistochemistry was performed on biopsies of columnar mucosa from 11 patients with Barrett's esophagus and 11 patients with columnar mucosa in the cranial esophagus, the "inlet patch." Both epithelia contained endocrine cells, immunoreactive to antisera against serotonin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide; the specialized mucosa of Barrett's esophagus contained, in addition, neurotensin-immunoreactive cells, and in the mucosa of an inlet patch we found a gastrin cell. These findings are not compatible with some of the current theories on the origin of these epithelia. The mucosa of the inlet patch has been considered to consist of heterotopic gastric mucosa. The mucosa of the adult human stomach, however, does not contain glucagon cells. These cells are only present in the early embryonic stomach, and they disappear during embryonogenesis. According to our findings, the mucosa of the inlet patch therefore represents embryonic gastric mucosa. The specialized columnar epithelium of Barrett's esophagus has been considered to have evolved from gastric mucous neck cells. However, although glucagon cells are a feature of the embryonic stomach, neurotensin-immunoreactive cells have not been found in the gastric mucosa. Our study suggests that the specialized columnar epithelium of Barrett's esophagus originates from a very immature multipotent gastrointestinal stem cell. PMID:2295298

Feurle, G E; Helmstaedter, V; Buehring, A; Bettendorf, U; Eckardt, V F

1990-01-01

15

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in normal and regenerating olfactory epithelium of Xenopus laevis.  

PubMed

Olfactory epithelium has the capability to continuously regenerate olfactory receptor neurons throughout life. Adult neurogenesis results from proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells, and consequently, olfactory neuroepithelium offers an excellent opportunity to study neural regeneration and the factors involved in the maintenance and regeneration of all their cell types. We analyzed the expression of BDNF in the olfactory system under normal physiological conditions as well as during a massive regeneration induced by chemical destruction of the olfactory epithelium in Xenopus laevis larvae. We described the expression and presence of BDNF in the olfactory epithelium and bulb. In normal physiological conditions, sustentacular (glial) cells and a few scattered basal (stem) cells express BDNF in the olfactory epithelium as well as the granular cells in the olfactory bulb. Moreover, during massive regeneration, we demonstrated a drastic increase in basal cells expressing BDNF as well as an increase in BDNF in the olfactory bulb and nerve. Together these results suggest an important role of BDNF in the maintenance and regeneration of the olfactory system. PMID:25488259

Frontera, Jimena Laura; Cervino, Ailen Soledad; Jungblut, Lucas David; Paz, Dante Agustín

2014-11-13

16

Glutathione and glutathione S-transferases in Barrett's epithelium.  

PubMed Central

Glutathione content, enzyme activity and isoenzyme composition of glutathione S-transferases were assayed in normal and Barrett's esophageal epithelium of ten patients with Barrett's esophagus. In addition, gastric and duodenal specimens from the same patients were also investigated. Glutathione content, glutathione S-transferase enzyme activity as well as glutathione S-transferase pi content were all significantly lower in Barrett's epithelium as compared to normal esophageal mucosa. In contrast, glutathione S-transferase class alpha enzymes are markedly expressed in Barrett's epithelium, whereas only low amounts are present in normal esophageal epithelium. Glutathione and glutathione S-transferase composition in Barrett's epithelium show striking similarities with gastric epithelium, whereas duodenal epithelium is provided with considerable higher amounts of glutathione and glutathione S-transferases, except for levels of glutathione S-transferase class pi, which are lower. A significant negative correlation exists between glutathione S-transferase enzyme activity in the mucosa along the gastrointestinal tract, and the tumour incidence. Since glutathione and glutathione S-transferase are correlated with protection against cellular or cytogenetic damage, the low content of glutathione and glutathione S-transferases in the Barrett's esophagus may be a factor of relevance for the increased tumour risk in this tissue. Images Figure 2 PMID:8512826

Peters, W. H.; Roelofs, H. M.; Hectors, M. P.; Nagengast, F. M.; Jansen, J. B.

1993-01-01

17

Effects of Lugol staining on stenosis formation induced by radiofrequency ablation of esophageal squamous epithelium: a study in a porcine model.  

PubMed

Preliminary data show higher stricture rates after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for early esophageal squamous neoplasia compared with Barrett's esophagus. We studied the effects of Lugol stain (LS) directly prior to RFA on stricture formation in squamous epithelium. Of 16 pigs, the distal half of the esophagus was LS, followed by circumferential RFA (single application 12?J/cm(2) ) in the unstained and stained esophagus. Pigs were euthanized at day 0 (n = 4), 3 (n = 4), or 28 (n = 8). Histology was evaluated in four areas: blank-control (no RFA, no LS), blank-RFA (no LS), LS+RFA, and LS-control (no RFA). Stenosis severity in LS+RFA and blank-RFA at 28 days was assessed by the ratio of the mucosal diameter at the RFA area to the diameter 2?cm proximal of this zone. Histology showed submucosal edema in 50% of LS+RFA versus 0% in blank-RFA. Severity and depth of inflammation (day 3) was equal in LS+RFA and blank-RFA. Severity and depth of fibrosis (day 28) appeared more severe in LS+RFA. Consequently, stenosis was present in 100% (LS+RFA) versus 12.5% (blank-RFA). The stenosis-severity ratio was 0.40 (interquartile range 0.29-0.45) in LS+RFA versus 0.73 (interquartile range 0.64-0.78) in blank-RFA (P = 0.012). Limitations of this study were the difference in uptake of LS between pigs and humans, the difference in esophageal anatomy between pigs and humans, and between the proximal and distal esophagus within pigs. In conclusion, in the porcine squamous esophagus, stenosis rate and severity after RFA increased when preceded by LS. LS may be contributing in the altered response of squamous epithelium to RFA as compared with Barrett's esophagus. PMID:24712765

Schölvinck, D W; Alvarez Herrero, L; Visser, M; Bergman, J J G H M; Weusten, B L A M

2014-04-01

18

Normal colon epithelium: a dataset for the analysis of gene expression and alternative splicing events in colon disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies using microarray analysis of colorectal cancer have been generally beleaguered by the lack of a normal cell population of the same lineage as the tumor cell. One of the main objectives of this study was to generate a reference gene expression data set for normal colonic epithelium which can be used in comparisons with diseased tissues, as well

Wilfrido Mojica; Lesleyann Hawthorn

2010-01-01

19

Identification of carbonic anhydrase XII as the membrane isozyme expressed in the normal human endometrial epithelium.  

PubMed

Although previous studies demonstrated carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity in the human endometrium, the CA isozyme(s) responsible for this activity has not been established. In this report, we provide the first evidence that the CA isozyme XII, a recently identified transmembrane isozyme that is expressed in normal kidney and greatly overexpressed in some renal cancers, is present in endometrium. We show by immunohistochemistry that CA XII is expressed in the basolateral plasma membrane of epithelial cells of normal human endometrium. Expression of CA XII in uterus was confirmed by Northern blotting. Detergent-solubilized CA XII was isolated from human endometrium by inhibitor affinity chromatography and characterized by isoelectric focusing and Western blot as a polypeptide with a pI of 6.3. The high expression of CA XII in the endometrial epithelium suggests that it may be functionally linked to the pH-dependent events in spermatozoa that precede fertilization. Its basolateral location and extracellular active site could also allow it to influence the morphological changes in endometrium that occur during the menstrual cycle. PMID:10611263

Karhumaa, P; Parkkila, S; Türeci, O; Waheed, A; Grubb, J H; Shah, G; Parkkila, A; Kaunisto, K; Tapanainen, J; Sly, W S; Rajaniemi, H

2000-01-01

20

Epigenetic Patterns in the Progression of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) arises after normal squamous mu- cosa undergoes metaplasia to specialized columnar epithelium (intestinal metaplasia or Barrett's esophagus), which can then ultimately progress to dysplasia and subsequent malignancy. Epigenetic studies of this model have thus far been limited to the DNA methylation analysis of a few genes. In this study, we analyzed a panel of 20 genes using

Cindy A. Eads; Reginald V. Lord; Kumari Wickramasinghe; Tiffany I. Long; Soudamini K. Kurumboor; Leslie Bernstein; Jeffrey H. Peters; Steven R. DeMeester; Tom R. DeMeester; Kristin A. Skinner; Peter W. Laird

2001-01-01

21

Gene expression abnormalities in histologically normal breast epithelium from patients with luminal type of breast cancer.  

PubMed

The gene expression profile of breast cancer has been described as a great breakthrough on the way to comprehend differences in cancer origin, behavior and therapy. However, gene expression profile in histologically normal epithelium (HNEpi) which could harbor genetic abnormalities predisposing breast tissue to develop malignancy was minor scope for scientists in the past. Thus, we aimed to analyze gene expressions in HNEpi and breast cancer tissue (BCTis) in order to establish its value as potential diagnostic marker for cancer development. We evaluated a panel of disease-specific genes in luminal type (A/B) of breast cancer and tumor surrounding HNEpi by qRT-PCR Array in 32 microdissected samples. There was 20.2 and 2.4 % deregulation rate in genes with at least 2-fold or 5-fold over-expression between luminal (A/B) type breast carcinomas and tumor surrounding HNEpi, respectively. The high-grade luminal carcinomas showed higher number of deregulated genes compared to low-grade cases (50.6 vs. 23.8 % with at least 2-fold deregulation rate). The main overexpressed genes in HNEpi were KLK5, SCGB1D2, GSN, EGFR and NGFR. The significant differences in gene expression between BCTis and HNEpi samples were revealed for BAG1, C3, CCNA2, CD44, FGF1, FOSL1, ID2, IL6R, NGFB, NGFR, PAPPA, PLAU, SERPINB5, THBS1 and TP53 gene (p < 0.05) and BCL2L2, CTSB, ITGB4, JUN, KIT, KLF5, SCGB1D2, SCGB2A1, SERPINE1 (p < 0.01), and EGFR, GABRP, GSN, MAP2K7 and THBS2 (p < 0.001), and GSN, KLK5 (p < 0.0001). The ontological gene analyses revealed high deregulations in gene group directly associated with breast cancer prognosis and origin. PMID:25407308

Zubor, Pavol; Hatok, Jozef; Moricova, Petra; Kajo, Karol; Kapustova, Ivana; Mendelova, Andrea; Racay, Peter; Danko, Jan

2014-11-19

22

Abnormal esophageal transit in patients with typical reflux symptoms but normal endoscopic and pH profiles  

SciTech Connect

There is a small, well-known cohort of patients who, despite classic reflux symptoms, have a normal esophageal pH profile and endoscopic picture. The treatment of these patients has proved problematic. In an attempt at determining the pathophysiology of this subgroup, the authors investigated the esophageal transit, using the radiolabeled solid bolus esophageal egg transit technique, in 58 such patients: 25 males, 33 females, mean age 39.5 years (range: 13 to 65 years). The egg transit was normal in 31 (53.4%) patients. In the remaining 27 (46.6%) patients, the condensed image analysis showed the following specific abnormal transit patterns: step delay pattern, demonstrating segmental hold-up in mid- or distal esophagus in 16 (59.3%); nonspecific delay in 6 (22.2%); oscillatory pattern in 3 (11.1%); and total nonclearance during the study period (4 minutes) in 2 (7.4%) patients. The patients with abnormal transit patterns had demographic parameters and symptom scores similar to those found in patients with normal transit. This study shows that almost 50% of patients with reflux symptoms and negative pH and endoscopy have abnormal esophageal transit, and almost two thirds of these patients display segmental transit delay in the lower half of the esophagus. The effect on symptomatology by prokinetic agents in the patient subgroup needs evaluation.

Eriksen, C.A.; Cullen, P.T.; Sutton, D.; Kennedy, N.; Cuschieri, A. (Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, Scotland (Ireland))

1991-06-01

23

Esophageal blood flow in the cat. Normal distribution and effects of acid perfusion  

SciTech Connect

The radioactive microsphere technique was used to estimate blood flow to different regions of the esophagus and to adjacent regions of the stomach before and after perfusion of the esophagus with hydrochloric acid (pH 1.5) for 5 min. Under resting conditions total blood flow, as well as blood flow to the mucosal-submucosal layer and the muscular layer, to both sphincters was significantly higher than to the esophageal body. Blood flow to the adjacent regions of the stomach was significantly higher than esophageal blood flow. Acid perfusion resulted in a large increase in total blood flow in both sphincters and the lower esophageal body. Gastric blood flow was not altered by acid perfusion. The esophageal hyperemia resulted primarily from an increase in blood flow to the muscular layer; mucosal-submucosal blood flow was increased only in the lower esophageal sphincter. The present study indicates that short periods (5 min) of gastroesophageal reflux may increase esophageal blood flow.

Hollwarth, M.E.; Smith, M.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.

1986-03-01

24

Next-generation transcriptome sequencing of the premenopausal breast epithelium using specimens from a normal human breast tissue bank  

PubMed Central

Introduction Our efforts to prevent and treat breast cancer are significantly impeded by a lack of knowledge of the biology and developmental genetics of the normal mammary gland. In order to provide the specimens that will facilitate such an understanding, The Susan G. Komen for the Cure Tissue Bank at the IU Simon Cancer Center (KTB) was established. The KTB is, to our knowledge, the only biorepository in the world prospectively established to collect normal, healthy breast tissue from volunteer donors. As a first initiative toward a molecular understanding of the biology and developmental genetics of the normal mammary gland, the effect of the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptives on DNA expression in the normal breast epithelium was examined. Methods Using normal breast tissue from 20 premenopausal donors to KTB, the changes in the mRNA of the normal breast epithelium as a function of phase of the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraception were assayed using next-generation whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq). Results In total, 255 genes representing 1.4% of all genes were deemed to have statistically significant differential expression between the two phases of the menstrual cycle. The overwhelming majority (221; 87%) of the genes have higher expression during the luteal phase. These data provide important insights into the processes occurring during each phase of the menstrual cycle. There was only a single gene significantly differentially expressed when comparing the epithelium of women using hormonal contraception to those in the luteal phase. Conclusions We have taken advantage of a unique research resource, the KTB, to complete the first-ever next-generation transcriptome sequencing of the epithelial compartment of 20 normal human breast specimens. This work has produced a comprehensive catalog of the differences in the expression of protein-coding genes as a function of the phase of the menstrual cycle. These data constitute the beginning of a reference data set of the normal mammary gland, which can be consulted for comparison with data developed from malignant specimens, or to mine the effects of the hormonal flux that occurs during the menstrual cycle. PMID:24636070

2014-01-01

25

Polarization of membrane associated proteins in the choroid plexus epithelium from normal and slc4a10 knockout mice  

PubMed Central

The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) has served as a model-epithelium for cell polarization and transport studies and plays a crucial role for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production. The normal luminal membrane expression of Na+,K+-ATPase, aquaporin-1 and Na+/H+ exchanger 1 in the choroid plexus is severely affected by deletion of the slc4a10 gene that encodes the bicarbonate transporting protein Ncbe/NBCn2. The causes for these deviations from normal epithelial polarization and redistribution following specific gene knockout are unknown, but may be significant for basic epithelial cell biology. Therefore, a more comprehensive analysis of cell polarization in the choroid plexus is warranted. We find that the cytoskeleton in the choroid plexus contains ?I-, ?II-, ?I-, and ?II-spectrin isoforms along with the anchoring protein ankyrin-3, most of which are mainly localized in the luminal membrane domain. Furthermore, we find ?-adducin localized near the plasma membranes globally, but with only faint expression in the luminal membrane domain. In slc4a10 knockout mice, the abundance of ?1 Na+,K+-ATPase subunits in the luminal membrane is markedly reduced. Anion exchanger 2 abundance is increased in slc4a10 knockout and its anchor protein, ?-adducin is almost exclusively found near the basolateral domain. The ?I- and ?I-spectrin abundances are also decreased in the slc4a10 knockout, where the basolateral domain expression of ?I-spectrin is exchanged for a strictly luminal domain localization. E-cadherin expression is unchanged in the slc4a10 knockout, while small decreases in abundance are observed for its probable adaptor proteins, the catenins. Interestingly, the abundance of the tight junction protein claudin-2 is significantly reduced in the slc4a10 knockouts, which may critically affect paracellular transport in this epithelium. The observations allow the generation of new hypotheses on basic cell biological paradigms that can be tested experimentally in future studies. PMID:24348423

Christensen, Inga B.; Gyldenholm, Tua; Damkier, Helle H.; Praetorius, Jeppe

2013-01-01

26

Aldehyde dehydrogenase and estrogen receptor define a hierarchy of cellular differentiation in the normal human mammary epithelium  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although estrogen and progesterone play a key role in normal mammary development and in breast cancer, the potential for proliferation and lineage differentiation as well as origin of cells that express the estrogen receptor (ER) in normal breast epithelium are not known. Some evidence suggests that normal human mammary stem/progenitor cells are ER–, but the identity of these cells and the cellular hierarchy of breast epithelium are still subjects of controversy. It is likely that elucidation of these aspects will bring insight into the cellular origin of breast cancer subtypes. Methods We used fluorescence-activated cell sorting of primary human mammary epithelial cells along with in vitro and in vivo functional assays to examine the hierarchic relation between cells with aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymatic activity (ALDH+ cells) and ER+ cells in the normal human breast epithelium. We assessed the proliferation and lineage differentiation potential of these cells in vitro and in vivo. A gene reporter assay was used to separate live ER+ and ER– mammary epithelial cells. With shRNA-mediated knockdown, we investigated the role of ALDH isoforms in the functionality of mammary epithelial progenitor cells. Results We describe a cellular hierarchy in the normal human mammary gland in which ER–/ALDH+ cells with functional properties of stem/progenitor cells generate ER+ progenitor cells, which in turn give rise to cells of luminal lineage. We show that the ALDH1A1 isoform, through its function in the retinoic acid metabolism, affects the proliferation and/or early differentiation of stem/progenitor cells and is important for branching morphogenesis. Conclusions This study presents direct evidence that ER+ cells are generated by ER–/ALDH+ stem/progenitor cells. We also show that ER+ cells are able to generate cell progeny of luminal lineage in vitro and in vivo. Loss of ALDH1A1 function impairs this process, as well as branching morphogenesis and clonogenicity in suspension culture. This latter effect is reversed by treatment with retinoic acid. PMID:24887554

2014-01-01

27

Phototoxic Action Spectrum on a Retinal Pigment Epithelium Model of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Exposed to Sunlight Normalized Conditions  

PubMed Central

Among the identified risk factors of age-related macular degeneration, sunlight is known to induce cumulative damage to the retina. A photosensitive derivative of the visual pigment, N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E), may be involved in this phototoxicity. The high energy visible light between 380 nm and 500 nm (blue light) is incriminated. Our aim was to define the most toxic wavelengths in the blue-green range on an in vitro model of the disease. Primary cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelium cells were incubated for 6 hours with different A2E concentrations and exposed for 18 hours to 10 nm illumination bands centered from 380 to 520 nm in 10 nm increments. Light irradiances were normalized with respect to the natural sunlight reaching the retina. Six hours after light exposure, cell viability, necrosis and apoptosis were assessed using the Apotox-Glo Triplex™ assay. Retinal pigment epithelium cells incubated with A2E displayed fluorescent bodies within the cytoplasm. Their absorption and emission spectra were similar to those of A2E. Exposure to 10 nm illumination bands induced a loss in cell viability with a dose dependence upon A2E concentrations. Irrespective of A2E concentration, the loss of cell viability was maximal for wavelengths from 415 to 455 nm. Cell viability decrease was correlated to an increase in cell apoptosis indicated by caspase-3/7 activities in the same spectral range. No light-elicited necrosis was measured as compared to control cells maintained in darkness. Our results defined the precise spectrum of light retinal toxicity in physiological irradiance conditions on an in vitro model of age-related macular degeneration. Surprisingly, a narrow bandwidth in blue light generated the greatest phototoxic risk to retinal pigment epithelium cells. This phototoxic spectrum may be advantageously valued in designing selective photoprotection ophthalmic filters, without disrupting essential visual and non-visual functions of the eye. PMID:24058402

Arnault, Emilie; Barrau, Coralie; Nanteau, Céline; Gondouin, Pauline; Bigot, Karine; Viénot, Françoise; Gutman, Emmanuel; Fontaine, Valérie; Villette, Thierry; Cohen-Tannoudji, Denis; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

2013-01-01

28

Endothelial-mesenchymal transition in normal human esophageal endothelial cells cocultured with esophageal adenocarcinoma cells: role of IL-1? and TGF-?2.  

PubMed

Endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) has been recognized as a key determinant of tumor microenvironment in cancer progression and metastasis. Endothelial cells undergoing EndoMT lose their endothelial markers, acquire the mesenchymal phenotype, and become more invasive with increased migratory abilities. Early stages of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are characterized by strong microvasculature whose impact in tumor progression remains undefined. Our aim was to determine the role of EndoMT in EAC by investigating the impact of tumor cells on normal primary human esophageal microvascular endothelial cells (HEMEC). HEMEC were either cocultured with OE33 adenocarcinoma cells or treated with IL-1? and transforming growth factor-?2 (TGF-?2) for indicated periods and analyzed for EndoMT-associated changes by real-time PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, and functional assays. Additionally, human EAC tissues were investigated for detection of EndoMT-like cells. Our results demonstrate an increased expression of mesenchymal markers [fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1), collagen1?2, vimentin, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and Snail], decreased expression of endothelial markers [CD31, von Willebrand factor VIII (vWF), and VE-cadherin], and elevated migration ability in HEMEC following coculture with OE33 cells. The EndoMT-related changes were inhibited by IL-1? and TGF-?2 gene silencing in OE33 cells. Recombinant IL-1? and TGF-?2 induced EndoMT in HEMEC. Although the level of VEGF expression was elevated in EndoMT cells, the angiogenic property of these cells was diminished. In vivo, by immunostaining EndoMT-like cells were detected at the invasive front of EAC. Our findings underscore a significant role for EndoMT in EAC and provide new insights into the mechanisms and significance of EndoMT in the context of tumor progression. PMID:25163519

Nie, Linghui; Lyros, Orestis; Medda, Rituparna; Jovanovic, Nebojsa; Schmidt, Jamie L; Otterson, Mary F; Johnson, Christopher P; Behmaram, Behnaz; Shaker, Reza; Rafiee, Parvaneh

2014-11-01

29

Four-dimensional computed tomographic analysis of esophageal mobility during normal respiration  

SciTech Connect

Background: Chemo-radiotherapy for thoracic tumors can result in high-grade radiation esophagitis. Treatment planning to reduce esophageal irradiation requires organ motion to be accounted for. In this study, esophageal mobility was assessed using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Methods and Materials: Thoracic 4DCT scans were acquired on a 16-slice CT scanner in 29 patients. The outer esophageal wall was contoured in two extreme phases of respiration in 9 patients with nonesophageal malignancies. The displacement of the center of contour was measured at 2-cm intervals. In 20 additional patients with Stage I lung cancer, the esophagus was contoured in all 10 phases of each 4DCT at five defined anatomic levels. Both approaches were then applied to 4DCT scans of 4 patients who each had two repeat scans performed. A linear mixed effects model was constructed with fixed effects: measurement direction, measurement type, and measurement location along the cranio-caudal axis. Results: Measurement location and direction were significant descriptive parameters (Wald F-tests, p < 0.001), and the interaction term between the two was significant (p = 0.02). Medio-lateral mobility exceeded dorso-ventral mobility in the lower half of the esophagus but was of a similar magnitude in the upper half. Margins that would have incorporated all movement in medio-lateral and dorso-ventral directions were 5 mm proximally, 7 mm and 6 mm respectively in the mid-esophagus, and 9 mm and 8 mm respectively in the distal esophagus. Conclusions: The distal esophagus shows more mobility. Margins for mobility that can encompass all movement were derived for use in treatment planning, particularly for stereotactic radiotherapy.

Dieleman, Edith [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Senan, Suresh [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: s.senan@vumc.nl; Vincent, Andrew [Department of Bioinformatics, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lagerwaard, Frank J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Slotman, Ben J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Soernsen de Koste, John R. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2007-03-01

30

Protective Effect of Naringenin Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Injury in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelium via Suppression of MAPK Signaling.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of naringenin on protection in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced injury in normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE) and to provide insights into the possible underlying mechanisms. NHBE were stimulated by LPS in the presence or absence of the narigenin. In vitro treatment with naringenin led to a significant attenuation in the LPS-induced NHBE secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), superoxidase dismutase (SOD), nitricoxide synthase (NOS), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and nitric oxide (NO). RT-qPCR demonstrated that naringenin significantly reduced the LPS-induced upregulation of TNF-?, IL-6, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) p65 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Western blot analysis revealed that naringenin effectively suppressed NF-?B activation by inhibiting the degradation of I?B-? and the translocation of p65. Naringenin also attenuated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation by inhibiting the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAPK. Taken together, these demonstrate that naringenin reduces TNF-? and IL-6 secretion and mRNA expression, possibly by blocking the activation of the NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways in LPS-treated NHBE. These results indicated that naringenin had a protective effect on LPS-induced injury in NHBE. PMID:25303878

Yu, Dan-Hong; Ma, Chun-Hua; Yue, Zhi-Qiang; Yao, Xin; Mao, Chen-Mei

2014-10-11

31

An Overview of Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease affecting both children and adults. The condition is characterized by an eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal epithelium. Symptoms of esophageal dysfunction include dysphagia, food impaction and symptoms mimicking gastroesophageal reflux disease. Endoscopic examination typically reveals mucosal fragility, ring or corrugated mucosa, longitudinal furrows, whitish plaques or a small caliber esophagus. Histologic findings of >15 eosinophils per high-power field is the diagnostic hallmark of EoE. An elimination diet, topical corticosteroids or endoscopic dilation for fibrostenotic disease serve as effective therapeutic option. PMID:25368745

Park, Hyojin

2014-01-01

32

Barrett's esophagus: photodynamic therapy for ablation of dysplasia, reduction of specialized mucosa and treatment of superficial esophageal cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fifteen patients with Barrett's esophagus and dysplasia were treated with photodynamic therapy. Four patients also had early, superficial esophageal cancers and 5 had esophageal polyps. Light was delivered via a standard diffuser or a centering esophageal balloon. Eight patients maintained on omeprazole and followed for 6 - 54 months are the subject of this report. Photodynamic therapy ablated dysplastic or malignant mucosa in patients with superficial cancer. Healing and partial replacement of Barrett's mucosa with normal squamous epithelium occurred in all patients and complete replacement with squamous epithelium was found in two. Side effects included photosensitivity and mild-moderate chest pain and dysphagia for 5 - 7 days. In three patients with extensive circumferential mucosal ablation in the proximal esophagus, healing was associated with esophageal strictures which were treated successfully by esophageal dilation. Strictures were not found in the distal esophagus. Photodynamic therapy combined with long-term acid inhibition provides effective endoscopic therapy of Barrett's mucosal dysplasia and superficial (Tis-T1) esophageal cancer. The windowed centering balloon improves delivery of photodynamic therapy to diffusely abnormal esophageal mucosa.

Overholt, Bergein F.; Panjehpour, Masoud

1995-03-01

33

Barrett's esophagus: photodynamic therapy for ablation of dysplasia, reduction of specialized mucosa and treatment of superficial esophageal cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fifteen patients with Barrett's esophagus and dysplasia were treated with photodynamic therapy. Four patients also had early, superficial esophageal cancers and 5 had esophageal polyps. Light was delivered via a standard diffuser or a centering esophageal balloon. Eight patients maintained on omeprazole and followed for 6 - 54 months are the subject of this report. Photodynamic therapy ablated dysplastic or malignant mucosa in patients with superficial cancer. Healing and partial replacement of Barrett's mucosa with normal squamous epithelium occurred in all patients and complete replacement with squamous epithelium was found in two. Side effects included photosensitivity and mild-moderate chest pain and dysphagia for 5 - 7 days. In three patients with extensive circumferential mucosal ablation in the proximal esophagus, healing was associated with esophageal strictures which were treated successfully by esophageal dilation. Strictures were not found in the distal esophagus. Photodynamic therapy combined with long-term acid inhibition provides effective endoscopic therapy of Barrett's mucosal dysplasia and superficial (Tis-T1) esophageal cancer. The windowed centering balloon improves delivery of photodynamic therapy to diffusely abnormal esophageal mucosa.

Overholt, Bergein F.; Panjehpour, Masoud

1994-10-01

34

Gene expression profiles of estrogen receptor positive and estrogen receptor negative breast cancers are detectable in histologically normal breast epithelium  

PubMed Central

Purpose Previously, we found that gene expression in histologically normal breast epithelium (NlEpi) from women at high breast cancer risk can resemble gene expression in NlEpi from cancer-containing breasts. Therefore, we hypothesized that gene expression characteristic of a cancer subtype might be seen in NlEpi of breasts containing that subtype. Experimental Design We examined gene expression in 46 cases of microdissected NlEpi from untreated women undergoing breast cancer surgery. From 30 age-matched cases (15 estrogen receptor (ER)+, 15 ER-) we used Affymetryix U133A arrays. From 16 independent cases (9 ER+, 7 ER-), we validated selected genes using qPCR. We then compared gene expression between NlEpi and invasive breast cancer using 4 publicly available datasets. Results We identified 198 genes that are differentially expressed between NlEpi from breasts with ER+ (NlEpiER+) compared to ER- cancers (NlEpiER-). These include genes characteristic of ER+ and ER- cancers (e.g., ESR1, GATA3, and CX3CL1, FABP7). QPCR validated the microarray results in both the 30 original cases and the 16 independent cases. Gene expression in NlEpiER+ and NlEpiER- resembled gene expression in ER+ and ER- cancers, respectively: 25-53% of the genes or probes examined in 4 external datasets overlapped between NlEpi and the corresponding cancer subtype. Conclusions Gene expression differs in NlEpi of breasts containing ER+ compared to ER- breast cancers. These differences echo differences in ER+ and ER- invasive cancers. NlEpi gene expression may help elucidate subtype-specific risk signatures, identify early genomic events in cancer development and locate targets for prevention and therapy. PMID:21059815

Graham, Kelly; Ge, Xijin; de las Morenas, Antonio; Tripathi, Anusri; Rosenberg, Carol L.

2010-01-01

35

Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is related to nuclear grade in ductal carcinoma in situ and is increased in its normal adjacent epithelium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is emerging as an important cancer biomarker and is now an experimental target for solid tumor treatment.However, no study has exclusively focused on COX-2 expression in early lesions such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We examined COX-2 expression by immunohistochemistry in 46 cases of women undergoing surgical resection for DCIS. We found that COX-2 expression was detected in 85% of all DCIS specimens, with increased COX-2 staining correlating with higher nuclear grade. Strikingly, COX-2 staining intensity in the normal adjacent epithelium was stronger than in the DCIS lesion itself. Our observations demonstrate that COX-2 is up-regulated in the normal adjacent epithelium and supports the hypothesis that the surrounding epithelial tissue is part of the disease process in DCIS.

Shim, Veronica; Gauthier, Mona L.; Sudilovsky, Daniel; Mantei, Kristin; Chew, Karen L.; Moore, Dan H.; Cha, Imok; Tlsty, Thea D.; Esserman, Laura J.

2003-01-01

36

p120-Catenin Down-Regulation and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Overexpression Results in a Transformed Epithelium That Mimics Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.  

PubMed

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis due to its highly invasive and metastatic potential. The molecular pathogenesis underlying the invasive mechanism of ESCC is not well known because of the lack of existing models to study this disease. p120-Catenin (p120ctn) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have each been implicated in several cancers, including ESCC. p120ctn is down-regulated in 60% of ESCC tumors, whereas EGFR is the most commonly overexpressed oncogene in ESCC. For these reasons, we investigated the cooperation between p120ctn and EGFR and its effect on ESCC invasion. We show that p120ctn down-regulation is commonly associated with EGFR overexpression. By using a three-dimensional culture system, we demonstrate that the inverse relationship between p120ctn and EGFR has biological implications. Specifically, p120ctn down-regulation coupled with EGFR overexpression in human esophageal keratinocytes (EPC1-PE) was required to promote invasion. Morphological comparison of EPC1-PE cells grown in three-dimensional culture and human ESCC revealed identical features, including significantly increased cellularity, nuclear grade, and proliferation. Molecular characteristics were measured by keratin expression patterns, which were nearly identical between EPC1-PE cells in three-dimensional culture and ESCC samples. Altogether, our analyses have demonstrated that p120ctn down-regulation and EGFR overexpression are able to mimic human ESCC in a relevant three-dimensional culture model. PMID:25529795

Lehman, Heather L; Yang, Xuebin; Welsh, Patricia A; Stairs, Douglas B

2015-01-01

37

Age and gender-related differences in 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring of normal subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four-hour esophageal pH monitoring is currently the most sensitive test for diagnosing gastroesophageal reflux. Little is known, however, about the effect of aging and gender on esophageal acid exposure in asymptomatic individuals. Thirty asymptomatic volunteers underwent 24-hr esophageal pH monitoring. Fifteen were <65 years (eight female, seven male) and 15 were =65 years (seven female, eight male). In this asymptomatic

Ronnie Fass; Richard E. Sampliner; Cindy Mackel; Dan McGee; William Rappaport

1993-01-01

38

Long-term esophageal function following repair of esophageal atresia.  

PubMed Central

Primary repair of esophageal atresia restores gastrointestinal continuity, but does not ensure normal esophageal function. To date 22 patients, six to 32 (average 15) years after repair of their esophageal atresias, have been evaluated by personal interview and esophageal manometrics and acid reflux testing. Previous barium swallow examinations had demonstrated varying degrees of anastomotic narrowing (12 patients), abnormal esophageal motor function (11 patients), gastroesophageal reflux (two patients), and hiatal hernia (one patient). Ten patients experience intermittent dysphagia for solid foods. Seven have typical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. Esophageal function tests including manometry and intraesophageal pH recording, have demonstrated varying abnormalities of esophageal motility in 21 patients and moderate to severe gastroesophageal reflux in 13. Two patients have required reconstruction of the esophagogastric junction for control of severe reflux esophagitis. The unexpected high incidence of gastroesophageal reflux in these patients, coupled with their abnormal esophageal motility which impairs normal acid clearing, renders them more prone to reflux esophagitis. Careful long-term evaluation for gastroesophageal reflux and its complications is indicated following primary repair of esophageal atresia. Evaluation of esophageal function with intraesophageal pressure and pH recordings is a far more sensitive indicator of esophageal physiology than the barium swallow examination. PMID:20856

Orringer, M B; Kirsh, M M; Sloan, H

1977-01-01

39

Expression of the carcinoma markers: the sialylated Lewis A and X carbohydrate antigens in normal laryngeal surface epithelium and submucosal glands from old humans.  

PubMed

Aberrant surface expression of the carbohydrate ABH and Lewis antigens are often used as markers for the diagnosis of cancer, but while the distribution of these histo-blood group antigens is relatively well-described in tissues and organs from young and middle-aged humans little is known of their expression in old age. The objective for this study was to estimate if the Lewis A and X antigens together with their sialylated modifications, are expressed in sections of normal laryngeal tissue from old humans. Antibodies directed against the tumor markers Sialyl Lewis A and Sialyl Lewis X showed positive reaction in the surface epithelia from normal larynx autopsies obtained from people aged 77-90 years. The sialylated and non-sialylated Lewis A antigens were more frequently expressed in the pseudostratified epithelium than in squamous surface epithelium. Both the sialylated and the non-sialylated carbohydrates were stained in the submucosal glands in all the autopsies. In conclusion, visualization of Lewis tumor markers in the larynx should be interpreted with great care, as they may be present in normal laryngeal epithelial cells from old humans. PMID:23030724

Kirkeby, Svend; Moe, Dennis

2013-03-01

40

Restoration of the normal squamous lining in Barrett's esophagus by argon beam plasma coagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Barrett's esophagus is associated with significantly increased risk of development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Replacing columnar epithelium with the normal squamous lining in this condition offers the possibility of decreasing the risk of degeneration to invasive adenocarcinoma. This study aimed to establish the feasibility of argon beam plasma coagulation (ABPC), in conjunction with control of gastroesophageal reflux, to restore the squamous

James P. Byrne; Gordon R. Armstrong; Stephen E. A. Attwood

1998-01-01

41

AFM stiffness nanotomography of normal, metaplastic and dysplastic human esophageal cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical stiffness of individual cells is important in tissue homeostasis, cell growth, division and motility, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the initiation of cancer. In this work, a normal squamous cell line (EPC2) and metaplastic (CP-A) as well as dysplastic (CP-D) Barrett's Esophagus columnar cell lines are studied as a model of pre-neoplastic progression in the human esophagus. We used the combination of an atomic force microscope (AFM) with a scanning confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope to study the mechanical properties of single adherent cells. Sixty four force indentation curves were taken over the nucleus of each cell in an 8 × 8 grid pattern. Analyzing the force indentation curves, indentation depth-dependent Young's moduli were found for all cell lines. Stiffness tomograms demonstrate distinct differences between the mechanical properties of the studied cell lines. Comparing the stiffness for indentation forces of 1 nN, most probable Young's moduli were calculated to 4.7 kPa for EPC2 (n = 18 cells), 3.1 kPa for CP-A (n = 10) and 2.6 kPa for CP-D (n = 19). We also tested the influence of nuclei and nucleoli staining organic dyes on the mechanical properties of the cells. For stained EPC2 cells (n = 5), significant stiffening was found (9.9 kPa), while CP-A cells (n = 5) showed no clear trend (2.9 kPa) and a slight softening was observed (2.1 kPa) in the case of CP-D cells (n = 16). Some force-indentation curves show non-monotonic discontinuities with segments of negative slope, resembling a sawtooth pattern. We found the incidence of these 'breakthrough events' to be highest in the dysplastic CP-D cells, intermediate in the metaplastic CP-A cells and lowest in the normal EPC2 cells. This observation suggests that the microscopic explanation for the increased compliance of cancerous and pre-cancerous cells may lie in their susceptibility to 'crumble and yield' rather than their ability to 'bend and flex'.

Fuhrmann, A.; Staunton, J. R.; Nandakumar, V.; Banyai, N.; Davies, P. C. W.; Ros, R.

2011-02-01

42

Identification of the layered morphology of the esophageal wall by optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess each layer of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) image of the esophageal wall with reference to the histological structure. METHODS: Resected specimens of fresh pig esophagus was used as a model for the esophageal wall. We injected cyanoacrylate adhesive into the specimens to create a marker, and scanned them using a miniature OCT probe. The localization of these markers was assessed in the OCT images. Then we compared the OCT-imaged morphology with the corresponding histological section, guided by the cyanoacrylate adhesive markers. We prepared a second set of experiments using nylon sutures as markers. RESULTS: The OCT image of the esophageal specimen has a clear five-layered morphology. First, it consisted of a relatively less reflective layer; second, a more reflective layer; third, a less reflective layer; fourth, a more reflective layer; and fifth, a less reflective layer. Comparing the OCT images with marked histological sections showed that the first layer corresponded to stratified squamous epithelium; the second to lamina propria; the third to muscularis mucosa; fourth, submucosa; and fifth, muscularis propria with deeper structures of the esophageal wall. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that the OCT image of the normal esophageal wall showed a five-layered morphology, which corresponds to histological esophageal wall components. PMID:19764091

Yokosawa, Satoshi; Koike, Tomoyuki; Kitagawa, Yasushi; Hatta, Waku; Uno, Kaname; Abe, Yasuhiko; Iijima, Katsunori; Imatani, Akira; Ohara, Shuichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

2009-01-01

43

Esophageal cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Cancer - esophagus ... Esophageal cancer is not common in the United States. It occurs most often in men over 50 years old. There are two main types of esophageal cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. These two types ...

44

Esophageal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... from your throat to your stomach. Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. Later, you may ... You're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid ...

45

Deoxycholic acid impairs glycosylation and fucosylation processes in esophageal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

It is generally accepted that esophageal adenocarcinoma arises from a Barrett's metaplastic lesion. Altered glycoprotein expression has been demonstrated in tissue from patients with Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer but the mechanisms regarding such changes are unknown. The bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) alters many cell signaling pathways and is implicated in esophageal cancer progression. We have demonstrated that DCA disrupts Golgi structure and affects protein secretion and glycosylation processes in cell lines derived from normal squamous epithelium (HET-1A) and Barrett's metaplastic epithelium (QH). Cell surface expression of glycans was identified using carbohydrate-specific probes (wheat germ agglutinate, conconavalin A, peanut agglutinin, lithocholic acid and Ulex europaeus agglutinin) that monitored N-glycosylation, O-glycosylation and core fucosylation in resting and DCA-treated cells. DCA altered intracellular localization and reduced cell surface expression of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, ?-methyl-mannopyranoside (Man/Glc) and fucose in both cell lines. Furthermore, DCA reduced the expression of epithelial growth factor receptor and E-cadherin in a manner analogous to treatment of cells with the N-glycan biosynthesis inhibitor tunicamycin. This is the first study to identify an altered Golgi structure and glycomic profile in response to DCA in esophageal epithelial cells, a process which could potentially contribute to metaplasia, dysplasia and cancer of the esophagus. PMID:22223758

Byrne, Anne-Marie; Sharma, Ruchika; Duggan, Gina; Kelleher, Dermot; Long, Aideen

2012-05-01

46

Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Further Reduces Normal Tissue Exposure During Definitive Therapy for Locally Advanced Distal Esophageal Tumors: A Dosimetric Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We have previously found that {<=} 75% of treatment failures after chemoradiotherapy for unresectable esophageal cancer appear within the gross tumor volume and that intensity-modulated (photon) radiotherapy (IMRT) might allow dose escalation to the tumor without increasing normal tissue toxicity. Proton therapy might allow additional dose escalation, with even lower normal tissue toxicity. In the present study, we compared the dosimetric parameters for photon IMRT with that for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for unresectable, locally advanced, distal esophageal cancer. Patients and Methods: Four plans were created for each of 10 patients. IMPT was delivered using anteroposterior (AP)/posteroanterior beams, left posterior oblique/right posterior oblique (LPO/RPO) beams, or AP/LPO/RPO beams. IMRT was delivered with a concomitant boost to the gross tumor volume. The dose was 65.8 Gy to the gross tumor volume and 50.4 Gy to the planning target volume in 28 fractions. Results: Relative to IMRT, the IMPT (AP/posteroanterior) plan led to considerable reductions in the mean lung dose (3.18 vs. 8.27 Gy, p < .0001) and the percentage of lung volume receiving 5, 10, and 20 Gy (p {<=} .0006) but did not reduce the cardiac dose. The IMPT LPO/RPO plan also reduced the mean lung dose (4.9 Gy vs. 8.2 Gy, p < .001), the heart dose (mean cardiac dose and percentage of the cardiac volume receiving 10, 20, and 30 Gy, p {<=} .02), and the liver dose (mean hepatic dose 5 Gy vs. 14.9 Gy, p < .0001). The IMPT AP/LPO/RPO plan led to considerable reductions in the dose to the lung (p {<=} .005), heart (p {<=} .003), and liver (p {<=} .04). Conclusions: Compared with IMRT, IMPT for distal esophageal cancer lowered the dose to the heart, lung, and liver. The AP/LPO/RPO beam arrangement was optimal for sparing all three organs. The dosimetric benefits of protons will need to be tailored to each patient according to their specific cardiac and pulmonary risks. IMPT for esophageal cancer will soon be investigated further in a prospective trial at our institution.

Welsh, James, E-mail: jwelsh@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gomez, Daniel; Palmer, Matthew B.; Riley, Beverly A.; Mayankkumar, Amin V.; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dong, Lei; Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Likhacheva, Anna; Liao, Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hofstetter, Wayne L. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Cox, James D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2011-12-01

47

Apoptosis in normal epithelium, premalignant and malignant lesions of the oropharynx and oral cavity: a preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the involvement of apoptosis in the development of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in vivo, biopsies were taken from patients with macroscopically normal (n = 6), leukoplakic (n= 12) or malignant (n = 8) mucosa. Leukoplakic lesions were divided histologically into dysplasia (n=5) or carcinoma in situ (CIS: n=7). Material was prepared for light and electron

M. A. Birchall; C. M. Winterford; D. J. Allan; B. V. Harmon

1995-01-01

48

Growth Hormone Is Secreted by Normal Breast Epithelium upon Progesterone Stimulation and Increases Proliferation of Stem/Progenitor Cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Using in vitro and in vivo experimental systems and in situ analysis, we show that growth hormone (GH) is secreted locally by normal human mammary epithelial cells upon progesterone stimulation. GH increases proliferation of a subset of cells that express growth hormone receptor (GHR) and have functional properties of stem and early progenitor cells. In 72% of ductal carcinoma in situ lesions, an expansion of the cell population that expresses GHR was observed, suggesting that GH signaling may contribute to breast cancer development. PMID:24936466

Lombardi, Sara; Honeth, Gabriella; Ginestier, Christophe; Shinomiya, Ireneusz; Marlow, Rebecca; Buchupalli, Bharath; Gazinska, Patrycja; Brown, John; Catchpole, Steven; Liu, Suling; Barkan, Ariel; Wicha, Max; Purushotham, Anand; Burchell, Joy; Pinder, Sarah; Dontu, Gabriela

2014-01-01

49

[Computerized analysis of esophageal manometry].  

PubMed

Computerized analysis of esophageal manometry should consider the following objectives: a) objectivation of data acquisition; b) precision in calculating the various parameters; c) speed of analysis; d) an easy-to-read and promptly understandable graphic display of the manometric data; e) computation of new parameters capable of defining normal and pathologic function. It is with these objectives in mind that we launched our research project. Five normal subjects and 10 patients, of whom 5 presented esophageal achalasia and 5 gastroesophageal reflux disease, underwent computerized esophageal manometry and were evaluated on the basis of both traditional and innovative parameters, of our own inception. Among the various indexes tested, the "Esophageal transport" parameter, calculated as the ratio of momentum (dp*dT) over speed of propagation of the esophageal contractions, gave rise to particular interest. In our opinion, this parameter can be used as an index of the dynamic function of the organ. PMID:2067691

Spigno, L; Pandolfo, N; Guiddo, G; Calci, G; Mattioli, G; De Salvo, L

1991-04-15

50

Gene expression in rats with Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma induced by gastroduodenoesophageal reflux  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the different gene expression profiles in rats with Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) induced by gastro-duodeno-esophageal reflux. METHODS: Esophagoduodenostomy was performed in 8-wk old Sprague-Dawley rats to induce gastro-duodeno-esophageal reflux, and a group of rats that received sham operation served as control. Esophageal epithelial pathological tissues were dissected and frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately. The expression profiles of 4 096 genes in EA and BE tissues were compared to normal esophagus epithelium in normal control (NC) by cDNA microarray. RESULTS: Four hundred and forty-eight genes in BE were more than three times different from those in NC, including 312 upregulated and 136 downregulated genes. Three hundred and seventy-seven genes in EA were more than three times different from those in NC, including 255 upregulated and 142 downregulated genes. Compared to BE, there were 122 upregulated and 156 downregulated genes in EA. In the present study, the interested genes were those involved in carcinogenesis. Among them, the upregulated genes included cathepsin C, aminopeptidase M, arachidonic acid epoxygenase, tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, cyclic GMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, betaine-homocysteine methyltra-nsferase, lysozyme, complement 4b binding protein, complement 9 protein, insulin-like growth factor binding protein, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3, aldolase B, retinoid X receptor gamma, carboxylesterase and testicular cell adhesion molecule 1. The downregulated genes included glutathione synthetase, lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, p55CDC, heart fatty acid binding protein, cell adhesion regulator and endothelial cell selectin ligand. CONCLUSION: Esophageal epithelium exposed excessively to harmful ingredients of duodenal and gastric reflux may develop into BE and even EA gradually. The gene expression level is different between EA and BE, and may be related to the occurrence and progression of EA. PMID:16127739

Cheng, Peng; Gong, Jun; Wang, Tao; Chen, Jie; Liu, Gui-Sheng; Zhang, Ru

2005-01-01

51

Esophageal melanocytosis in oral opium consumption.  

PubMed

Esophageal melanocytosis is a rare and benign condition, characterized by melanocytic proliferation of the esophageal squamous epithelium with heavy melanin deposition. The etiology and pathogenesis has not been exactly known but it seems to be a chronic stimulus such as gastroesophageal reflux. This condition is very rare and about 35 cases have been reported so far, most of which have been from India and Japan. Herein, we present a case of esophageal melanocytosis in a patient with long history of oral opium consumption. To the best of our knowledge, such a history has not been reported. PMID:24719715

Geramizadeh, Bita; Asadian, Fatemeh; Taghavi, Alireza

2014-01-01

52

Spatial differentiation of the intestinal epithelium: analysis of enteroendocrine cells containing immunoreactive serotonin, secretin, and substance P in normal and transgenic mice.  

PubMed Central

The mammalian intestinal epithelium undergoes continuous and rapid renewal of its four principal terminally differentiated cell types. These cells arise from multipotent stem cells located at or near the base of the crypts of Lieberkühn. The differentiation process is precisely organized along two spatial dimensions (axes)--from the crypt to the villus tip and from the duodenum to the colon. The enteroendocrine cell population provides a sensitive marker of the intestine's topologic differentiation. At least 15 different regionally distributed subsets have been described based on their principal neuroendocrine products. We have used immunocytochemical methods to characterize the spatial relationships of the serotonin-, secretin-, and substance P-containing enteroendocrine cell subsets in normal adult C57BL/6J x LT/Sv mice as well as in transgenic littermates that contain rat liver fatty acid-binding protein-human growth hormone fusion genes. Our results reveal precise spatial interrelationships between these populations and suggest a differentiation pathway that may involve the sequential expression of substance P, serotonin, and secretin. Images PMID:1696730

Roth, K A; Gordon, J I

1990-01-01

53

Cytokeratins in normal and malignant transitional epithelium. Maintenance of expression of urothelial differentiation features in transitional cell carcinomas and bladder carcinoma cell culture lines.  

PubMed Central

The pattern of cytokeratins expressed in normal urothelium has been compared with that of various forms of transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs; 21 cases) and cultured bladder carcinoma cell lines, using immunolocalization and gel electrophoretic techniques. In normal urothelium, all simple-epithelium-type cytokeratins (polypeptides 7, 8, 18, 19) were detected in all cell layers, whereas antibodies to cytokeratins typical for stratified epithelia reacted with certain basal cells only or, in the case of cytokeratin 13, with cells of the basal and intermediate layers. This pattern was essentially maintained in low-grade (G1, G1/2) TCCs but was remarkably modified in G2 TCCs. In G3 TCCs simple-epithelial cytokeratins were predominant whereas the amounts of component 13 were greatly reduced. Squamous metaplasia was accompanied generally by increased or new expression of some stratified-epithelial cytokeratins. The cytokeratin patterns of cell culture lines RT-112 and RT-4 resembled those of G1 and G2 TCCs, whereas cell line T-24 was comparable to G3 carcinomas. The cell line EJ showed a markedly different pattern. The results indicate that, in the cell layers of the urothelium, the synthesis of stratification-related cytokeratins such as component 13 is inversely oriented compared with that in other stratified epithelia where these proteins are suprabasally expressed, that TCCs retain certain intrinsic cytoskeletal features of urothelium, and that different TCCs can be distinguished by their cytokeratin patterns. The potential value of these observations in histopathologic and cytologic diagnoses is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2456018

Moll, R.; Achtstätter, T.; Becht, E.; Balcarova-Ständer, J.; Ittensohn, M.; Franke, W. W.

1988-01-01

54

Basonuclin-Null Mutation Impairs Homeostasis and Wound Repair in Mouse Corneal Epithelium  

PubMed Central

At least two cellular processes are required for corneal epithelium homeostasis and wound repair: cell proliferation and cell-cell adhesion. These processes are delicately balanced to ensure the maintenance of normal epithelial function. During wound healing, these processes must be reprogrammed in coordination to achieve a rapid re-epithelialization. Basonuclin (Bnc1) is a cell-type-specific transcription factor expressed mainly in the proliferative keratinocytes of stratified epithelium (e.g., corneal epithelium, epidermis and esophageal epithelium) and the gametogenic cells in testis and ovary. Our previous work suggested that basonuclin could regulate transcription of ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) and genes involved in chromatin structure, transcription regulation, cell-cell junction/communication, ion-channels and intracelllular transportation. However, basonuclin's role in keratinocytes has not been demonstrated in vivo. Here we show that basonuclin-null mutation disrupts corneal epithelium homeostasis and delays wound healing by impairing cell proliferation. In basonuclin-null cornea epithelium, RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription is perturbed. This perturbation is unique because it affects transcripts from a subset of rDNA. Basonuclin-null mutation also perturbs RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcripts from genes encoding chromatin structure proteins histone 3 and HMG2, transcription factor Gli2, gap-junction protein connexin 43 and adheren E-cadherin. In most cases, a concerted change in mRNA and protein level is observed. However, for E-cadherin, despite a notable increase in its mRNA level, its protein level was reduced. In conclusion, our study establishes basonuclin as a regulator of corneal epithelium homeostasis and maintenance. Basonuclin likely coordinates functions of a subset of ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) and a group of protein coding genes in cellular processes critical for the regulation of cell proliferation. PMID:17971852

Zhang, Xiaohong; Tseng, Hung

2007-01-01

55

The Pathophysiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging disease characterized by esophageal eosinophilia (>15eos/hpf), lack of responsiveness to acid-suppressive medication and is managed by allergen elimination and anti-allergy therapy. Although the pathophysiology of EoE is currently unsubstantiated, evidence implicates food and aeroallergen hypersensitivity in genetically predisposed individuals as contributory factors. Genome-wide expression analyses have isolated a remarkably conserved gene-expression profile irrespective of age and gender, suggesting a genetic contribution. EoE has characteristics of mainly TH2 type immune responses but also some TH1 cytokines, which appear to strongly contribute to tissue fibrosis, with esophageal epithelial cells providing a hospitable environment for this inflammatory process. Eosinophil-degranulation products appear to play a central role in tissue remodeling in EoE. This remodeling and dysregulation predisposes to fibrosis. Mast-cell-derived molecules such as histamine may have an effect on enteric nerves and may also act in concert with transforming growth factor-? to interfere with esophageal musculature. Additionally, the esophageal epithelium may facilitate the inflammatory process under pathogenic contexts such as in EoE. This article aims to discuss the contributory factors in the pathophysiology of EoE. PMID:24910846

Raheem, Mayumi; Leach, Steven T.; Day, Andrew S.; Lemberg, Daniel A.

2014-01-01

56

Esophageal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Español Esophageal Cancer Definition Cancer that forms in tissues lining the esophagus (the muscular tube through which food passes from the throat to ... Therapies Cancer Clinical Trials More Information Harms of Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting Metastatic Cancer How ...

57

Esophageal culture  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - esophageal ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture) and watched for the growth of bacteria, fungus, ... and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management . 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap ...

58

Eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune-mediated condition where infiltration of eosinophils into the esophageal mucosa leads to symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. It has rapidly emerged as an important cause of upper GI morbidity in patients of all ages and is encountered in a substantial proportion of patients undergoing diagnostic upper endoscopy. This review discusses the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of EoE and presents the most recent guidelines for diagnosis of EoE. It describes selected diagnostic dilemmas including distinguishing EoE from gastroesophageal reflux disease and addressing the newly recognized clinical entity of proton pump inhibitor responsive esophageal eosinophilia. It also highlights evidence to support both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments, including topical corticosteroids, dietary elimination therapy, and endoscopic dilation. PMID:23452635

Dellon, Evan S.

2012-01-01

59

Management of refractory and complicated reflux esophagitis.  

PubMed Central

Simple intermittent heartburn with minor or no esophagitis can be treated with simple measures including lifestyle changes and antacids as needed, or H2 receptor antagonists (H2RA), and has a good outcome. Problematic reflux includes resistance to therapy, stricture, Barrett's esophagus and aspiration. Severe reflux esophagitis, often resistant to H2RA therapy, requires more potent treatment with potent acid suppression using proton pump inhibitors, often indefinitely. When complicated by stricture, dilatations with potent acid suppression are needed. Barrett's esophagus is subject to esophagitis, which is no more difficult to treat than other cases of esophagitis. Reflux in Barrett's esophagus should be treated on its own merits without regard to the presence of Barrett's epithelium. Dysplasia leading to adenocarcinoma is a different problem, apparently not influenced by reduced exposure to acid. Indications for antireflux surgery are quite limited and should be carefully analyzed as a cost/risk/benefit problem. PMID:9165696

Hirschowitz, B. I.

1996-01-01

60

Whole Genome Expression Array Profiling Highlights Differences in Mucosal Defense Genes in Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has become a major concern in Western countries due to rapid rises in incidence coupled with very poor survival rates. One of the key risk factors for the development of this cancer is the presence of Barrett's esophagus (BE), which is believed to form in response to repeated gastro-esophageal reflux. In this study we performed comparative, genome-wide expression profiling (using Illumina whole-genome Beadarrays) on total RNA extracted from esophageal biopsy tissues from individuals with EAC, BE (in the absence of EAC) and those with normal squamous epithelium. We combined these data with publically accessible raw data from three similar studies to investigate key gene and ontology differences between these three tissue states. The results support the deduction that BE is a tissue with enhanced glycoprotein synthesis machinery (DPP4, ATP2A3, AGR2) designed to provide strong mucosal defenses aimed at resisting gastro-esophageal reflux. EAC exhibits the enhanced extracellular matrix remodeling (collagens, IGFBP7, PLAU) effects expected in an aggressive form of cancer, as well as evidence of reduced expression of genes associated with mucosal (MUC6, CA2, TFF1) and xenobiotic (AKR1C2, AKR1B10) defenses. When our results are compared to previous whole-genome expression profiling studies keratin, mucin, annexin and trefoil factor gene groups are the most frequently represented differentially expressed gene families. Eleven genes identified here are also represented in at least 3 other profiling studies. We used these genes to discriminate between squamous epithelium, BE and EAC within the two largest cohorts using a support vector machine leave one out cross validation (LOOCV) analysis. While this method was satisfactory for discriminating squamous epithelium and BE, it demonstrates the need for more detailed investigations into profiling changes between BE and EAC. PMID:21829465

Nancarrow, Derek J.; Clouston, Andrew D.; Smithers, B. Mark; Gotley, David C.; Drew, Paul A.; Watson, David I.; Tyagi, Sonika; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Whiteman, David C.

2011-01-01

61

Overexpression of Periostin and Lumican in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

To identify biomarkers for early detection for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we previously carried out a genome-wide gene expression profiling study using an oligonucleotide microarray platform. This analysis led to identification of several transcripts that were significantly upregulated in ESCC compared to the adjacent normal epithelium. In the current study, we performed immunohistochemical analyses of protein products for two candidates genes identified from the DNA microarray analysis, periostin (POSTN) and lumican (LUM), using tissue microarrays. Increased expression of both periostin and lumican was observed in 100% of 137 different ESCC samples arrayed on tissue microarrays. Increased expression of periostin and lumican was observed in carcinoma as well as in stromal cell in the large majority of cases. These findings suggest that these candidates can be investigated in the sera of ESCC patients using ELISA or multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) type assays to further explore their utility as biomarkers. PMID:24281036

Kashyap, Manoj Kumar; Marimuthu, Arivusudar; Peri, Suraj; Kumar, Ghantasala S. Sameer; Jacob, Harrys K.C.; Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava; Mahmood, Riaz; Kumar, K. V. Veerendra; Kumar, M. Vijaya; Meltzer, Stephen J.; Montgomery, Elizabeth A.; Kumar, Rekha V.; Pandey, Akhilesh

2010-01-01

62

Agonist ligands expressed by thymic epithelium enhance positive selection of regulatory T lymphocytes from precursors with a normally diverse TCR repertoire  

PubMed Central

CD4+CD25+ regulatory T lymphocytes play a crucial role in inhibition of autoimmune pathology. In accordance with this physiological role, it is now well established that the repertoire of these lymphocytes is strongly enriched in autospecific cells. However, despite extensive investigation, the thymic mechanisms involved in development of regulatory T cells remain incompletely defined. To address the issue of selection of regulatory T cell-precursors in mice with a naturally diverse TCR-repertoire, we have analyzed development of superantigen-specific regulatory T cells in hematopoietic chimeras in which endogenous superantigens are exclusively presented by thymic epithelial cells. Our results demonstrate that recognition of agonist ligands expressed by thymic epithelium does not lead to deletion but substantially enhances development of mature regulatory T cells. Interestingly, also development of a small subpopulation of CD25-expressing T cells lacking Foxp3, thought to be autospecific, is enhanced by expression of agonist ligand on thymic epithelium. Based on quantitative arguments, we propose that commitment to the regulatory T cell lineage is not dictated by the specificity of the precursor, but that recognition of agonist ligand expressed by thymic epithelium substantially enhances their positive selection. PMID:16818767

Ribot, Julie; Romagnoli, Paola; van Meerwijk, Joost PM

2006-01-01

63

MARKED DEPOSITION OF EOSINOPHIL-DERIVED NEUROTOXIN IN ADULT PATIENTS WITH EOSINOPHILIC ESOPHAGITIS  

PubMed Central

Objective Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is characterized by infiltration of eosinophils into esophageal epithelium. Blood levels of an eosinophil granule protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), have been proposed as a biomarker for EoE. However, information regarding localization of EDN in the diseased tissues has not been available. The goal of this study was to evaluate the magnitude and distribution of EDN deposition in tissue specimens from the esophagus of EoE patients. Methods We studied specimens from 10 adult EoE patients and 8 histologically-normal controls (three under age 17). Sections from mid-esophageal biopsy specimens were stained for EDN by immunofluorescence, using a polyclonal rabbit antibody to EDN. Cellular staining (i.e. infiltration of intact eosinophils) and extracellular staining (i.e. deposition of released EDN) were scored in a blinded manner on an established 7-point scale. Results Esophageal biopsy specimens from histologically-normal controls showed no or few intact eosinophils and no or minimal extracellular EDN deposition. In contrast, EDN staining was clearly observed in specimens from all EoE patients. In some EoE patients, marked extracellular EDN deposition was observed despite relatively small numbers of intact eosinophils. Overall, there was no correlation between the eosinophil infiltration and the extracellular EDN staining scores. Conclusions Marked tissue deposition of extracellular EDN is present in the esophagus of EoE patients. Tissue eosinophil counts may underestimate how extensively eosinophils are involved, particularly in individuals with marked eosinophil degranulation. Evaluation of EDN staining in esophageal biopsy specimens may be useful to diagnose and manage patients with EoE. PMID:19888203

Kephart, Gail M.; Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Arora, Amindra S.; Romero, Yvonne; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Talley, Nicholas J.; Kita, Hirohito

2010-01-01

64

NFkB and Nrf2 in esophageal epithelial barrier function  

PubMed Central

The stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus forms a tight protective barrier. Defects of the barrier function contribute to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which is manifested as damage to the esophageal epithelium due to exposure to the gastrointestinal refluxate. In this review, we discuss the involvement of NFkB and Nrf2 in esophageal epithelial barrier function. Understanding these molecular pathways in the esophagus may help us develop therapeutic strategies to improve clinical outcomes in patients with GERD. PMID:24790804

Chen, Hao; Fang, Yu; Li, Wenbo; Orlando, Roy C; Shaheen, Nicholas; Chen, Xiaoxin Luke

2013-01-01

65

Apoptosis and the Airway Epithelium  

PubMed Central

The airway epithelium functions as a barrier and front line of host defense in the lung. Apoptosis or programmed cell death can be elicited in the epithelium as a response to viral infection, exposure to allergen or to environmental toxins, or to drugs. While apoptosis can be induced via activation of death receptors on the cell surface or by disruption of mitochondrial polarity, epithelial cells compared to inflammatory cells are more resistant to apoptotic stimuli. This paper focuses on the response of airway epithelium to apoptosis in the normal state, apoptosis as a potential regulator of the number and types of epithelial cells in the airway, and the contribution of epithelial cell apoptosis in important airways diseases. PMID:22203854

White, Steven R.

2011-01-01

66

Esophageal tissue engineering: a new approach for esophageal replacement.  

PubMed

A number of congenital and acquired disorders require esophageal tissue replacement. Various surgical techniques, such as gastric and colonic interposition, are standards of treatment, but frequently complicated by stenosis and other problems. Regenerative medicine approaches facilitate the use of biological constructs to replace or regenerate normal tissue function. We review the literature of esophageal tissue engineering, discuss its implications, compare the methodologies that have been employed and suggest possible directions for the future. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, National Research Register and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched with the following search terms: stem cell and esophagus, esophageal replacement, esophageal tissue engineering, esophageal substitution. Reference lists of papers identified were also examined and experts in this field contacted for further information. All full-text articles in English of all potentially relevant abstracts were reviewed. Tissue engineering has involved acellular scaffolds that were either transplanted with the aim of being repopulated by host cells or seeded prior to transplantation. When acellular scaffolds were used to replace patch and short tubular defects they allowed epithelial and partial muscular migration whereas when employed for long tubular defects the results were poor leading to an increased rate of stenosis and mortality. Stenting has been shown as an effective means to reduce stenotic changes and promote cell migration, whilst omental wrapping to induce vascularization of the construct has an uncertain benefit. Decellularized matrices have been recently suggested as the optimal choice for scaffolds, but smart polymers that will incorporate signalling to promote cell-scaffold interaction may provide a more reproducible and available solution. Results in animal models that have used seeded scaffolds strongly suggest that seeding of both muscle and epithelial cells on scaffolds prior to implantation is a prerequisite for complete esophageal replacement. Novel approaches need to be designed to allow for peristalsis and vascularization in the engineered esophagus. Although esophageal tissue engineering potentially offers a real alternative to conventional treatments for severe esophageal disease, important barriers remain that need to be addressed. PMID:23322987

Totonelli, Giorgia; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Fishman, Jonathan M; Orlando, Giuseppe; Ansari, Tahera; Sibbons, Paul; Birchall, Martin A; Pierro, Agostino; Eaton, Simon; De Coppi, Paolo

2012-12-21

67

Drug-induced esophageal strictures.  

PubMed Central

A retrospective study of 55 patients with a benign esophageal stricture showed that in 11 patients (20%) the cause was a drug-induced lesion due to potassium chloride (3), tetracyclines (3), aspirin (2), vitamin C (1), phenytoin (1), and quinidine (1). Five of the 11 patients would have been diagnosed as having a reflux etiology of their stricture if 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring was not performed. Six patients responded to dilatation and five patients required resection or bypass. A prospective study of 18 asymptomatic volunteers showed a high incidence of esophageal lodgment of a radiolabeled medicinal capsule, with subsequent dissolution and release of the isotope. This occurred most frequently in elderly subjects and was reduced by increasing the volume of water chaser. The sites of lodgment correspond to the location of the observed strictures in the patient population. An in vitro study showed that, when the causative drugs were mixed with saliva, dissolution occurred within 60 minutes and was associated with significant changes in pH. These investigations show that drug-induced esophageal strictures are more common than previously appreciated, and can be confused with a reflux etiology. Diagnosis is suggested by a history of drug ingestion, location of the stricture, and a normal esophageal acid exposure on 24-hour pH monitoring. The severity of the esophageal injury is variable and requires dilatation to resection for therapy. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3606243

Bonavina, L; DeMeester, T R; McChesney, L; Schwizer, W; Albertucci, M; Bailey, R T

1987-01-01

68

Development, validation and implementation of an in vitro model for the study of metabolic and immune function in normal and inflamed human colonic epithelium.  

PubMed

Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn´s disease (CD), collectively referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are chronic immune disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The aetiology of IBD remains an enigma, but increasing evidence suggests that the development of IBD may be triggered by a disturbance in the balance between gut commensal bacteria and host response in the intestinal mucosa. It is now known that epithelial cells have the capacity to secrete and respond to a range of immunological mediators and this suggests that these cells play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Current knowledge about the intestinal epithelium has mainly been obtained using models based on animal cells, transformed human intestinal cell lines and isolated cells from resected colonic bowel segments. Species difference, malignant origin and confounders related to surgery, obviously make these cell models however less applicable for patophysiological studies. Consequently, there was a clear need for models of representative intestinal epithelial cells that would allow functional and dynamic studies of the differentiated human colonic epithelium in vitro. The primary purpose of this thesis was to explore and validate the optimal conditions for establishing a model based on short-term cultures of human colonic epithelial cells obtained from endoscopical biopsies. The cell cultures were accordingly used to describe the interplay between proinflammatory cytokines and colonic epithelium, with focus on alterations in viability, butyrate metabolism and secretion of a chemokine and metalloproteinases (MMP). Finally, the model was used to characterize expression and activation of receptors like toll like receptor (TLR)9 and peroxisome activated proliferators (PPAR)- known to be important players in regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses in human colonic epithelium. The results showed that it is possible to establish short-term cultures of representative, viable human colonic epithelial cells from endoscopic mucosal biopsies of patients with IBD. Short-time isolation by EGTA/EDTA from colonic biopsies allowed establishment of small scale cultures of epithelial cells which were viable and metabolic active for up to 48 hours in vitro. The cell model preserved important cellular metabolic and immunological functions of the human colonic epithelium, including the ability to oxidate butyrate, detoxificate phenolic compounds and secrete the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 in vitro. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interferon (IFN)-? are pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are present in increased amounts in inflamed colonic mucosa. The precise mechanisms of cytokine-mediated mucosal injury are unknown, but one might be that TNF-? and IFN-? directly impair epithelial cell function similar to effects seen on distinct target cells in other autoimmune diseases. Using the model, both cytokines were found directly to impair the viability of colonic epithelial cells and to induce secretion of IL-8 in vitro. Interestingly, the cells from inflamed IBD mucosa were less sensitive to cytokine-induced damage, which suggests that an intrinsic defense mechanism is triggered in these cells, perhaps as a result of exposure to toxic luminal factors or high local cytokine levels in vivo. TNF-? and IFN-? may also be involved in regulation of intestinal inflammation through stimulation of MMP expression and proteolytic activity. We found that colonic epithelial cells express a range of MMPs and moreover that expression of distinct MMPs is increased in cells from inflamed IBD mucosa. Using a functional peptide cleavage assay it was shown that epithelial cells secreted proteolytic active enzymes and that the functional MMP activity was increased in inflamed IBD mucosa. This suggests that colonic epithelial cells, like myofibroblasts and immune cells, may contribute to local intestinal mucosal damage, through secretion of active MMPs. Disturbance of recognition and discrimination of potentially harmful pathogens from commensals in the intestin

Pedersen, Gitte

2015-01-01

69

Reduction of E-cadherin by human defensin-5 in esophageal squamous cells.  

PubMed

Barrett's esophagus (BE) is metaplastic columnar epithelium converted from normal squamous epithelia in the distal esophagus that is thought to be a precancerous lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma. BE is attributed to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and therefore gastric acid or bile acids are thought to be factors that cause epithelial cell damage and inflammation in the gastro-esophageal junction. The decrease of adherent junction molecules, E-cadherin has been reported to be associated with the progression of the Barrett's carcinoma, but the initiation of BE is not sufficiently understood. BE is characterized by the presence of goblet cells and occasionally Paneth cells are observed at the base of the crypts. The Paneth cells possess dense granules, in which human antimicrobial peptide human defensin-5 (HD-5) are stored and secreted out of the cells. This study determined the roles of HD-5 produced from metaplastic Paneth cells against adjacent to squamous cells in the gastro-esophageal junction. A human squamous cell line Het-1A, was incubated with the synthetic HD-5 peptide as a model of squamous cell in the gastro-esophageal junctions, and alterations of E-cadherin were investigated. Immunocytochemistry, flowcytometry, and Western blotting showed that the expression of E-cadherin protein was decreased. And a partial recovery from the decrease was observed by treatment with a CD10/neprilysin inhibitor (thiorphan). In conclusion, E-cadherin expression in squamous cells was reduced by HD-5 using in vitro experiments. In gastro-esophageal junction, HD-5 produced from metaplastic Paneth cells may therefore accelerate the initiation of BE. PMID:23958301

Nomura, Yoshiki; Tanabe, Hiroki; Moriichi, Kentaro; Igawa, Satomi; Ando, Katsuyoshi; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Kashima, Shin; Tominaga, Motoya; Goto, Takuma; Inaba, Yuhei; Ito, Takahiro; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka

2013-09-13

70

CDC2/CDK1 expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma and precursor lesions serves as a diagnostic and cancer progression marker and potential novel drug target.  

PubMed

Esophageal adenocarcinoma arises through well-defined precursor lesions (Barrett esophagus), although only a subset of these lesions advances to invasive adenocarcinoma. The lack of markers predicting progression in Barrett esophagus, typical presentation at advanced stage, and limitations of conventional chemotherapy result in >90% mortality for Barrett-associated adenocarcinomas. To identify potential prognostic markers and therapeutic targets, we compared gene expression profiles from Barrett-associated esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines (BIC1, SEG1, KYAE, OE33) and normal esophageal epithelial scrapings utilizing the Affymetrix U133_A gene expression platform. We identified 560 transcripts with >3-fold up-regulation in the adenocarcinoma cell lines compared with normal epithelium. Utilizing tissue microarrays composed of normal esophageal squamous mucosa (n = 20), Barrett esophagus (n = 10), low-grade dysplasia (n = 14), high-grade dysplasia (n = 27), adenocarcinoma (n = 59), and node metastases (n = 27), we confirmed differential up-regulation of three proteins (Cdc2/Cdk1, Cdc5, and Igfbp3) in adenocarcinomas and Barrett lesions. Protein expression mirrored histologic progression; thus, 87% of low-grade dysplasias had at least focal surface Cdc2/Cdk1 and 20% had >5% surface staining; 96% of high-grade dysplasias expressed abundant surface Cdc2/Cdk1, while invasive adenocarcinoma and metastases demonstrated ubiquitous expression. Esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines treated with the novel CDC2/CDK1 transcriptional inhibitor, tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid (EM-1421, formerly named M4N) demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in cell proliferation, paralleling down-regulation of CDC2/CDK1 transcript and protein levels. These findings suggest a role for CDC2/CDK1 in esophageal adenocarcinogenesis, both as a potential histopathologic marker of dysplasia and a putative treatment target. PMID:15725809

Hansel, Donna E; Dhara, Surajit; Huang, RuChih C; Ashfaq, Raheela; Deasel, Mari; Shimada, Yutaka; Bernstein, Harold S; Harmon, John; Brock, Malcolm; Forastiere, Arlene; Washington, M Kay; Maitra, Anirban; Montgomery, Elizabeth

2005-03-01

71

Nanoscale markers of esophageal field carcinogenesis: potential implications for esophageal cancer screening  

PubMed Central

Background and study aims Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has a dismal prognosis unless treated early or prevented at the precursor stage of Barrett’s esophagus-associated dysplasia. However, some patients with cancer or dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus (DBE) may not be captured by current screening and surveillance programs. Additional screening techniques are needed to determine who would benefit from endoscopic screening or surveillance. Partial wave spectroscopy (PWS) microscopy (also known as nanocytology) measures the disorder strength (Ld), a statistic that characterizes the spatial distribution of the intracellular mass at the nanoscale level and thus provides insights into the cell nanoscale architecture beyond that which is revealed by conventional microscopy. The aim of the present study was to compare the disorder strength measured by PWS in normal squamous epithelium in the proximal esophagus to determine whether nanoscale architectural differences are detectable in the field area of EAC and Barrett’s esophagus. Methods During endoscopy, proximal esophageal squamous cells were obtained by brushings and were fixed in alcohol and stained with standard hematoxylin and Cyto-Stain. The disorder strength of these sampled squamous cells was determined by PWS. Results A total of 75 patient samples were analyzed, 15 of which were pathologically confirmed as EAC, 13 were DBE, and 15 were non-dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus; 32 of the patients, most of whom had reflux symptoms, acted as controls. The mean disorder strength per patient in cytologically normal squamous cells in the proximal esophagus of patients with EAC was 1.79-times higher than that of controls (P<0.01). Patients with DBE also had a disorder strength 1.63-times higher than controls (P<0.01). Conclusion Intracellular nanoarchitectural changes were found in the proximal squamous epithelium in patients harboring distal EAC and DBE using PWS. Advances in this technology and the biological phenomenon of the field effect of carcinogenesis revealed in this study may lead to a useful tool in non-invasive screening practices in DBE and EAC. PMID:24019132

Konda, Vani JA; Cherkezyan, Lusik; Subramanian, Hariharan; Wroblewski, Kirsten; Damania, Dhwanil; Becker, Valentin; Gonzalez, Mariano Haba Ruiz; Koons, Ann; Goldberg, Michael; Ferguson, Mark K; Waxman, Irving; Roy, Hermant K; Backman, Vadim

2014-01-01

72

Thoracoscopic stapled resection of multiple esophageal duplication cysts with different pathological findings.  

PubMed

Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital esophageal anomaly of the foregut. This cyst usually occurs in isolation, and thus far, was treated by enucleation through thoracoscopic or thoracotomic surgery. Here we report a case of multiple esophageal duplication cysts that showed different pathological findings, i.e., the cysts were lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar and stratified squamous epithelium. Esophageal cysts were incidentally detected in a 53-year-old man during the treatment of pneumonia. In chest-computed tomography, the cysts showed a thin wall and homogeneous inner density, while in endoscopy, no communication with esophageal mucosa was observed. We resected the esophageal cysts with endo-staplers under thoracoscopic surgery. No postoperative complications, including esophageal mucosal injury, occurred. A follow-up chest computed tomography revealed the complete resection of the cysts. PMID:18486485

Kang, Chul Ung; Cho, Deog Gon; Cho, Kyu Do; Jo, Min Seop

2008-07-01

73

Esophageal candidiasis in AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the results of oral therapy of esophageal candidiasis with clotrimazole vaginal tablets in 25 homosexual men with AIDS, of whom 19 had oral candidiasis and 16 had esophageal symptoms. Therapy with clotrimazole vaginal tablets, 100 mg, taken by mouth cleared the esophageal symptoms, oral candidiasis, and esophageal lesions completely in all 25 men. Clotrimazole vaginal

Eoin Lalor; Linda Rabeneck

1991-01-01

74

A sequence variant in the phospholipase C epsilon C2 domain is associated with esophageal carcinoma and esophagitis.  

PubMed

A single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs2274223: A5780G:His1927Arg) in the phospholipase C epsilon gene (PLC?) was recently identified as a susceptibility locus for esophageal cancer in Chinese subjects. To determine the underlying mechanisms of PLC? and this SNP in esophageal carcinogenesis, we analyzed PLC? genotypes, expression, and their correlation in esophageal cancer cell lines, non-transformed esophageal cells, 58 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and 10,614 non-cancer subjects from China. We found that the G allele (AG or GG) was associated with increased PLC? mRNA and protein expression in esophageal cancer tissues and in esophageal cancer cell lines. G allele was also associated with higher enzyme activity, which might be associated with increased protein expression. Quantitative analysis of the C2 domain sequences revealed that A:G allelic imbalance was strongly linked to esophageal malignancy. Moreover, the analysis of 10,614 non-cancer subjects demonstrated that the G allele was strongly associated with moderate to severe esophagitis in the subjects from the high-incidence areas of China (OR 6.03, 95% CI 1.59-22.9 in high-incidence area vs. OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.33-1.64 in low-incidence area; P?=?0.008). In conclusion, the PLC? gene, particularly the 5780G allele, might play a pivotal role in esophageal carcinogenesis via upregulating PLC? mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity, and augmenting inflammatory process in esophageal epithelium. Thus, 5780G allele may constitute a promising biomarker for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk stratification, early detection, and progression prediction. PMID:23390063

Wang, Li-Dong; Bi, Xiuli; Song, Xin; Pohl, Nicole M; Cheng, Yulan; Zhou, Yixing; Shears, Stephen; Ansong, Emmanuel; Xing, Mengtao; Wang, Shaomeng; Xu, Xiao-Chun; Huang, Peng; Xu, Liyan; Wang, Liang; Fan, Zongmin; Zhao, Xueke; Dong, Huali; Meltzer, Stephen J; Ding, Ivan; Yang, Wancai

2013-11-01

75

Bile Acid Exposure Up-regulates Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 1/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Pathway in Barrett’s-Associated Esophageal Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Barrett’s esophagus, a columnar metaplasia of the lower esophagus epithelium related to gastroesophageal reflux disease, is the strongest known risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Understanding the signal transduction events involved in esophageal epithelium carcinogenesis may provide insights into the origins of EAC and may suggest new therapies. To elucidate the molecular pathways of bile acid–induced tumorigenesis, the newly identified inflammation-associated signaling pathway involving I?B kinases ? (IKK?), tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) downstream effector S6 kinase (S6K1) was confirmed to be activated in immortalized Barrett’s CPC-A and CPC-C cells and esophageal cancer SEG-1 and BE3 cells. Phosphorylation of TSC1 and S6K1 was induced in response to bile acid stimulation. Treatment of these cells with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin or the IKK? inhibitor Bay 11-7082 suppressed bile acid–induced cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. We next used an orthotopic rat model to evaluate the role of bile acid in the progression of Barrett’s esophagus to EAC. Of interest, we found high expression of phosphorylated IKK? (pIKK?) and phosphorylated S6K1 (pS6K1) in tumor tissues and the Barrett’s epithelium compared with normal epithelium. Furthermore, immunostaining of clinical EAC tissue specimens revealed that pIKK? expression was strongly correlated with pS6K1 level. Together, these results show that bile acid can deregulate TSC1/mTOR through IKK? signaling, which may play a critical role in EAC progression. In addition, Bay 11-7082 and rapamycin may potentially be chemopreventive drugs against Barrett’s esophagus–associated EAC. PMID:18413730

Yen, Chia-Jui; Izzo, Julie G.; Lee, Dung-Fang; Guha, Sushovan; Wei, Yongkun; Wu, Tsung-Teh; Chen, Chun-Te; Kuo, Hsu-Ping; Hsu, Jung-Mao; Sun, Hui-Lung; Chou, Chao-Kai; Buttar, Navtej S.; Wang, Kenneth K.; Huang, Peng; Ajani, Jaffer; Hung, Mien-Chie

2008-01-01

76

Epigenetics in the Pathogenesis of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Epigenetic influences, such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and up-regulation/down-regulation of genes by microRNAs, change the genetic makeup of an individual without affecting DNA base-pair sequences. Indeed, epigenetic changes play an integral role in the progression from normal esophageal mucosa to Barrett's esophagus to esophageal adenocarcinoma via dysplasia-metaplasia-neoplasia sequence. Many genes involved in esophageal adenocarcinoma display hypermethylation, leading to their down-regulation. The classes of these genes include cell cycle control, DNA and growth factor repair, tumor suppressors, antimetastasis, Wnt-related genes, and proapoptotic genes. Histone acetylation in the pathophysiology of esophageal diseases has not been thoroughly investigated, and its critical role in the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma is less defined. Many microRNAs have been associated with the development of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Here, we critically addressed the specific steps most closely influenced by microRNAs in the progression from Barrett's esophagus to esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, microRNAs can target up to hundreds of genes, making it difficult to correlate directly with a given phenotype of the disease. Esophageal adenocarcinoma progressing from premalignant condition of Barrett's esophagus carries an extremely poor prognosis. Risk stratification for patients based on their epigenetic profiles may be useful in providing more targeted and directed treatment to patients. PMID:25388215

Kailasam, Aparna; Mittal, Sumeet K; Agrawal, Devendra K

2014-11-12

77

Toll-Like Receptors in Esophageal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and esophageal adenocarcinoma are cancers of high mortality. EAC develops through Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and columnar dysplasia, preceded by gastro-esophageal reflux disease. The risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is increased by smoking and alcohol consumption. New treatment options for esophageal cancer are desperately needed. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a central role in mammalian immunity and cancer. TLRs are activated by microbial components, such as lipopolysaccharide, flagellin, DNA, and RNA, as well as endogenous ligands, including heat-shock proteins and endogenous DNA. This review summarizes the studies on TLRs in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and EAC. It has been shown that TLRs 1–10 are expressed in the normal esophagus. In esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, TLRs3, 4, 7, and 9 have been studied, showing associations to aggressive disease properties. In BE and EAC, only TLRs4, 5, and 9 have been studied. In the review, we discuss the implications of TLRs in esophageal cancer. PMID:24847326

Kauppila, Joonas H.; Selander, Katri S.

2014-01-01

78

ESOPHAGEAL DYSMOTILITY IN CHILDREN WITH EOSINOPHILIC ESOPHAGITIS. A STUDY USING PROLONGED ESOPHAGEAL MANOMETRY  

PubMed Central

Background The pathophysiology of dysphagia in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is unknown, but may be related to abnormal esophageal motor function. Symptoms rarely occur during stationary esophageal manometry so it has been difficult to establish an association between symptoms and motor events. Aim To evaluate esophageal motor function in children with EoE with the use of stationary manometry and ambulatory prolonged esophageal manometry and pH-metry (PEMP) Methods PEMP was performed in children with EoE, compared with controls and children with GERD. Effective peristalsis was considered when the esophageal contractions had a normal amplitude and propagation. Results expressed as mean ± S.E. Results Seventeen patients with EoE, 13 with GERD and 11 controls were studied. Values are expressed as mean ± se. Stationary manometry identified abnormal peristalsis in 41% of children with EoE. During PEMP, children with EoE had an increased number of isolated (16.7 ± 3.8 vs 9.5 ± 1.6 vs 6.5 ± 1.1 ; p< 0.03) and high amplitude contractions (4.1 ± 1.2 vs 1.8 ±0.8 vs 0.1 ± 0.1; p< 0.03), and more % ineffective peristalsis both during fasting (70.5% ± 2.5 vs 57.8% ± 3.0 vs 53.8% ± 1.9; p <0.05) and during meals (68.4 ± 3.4 vs 55.3 ± 2.8 vs 48.1 ± 2.8; p < 0.05) when compared with children with GERD and controls. Thirteen patients with EoE experienced 21 episodes of dysphagia and all correlated with simultaneous abnormal motor function. Conclusions PEMP allowed the detection of ineffective peristalsis in children with EoE. Symptoms observed in children with EoE may be related to esophageal motor dysfunction. PMID:19755968

Nurko, Samuel; Rosen, Rachel; Furuta, Glenn T.

2010-01-01

79

Influence of Ionizing Radiation on Stromal-Epithelial Communication in Esophageal Carcinogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Esophageal cancer is the 6th leading cause of cancer death worldwide and is associated with a variety of risk factors including tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, human papilloma virus infection, and certain dietary factors such as trace mineral and vitamin deficiencies. A connection with ionizing radiation exposure is revealed by the high excess relative risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma observed in the survivors of the atomic bomb detonations in Japan. Esophageal carcinomas are also seen as secondary malignancies in patients who received radiotherapy for breast and thoracic cancers; additionally, patients with head/neck and oral squamous cell cancers are at increased risk for metachronous esophageal squamous cell cancers. This malignancy is rapidly fatal, mainly because it remains asymptomatic until late, advanced stages when the disease is rarely responsive to treatment. In normal epithelium, the stromal microenvironment is essential for the maintenance and modulation of cell growth and differentiation. Cross talk between the epithelial and stromal compartments can influence many aspects of malignant progression, including tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion and recruitment of new blood vessels. To test the hypothesis that radiation exposure plays a role in esophageal carcinogenesis via non-targeted mechanisms involving stromal-epithelial cell communication, we are studying radiation effects on hTERT-immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells and genetic variants grown in co-culture with human esophageal stromal fibrob-lasts (Okawa et al., Genes Dev. 2007. 21: 2788-2803). We examined how irradiation of stromal fibroblasts affected epithelial migration and invasion, behaviors associated with cancer promotion and progression. These assays were conducted in modified Boyden chambers using conditioned media from irradiated fibroblasts. Our results using low LET gamma radiation showed a dose-dependent increase in migration of epithelial cells when exposed to conditioned media from irradiated vs. non-irradiated fibroblasts. We also observed enhanced invasion through a basement membrane matrix in similarly treated cells. Candidate factors that me-diate these effects were identified using antibody capture arrays, and their increased secretion in irradiated fibroblasts was confirmed using ELISAs. We are currently analyzing the effect of these individual factors on epithelial migration and invasion, as well as their influence on cell survival and DNA repair. Our current studies using high-LET radiation will elucidate radiation quality effects on these processes. These results should further our understanding of the mechanisms by which radiation impacts the tissue microenvironment and how it influences cancer development processes.

Huff, Janice; Patel, Zarana; Grugan, Katharine; Rustgi, Anil; Cucinotta, Francis A.

80

Cell lineage-specific and differentiation-dependent patterns of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha expression in the gut epithelium of normal and transgenic mice.  

PubMed

The proliferation and differentiation programs of gut epithelial cells are expressed rapidly and perpetually along an anatomically well defined pathway. The mouse intestine thus provides an excellent in vivo model system to define the contributions of CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP alpha) and related bZIP proteins to these processes. Immunocytochemical studies revealed that C/EBP alpha is produced in villus-associated enterocytes located in the duodenum and jejunum of adult mice. The protein is located in the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments of these cells. C/EBP alpha is not detectable in proliferating and nonproliferating epithelial cells situated in small intestinal crypts nor is it evident in any gut epithelial cell lineage located in the ileum and colon. The related C/EBP beta and C/EBP delta proteins are not detectable by sensitive immunocytochemical methods in epithelial cells distributed along the duodenal-to-colonic axis. Developmental surveys indicate that C/EBP alpha is confined to postmitotic, villus-associated epithelial cells during conversion of the polyclonal intervillus epithelium to monoclonal crypts. Analyses of intestinal isografts reveal that these developmental stage-specific, lineage-specific, differentiation-dependent, and regional patterns of C/EBP alpha expression can be established and maintained in the absence of exposure to luminal contents. Transgenic mice containing nucleotides -1178 to +28 of the rat intestinal fatty acid binding protein gene (I-FABP-1178 to +28) linked to the simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (T antigen) gene express T antigen in villus-associated enterocytes. This results in reentry of enterocytes into the cell cycle and a silencing of C/EBP alpha expression without an apparent effect on the accumulation of several markers of this lineage's terminal differentiation program or on gut morphogenesis. These findings indicate that there is a relationship between expression of C/EBP alpha in enterocytes and their exit from the cell cycle and suggest that I-FABP-1178 to +28/simian virus 40 T antigen transgenic mice could provide a screening assay for examining the role of C/EBP alpha in regulating the activity of genes known to be transcribed during differentiation of this gut epithelial cell lineage. PMID:8415623

Chandrasekaran, C; Gordon, J I

1993-10-01

81

Cell lineage-specific and differentiation-dependent patterns of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha expression in the gut epithelium of normal and transgenic mice.  

PubMed Central

The proliferation and differentiation programs of gut epithelial cells are expressed rapidly and perpetually along an anatomically well defined pathway. The mouse intestine thus provides an excellent in vivo model system to define the contributions of CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP alpha) and related bZIP proteins to these processes. Immunocytochemical studies revealed that C/EBP alpha is produced in villus-associated enterocytes located in the duodenum and jejunum of adult mice. The protein is located in the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments of these cells. C/EBP alpha is not detectable in proliferating and nonproliferating epithelial cells situated in small intestinal crypts nor is it evident in any gut epithelial cell lineage located in the ileum and colon. The related C/EBP beta and C/EBP delta proteins are not detectable by sensitive immunocytochemical methods in epithelial cells distributed along the duodenal-to-colonic axis. Developmental surveys indicate that C/EBP alpha is confined to postmitotic, villus-associated epithelial cells during conversion of the polyclonal intervillus epithelium to monoclonal crypts. Analyses of intestinal isografts reveal that these developmental stage-specific, lineage-specific, differentiation-dependent, and regional patterns of C/EBP alpha expression can be established and maintained in the absence of exposure to luminal contents. Transgenic mice containing nucleotides -1178 to +28 of the rat intestinal fatty acid binding protein gene (I-FABP-1178 to +28) linked to the simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (T antigen) gene express T antigen in villus-associated enterocytes. This results in reentry of enterocytes into the cell cycle and a silencing of C/EBP alpha expression without an apparent effect on the accumulation of several markers of this lineage's terminal differentiation program or on gut morphogenesis. These findings indicate that there is a relationship between expression of C/EBP alpha in enterocytes and their exit from the cell cycle and suggest that I-FABP-1178 to +28/simian virus 40 T antigen transgenic mice could provide a screening assay for examining the role of C/EBP alpha in regulating the activity of genes known to be transcribed during differentiation of this gut epithelial cell lineage. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8415623

Chandrasekaran, C; Gordon, J I

1993-01-01

82

Zn concentration in esophageal tissue in patients with and without upper gastrointestinal disease  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of tissue Zn in humans with upper gastrointestinal disease could provide information about underlying pathophysiology but these data have never been obtained. With recent endoscopic methods they obtained 2-6 mg pinch mucosal biopsies of epithelium and lamina propria from proximal (P), middle (M) and distal (D) areas of esophagus under direct vision through a flexible 1 cm endoscope in 35 subjects without gastrointestinal disease (N) and in 35 patients with the following endoscopically proven gastrointestinal pathology: 12 with esophagitis (E), 14 with duodenal ulcer disease (DU) and 9 with gastritis (G). Samples were dried, weighed, digested with HNO/sub 3/, dried, resuspended in 3% HNO/sub 3/ and Zn estimated by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Esophageal Zn in N decreased progressively as biopsies extended from P to D (P, 108 +/- 29 ..mu..g/g dry weight, Mean +/- SEM; M, 158 +/- 23; D, 134 +/- 16) but this pattern was generally reversed in patients, with D consistently demonstrating Zn elevated 50-120% above normal. The greatest increase was in G in whom Zn in D was more than twice normal (DU, 290 +/- 76, p < 0.01). These are the first Zn levels obtained from esophagus in living human subjects and indicate (1) a specific pattern of Zn distribution in normal esophagus and (2) a significantly altered pattern in D in several diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

Wong, R.K.H.; Kadakia, S.C.; Maydonovitch, C.; Johnson, L.F.; Nelson, N.; Henkin, R.I.

1986-03-05

83

Esophageal manometry in 95 healthy adult volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although esophageal manometry is widely used in clinical practice, the normal range of esophageal contraction parameters is poorly defined. Therefore, 95 healthy volunteers (mean age: 43 years; range 22–79 years) were studied with a low-compliance infusion system and 4.5-mm-diameter catheter. All subjects were given 10 wet swallows (5 cc H2O) and 38 subjects also were given 10 dry swallows. Results:

Joel E. Richter; Wallace C. Wu; Doree N. Johns; John N. Blackwell; Joseph L. Nelson; June A. Castell; Donald O. Castell

1987-01-01

84

Molecular Pathways: Pathogenesis and clinical implications of microbiome alteration in esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus  

PubMed Central

Esophageal adenocarcinoma is preceded by the development of reflux-related intestinal metaplasia or Barrett’s esophagus which is a response to inflammation of the esophageal squamous mucosa, reflux esophagitis. Gastroesophageal reflux impairs the mucosal barrier in the distal esophagus, allowing chronic exposure of the squamous epithelium to the diverse microbial ecosystem or microbiome, and inducing chronic inflammation. The esophageal microbiome is altered in both esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus, characterized by a significant decrease in Gram-positive bacteria and an increase in Gram-negative bacteria in esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a major structure of the outer membrane in Gram-negative bacteria, can up-regulate gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines via activation of the TLR4 and NF-kB pathway. The potential impact of LPS on reflux esophagitis may be through relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter via iNOS and by delaying gastric emptying via COX-2. Chronic inflammation may be play a critical role in the progression from benign to malignant esophageal disease. Therefore analysis of the pathways leading to chronic inflammation in the esophagus may help to identify biomarkers in Barrett's esophagus patients for neoplastic progression and provide insight into molecular events suitable for therapeutic intervention in prevention of esophageal adenocarcinoma development in patients with reflux esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus. PMID:22344232

Yang, Liying; Francois, Fritz; Pei, Zhiheng

2013-01-01

85

Eosinophilic esophagitis: the newest esophageal inflammatory disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic esophageal inflammatory disease of undetermined pathophysiology that results in dense mucosal eosinophilia and esophageal dysfunction. In childhood, vague symptoms associated with GERD and feeding difficulties are the first manifestations of EoE. Adults typically present with dysphagia and food impaction. No pathognomonic features have been identified for EoE and, therefore, its diagnosis must be made

Dan Atkins; Robert Kramer; Kelley Capocelli; Mark Lovell; Glenn T. Furuta

2009-01-01

86

Esophageal tissue engineering: A new approach for esophageal replacement  

PubMed Central

A number of congenital and acquired disorders require esophageal tissue replacement. Various surgical techniques, such as gastric and colonic interposition, are standards of treatment, but frequently complicated by stenosis and other problems. Regenerative medicine approaches facilitate the use of biological constructs to replace or regenerate normal tissue function. We review the literature of esophageal tissue engineering, discuss its implications, compare the methodologies that have been employed and suggest possible directions for the future. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, National Research Register and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched with the following search terms: stem cell and esophagus, esophageal replacement, esophageal tissue engineering, esophageal substitution. Reference lists of papers identified were also examined and experts in this field contacted for further information. All full-text articles in English of all potentially relevant abstracts were reviewed. Tissue engineering has involved acellular scaffolds that were either transplanted with the aim of being repopulated by host cells or seeded prior to transplantation. When acellular scaffolds were used to replace patch and short tubular defects they allowed epithelial and partial muscular migration whereas when employed for long tubular defects the results were poor leading to an increased rate of stenosis and mortality. Stenting has been shown as an effective means to reduce stenotic changes and promote cell migration, whilst omental wrapping to induce vascularization of the construct has an uncertain benefit. Decellularized matrices have been recently suggested as the optimal choice for scaffolds, but smart polymers that will incorporate signalling to promote cell-scaffold interaction may provide a more reproducible and available solution. Results in animal models that have used seeded scaffolds strongly sug- gest that seeding of both muscle and epithelial cells on scaffolds prior to implantation is a prerequisite for complete esophageal replacement. Novel approaches need to be designed to allow for peristalsis and vascularization in the engineered esophagus. Although esophageal tissue engineering potentially offers a real alternative to conventional treatments for severe esophageal disease, important barriers remain that need to be addressed. PMID:23322987

Totonelli, Giorgia; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Fishman, Jonathan M; Orlando, Giuseppe; Ansari, Tahera; Sibbons, Paul; Birchall, Martin A; Pierro, Agostino; Eaton, Simon; De Coppi, Paolo

2012-01-01

87

Esophageal Dysmotility in patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Summary The understanding of esophageal motility alterations in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis is in its infancy despite the common presenting complaint of dysphagia. A diversity of motility disorders has been reported in patients with EE including achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus and non-specific motility alterations including high amplitude esophageal body contractions, tertiary contractions, LES pressure abnormalities and other peristaltic problems. Some evidence suggests that treatment of EE will result in some improvements in motility. The advent of technology such as high resolution manometry and combined manometry with impedance may provide new insight into more subtle motility abnormalities. PMID:18061103

Nurko, Samuel; Rosen, Rachel

2008-01-01

88

Immunohistochemical Study of the Expression of a Mr 34,000 Human Epithelium-specific Surface Glycoprotein in Normal and Malignant Tissues1  

Microsoft Academic Search

MonoclonalantibodyHEA125 was usedto studythe tissue distribution of an epithelial cell surface glycoproteinof M, 34,000 (Egp34). A large panelof normalandneoplastictissues was examinedforimmunoreactivity with HEA125 by means of a sensitive immunoperoxidasetechnique. HEA12S labeled most epithelial cell types throughoutthe body but did not label any nonepithelial tissue. Major exceptions were epidermal keratinocytes,gastric parietalcells, hepatocytes, thymic cortical epithe lial, and myoepithelial cells. Normal mesothelial

Frank Momburg; Gerhard Moldenhauer; J. HÃ

89

Esophageal stricture - benign  

MedlinePLUS

Benign esophageal stricture is a narrowing of the esophagus (the tube from the mouth to the stomach) that causes swallowing ... Esophageal stricture can be caused by: Gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) Injuries caused by an endoscope Long-term use of ...

90

Esophageal Cancer Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... factors may increase the risk of esophageal cancer: Tobacco and alcohol use Squamous cell carcinoma of the ... may decrease the risk of esophageal cancer: Avoiding tobacco and alcohol use Many studies have shown that ...

91

Targeting AMCase reduces esophageal eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling in a mouse model of egg induced eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Studies of AMCase inhibition in mouse models of lung eosinophilic inflammation have produced conflicting results with some studies demonstrating inhibition of eosinophilic inflammation and others not. No studies have investigated the role of AMCase inhibition in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). We have used a mouse model of egg (OVA) induced EoE to determine whether pharmacologic inhibition of AMCase with allosamidin reduced eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling in the esophagus in EoE. Administration of intra-esophageal OVA for 6 weeks to BALB/c mice induced increased levels of esophageal eosinophils, mast cells, and features of esophageal remodeling (fibrosis, basal zone hyperplasia, deposition of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin). Administration of intraperitoneal (ip) allosamidin to BALB/c mice significantly inhibited AMCase enzymatic activity in the esophagus. Pharmacologic inhibition of AMCase with ip allosamidin inhibited both OVA induced increases in esophageal eosinophilic inflammation and OVA induced esophageal remodeling (fibrosis, epithelial basal zone hyperplasia, extracellular matrix deposition of fibronectin). This inhibition of eosinophilic inflammation in the esophagus by ip allosamidin was associated with reduced eotaxin-1 expression in the esophagus. Oral allosamidin inhibited eosinophilic inflammation in the epithelium but did not inhibit esophageal remodeling. These studies suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of AMCase results in inhibition of eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling in the esophagus in a mouse model of egg induced EoE partially through effects in the esophagus on reducing chemokines (i.e. eotaxin-1) implicated in the pathogenesis of EoE. PMID:24239745

Cho, Jae Youn; Rosenthal, Peter; Miller, Marina; Pham, Alexa; Aceves, Seema; Sakuda, Shohei; Broide, David H

2014-01-01

92

Expression of CD59, a complement regulator protein and a second ligand of the CD2 molecule, and CD46 in normal and neoplastic colorectal epithelium.  

PubMed Central

CD59 (protectin) and CD46 (membrane cofactor protein, MCP) are membrane-bound complement regulator proteins which inhibit complement-mediated cytolysis of autologous cells. CD59, a phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored glycoprotein, inhibits the formation of the terminal membrane attack complex (MAC) of complement and was found to be a second ligand for CD2 contributing to T-cell activation. In 20 colorectal normal mucosa samples, in ten adenomas, 71 carcinomas and in ten liver metastases derived thereof, CD59 was inconsistently expressed in the epithelial compartment. In carcinomas CD59 expression in the whole neoplastic compartment was more often found in well- and moderately differentiated tumours. By contrast, focal expression or even complete lack of CD59 was more often found in poorly differentiated tumours (P = 0.021). In addition, carcinomas without metastases at the time of operation (Dukes A/B) more often expressed CD59 in the entire neoplastic population compared to those carcinomas which had already metastasised (P = 0.018). There was no correlation between the mode of CD59 expression in colorectal carcinomas and the tumour type or location. CD46 has C3b/C4b binding and factor-I dependent cofactor activity and is broadly expressed in various cells and tissues. In the epithelial compartment of normal colorectal mucosa, of all adenomas, carcinomas and their liver metastases, CD46 was expressed throughout the epithelial compartment. Since CD46 was consistently expressed in colorectal carcinomas the low expression or even lack of CD59 in a subset of tumours might not lead to critical complement-mediated attack of CD59-negative tumour cells. Regarding CD59 as a natural T-cell ligand involved in cognate T-cell-target-cell interaction, however, loss of CD59 might well be a selection advantage, provided that tumour antigen-mediated T-cell toxicity in colorectal carcinoma exists. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:7692919

Koretz, K.; Brüderlein, S.; Henne, C.; Möller, P.

1993-01-01

93

Normalization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint lecture, by Jason Park of San Jose State University Department of Computer Science, offers students a quick introduction to database normalization, the "process of removing redundant data from your tables in to improve storage efficiency, data integrity, and scalability." Here, visitors will find information about database normalization history and applications. With information on the normal forms, field pioneer Edgar F. Codd, and problematic tables, this presentation will be helpful in any database programming and design classroom.

Park, Jason

2005-01-01

94

Morphological and functional heterogeneity of the mouse intrahepatic biliary epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rat and human biliary epithelium is morphologically and functionally heterogeneous. As no information exists on the heterogeneity of the murine intrahepatic biliary epithelium, and with increased usage of transgenic mouse models to study liver disease pathogenesis, we sought to evaluate the morphological, secretory, and proliferative phenotypes of small and large bile ducts and purified cholangiocytes in normal and cholestatic mouse

Shannon S Glaser; Eugenio Gaudio; Arundhati Rao; Lisa M Pierce; Paolo Onori; Antonio Franchitto; Heather L Francis; David E Dostal; Julie K Venter; Sharon DeMorrow; Romina Mancinelli; Guido Carpino; Domenico Alvaro; Shelley E Kopriva; Jennifer M Savage; Gianfranco D Alpini

2009-01-01

95

Indications, technique, and clinical use of ambulatory 24-hour esophageal motility monitoring in a surgical practice.  

PubMed Central

The development of miniaturized electronic pressure transducers and portable digital data recorders with large storage capacity has made ambulatory monitoring of esophageal motor function over an entire circadian cycle possible. The broad clinical application of this new technology in a large number of asymptomatic normal volunteers and patients with primary esophageal motor disorders or gastroesophageal reflux disease provides new insights into esophageal motor function in health and disease under a variety of physiologic conditions. In normal volunteers and symptomatic patients, esophageal motor activity increases with both the state of consciousness and eating activity, i.e., from sleep to awake to meal periods. In the normal situation there is a higher prevalence of nonperistaltic esophageal contractions than appreciated on stationary manometry. Compared with standard manometry, ambulatory esophageal manometry provides a more than 100-fold larger database for the classification and quantitation of abnormal esophageal motor function and leads to a change in the diagnosis in a substantial portion of patients with symptoms suggestive of a primary esophageal motor disorder. In patients with nonobstructive dysphagia, the circadian esophageal motility pattern is characterized by an inability to organize the motor activity into peristaltic contractions during meal periods. In patients with noncardiac chest pain, ambulatory motility monitoring can document a direct correlation of abnormal esophageal motor activity with the symptom and shows that the abnormal motor activity immediately preceding the pain episodes is characterized by an increased frequency of simultaneous, double- and triple-peaked, high-amplitude, and long-duration contractions. A long esophageal myotomy can abolish the ability of the esophagus to produce this abnormal motor pattern. In patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, ambulatory motility monitoring shows that the contractility of the esophageal body deteriorates with increasing severity of esophageal mucosal injury, compromising the clearance function of the esophageal body. These data suggest that ambulatory esophageal motility monitoring allows for a more precise classification of esophageal motor disorders than standard manometry and can identify abnormal esophageal motor pattern associated with nonobstructive dysphagia, noncardiac chest pain, or gastroesophageal reflux. Ambulatory esophageal manometry therefore should replace standard manometry in the assessment of esophageal body function and has potential to improve the diagnosis and management of patients with esophageal motor abnormalities. The combination of ambulatory 24-hour esophageal manometry with esophageal and gastric pH monitoring is currently the most physiologic way to assess patients with functional foregut disorders. PMID:8439211

Stein, H J; DeMeester, T R

1993-01-01

96

Distal esophageal spasm: an update.  

PubMed

Distal esophageal spasm (DES) is an esophageal motility disorder that presents clinically with chest pain and/or dysphagia and is defined manometrically as simultaneous contractions in the distal (smooth muscle) esophagus in ?20% of wet swallows (and amplitude contraction of ?30 mmHg) alternating with normal peristalsis. With the introduction of high resolution esophageal pressure topography (EPT) in 2000, the definition of DES was modified. The Chicago classification proposed that the defining criteria for DES using EPT should be the presence of at least two premature contractions (distal latency<4.5 s) in a context of normal EGJ relaxation. The etiology of DES remains insufficiently understood, but evidence links nitric oxide (NO) deficiency as a culprit resulting in a disordered neural inhibition. GERD frequently coexists in DES, and its role in the pathogenesis of symptoms needs further evaluation. There is some evidence from small series that DES can progress to achalasia. Treatment remains challenging due in part to lack of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Current treatment agents include nitrates (both short and long acting), calcium-channel blockers, anticholinergic agents, 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitors, visceral analgesics (tricyclic agents or SSRI), and esophageal dilation. Acid suppression therapy is frequently used, but clinical outcome trials to support this approach are not available. Injection of botulinum toxin in the distal esophagus may be effective, but further data regarding the development of post-injection gastroesophageal reflux need to be assessed. Heller myotomy combined with fundoplication remains an alternative for the rare refractory patient. Preliminary studies suggest that the newly developed endoscopic technique of per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) may also be an alternative treatment modality. PMID:23892829

Achem, Sami R; Gerson, Lauren B

2013-09-01

97

Diet and esophageal disease.  

PubMed

The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on macronutrients, dietary patterns, and risk of adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus; micronutrients, trace elements, and risk of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma; the role of mate consumption in the development of squamous cell carcinoma; the relationship between energy excess and development of esophageal adenocarcinoma; and the nutritional management of the esophageal cancer patient. PMID:25266021

Dawsey, Sanford M; Fagundes, Renato B; Jacobson, Brian C; Kresty, Laura A; Mallery, Susan R; Paski, Shirley; van den Brandt, Piet A

2014-09-01

98

Esophageal duplication cyst.  

PubMed

Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital mediastinal cyst. Most of these cysts become symptomatic in childhood and only rare cases remain asymptomatic until adolescence. They may produce symptoms due to esophageal and respiratory system compression, rupture, and infection. A 25-year-old man presented with pulmonary infection and bronchiectasis that did not improve with medical treatment. A diagnosis of esophageal duplication cyst was made intraoperatively. PMID:24757179

Bagheri, Reza; Asnaashari, Amir Mohammad Hashem; Afghani, Reza

2015-03-01

99

The integrity of the esophageal mucosa. Balance between offensive and defensive mechanisms.  

PubMed

Heartburn is the most common and characteristic symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease. It ultimately results from contact of refluxed gastric acid with nociceptors within the esophageal mucosa and transmission of this peripheral signal to the central nervous system for cognition. Healthy esophageal epithelium provides an effective barrier between refluxed gastric acid and esophageal nociceptors; but this barrier is vulnerable to attack and damage, particularly by acidic gastric contents. How gastric acid is countered by defensive elements within the esophageal mucosa is a major focus of this discussion. When the defense is successful, the subject is asymptomatic and when unsuccessful, the subject experiences heartburn. Those with heartburn commonly fall into one of three endoscopic types: nonerosive reflux disease, erosive esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus. Although what determines endoscopic type remains unknown; it is proposed herein that inflammation plays a key, modulating role. PMID:21126700

Orlando, Roy C

2010-12-01

100

Stomach-Esophageal Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Stomach and esophageal cancers are close in anatomical location and have been combined into one project within TCGA. Although they are two separate cancer types, TCGA is collecting samples from various anatomic subsites along the esophageal and gastric tracts for analysis.

101

Intraluminal acid activates esophageal nodose C fibers after mast cell activation  

PubMed Central

Acid reflux in the esophagus can induce esophageal painful sensations such as heartburn and noncardiac chest pain. The mechanisms underlying acid-induced esophageal nociception are not clearly understood. In our previous studies, we characterized esophageal vagal nociceptive afferents and defined their responses to noxious mechanical and chemical stimulation. In the present study, we aim to determine their responses to intraluminal acid infusion. Extracellular single-unit recordings were performed in nodose ganglion neurons with intact nerve endings in the esophagus using ex vivo esophageal-vagal preparations. Action potentials evoked by esophageal intraluminal acid perfusion were compared in naive and ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged animals, followed by measurements of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and the expression of tight junction proteins (zona occludens-1 and occludin). In naive guinea pigs, intraluminal infusion with either acid (pH = 2–3) or capsaicin did not evoke an action potential discharge in esophageal nodose C fibers. In OVA-sensitized animals, following esophageal mast cell activation by in vivo OVA inhalation, intraluminal acid infusion for about 20 min started to evoke action potential discharges. This effect is further confirmed by selective mast cell activation using in vitro tissue OVA challenge in esophageal-vagal preparations. OVA inhalation leads to decreased TEER and zona occludens-1 expression, suggesting an impaired esophageal epithelial barrier function after mast cell activation. These data for the first time provide direct evidence of intraluminal acid-induced activation of esophageal nociceptive C fibers and suggest that mast cell activation may make esophageal epithelium more permeable to acid, which subsequently may increase esophageal vagal nociceptive C fiber activation. PMID:24264049

Zhang, Shizhong; Liu, Zhenyu; Heldsinger, Andrea; Owyang, Chung

2013-01-01

102

Esophageal pH monitoring  

MedlinePLUS

pH monitoring - esophageal; Esophageal acidity test ... to stay in the hospital for the esophageal pH monitoring. ... Esophageal pH monitoring is used to check how much stomach acid is entering the esophagus. It also checks how ...

103

Esophageal endosclerosis in children.  

PubMed

During the past 6 years, 25 consecutive patients with esophageal variceal hemorrhage were treated by esophageal endosclerosis (direct injection of varices with a sclerosing agent). The primary disease in the 25 children was portal vein thrombosis (11 patients), biliary atresia (nine patients), and hepatic cirrhosis from cystic fibrosis (three patients), alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (one patient), and neonatal hepatitis (one patient). Thirteen patients were treated during acute, major variceal hemorrhage. Esophageal endosclerosis was repeated at regular intervals until all esophageal varices were obliterated. Twenty-one patients completed therapy. Four patients died: one of a complication of therapy and three of the primary disease. Other than the one death, complications were minor. Recurrent esophageal variceal hemorrhage has not been encountered in follow-up from 9 months to 6 years after completion of therapy. PMID:3877348

Stellen, G P; Lilly, J R

1985-11-01

104

Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) in esophageal cancer correlates with lymph node metastasis and poor patient prognosis  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in esophageal cancer by the presence and number of metastatic lymph nodes is an extremely important prognostic factor. In addition, the indication of non-surgical therapy is gaining more attention. Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) is potentially lymphangiogenic and selectively induces hyperplasia of the lymphatic vasculature. In this study, we investigated the expression of VEGF-C and whether it correlated with various clinico-pathologic findings. Methods KYSE series of esophageal cancer cell lines and 106 patients with primary esophageal squamous cell carcinomas who had undergone radical esophagectomy were analyzed. VEGF-C mRNA expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Results High expression of VEGF-C was detected in most of the KYSE cell lines, especially KYSE410, yet, in an esophageal normal epithelium cell line, Het-1A, VEGF-C was not detected. In the clinical specimen, the expression of VEGF-C in the cancerous tissue was higher than in the corresponding noncancerous esophageal mucosa (p = 0.026). The expression of VEGF-C was found to be higher in Stage2B-4A tumors than in Stage0-2A tumors (p = 0.049). When the patients were divided into two groups according to their expression levels of VEGF-C (a group of 53 cases with high expression and a group of 53 cases with low expression), the patients with high VEGF-C expression had significantly shorter survival after surgery than the patients with low expression (p = 0.0065). Although univariate analysis showed that high expression of VEGF-C was a statistically significant prognostic factor, this was not shown in multivariate analysis. In the subgroup of patients with Tis and T1 tumors, the expression of VEGF-C was higher in N1 tumors than in N0 tumors (p = 0.029). The survival rate of patients from the high expression group (n = 10) was lower than that in the low expression group (n = 11), and all the patients in the low VEGF-C expression group survived. Conclusions The expression of VEGF-C correlates with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. In patients with Tis and T1 esophageal tumors, the expression of VEGF-C may be a good diagnostic factor for determining metastasis of the lymph node. PMID:20584281

2010-01-01

105

Comparison of long non-coding RNAs, microRNAs and messenger RNAs involved in initiation and progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Traditionally, cancer research has focused on protein-coding genes, which are considered the principal effectors and regulators of tumorigenesis. Non-coding RNAs, in particular microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), have been widely reported to be important in the regulation of tumorigenesis and cancer development. However, to the best of our knowledge, investigation of the expression profiles of lncRNAs and a comparison of the involvement of lncRNAs, miRNAs and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in esophageal tumorigenesis and development have not previously been performed. In the current study, intrinsic associations among the expression profiles of lncRNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs from normal esophageal tissues and those from cancer tissues were investigated. Oligonucleotide microarrays were used to detect the expression profiles of the three types of RNA in the canceration processes of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues. It was demonstrated that the different RNAs exhibit associated patterns of expression among normal esophageal epithelium, low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN), high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN), and carcinoma tissues, particularly in the critical period of canceration (HGIN to ESCC). Furthermore, the results indicated a high level of similarity in the potential function of lncRNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs in the processes of ESCC development. In the current study, a first generation atlas of lncRNA profiling and its association with miRNAs and mRNAs in the canceration processes of ESCC were presented. PMID:24888564

LI, SU-QING; LI, FENG; XIAO, YUN; WANG, CHUN-MEI; TUO, LEI; HU, JING; YANG, XIAO-BIN; WANG, JIN-SONG; SHI, WEI-HONG; LI, XIA; CAO, XIU-FENG

2014-01-01

106

Radiation Therapy, Paclitaxel, and Carboplatin With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Esophageal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer

2015-02-09

107

Imaging of esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Esophageal cancer is a relatively uncommon gastrointestinal malignancy but carries a poor prognosis unless it is of early stage and can be surgically resected for cure. Resectability is determined by the stage of disease at diagnosis and therefore accurate staging is of importance in patients diagnosed with esophageal cancer. Imaging studies that play a role in the evaluation of esophageal cancer include barium studies, computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasound and positron emission tomography. Imaging provides important information regarding the local extent and any distant spread of disease, which in turn helps in determining optimal management for these patients. This review discusses the imaging findings that may be encountered with various imaging modalities in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of esophageal cancer. PMID:18250021

Iyer, R; DuBrow, R

2004-01-01

108

Reactive oxygen species and chemokines: Are they elevated in the esophageal mucosa of children with gastroesophageal reflux disease?  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the role of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in childhood reflux esophagitis. METHODS: A total of 59 subjects who had complaints suggesting GERD underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Endoscopic and histopathologic diagnosis of reflux esophagitis was established by Savary-Miller and Vandenplas grading systems, respectively. Esophageal biopsy specimens were taken from the esophagus 20% proximal above the esophagogastric junction for conventional histopathological examination and the measurements of ROS and cytokine levels. ROS were measured by chemiluminescence, whereas IL-8 and MCP-1 levels were determined with quantitative immunometric ELISA on esophageal tissue. Esophageal tissue ROS, IL-8 and MCP-1 levels were compared among groups with and without endoscopic/histo-pathologic esophagitis. RESULTS: Of 59 patients 28 (47.5%) had normal esophagus whereas 31 (52.5%) had endoscopic esophagitis. In histopathological evaluation, almost 73% of the cases had mild and 6.8% had moderate degree of esophagitis. When ROS and chemokine levels were compared among groups with and without endoscopic esophagitis, statistical difference could not be found between patients with and without esophagitis. Although the levels of ROS, IL-8 and MCP-1 were found to be higher in the group with histopathological reflux esophagitis, this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the grade of esophagitis is usually mild or moderate during childhood and factors apart from ROS, IL-8 and MCP-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of reflux esophagitis in children. PMID:18506929

Tutar, Engin; Ertem, Deniz; Unluguzel, Goksenin; Tanrikulu, Sevda; Haklar, Goncagul; Celikel, Cigdem; Ademoglu, Evin; Pehlivanoglu, Ender

2008-01-01

109

Esophageal Chest Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Esophageal chest pain has come under critical scrutiny recently [1]. Motility disorders in particular have fallen out of favor as a cause of chest pain [1–3], to the extent that chest pain of uncertain origin has now become a rare indication for esophageal manometry in the United\\u000a States [4]. The reasons for this include changing perceptions about the relevance of

John S de Caestecker

110

Complications of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Role of the lower esophageal sphincter, esophageal acid and acid/alkaline exposure, and duodenogastric reflux.  

PubMed Central

The factors contributing to the development of esophageal mucosal injury in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are unclear. The lower esophageal sphincter, esophageal acid and acid/alkaline exposure, and the presence of excessive duodenogastric reflux (DGR) was evaluated in 205 consecutive patients with GERD and various degrees of mucosal injury (no mucosal injury, n = 92; esophagitis, n = 66; stricture, n = 19; Barrett's esophagus, n = 28). Manometry and 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring showed that the prevalence and severity of esophageal mucosal injury was higher in patients with a mechanically defective lower esophageal sphincter (p less than 0.01) or increased esophageal acid/alkaline exposure (p less than 0.01) as compared with those with a normal sphincter or only increased esophageal acid exposure. Complications of GERD were particularly frequent and severe in patients who had a combination of a defective sphincter and increased esophageal acid/alkaline exposure (p less than 0.01). Combined esophageal and gastric pH monitoring showed that esophageal alkaline exposure was increased only in GERD patients with DGR (p less than 0.05) and that DGR was more frequent in GERD patients with a stricture or Barrett's esophagus. A mechanically defective lower esophageal sphincter and reflux of acid gastric juice contaminated with duodenal contents therefore appear to be the most important determinants for the development of mucosal injury in GERD. This explains why some patients fail medical therapy and supports the surgical reconstruction of the defective sphincter as the most effective therapy. PMID:1632700

Stein, H J; Barlow, A P; DeMeester, T R; Hinder, R A

1992-01-01

111

ZNF282 (Zinc finger protein 282), a novel E2F1 co-activator, promotes esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Zincfinger protein 282 (ZNF282) is a newly identified transcription factor and little is known about its expression and function. Originally, ZNF282 is known to bind U5RE (U5 repressive element) of HLTV-1 (human T cell leukemia virus type 1) with a repressive effect. Recently we reported that ZNF282 functions as an estrogen receptor co-activator and plays an essential role in breast tumorigenesis. Although these results suggest the possible role of ZNF282 in cancers, clinical significance and function of ZNF282 are completely unknown in most of cancers. Here we found that ZNF282 was frequently overexpressed in esophageal squamouscell carcinoma (ESCC) (n=165) compared with normal esophageal epithelium and its overexpression was correlated with adverse clinical outcome. Multivariate survival analysis indicated that ZNF282 expressionwas an independent prognostic predictor for poor survival in ESCC (HR: 2.56 (95% CI 1.54-4.26), p<0.001). In addition, depletion of ZNF282 inhibited the cell cycle progression, migration, and invasion of ESCC cells and reduced the tumorigenicity of ESCC xenograft in nude mouse. We further showed that ZNF282 is required for E2F1-mediated gene expression in ESCC cells. Thus, ZNF282 is E2F1 co-activator involved in ESCC and elevated expression of ZNF282 is an independent adverse prognostic factor in ESCC. PMID:25373738

Yu, Eun Ji; Lee, Keun-Woo; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Seok-Hyung

2014-01-01

112

Response of the lower esophageal sphincter to gastric distention by carbonated beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastroesophageal reflux disease often occurs in patients with normal resting pressure and length of the lower esophageal sphincter.\\u000a Such patients often have postprandial reflux. The mechanism of postprandial reflux remains controversial. To further clarify\\u000a this, we studied the effect of carbonated beverages on the resting parameters of the lower esophageal sphincter. Nine asymptomatic\\u000a healthy volunteers underwent lower esophageal sphincter manometry

Nahid Hamoui; Reginald V. Lord; Jeffrey A. Hagen; Joerg Theisen; Tom R. DeMeester; Peter F. Crookes

2006-01-01

113

Clinical and endoscopic characteristics of drug-induced esophagitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate clinical, endoscopic and pathological characteristics of drug-induced esophagitis. METHODS: Data for patients diagnosed with drug-induced esophagitis from April 2002 to May 2013 was reviewed. Patients diagnosed with malignancy, viral or fungal esophagitis were excluded. Clinical, endoscopic and pathological characteristics of patients diagnosed with drug-induced esophagitis were analyzed. RESULTS: Seventy-eight patients were diagnosed with drug-induced esophagitis. Their mean age was 43.9 ± 18.9 years and 35.9% were male. Common symptoms were chest pain (71.8%), odynophagia (38.5%) and dysphagia (29.5%). The endoscopic location was in the middle third of esophagus in 78.2%. Endoscopic findings were ulcer (82.1%), erosion (17.9%), ulcer with bleeding (24.4%), coating with drug material (5.1%), impacted pill fragments (3.8%) and stricture (2.6%). Kissing ulcers were observed in 43.6%. The main causative agents were antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. All the patients were treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or sucralfate, and the causative drugs were discontinued. Nineteen patients with drug-induced esophagitis were followed up with endoscopy and revealed normal findings, scars or healing ulcers. CONCLUSION: Drug-induced esophagitis mainly presents as chest pain, odynophagia and dysphagia, and may be successfully treated with PPIs and discontinuation of the causative drug. Kissing ulcers were observed in 43.6%. PMID:25152603

Kim, Su Hwan; Jeong, Ji Bong; Kim, Ji Won; Koh, Seong-Joon; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Chang, Mee Soo; Im, Jong Pil; Kang, Hyoun Woo; Shin, Cheol Min

2014-01-01

114

Black esophagus: Acute esophageal necrosis syndrome  

PubMed Central

Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN), commonly referred to as “black esophagus”, is a rare clinical entity arising from a combination of ischemic insult seen in hemodynamic compromise and low-flow states, corrosive injury from gastric contents in the setting of esophago-gastroparesis and gastric outlet obstruction, and decreased function of mucosal barrier systems and reparative mechanisms present in malnourished and debilitated physical states. AEN may arise in the setting of multiorgan dysfunction, hypoperfusion, vasculopathy, sepsis, diabetic ketoacidosis, alcohol intoxication, gastric volvulus, traumatic transection of the thoracic aorta, thromboembolic phenomena, and malignancy. Clinical presentation is remarkable for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Notable symptoms may include epigastric/abdominal pain, vomiting, dysphagia, fever, nausea, and syncope. Associated laboratory findings may reflect anemia and leukocytosis. The hallmark of this syndrome is the development of diffuse circumferential black mucosal discoloration in the distal esophagus that may extend proximally to involve variable length of the organ. Classic “black esophagus” abruptly stops at the gastroesophageal junction. Biopsy is recommended but not required for the diagnosis. Histologically, necrotic debris, absence of viable squamous epithelium, and necrosis of esophageal mucosa, with possible involvement of submucosa and muscularis propria, are present. Classification of the disease spectrum is best described by a staging system. Treatment is directed at correcting coexisting clinical conditions, restoring hemodynamic stability, nil-per-os restriction, supportive red blood cell transfusion, and intravenous acid suppression with proton pump inhibitors. Complications include perforation with mediastinal infection/abscess, esophageal stricture and stenosis, superinfection, and death. A high mortality of 32% seen in the setting of AEN syndrome is usually related to the underlying medical co-morbidities and diseases. PMID:20614476

Gurvits, Grigoriy E

2010-01-01

115

Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy of bronchial epithelium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Confocal microendoscopy permits the acquisition of high-resolution real-time confocal images of bronchial mucosa via the instrument channel of an endoscope. We report here on the construction and validation of a confocal fluorescence microendoscope and its use to acquire images of bronchial epithelium in vivo. Our objective is to develop an imaging method that can distinguish preneoplastic lesions from normal epithelium to enable us to study the natural history of these lesions and the efficacy of chemopreventive agents without biopsy removal of the lesion that can introduce a spontaneous regression bias. The instrument employs a laser-scanning engine and bronchoscope-compatible confocal probe consisting of a fiber-optic image guide and a graded-index objective lens. We assessed the potential of topical application of physiological pH cresyl violet (CV) as a fluorescence contrast-enhancing agent for the visualization of tissue morphology. Images acquired ex vivo with the confocal microendoscope were first compared with a bench-top confocal fluorescence microscope and conventional histology. Confocal images from five sites topically stained with CV were then acquired in vivo from high-risk smokers and compared to hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of biopsies taken from the same site. Sufficient contrast in the confocal imagery was obtained to identify cells in the bronchial epithelium. However, further improvements in the miniature objective lens are required to provide sufficient axial resolution for accurate classification of preneoplastic lesions.

Lane, Pierre M.; Lam, Stephen; McWilliams, Annette; Leriche, Jean C.; Anderson, Marshall W.; Macaulay, Calum E.

2009-03-01

116

Esophageal intraepithelial invasion of Helicobacter pylori correlates with atypical hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a common pathogen residing in the gastrointestinal tract, has been well characterized in stomach cancer,while its correlation with esophageal cancer remains poorly understood. In this study, we aim to assess the relationship between esophageal intraepithelial H. pylori invasion and inflammation as well as atypical hyperplasia in esophageal squamous epithelial tissues. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissue samples from 196 individuals from both southern and northern esophageal carcinoma high-risk areas in China were examined (125 from northern high-risk areas, 71 from southern high-risk area), while additional 30 samples were collected adjacent to the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (A-ESCC). H. pylori infection was identified by Giemsa staining, immuno-histochemical staining, and H. pylori 16S rRNA-based PCR. A significant increase of H. pylori infection was found in tumor tissues (including ESCC and A-ESCC samples) compared to that of non-tumor tissues (p?normal groups were 62.5, 74.1, and 26.7%, respectively. The PCR results showed that the positive incidence of the H. pylori virulence factor CagA gene in tumor (ESCC and A-ESCC) and normal groups was 54.9 and 20%, respectively (p?esophageal epithelial NE3 cells, suggesting that H. pylori infection may be an original cause leading to atypical hyperplasia of esophageal squamous epithelial tissues and contributed to pathological carcinogenesis of ESCC. PMID:24254881

Li, Wen-sheng; Tian, Dong-ping; Guan, Xiao-ying; Yun, Hailong; Wang, Hong-tao; Xiao, Yinping; Bi, Chao; Ying, Songmin; Su, Min

2014-06-01

117

A Case of Esophageal Candidiasis in an Adolescent Who Had Frequently Received Budesonide Nebulizing Therapy  

PubMed Central

Corticosteroid (budesonide) nebulizer therapy is commonly performed. Its side effects have been considered as being safe or ignorable. The authors present a case of esophageal candidiasis in a healthy female adolescent who was treated with budesonide nebulizer therapy a few times for a cough during the previous winter season. This child presented with dysphagia and epigastric pain for 1 month. Esophageal endoscopy showed a whitish creamy pseudomembrane and erosions on the esophageal mucosa. Pathologic findings showed numerous candidal hyphae. She did not show any evidence of immunodeficiency, clinically and historically. The esophageal lesion did not resolve naturally. The esophageal lesion completely improved with the antifungal therapy for 2 weeks; the symptoms disappeared, and the patient returned to normal health. It is important that frequent esophageal exposure to topical corticosteroids application can cause unexpected side effects. PMID:24224152

Kang, Hae Ryong; Kwon, Yong Hoon

2013-01-01

118

Epiphrenic esophageal diverticula  

PubMed Central

Epiphrenic esophageal diverticula (EED) are rare. The estimated incidence is about 1:500,000/year. EED usually result from a combination of esophageal obstruction, functional or mechanical and a point of weakness of the muscularis propria. Most of the symptoms are unspecific, but dysphagia is most common. Chest radiograph, barium esophagogram, endoscopy and manometry are diagnostic tools. The treatment methods are conservative medical therapy, myotomy, diverticulectomy and fundoplication. In addition, endoscopic pneumatic dilation and botulinum toxin injection are a good alternative for symptomatic patients with motility disorders who are unfit for or unwilling to undergo surgery. PMID:25422668

Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani; Masinaeinezhad, Nosratollah; Firouzkouhi, Mohammadreza

2014-01-01

119

XAF1 is frequently methylated in human esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To explore epigenetic changes in the gene encoding X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis-associated factor 1 (XAF1) during esophageal carcinogenesis. METHODS: Methylation status of XAF1 was detected by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) in four esophageal cancer cell lines (KYSE30, KYSE70, BIC1 and partially methylated in TE3 cell lines), nine cases of normal mucosa, 72 cases of primary esophageal cancer and matched adjacent tissue. XAF1 expression was examined by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting before and after treatment with 5-aza-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dc), a demethylating agent. To investigate the correlation of XAF1 expression and methylation status in primary esophageal cancer, immunohistochemistry for XAF1 expression was performed in 32 cases of esophageal cancer and matched adjacent tissue. The association of methylation status and clinicopathological data was analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: MSP results were as follows: loss of XAF1 expression was found in three of four esophageal cell lines with promoter region hypermethylation (completely methylated in KYSE30, KYSE70 and BIC1 cell lines and partially in TE3 cells); all nine cases of normal esophageal mucosa were unmethylated; and 54/72 (75.00%) samples from patients with esophageal cancer were methylated, and 25/72 (34.70%) matched adjacent tissues were methylated (75.00% vs 34.70%, ?2 = 23.5840, P = 0.000). mRNA level of XAF1 measured with semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was detectable only in TE3 cells, and no expression was detected in KYSE30, KYSE70 or BIC1 cells. Protein expression was not observed in KYSE30 cells by Western blotting before treatment with 5-aza-dc. After treatment, mRNA level of XAF1 was detectable in KYSE30, KYSE70 and BIC1 cells. Protein expression was detected in KYSE30 after treatment with 5-aza-dc. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 32 cases of esophageal cancer and adjacent tissue, and demonstrated XAF1 in the nucleus and cytoplasm. XAF1 staining was found in 20/32 samples of adjacent normal tissue but was present in only 8/32 samples of esophageal cancer tissue (?2= 9.143, P = 0.002). XAF1 expression was decreased in cancer samples compared with adjacent tissues. In 32 cases of esophageal cancer, 24/32 samples were methylated, and 8/32 esophageal cancer tissues were unmethylated. XAF1 staining was found in 6/8 samples of unmethylated esophageal cancer and 2/24 samples of methylated esophageal cancer tissue. XAF1 staining was inversely correlated with XAF1 promoter region methylation (Fisher’s exact test, P = 0.004). Regarding methylation status and clinicopathological data, no significant differences were found in sex, age, tumor size, tumor stage, or metastasis with respect to methylation of XAF1 for the 72 tissue samples from patients with esophageal cancer. CONCLUSION: XAF1 is frequently methylated in esophageal cancer, and XAF1 expression is regulated by promoter region hypermethylation. PMID:22719195

Chen, Xiang-Yu; He, Qiao-Yu; Guo, Ming-Zhou

2012-01-01

120

Magnification endoscopy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the intrapapillary capillary loop classification  

PubMed Central

Recent developments in image-enhancement technology have enabled clear visualization of the microvascular structure of the esophageal mucosa. In particular, intrapapillary capillary loops (IPCLs) are observed as brown loops on magnification endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (NBI). IPCLs demonstrate characteristic morphological changes according to the structural irregularity of esophageal epithelium and cancer infiltration, summarized in the IPCL classification. In this review, the process from the first endoscopic description of IPCLs to the eventual development of the IPCL classification is described and discussed, particularly focusing on early stage squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. PMID:25608626

Inoue, Haruhiro; Kaga, Makoto; Ikeda, Haruo; Sato, Chiaki; Sato, Hiroki; Minami, Hitomi; Santi, Esperanza Grace; Hayee, Bu’Hussain; Eleftheriadis, Nikolas

2015-01-01

121

Silencing DACH1 promotes esophageal cancer growth by inhibiting TGF-? signaling.  

PubMed

Human Dachshund homologue 1 (DACH1) is a major component of the Retinal Determination Gene Network. Loss of DACH1 expression was found in breast, prostate, lung, endometrial, colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma. To explore the expression, regulation and function of DACH1 in human esophageal cancer, 11 esophageal cancer cell lines, 10 cases of normal esophageal mucosa, 51 cases of different grades of dysplasia and 104 cases of primary esophageal squamous cancer were employed. Methylation specific PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot, flow cytometry, small interfering RNAs, colony formation techniques and xenograft mice model were used. We found that DACH1 expression was regulated by promoter region hypermethylation in esophageal cancer cell lines. 18.8% (6 of 32) of grade 1, 42.1% (8 of 19) of grade 2 and grade 3 dysplasia (ED2,3), and 61.5% (64 of 104) of esophageal cancer were methylated, but no methylation was found in 10 cases of normal esophageal mucosa. The methylation was increased in progression tendency during esophageal carcinogenesis (P<0.01). DACH1 methylation was associated with poor differentiation (P<0.05) and late tumor stage (P<0.05). Restoration of DACH1 expression inhibited cell growth and activated TGF-? signaling in KYSE150 and KYSE510 cells. DACH1 suppressed human esophageal cancer cell tumor growth in xenograft mice. In conclusion, DACH1 is frequently methylated in human esophageal cancer and methylation of DACH1 is involved in the early stage of esophageal carcinogenesis. DACH1 expression is regulated by promoter region hypermethylation. DACH1 suppresses esophageal cancer growth by activating TGF-? signaling. PMID:24743895

Wu, Liang; Herman, James G; Brock, Malcolm V; Wu, Kongming; Mao, Gaoping; Yan, Wenji; Nie, Yan; Liang, Hao; Zhan, Qimin; Li, Wen; Guo, Mingzhou

2014-01-01

122

Silencing DACH1 Promotes Esophageal Cancer Growth by Inhibiting TGF-? Signaling  

PubMed Central

Human Dachshund homologue 1 (DACH1) is a major component of the Retinal Determination Gene Network. Loss of DACH1 expression was found in breast, prostate, lung, endometrial, colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma. To explore the expression, regulation and function of DACH1 in human esophageal cancer, 11 esophageal cancer cell lines, 10 cases of normal esophageal mucosa, 51 cases of different grades of dysplasia and 104 cases of primary esophageal squamous cancer were employed. Methylation specific PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot, flow cytometry, small interfering RNAs, colony formation techniques and xenograft mice model were used. We found that DACH1 expression was regulated by promoter region hypermethylation in esophageal cancer cell lines. 18.8% (6 of 32) of grade 1, 42.1% (8 of 19) of grade 2 and grade 3 dysplasia (ED2,3), and 61.5% (64 of 104) of esophageal cancer were methylated, but no methylation was found in 10 cases of normal esophageal mucosa. The methylation was increased in progression tendency during esophageal carcinogenesis (P<0.01). DACH1 methylation was associated with poor differentiation (P<0.05) and late tumor stage (P<0.05). Restoration of DACH1 expression inhibited cell growth and activated TGF-? signaling in KYSE150 and KYSE510 cells. DACH1 suppressed human esophageal cancer cell tumor growth in xenograft mice. In conclusion, DACH1 is frequently methylated in human esophageal cancer and methylation of DACH1 is involved in the early stage of esophageal carcinogenesis. DACH1 expression is regulated by promoter region hypermethylation. DACH1 suppresses esophageal cancer growth by activating TGF-? signaling. PMID:24743895

Wu, Liang; Herman, James G.; Brock, Malcolm V.; Wu, Kongming; Mao, Gaoping; Yan, Wenji; Nie, Yan; Liang, Hao; Zhan, Qimin; Li, Wen; Guo, Mingzhou

2014-01-01

123

MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis and its prognostic impact in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1)/protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) signal transduction axis plays an important role in tumorigenesis. To explore the expression and prognostic value of MMP-1 and PAR-1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we evaluated the expression of two proteins in resected specimens from 85 patients with ESCC by immunohistochemistry. Sixty-two (72.9%) and 58 (68.2%) tumors were MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive, respectively, while no significant staining was observed in normal esophageal squamous epithelium. MMP-1 and PAR-1 overexpression was significantly associated with tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage and regional lymph node involvement. Patients with MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive tumors, respectively, had poorer disease-free survival (DFS) than those with negative ESCC (P = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively). Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between TNM stage [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.836, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.866-4.308], regional lymph node involvement (HR = 2.955, 95%CI = 1.713-5.068), MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.669, 95%CI = 1.229-6.127), and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.762, 95%CI = 1.156-2.883) and DFS. Multivariate analysis including the above four parameters identified TNM stage (HR = 2.035, 95%CI = 1.167-3.681), MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.109, 95%CI = 1.293-3.279), and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.967, 95%CI = 1.256-2.881) as independent and significant prognostic factors for DFS. Our data suggest for the first time that MMP-1 and PAR-1 were both overexpressed in ESCC and are novel predictors of poor patient prognosis after curative resection. The MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis might be a new therapeutic target for future therapies tailored against ESCC. PMID:22086466

Peng, Hong-hua; Zhang, Xi; Cao, Pei-guo

2011-01-01

124

[Congenital esophageal atresia].  

PubMed

Current management of congenital esophageal atresia (CEA) is described on the basis of our experience and recent literatures. Primary repair for Gross C type CEA is performed as modern standard treatment in infants without high-risk factors such as associated severe cardiac anomaly and respiratory insufficiency. Surgical strategy depends on preoperative condition of the infant therefore preoperative full assessment of the infant is very important. In general, delayed primary repair or staged repair on CEA is selected for premature infants weighing less than 1,500 g and high-risk infants. Recently, primary repair has become an effective option in premature infants without high-risk factors. In long-gap CEA, gastrostomy and/or closure of tracheoesophageal fistula is performed initially. Esophagoesophagostomy is carried out after attempts to decrease gap length. Intraoperative esophageal elongation is required in some infants. However esophageal replacement should be selected if esophageal elongation fails is impossible due to hypogenesis of lower esophagus. Thoracoscopic primary repair was recently reported as a new optional treatment. This treatment will be able to decrease the damage on the thoracic wall. However this procedure should be adopted after very careful discussion because it is difficult to accomplish without very skillful endoscopic surgical technique. PMID:15362565

Amae, Shintaro; Hayashi, Yutaka

2004-07-01

125

Esophageal Rings and Webs  

MedlinePLUS

... determine if you have a ring or a web, your doctor may order one of these tests: Barium swallow test. This allows the radiologist to ... contribute to the development of esophageal rings and webs, your doctor probably will order a blood test for iron levels and, if you are deficient, ...

126

Protective Effect of ECQ on Rat Reflux Esophagitis Model  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to determine the protective effect of Rumex Aquaticus Herba extracts containing quercetin-3-?-D-glucuronopyranoside (ECQ) on experimental reflux esophagitis. Reflux esophagitis was induced by surgical procedure. The rats were divided into seven groups, namely normal group, control group, ECQ (1, 3, 10, 30 mg/kg) group and omeprazole (30 mg/kg) group. ECQ and omeprazole groups received intraduodenal administration. The Rats were starved for 24 hours before the experiments, but were freely allowed to drink water. ECQ group attenuated the gross esophagitis significantly compared to that treated with omeprazole in a dose-dependent manner. ECQ decreased the volume of gastric juice and increased the gastric pH, which are similar to those of omeprazole group. In addition, ECQ inhibited the acid output effectively in reflux esophagitis. Significantly increased amounts of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the mucosal depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) were observed in the reflux esophagitis. ECQ administration attenuated the decrement of the GSH levels and affected the MDA levels and MPO activity. These results suggest that the ECQ has a protective effect which may be attributed to its multiple effects including anti-secretory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions on reflux esophagitis in rats. PMID:23269908

Jang, Hyeon-Soon; Han, Jeong Hoon; Jeong, Jun Yeong

2012-01-01

127

Effect of bolus composition on esophageal transit: concise communication  

SciTech Connect

The technique of esophageal scintigraphy was developed as a sensitive, quantitative, noninvasive test of esophageal transit. Esophageal scintigraphy was performed in 40 asymptomatic normal volunteers in order to determine the effect on esophageal transit of the following: body posture (sitting vs. supine), liquid vs. solid, the solid being either a standard number4 gelatin capsule of the size used for antibiotic capsules, or a cube of solid food such as cooked chicken liver. The results showed that liquids emptied completely from the esophagus after one swallow, whether supine or sitting. Capsules or liver cubes, when ingested without water, frequently remained in the esophagus for up to two hours without the subject's having any sensation that the solid had not left the esophagus. Both capsules and liver cubes cleared the esophagus better in the upright than in the supine position. When gelatin capsules were swallowed with as little as 15 ml of water, but after a preliminary sip of water, there was complete transit in each case. The study suggests that the practice of assisting patients into a sitting position and instructing them to take a sip of water before attempting to swallow a capsule will assure better transit of the capsule even when swallowed with as little as 15 ml of water. This may reduce the incidence of esophagitis following oral antibiotics, and of esophageal erosions from aspirin-containing medications.

Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.; Applegate, G.; Rock, E.; Lorber, S.H.

1982-10-01

128

Effect of bolus composition on esophageal transit: concise communication  

SciTech Connect

The technique of esophageal scintigraphy was developed as a sensitive, quantitative, noninvasive test of esophageal transit. Esophageal scintigraphy was performed in 40 asymptomatic normal volunteers in order to determine the effect on esophageal transit of the following: body posture (sitting vs. supine), liquid vs. solid, the solid being either a standard gelatin capsule of the size used for antibiotic capsules, or a cube of solid food such as cooked chicken liver. The results showed that liquids emptied completely from the esophagus after one swallow whether supine or sitting. Capsules or liver cubes, when ingested without water, frequently remained in the esophagus for up to two hours without the subject's having any sensation that the solid had not left the esophagus. Both capsules and liver cubes cleared the esophagus better in the upright than in the supine position. When gelatin capsules were swallowed with as little as 15 ml of water, but after a preliminary sip of water, there was complete transit in each case. The study suggests that the practice of assisting patients into a sitting position and instructing them to take a sip of water before attempting to swallow a capsule will assure better transit of the capsule even when swallowed with as little as 15 ml of water. This may reduce the incidence of esophagitis following oral antibiotics, and of esophageal erosions from aspirin-containing medications.

Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.; Appelgate, G.; Rock, E.; Lorber, S.H.

1982-10-01

129

Current strategies in chemoradiation for esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has an important role in the treatment of esophageal cancer in both the inoperable and the pre-operative settings. Pre-operative chemoradiation therapy is generally given to 41.4-50.4 Gy with platinum or paclitaxel based chemotherapy. The most common definitive dose in the U.S. is 50-50.4 Gy. New advances in CRT for esophageal cancer have come from looking for ways to minimize toxicity and maximize efficacy. Recent investigations for minimizing toxicity have focused advanced radiation techniques such as IMRT and proton therapy, have sought to further define normal tissue tolerances, and have examined the use of tighter fields with less elective clinical target volume coverage. Efforts to maximize efficacy have included the use of early positron emission tomography (PET) response directed therapy, molecularly targeted therapies, and the use of tumor markers that predict response. PMID:24982764

Lloyd, Shane

2014-01-01

130

Tracheo-esophageal fistula: Successful palliation after failed esophageal stent  

PubMed Central

The incidence of tracheo-esophageal (TO) fistula is on the rise, especially after palliative management for esophageal malignancies. We report a case of cancer of esophagus who after chemotherapy and radiotherapy developed TO fistula. Placement of an esophageal stent helped him in taking food orally, but his cough and dyspnoea continued to worsen. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy demonstrated a severely compressed trachea secondary to protrusion of esophageal stent which responded very well to an Ultraflex-covered tracheal stent and the patient achieved relief from cough and dyspnoea. PMID:22919174

Chawla, Rakesh K.; Madan, Arun; Chawla, Kiran

2012-01-01

131

Tracheo-esophageal fistula: Successful palliation after failed esophageal stent.  

PubMed

The incidence of tracheo-esophageal (TO) fistula is on the rise, especially after palliative management for esophageal malignancies. We report a case of cancer of esophagus who after chemotherapy and radiotherapy developed TO fistula. Placement of an esophageal stent helped him in taking food orally, but his cough and dyspnoea continued to worsen. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy demonstrated a severely compressed trachea secondary to protrusion of esophageal stent which responded very well to an Ultraflex-covered tracheal stent and the patient achieved relief from cough and dyspnoea. PMID:22919174

Chawla, Rakesh K; Madan, Arun; Chawla, Kiran

2012-07-01

132

Proton pump inhibitor resistance, the real challenge in gastro-esophageal reflux disease  

PubMed Central

Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases. Although proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) represent the mainstay of treatment both for healing erosive esophagitis and for symptom relief, several studies have shown that up to 40% of GERD patients reported either partial or complete lack of response of their symptoms to a standard PPI dose once daily. Several mechanisms have been proposed as involved in PPIs resistance, including ineffective control of gastric acid secretion, esophageal hypersensitivity, ultrastructural and functional changes in the esophageal epithelium. The diagnostic evaluation of a refractory GERD patients should include an accurate clinical evaluation, upper endoscopy, esophageal manometry and ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring, which allows to discriminate non-erosive reflux disease patients from those presenting esophageal hypersensitivity or functional heartburn. Treatment has been primarily based on doubling the PPI dose or switching to another PPI. Patients with proven disease, not responding to PPI twice daily, are eligible for anti-reflux surgery. PMID:24151377

Cicala, Michele; Emerenziani, Sara; Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Ribolsi, Mentore

2013-01-01

133

Fluorescence spectroscopy for diagnosis of esophageal cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy was employed to measure fluorescence emission of normal and malignant tissue during endoscopy in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma. A nitrogen/dye laser tuned at 410 nm was used for excitation source. The fluorescence lineshape of each spectrum was determined and sampled at 15 nm intervals from 430 nm to 716 nm. A calibration set from normal and malignant spectra were selected. Using stepwise discriminate analysis, significant wavelengths that separated normal and malignant spectra were selected. The intensities at these wavelengths were used to formulate a classification model using linear discriminate analysis. The model was used to classify additional tissue spectra from 26 malignant and 108 normal sites into either normal or malignant spectra with a sensitivity of 100 percent and specificity of 98 percent.

Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Farris, Christie; Schmidhammer, James L.; Sneed, Rick E.; Buckley, Paul F., III

1994-07-01

134

Esophageal and Gastric Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Traumatic lesions of the esophagus can be classified into. Primary lesions, Perforations, Ruptures, Secondary lesions, Fistulas,\\u000a Strictures Perforations: Perforations are due to internal or external forces. The vast majority of esophageal perforations\\u000a occur iatrogenic (e.g., endoscopy, dilatation, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), Sengstaken–Blakemore tubes, endotracheal\\u000a tubes). Penetrating injuries due to external forces (e.g., stab wounds, gunshots) are less frequent. For the therapeutic

Paul M. Schneider; Georg Lurje; Peter Bauerfeind; Marc Schiesser

135

Bile salts disrupt human esophageal squamous epithelial barrier function by modulating tight junction proteins.  

PubMed

Reflux of acid and bile acids contributes to epithelial tissue injury in gastro-esophageal reflux disease. However, the influence of refluxed material on human esophageal stratified epithelial barrier function and tight junction (TJ) proteins has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the influence of acid and bile acids on barrier function and TJ protein distribution using a newly developed air-liquid interface (ALI) in vitro culture model of stratified squamous epithelium based on primary human esophageal epithelial cells (HEECs). Under ALI conditions, HEECs formed distinct epithelial layers on Transwell inserts after 7 days of culture. The epithelial layers formed TJ, and the presence of claudin-1, claudin-4, and occludin were detected by immunofluorescent staining. The NP-40-insoluble fraction of these TJ proteins was significantly higher by day 7 of ALI culture. Exposure of HEECs to pH 2, and taurocholic acid (TCA) and glycocholic acid (GCA) at pH 3, but not pH 4, for 1 h decreased transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and increased paracellular permeability. Exposure of cell layers to GCA (pH 3) and TCA (pH 3) for 1 h also markedly reduced the insoluble fractions of claudin-1 and -4. We found that deoxycholic acid (pH 7.4 or 6, 1 h) and pepsin (pH 3, 24 h) significantly decreased TEER and increased permeability. Based on these findings, ALI-cultured HEECs represent a new in vitro model of human esophageal stratified epithelium and are suitable for studying esophageal epithelial barrier functions. Using this model, we demonstrated that acid, bile acids, and pepsin disrupt squamous epithelial barrier function partly by modulating TJ proteins. These results provide new insights into understanding the role of TJ proteins in esophagitis. PMID:22575221

Chen, Xin; Oshima, Tadayuki; Shan, Jing; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

2012-07-15

136

Ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring using a wireless system  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesLimitations of catheter-based esophageal pH monitoring are discomfort, inconvenience, and interference with normal activity. An alternative to conventional pH monitoring is the wireless Medtronic Bravo pH System. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, performance, and tolerability of this system.

John E Pandolfino; Joel E Richter; Tina Ours; Jason M Guardino; Jennifer Chapman; Peter J Kahrilas

2003-01-01

137

Dietary habits and esophageal cancer.  

PubMed

Cancer of the esophagus is an underestimated, poorly understood, and changing disease. Its overall 5-year survival is less than 20%, even in the United States, which is largely a function of a delay in diagnosis until its more advanced stages. Additionally, the epidemiologic complexities of esophageal cancer are vast, rendering screening and prevention limited at best. First, the prevalence of esophageal cancer is unevenly distributed throughout the world. Second, the two histological forms (squamous cell and adenocarcinoma) vary in terms of their geographic prevalence and associated risk factors. Third, some populations appear at particular risk for esophageal cancer. And fourth, the incidence of esophageal cancer is in continuous flux among groups. Despite the varied prevalence and risks among populations, some factors have emerged as consistent associations while others are only now becoming more fully recognized. The most prominent, scientifically supported, and long-regarded risk factors for esophageal cancer are tobacco, alcohol, and reflux esophagitis. Inasmuch as the above are regarded as important risk factors for esophageal cancer, they are not the sole contributors. Dietary habits, nutrition, local customs, and the environment may be contributory. Along these lines, vitamins, minerals, fruits, vegetables, meats, fats, salted foods, nitrogen compounds, carcinogens, mycotoxins, and even the temperature of what we consume are increasingly regarded as potential etiologies for this deadly although potentially preventable disease. The goal of this review is to shed light on the less known role of nutrition and dietary habits in esophageal cancer. PMID:23795778

Palladino-Davis, A G; Mendez, B M; Fisichella, P M; Davis, C S

2015-01-01

138

Esophageal Manifestations of Multisystem Diseases  

PubMed Central

The esophagus may be involved directly or indirectly by numerous disease conditions. On occasion, the esophageal process may be the key to the diagnosis. In some situations, the esophageal manifestation of a disease may be more immediately life-threatening than the primary process. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:7310903

Mapp, Esmond

1980-01-01

139

Treatment options for esophageal strictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esophageal strictures are a problem commonly encountered in gastroenterological practice and can be caused by malignant or benign lesions. Dysphagia is the symptom experienced by all patients, regardless of whether their strictures are caused by malignant or benign lesions. The methods most frequently used for palliation of malignant esophageal strictures are stent placement (particularly in patients with an expected survival

Peter D Siersema

2008-01-01

140

21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section...1920 Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors is a device...

2011-04-01

141

21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section...1920 Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors is a device...

2013-04-01

142

21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section...1920 Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors is a device...

2012-04-01

143

Cytoprotective Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide in Novel Rat Models of Non-Erosive Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Non-erosive esophagitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the esophagus and is a form of gastroesophageal reflux disease. There are limited treatment options for non-erosive esophagitis, and it often progresses to Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal carcinoma. Hydrogen sulfide has been demonstrated to be a critical mediator of gastric and intestinal mucosal protection and repair. However, roles for H2S in esophageal mucosal defence, inflammation and responses to injury have not been reported. We therefore examined the effects of endogenous and exogenous H2S in rat models of non-erosive esophagitis. Mild- and moderate-severity non-erosive esophagitis was induced in rats through supplementation of drinking water with fructose, plus or minus exposure to water-immersion stress. The effects of inhibitors of H2S synthesis or of an H2S donor on severity of esophagitis was then examined, along with changes in serum levels of a pro- and an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-17 and IL-10, respectively). Exposure to water-immersion stress after consumption of the fructose-supplemented water for 28 days resulted in submucosal esophageal edema and neutrophil infiltration and the development of lesions in the muscular lamina and basal cell hyperplasia. Inhibition of H2S synthesis resulted in significant exacerbation of inflammation and injury. Serum levels of IL-17 were significantly elevated, while serum IL-10 levels were reduced. Treatment with an H2S donor significantly reduced the severity of esophageal injury and inflammation and normalized the serum cytokine levels. The rat models used in this study provide novel tools for studying non-erosive esophagitis with a range of severity. H2S contributes significantly to mucosal defence in the esophagus, and H2S donors may have therapeutic value in treating esophageal inflammation and injury. PMID:25333941

Zayachkivska, Oksana; Havryluk, Olena; Hrycevych, Nazar; Bula, Nazar; Grushka, Oksana; Wallace, John L.

2014-01-01

144

Omental herniation through the esophageal hiatus in a cat.  

PubMed

A four-year-old male cat was presented with regurgitation. Thoracic radiography and contrast radiogram showed a large oval mass and elevated esophagus. Exploratory thoracotomy showed omental herniation into the posterior mediastium through the esophageal hiatus. Because the mass of the omental herniation was so large, celiotomy through a paracostal incision was combined in order to return the omentum to its normal position. The diameter of the esophageal hiatus was approximately 1 cm but no fibrous adhesion was observed around the hiatus. Continuous 1-0 surgical sutures on the hiatus reduced the diameter of the hiatus. The cat made a successful postoperative recovery without complications. PMID:12520113

Mitsuoka, Kokori; Tanaka, Ryou; Nagashima, Yukiko; Hoshi, Katsuichiro; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Yamane, Yoshihisa

2002-12-01

145

Free radicals and antioxidant systems in reflux esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus  

PubMed Central

AIM: Experimental studies suggest that free radicals are involved in acid and pepsin-induced damage of esophageal mucosa. The profile and balance between free radicals and antioxidant systems in human esophagitis are unknown. METHODS: Superoxide anion and its powerful oxidant reaction with nitric oxide (peroxynitrite) generation were determined in esophageal mucosal biopsies from 101 patients with different gastro-esophageal reflux diseases and 28 controls. Activity of both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, were also assessed. Expression of Cu,ZnSOD, MnSOD and tyrosine-nitrated MnSOD were analyzed by Western blot and/or immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The highest levels of superoxide anion generation were found in patients with severe lesions of esophagitis. Peroxynitrite generation was intense in Barrett’s biopsies, weaker in esophagitis and absent/weak in normal mucosa. Expression of Cu,ZnSOD and MnSOD isoforms were present in normal mucosa and increased according to the severity of the lesion, reaching the highest level in Barrett’s esophagus. However, SOD mucosal activity significantly decreased in patients with esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus, which was, at least in part, due to nitration of its tyrosine residues. Catalase activity and GSH levels were significantly increased in mucosal specimens from patients with esophagitis and/or Barrett’s esophagus. CONCLUSION: A decrease in SOD antioxidant activity leading to increased mucosal levels of superoxide anion and peroxynitrite radicals may contribute to the development of esophageal damage and Barrett’s esophagus in patients with gastroesophageal reflux. Administration of SOD may be a therapeutic target in the treatment of patients with esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:15884106

Jiménez, Pilar; Piazuelo, Elena; Sánchez, M. Teresa; Ortego, Javier; Soteras, Fernando; Lanas, Angel

2005-01-01

146

Effects of Rikkunshito (TJ-43) on Esophageal Motor Function and Gastroesophageal Reflux  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Rikkunshito (TJ-43), an herbal medicine, has been demonstrated to relieve gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. However, the effects of TJ-43 on esophageal motor functions have not been fully determined. This double-blind crossover study was performed to investigate the effects of TJ-43 on esophageal motor functions and gastroesophageal reflux. Methods The subjects were 10 normal male volunteers. Lower esophageal sphincter pressure and esophageal body peristaltic contractions with and without 1-week administration of TJ-43 were examined in a crossover fashion. Post-prandial gastroesophageal reflux was also determined using a multi-channel impedance pH dual monitor. Results TJ-43 at a standard dose of 7.5 g/day did not significantly augment esophageal peristaltic contraction pressure measured in the proximal, middle and distal segments of the esophagus, whereas increment of resting lower esophageal sphincter pressure was observed in a supine position. In addition, TJ-43 administration did not decrease post-prandial gastroesophageal acid, non-acid reflux events or accelerate esophageal clearance time. Conclusions TJ-43 at a standard dose did not have a significant effect on esophageal motor activity or gastroesophageal reflux in healthy adults. PMID:22523727

Morita, Terumi; Adachi, Kyoichi; Ohara, Shunji; Tanimura, Takashi; Koshino, Kenji; Uemura, Tomochika; Naora, Kohji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

2012-01-01

147

Correlation of CD146 expression and clinicopathological characteristics in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

CD146, a cell adhesion molecule, is found in normal and tumor tissues. The level of its expression has been found to directly correlate with tumor progression and metastatic potential. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of CD146 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and its correlation with clinicopathological parameters. Tumor specimens were collected from 63 patients with ESCC who underwent complete resection. We analyzed the CD146 expression levels in ESCC by immunohistochemistry. The expression of CD146 was detected and it was observed to correlate with clinicopathological parameters. Sixty-three cases of normal squamous mucosa were included for comparison. CD146 expression was identified in 46.0% (29/63) of the ESCC samples, and no positive (weak to moderate or moderate to strong) expression was found in the normal squamous epithelium samples (?2=27.248; P<0.0001). CD146 expression was associated with lymph node metastasis (?2=5.117; P=0.024) and advanced clinical stage (?2=4.661; P=0.031). CD146 expression was one of the significant predictors of survival (hazard ratio, 2.838; 95% confidence interval 1.102–7.305). The overexpression of the CD146 gene was one of the important phenotypes and characteristics in ESCC carcinomatous change. We found that CD146 expression was associated with lymph node metastasis and advanced clinical stage, and was an indicator of poor prognosis in ESCC patients. CD146 may prove to be an important tumor marker for the individualized treatment for ESCC. PMID:25009662

LI, YAN; YU, JIN-MING; ZHAN, XUE-MEI; LIU, LI-LI; JIN, NING; ZHANG, YAN-XIA

2014-01-01

148

The esophageal mucosa and submucosa: immunohistology in GERD and Barrett's esophagus.  

PubMed

This paper presents commentaries on the microscopic morphology of esophageal squamous epithelium; the frequency of duplication of the muscularis mucosae (MM) in Barrett's esophagus (BE); the significance of multilayered epithelium; whether cells in the lamina propria reflect those in the epithelium; how stem cells are identified in the squamous esophagus; dilated intercellular spaces; the metastasizing potential of early carcinoma-dependent, molecular or immunohistochemical tests that improve diagnosis; the role of immunohistochemistry IHC in grading of neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus and defining the risk of progression to adenocarcinoma; the roles of CDX1 and CDX2 in squamous and cardiac mucosa; and the role of desmosomal cadherins and lectins in squamous and cardiac mucosa. PMID:24117640

Appelman, Henry D; Streutker, Catherine; Vieth, Michael; Neumann, Helmut; Neurath, Markus F; Upton, Melissa P; Sagaert, Xavier; Wang, Helen H; El-Zimaity, Hala; Abraham, Susan C; Bellizzi, Andrew M

2013-10-01

149

Esophageal Cancer in Esophageal Diverticula Associated with Achalasia  

PubMed Central

The simultaneous occurrence of achalasia and esophageal diverticula is rare. Here, we report the case of a 68-year-old man with multiple esophageal diverticula associated with achalasia who was later diagnosed with early esophageal cancer. He initially presented with dysphagia and dyspepsia, and injection of botulinum toxin to the lower esophageal sphincter relieved his symptoms. Five years later, however, the patient presented with worsening of symptoms, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) was performed. The endoscopic findings showed multifocal lugol-voiding lesions identified as moderate dysplasia. We decided to use photodynamic therapy to treat the multifocal dysplastic lesions. At follow-up EGD 2 months after photodynamic therapy, more lugol-voiding lesions representing a squamous cell carcinoma in situ were found. The patient ultimately underwent surgery for the treatment of recurrent esophageal multifocal neoplasia. After a follow-up period of 3 years, the patient showed a good outcome without symptoms. To manage premalignant lesions such as achalasia with esophageal diverticula, clinicians should be cautious, but have an aggressive approach regarding endoscopic surveillance.

Choi, Ah Ran; Chon, Nu Ri; Youn, Young Hoon; Paik, Hyo Chae; Kim, Yon Hee

2015-01-01

150

Esophageal cancer in esophageal diverticula associated with achalasia.  

PubMed

The simultaneous occurrence of achalasia and esophageal diverticula is rare. Here, we report the case of a 68-year-old man with multiple esophageal diverticula associated with achalasia who was later diagnosed with early esophageal cancer. He initially presented with dysphagia and dyspepsia, and injection of botulinum toxin to the lower esophageal sphincter relieved his symptoms. Five years later, however, the patient presented with worsening of symptoms, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) was performed. The endoscopic findings showed multifocal lugol-voiding lesions identified as moderate dysplasia. We decided to use photodynamic therapy to treat the multifocal dysplastic lesions. At follow-up EGD 2 months after photodynamic therapy, more lugol-voiding lesions representing a squamous cell carcinoma in situ were found. The patient ultimately underwent surgery for the treatment of recurrent esophageal multifocal neoplasia. After a follow-up period of 3 years, the patient showed a good outcome without symptoms. To manage premalignant lesions such as achalasia with esophageal diverticula, clinicians should be cautious, but have an aggressive approach regarding endoscopic surveillance. PMID:25674530

Choi, Ah Ran; Chon, Nu Ri; Youn, Young Hoon; Paik, Hyo Chae; Kim, Yon Hee; Park, Hyojin

2015-01-01

151

Drugs Approved for Esophageal Cancer  

Cancer.gov

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for esophageal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

152

General Information about Esophageal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... layers of tissue , including mucous membrane , muscle, and connective tissue . Esophageal cancer starts at the inside lining of ... and spread into the muscle layer or the connective tissue layer of the esophagus wall. The cancer cells ...

153

Esophageal Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Esophageal Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials The following list shows Featured Clinical Trials for a specific type of cancer. You may also want to view: Multiple Cancer Types - Featured Clinical Trials Supportive Care - Featured Clinical Trials

154

Environmental Causes of Esophageal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Synopsis This articles reviews the environmental risk factors and predisposing conditions for the two main histological types of esophageal cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA). Tobacco smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, drinking maté, low intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, achalasia, and low socioeconomic status increase the risk of ESCC. Results of investigations on several other potential risk factors, including opium consumption, intake of hot drinks, eating pickled vegetables, poor oral health, and exposure to human papillomavirus, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, acetaldehyde, and fumonisins are also discussed. Gastroesophageal reflux, obesity, tobacco smoking, hiatal hernia, achalasia, and probably absence of H. pylori in the stomach increase the risk of EA. Results of studies investigating other factors, including low intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, consumption of carbonated soft drink, use of H2 blockers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and drugs that relax the lower esophageal sphincter are also discussed. PMID:19327566

Kamangar, Farin; Chow, Wong-Ho; Abnet, Christian; Dawsey, Sanford

2009-01-01

155

Replacement surgery for esophageal atresia.  

PubMed

Esophageal replacement surgery is the treatment of choice in children with esophageal atresia (EA) when a long defect does not allow restoration of esophageal continuity, or when primary repair has failed. The stomach, colon, and small intestine have been used successfully to create conduits, but there is still no consensus among pediatric surgeons regarding the optimal method for substituting the native esophagus. Current evidence on short- and long-term outcomes of esophageal replacement originates from small-size, retrospective reports and well-designed comparative studies are lacking. Moreover, there is significant heterogeneity in the way outcomes are reported, which makes data pooling and comparison very challenging. In this review, we focus on the most recent evidence on outcomes of the most popular replacement techniques (colonic interposition, gastric transposition, gastric tube reconstruction, and jejunal interposition) used in pediatric patients with EA. PMID:23720209

Loukogeorgakis, Stavros P; Pierro, Agostino

2013-06-01

156

Upper esophageal and pharyngeal cancers.  

PubMed

The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on laryngopharyngeal reflux as a risk factor for laryngeal cancer; the role of pepsin in laryngopharyngeal neoplasia; natural fruit and vegetable compounds for the prevention and treatment of pharyngeal and esophageal cancers; and evaluation of cranberry constituents as inhibitors of esophageal adenocarcinoma utilizing in vitro assay and in vivo models. PMID:25266014

Bock, Jonathan M; Howell, Amy B; Johnston, Nikki; Kresty, Laura A; Lew, Daniel

2014-09-01

157

Morphological and Functional Heterogeneity of the Mouse Intrahepatic Biliary Epithelium  

PubMed Central

Rat and human biliary epithelium is morphologically and functionally heterogeneous. Since no information exists on the heterogeneity of the murine intrahepatic biliary epithelium, and with increased usage of transgenic mouse models to study liver disease pathogenesis, we sought to evaluate the morphological, secretory and proliferative phenotypes of small and large bile ducts and purified cholangiocytes in normal and cholestatic mouse models. Methods For morphometry, normal and BDL mouse livers (C57/BL6) were dissected into blocks of 2-4 ?m2, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained with H&E. Sizes of bile ducts and cholangiocytes were evaluated by using SigmaScan to measure the diameters of bile ducts and cholangiocytes. In small and large normal and BDL cholangiocytes, we evaluated the expression of cholangiocyte specific markers, keratin-19 (KRT19), secretin receptor (SR), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and chloride bicarbonate anion exchanger 2 (Cl-/HCO-3 AE2) by immunofluorescence and western blot; and intracellular cAMP levels and chloride efflux in response to secretin (100 nM). To evaluate cholangiocyte proliferative responses after bile duct ligation (BDL), small and large cholangiocytes were isolated from BDL mice. The proliferation status was determined by analysis of the cell cycle by FACS and bile duct mass was determined by the number of KRT19-positive bile ducts in liver sections. Results In situ morphometry established that the biliary epithelium of mice is morphologically heterogeneous, which smaller cholangiocyte lining smaller bile ducts and larger cholangiocytes lining larger ducts. Both small and large cholangiocytes express KRT19 and only large cholangiocytes from normal and BDL mice express SR, CFTR, and Cl-/HCO-3 exchanger and respond to secretin with increased cAMP levels and chloride efflux. Following BDL, only large mouse cholangiocytes proliferate. Conclusion Similar to rats, mouse intrahepatic biliary epithelium is morphologically, and functionally heterogeneous. The mouse is a suitable model for defining the heterogeneity of the biliary tree. PMID:19204666

Glaser, Shannon; Gaudio, Eugenio; Rao, Arundhati; Pierce, Lisa; Onori, Paolo; Franchitto, Antonio; Francis, Heather; Dostal, David E; Venter, Julie; DeMorrow, Sharon; Mancinelli, Romina; Carpino, Guido; Alvaro, Domenico; Kopriva, Shelley; Savage, Jennifer; Alpini, Gianfranco

2008-01-01

158

Expression of semaphorins in developing and regenerating olfactory epithelium.  

PubMed

Semaphorins provide signals that guide growing axons to their appropriate destinations. The secreted semaphorin, Sema3A, mediates repulsive effects on axons from various neuronal populations in embryonic rats. The authors localized Sema3A mRNA expression in the primary olfactory pathway during development, in adult rats, and in adult rats that were subjected to a unilateral olfactory bulbectomy. Developing rats at ages from embryonic day 14 (E14) to E19 expressed Sema3A in the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) of the olfactory epithelium and in chondrogenic structures surrounding the nasal cavity. In vitro, ORN axons at E14 avoided substrate-bound Sema3A. Low levels of Sema3A expression persisted in the normal adult epithelium both in ORNs scattered throughout the epithelium and in small clusters. Three days after a unilateral olfactory bulbectomy, Sema3A transcript levels increased in regenerating neurons. High levels of Sema3A transcript were found at 1 week postbulbectomy, persisted for 2 weeks, and diminished by 3 weeks. Several other murine semaphorins (Sema4A, Sema4B, and Sema4C) were expressed differentially in the primary olfactory pathway both during development and regeneration. These findings suggest that Sema3A and perhaps other semaphorins play a role in directing ORNs out of the epithelium and to the olfactory bulb, their target structure, during both development and regeneration. PMID:10880988

Williams-Hogarth, L C; Puche, A C; Torrey, C; Cai, X; Song, I; Kolodkin, A L; Shipley, M T; Ronnett, G V

2000-08-01

159

Hyperthermochemoradiotherapy and esophageal carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Cancer of the esophagus still poses considerable treatment problems, with a poor 5-year survival rate after surgery, an even worse outlook after radiation and surgery, and a not very satisfactory response to chemotherapy. After several years of continued research, in 1983 we developed a Radio Frequency System with endotract electrode and thermosensors for administering hyperthermochemoradiotherapy to patients with carcinoma of the esophagus. Results in 129 patients are discussed. Immediate improvement of subjective complaints and decrease or elimination of the cancer lesion are so distinct that this treatment, by means of an endotract antenna, shows promise as a modality for esophageal lesions and may find application in diseases such as colorectal cancer or carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

Sugimachi, K.; Inokuchi, K.

1986-01-01

160

Spontaneous esophageal mucosal dissection in a patient with upper digestive bleeding and esophageal varices.  

PubMed

We present a case of mucosal esophageal dissection in a 44-year-old patient with alcoholic cirrhosis admitted for upper digestive bleeding. The endoscopic aspect was of chronic mucosal dissection in the esophagus and 3rd degree esophageal varices with red signs. To our knowledge, it is the only case with spontaneous esophageal mucosal dissection and portal hypertension with esophageal varices. PMID:21776303

Negreanu, L; Tribus, L C; Purcarea, M; Fierbinteanu Braticevici, C

2011-05-15

161

Spontaneous esophageal mucosal dissection in a patient with upper digestive bleeding and esophageal varices  

PubMed Central

We present a case of mucosal esophageal dissection in a 44–year–old patient with alcoholic cirrhosis admitted for upper digestive bleeding. The endoscopic aspect was of chronic mucosal dissection in the esophagus and 3rd degree esophageal varices with red signs. To our knowledge, it is the only case with spontaneous esophageal mucosal dissection and portal hypertension with esophageal varices. PMID:21776303

Tribus, LC; Purcarea, M; Fierbinteanu Braticevici, C

2011-01-01

162

Suppression of esophageal tumor growth and chemoresistance by directly targeting the PI3K/AKT pathway  

PubMed Central

Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Novel therapeutic intervention is urgently needed for this deadly disease. The functional role of PI3K/AKT pathway in esophageal cancer is little known. In this study, our results from 49 pairs of human esophageal tumor and normal specimens demonstrated that AKT was constitutively active in the majority (75.5%) of esophageal tumors compared with corresponding normal tissues. Inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathway with specific inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002, significantly reduced Bcl-xL expression, induced caspase-3-dependent apoptosis, and repressed cell proliferation and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo without obvious toxic effects. Moreover, significantly higher expression level of p-AKT was observed in fluorouracil (5-FU)-resistant esophageal cancer cells. Inactivation of PI3K/AKT pathway markedly increased the sensitivity and even reversed acquired resistance of esophageal cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs in vitro. More importantly, the resistance of tumor xenografts derived from esophageal cancer cells with acquired 5-FU resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs was significantly abrogated by wortmannin treatment in animals. In summary, our data support PI3K/AKT as a valid therapeutic target and strongly suggest that PI3K/AKT inhibitors used in conjunction with conventional chemotherapy may be a potentially useful therapeutic strategy in treating esophageal cancer patients. PMID:25344912

Li, Bin; Li, Jin; Xu, Wen Wen; Guan, Xin Yuan; Qin, Yan Ru; Zhang, Li Yi; Law, Simon; Tsao, Sai Wah; Cheung, Annie L.M.

2014-01-01

163

Suppression of esophageal tumor growth and chemoresistance by directly targeting the PI3K/AKT pathway.  

PubMed

Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Novel therapeutic intervention is urgently needed for this deadly disease. The functional role of PI3K/AKT pathway in esophageal cancer is little known. In this study, our results from 49 pairs of human esophageal tumor and normal specimens demonstrated that AKT was constitutively active in the majority (75.5%) of esophageal tumors compared with corresponding normal tissues. Inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathway with specific inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002, significantly reduced Bcl-xL expression, induced caspase-3-dependent apoptosis, and repressed cell proliferation and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo without obvious toxic effects. Moreover, significantly higher expression level of p-AKT was observed in fluorouracil (5-FU)-resistant esophageal cancer cells. Inactivation of PI3K/AKT pathway markedly increased the sensitivity and even reversed acquired resistance of esophageal cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs in vitro. More importantly, the resistance of tumor xenografts derived from esophageal cancer cells with acquired 5-FU resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs was significantly abrogated by wortmannin treatment in animals. In summary, our data support PI3K/AKT as a valid therapeutic target and strongly suggest that PI3K/AKT inhibitors used in conjunction with conventional chemotherapy may be a potentially useful therapeutic strategy in treating esophageal cancer patients. PMID:25344912

Li, Bin; Li, Jin; Xu, Wen Wen; Guan, Xin Yuan; Qin, Yan Ru; Zhang, Li Yi; Law, Simon; Tsao, Sai Wah; Cheung, Annie L M

2014-11-30

164

21 CFR 878.3610 - Esophageal prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3610 Esophageal prosthesis. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2011-04-01

165

21 CFR 878.3610 - Esophageal prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3610 Esophageal prosthesis. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2014-04-01

166

21 CFR 878.3610 - Esophageal prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3610 Esophageal prosthesis. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2012-04-01

167

21 CFR 878.3610 - Esophageal prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3610 Esophageal prosthesis. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2010-04-01

168

21 CFR 878.3610 - Esophageal prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3610 Esophageal prosthesis. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2013-04-01

169

Observation of the upside-down stomach esophageal hiatal hernia in a cadaver.  

PubMed

In the course of a cadaveric dissection in 2006, an upside-down stomach esophageal hiatal hernia was observed in a 91-year-old Japanese woman with kyphosis who had died of brain infarction. There are 31 clinical reports of upside-down stomach esophageal hiatal hernia, but the vascular system was not analyzed in any of these cases. In this specimen, most of the stomach except the pyloric region passed through the esophageal hiatus (approximately 40 mm in diameter) with the greater omentum and into the hernial sac located dorsal to the heart in the thoracic cavity. The greater omentum was raised on the ventral region in the hernial sac and spread toward the upper abdomen through the esophageal hiatus from the sac, without any adhesion in the abdominal cavity. The tail of the pancreas and the spleen were located near the esophageal hiatus. No abnormality was observed in the heart or lungs. The celiac trunk and its main branches were normal, but the left and right gastric arteries, the short gastric artery and the left gastroepiploic artery passed into the hernial sac through the esophageal hiatus. This specimen was classified as the sliding type of esophageal hiatal hernia. We consider the excessive kyphosis of the vertebral column to likely be associated with the formation of such a highly advanced hernia. PMID:19488687

Ishizawa, Akimitsu; Chinzei, Yumi; Murakami, Gen; Zhou, Ming; Suzuki, Ryoji; Abe, Hiroshi

2010-09-01

170

The human ovarian surface epithelium is an androgen responsive tissue  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer remains unclear. From epidemiological studies raised levels of androgens have been implicated to increase the risk of developing the disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the responses of normal human ovarian surface epithelium to androgens. We have established primary cultures of human ovarian surface epithelium from patients undergoing oophorectomy for benign disease. Total RNA was isolated from these cultures and expression of mRNA encoding for the androgen receptor was demonstrated using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The presence of androgen receptor in sections of normal ovary was also investigated using an antibody against androgen receptor. The effects of androgens on DNA synthesis and cell death were determined. Eight out of eight (100%) cultures expressed mRNA encoding the androgen receptor. The presence of androgen receptor in ovarian surface epithelium of sections of normal ovaries was demonstrated in all sections. Mibolerone, a synthetic androgen, caused a significant stimulation of DNA synthesis in 5 out of 9 (55%) cultures when used at a concentration of 1?nM. Mibolerone also caused a significant decrease in cell death in 2 out of 5 (40%) cultures tested. We have demonstrated that the ovarian surface epithelium is an androgen responsive tissue and that androgens can cause an increase in proliferation and a decrease in cell death. These findings have important implications for the pathophysiology of ovarian carcinogenesis. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 879–885. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600154 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:11953818

Edmondson, R J; Monaghan, J M; Davies, B R

2002-01-01

171

Esophageal rupture complicated by acute pericarditis.  

PubMed

Esophageal perforation is a serious condition with a high mortality rate. Delayed detection of esophageal perforation may result in devastating complications such as mediastinitis and pericarditis. Esophageal perforation is rarely due to aspiration of foreign bodies. Here we report the case of a 59-year-old male patient with complicated esophageal perforation due to ingestion of a chicken bone, whose first signs are considered to be acute non-specific pericarditis. PMID:25490302

Duman, Hakan; Bak?rc?, Eftal Murat; Karada?, Zakir; U?urlu, Yavuz

2014-10-01

172

Esophagitis in Children with Celiac Disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To our knowledge, the occurrence of esophagitis in children with celiac disease (CD) has never been evaluated. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of esophagitis in children with CD. Patients and Methods. Between 2003 and 2007, children with biopsy confirmed CD were retrospectively identified. Biopsy reports were reviewed for esophageal inflammation. Biopsy reports of 2218 endoscopies performed during the same period were also evaluated for inflammation. Results. Forty-nine children diagnosed with CD (47% boys). Nineteen of 49 (39%) patients with CD had esophagitis (95% CI 0.23–0.5). Thirty percent of boys and 46% of girls with CD had esophagitis (95% CI 0.12–0.40). Overall, 45% of patients who underwent upper endoscopy had esophagitis. The prevalence of esophagitis in CD (39%) compared to the prevalence of esophagitis (45%) in our practice was not significantly different, P = 0.2526. Conclusion. There was no difference in the prevalence of esophagitis between children diagnosed with CD at the time of their diagnostic EGD and the prevalence of esophagitis in children without CD. A prospective study to determine whether the esophagitis should be treated with acid suppression or whether the esophagitis heals with the gluten-free diet is warranted. PMID:21991513

Sayej, Wael N.; AlKhouri, Razan; Baker, Robert D.; Patel, Raza; Baker, Susan S.

2011-01-01

173

Genetic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the deadliest cancers. We performed exome sequencing on 113 tumor-normal pairs, yielding a mean of 82 non-silent mutations per tumor, and 8 cell lines. The mutational profile of ESCC closely resembles those of squamous cell carcinomas of other tissues but differs from that of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulation were mutated in 99% of cases by somatic alterations of TP53 (93%), CCND1 (33%), CDKN2A (20%), NFE2L2 (10%) and RB1 (9%). Histone modifier genes were frequently mutated, including KMT2D (also called MLL2; 19%), KMT2C (MLL3; 6%), KDM6A (7%), EP300 (10%) and CREBBP (6%). EP300 mutations were associated with poor survival. The Hippo and Notch pathways were dysregulated by mutations in FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 or FAT4 (27%) or AJUBA (JUB; 7%) and NOTCH1, NOTCH2 or NOTCH3 (22%) or FBXW7 (5%), respectively. These results define the mutational landscape of ESCC and highlight mutations in epigenetic modulators with prognostic and potentially therapeutic implications. PMID:25151357

Gao, Yi-Bo; Chen, Zhao-Li; Li, Jia-Gen; Hu, Xue-Da; Shi, Xue-Jiao; Sun, Zeng-Miao; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Zi-Ran; Li, Zi-Tong; Liu, Zi-Yuan; Zhao, Yu-Da; Sun, Jian; Zhou, Cheng-Cheng; Yao, Ran; Wang, Su-Ya; Wang, Pan; Sun, Nan; Zhang, Bai-Hua; Dong, Jing-Si; Yu, Yue; Luo, Mei; Feng, Xiao-Li; Shi, Su-Sheng; Zhou, Fang; Tan, Feng-Wei; Qiu, Bin; Li, Ning; Shao, Kang; Zhang, Li-Jian; Zhang, Lan-Jun; Xue, Qi; Gao, Shu-Geng; He, Jie

2014-10-01

174

Esophageal Thermal Injury by Hot Adlay Tea  

PubMed Central

Reversible thermal injury to the esophagus as the result of drinking hot liquids has been reported to generate alternating white and red linear mucosal bands, somewhat reminiscent of a candy cane. This phenomenon is associated with chest pain, dysphagia, odynophagia, and epigastric pain. Here, we report a case of thermal injury to the esophageal and oral cavity due to the drinking of hot tea, including odynophagia and dysphagia. A 69-year-old man was referred due to a difficulty in swallowing which had begun a week prior to referral. The patient, at the time of admission, was unable to swallow even liquids. He had recently suffered from hiccups, and had consumed five cups of hot adlay tea one week prior to admission, as a folk remedy for the hiccups. Upon physical examination, the patient's oral cavity evidenced mucosal erosion, hyperemia, and mucosa covered by a whitish pseudomembrane. Nonspecific findings were detected on the laboratory and radiological exams. Upper endoscopy revealed diffuse hyperemia, and erosions with thick and whitish pseudomembraneous mucosa on the entire esophagus. The stomach and duodenum appeared normal. We diagnosed the patient with thermal esophageal injury inflicted by the hot tea. He was treated with pantoprazole, 40 mg/day, for 14 days, and evidenced significant clinical and endoscopic improvement. PMID:17427650

Go, Hoon; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Young A; Lee, Jung Yun; Kim, Sae Hee; Lim, Sin Hyung

2007-01-01

175

Laparoscopic surgery of esophageal hiatus hernia – single center experience  

PubMed Central

Introduction Esophageal hiatal hernias are the most frequent types of internal hernias. This condition involves disturbance of normal functioning of the stomach cardiac mechanism and reflux of the gastric contents to the esophagus. Aim: To evaluate postoperative results in our Clinic and the comparison of these results to data from the literature. Material and methods One hundred and seventy-eight patients underwent surgery due to esophageal hiatal hernia at the Clinic of General, Gastroenterological and Oncological Surgery, Collegium Medicum, Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland, from 2006 to 2011. All operations were performed using laparoscopy. Fundoplication by means of the Nissen-Rossetti method was carried out in 172 patients while Toupet's and Dor's methods were applied in 4 and 2 patients, respectively. Results Average time of the surgery was 82 min (55–140 min). Conversion was performed in 4 cases. No serious intraoperative complications were noted. In the postoperative period, dysphagia was reported in 20 patients (11.2%). Postoperative wound infection was observed in 1 patient (0.56%). Hernias in the trocar insertion area were reported in 3 patients (1.68%). Ailments recurred in 6 patients. The recurrence of esophageal hiatal hernia was confirmed in 2 patients. Patients with recurrent hernia were re-operated using a laparoscopic approach. Conclusions Laparoscopic surgery is a simple and effective approach for patients with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms due to diaphragmatic esophageal hiatus hernia. The number of complications is lower after laparoscopic procedures than after “open” operations. PMID:24729804

Pi?tkowski, Jacek; Jackowski, Marek

2014-01-01

176

Immunohistochemical localization of vascular endothelial growth factor in esophageal cancer.  

PubMed

We have studied the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in esophageal cancer using immunohistochemistry. A total of 101 specimens of esophageal cancer tissue were fixed by formalin, embeded in paraffin wax, and examined in 3 microns sections by avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method. VEGF was noted in the cytoplasm of normal esophageal glandular cells, monocyte-macrophages, squamous carcinoma cells and of the vascular endothelial cells themselves. VEGF expression by monocyte-macrophages was observed in all cases, in contrast the incidence of VEGF expression in the tumor cells was relatively low at 26.7% of all specimens. However, in the cases where the tumor cells were positive for VEGF, it was discovered that the main source of the VEGF production was the tumor cells themselves. In the cases with proper mucosal invasion the incidence of VEGF expression by the tumor cells was quite low at 7.6%. However, when the tumor invaded the submucosal layer the expression increased to 33.3%. There was also a significant correlation in those with the submucosal invasion between the expression of VEGF in the tumor cells and that VEGF may play an important role in tumor progression and in the angiogenesis via auto-crine and para-crine mechanisms in esophageal cancer. PMID:8755119

Ogata, Y; Harada, Y; Fujii, T; Yamana, H; Fujita, H; Shirouzu, K

1996-01-01

177

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for smooth benign appearing esophageal stricture due to metastatic breast cancer.  

PubMed

Metastatic breast cancer is an uncommon cause of esophageal stricture. We present an 80 year-old woman with past medical history of locally advanced breast cancer who admitted for evaluation of dysphagia. Barium swallow (i.g. esophageal fluoroscopy) demon-strated moderate irregular narrowing in the distal thoracic esophagus. Endoscopy revealed distal esophageal stricture with normal esophageal mucosa and computed tomography demonstrated thickened wall in the distal esophagus and the proximal stomach. Endoscopic biopsy of esophagus revealed no malignancy. Thus, we performed endoscopic ultrasound-guide fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and cytological results were consistent with metastatic breast cancer. Diagnosis of malignant esophageal stricture due to metastasis from other primary is often challenging and requires a high index of suspicion. EUS-FNA is an alternative diagnostic technique in such cases when endoscopic biopsy fails to obtain adequate specimen. PMID:24949363

Suzuki, Rei; Singh, Harvinder; Ramireddy, Srinivas; Ross, William A; Irisawa, Atsushi; Bhutani, Manoop S

2013-01-01

178

Laparoscopic enucleation of a giant submucosal esophageal lipoma. Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 40 Final Diagnosis: Esophageal lipoma Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic enucleation Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Benign tumors of the esophagus are very rare, constituting only 0.5% to 0.8% of all esophageal neoplasms. Approximately 60% of benign esophageal neoplasms are leiomyomas, 20% are cysts, 5% are polyps, and less than 1% are lipomas. Case Report: A 40-year-old woman was referred to our department with dysphagia that had progressively worsened during the previous 2 years. Physical examination on admission produced normal findings. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a submucosal space-occupying mass in the posterior wall of the lower esophagus, with normal mucosa. The mass was yellowish and soft. A computed tomography (CT) of the chest revealed a submucosal esophageal lesion in the posterior wall, with luminal narrowing of the distal esophagus. Thus, a submucosal tumor was identified in this region and esophageal submucosal lipoma was considered the most likely diagnosis. A laparoscopic operation was performed. The tumor was completely enucleated, and measured 10×7×2.5 cm. The pathology showed lipoma. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged 4 days after the operation. Conclusions: Benign tumors of the esophagus are very rare. Laparoscopic transhiatal enucleation of lower esophageal lipomas and other benign tumors is a safe and effective operation. PMID:23826462

Tsalis, Konstantinos; Antoniou, Nikolaos; Kalfadis, Stavros; Dimoulas, Avraam; Dagdilelis, Alexandros Karolidis Loukas; Lazaridis, Charalampos

2013-01-01

179

Ambulatory Esophageal pH Monitoring Using a Wireless System  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Limitations of catheter-based esophageal pH monitoring are discomfort, inconvenience, and interference with normal activity. An alternative to conventional pH monitoring is the wireless Medtronic Bravo pH System. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, performance, and tolerability of this system.METHODS:A total of 44 healthy subjects and 41 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) were studied for a

John E. Pandolfino; Joel E. Richter; Tina Ours; Jason M. Guardino; Jennifer Chapman; Peter J. Kahrilas

2003-01-01

180

[Histogenesis of human esophageal striated muscle tissue].  

PubMed

Development of the esophageal striated muscle tissue has been studied in 60 human embryos and fetuses at the age of 6-40 weeks. Stages in differentiation of the muscle fiber have been demonstrated, process of myofibrillogenesis has been studied. In the process of differentiation of the esophageal striated muscle fiber under the basal membrane myosatellitocytes are laid. A conclusion is made about myotomic origin of the human esophageal striated muscle tissue. The developmental peculiarity of the human esophageal striated muscle is formation between muscle fibers of specialized connections. This is explained by conditions of the esophageal functioning, that realizes peristaltic movements. PMID:2803022

Bazhenov, D V

1989-06-01

181

Sloughing Esophagitis: A Not So Common Entity  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Sloughing esophagitis, also known as esophagitis dissecans superficialis, is a very rare and underdiagnosed entity with unknown incidence rate. It can be associated with bullous dermatoses and medications such as central nervous system depressants and those causing esophageal injury. CASE REPORT: A 55-years-old woman was recovering from renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis when she developed dysphagia and odynophagia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsy was performed for suspected bullous pemphigus and confirmed sloughing esophagitis. She improved with intravenous steroids. CONCLUSIONS: Sloughing Esophagitis should enter our differential diagnosis more frequently. It is mostly a benign, self-limiting process but when associated with bullous dermatoses will require steroid treatment. PMID:25598761

Akhondi, Hossein

2014-01-01

182

Targeted imaging of esophageal neoplasia with a fluorescently labeled peptide: First in-human results  

PubMed Central

Esophageal adenocarcinoma is rising rapidly in incidence, and usually develops from Barrett’s esophagus, a precursor condition commonly found in patients with chronic acid reflux. Pre-malignant lesions are challenging to detect on conventional screening endoscopy because of their flat appearance. Molecular changes can be used to improve detection of early neoplasia. We have developed a peptide that binds specifically to high-grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. We first applied the peptide ex vivo to esophageal specimens from 17 patients to validate specific binding. Next, we performed confocal endomicroscopy in vivo in 25 human subjects after topical peptide administration and found 3.8-fold greater fluorescence intensity for esophageal neoplasia compared with Barrett’s esophagus and squamous epithelium with 75% sensitivity and 97% specificity. No toxicity was attributed to the peptide in either animal or patient studies. Therefore, our first-in-humans results show that this targeted imaging agent is safe, and may be useful for guiding tissue biopsy and for early detection of esophageal neoplasia and potentially other cancers of epithelial origin, such as bladder, colon, lung, pancreas, and stomach. PMID:23658246

Sturm, Matthew B.; Joshi, Bishnu P.; Lu, Shaoying; Piraka, Cyrus; Khondee, Supang; Elmunzer, B. Joseph; Kwon, Richard S.; Beer, David G.; Appelman, Henry; Turgeon, D. Kim; Wang, Thomas D.

2013-01-01

183

Tissue remodeling in eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a recently recognized, immune-mediated disease characterized clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation. The chronic esophageal eosinophilia of EoE is associated with tissue remodeling that includes epithelial hyperplasia, subepithelial fibrosis, and hypertrophy of esophageal smooth muscle. This remodeling causes the esophageal rings and strictures that frequently complicate EoE and underlies the mucosal fragility that predisposes to painful mucosal tears in the EoE esophagus. The pathogenesis of tissue remodeling in EoE is not completely understood, but emerging studies suggest that secretory products of eosinophils and mast cells, as well as cytokines produced by other inflammatory cells, epithelial cells, and stromal cells in the esophagus, all contribute to the process. Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, Th2 cytokines overproduced in allergic disorders, have direct profibrotic and remodeling effects in EoE. The EoE esophagus exhibits increased expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, which is a potent activator of fibroblasts and a strong inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In addition, IL-4, IL-13, and TGF-? all have a role in regulating periostin, an extracellular matrix protein that might influence remodeling by acting as a ligand for integrins, by its effects on eosinophils or by activating fibrogenic genes in the esophagus. Presently, few treatments have been shown to affect the tissue remodeling that causes EoE complications. This report reviews the potential roles of fibroblasts, eosinophils, mast cells, and profibrotic cytokines in esophageal remodeling in EoE and identifies potential targets for future therapies that might prevent EoE complications. PMID:23019192

Cheng, Edaire; Souza, Rhonda F.

2012-01-01

184

Expression analysis of Barrett's epithelium and normal gastrointestinal tissues  

E-print Network

. Rabinovitch Technical Report UW-CSE-2000-11-01 November, 2000 Department of Computer Science & Engineering. Rabinovitch Dept of Pathology, University of Washington December 7, 2000 Abstract Barrett's esophagus

Borenstein, Elhanan

185

Diurnal changes in mitotic activity and DNA synthesis in normal and tumor tissues of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diurnal changes in mitotic activity and in the number of cells synthesizing DNA in a spontaneous sarcoma of rats and in the esophageal and corneal epithelium were studied in noninbred albino rats weighing 190 g by autoradiography. The animals were killed in groups every 3 h for 24 h, 1 h after receiving an injection of thymidine-H 3. The experiments

L. V. Sokolova; A. G. Mustafin; V. N. Dobrokhotov; S. I. Baluev

1973-01-01

186

Expression of BAG-1 is closely related to cell differentiation and TNM stage in esophageal cancer and its downregulation inhibits the proliferation and invasion of human esophageal carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to explore the correlation of BAG-1 with clinical characteristics of esophageal cancer and its effects on the proliferation, invasion and apoptosis of the esophageal carcinoma cell line Eca109. Therefore, the expression of BAG-1 was assessed in esophageal carcinoma tumor tissues and adjacent normal esophageal tissues. The siRNA vector of BAG-1 was constructed and transfected into the Eca109 cell line, and then fluorescence microscopy was used to evaluate the transfection efficiency. MTT and Transwell assays were used to study cell proliferation and invasive activity, and the apoptosis rate was assessed by flow cytometry. Western blotting was adopted to assess the silencing efficiency and expression of related gene bcl-2. The results revealed that BAG-1 expression was low in the adjacent normal esophageal tissues while expression was high in the esophageal carcinoma tissues. After Eca109 cells were transfected with BAG-1-siRNA, the proliferation and invasive capabilities of the cells were significantly decreased while the apoptosis rate was greatly enhanced (P<0.01). When the expression of BAG-1 in the Eca109 cells was downregulated, the expression of bcl-2 was significantly abated (P<0.05). In conclusion, BAG-1 is closely connected with the pathogenesis and development of esophageal carcinoma, which may act through affecting bcl-2. PMID:25069471

Huang, Bo; Zhou, Hongli; Lang, Xianping; Liu, Zhiliang; Xiong, Fei; Wang, Siwang

2014-10-01

187

Eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with esophageal atresia and chronic dysphagia.  

PubMed

Esophageal atresia (EA) is defined as a discontinuity of the lumen of the esophagus repaired soon after birth. Dysphagia is a common symptom in these patients, usually related to stricture, dysmotility or peptic esophagitis. We present 4 cases of patients with EA who complained of dysphagia and the diagnosis of Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was made, ages ranging from 9 to 16 years. Although our patients were on acid suppression years after their EA repair, they presented with acute worsening of dysphagia. Esophogastroduodenoscopy and/or barium swallow did not show stricture and biopsies revealed elevated eosinophil counts consistent with EoE. Two of 4 patients improved symptomatically with the topical steroids. It is important to note that all our patients have asthma and 3 out of 4 have tested positive for food allergies. One of our patients developed recurrent anastomotic strictures that improved with the treatment of the EoE. A previous case report linked the recurrence of esophageal strictures in patients with EA repair with EoE. Once the EoE was treated the strictures resolved. On the other hand, based on our observation, EoE could be present in patients without recurrent anastomotic strictures. There appears to be a spectrum in the disease process. We are suggesting that EoE is a frequent concomitant problem in patients with history of congenital esophageal deformities, and for this reason any of these patients with refractory reflux symptoms or dysphagia (with or without anastomotic stricture) may benefit from an endoscopic evaluation with biopsies to rule out EoE. PMID:25548504

Kassabian, Sirvart; Baez-Socorro, Virginia; Sferra, Thomas; Garcia, Reinaldo

2014-12-21

188

Esophageal dilations in eosinophilic esophagitis: A single center experience  

PubMed Central

AIM: To diagnose the clinical and histologic features that may be associated with or predictive of the need for dilation and dilation related complications; examine the safety of dilation in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). METHODS: The medical records of all patients diagnosed with EoE between January 2002 and July 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Esophageal biopsies were reexamined by an experienced pathologist to confirm the diagnosis (? 15 eos/hpf per current guidelines). Patients were divided into 2 groups: patients who did not receive dilation therapy and those who did. Demographics, clinical history, the use of pharmacologic therapy, endoscopic and pathology findings, and the number of biopsies and dilations carried out, if any, and their locations were recorded for each patient. The dilation group was further examined based on the interval between diagnosis and dilation, and whether or not a complication occurred. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients were identified with EoE and 22 (36%) of them underwent esophageal dilations for stricture/narrowing. The peak eos/hpf was significantly higher in patients who received a dilation (P = 0.04). Four (18% of pts.) minor complications occurred: deep mucosal tear 1, and small mucosal tears 3. There were no cases of esophageal perforations. Higher peak eos/hpf counts were not associated with increased risk of complications. CONCLUSION: Esophageal dilation appears to be a safe procedure in EoE patients, carrying a low complication rate. No correlation was found between the peak of eosinophil count and complication rate. Complications can occur independently of the histologic features. The long-term outcome of EoE treatment, with or without dilation, needs to be determined. PMID:25071351

Ukleja, Andrew; Shiroky, Jennifer; Agarwal, Amitesh; Allende, Daniela

2014-01-01

189

Eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with esophageal atresia and chronic dysphagia  

PubMed Central

Esophageal atresia (EA) is defined as a discontinuity of the lumen of the esophagus repaired soon after birth. Dysphagia is a common symptom in these patients, usually related to stricture, dysmotility or peptic esophagitis. We present 4 cases of patients with EA who complained of dysphagia and the diagnosis of Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was made, ages ranging from 9 to 16 years. Although our patients were on acid suppression years after their EA repair, they presented with acute worsening of dysphagia. Esophogastroduodenoscopy and/or barium swallow did not show stricture and biopsies revealed elevated eosinophil counts consistent with EoE. Two of 4 patients improved symptomatically with the topical steroids. It is important to note that all our patients have asthma and 3 out of 4 have tested positive for food allergies. One of our patients developed recurrent anastomotic strictures that improved with the treatment of the EoE. A previous case report linked the recurrence of esophageal strictures in patients with EA repair with EoE. Once the EoE was treated the strictures resolved. On the other hand, based on our observation, EoE could be present in patients without recurrent anastomotic strictures. There appears to be a spectrum in the disease process. We are suggesting that EoE is a frequent concomitant problem in patients with history of congenital esophageal deformities, and for this reason any of these patients with refractory reflux symptoms or dysphagia (with or without anastomotic stricture) may benefit from an endoscopic evaluation with biopsies to rule out EoE.

Kassabian, Sirvart; Baez-Socorro, Virginia; Sferra, Thomas; Garcia, Reinaldo

2014-01-01

190

Efficacy of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Early Stage of Esophageal Carcinoma;  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Esophageal Neoplasm; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Primary Tumor (T) T2; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Primary Tumor (T) T3; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Regional Lymph Nodes (N) N0; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Distal Metastasis (M) M0

2012-12-28

191

Identification of abrogated pathways in fallopian tube epithelium from BRCA1 mutation carriers.  

PubMed

The discovery of occult invasive and intra-epithelial tubal carcinomas in BRCA1 mutation carriers undergoing prophylactic surgery has implicated the fallopian tube epithelium as the source of serous cancer. However, little is known of the early molecular events of serous oncogenesis, or why cancers in BRCA1 mutation carriers are found preferentially in tissues which are responsive to reproductive hormones. We hypothesize that molecular alterations present in morphologically normal tubal epithelium from BRCA1 heterozygotes reflect the earliest events in serous carcinogenesis and may be markers of increased cancer risk as well as targets for risk reduction. Genetic profiling of microdissected tubal epithelium from histologically normal BRCA1 mutation carriers and controls was performed. We sought to define a signature which differentiated BRCA1 mutant tubal epithelium from women with low risk of developing ovarian cancer. Molecular differences between the follicular and luteal phases were prominent and, by using filtering techniques and a two-way ANOVA without a False Discovery Rate correction, we identified 440 probe sets with a more than two-fold change in gene expression related to BRCA1 mutation status. Using gene ontology and known associations to cancer pathways, we selected five genes for further analysis by qPCR and immunohistochemistry, and were able to demonstrate statistically significant differentiation of BRCA1 and control cases in an independent set of cases. The altered expression profiles in histologically normal tubal epithelium from BRCA1 heterozygotes suggest that these cells may respond differently to microenvironmental stresses. PMID:21744340

George, Sophia Hl; Greenaway, James; Milea, Anca; Clary, Victoria; Shaw, Sanjeev; Sharma, Monika; Virtanen, Carl; Shaw, Patricia A

2011-09-01

192

WISP-1 Contributes to Fractionated Irradiation-Induced Radioresistance in Esophageal Carcinoma Cell Lines and Mice  

PubMed Central

Cancer cells that survive fractionated irradiation can be radioresistant and cause tumor recurrence. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of radioresistance in cancer cells remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of WISP-1 in the development of radioresistance in esophageal carcinoma during fractionated irradiation. Radioresistant esophageal cancer cells were generated from normal esophageal cancer cells via fractionated irradiation, and expression levels of related proteins were determined by Western blot. Radiosensitivity of cells was established by clonogenic cell survival assays, and cell cycle distribution was evaluated by flow cytometry. Protein distributions were determined by immunofluorescence, and cell toxicity was evaluated by cell counting kit-8 assays. In vivo validations were performed in a xenograft transplantation mouse model. Our data indicate that WISP-1 plays an important role in the development of radioresistance in esophageal cancer cells during fractionated irradiation. The overexression of WISP-1 in esophageal cancer cells was associated with radioresistance. Depletion of extracellular WISP-1 by antibody neutralizing reversed radioresistance and directly induced mitotic catastrophe resulting in cell death. WISP-1 may be a candidate therapeutic target in the treatment of recurrent esophageal carcinoma after radiotherapy. PMID:24728101

Zheng, Si-Si; Zhao, Liang

2014-01-01

193

The junctional epithelium originates from the odontogenic epithelium of an erupted tooth  

PubMed Central

The junctional epithelium (JE) is an epithelial component that is directly attached to the tooth surface and has a protective function against periodontal diseases. In this study, we determined the origin of the JE using a bioengineered tooth technique. We transplanted the bioengineered tooth germ into the alveolar bone with an epithelial component that expressed green fluorescence protein. The reduced enamel epithelium from the bioengineered tooth fused with the oral epithelium, and the JE was apparently formed around the bioengineered tooth 50 days after transplantation. Importantly, the JE exhibited green fluorescence for at least 140 days after transplantation, suggesting that the JE was not replaced by oral epithelium. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the origin of the JE was the odontogenic epithelium, and odontogenic epithelium-derived JE was maintained for a relatively long period. PMID:24785116

Yajima-Himuro, Sara; Oshima, Masamitsu; Yamamoto, Gou; Ogawa, Miho; Furuya, Madoka; Tanaka, Junichi; Nishii, Kousuke; Mishima, Kenji; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Tsuji, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

2014-01-01

194

Measuring telomere length for the early detection of precursor lesions of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide; current early detection screening tests are inadequate. Esophageal balloon cytology successfully retrieves exfoliated and scraped superficial esophageal epithelial cells, but cytologic reading of these cells has poor sensitivity and specificity for detecting esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD), the precursor lesion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Measuring telomere length, a marker for chromosomal instability, may improve the utility of balloon cytology for detecting ESD and early ESCC. Methods We examined balloon cytology specimens from 89 asymptomatic cases of ESD (37 low-grade and 52 high-grade) and 92 age- and sex-matched normal controls from an esophageal cancer early detection screening study. All subjects also underwent endoscopy and biopsy, and ESD was diagnosed histopathologically. DNA was extracted from the balloon cytology cells, and telomere length was measured by quantitative PCR. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted for telomere length as a diagnostic marker for high-grade dysplasia. Results Telomere lengths were comparable among the low- and high-grade dysplasia cases and controls, with means of 0.96, 0.96, and 0.92, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.55 for telomere length as a diagnostic marker for high-grade dysplasia. Further adjustment for subject characteristics, including sex, age, smoking, drinking, hypertension, and body mass index did not improve the use of telomere length as a marker for ESD. Conclusions Telomere length of esophageal balloon cytology cells was not associated with ESCC precursor lesions. Therefore, telomere length shows little promise as an early detection marker for ESCC in esophageal balloon samples. PMID:24308314

2013-01-01

195

Differentiation and self-renewal in the mouse gastrointestinal epithelium.  

PubMed

The mouse gut epithelium represents a dynamic, geographically well organized, developmental system for examining self-renewal and differentiation. Reagents are now available for identifying the molecular mechanisms that regulate cell fate in the gut, the migration-associated differentiation programs of its component cell lineages, and its axial patterning. Considerable attention needs to be paid to two variables when studying gastrointestinal epithelial cell biology: space and time. This has necessitated the use of normal, chimeric, and transgenic animals as experimental models. PMID:7880525

Gordon, J I; Hermiston, M L

1994-12-01

196

The Changing Face of Esophageal Cancer  

PubMed Central

The two main histological esophageal cancer types, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, differ in incidence, geographic distribution, ethnic pattern and etiology. This article focuses on epidemiology with particular reference to geographic and temporal variations in incidence, along with a review of the evidence supporting environmental and genetic factors involved in esophageal carcinogenesis. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus remains predominantly a disease of the developing world. In contrast, esophageal adenocarcinoma is mainly a disease of western developed societies, associated with obesity and gastro-esophageal reflux disease. There has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma in developed countries in parallel with migration of both esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas towards the gastro-esophageal junction. PMID:24281163

Melhado, Rachel E.; Alderson, Derek; Tucker, Olga

2010-01-01

197

Esophagitis in distressed infants: Poor diagnostic agreement between esophageal pH monitoring and histopathologic findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Our purpose was to study the relation between gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and esophagitis in infants with persistent distress. Study design: Infants (n = 125, 79 boys; median age, 4.2 months) with persistent distress and clinical symptoms suggestive of GER and esophagitis were retrospectively studied. All had undergone esophageal 24-hour pH monitoring and had upper gastrointestinal biopsy specimens taken. Results:

Ralf G. Heine; Donald J. S. Cameron; Chung W. Chow; David J. Hill; Anthony G. Catto-Smith

2002-01-01

198

Capillaries in the epithelium of pterygium  

PubMed Central

AIM—To present new morphological observations of intraepithelial capillaries in pterygium and to provide some explanations for this phenomenon.?METHODS—The ultrastructural features of pterygia from 26 patients were examined. Surgically excised tissue was processed for conventional light and transmission electron microscopy.?RESULTS—Individual capillaries within the epithelium of the anterior half towards the head of pterygia were identified in 11 specimens out of 26 pterygia examined (42.3%). The perivascular connective tissue of the intraepithelial capillaries contained fibroblasts, collagen fibrils, and elastin-like material. Epithelial cells surrounding these capillaries showed defects in the basal lamina in contrast with the continuous basal lamina of the endothelium. In the intercellular space of the epithelium an amorphous substance, occasional fibroblast processes, and collagen fibrils were frequently observed.?CONCLUSION—Capillaries in the epithelium of pterygia are rare, but not exceptional. The ingrowth of these vessels from the stroma into the epithelium can be interpreted as a reaction to hypoxia or deficiency of any other substance transported via the bloodstream. Apparently, the perivascular connective tissue can be used by ingrowing fibroblasts as a migration pathway. The migrating fibroblasts appear to use the defects of the epithelial basal lamina (whether partially or complete) in order to reach the intercellular space. It is possible that collagen fibrils in the epithelial intercellular space have been laid down by fibroblasts which contribute to the pathological dedifferentiation of the conjunctival epithelium.?? Keywords: pterygium; ultrastructure; epithelium; blood vessels PMID:9536887

Seifert, P.; Sekundo, W.

1998-01-01

199

No evidence of HPV DNA in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a population of Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in southern Brazil. METHODS: We studied 189 esophageal samples from 125 patients from three different groups: (1) 102 biopsies from 51 patients with ESCC, with one sample from the tumor and another from normal esophageal mucosa distant from the tumor; (2) 50 esophageal biopsies from 37 patients with a previous diagnosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); and (3) 37 biopsies from esophageal mucosa with normal appearance from 37 dyspeptic patients, not exposed to smoking or alcohol consumption. Nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the MY09/11 and GP5/6 L1 primers was used to detect HPV L1 in samples fixed in formalin and stored in paraffin blocks. All PCR reactions were performed with a positive control (cervicovaginal samples), with a negative control (Human Genomic DNA) and with a blank reaction containing all reagents except DNA. We took extreme care to prevent DNA contamination in sample collection, processing, and testing. RESULTS: The histological biopsies confirmed the diagnosis of ESCC in 52 samples (51 from ESCC group and 1 from the HNSCC group) and classified as well differentiated (12/52, 23.1%), moderately differentiated (27/52, 51.9%) or poorly differentiated (7/52, 13.5%). One hundred twenty-eight esophageal biopsies were considered normal (51 from the ESCC group, 42 from the HNSCC group and 35 from dyspeptic patients). Nine had esophagitis (7 from the HNSCC and 2 from dyspeptic patients). Of a total of 189 samples, only 6 samples had insufficient material for PCR analysis: 1 from mucosa distant from the tumor in a patient with ESCC, 3 from patients with HNSCC and 2 from patients without cancer. In 183 samples (96.8%) GAPDH, G3PDH and/or ?-globin were amplified, thus indicating the adequacy of the DNA in those samples. HPV DNA was negative in all the 183 samples tested: 52 with ESCC, 9 with esophagitis and 122 with normal esophageal mucosa. CONCLUSION: There was no evidence of HPV infection in different ESCC from southern Brazil. PMID:24151387

Antunes, Luís Carlos Moreira; Prolla, João Carlos; de Barros Lopes, Antonio; da Rocha, Marta Pires; Fagundes, Renato Borges

2013-01-01

200

[Esophageal mucocele: report of 2 pediatric cases].  

PubMed

Two cases of esophageal mucocele in pediatric patients are reported: two children of 5 and 9 years respectively underwent surgical isolation of the esophagus and esophagocoloplasty for caustic stenosis related to accidental ingestion of caustic soda. Clinical pattern of mediastinal compression was proved with cervical fistulous tract in one case. In both cases, thoracic computed tomography was a sensitive imaging method to demonstrate the mucocele and its extension. Esophageal mucocele is rarely described in children, especially following esophageal corrosive stricture. PMID:11965151

Achour-Arifa, N; Tlili-Graiess, K; El Ouni, F; Mrad-Dali, K; Derbel, F; Yacoubi, M T; Gharbi-Jemni, H; Haj Hmida, R B; Jeddi, M

2002-01-01

201

p53 expression in odontogenic keratocyst epithelium.  

PubMed

The expression of p53 protein was studied in odontogenic keratocysts (OKC, 11 solitary, 5 recurrent and 6 NBCCS cysts), radicular (RC, n = 5) and dentigerous (DC, n = 5) cysts, using a panel of antibodies to p53 (clone BP53-12, clone 1801 and polyclonal CM1) and a sensitive biotin-streptavidin method on paraffin embedded sections. Of the three antibodies tested, clone BP53-12 gave the most intense and consistent nuclear staining pattern. Clone 1801 and polyclonal CM1 stained only 38% and 71% OKC linings, respectively, but not RC and DC linings. However, BP53-12+ cells were detected in the epithelial linings of all cyst types. Quantification of BP53-12+ cells was performed by manual counting and by relating cell number to unit length of basement membrane as determined by TV image analysis. BP53-12+ cell counts in solitary OKC linings (25.5 +/- 11.0 cells/mmBM) were significantly greater than those in DC (9.3 +/- 4.9 cells/mmBM, P < 0.01) and RC (6.7 +/- 2.6 cells/mmBM, P < 0.01) linings. The epithelial distribution of positive cells in OKC was predominantly suprabasal, which also varied from that of DC and RC linings (P < 0.005). There were no detectable differences in BP53-12 reactivity between the different subtypes of OKC (i.e., solitary, recurrent and NBCCS-associated OKC; P > 0.1). When data for the NBCCS-related OKC group were excluded, there was a significant correlation (r = 0.55, P < 0.01) between p53 and Ki67 labelling. To detect the presence of p53 gene mutations, genomic DNA, extracted from paraffin sections of OKC (4 solitary, 2 recurrent and 4 NBCCS cysts), RC (n = 3) and normal oral mucosa (n = 1), was subjected to a combination of polymerase chain reaction and single-stranded conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis for exons 5-10 of the p53 gene. Exon 4 was not analysed because of compromised DNA quality. No abnormality in banding patterns was found and all samples gave results similar to DNA from known, sequenced, normal p53 gene controls. Absence of p53 mutations within exons 5-9 was confirmed by the direct sequencing of 2 fresh frozen OKC samples (1 solitary and 1 NBCCS cyst). These results suggest that overexpression of p53 protein in OKC epithelium, detected by immunocytochemistry, is not reflected by alteration of the p53 gene and presumably reflects overproduction and/or stabilisation of normal p53 protein. PMID:8835823

Li, T J; Browne, R M; Prime, S S; Paterson, I C; Matthews, J B

1996-05-01

202

RhoC, vascular endothelial growth factor and microvascular density in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the expression of Ras homolog (Rho)C, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD105 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical streptavidin-biotin- peroxidase methods were used to detect expression of RhoC mRNA and protein, and VEGF protein in 62 cases with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 31 cases with adjacent atypical hyperplastic tissues, and 62 cases with normal esophageal mucosa. CD105 antibody labeling was used to measure microvascular density. Expression levels were compared according to clinicopathologic and patient parameters. RESULTS: Expression of RhoC mRNA showed a positive correlation with the protein level in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, as well as with VEGF protein levels. RhoC mRNA expression was mainly located within the cytoplasm of the tumor cells, appearing as blue to purple particles by in situ hybridization. The differences in RhoC mRNA expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, adjacent atypical hyperplasia and normal esophageal mucosa were significant (P < 0.05). The relative expression of RhoC mRNA in cancer tissues with lymph node metastasis was significantly higher than in the tissues without lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). VEGF protein expression was consistent with microvascular density (t = 25.52, P < 0.05). Positive expression of VEGF protein in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma of different histologic gradings did not differ significantly. Positive expression of VEGF protein in carcinoma tissues with deep infiltration was significantly higher than in tissues with only superficial infiltration (P < 0.05). The positive expression of VEGF protein in cancer tissues with lymph node metastasis was significantly higher than in the tissues without lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: RhoC protein may upregulate VEGF expression, thereby promoting tumor angiogenesis. RhoC mRNA and protein expression was correlated with metastasis. PMID:25624724

Zhao, Zhi-Hua; Tian, Yan; Yang, Jian-Pin; Zhou, Jun; Chen, Kui-Sheng

2015-01-01

203

Brain abscess after esophageal dilatation: case report.  

PubMed

Brain abscess formation is a serious disease often seen as a complication to other diseases and to procedures. A rare predisposing condition is dilatation therapy of esophageal strictures. A case of brain abscess formation after esophageal dilatations is presented. A 59-year-old woman was admitted with malaise, progressive lethargy, fever, aphasia and hemiparesis. Six days before she had been treated with esophageal dilatation for a stricture caused by accidental ingestion of caustic soda. The brain abscess was treated with surgery and antibiotics. She recovered completely. This clinical case illustrates the possible association between therapeutic esophageal dilatation and the risk of brain abscess formation. PMID:17710371

Gaïni, S; Grand, M; Michelsen, J

2008-02-01

204

Corrosive Esophagitis Caused by Ingestion of Picosulfate  

PubMed Central

Corrosive esophagitis is characterized by caustic injury due to the ingestion of chemical agents, mainly alkaline substances such as detergents. Esophageal bleeding, perforation, or stricture can be worsened by high-degree corrosive esophagitis. Picosulfate is a commonly used laxative frequently administered for bowel preparation before colonoscopy or colon surgery. Picosulfate powder should be completely dissolved in water before ingestion because the powder itself may cause chemical burning of the esophagus and stomach. Here, we report a case of corrosive esophagitis due to the ingestion of picosulfate powder that was not completely dissolved in water. PMID:25674529

Seo, Jae Yong; Kang, Ho Suk; Kim, Seong Eun; Park, Ji Won; Moon, Sung Hoon; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Park, Choong Kee

2015-01-01

205

Esophageal Stenosis Associated With Tumor Regression in Radiotherapy for Esophageal Cancer: Frequency and Prediction  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine clinical factors for predicting the frequency and severity of esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: The study group consisted of 109 patients with esophageal cancer of T1-4 and Stage I-III who were treated with definitive radiotherapy and achieved a complete response of their primary lesion at Kyushu University Hospital between January 1998 and December 2007. Esophageal stenosis was evaluated using esophagographic images within 3 months after completion of radiotherapy. We investigated the correlation between esophageal stenosis after radiotherapy and each of the clinical factors with regard to tumors and therapy. For validation of the correlative factors for esophageal stenosis, an artificial neural network was used to predict the esophageal stenotic ratio. Results: Esophageal stenosis tended to be more severe and more frequent in T3-4 cases than in T1-2 cases. Esophageal stenosis in cases with full circumference involvement tended to be more severe and more frequent than that in cases without full circumference involvement. Increases in wall thickness tended to be associated with increases in esophageal stenosis severity and frequency. In the multivariate analysis, T stage, extent of involved circumference, and wall thickness of the tumor region were significantly correlated to esophageal stenosis (p = 0.031, p < 0.0001, and p = 0.0011, respectively). The esophageal stenotic ratio predicted by the artificial neural network, which learned these three factors, was significantly correlated to the actual observed stenotic ratio, with a correlation coefficient of 0.864 (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study suggested that T stage, extent of involved circumference, and esophageal wall thickness of the tumor region were useful to predict the frequency and severity of esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer.

Atsumi, Kazushige [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shioyama, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: shioyama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Arimura, Hidetaka [Department of Health Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Terashima, Kotaro [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Matsuki, Takaomi [Department of Health Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Nonoshita, Takeshi; Tsurumaru, Daisuke; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Asai, Kaori; Matsumoto, Keiji [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital at Beppu, Oita (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

2012-04-01

206

Esophageal inflammatory pseudotumor mimicking malignancy.  

PubMed

A 54-year-old man with a complaint of dysphagia was found to have a prominent stricture in the proximal esophagus. A biopsy of the stenotic area indicated sarcoma, leading to subtotal esophagectomy. The surgically removed esophagus demonstrated a well-defined intramural mass, consisting of a mixture of fibroblastic cells with bland cytological appearances and inflammatory cells. Reflux esophagitis which was present distal to the stricture seemed to play a role in the development of this inflammatory pseudotumor. PMID:11201363

Kurihara, K; Mizuseki, K; Ichikawa, M; Okada, K; Miyata, Y

2001-01-01

207

Vitiligo Associated with Esophageal Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Vitiligo is a disease that results in depigmented areas in the skin. It may develop at any age but the average age at onset is 20 years. Association of vitiligo and melanoma has been commonly reported, but malignancies other than melanoma have been rarely associated with vitiligo. We report a 73-year-old patient with new onset vitiligo who developed esophageal adenocarcinoma in the following years. PMID:23671783

Asilian, Ali; Momeni, Iman; Khosravani, Parastou

2013-01-01

208

Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula.  

PubMed

Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF) is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed. PMID:22084548

Vyas, Sameer; Prakash, Mahesh; Kaman, Lileshwar; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

2011-10-01

209

Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF) is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed. PMID:22084548

Vyas, Sameer; Prakash, Mahesh; Kaman, Lileshwar; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

2011-01-01

210

Inherited Retinal Dystrophy: Primary Defect in Pigment Epithelium Determined with Experimental Rat Chimeras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chimeric rats were produced by the aggregation of embryos of the pinkeyed, retinal dystrophic RCS strain with those of pigmented, normal rats. In the mosaic eyes, patches of neural retina with abnormal and degenerated photoreceptors were present only opposite patches of nonpigmented, mutant pigment epithelium. This indicates that the retinal dystrophy gene acts in the pigment epithelial cell rather than

Richard J. Mullen; Matthew M. Lavail

1976-01-01

211

A Systematic Review of the Risk of Perforation During Esophageal Dilation for Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is associated with tissue remodeling that can result in esophageal mucosal fragility, and esophageal dilation for patients with EoE is known to cause painful mucosal lacerations. Clinicians have been admonished that patients with EoE may be exceptionally predisposed to perforation with esophageal dilation, a notion supported primarily by case reports. We have conducted a systematic review of literature on esophageal dilation in EoE in an attempt to better define the risk of perforation. Methods We searched PubMed and abstracts presented at the annual scientific meetings of the American Gastroenterological Association and the American College of Gastroenterology to identify reports on esophageal dilation in EoE. We analyzed reports meeting the following criteria: (1) the diagnosis was established from esophageal biopsy specimens revealing ?15 eosinophils/hpf, (2) esophageal dilation was described, (3) esophageal perforations described were the result of esophageal dilation. Results We identified 18 reports for inclusion in our systematic review. The studies comprised 468 patients who underwent a total of 671 endoscopic dilations. Esophageal mucosal tears were described in most cases, but there was only one perforation among the 671 dilations (0.1%). Conclusions Our systematic review does not reveal an inordinate frequency of esophageal perforation from dilation in patients with EoE, and it is not clear that dilation is any more hazardous for patients with EoE than for patients with other causes of esophageal stricture. Although esophageal dilation must be performed with caution in all patients, the risk of perforation in EoE appears to have been exaggerated. PMID:20238250

Jacobs, John William

2011-01-01

212

Esophageal sarcomatoid carcinoma presenting as a Fever with elevated serum leukocytes.  

PubMed

The study presented a case of esophageal cancer presenting as intermittent fever with markedly elevated serum leukocyte and C-reactive protein. The patient's symptoms had not improved with antibiotic treatment. However, after thoracic esophagectomy, the fever faded and leukocyte serum levels rapidly normalized. PMID:25441832

Ke, Sun-Kui; Duan, Hong-Bing; Cai, Ying-Jie; Cao, Yun-Peng; Zhong, Yuan; Hu, Chao

2014-11-01

213

Unusual Presentation of a Metastatic Esophageal Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Esophageal cancer most commonly presents with upper digestive symptoms such as dysphagia. Lymph nodes are among the most common metastatic sites of this type of cancer. We report the case of a 53-year-old man presenting with unusual sole presenting features of esophageal cancer. The patient sought medical attention for abdominal pain without dysphagia, which was first investigated with an abdominal computed tomography scan. A large abdominal mass was discovered on imaging. Biopsies of this mass were in keeping with esophageal squamous cell cancer. With this finding, gastroscopy was performed, confirming the presence of primary esophageal cancer. This is a rare presentation of esophageal cancer without upper gastrointestinal symptoms. This case reinforces the value of biopsy for any neoplastic mass, especially in a context of unusual symptoms. PMID:22679417

Orlicka, Katarzyna; Maynard, Stéphanie; Bouin, Mickael

2012-01-01

214

Overexpression of Csk-binding protein decreases growth, invasion, and migration of esophageal carcinoma cells by controlling Src activation  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the mechanisms by which Csk-binding protein (CBP) inhibits tumor progression in esophageal carcinoma. METHODS: A CBP overexpressing esophageal carcinoma cell line (TE-1) was established. The growth, invasion, and migration of CBP-TE-1 cells, as well as the expression of Src were then determined and compared with those in normal TE-1 cells. RESULTS: The expression of Src was decreased by the overexpression of CBP in TE-1 cells. The growth, invasion, and migration of TE-1 cells were decreased by the overexpression of CBP. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that CBP may decrease the metastasis of esophageal carcinoma by inhibiting the activation of Src. CBP may be a potential tumor suppressor and targeting the CBP gene may be an alternative strategy for the development of therapies for esophageal carcinoma.

Zhou, Dong; Dong, Peng; Li, Yu-Min; Guo, Fa-Cai; Zhang, An-Ping; Song, Run-Ze; Zhang, Ya-Min; Li, Zhi-Yong; Yuan, Dong; Yang, Chuan

2015-01-01

215

Does the presence of esophagitis prior to PEG placement increase the risk for aspiration pneumonia?  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to determine if the endoscopic presence of esophagitis predicts aspiration pneumonia after the initiation of enteral feedings in a newly placed PEG tube. A retrospective analysis of 278 patients who received a PEG tube from November 1999 to June 2002 was performed. All PEG procedures performed by a single endoscopist were reviewed from the GI Trac database at the Medical University of South Carolina. Eleven of the procedures were aborted due to technical difficulties. Nine patients received the PEG for gastric decompression only. Seven patients died within 14 days of PEG placement from non-PEG-related complications and were excluded. The resulting 251 patients included for our analysis successfully had PEG tube placement and had at least 14 days of enteral feeding. Esophagitis was defined macroscopically by the endoscopic presence of mucosal edema, friability, or obscurity of the normal vascular pattern in the distal esophagus. Aspiration was defined as the witnessed regurgitation of or tracheal suctioning of PEG feedings. Pneumonia as a consequence of aspiration was defined by development of fever and new infiltrate on chest radiograph within 14 days of PEG placement. Two hundred fifty-one patients had PEG placement (M, 127; F, 124; average age, 62.4 year; age range, 18-95 years) performed by a single endoscopist over a 32-month period. Fourteen (5.6%) of these patients had clinically evident pulmonary aspiration, with seven of them developing pneumonia. Thirteen (93%) of these patients had normal esophageal mucosa. One of the 24 patients (4%) with esophagitis or esophageal ulceration present endoscopically had an aspiration event with subsequent pneumonia. None of the 20 patients found to have some other form of esophageal pathology had an aspiration event. The overall incidence of aspiration pneumonia after the initiation of PEG feedings was 2.7% (7/251). The odds ratio that the presence of esophagitis would predict the development of aspiration pneumonia was 1.60, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.18 to 13.89. This study argues that the presence of esophagitis alone does not increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia from PEG feedings. Other factors apart from esophagitis play an important role in the incidence of aspiration pneumonia with PEG feeding PMID:15628706

Carnes, Matthew L; Sabol, David A; DeLegge, Mark

2004-01-01

216

Esophageal Cancer Dose Escalation Using a Simultaneous Integrated Boost Technique  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We previously showed that 75% of radiation therapy (RT) failures in patients with unresectable esophageal cancer are in the gross tumor volume (GTV). We performed a planning study to evaluate if a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique could selectively deliver a boost dose of radiation to the GTV in patients with esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using four different approaches (two-dimensional conformal radiotherapy [2D-CRT] to 50.4 Gy, 2D-CRT to 64.8 Gy, intensity-modulated RT [IMRT] to 50.4 Gy, and SIB-IMRT to 64.8 Gy) and optimized for 10 patients with distal esophageal cancer. All plans were constructed to deliver the target dose in 28 fractions using heterogeneity corrections. Isodose distributions were evaluated for target coverage and normal tissue exposure. Results: The 50.4 Gy IMRT plan was associated with significant reductions in mean cardiac, pulmonary, and hepatic doses relative to the 50.4 Gy 2D-CRT plan. The 64.8 Gy SIB-IMRT plan produced a 28% increase in GTV dose and comparable normal tissue doses as the 50.4 Gy IMRT plan; compared with the 50.4 Gy 2D-CRT plan, the 64.8 Gy SIB-IMRT produced significant dose reductions to all critical structures (heart, lung, liver, and spinal cord). Conclusions: The use of SIB-IMRT allowed us to selectively increase the dose to the GTV, the area at highest risk of failure, while simultaneously reducing the dose to the normal heart, lung, and liver. Clinical implications warrant systematic evaluation.

Welsh, James, E-mail: jwelsh@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Palmer, Matthew B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Liao Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Swisher, Steven G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Allen, Pamela K.; Settle, Steven H.; Gomez, Daniel; Likhacheva, Anna; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2012-01-01

217

Esophageal Cancer Dose Escalation using a Simultaneous Integrated Boost Technique  

PubMed Central

Purpose We previously showed that 75% of radiation therapy (RT) failures in patients with unresectable esophageal cancer are in the gross tumor volume (GTV). We performed a planning study to evaluate if a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique could selectively deliver a boost dose of radiation to the GTV in patients with esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials Treatment plans were generated using four different approaches (two-dimensional conformal RT [2D-CRT] to 50.4 Gy or 64.8 Gy, intensity-modulated RT [IMRT] to 50.4 Gy, and SIB-IMRT to 64.8 Gy) and optimized for 10 patients with distal esophageal cancer. All plans were constructed to deliver the target dose in 28 fractions using heterogeneity corrections. Isodose distributions were evaluated for target coverage and normal tissue exposure. Results The 50.4-Gy IMRT plan was associated with significant reductions in mean cardiac, pulmonary, and hepatic doses relative to the 50.4-Gy 2D-CRT plan. The 64.8-Gy SIB-IMRT plan produced a 28% increase in GTV dose and the same normal tissue doses as the 50.4-Gy IMRT plan; compared with the 50.4-Gy 2D-CRT plan, the 64.8-Gy SIB-IMRT produced significant dose reductions to all critical structures (heart, lung, liver, and spinal cord). Conclusions The use of SIB-IMRT allowed us to selectively increase the dose to the GTV, the area at highest risk of failure, while simultaneously reducing the dose to the normal heart, lung, and liver. Clinical implications warrant systematic evaluation. PMID:21123005

Welsh, James; Palmer, Matthew B.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Liao, Zhongxing; Swisher, Steven G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Allen, Pamela K.; Settle, Steven H.; Gomez, Daniel; Likhacheva, Anna; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko

2014-01-01

218

Esophagitis may not be a Major Precursor Lesion for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a High Incidence Area in North-Eastern Iran  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is usually detected in advanced stages resulting in a very poor prognosis. Early diagnosis needs identification of clinically relevant precancerous lesions which could become the target of screening and early treatment. Our aim was to check whether esophagitis could serve as a relevant histological precursor of ESCC in Northern Iran. METHODS During 2001–2005, all adult patients who were referred to Atrak clinic for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy were enrolled. Atrak clinic is a major center for upper gastrointestinal cancer research in eastern Golestan. All subjects had been complaining of upper GI symptoms and were under further investigation to rule out cancer. Biopsies from the endoscopically normal mid-esophagus and also just above the esophago-gastric junction were obtained in all subjects whose esophagus appeared normal during endoscopy and from endoscopically normal appearing mucosa at the proximal vicinity of any detected mass. Microscopic examinations for the verification of the presence or absence of esophagitis was performed by independant histological examination of the samples by two pathologists. All the discrepant diagnoses were resolved in joint diagnostic sessions. RESULTS During the study period 836 patients were enrolled including 419 non cancer patients (endoscopy clinic controls), 387 cancer patients, and 30 subjects with clinical diagnosis of malignancy referred for histological reconfirmation of diagnosis by repeated biopsy. Mild or marked mid-esophagitis was diagnosed in 39 (9.3%), 47 (12.5%) and 12 (40%) of endoscopy clinic controls, cancer patients and those who were suspicious for upper gastrointestinal malignancies. CONCLUSION Our observation does not show evidence for esophagitis to be a predisposing factor for ESCC in Gonbad region In North Eastern Iran. PMID:25197529

Abedi-Ardekani, B; Sotoudeh, M; Aghcheli, K; Semnani, S; Shakeri, R; Taghavi, N; Nasrollahzadeh, D; Fahimi, S; Islami, F; Marjani, H; Malekzadeh, R

2011-01-01

219

Association of Kruppel-like factor 4 expression with the prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the association of Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) expressions with the prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients. Methods: Ninety-eight cases of esophageal carcinoma patients were enrolled. The expression of KLF4 in the esophageal SCC and normal esophageal mucosa tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry. The correlations between the expression of KLF4 protein and patients’ clinical characteristics and prognosis were analyzed. Results: We observed higher expressed KLF4 in normal esophageal mucosa tissues than esophageal SCC tissues, with positive rate of 82.7% (81/98) and 43.8% (43/98) respectively. In patients with lymphatic metastasis, the positive rate of KLF4 was 24.4% (10/41), whereas it was 57.9% (33/57) in patients without lymphatic metastasis, and the difference was significant (x2 = 10.871, P = 0.001). The positive rates of KLF4 were 62.5% (5/8), 53.1% (26/49) and 29.3% (12/41) in stage I, II and III patients, respectively. There were no correlations between the expression of KLF4 and gender, age, tumor size, location, differentiation grade and infiltration depth. The 5-year survival rates and median survival times were 48.8% and 25.5%, and 55 and 26 months for the patients with KLF4 positive and negative expression, respectively. There were significant differences between the patients with KLF4 positive expression and negative expression in the 5-year survival rates and median survival times (x2 = 5.747 and 4.493, P = 0.017 and 0.034). Conclusion: KLF4 might act as a tumor suppressor in esophageal SCC and the expression status of KLF4 could be considered as a prognosis predictor for esophageal SCC patients. PMID:25400747

Ma, Ming-Quan; Zhang, Hong-Dian; Tang, Peng; Jiang, Hong-Jing; Chen, Chuan-Gui

2014-01-01

220

Increasing tendency in caustic esophageal burns and long-term polytetrafluorethylene stenting in severe cases: 10 years experience.  

PubMed

In recent years, lye products have come into common household use in Turkey. Unfortunately, we have noted more cases of serious corrosive esophagitis owing to accidental caustic agent ingestion. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate our experience with these cases and (2) investigate the effects of long-term intraesophageal polytetrafluorethylene stenting on esophageal remodeling and its impact upon the need for esophageal replacement. Between 1997 and 2006, 68 patients (44 males and 22 females) with accidental caustic agent ingestion were admitted to our department, the only tertiary care referral center for the Turkish Army. Once stabilized, esophagoscopy was performed for injury grading (grades 0, 1, 2a, 3b, 3a, or 3b) as described by Millar and Cywes (Pediatric Surgery. 1998;969-979). Esophagogram was performed 3 weeks after injury to assess healing. At presentation, the injury grade for 24, 31, 11, and 1 cases were 0 or 1, 2a, 2b, and 3a, respectively. One case had gastric outlet obstruction. All cases of grade 0 or 1 injuries had a normal esophagogram at 3 weeks postinjury. For the remaining 44 patients, several treatment modalities have been applied, including antegrade and retrograde dilatations in 31 grade 2a patients, intraluminal stenting in 11 grade 2b patients, esophageal reconstruction in 1 grade 3a patient, and gastroenterostomy in 1. Of the 11 patients with esophageal stenting, 8 patients have resumed a normal diet after 9 to 14 months of stenting. Mean follow up duration is 3.5 years (1-6 years) after stent removal. In the remaining 3 cases, treatment is still ongoing. Esophagitis and esophageal structuring because of caustic agent ingestion is a major public health problem in Turkey. Our small uncontrolled pilot series suggests that intraluminal polytetrafluorethylene stenting may be an effective treatment method to reduce the need for major surgical reconstruction of recalcitrant esophageal strictures. PMID:17448758

Atabek, Cuneyt; Surer, Ilhami; Demirbag, Suzi; Caliskan, Bahadir; Ozturk, Haluk; Cetinkursun, Salih

2007-04-01

221

Microbial Colonization of the Intestinal Epithelium in Suckling Mice  

PubMed Central

Colonization by indigenous microorganisms of the mucosal epithelia of the large bowels of suckling mice was followed by microbial culture techniques and by light, fluorescence, and electron microscopy. Certain microbes colonize in distinctive patterns the cecal and colonic epithelia in these mice. Coliforms and enterococci colonize the large bowel 7 to 9 days after birth and reach high population levels during the second week. During that period, these facultative anaerobes can be detected by immunofluorescence techniques in microcolonies in the mucin on the epithelium. During the third week, however, after their populations decline to the low levels characteristic of adult mice, coliforms and enteroccoci can be observed only infrequently in the mucous layer. Anaerobic fusiform-shaped bacteria appear in the mucous layers along with the microcolonies of enterococci and coliforms during the second week after birth. These anaerobes increase in numbers in the mucin until they form thick layers on the mucosal epithelium by the end of the third week. They remain in the mucous layer throughout the life of the normal mouse. Anaerobic spiral-shaped microbes also colonize the mucous layer on the cecal and colonic epithelium. But these organisms can be detected by immunofluorescence in 1-week-old mice, well in advance of the time the fusiform-shaped bacteria can be found. In the second week, the latter microbes co-inhabit the mucous layer with the spiral-shaped organisms. The fusiform- and spiral-shaped microbes remain associated in the mucin on the cecal and colonic mucosal epithelia into the adult life of mice. Images PMID:4586864

Davis, C. P.; McAllister, J. S.; Savage, D. C.

1973-01-01

222

Microbial colonization of the intestinal epithelium in suckling mice.  

PubMed

Colonization by indigenous microorganisms of the mucosal epithelia of the large bowels of suckling mice was followed by microbial culture techniques and by light, fluorescence, and electron microscopy. Certain microbes colonize in distinctive patterns the cecal and colonic epithelia in these mice. Coliforms and enterococci colonize the large bowel 7 to 9 days after birth and reach high population levels during the second week. During that period, these facultative anaerobes can be detected by immunofluorescence techniques in microcolonies in the mucin on the epithelium. During the third week, however, after their populations decline to the low levels characteristic of adult mice, coliforms and enteroccoci can be observed only infrequently in the mucous layer. Anaerobic fusiform-shaped bacteria appear in the mucous layers along with the microcolonies of enterococci and coliforms during the second week after birth. These anaerobes increase in numbers in the mucin until they form thick layers on the mucosal epithelium by the end of the third week. They remain in the mucous layer throughout the life of the normal mouse. Anaerobic spiral-shaped microbes also colonize the mucous layer on the cecal and colonic epithelium. But these organisms can be detected by immunofluorescence in 1-week-old mice, well in advance of the time the fusiform-shaped bacteria can be found. In the second week, the latter microbes co-inhabit the mucous layer with the spiral-shaped organisms. The fusiform- and spiral-shaped microbes remain associated in the mucin on the cecal and colonic mucosal epithelia into the adult life of mice. PMID:4586864

Davis, C P; McAllister, J S; Savage, D C

1973-04-01

223

Esophageal reflux--an unrecognized cause of recurrent obstructive bronchitis in children.  

PubMed

Forty-three children with recurrent obstructive bronchitis but without prominent gastrointestinal symptoms were studied for esophageal reflux roentgenographically and by manometry. Roentgenographic evidence for reflux was shown in 26; these patients had a mean lower esophageal sphincter pressure of 6.3 mm Hg as compared to a mean LES pressure of 21.9 mm Hg in normal control infants. The remaining 17 patients had a mean LES pressure of 10.0 mm Hg, also significantly lower than that of control subjects. Fifteen of 20 patients with recurrent obstructive bronchitis noted alleviation of their pulmonary symptoms after medical treatment of their reflux. Sequential studies of another group with radiologically demonstrated reflux showed increases in sphincter pressures and disappearance of radiologically observed reflux in one third of the patients. It is suggested that esophageal reflux should be sought in patients with recurrent bronchitis: if found, antireflux therapy might be expected to improve the pulmonary symptomatology. PMID:940015

Danus, O; Casar, C; Larrain, A; Pope, C E

1976-08-01

224

Phase-contrast X-ray CT Imaging of Esophagus and Esophageal Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The electron density resolution is 1000 times higher for synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast CT imaging than conventional X-ray absorption imaging in light elements, with which high-resolution X-ray imaging of biological soft tissue can be achieved. In the present study, we used phase-contrast X-ray CT to investigate human resected esophagus and esophageal carcinoma specimens. This technology revealed the three-layer structure of the esophageal wall-- mucous, submucosa and muscular layers. The mucous and muscular layers were clearly separated by a loose submucosa layer with a honeycomb appearance. The surface of the mucous layer was smooth. In esophageal carcinoma, because of tumor tissue infiltration, the submucosa layer was absent, which indicated destruction of the submucosa. The boundary between normal tissue and tumor was comparatively fuzzy, the three-layer structure of the esophageal wall was indistinct. The surface of the mucous layer was rugose. The technology might be helpful in tumor staging of esophageal carcinoma. PMID:24939041

Zhang, Jianfa; Tian, Dongping; Lin, Runhua; zhou, Guangzhao; Peng, Guanyun; Su, Min

2014-01-01

225

Endoscopic management of esophageal varices  

PubMed Central

The rupture of gastric varices results in variceal hemorrhage, which is one the most lethal complications of cirrhosis. Endoscopic therapies for varices aim to reduce variceal wall tension by obliteration of the varix. The two principal methods available for esophageal varices are endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) and band ligation (EBL). The advantages of EST are that it is cheap and easy to use, and the injection catheter fits through the working channel of a diagnostic gastroscope. Endoscopic variceal ligation obliterates varices by causing mechanical strangulation with rubber bands. The following review aims to describe the utility of EBL and EST in different situations, such as acute bleeding, primary and secondary prophylaxis PMID:22816012

Poza Cordon, Joaquin; Froilan Torres, Consuelo; Burgos García, Aurora; Gea Rodriguez, Francisco; Suárez de Parga, Jose Manuel

2012-01-01

226

Endoscopic management of esophageal varices.  

PubMed

The rupture of gastric varices results in variceal hemorrhage, which is one the most lethal complications of cirrhosis. Endoscopic therapies for varices aim to reduce variceal wall tension by obliteration of the varix. The two principal methods available for esophageal varices are endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) and band ligation (EBL). The advantages of EST are that it is cheap and easy to use, and the injection catheter fits through the working channel of a diagnostic gastroscope. Endoscopic variceal ligation obliterates varices by causing mechanical strangulation with rubber bands. The following review aims to describe the utility of EBL and EST in different situations, such as acute bleeding, primary and secondary prophylaxis. PMID:22816012

Poza Cordon, Joaquin; Froilan Torres, Consuelo; Burgos García, Aurora; Gea Rodriguez, Francisco; Suárez de Parga, Jose Manuel

2012-07-16

227

RHBDF2 mutations are associated with tylosis, a familial esophageal cancer syndrome.  

PubMed

Tylosis esophageal cancer (TOC) is an autosomal-dominant syndrome characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma, oral precursor lesions, and a high lifetime risk of esophageal cancer. We have previously localized the TOC locus to a small genomic interval within chromosomal region 17q25. Using a targeted capture array and next-generation sequencing, we have now identified missense mutations (c.557T>C [p.Ile186Thr] and c.566C>T [p.Pro189Leu] in RHBDF2, which encodes the inactive rhomboid protease RHBDF2 (also known as iRhom2), as the underlying cause of TOC. We show that the distribution of RHBDF2 in tylotic skin is altered in comparison with that in normal skin, and immortalized tylotic keratinocytes have decreased levels of total epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and display an increased proliferative and migratory potential relative to normal cells, even when normal cells are stimulated with exogenous epidermal growth factor. It would thus appear that EGFR signaling is dysregulated in tylotic cells. Furthermore, we also show an altered localization of RHBDF2 in both tylotic and sporadic squamous esophageal tumors. The elucidation of a role of RHBDF2 in growth-factor signaling in esophageal cancer will help to determine whether targeting this pathway in chemotherapy for this and other squamous cell carcinomas will be effective. PMID:22265016

Blaydon, Diana C; Etheridge, Sarah L; Risk, Janet M; Hennies, Hans-Christian; Gay, Laura J; Carroll, Rebecca; Plagnol, Vincent; McRonald, Fiona E; Stevens, Howard P; Spurr, Nigel K; Bishop, D Timothy; Ellis, Anthony; Jankowski, Janusz; Field, John K; Leigh, Irene M; South, Andrew P; Kelsell, David P

2012-02-10

228

Effect of esophageal emptying and saliva on clearance of acid from the esophagus  

SciTech Connect

The clearance of acid from the esophagus and esophageal emptying in normal subjects was studied. A 15-ml bolus of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) radiolabeled with (/sup -99m/Tc)sulfur colloid was injected into the esophagus, and the subject swallowed every 30 seconds. Concurrent manometry and radionuclide imaging showed nearly complete emptying of acid from the esophagus by an immediate secondary peristaltic sequence, although esophageal pH did not rise until the first swallow 30 seconds later. Esophageal pH then returned to normal by a series of step increases, each associated with a swallow-induced peristaltic sequence. Saliva stimulation by an oral lozenge shortened the time required for acid clearance, whereas aspiration of saliva from the mouth abolished acid clearance. Saliva stimulation or aspiration did not affect the virtually complete emptying of acid volume by the initial peristaltic sequence. It was concluded that esophageal acid clearance normally occurs as a two-step process: (1) virtually all acid volume is emptied from the esophagus by one or two peristaltic sequences, leaving a minimal residual amount that sustains a low pH, and (2) residual acid is neutralized by swallowed saliva. 13 references, 3 figures.

Helm, J.F.; Dodds, W.J.; Pelc, L.R.; Palmer, D.W.; Hogan, W.J.; Teeter, B.C.

1984-02-02

229

Effect of esophageal emptying and saliva on clearance of acid from the esophagus  

SciTech Connect

The clearance of acid from the esophagus and esophageal emptying in normal subjects was studied. A 15-ml bolus of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) radiolabeled with (/sup 99m/Tc)sulfur colloid was injected into the esophagus, and the subject swallowed every 30 seconds. Concurrent manometry and radionuclide imaging showed nearly complete emptying of acid from the esophagus by an immediate secondary peristaltic sequence, although esophageal pH did not rise until the first swallow 30 seconds later. Esophageal pH then returned to normal by a series of step increases, each associated with a swallow-induced peristaltic sequence. Saliva stimulation by an oral lozenge shortened the time required for acid clearance, whereas aspiration of saliva from the mouth abolished acid clearance. Saliva stimulation or aspiration did not affect the virtually complete emptying of acid volume by the initial peristaltic sequence. It was concluded that esophageal acid clearance normally occurs as a two-step process: (1) Virtually all acid volume is emptied from the esophagus by one or two peristaltic sequences, leaving a minimal residual amount that sustains a low pH, and (2) residual acid is neutralized by swallowed saliva.

Helm, J.F.; Dodds, W.J.; Pelc, L.R.; Palmer, D.W.; Hogan, W.J.; Teeter, B.C.

1984-02-02

230

Efficacy and histopathological esophageal wall damage of biodegradable esophageal stents for treatment of severe refractory esophageal anastomotic stricture in a child with long gap esophageal atresia.  

PubMed

A case in which a self-expandable biodegradable (BD) esophageal stent was used for a refractory esophageal anastomotic stricture (EAS) in a 5-year-old female is presented. The patient underwent closure of a tracheoesophageal fistula and gastrostomy in the neonatal period. Esophagoesophagostomy was performed at 18 months of age after a multistaged extrathoracic esophageal elongation procedure. The patient developed refractory EAS and required repeated esophageal balloon dilation. Four sessions of esophageal BD stenting were performed from the age of 5-8 years. Each BD stenting allowed her to eat chopped food, but the anastomotic stricture recurred 4-7 months after the procedure. No major complications were observed, though transient chest pain and dysphagia were observed after each stenting. Finally, at 8 years of age, EAS resection and esophagoesophageal anastomosis were performed. The resected specimens showed thickened scar formation at the EAS lesion, while the degree of esophageal wall damage, both at the proximal and distal ends of the stricture, was slight. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of this kind of treatment and assessment of damage to the esophageal wall microscopically. The advantages and problems of the use of BD stents in children are discussed. PMID:25399341

Okata, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Chieko; Bitoh, Yuko; Yokoi, Akiko; Nishijima, Eiji; Maeda, Kosaku; Yoshida, Makiko; Ishida, Tsukasa; Azuma, Takeshi; Kutsumi, Hiromu

2014-12-01

231

Radioprotective Effects of Amifostine on Acute and Chronic Esophageal Injury in Rodents  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the protective benefit of amifostine against esophageal injury from fractionated radiation in a rodent model. Methods: Fractionated or sham esophageal irradiation was administered to Fisher-344 rats for 5 consecutive daily fractions of 9 Gy using 150 kV X-rays. Animals received an intraperitoneal injection of amifostine or placebo 30 min before each fraction. Histopathologic analyses for mucosal thickness, submucosal collagen deposition, activation of macrophages, oxidative stress and expression/activation of integrin{alpha}v{beta}6 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} were performed 5 days and 10 weeks after irradiation. Results: Pre-RT mean mucosal thickness was 35 {mu}m in both the placebo and the amifostine groups. Five days post-RT, mean mucosal thicknesses were 30 {mu}m in the placebo group versus 37 {mu}m in the amifostine group (p = 0.024). At 10 weeks post-RT, the group receiving amifostine experienced a significant decrease in tunica muscularis damage (p = 0.002), submucosal collagen deposition (p = 0.027), and macrophage accumulation (p = 0.026) when compared with the placebo group. The levels of immunoreactivity for oxidative stress, TGF-{beta}, and integrin{alpha}v{beta}6 were significantly decreased 10 weeks post-RT in the group receiving amifostine treatment compared with placebo group. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that amifostine given before each radiation fraction protects against acute and chronic esophageal injury in a rodent model. Protection of the mucosal epithelium integrity by amifostine prevents integrin{alpha}v{beta}6 expression which reduces TGF-{beta} activation and subsequent development of chronic esophageal injury in this model. Further investigation is necessary to determine the clinical relevance of these findings.

Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Thrasher, Bradley A.; Jackson, Isabel L.; Brizel, Marla B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Brizel, David M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)], E-mail: david.Brizel@duke.edu

2007-10-01

232

Vitamin D receptor is highly expressed in precancerous lesions and esophageal adenocarcinoma with significant sex difference.  

PubMed

Bile acid reflux into the esophagus is important in the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Recently, vitamin D receptor (VDR) was recognized as a bile acid receptor as well as a vitamin receptor. Expression of VDR is reported to influence the development of various types of cancer, such as those of the breast, liver, and colon. However, little is known about the role of VDR in esophageal neoplasms. We investigated the clinicopathological role of VDR in esophageal tumors. We analyzed genomic DNA from 116 EACs for copy number aberrations. The VDR locus was amplified in 7% of EACs. Expression of the VDR protein was also detected by immunohistochemistry from tissue microarrays created from tissues of Barrett esophagus (BE), low-grade (LGD) and high-grade dysplasia (HGD), columnar cell metaplasia (CCM), squamous epithelium (SE), EAC, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The protein was highly expressed in 88% of CCM (58/66), 95% of BE (35/37), 100% of the 19 LGD, 94% of HGD (15/16), and 79% of EAC (86/109), but expression in SE and ESCC was rare. Female patients with EAC and CCM were significantly less likely to have high VDR expression than male patients. The overall survival rate was significantly different for patients with tumors exhibiting VDR amplification versus nonamplification. Our findings suggest that VDR plays a role in the early development of EAC through a bile acid ligand. The sex difference in VDR expression may help to explain why men have a high incidence of EAC. PMID:24951052

Zhou, Zhongren; Xia, Yinglin; Bandla, Santhoshi; Zakharov, Vladislav; Wu, Shaoping; Peters, Jeffery; Godfrey, Tony E; Sun, Jun

2014-08-01

233

Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease  

PubMed Central

Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

2014-01-01

234

Fluoroscopic findings post-peroral esophageal myotomy.  

PubMed

Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a surgical technique that has been evolving rapidly. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was initiated in 1999, in Japan, for en-bloc resection of large lesions of the stomach (Zhou et al., World J Gastroenterol 19:6962-6968, 2013, ; Kobara et al., Clin Exp Gastroenterol 7:67-74, 2014). Since then, many additional therapies utilizing natural transluminal endoscopic approach have evolved. Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a minimally invasive type of transluminal endoscopic surgery that was recently developed for the treatment of achalasia and esophageal motility disorders. The peroral endoscopic myotomy is a less invasive surgical treatment that is suitable for all types of achalasia and used as an alternate to the Heller myotomy. The radiographic findings of achalasia and surgical changes after Heller myotomy have been described, however, very little is available on the post-POEM esophagram appearance. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the anatomy, surgical procedure, and normal and abnormal findings seen on esophagrams in patients who have undergone a POEM. PMID:25128214

Harmath, Carla; Horowitz, Jeanne; Berggruen, Senta; Hammond, Nancy; Nikolaidis, Paul; Miller, Frank; Goodhartz, Lori; Teitlebaum, Erza; Hungness, Eric; Yaghmai, Vahid

2015-02-01

235

Current management of esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Management of esophageal cancer has evolved since the two last decades. Esophagectomy remains the primary treatment for early stage esophageal cancer although its specific role in superficial cancers is still under debate since the development of endoscopic mucosal treatment. To date, there is strong evidence to consider that locally advanced cancers should be recommended for a multimodal treatment with a neoadjuvant chemotherapy or a combined chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery. For locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma or for a part of adenocarcinoma, some centers have proposed treating with definitive CRT to avoid related-mortality of surgery. In case of persistent or recurrent disease, a salvage esophagectomy remains a possible option but this procedure is associated with higher levels of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Despite the debate over what constitutes the best surgical approach (transthoracic versus transhiatal), the current question is if a minimally procedure could reduce the periopertive morbidity and mortality without jeopardizing the oncological results of surgery. Since the last decade, minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) or hybrid operations are being done in up to 30% of procedures internationally. There are some consistent data that MIE could decrease the incidence of the respiratory complications and decrease the length of hospital-stay. Nowadays, oncologic outcomes appear equivalent between open and minimally invasive procedures but numerous phase III trials are ongoing. PMID:24868443

Thomas, Pascal Alexandre

2014-01-01

236

Updates on esophageal and gastric cancers  

PubMed Central

Esophageal and gastric cancers are both common and deadly. Patients present most often after disease progression and survival is therefore poor. Due to demographic variability and recent changes in disease incidence, much emphasis has been placed on studying risk factors for both esophageal and gastric cancers. However, with increasing understanding of these diseases, low survival rates persist and continued intensive studies are necessary to optimize treatment plans. This review article discusses updates in the evolving epidemiology, clinical presentation, risk factors, and diagnostic and treatment modalities of esophageal and gastric cancers. PMID:16718845

Gallo, Amy; Cha, Charles

2006-01-01

237

Resection of esophageal carcinoma during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Esophageal carcinoma diagnosed during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. A 26-year-old pregnant patient was referred to our hospital with dysphagia. A thorough examination showed a tumor in the esophagus. Laparotomy, thoracotomy, and cervical exploration were performed. There are only 2 cases reported in the literature about esophageal carcinoma diagnosed during pregnancy and treated surgically. However, ethical dilemmas arise in managing such situations. Here we report a case of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed at 27 weeks of gestation in which surgical resection was performed successfully. PMID:25555961

?ahin, Murat; Kocaman, Gökhan; Özkan, Murat; Yüksel, Cabir; Enön, Serkan; Kutlay, Hakan

2015-01-01

238

Patients with established gastro-esophageal reflux disease might benefit from Helicobacter pylori eradication  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication in selected H. pylori-positive patients with a primary diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) by using the 3-h postprandial esophageal pH monitoring. Methods We recruited patients with erosive esophagitis at endoscopy and H. pylori infection at histology, successfully cured following eradication therapy; the selected H. pylori-positive patients had weekly reflux symptoms for at least six months and endoscopically established Grade A or B esophagitis. Twenty-nine eligible patients were initially subjected to esophageal manometry and ambulatory 3-h postprandial esophageal pH monitoring. All patients received H. pylori triple eradication therapy accompanied by successful H. pylori eradication. After successful eradication of H. pylori (confirmed by 13C urea breath test), a second manometry and 3-h postprandial esophageal pH monitoring were introduced to assess the results of eradication therapy, after a 3-month post-treatment period. Results All 29 selected H. pylori-positive patients became negative due to successful H. pylori eradication, evaluated by 13C urea breath test after a 4-week post-treatment period. Post-eradication, 62.1% patients showed similar manometric pattern at baseline; 17.2% showed improvement; 17.2% normalization; and 3.4% deterioration of the manometric patterns. The DeMeester symptom scoring in the 3-h postprandial ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring was improved after eradication of H. pylori (median 47.47 vs. 22.00, Wilcoxon’s singed rank; P=0.016). On comparing the pH monitoring studies for each patient at baseline and post-eradication period, 82.8% patients showed improvement and 17.2% deterioration of the DeMeester score. Conclusion By using 3-h postprandial esophageal pH monitoring, this study showed, for the first time, that H. pylori eradication may positively influence GERD symptoms. Large-scale controlled relative studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:25330805

Moschos, John M.; Kouklakis, George; Vradelis, Stergios; Zezos, Petros; Pitiakoudis, Michael; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Zavos, Christos; Kountouras, Jannis

2014-01-01

239

ORIGINAL PAPER Response of the hammerhead shark olfactory epithelium  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Response of the hammerhead shark olfactory epithelium to amino acid stimuli Timothy that hammerhead sharks, with their expanded head and enlarged olfactory epithelium, have particularly acute of the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) olfactory epithelium to 20 proteinogenic amino acids

Summers, Adam P.

240

Transcriptome analysis and molecular signature of human retinal pigment epithelium  

E-print Network

Transcriptome analysis and molecular signature of human retinal pigment epithelium N.V. Strunnikova December 14, 2009; Revised March 3, 2010; Accepted March 30, 2010 Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is an aging-associated multifactorial disease that affects the photoreceptor-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE

Abecasis, Goncalo

241

Overexpression of FOXO3, MYD88, and GAPDH Identified by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization in Esophageal Cancer Is Associated with Autophagy  

PubMed Central

To find genes involved in tumorigenesis and the development of esophageal cancer, the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method was used to identify genes that are overexpressed in esophageal cancer tissues compared to normal esophageal tissues. In our SSH library, the forkhead box O3 (FOXO3), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MYD88) genes were the most highly upregulated genes, and they were selected for further studies because of their potential role in the induction of autophagy. Upregulation of these genes was also observed in clinical samples using qRT-PCR. In addition, coexpression analysis of the autophagy-related genes Beclin1, ATG12, Gabarapl, PIK3C3, and LC3 demonstrated a significant correlation between the differentially overexpressed genes and autophagy. Autophagy is an important mechanism in tumorigenesis and the development of chemoresistance in cancer cells. The upregulation of FOXO3, GAPDH, and MYD88 variants in esophageal cancer suggests a role for autophagy and provides new insight into the biology of esophageal cancer. We propose that FOXO3, GAPDH, and MYD88 are novel targets for combating autophagy in esophageal cancer. PMID:24527027

Mottaghi-Dastjerdi, Negar; Setayesh, Neda; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Ebrahimifard, Farzaneh; Sepehrizadeh, Zargham

2014-01-01

242

Morphological Alterations of the Palpebral Conjunctival Epithelium in a Dry Eye Model  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the normal palpebral conjunctival histology in C57BL/6 mice, and the structural changes that occur in a dry eye model. Methods 24 male and female C57BL/6 mice, 8 untreated (UT) and 16 exposed to experimental ocular surface desiccating stress (DS). Ocular dryness was induced by administration of scopolamine hydrobromide (0.5 mg/0.2 ml) QID for 5 (DS5) or 10 (DS10) days. Counts and measurements were obtained using anatomical reference points and goblet cell density was investigated with a variety of stains. Results Near the junction between the lid margin and the normal palpebral conjunctiva, the epithelium had an average thickness of 45.6±10.5?m, 8.8±2.0 cell layers, versus 37.7±5.6?m, 7.4±1.3 layers in DS10 (P<0.05). In the goblet cell populated palpebral region the normal epithelium was thicker (P<0.05) than in DS5 and DS10. In the control, 43% of the goblet cells were covered by squamous epithelium, compared to 58% (DS5) and 63% (DS10) (P<0.05). A decreased number of Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) and Alcian blue stained goblet cells was observed in the dry eye. Not all goblet cells stained with PAS and Alcian blue. Conclusions The mouse palpebral conjunctival epithelium was structurally similar to the human. After DS the palpebral conjunctival epithelium decreased in thickness and goblet cell access to the surface appeared to be inhibited by surrounding epithelial cells, potentially slowing down their migration to the surface. Differential staining with PAS and Alcian blue suggests there may be different subtypes of conjunctival goblet cells. PMID:23146932

Henriksson, Johanna Tukler; De Paiva, Cintia S.; Farley, William; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Burns, Alan R.; Bergmanson, Jan P.G.

2012-01-01

243

Local hyperthermia for esophageal cancer in a rabbit tumor model: Magnetic stent hyperthermia versus magnetic fluid hyperthermia  

PubMed Central

Magnetic-mediated hyperthermia (MMH) is a promising local thermotherapy approach for cancer treatment. The present study investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of MMH in esophageal cancer using a rabbit tumor model. The therapeutic effect of two hyperthermia approaches, magnetic stent hyperthermia (MSH), in which heat is induced by the clinical stent that is placed inside the esophagus, and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH), where magnetic nanoparticles are applied as the agent, was systematically evaluated. A rabbit esophageal tumor model was established by injecting VX2 carcinoma cells into the esophageal submucosa. The esophageal stent was deployed perorally into the tumor segment of the esophagus. For the MFH, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were administered to the rabbits by intratumoral injection. The rabbits were exposed under a benchtop applicator using an alternative magnetic field (AMF) with 300 kHz frequency for the hyperthermia treatment. The results demonstrated that esophageal stents and MNPs had ideal inductive heating properties upon exposure under an AMF of 300 kHz. MSH, using a thermal dose of 46°C with a 10-min treatment time, demonstrated antitumor effects on the rabbit esophageal cancer. However, the rabbit esophageal wall is not heat-resistant. Therefore, a higher temperature or longer treatment time may lead to necrosis of the rabbit esophagus. MFH has a significant antitumor effect by confining the heat within the tumor site without damaging the adjacent normal tissues. The present study indicates that the two hyperthermia procedures have therapeutic effects on esophageal cancer, and that MFH may be more specific than MSH in terms of temperature control during the treatment. PMID:24260045

LIU, JIAYI; LI, NING; LI, LI; LI, DANYE; LIU, KAI; ZHAO, LINGYUN; TANG, JINTIAN; LI, LIYA

2013-01-01

244

A Case of Esophageal Intramural Pseudodiverticulosis  

PubMed Central

Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (EIP) is a rare benign disease that is characterized by multiple tiny flask-shaped outpouching lesions of the esophageal wall. The etiology is unknown, but the pathologic findings include dilatation of excretory ducts of submucosal glands. The predominant symptom is dysphagia, and esophageal stricture occurs frequently. Diseases such as diabetes mellitus, esophageal candidiasis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and chronic alcoholism are often combined. Since most EIP cases are benign, the mainstream treatment is symptom relief by endoscopic dilatation or medical treatment of accompanied diseases. This report describes the case of a 68-year-old male patient who suffered from chest tightness for 2 months and was diagnosed with EIP. This symptom disappeared after 2 months of medical treatment, and the patient is now being regularly followed up. PMID:21461080

Chon, Young Eun; Hwang, Sena; Jung, Kyu Sik; Lee, Hyun Jung; Lee, Sang Gil; Shin, Sung Kwan

2011-01-01

245

Resection for Esophageal Cancer in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

This article will focus on the impact of patient age on outcomes following esophageal resection as well as potential strategies to improve perioperative management of geriatric patients undergoing esophagectomy for cancer. PMID:20066945

Chang, Andrew C.; Lee, Julia S.

2009-01-01

246

X-ray microanalysis of hamster tracheal epithelium  

SciTech Connect

Studies of ion transport across respiratory epithelia are of great interest if we are to understand the pathophysiology of diseases such as cystic fibrosis in which ion transport is abnormal. Concentrations of elements were determined in various subcellular regions of normal or isoproterenol-treated hamster tracheal epithelium, using X-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried cryosections. Samples of trachea were taken from animals under anesthesia and either frozen in situ or dissected and plunge frozen. Concentrations of Mg, P, S, Cl, K and Ca were higher in cytoplasm and nuclei of control epithelial cells in dissected samples than in cryoneedle samples. Following treatment with isoproterenol, a large decrease in the concentration of Cl was observed. The results confirm that cyclic AMP-regulated chloride secretion is unaffected by anesthesia.

Spencer, A.J.; Roomans, G.M. (Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden))

1989-06-01

247

Role of diagnostic tests in esophageal evaluation  

SciTech Connect

In the evaluation of esophageal disease, the appropriate question must be asked before the correct tests can be selected. Reflux can be demonstrated by radiologic methods, pH testing or radioisotopic techniques. Esophageal mucosal damage is best evaluated by x-ray, endoscopy, or biopsy. Chest pain is demonstrated by acid infusion or by manometry. Two algorithms are presented for the evaluation of chest pain and reflux symptoms.

Silverstein, B.D.; Pope, C.E. II

1980-06-01

248

Neurogenesis in the vomeronasal epithelium of adult garter snakes: 3. Use of /sup 3/H-thymidine autoradiography to trace the genesis and migration of bipolar neurons  

SciTech Connect

Use of 3H-thymidine autoradiography and unilateral vomeronasal (VN) axotomy has permitted us to demonstrate directly the existence of VN stem cells in the adult garter snake and to trace continuous bipolar neuron development and migration in the normal VN and deafferentated VN epithelium in the same animal. The vomeronasal epithelium and olfactory epithelium of adult garter snakes are both capable of incorporating 3H-thymidine. In the sensory epithelium of the vomeronasal organ, 3H-thymidine-labeled cells were initially restricted to the base of the undifferentiated cell layer in animals surviving 1 day following 3H-thymidine injection. With increasing survival time, labeled cells progressively migrated vertically within the receptor cell column toward the apex of the bipolar neuron layer. In both the normal and denervated VN epithelium, labeled cells were observed through the 56 days of postoperative survival. In the normal epithelium, labeled cells were always located within the matrix of the intact receptor cell columns. However, labeled cells of the denervated epithelium were always located at the apical front of the newly formed cell mass following depletion of the original neuronal cell population. In addition, at postoperative days 28 and 56, labeled cells of the denervated VN epithelium achieved neuronal differentiation and maturation by migrating much farther away from the base of the receptor cell column than the labeled cells on the normal, unoperated contralateral side. This study directly demonstrates that basal cells initially incorporating 3H-thymidine are indeed stem cells of the VN epithelium in adult garter snakes.

Wang, R.T.; Halpern, M.

1988-10-01

249

Odors Discrimination by Olfactory Epithelium Biosensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans are exploring the bionic biological olfaction to sense the various trace components of gas or liquid in many fields. For achieving the goal, we endeavor to establish a bioelectronic nose system for odor detection by combining intact bioactive function units with sensors. The bioelectronic nose is based on the olfactory epithelium of rat and microelectrode array (MEA). The olfactory epithelium biosensor generates extracellular potentials in presence of odor, and presents obvious specificity under different odors condition. The odor response signals can be distinguished with each other effectively by signal sorting. On basis of bioactive MEA hybrid system and the improved signal processing analysis, the bioelectronic nose will realize odor discrimination by the specific feature of signals response to various odors.

Liu, Qingjun; Hu, Ning; Ye, Weiwei; Zhang, Fenni; Wang, Hua; Wang, Ping

2011-09-01

250

Intestinal Epithelium in Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

PubMed Central

The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that are crucial in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets.

Coskun, Mehmet

2014-01-01

251

Role of Proton Pump Inhibitor on Esophageal Carcinogenesis and Pancreatic Acinar Cell Metaplasia Development: An Experimental In Vivo Study  

PubMed Central

Chronic gastro-duodenal reflux in the esophagus is a major risk for intestinal metaplasia and Barrett’s adenocarcinoma. A role for chronic use of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) in the increased incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in Western countries has been previously suggested. The aim of this work was to study the effect of chronic administration of omeprazole (a proton pump inhibitor) per os in a model of reflux induced esophageal carcinogenesis. One week after esophago-gastro-jejunostomy, 115 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive 10 mg/Kg per day of omeprazole or placebo, 5 days per week. The esophago-gastric specimens were collected 28±2 weeks after randomization and analyzed in a blinded fashion. Mortality and esophageal metaplasia rates did not differ between the two groups (p?=?0.99 for mortality, p?=?0.36 for intestinal metaplasia and p?=?0.66 for multi-layered epithelium). Gastric pancreatic acinar cell metaplasia (PACM) was more frequently observed in PPI-treated rats (p?=?0.003). Severe ulcer lesions significantly prevailed in the placebo group (p?=?0.03). Locally invasive esophageal epithelial neoplasia were observed in 23/39 PPI-treated versus 14/42 placebo-animals (p?=?0.03). In conclusion, chronic omeprazole treatment improved the healing of esophageal ulcerative lesions. Locally invasive neoplastic lesions and PACM prevailed among PPI-treated animals. However, neither an effect on the overall mortality nor on the incidence of pre-neoplastic lesions was observed in this work. PMID:25415190

Dall’Olmo, Luigi; Fassan, Matteo; Dassie, Elisa; Scarpa, Marco; Realdon, Stefano; Cavallin, Francesco; Cagol, Matteo; Battaglia, Giorgio; Pizzi, Marco; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Franceschinis, Erica; Pasut, Gianfranco; Rugge, Massimo; Zaninotto, Giovanni; Realdon, Nicola; Castoro, Carlo

2014-01-01

252

Polymorphism at the 3'-UTR of the thymidylate synthase gene: A potential predictor for outcomes in Caucasian patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma treated with preoperative chemoradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To test the hypothesis that TS3'UTR polymorphisms predict outcomes in 146 Caucasian patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma treated with preoperative 5-fluorouracil-based chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: DNA was extracted from hematoxylin-and-eosin stained histologic slides of normal esophageal or gastric mucosa sections from paraffin blocks of esophagectomy specimens. Genotypes of the TS3'UTR polymorphism were determined by polymerase chain reaction for a 6-bp

Liao Zhongxing; Liu Hongji; Stephen G. Swisher; Wang Luo; Tsung-Teh Wu; Arlene M. Correa; Jack A. Roth; James D. Cox; Ritsuko Komaki; Jaffer A. Ajani; Wei Qingyi

2006-01-01

253

Antigen presentation in the murine oral epithelium.  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported that the buccal mucosa can support delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions to contact sensitizers. In the present study, we show that cells isolated from the buccal epithelium are able to present soluble exogenous antigens to specific T cells. Single cell suspensions obtained by enzymatic dispersion of buccal epithelial sheets could present the native protein antigen hen-egg lysozyme (HEL) to the I-Ak-restricted CD4+ T-cell hybridoma specific for a.a 46-61 on HEL. T-cell activation resulted in interleukin-2 (IL-2) production which could be inhibited by anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class-II antibodies of pertinent specificity. Immunohistochemical staining of whole buccal epithelial sheets revealed that all MHC II positive cells had a dendritic morphology and expressed ATPase activity, indicating that these cells represent a major antigen-presenting cell (APC) population in this tissue. Furthermore, single cell suspensions isolated from buccal epithelium (BEC) after local in vivo administration of either a native soluble protein, a synthetic dodecapeptide, or a contact sensitizer were able to activate antigen-specific T cells ex vivo. Kinetic analyses indicated that maximal APC activity in the oral epithelium occurred within 1 hr after local antigen administration, and had essentially vanished after 24 hr. Conversely, APC activity was undetectable in draining cervico-mandibular lymph node cell suspensions recovered 1 hr after local antigen injection but became manifest after 3-24 hr. These observations suggest that dendritic cells can acquire antigens in the buccal epithelium and migrate to draining lymph nodes where they present processed antigen to MHC class II-restricted T cells. This APC population may thus be a critical element in the initiation of Th1-driven DTH responses in the oral mucosa. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8707342

Eriksson, K; Ahlfors, E; George-Chandy, A; Kaiserlian, D; Czerkinsky, C

1996-01-01

254

Tumor promotion studies in rat tracheal epithelium  

PubMed Central

The tracheal epithelium of the Fischer 344 rat is histologically very similar to that of the human bronchus. Also, carcinomas of tracheal origin in F-344 rats are similar in morphology to human bronchogenic carcinomas. Tumor promotion in rat tracheal epithelium was studied by using two model systems. The first is a heterotopic transplant system in which rat tracheas are implanted subcutaneously on the backs of isogenic recipents. In the first system, the epithelium was topically exposed to pellets containing 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), used as the initiating agent, followed by pellets containing the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), the promoting agent. After 98 weeks, a three- to fourfold increase in the percentage of tracheas having malignant tumors was seen in tracheal transplants receiving both DMBA and TPA compared to DMBA alone. Exposure of the tracheal grafts to TPA alone resulted in epithelial hyperplasia and inflammation, but no dysplastic lesions. The second system is an organ culture-cell culture system in which small pieces of trachea are grown in organ culture, then epithelial cells are grown from these pieces as primary cell cultures. The organ cultures were exposed to the direct alkylating agent, N-methyl-N?-nitro-N -nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) used as the initiator, then multiple short exposures to TPA were used to promote. Primary cell cultures and cell lines were then established from these explants. After 52 weeks, a five-fold increase in the percentage of explants producing tumorigenic cell lines was observed when MNNG + TPA-exposed explants were compared to MNNG-exposed explants. Tracheal explants exposed to TPA alone produced many cell lines but none tested were tumorigenic. These two systems provide a means to study tumor promotion in respiratory epithelium. The evidence more importantly suggests that airborne promoting substances may play a key role in the development of bronchogenic carcinoma. ImagesFIGURE 2.FIGURE 3.FIGURE 4. PMID:6409605

Steele, Vernon E.; Topping, Douglas C.; Pai, S. Balakrishna

1983-01-01

255

Effects of allergenic extracts on airway epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

When allergen is inhaled it comes into contact with the epithelium of the respiratory tract. This contact triggers multiple\\u000a events that can ultimately stimulate development of allergic asthma. Some allergens, like house dust mite, contain active\\u000a proteolytic enzymes that break down tight epithelial cell junctions. Others act to enhance inflammation by stimulating epithelial\\u000a cells to make proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

Laurel J. Gershwin

2007-01-01

256

Long-Term Outcomes of Simultaneous Skin and Bowel Flaps for Esophageal Reconstruction.  

PubMed

Esophageal reconstruction can be performed with skin or bowel flaps. The choice of flap remains controversial, as the long-term outcomes of skin flaps cannot always be assessed in patients with limited life expectancies due to advanced malignancy, unlike the pediatric and benign cases which have had esophageal reconstruction using bowel flaps. We report the long-term clinical and histopathological outcomes in a series of 45 cases repaired with combined skin and bowel flaps.Four patients developed symptomatic strictures after corrosive esophageal injuries were repaired with a combination of a tubed free radial forearm fasciocutaneous flap and a pedicled bowel flap. On average, 24 years had passed since uneventful initial esophageal reconstructions. Barium esophagograms were obtained in all cases and pathological examination was performed upon all surgical specimens.The cutaneous portions of the reconstructed esophagus exhibited a variety of findings on barium examination. Each of the 4 cases developed an esophagocutaneous fistula after revision; an average of 4 surgeries was required to close these fistulae. The inner surfaces of the portion of esophagus repaired with skin flaps showed extensive ulceration, polypoid lesions, and fibrosis. Pathology specimens from skin flaps showed extensive acute and chronic inflammation, microabscesses, fibrosis, and acanthosis, with depletion and degeneration of the pilosebaceous units. By contrast, adjacent parts of the esophagus repaired with bowel were widely patent with normal appearing mucosa.Our findings indicate that a bowel flap is durable with good tolerance to gastrointestinal content over long periods, whereas skin flaps often developed morphological changes and could not maintain long-term esophageal function without eventual stricture and dysphagia. We therefore recommend use of bowel flaps for esophageal reconstruction in patients with long life expectancy. PMID:25003411

Imaizumi, Atsushi; Liem, Anita A; Yang, Chun-Fan; Chen, Wency; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chen, Hung-Chi

2014-07-01

257

Epigenetic Biomarkers in Esophageal Cancer  

PubMed Central

The aberrant DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes is well documented in esophageal cancer, including adenocarcinoma (EAC) and squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) as well as in Barrett's esophagus (BE), a pre-malignant condition that is associated with chronic acid reflux. BE is a well-recognized risk factor for the development of EAC, and consequently the standard of care is for individuals with BE to be placed in endoscopic surveillance programs aimed at detecting early histologic changes that associate with an increased risk of developing EAC. Yet because the absolute risk of EAC in individuals with BE is minimal, a clinical need in the management of BE is the identification of additional risk markers that will indicate individuals who are at a significant absolute risk of EAC so that they may be subjected to more intensive surveillance. The best currently available risk marker is the degree of dysplasia in endoscopic biopsies from the esophagus; however, this marker is suboptimal for a variety of reasons. To date, there are no molecular biomarkers that have been translated to widespread clinical practice. The search for biomarkers, including hypermethylated genes, for either the diagnosis of BE, EAC, or ESCC or for risk stratification for the development of EAC in those with BE is currently an area of active research. In this review, we summarize the status of identified candidate epigenetic biomarkers for BE, EAC, and ESCC. Most of these aberrantly methylated genes have been described in the context of early detection or diagnostic markers; others might prove useful for estimating prognosis or predicting response to treatment. Finally, special attention will be paid to some of the challenges that must be overcome in order to develop clinically useful esophageal cancer biomarkers. PMID:22406828

Kaz, Andrew M.; Grady, William M.

2012-01-01

258

Chronic xerostomia increases esophageal acid exposure and is associated with esophageal injury  

SciTech Connect

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chronic xerostomia on parameters of gastroesophageal reflux and esophagitis. DESIGN: Observational study of a cohort of male patients with xerostomia and age-matched control subjects. SETTING: Tertiary-care Veterans Affairs Medical Center. SUBJECTS: Sixteen male patients with chronic xerostomia secondary to radiation for head and neck cancers or medications. Nineteen age-matched male control subjects with comparable alcohol and smoking histories. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Esophageal motility was similar in patients with xerostomia and controls. Clearance of acid from the esophagus and 24-hour intraesophageal pH were markedly abnormal in patients with xerostomia. Symptoms and signs of esophagitis were significantly more frequent in subjects with xerostomia. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic xerostomia may predispose to esophageal injury, at least in part, by decreasing the clearance of acid from the esophagus and altering 24-hour intraesophageal pH. Esophageal injury is a previously unreported complication of long-term salivary deficiency.

Korsten, M.A.; Rosman, A.S.; Fishbein, S.; Shlein, R.D.; Goldberg, H.E.; Biener, A. (Gastrointestinal Section, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bronx, New York (USA))

1991-06-01

259

Clinical and dosimetric factors of radiation-induced esophageal injury: Radiation-induced esophageal toxicity  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze the clinical and dosimetric predictive factors for radiation-induced esophageal injury in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 208 consecutive patients (146 men and 62 women) with NSCLC treated with 3D-CRT. The median age of the patients was 64 years (range 35-87 years). The clinical and treatment parameters including gender, age, performance status, sequential chemotherapy, concurrent chemotherapy, presence of carinal or subcarinal lymph nodes, pretreatment weight loss, mean dose to the entire esophagus, maximal point dose to the esophagus, and percentage of volume of esophagus receiving >55 Gy were studied. Clinical and dosimetric factors for radiation-induced acute and late grade 3-5 esophageal injury were analyzed according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria. RESULTS: Twenty-five (12%) of the two hundred and eight patients developed acute or late grade 3-5 esophageal injury. Among them, nine patients had both acute and late grade 3-5 esophageal injury, two died of late esophageal perforation. Concurrent chemotherapy and maximal point dose to the esophagus ?60 Gy were significantly associated with the risk of grade 3-5 esophageal injury. Fifty-four (26%) of the two hundred and eight patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Among them, 25 (46%) developed grade 3-5 esophageal injury (P = 0.0001<0.01). However, no grade 3-5 esophageal injury occurred in patients who received a maximal point dose to the esophagus <60 Gy (P = 0.0001<0.01). CONCLUSION: Concurrent chemotherapy and the maximal esophageal point dose ?60 Gy are significantly associated with the risk of grade 3-5 esophageal injury in patients with NSCLC treated with 3D-CRT. PMID:15849822

Qiao, Wen-Bo; Zhao, Yan-Hui; Zhao, Yan-Bin; Wang, Rui-Zhi

2005-01-01

260

21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section 868.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1920 Esophageal stethoscope with electrical...

2010-04-01

261

Concomitant herpetic and eosinophilic esophagitis--a causality dilemma.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic and herpetic esophagitis are listed as independent causes of dysphagia, especially in young adult males. However, herpetic esophagitis rarely affects immunocompetent individuals. We report the case of a young, not immunocompromised patient, admitted because of severe dysphagia secondary to herpes simplex virus esophagitis. After complete resolution, an endoscopic and histologic reevaluation established the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis. The potential association between the two conditions is discussed. PMID:23082710

Monsanto, P; Almeida, N; Cipriano, M A; Gouveia, H; Sofia, C

2012-09-01

262

Broken Esophageal Stent Successfully Treated by Interventional Radiology Technique  

SciTech Connect

Esophageal stent fractures occur quite rarely. A 61-year-old male patient was previously treated for rupture of benign stenosis, occurring after dilatation, by implanting an esophageal stent. However, a year after implantation, the patient suffered from dysphagia caused by the broken esophageal stent. He was treated with the interventional radiology technique, whereby a second implantation of the esophageal stent was carried out quite successfully.

Zelenak, Kamil, E-mail: zelenak@mfn.s [University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Slovakia); Mistuna, Dusan; Lucan, Jaroslav [University Hospital, Department of Surgery (Slovakia); Polacek, Hubert [University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Slovakia)

2010-06-15

263

Chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is responsible for approximately one-sixth of all cancer-related mortality worldwide. This malignancy has a multifactorial etiology involving several environmental, dietary and genetic factors. Since esophageal cancer has often metastasized at the time of diagnosis, current treatment modalities offer poor survival and cure rates. Chemoprevention offers a viable alternative that could well be effective against the disease. Clinical investigations have shown that primary chemoprevention of this disease is feasible if potent inhibitory agents are identified. The Fischer 344 (F-344) rat model of esophageal SCC has been used extensively to investigate the biology of the disease, and to identify chemopreventive agents that could be useful in human trials. Multiple compounds that inhibit tumor initiation by esophageal carcinogens have been identified using this model. These include several isothiocyanates, diallyl sulfide and polyphenolic compounds. These compounds influence the metabolic activation of esophageal carcinogens resulting in reduced genetic (DNA) damage. Recently, a few agents have been shown to inhibit the progression of preneoplastic lesions in the rat esophagus into tumors. These agents include inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and c-Jun [a component of activator protein-1 (AP-1)]. Using a food-based approach to cancer prevention, we have shown that freeze-dried berry preparations inhibit both the initiation and promotion/progression stages of esophageal SCC in F-344 rats. These observations have led to a clinical trial in China to evaluate the ability of freeze-dried strawberries to influence the progression of esophageal dysplasia to SCC.

Stoner, Gary D. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ohio State University College of Medicine and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)], E-mail: gary.stoner@osumc.edu; Wang Lishu; Chen Tong [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ohio State University College of Medicine and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2007-11-01

264

Transplantation of fetal retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration with subfoveal neovascularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is caused by abnormal retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and may be complicated by choroidal neovascularization. The object of treatment would be to replace the diseased RPE with normal human RPE. • Method: Five patients with ARMD (preoperative visual acuity 0.08–0.2) underwent removal of subretinal fibrovascular membranes using pars plana vitrectomy techniques. Human fetal RPE (15–17

Peep V. Algvere; Lennart Berglin; Peter Gouras; Yaohua Sheng

1994-01-01

265

Treatment and long-term outcome of chronic radiation esophagitis after radiation therapy for head and neck tumors: A report of 13 cases  

SciTech Connect

The natural history of chronic radiation esophagitis occurring in previously normal esophagus is still unknown. The authors describe here the long-term outcome of chronic esophagitis arising after neck irradiation for oropharynx and larynx carcinomas in 13 consecutive adult patients. The first clinical signs of radiation esophagitis were dysphagia or impossibility of oral intake, which appeared within 26 months (range 2--120 months) after the end of radiation for pyriform fossae carcinoma (N = 5), tonsil carcinoma (N = 2), larynx carcinoma (N = 2), pharynx carcinoma (N = 2), base of the tongue (N = 1), and thyroid carcinomas (N = 1). During upper endoscopy, an esophageal stenosis was found in 11 cases and was associated with ulceration in three cases. An isolated esophageal ulceration was present in only two cases. Chronic radiation esophagitis diagnosis was confirmed by histology and surgery in seven cases. In the last six cases, diagnosis was supported by the absence of first cancer relapses within a median follow-up of two years (16 months to nine years) and by endoscopic findings. Seven patients received parenteral or enteral nutrition. Ten patients were treated by peroral dilatations. These treatments allowed nearly normal oral diet in 11/13 patients. Only one patient was lost of follow-up after 20 months. Four patients died from chronic radiation esophagitis. One of these patients died from massive hemorrhage after peroral dilatation. Four patients died of a second carcinoma with no first cancer recurrence. Four patients were alive after six months to nine years of follow-up. Moderate dysphagia was still present, allowing nearly normal oral feeding. In conclusion, chronic radiation esophagitis is a severe disease with an underestimated frequency. In this study, peroral dilatations appeared to be necessary and were not associated with an increased morbidity. 21 refs., 1 tab.

Silvain, C.; Barrioz, T.; Besson, I.; Babin, P.; Fontanel, J.P.; Daban, A.; Matuchansky, C.; Beauchant, M. (CHU J Bernard, Poitiers (France))

1993-05-01

266

In vitro absorption of ?-globulin by neonatal intestinal epithelium of the pig  

PubMed Central

1. An in vitro method, using fluorescent ?-globulin and everted neonatal pig's intestinal slices, for the study of the active transport of large molecules is described. 2. Uptake of ?-globulin occurred within 15 min and required no exogenous substrates. 3. In vitro absorption of ?-globulin by intestinal epithelium was limited to the neonatal pig and 5-day-old mouse. No uptake was seen in intestines from a mature mouse, a pig with diarrhoea, a normal pig, a mature rabbit, a guinea-pig, a chick, and a chick embryo. Chick embryo yolk sac readily took up ?-globulin. 4. Rings of everted intestinal epithelium remained active (still absorbed ?-globulin) after incubating for 4-6 hr in balanced salt solution (BSS). 5. Uptake of ?-globulin required oxygen and sodium and was reversibly inhibited by metabolic antagonists such as iodoacetate, arsenate, fluoride, 4,6-dinitro-?-cresol, phlorrhizin, anaerobiosis and cold. Under the conditions of the test, large colloidal molecules did not inhibit uptake of ?-globulin. 6. Similar results (although not as clear-cut) with metabolic inhibitors were obtained with preparations of chick embryo yolk sacs. 7. Injuring mature pig's intestinal epithelium with surface-active agents did not produce non-specific absorption artifacts that resembled the specific absorption found in immature pig's intestinal epithelium. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4164327

Lecce, James G.

1966-01-01

267

Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis characterized by barium esophagography: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis is a rare condition characterized by the dilatation of the submucosal glands. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis in a 72-year-old Caucasian man who presented with dysphagia and with a background history of alcohol abuse. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy of our patient showed an esophageal stricture with abnormal mucosal appearances, but no

Owen J O'Connor; Adrian Brady; Fergus Shanahan; Eamonn Quigley; Michael O'Riordain; Michael M Maher

2010-01-01

268

Case Report Alendronate-induced Esophagitis in an Elderly Woman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ingestion of alendronate sodium (Fosamax) had been reported to sometimes cause erosive or ulcerative esophagitis. Despite its widespread use and several case reports describing the clinical and endoscopic presentation, there has been limited discussion on the histologic appearances of the esophagitis caused by the medication. Here we describe one case of an elderly woman who presented with alendronate-induced esophagitis. The

Victoria Gómez; Shu-Yuan Xiao

269

Esophageal cancer as second primary tumor after breast cancer radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An increased risk of esophageal cancer has been reported in survivors of breast cancer treated with radiotherapy. This study further characterizes this association.Methods: Through hospital databases, 118 patients (109 men, 9 women) treated for esophageal cancer between 1985 and 1993 were identified, of whom 37 had 60 synchronous or metachronous cancers. 5 women had primary esophageal cancer after having

Beatrix Scholl; Ernane D Reis; Abderrahim Zouhair; Igor Chereshnev; Jean-Claude Givel; Michel Gillet

2001-01-01

270

Duodenogastroesophageal reflux and esophageal mucosal injury in mechanically ventilated patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Esophagitis has been reported to be the most frequent cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in intensive care patients. The mechanisms causing esophagitis are unclear. The aim of this study was to measure esophageal acid and bile reflux and to examine the relationship between reflux and mucosal injury in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods: Twenty-five critically ill, mechanically ventilated

Alexander Wilmer; Jan Tack; Eric Frans; Hilde Dits; Steven Vanderschueren; Anemie Gevers; Hesmann Bobbaers

1999-01-01

271

Activation of the IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in human middle ear cholesteatoma epithelium.  

PubMed

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is one of the most important cytokines which has been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) in middle ear cholesteatoma epithelium in an effort to determine the role of IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of IL-6 and p-STAT3 in 25 human middle ear cholesteatoma samples and 15 normal external auditory canal (EAC) epithelium specimens. We also analyzed the relation of IL-6 and p-STAT3 expression levels to the degree of bone destruction in cholesteatoma. We found that the expression of IL-6 and p-STAT3 were significantly higher in cholesteatoma epithelium than in normal EAC epithelium (p<0.05). In cholesteatoma epithelium, a significant positive association was observed between IL-6 and p-STAT3 expression (p<0.05). However, no significant relationships were observed between the degree of bone destruction and the levels of IL-6 and p-STAT3 expression (p>0.05). To conclude, our results support the concept that IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway is active and may play an important role in the mechanisms of epithelial hyper-proliferation responsible for cholesteatoma. PMID:24551293

Liu, Wei; Xie, Shumin; Chen, Xing; Rao, Xingwang; Ren, Hongmiao; Hu, Bing; Yin, Tuanfang; Xiang, Yuyan; Ren, Jihao

2014-01-01

272

Activation of the IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in human middle ear cholesteatoma epithelium  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is one of the most important cytokines which has been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) in middle ear cholesteatoma epithelium in an effort to determine the role of IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of IL-6 and p-STAT3 in 25 human middle ear cholesteatoma samples and 15 normal external auditory canal (EAC) epithelium specimens. We also analyzed the relation of IL-6 and p-STAT3 expression levels to the degree of bone destruction in cholesteatoma. We found that the expression of IL-6 and p-STAT3 were significantly higher in cholesteatoma epithelium than in normal EAC epithelium (p<0.05). In cholesteatoma epithelium, a significant positive association was observed between IL-6 and p-STAT3 expression (p<0.05). However, no significant relationships were observed between the degree of bone destruction and the levels of IL-6 and p-STAT3 expression (p>0.05). To conclude, our results support the concept that IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway is active and may play an important role in the mechanisms of epithelial hyper-proliferation responsible for cholesteatoma. PMID:24551293

Liu, Wei; Xie, Shumin; Chen, Xing; Rao, Xingwang; Ren, Hongmiao; Hu, Bing; Yin, Tuanfang; Xiang, Yuyan; Ren, Jihao

2014-01-01

273

Proton Beam Therapy and concurrent chemotherapy for esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Objective Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a promising modality for the management of thoracic malignancies. We report our preliminary experience of treating esophageal cancer patients with concurrent chemotherapy (CChT) and PBT at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Materials/Methods This is an analysis of 62 esophageal cancer patients enrolled on a prospective study evaluating normal tissue toxicity from CChT/PBT from 2006 to 2010. Patients were treated with Passive Scattering PBT with 2 or 3 field beam arrangement using 180–250 MV protons. We used the method of Kaplan and Meier to assess time to event outcomes and compared the distributions between groups using the log-rank test. Results The median follow-up time was 20.1 months for survivors. The median age was 68 years (range 38–86). Most were males (82%), had adenocarcinomas (76%) and had stage II-III disease (84%). The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gray-Equivalence (Gy(RBE)) (range 36–57.6). The most common grade 2–3 acute toxicities from CChT/PBT were esophagitis (46.8%), fatigue (43.6%), nausea (33.9%), anorexia (30.1%), and radiation dermatitis (16.1%). There were two cases of grade 2 and 3 radiation pneumonitis and two grade 5 toxicities. A total of 29 patients (46.8%) received preoperative CChT/PBT with one postoperative death. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate for the surgical cohort was 28%, and the pCR and near CR rate (0–1% residual cells) was 50%. While there were significantly fewer local-regional recurrences in the preoperative group (3/29) as compared to the definitive CChT/PBT group (16/33) (log-rank test p=0.005), there were no differences in DM free interval or OS between the two groups. Conclusions This is the first report of patients treated with PBT/CChT for esophageal cancer. Our data suggest that this modality is associated with a few severe toxicities but the pathologic response and clinical outcomes are encouraging. Prospective comparison with more traditional approach is warranted. PMID:22417808

Lin, Steven H.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Wei, Caimiao; Myles, Bevan; Guo, Xiaomao; Palmer, Matthew; Mohan, Radhe; Swisher, Stephen G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Cox, James D.

2014-01-01

274

Proton Beam Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy for Esophageal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a promising modality for the management of thoracic malignancies. We report our preliminary experience of treating esophageal cancer patients with concurrent chemotherapy (CChT) and PBT (CChT/PBT) at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: This is an analysis of 62 esophageal cancer patients enrolled on a prospective study evaluating normal tissue toxicity from CChT/PBT from 2006 to 2010. Patients were treated with passive scattering PBT with two- or three-field beam arrangement using 180 to 250 MV protons. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to assess time-to-event outcomes and compared the distributions between groups using the log-rank test. Results: The median follow-up time was 20.1 months for survivors. The median age was 68 years (range, 38-86). Most patients were males (82%) who had adenocarcinomas (76%) and Stage II-III disease (84%). The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (RBE [relative biologic equivalence]) (range, 36-57.6). The most common grade 2 to 3 acute toxicities from CChT/PBT were esophagitis (46.8%), fatigue (43.6%), nausea (33.9%), anorexia (30.1%), and radiation dermatitis (16.1%). There were two cases of grade 2 and 3 radiation pneumonitis and two cases of grade 5 toxicities. A total of 29 patients (46.8%) received preoperative CChT/PBT, with one postoperative death. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate for the surgical cohort was 28%, and the pCR and near CR rates (0%-1% residual cells) were 50%. While there were significantly fewer local-regional recurrences in the preoperative group (3/29) than in the definitive CChT/PBT group (16/33) (log-rank test, p = 0.005), there were no differences in distant metastatic (DM)-free interval or overall survival (OS) between the two groups. Conclusions: This is the first report of patients treated with PBT/CChT for esophageal cancer. Our data suggest that this modality is associated with a few severe toxicities, but the pathologic response and clinical outcomes are encouraging. Prospective comparison with more traditional approach is warranted.

Lin, Steven H., E-mail: shlin@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wei, Caimiao [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Myles, Bevan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Guo Xiaomao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China); Palmer, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Swisher, Stephen G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Cox, James D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2012-07-01

275

Impact of esophageal bile exposure on the genesis of reflux esophagitis in the absence of gastric acid after total gastrectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:The role of duodenal contents refluxing into the esophagus in producing reflux esophagitis (RE) remains unclear. We aimed to assess the impact of esophageal bile exposure on the genesis of RE in reference to esophageal pH changes in the absence of gastric acid after total gastrectomy.METHODS:Thirty patients having undergone total gastrectomy were studied with concurrent 24-h esophageal pH and bilimetric

Takeyoshi Yumiba; Hisayoshi Kawahara; Kazuhiro Nishikawa; Yoshifumi Inoue; Toshinori Ito; Hikaru Matsuda

2002-01-01

276

Gate-keeper function of the intestinal epithelium.  

PubMed

There is currently a major focus on the role of the gut barrier function in balancing mucosal immune responses. Increased epithelial permeability for exogenous antigens is a crucial primary or secondary event in the pathogenesis of several disorders affecting body surfaces and beyond. The epithelial gate-keeper function is determined by the individual's age (e.g. preterm vs. term infant), diet, genetics, mucus composition, interactions between mast cells, nerves and neuropeptides, concurrent infection, the commensal microbiota and the epithelium-shielding effect of secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies provided by breast milk or produced in the individual's gut. The integrity of the epithelial barrier furthermore depends on homeostatic regulatory mechanisms, including mucosal induction of regulatory T cells, where commensal microbiota-host interactions apparently play decisive roles. Thus, both extrinsic and intrinsic factors have been identified that may have an impact on the dynamics of the epithelial cell-cell junctions in the gut and thereby increase or reduce paracellular permeability. Experiments have shown that SIgA normally cooperates with innate defence factors to protect the epithelium and reinforce its barrier function. In the absence of SIgA commensal gut bacteria overstimulate innate epithelial immunity at the expense of expression of genes that regulate fat and carbohydrate metabolism, resulting in an epithelial gene signature that correlates with the development of lipid malabsorption. This shows that the intestinal epithelial barrier is a cross-road between defence and nutrition, and that SIgA is essential to keep the balance between these two functions. PMID:23257015

Brandtzaeg, P

2013-03-01

277

Management of esophageal stricture after complete circular endoscopic submucosal dissection for superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) permits removal of esophageal epithelial neoplasms en bloc, but is associated with esophageal stenosis, particularly when ESD involves the entire circumference of the esophageal lumen. We examined the effectiveness of systemic steroid administration for control of postprocedural esophageal stricture after complete circular ESD. Methods Seven patients who underwent wholly circumferential ESD for superficially extended esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled in this study. In 3 patients, prophylactic endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD) was started on the third post-ESD day and was performed twice a week for 8 weeks. In 4 patients, oral prednisolone was started with 30 mg daily on the third post-ESD day, tapered gradually (daily 30, 30, 25, 25, 20, 15, 10, 5 mg for 7 days each), and then discontinued at 8 weeks. EBD was used as needed whenever patients complained of dysphagia. Results En bloc ESD with tumor-free margins was safely achieved in all cases. Patients in the prophylactic EBD group required a mean of 32.7 EBD sessions; the postprocedural stricture was dilated up to 18 mm in diameter in these patients. On the other hand, systemic steroid administration substantially reduced or eliminated the need for EBD. Corticosteroid therapy was not associated with any adverse events. Post-ESD esophageal stricture after complete circular ESD was persistent, requiring multiple EBD sessions. Conclusions Use of oral prednisolone administration may be an effective treatment strategy for reducing post-ESD esophageal stricture after complete circular ESD. PMID:21542926

2011-01-01

278

Esophageal parakeratosis mimicking endoscopic appearance of superficial esophageal neoplastic lesion such as dysplasia.  

PubMed

The endoscopic findings of esophageal parakeratosis have not been well defined and its clinical significance including malignant potential is unclear. Here, we report a case of esophageal parakeratosis presenting as a discrete flat elevated lesion and mimicking the endoscopic appearance of superficial esophageal neoplastic lesion such as dysplasia or cancer. A 72-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for an esophageal lesion detected by upper endoscopy during a medical check-up. Upper endoscopy revealed a 5-cm sized whitish flat elevated lesion involving the mucosa of the middle esophagus. The surface of this lesion showed mild nodularity and the margin was discrete. When spraying with lugol solution, the lesion was not stained. On microscopic examination, esophageal parakeratosis was noted on the luminal surface with a hyaline eosinophilic cytoplasm and small elongate nuclei oriented parallel to the surface. Although pathological examination of initial biopsy specimens revealed no evidence of neoplasia or infection, we carried out follow-up upper endoscopies 1 month and 1 year later because of endoscopic findings mimicking dysplasia or cancer. Endoscopic and histopathological findings from the first and the second follow-up upper endoscopies were same as those of the first examination and the final diagnosis of esophageal parakeratosis was made. Given the present case, esophageal parakeratosis needs to be considered as a differential diagnosis when a flat elevated lesion is found in the esophagus and biopsy specimens reveal no evidence of dysplasia or cancer. PMID:22348836

Park, Jun Young; Kim, Da-Min; Min, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

2012-03-01

279

A novel laparoscopic approach for severe esophageal stenosis due to reflux esophagitis: how to do it.  

PubMed

We herein report our technique for laparoscopic esophageal myotomy combined with Collis gastroplasty and Nissen fundoplication for severe esophageal stenosis. Our patient had experienced vomiting since childhood, and his dysphagia had gradually worsened. He was referred to our department for surgery because of resistance to pneumatic dilation. He was diagnosed with a short esophagus based on the findings of a preoperative upper gastrointestinal series and GI endoscopy. After exposing the abdominal esophagus, esophageal myotomy around the esophago-gastric junction (EGJ) was undertaken to introduce an esophageal bougie into the stomach. Then, stapled wedge gastroplasty was performed, and a short and loose Nissen fundoplication was performed. In addition, the bulging mucosa after myotomy was patched using the Dor method. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. Most patients with esophageal stricture require subtotal esophagectomy. Laparoscopic surgery for patients with benign esophageal stricture refractory to repeated pneumatic dilation is challenging. However, our current procedure might abrogate the need for invasive esophagectomy for the surgical management of severe esophageal stenosis. PMID:24647633

Tsuboi, Kazuto; Omura, Nobuo; Yano, Fumiaki; Hoshino, Masato; Yamamoto, Se Ryung; Akimoto, Shunsuke; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

2015-02-01

280

FOLFOX-6 Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Esophagectomy and Post-operative Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Esophageal Adenocarcinoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastric Cardia; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer

2015-01-22

281

Thoracoscopic approach for congenital esophageal stenosis.  

PubMed

Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) is an infrequent entity; however, many cases have been reported during the last years. Its incidence falls between 1 per 25,000 and 1 per 50,000 live births and is associated with other congenital malformations in 17% to 33% of cases (mainly esophageal atresia). Congenital esophageal stenosis is defined as an intrinsic alteration of the esophageal wall given by the presence of ectopic tracheobronchial tissue, membranous diaphragm, muscular hypertrophy, or diffuse fibrosis of the submucosa, among other causes. The therapeutic options include endoscopic dilation and resection plus anastomosis (by either laparotomy or thoracotomy, depending on the level of the stenosis). We present the case of a 1-month-old baby boy with a CES located in the distal esophagus that is associated with anophthalmia and micropenis. We treated the lesion by means of a thoracoscopic resection of the affected segment and an esophageal end-to-end anastomosis. The patient's long-term outcome was uneventful. As far as we know, this is the first report on thoracoscopic resolution of a CES. PMID:17011258

Martinez-Ferro, Marcelo; Rubio, Martin; Piaggio, Lisandro; Laje, Pablo

2006-10-01

282

Overexpression of human ?-defensin 2 promotes growth and invasion during esophageal carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Human ?-defensin 2 (HBD-2) is an antimicrobial peptide produced by mucosal surfaces in response to microbial exposure or inflammatory cytokines. Although HBD-2 is expressed in the esophagus in response to stress and infectious agents, little is known regarding its expression and functional role in esophageal carcinogenesis. In the current investigation, normal esophagus and N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)-induced precancerous and papillomatous lesions of the rat esophagus were characterized for HBD-2 encoding gene Defb4 and protein. HBD-2 was found to be overexpressed in esophagi of rats treated with NMBA compared to animals in control group. Results of Real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry demonstrated a positive correlation between the overexpression of HBD-2 and the progression of rat squamous cell carcinogenesis (SCC) in the esophagus. We also observed that HBD-2 is overexpressed in tumor tissues removed from patients with esophageal SCC. Moreover, Defb4 silencing in vitro suppresses the tumor cell proliferation, mobility and invasion in esophageal SCC cell line KYSE-150. The results from this study provide experimental evidence that HBD-2 may play an oncogenic role in the initiation and progression of esophageal SCC and thus serves as a target for chemopreventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:25226614

Shi, Ni; Jin, Feng; Zhang, Xiaoli; Clinton, Steven K.; Pan, Zui; Chen, Tong

2014-01-01

283

RNAi screening identifies HAT1 as a potential drug target in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Esophageal carcinoma (EC) is one of the most fatal carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract. Aberrant activity of histone acetyltransferases (HATs)/deacetylases (HDACs) play a critical role in carcinogenesis through the regulation of the genes involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. However, cellular functions of HATs/HDACs in esophageal cancer and its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. An RNAi screen was used in this study to identify the histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs) that could be critical for the survival of EC cells. We demonstrated that HAT1 (histone acetyltransferase 1) was an important determinant to regulate the proliferation of human EC Eca-109 cells. Furthermore, we showed that the knockdown of HAT1 induced a G2/M cell cycle arrest, which was associated with the disruption of cell cycle-related events, including the decrease of cyclinD1 as well as alteration in cyclinB1 expression. The expression of HAT1 was validated to be higher in the primary tumors and adjacent tissue as compared to that of the normal esophageal tissue. Furthermore, we found that HAT1 expression was directly correlated with the poor tumor differentiation of EC tissue, which suggested that HAT1 played an important role in esophageal carcinoma and that it could be a novel EC therapeutic target. PMID:25120766

Xue, Liang; Hou, Jun; Wang, Qun; Yao, Liqing; Xu, Songtao; Ge, Di

2014-01-01

284

Intrathoracic omental herniation through the esophageal hiatus: report of a case.  

PubMed

We report herein an extremely rare case of intrathoracic omental herniation through the esophageal hiatus. In fact, according to our review of the literature, only eight other cases have been reported, most of which were misdiagnosed as mediastinal lipoma after being identified as an intrathoracic mass. We report herein the ninth case of intrathoracic omental herniation through the esophageal hiatus. A 54-year-old obese woman was admitted to our hospital for investigation of a chest roentgenographic abnormality. She was asymptomatic, and her physical examination and laboratory data were all within normal limits. Her chest X-ray demonstrated a large, sharply-defined mass, and a computed tomography scan of the thorax indicated a large mediastinal mass with fat density. A thoracotomy was performed under the diagnosis of a mediastinal lipoma which revealed an encapsulated fatty mass, 10x7.5x6 cm in size, that proved to be an omental herniation through the esophageal hiatus. There was no herniation of the stomach or intestines into the thorax. The esophageal hiatus was repaired after the omental mass and hernia sac had been resected. This case report serves to demonstrate that whenever a mass of fat density is recognized in the lower thorax, an omental herniation should be borne in mind as a possible differential diagnosis. PMID:10211566

Kato, N; Iwasaki, H; Rino, Y; Imada, T; Amano, T; Kondo, J

1999-01-01

285

Objectivity in the classification of tumours of the nasal epithelium  

PubMed Central

A survey of tumours derived from each of the four cell types of nasal epithelium is presented. Criticism is levelled at the adoption of additional terms for tissue types such as lympho-epithelium and transitional cell epithelium and tumours said to be derived from them. Electron microscopy is of assistance in classification particularly in the detection of evidence of keratin synthesis. The proposed classification of tumours of the nasal epithelium is: (1) Pseudostratified columnar epithelium: (a) papillary adenoma, (b) papillary carcinoma. (2) Squamous epithelium: (a) everted squamous papilloma, (b) inverted papilloma, (c) squamous carcinoma of any grade of differentiation from well differentiated to undifferentiated. (3) Melanocyte: malignant melanoma. (4) Olfactory neuroepithelium: olfactory neuroblastoma. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 21Fig. 20 PMID:1197175

Michaels, L.; Hyams, V. J.

1975-01-01

286

A time-dependent study of passive esophageal wall properties and collagen content in rabbits with esophageal varices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The passive biomechanical wall properties of the esophagus were studied in rabbits with esophageal varices and controls using a four-electrode impedance technique. Stepwise pressure inflation and deflation was done for analysis of esophageal cross-sectional area, compliance, and hysteresis monthly during six months. At sacrifice, the esophageal collagen content was determined. A small but statistically insignificant increase in compliance was observed

H. Gregersen; L. Knudsen; B. Eika; L. Salling Nerstrøm; L. Rasmussen; L. S. Jensen

1991-01-01

287

pRB expression in esophageal mucosa of individuals at high risk for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the pRb expression in a large group of patients with history of chronic exposure to the main risk factors for development of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. METHODS: One hundred and seventy asympto-matic individuals at high risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (consumption of more than 80 g of ethanol and 10 cigarettes/d for at least 10 years) underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsies of the esophageal mucosa. As a control group, specimens of esophageal mucosa obtained from 20 healthy subjects were also studied. Immunohistochemical assessment of the tissues was performed using a monoclonal antibody anti-pRB protein. RESULTS: Absence of the pRB staining, indicating loss of RB function, was observed in 33 (19.4%) of the individuals at risk for esophageal cancer, but in none of the healthy controls (P < 0.02). Loss of pRb expression increased in a stepwise fashion according to the severity of the histological findings (P < 0.005): normal mucosa (11/97 or 11.3%), chronic esophagitis (17/60 or 28.3%), low-grade dysplasia (3/10 or 30%), high-grade dysplasia 1/2 or 50%) and squamous cell carcinoma (1/1 or 100%). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that abnormal expression of the pRB protein may be implicated in the process of esophageal carcinogenesis. Additional studies are warranted to define the role of the pRB protein as a biomarker for development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in individuals at high risk for this malignancy. PMID:17461478

Contu, Simone S; Contu, Paulo C; Damin, Daniel C; Fagundes, Renato B; Bevilacqua, Fabiano; Rosa, Aline S; Prolla, João C; Moreira, Luis F

2007-01-01

288

Micromachined “Side-Viewing” Optical Sensor Probe for Detection of Esophageal Cancers  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we report the design, fabrication and testing of a new miniaturized optical sensor probe with “side viewing” capability for oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry. The sensor probe consists of a lithographically patterned polymer waveguides chip and two micromachined positioning substrates and source/collection fibers to achieve 45° light incidence and collection of spatially resolved diffuse reflectance. Diffuse reflectance of human esophageal surface has been successfully measured for differentiation of cancerous tissues from normal ones.

Garcia-Uribe, A.; Balareddy, K. C.; Zou, J.; Wojcik, A. K.; Wang, K. K.; Wang, L. V.

2014-01-01

289

Effect of esophageal emptying and saliva on clearance of acid from the esophagus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clearance of acid from the esophagus and esophageal emptying in normal subjects was studied. A 15-ml bolus of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) radiolabeled with (\\/sup -99m\\/Tc)sulfur colloid was injected into the esophagus, and the subject swallowed every 30 seconds. Concurrent manometry and radionuclide imaging showed nearly complete emptying of acid from the esophagus by an immediate secondary

James F. Helm; Wylie J. Dodds; Lorie R. Pelc; David W. Palmer; Walter J. Hogan; Bruce C. Teeter

1984-01-01

290

2011 update on esophageal achalasia  

PubMed Central

There have been some breakthroughs in the diagnosis and treatment of esophageal achalasia in the past few years. First, the introduction of high-resolution manometry with pressure topography plotting as a new diagnostic tool has made it possible to classify achalasia into three subtypes. The most favorable outcome is predicted for patients receiving treatment for type II achalasia (achalasia with compression). Patients with typeI(classic achalasia) and type III achalasia (spastic achalasia) experience a less favorable outcome. Second, the first multicenter randomized controlled trial published by the European Achalasia Trial group reported 2-year follow-up results indicating that laparoscopic Heller myotomy was not superior to endoscopic pneumatic dilation (PD). Although the follow-up period was not long enough to reach a convincing conclusion, it merits the continued use of PD as a generally available technique in gastroenterology. Third, the novel endoscopic technique peroral endoscopic myotomy is a promising option for treating achalasia, but it requires increased experience and cautious evaluation. Despite all this good news, the bottom line is a real breakthrough from the basic studies to identify the actual cause of achalasia that may impede treatment success is still anticipated. PMID:22529685

Chuah, Seng-Kee; Hsu, Pin-I; Wu, Keng-Liang; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Tai, Wei-Chen; Changchien, Chi-Sin

2012-01-01

291

Aortoesophageal fistula due to esophageal ulcer.  

PubMed

Aortoesophageal fistula is a rare but fatal disease. Many such fistulas are caused by an aortic aneurysm, a previous operation, or esophageal disease. We report a case of aortoesophageal fistula due to an esophageal ulcer. A 66-year-old man suffered massive hematemesis; he was diagnosed as having an aortoesophageal fistula due to an esophageal ulcer after examination by upper endoscopy, computed tomography, and angiography. He had no aortic aneurysm, nor was there a history of a previous operation. An emergency operation was performed, but we could only accomplish closure because clamping of the aorta was impossible, and the source of the bleeding could not be established. He died 4 days later after sudden hemorrhage. Surgical outcome depends on early surgical intervention before massive hemorrhage occurs. PMID:19440823

Takano, Shinji; Katsuhara, Kazuhiro; Nobuhara, Kenji; Ueda, Shigeharu; Imura, Masato; Hohjo, Yoshihisa

2009-05-01

292

Endoscopic options for early stage esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Surgery has traditionally been the preferred treatment for early stage esophageal cancer. Recent advances in endoscopic treatments have been shown to be effective and safe. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) allow endoscopists to remove small, superficial lesions, providing tumor specimen that can be examined for accurate pathologic tumor staging and assessment of adequacy of resection. Endoscopic ablation procedures, including photodynamic therapy (PDT) and radio frequency ablation (RFA), have also been shown to safely and effectively treat esophageal dysplasia and early stage neoplasia, with excellent long-term disease control. Both approaches are becoming more widely available around the world, and provide an alternative, safe, low risk strategy for treating early stage disease, making combined endoscopic therapy the recommended treatment of choice for early stage esophageal cancers. PMID:25642334

Shah, Pari M.

2015-01-01

293

Advances in clinical management of eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune/antigen-mediated clinicopathologic condition that has become an increasingly important cause of upper gastrointestinal morbidity in adults and children over the past 2 decades. It is diagnosed based on symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, the presence of at least 15 eosinophils/high-power field in esophageal biopsy specimens, and exclusion of competing causes of esophageal eosinophilia, including proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. We review what we have recently learned about the clinical aspects of EoE, discussing the clinical, endoscopic, and histological features of EoE in adults and children. We explain the current diagnostic criteria and challenges to diagnosis, including the role of gastroesophageal reflux disease and proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. It is also important to consider the epidemiology of EoE (with a current incidence of 1 new case per 10,000 per year and prevalence of 0.5 to 1 case per 1000 per year) and disease progression. We review the main treatment approaches and new treatment options; EoE can be treated with topical corticosteroids, such as fluticasone and budesonide, or dietary strategies, such as amino acid-based formulas, allergy test-directed elimination diets, and nondirected empiric elimination diets. Endoscopic dilation has also become an important tool for treatment of fibrostenotic complications of EoE. There are a number of unresolved issues in EoE, including phenotypes, optimal treatment end points, the role of maintenance therapy, and treatment of refractory EoE. The care of patients with EoE and the study of the disease span many disciplines; EoE is ideally managed by a multidisciplinary team of gastroenterologists, allergists, pathologists, and dieticians. PMID:25109885

Dellon, Evan S; Liacouras, Chris A

2014-12-01

294

Nuclear Nano-architecture Markers of Gastric Cardia and Upper Squamous Esophagus Detect Esophageal Cancer “Field Effect”  

PubMed Central

Background: Barrett's esophagus (BE) affects up to 12 million Americans and confers an increased risk for development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). EAC is often fatal unless detected early. Given the high prevalence, high cost of surveillance and relatively low risk of most affected individuals, identification of high-risk patients for additional scrutiny, regular surveillance, or ablative therapy is crucial. The exploration of “field effect” by probing uninvolved esophageal mucosa to predict the risk of EAC has the potential as an improved surveillance and prevention strategy. In this study, we evaluate the ability of nuclear nano-architecture markers from normal squamous esophagus and gastric cardia to detect the “field effect” of esophageal dysplasia and EAC, and their response to endoscopic therapy. Methods: Patients with normal esophagus, gastroesophageal reflux, BE and EAC were eligible for enrollment. We performed endoscopic cytology brushings of the gastric cardia, ~1-2 cm below the gastroesophageal junction, and of the normal squamous esophageal mucosa at ~20 cm from the incisors and standard cytology slides were made using Thinprep method. Optical analysis was performed on the cell nuclei of cytologically normal-appearing epithelial cells. Results: The study cohort consisted of 128 patients. The nuclear nano-architecture markers detected the presence of esophageal dysplasia and EAC with statistical significance. The field effect does not exhibit a spatial dependence. These markers reverted toward normal in response to endoscopic therapy. Conclusions: Optical analysis of gastric cardia and upper squamous esophagus represents a potentially viable method to improve risk stratification and ease of surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus and to monitor the efficacy of ablative therapy. PMID:24155774

Fasanella, Kenneth E.; Bista, Rajan K.; Staton, Kevin; Rizvi, Sumera; Uttam, Shikhar; Zhao, Chengquan; Sepulveda, Antonia; Brand, Randall E.; McGrath, Kevin; Liu, Yang

2013-01-01

295

Drug-induced esophageal injury with an occult vascular ring.  

PubMed

Drug-induced esophageal injury is an under-recognized clinical problem, and is associated with antibiotic use in more than 50% of cases. The current report describes a teenage girl who presented with symptoms of pill-induced esophagitis following doxycycline use. Subsequent investigations identified a previously undiagnosed vascular ring. Although most patients who experience drug-induced esophageal injury have no underlying anatomical or functional disorder of the esophagus, the condition is more common in areas of esophageal narrowing. The present case illustrates the possibility of an occult esophageal obstruction representing a risk factor for pill esophagitis. The etiologies, mechanisms and management of drug-induced esophageal injury are reviewed, and aspects of vascular rings that are relevant to paediatricians are discussed. PMID:23115494

Guttman, Orlee R; Zachos, Mary

2011-11-01

296

Drug-induced esophageal injury with an occult vascular ring  

PubMed Central

Drug-induced esophageal injury is an under-recognized clinical problem, and is associated with antibiotic use in more than 50% of cases. The current report describes a teenage girl who presented with symptoms of pill-induced esophagitis following doxycycline use. Subsequent investigations identified a previously undiagnosed vascular ring. Although most patients who experience drug-induced esophageal injury have no underlying anatomical or functional disorder of the esophagus, the condition is more common in areas of esophageal narrowing. The present case illustrates the possibility of an occult esophageal obstruction representing a risk factor for pill esophagitis. The etiologies, mechanisms and management of drug-induced esophageal injury are reviewed, and aspects of vascular rings that are relevant to paediatricians are discussed. PMID:23115494

Guttman, Orlee R; Zachos, Mary

2011-01-01

297

MicroRNAs and esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Cancer of the esophagus is a highly aggressive disease associated with an overall poor prognosis. There is an insistent need for improving our understanding of the molecular basis of this disease. The recent emergence of observations on the role of microRNAs in cancer and their potential as biomarkers has prompted many investigations to examine their relevance to esophageal cancer. This article provides an introduction to microRNA biology and the techniques involved in studying them, and summates what is now known about their role and utility in regard to neoplastic esophageal diseases. PMID:22811805

Patnaik, Santosh Kumar; Mallick, Reema

2010-01-01

298

Oropharyngeal/Esophageal Candidiasis ("Thrush")  

MedlinePLUS

... Infection Candida species are normal inhabitants of the mouth, throat… Diagnosis & Testing See your healthcare provider… Treatment & Outcomes Antifungal treatment… Additional Information Resources ...

299

A comparative light-microscopic, electron-microscopic and chemical study of human vaginal and buccal epithelium.  

PubMed

The scarcity of sizeable specimens of normal oral mucosa for experimental purposes has hampered research on oral epithelium. Because large specimens of viable human vaginal mucosa are readily available and because vaginal and buccal epithelia are microscopically similar, vaginal mucosa has been used successfully to establish a human cyst model in experimental animals. The ultrastructure and distribution of keratin filaments in these epithelia are also similar, as is their permeability to water and a number of chemical substances. Therefore, if vaginal mucosa could be substituted for buccal mucosa it would expedite research on the epithelium of buccal mucosa. To strengthen further the concept that vaginal epithelium could replace buccal epithelium in certain experimental studies, the thickness of these epithelia, their patterns of surface keratinization, the presence or absence of intercellular lipid lamellae and their lipid contents were now compared. Thirty-three specimens of vaginal mucosa from postmenopausal women and 36 of buccal mucosa were investigated. To compare the thickness of the epithelial layers the number of cell layers in sections of 20 vaginal and 20 buccal mucosal specimens were counted in the three thickest and three thinnest regions of each specimen. Surface keratinization was evaluated on sections stained with the Picro-Mallory method. To demonstrate lipid lamellae two vaginal and two buccal mucosa specimens were examined electron microscopically after normal fixation and postfixation in ruthenium tetroxide. Following solvent extraction of 11 vaginal and 14 buccal epithelia, quantitative lipid analyses were performed using thin-layer chromatography. No statistically significant differences were found between the maximum and minimum number of epithelial cell layers. The patterns of surface keratinization and the distribution and appearance of the lipid lamellae in the intercellular spaces were similar. The lipid composition of the two epithelia corresponded, except for the cholesterol esters and glycosylceramides, which were higher in buccal epithelium. Ceramides for vaginal epithelium and triglycerides for buccal epithelium were not determined. Based on structural similarities, a similar lipid composition and earlier findings, it is concluded that vaginal epithelium can be used as a substitute for buccal epithelium in certain in vitro, and possibly for in vivo, studies. PMID:11684027

Thompson, I O; van der Bijl, P; van Wyk, C W; van Eyk, A D

2001-12-01

300

Localization and expression of zonula occludins-1 in the rabbit corneal epithelium following exposure to benzalkonium chloride.  

PubMed

Preservatives are a major component of the ophthalmic preparations in multi-dose bottles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of benzalkonium chloride (BAC), a common preservative used in ophthalmic preparations, on the localization and expression of zonula occludens (ZO)-1 in the rabbit corneal epithelium in vivo. BAC at 0.005%, 0.01%, or 0.02% was topically applied to one eye each of albino rabbits at 5 min intervals for a total of 3 times. The contralateral untreated eyes served as controls. The following clinical indications were evaluated: Schirmer test, tear break-up time (BUT), fluorescein and rose Bengal staining. The structure of central cornea was examined by in vivo confocal microscopy, and the corneal barrier function was evaluated by measurement of corneal transepithelial electrical resistance and permeability to carboxy fluorescein. Whole mount corneas were analyzed by using fluorescence confocal microscopy for the presence of ZO-1, 2, occludin, claudin-1, Ki67 and cell apoptosis in the epithelium. The expression of ZO-1 in the corneal epithelium was also examined by western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses. Exposure to BAC resulted in higher rose Bengal staining scores while no significant changes in BUT, Schirmer and corneal florescein scores. It also induced corneal epithelial cell damage, dispersion of ZO-1 and ZO-2 from their normal locus at the superficial layer and disruption of epithelial barrier function. However, the amounts of ZO-1 mRNA and protein in the corneal epithelium were not affected by BAC treatment. Exposure to BAC can quickly impair the corneal epithelium without tear deficiency. BAC disrupts the tight junctions of corneal epithelium between superficial cells in the rabbit corneal epithelium in vivo. PMID:22815857

Chen, Wensheng; Hu, Jiaoyue; Zhang, Zhenhao; Chen, Lelei; Xie, Hui; Dong, Nuo; Chen, Yongxiong; Liu, Zuguo

2012-01-01

301

Assessment of stanniocalcin-1 as a prognostic marker in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) is a secreted glycoprotein hormone and highly expressed in various types of human malignancies. Although evidence points to the role of STC1 in human cancers, the clinical significance of STC1 expression in esophageal cancer has not been well established. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess the expression of STC1 in the cancer cell line TE8 and esophageal cancer tissues from 229 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC). Surgically-resected tissue sections were immunostained for potential regulators of STC1 expression, hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and p53. Marked increase in STC1 mRNA and protein expression was noted in TE8 cells cultured under hypoxic conditions. Overexpression of STC1 mRNA was noted in ESCC tumors compared to normal counterparts. Positive immunohistochemical staining for STC1 protein was observed in 38.9% of patients, and correlated significantly with advanced pT status (P=0.019), poor prognosis [overall survival (P<0.0006) and disease-free survival (P<0.0002) of ESCC patients who had undergone curative surgery]. Positive staining for HIF-1? and p53 proteins in ESCC did not correlate with STC1 expression. The results showed marked induction of STC1 expression under hypoxia in cultured cells and in esophageal cancer cells and that overexpression of STC1 was an independent prognostic factor in patients with esophageal cancer who had undergone curative surgery. STC1 is a potentially useful biomarker for ESCC treatment. PMID:22200953

SHIRAKAWA, MITSUHIRO; FUJIWARA, YOSHIYUKI; SUGITA, YURIKA; MOON, JEONG-HO; TAKIGUCHI, SHUJI; NAKAJIMA, KIYOKAZU; MIYATA, HIROSHI; YAMASAKI, MAKOTO; MORI, MASAKI; DOKI, YUICHIRO

2012-01-01

302

Inter-observer Variability in Esophageal Body Measurements with High Resolution Manometry among New Physician Users  

PubMed Central

Goals To evaluate inter-observer variability among four new physician users on measures of esophageal body function. Background Esophageal high resolution manometry (HRM) allows observation of esophageal motility via pressure topography plots. Little is known about the inter-observer variability among physicians. Study Two resident and two fellow level physicians each interpreted 10 liquid swallows of 20 esophageal HRM studies (n=200 swallows) using the BioVIEW Analysis Suite (Sandhill Scientific, Inc.). Studies evaluated were from patients referred for evaluation of dysphagia but found to have normal esophageal manometry and complete liquid bolus transit. Physicians received an orientation session and reviewed recent literature. Each physician recorded contractile front velocity (CFV) and distal contractile integral (DCI) for each liquid swallow. STATISTICS: Inter-observer agreements for CFV and DCI were assessed by intraclass correlation (ICC) values. Linear correlations between measurements by two readers were assessed using linear regression modeling techniques. Results CFV and DCI values of up to 200 data points were analyzed. Four reader results for CFV and DCI showed strong agreement although stronger for DCI measures (ICC=0.94; 0.91 - 0.98) in comparison to CFV (ICC=0.79; 0.52 - 0.82). Further correlation was performed with two readers; readers 1 and 2 revealed excellent correlation for DCI (r=0.95, p<0.001) and good correlation for CFV (r=0.61, p<0.001). Conclusions With a thorough orientation session, good to excellent agreement for CFV and DCI measurements can be obtained from new physician users. CFV measures exhibit greater inter-observer variability possibly due to the artifact produced by intraesophageal pressurization. PMID:22647828

Singh, Erick; Rife, Christopher; Clayton, Steven; Naas, Peter; Nietert, Paul; Castell, Donald

2012-01-01

303

Repetitive sequences, genomic instability and Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma (BAC) is a cancer associated with heartburn. If gastroesophageal reflux is not treated, the exposure to acid over the years, leads to a premalignant condition known as Barrett's esophagus (BE) which then progresses through low grade and high grade dysplasias to Barrett's adenocarcinoma. Genomic instability, which seems to arise early at BE stage, leads to accrual of mutational changes which underlie the the succession of histological and physiological changes associated with this disease. Genomic instability is therefore an important target for prevention and treatment of cancer and it is important to elucidate the mechanisms associated with this problem. We have shown that elevated/deregulated homologous recombination mediates genomic instability in cancer. Recently we also demonstrated that the mutational rates of individual chromosomes in BAC cells correlate with their ALU frequency. The aims of this article are to briefly discuss different types of repetitive sequences and highlight their importance in physiology of normal and cancer cells, especially BAC. PMID:22479688

2011-01-01

304

Progression of Barrett's Metaplasia to Adenocarcinoma Is Associated with the Suppression of the Transcriptional Programs of Epidermal Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We did expressional profiling on 24 paired samples of normal esophageal epithelium, Barrett's metaplasia, and esophageal adenocarcinomas. Matching tissue samples representing the three different histologic types were obtained from each patient undergoing esophagectomy for adenocarcinoma. Our analysis compared the molecular changes accompanying the transformation of normal squamous epithelium with Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma in individual patients rather than in a

Erik T. Kimchi; Mitchell C. Posner; James O. Park; Thomas E. Darga; Masha Kocherginsky; Theodore Karrison; John Hart; Kerrington D. Smith; James J. Mezhir; Ralph R. Weichselbaum; Nikolai N. Khodarev

305

A case of metachronous development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the patient with esophageal carcinosarcoma.  

PubMed

Esophageal carcinosarcoma is a rare malignant esophageal neoplasm consisting of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements, with an incidence of 0.5%. There have been only a few case reports of carcinosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma coexisting in the esophagus. However, all of these are cases of synchronous or metachronous development of carcinosarcoma after chemoradiotherapy in patients of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. A 53-year-old man underwent esophagogas-troduodenoscopy because of chest pain for several months. Endoscopic examination revealed a huge pedunculated esophageal polypoid mass. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was performed and histopathologic examination confirmed spindle cell carcinoma (carcinosarcoma). He refused additional esophagectomy. After 21 months, third follow-up endoscopy showed poorly-demarcated flat, faint discolored lesions at different location from the previous ESD site and endoscopic biopsies confirmed squamous cell carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of metachronous development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a patient with esophageal carcinosarcoma. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2014;64:364-369). PMID:25530588

Cha, Ra Ri; Jung, Woon Tae; Oh, Hye Won; Kim, Hee Jin; Ha, Chang Yoon; Kim, Hong Jun; Kim, Tae Hyo; Ko, Gyung Hyuck

2014-12-25

306

Cell Signaling and Ion Transport Across the Fish Gill Epithelium  

E-print Network

Cell Signaling and Ion Transport Across the Fish Gill Epithelium DAVID H. EVANS1,2* 1 Department transport of ions across the gill epithelium of fishes by either affecting transport directly or by altering are in addition to cardiovascular effects of the same agents, which may affect the perfusion pathways in the gill

Evans, David H.

307

Pendrin immunoreactivity in the gill epithelium of a euryhaline elasmobranch  

E-print Network

Pendrin immunoreactivity in the gill epithelium of a euryhaline elasmobranch PETER M. PIERMARINI,1. Evans. Pendrin immunoreactivity in the gill epithelium of a euryhaline elasmobranch. Am J Physiol Regul immunoreactivity was present in the gills of a euryhaline elasmobranch (Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina), and 2

Evans, David H.

308

Endothelin1 Stimulates Chloride Secretion across Canine Tracheal Epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although much attention has been paid to the effect of endothelin on the bronchopulmonary system, there are few reports concerning the effect of endothelin on Cl- secretion across airway epithelium. We examined the effects of endothelin-1, -2 and -3 on bioelectric parameters of canine tracheal epithelium, a tissue in which Cl- is actively secreted and Na+ is absorbed. Potential difference

M. Satoh; S. Shimura; H. Ishihara; M. Nagaki; H. Sasaki; T. Takishima

1992-01-01

309

Ultrastructural basement membrane topography of the bladder epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basement membrane underlies epithelium and separates it from deeper tissues. Recent studies suggest that nanoscale topography of the surface of basement membrane may modulate adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation of overlying epithelium. This study was performed to elucidate nanoscale topographic features of basement membrane of the bladder. Bladder tissues were obtained from three adult female rhesus macaques. A process

George A. Abrams; Christopher J. Murphy; Zun-Yi Wang; Paul F. Nealey; Dale E. Bjorling

2003-01-01

310

Barrier function of airway tract epithelium  

PubMed Central

Airway epithelium contributes significantly to the barrier function of airway tract. Mucociliary escalator, intercellular apical junctional complexes which regulate paracellular permeability and antimicrobial peptides secreted by the airway epithelial cells are the three primary components of barrier function of airway tract. These three components act cooperatively to clear inhaled pathogens, allergens and particulate matter without inducing inflammation and maintain tissue homeostasis. Therefore impairment of one or more of these essential components of barrier function may increase susceptibility to infection and promote exaggerated and prolonged innate immune responses to environmental factors including allergens and pathogens resulting in chronic inflammation. Here we review the regulation of components of barrier function with respect to chronic airways diseases. PMID:24665407

Ganesan, Shyamala; Comstock, Adam T; Sajjan, Uma S

2013-01-01

311

Acute esophageal necrosis caused by alcohol abuse  

PubMed Central

Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) is extremely rare and the pathogenesis of this is still unknown. We report a case of AEN caused by alcohol abuse. In our case, the main pathogenesis could be accounted for low systemic perfusion caused by severe alcoholic lactic acidosis. After the healing of AEN, balloon dilatation was effective to manage the stricture. PMID:16222758

Endo, Tetsu; Sakamoto, Juichi; Sato, Ken; Takimoto, Miyako; Shimaya, Koji; Mikami, Tatsuya; Munakata, Akihiro; Shimoyama, Tadashi; Fukuda, Shinsaku

2005-01-01

312

Benign esophageal lesions: Endoscopic and pathologic features  

PubMed Central

Benign esophageal lesions have a wide spectrum of clinical and pathologic features. Understanding the endoscopic and pathologic features of esophageal lesions is essential for their detection, differential diagnosis, and management. The purpose of this review is to provide updated features that may help physicians to appropriately manage these esophageal lesions. The endoscopic features of 2997 patients are reviewed. In epithelial lesions, the frequency of occurrence was in the following order: glycogenic acanthosis, heterotopic gastric mucosa, squamous papilloma, hyperplastic polyp, ectopic sebaceous gland and xanthoma. In subepithelial lesions, the order was as follows: hemangioma, leiomyoma, dysphagia aortica and granular cell tumor. Most benign esophageal lesions can be diagnosed according to their endoscopic appearance and findings on routine biopsy, and submucosal lesions, by endoscopic resection. Management is generally based upon the confidence of diagnosis and whether the lesion causes symptoms. We suggest endoscopic resection of all granular cell tumors and squamous papillomas because, while rare, these lesions have malignant potential. Dysphagia aortica should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dysphagia in the elderly.

Tsai, Shu-Jung; Lin, Ching-Chung; Chang, Chen-Wang; Hung, Chien-Yuan; Shieh, Tze-Yu; Wang, Horng-Yuan; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Chen, Ming-Jen

2015-01-01

313

[Transthoracic-transabdominal resection of esophageal carcinoma].  

PubMed

54 patients suffering from esophageal cancer have been treated in a period from 1990 to 1994. In 29 cases curative resection was possible, corresponding to a resection rate of 54%. Average age of resected patients was 62 years. According to pTNM-classification the stages T1 and T2 amounted to 45%, T3 and T4 to 55%. Lymphatic node metastases were discovered with an incidence of 55%. In patients treated conservatively more unfavourable stage distributions and increased rates of lymphatic node metastasis were shown. Transthoracal-transabdominal esophageal resection was preferred as curative management. Lethality amounted to 13.8%. In 3 of 4 lethal cases after resection autopsy confirmed absence of tumor. Lethal complications were two respiratory insufficiencies, one suture line dehiscence and one alcoholic delirium. Survival rates were calculated by life-table-method. We consider the transthoracal-transabdominal esophageal resection as an acceptable therapeutic option in esophageal cancer offering a real chance of enduring curing. PMID:9206910

Schröder, H; Trebing, G; Trebing, D

1997-01-01

314

Postoperative Intensive Care Treatment after Esophageal Resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to give a short review of problems associated with the intensive care treatment of patients after esophageal resection. Pulmonary dysfunction, supraventricular tachyarrhythmia, anastomotic leakage and mental disorders are the topics covered. Systemic inflammatory reaction and sepsis is the linking topic between these specific complications. Pulmonary dysfunction having an incidence of up to 40% is

Dirk L. Stippel; K. Tobias E. Beckurts

2004-01-01

315

Genetic Deletion of Klf4 in the Mouse Intestinal Epithelium Ameliorates Dextran Sodium Sulfate–induced Colitis by Modulating the NF-?B Pathway Inflammatory Response  

PubMed Central

Background Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a zinc finger transcription factor expressed in the differentiated epithelial cells lining of the intestine. Under physiological conditions, KLF4 inhibits cell proliferation. Conversely, KLF4 mediates proinflammatory signaling in macrophages and its overexpression in the esophageal epithelium activates cytokines, leading to inflammation-mediated esophageal squamous cell cancer formation in mice. Here, we tested whether KLF4 has a proinflammatory activity in experimental colitis in mice. Methods Villin-Cre;Klf4fl/fl mice with intestine-specific Klf4 deletion (Klf4?IS) and control mice with floxed Klf4 gene (Klf4fl/fl) were treated or not with 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for 7 days to induce colitis. Additionally, WT mice were administered or not, nanoparticles loaded with scrambled or Klf4-siRNA, and concomitantly given DSS. Results Compared with DSS-treated Klf4fl/fl mice, DSS-treated Klf4?IS mice were significantly less sensitive to DSS-induced colitis. DSS treatment of Klf4fl/fl mice induced Klf4 expression in the crypt zone of the colonic epithelium. DSS-treated Klf4?IS mice had increased proliferation relative to DSS-treated control mice. DSS treatment induced NF-?B signaling pathway in Klf4fl/fl mice colon but not Klf4?IS mice. Additionally, WT mice given DSS and nanoparticle/Klf4-siRNA were less sensitive to colitis and had reduced Klf4 expression and while maintaining the proliferative response in the colonic epithelium. Conclusions Our results indicate that Klf4 is an important mediator of DSS-induced colonic inflammation by modulating NF-?B signaling pathway and could be involved in the pathogenesis and/or propagation of inflammatory bowel disease. Thus, Klf4 may represent a novel therapeutic target in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24681655

Ghaleb, Amr M.; Laroui, Hamed; Merlin, Didier; Yang, Vincent W.

2014-01-01

316

Association of Promoter Methylation of RUNX3 Gene with the Development of Esophageal Cancer: A Meta Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is a member of the runt-domain family of transcription factors. Emerging evidence indicates that RUNX3 is a tumor suppressor gene in several types of human cancers including esophageal cancer. However, the association between RUNX3 promoter methylation and esophageal cancer remains unclear. Here we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the effects of RUNX3 promoter methylation on the incidence of esophageal cancer. Methods A detailed literature search was made on Medline, Pubmed and Web of Science for related research publications written in English and/or Chinese. Methodological quality of the studies was also evaluated. The data were extracted and assessed by two reviewers independently. Analysis of pooled data were performed, the odds ratios (OR) were calculated and summarized respectively. Results Final analysis of 558 patients from 9 eligible studies was performed. The result showed that RUNX3 methylation was significantly higher in esophageal cancer than in normal squamous mucosa from the proximal resection margin or esophageal benign lesions (OR?=?2.85, CI?=?2.01–4.05, P<0.00001). The prevalence of lymph node involvement, tumor size (T1–T2 vs T3–T4) and histological grade was significantly greater in RUNX3-negative cases (RUNX3 unmethylated groups) than in RUNX3-positive cases (OR?=?0.25, CI?=?0.14–0.43, P<0.00001). RUNX3 methylation was significantly higher in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) than Barrett’s esophagus (OR?=?0.35, CI?=?0.20–0.59, P<0.0001). In addition, the pooled HR for overall survival (OS) showed that decreased RUNX3 expression was associated with worse survival in esophageal cancer (HR?=?4.31, 95% CI?=?2.57–7.37, P<0.00001). Conclusions The results of this meta-analysis suggest that RUNX3 methylation is associated with an increased risk, progression as well as worse survival in esophageal cancer. RUNX3 methylation, which induces the inactivation of RUNX3 gene, plays an important role in esophageal carcinogenesis. PMID:25229459

Wang, Yi; Qin, Xiuguang; Wu, Jieqing; Qi, Bo; Tao, Yipeng; Wang, Wenju; Liu, Fulei; Li, Hanchen; Zhao, Baosheng

2014-01-01

317

Bicomponent keratohyalin in normal human ridged skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to now, bicomponent keratohyalin has only been described for rat epithelium and human intraepidermal sweat ducts and fetal nail organ cells. In normal human interductal epidermis, the keratohyalin appears homogeneous, osmiophilic and stellate in shape. Under pathological conditions, bicomponent keratohyalin has been observed in different palmoplantar keratoses and has therefore been thought to be associated with abnormal keratosis. We

I. Kastl; I. Anton-Lamprecht

1990-01-01

318

Do airway epithelium air-liquid cultures represent the in vivo airway epithelium transcriptome?  

PubMed

Human airway epithelial cells cultured in vitro at the air-liquid interface (ALI) form a pseudostratified epithelium that forms tight junctions and cilia, and produces mucin. These cells are widely used in models of differentiation, injury, and repair. To assess how closely the transcriptome of ALI epithelium matches that of in vivo airway epithelial cells, we used microarrays to compare the transcriptome of human large airway epithelial cells cultured at the ALI with the transcriptome of large airway epithelium obtained via bronchoscopy and brushing. Gene expression profiling showed that global gene expression correlated well between ALI cells and brushed cells, but with some differences. Gene expression patterns mirrored differences in proportions of cell types (ALIs have higher percentages of basal cells, whereas brushed cells have higher percentages of ciliated cells), that is, ALI cells expressed higher levels of basal cell-related genes, and brushed cells expressed higher levels of cilia-related genes. Pathway analysis showed that ALI cells had increased expression of cell cycle and proliferation genes, whereas brushed cells had increased expression of cytoskeletal organization and humoral immune response genes. Overall, ALI cells provide a good representation of the in vivo airway epithelial transcriptome, but for some biologic questions, the differences between in vitro and in vivo environments need to be considered. PMID:20525805

Dvorak, Anna; Tilley, Ann E; Shaykhiev, Renat; Wang, Rui; Crystal, Ronald G

2011-04-01

319

Hydraulically controlled magnetic bougienage for correction of long-gap esophageal atresia  

E-print Network

About one in 4000 babies in the United States is born with their esophageal disconnected and separated by a gap, which is called esophageal atresia. Esophageal atresia with a relatively short gap can be directly corrected ...

Noh, Minkyun

2014-01-01

320

Measurement of the human esophageal cancer in an early stage with Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The esophageal cancer has a tendency to transfer to another part of the body and the surgical operation itself sometimes gives high risk in vital function because many delicate organs exist near the esophagus. So the esophageal cancer is a disease with a high mortality. So, in order to lead a higher survival rate five years after the cancer's treatment, the investigation of the diagnosis methods or techniques of the cancer in an early stage and support the therapy are required. In this study, we performed the ex vivo experiments to obtain the Raman spectra from normal and early-stage tumor (stage-0) human esophageal sample by using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra are collected by the homemade Raman spectrometer with the wavelength of 785 nm and Raman probe with 600-um-diameter. The principal component analysis (PCA) is performed after collection of spectra to recognize which materials changed in normal part and cancerous pert. After that, the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is performed to predict the tissue type. The result of PCA indicates that the tumor tissue is associated with a decrease in tryptophan concentration. Furthermore, we can predict the tissue type with 80% accuracy by LDA which model is made by tryptophan bands.

Maeda, Yasuhiro; Ishigaki, Mika; Taketani, Akinori; Andriana, Bibin B.; Ishihara, Ryu; Sato, Hidetoshi

2014-02-01

321

Tonic and Phasic Receptor Neurons in the Vertebrate Olfactory Epithelium  

PubMed Central

Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) respond to odorants with characteristic patterns of action potentials that are relevant for odor coding. Prolonged odorant exposures revealed three populations of dissociated toad ORNs, which were mimicked by depolarizing currents: tonic (TN, displaying sustained firing, 49% of 102 cells), phasic (PN, exhibiting brief action potential trains, 36%) and intermediate neurons (IN, generating trains longer than PN, 15%). We studied the biophysical properties underlying the differences between TNs and PNs, the most extreme cases among ORNs. TNs and PNs possessed similar membrane capacitances (?4 pF), but they differed in resting potential (?82 versus ?64 mV), input resistance (4.2 versus 2.9 G?) and unspecific current, Iu (TNs: 0 < Iu ? 1 pA/pF; and PNs: Iu > 1 pA/pF). Firing behavior did not correlate with differences in voltage-gated conductances. We developed a mathematical model that accurately simulates tonic and phasic patterns. Whole cell recordings from rat ORNs in fragments (?4 mm2) of olfactory epithelium showed that such a tissue normally contains tonic and phasic receptor neurons, suggesting that this feature is common across a wide range of vertebrates. Our findings show that the individual passive electrical properties can govern the firing patterns of ORNs. PMID:12770919

Madrid, Rodolfo; Sanhueza, Magdalena; Alvarez, Osvaldo; Bacigalupo, Juan

2003-01-01

322

Genetic and cellular mechanisms of the formation of Esophageal Atresia and Tracheoesophageal Fistula  

PubMed Central

Foregut separation involves dynamic changes in the activities of signaling pathways and transcription factors. Recent mouse genetic studies demonstrate that some of these pathways interact with each other to form a complex network, leading to a unique dorsal-ventral patterning in the early foregut. In this review we will discuss how this unique dorsal-ventral patterning is set prior to the foregut separation and how disruption of this patterning affects the separation process. We will further discuss the roles of downstream targets of these pathways in regulating separation at cellular and molecular levels. Understanding the mechanism of normal separation process will provide us insights into the pathobiology of a relatively common birth defect Esophageal Atresia (EA) with/without Tracheo-esophageal Fistula (TEF). PMID:23679023

Jacobs, Ian J.; Que, Jianwen

2015-01-01

323

Screening pre-bariatric surgery patients for esophageal disease with esophageal capsule endoscopy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine if esophageal capsule endoscopy (ECE) is an adequate diagnostic alternative to esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in pre-bariatric surgery patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective pilot study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ECE (PillCam ESO2, Given Imaging) vs conventional EGD in pre-bariatric surgery patients. Patients who were scheduled for bariatric surgery and referred for pre-operative EGD were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent ECE followed by standard EGD. Two experienced gastroenterologists blinded to the patient’s history and the findings of the EGD reviewed the ECE and documented their findings. The gold standard was the findings on EGD. RESULTS: Ten patients with an average body mass index of 50 kg/m2 were enrolled and completed the study. ECE identified 11 of 14 (79%) positive esophageal/gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) findings and 14 of 17 (82%) combined esophageal and gastric findings identified on EGD. Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the findings and no significant difference was found between ECE and EGD (P = 0.64 for esophageal/GEJ and P = 0.66 for combined esophageal and gastric findings respectively). Of the positive esophageal/GEJ findings, ECE failed to identify the following: hiatal hernia in two patients, mild esophagitis in two patients, and mild Schatzki ring in two patients. ECE was able to identify the entire esophagus in 100%, gastric cardia in 0%, gastric body in 100%, gastric antrum in 70%, pylorus in 60%, and duodenum in 0%. CONCLUSION: There were no significant differences in the likelihood of identifying a positive finding using ECE compared with EGD in preoperative evaluation of bariatric patients. PMID:24115815

Shah, Ashish; Boettcher, Erica; Fahmy, Marianne; Savides, Thomas; Horgan, Santiago; Jacobsen, Garth R; Sandler, Bryan J; Sedrak, Michael; Kalmaz, Denise

2013-01-01

324

Robot assisted thoracoscopic resection of giant esophageal leiomyoma  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Esophageal leiomyoma represents the most common benign esophageal tumor. Robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery has provided ability to remove it successfully using a minimally invasive approach. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 63-year old female with history of chronic chest pain presented with an esophageal mass on chest CT and endoscopic ultrasound. Robot-assisted surgery was performed using three robot arms, a camera and an assistant port. A 10 cm leiomyoma was enucleated and removed through a 2 cm myotomy. Completion endoscopy confirmed integrity of the esophagus. Patient's chest pain resolved postoperatively, and she was discharged on postoperative day 3. DISCUSSION Our case describes successful removal of the giant esophageal leiomyoma (10 cm) by robot assisted minimally invasive resection through a 2 cm myotomy. CONCLUSION Use of robot allows for removal of large esophageal leiomyoma. The improved dexterity and patient outcome offered by robot suggests its potential as the mainstay technique for giant esophageal leiomyoma removal. PMID:25460487

Compean, Steven D.; Gaur, Puja; Kim, Min P.

2014-01-01

325

Analysis of EHMT1 expression and its correlations with clinical significance in esophageal squamous cell cancer  

PubMed Central

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a highly aggressive malignancy, requiring effective biomarkers for prognosis and therapeutic responsiveness. Histone H3K9 methyltransferases (EHMT1 and EHMT2) are global genome organizers, which are crucial for maintaining the balance state of cells in a tissue-specific manner. It was previously suggested that EHMT1 expression is a predictor of prognosis in several malignant tumors; however, the prognostic significance of EHMT1 expression in ESCC has not been determined. A cohort of 50 ESCC cases and 46 paired normal esophageal tissue samples were evaluated to assess the levels of EHMT1 expression by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The SPSS software package was used for statistical data analysis. A significantly upregulated EHMT1 expression was observed in squamous preinvasive lesions and ESCC compared to the matched normal esophageal epithelia (52.0 vs. 21.7%, respectively). The expression of EHMT1 was correlated with tumor grade (G), depth of invasion (T) and lymph node metastasis (N) in ESCC. EHMT1 overexpression was found to be associated with poor cancer-specific survival in squamous cell carcinomas (?2=3.922, P=0.048). The expression of EHMT1 was identified as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in ESCC patients. In conclusion, EHMT1 expression is upregulated in ESCC and early preinvasive esophageal squamous lesions and the overexpression of EHMT1 is associated with poor prognosis in ESCC. Therefore, the expression of EHMT1 may be an effective prognostic biomarker for ESCC. PMID:24649311

GUAN, XIAOJIAO; ZHONG, XINWEN; MEN, WANFU; GONG, SHULEI; ZHANG, LIN; HAN, YUCHEN

2014-01-01

326

Analysis of EHMT1 expression and its correlations with clinical significance in esophageal squamous cell cancer.  

PubMed

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a highly aggressive malignancy, requiring effective biomarkers for prognosis and therapeutic responsiveness. Histone H3K9 methyltransferases (EHMT1 and EHMT2) are global genome organizers, which are crucial for maintaining the balance state of cells in a tissue-specific manner. It was previously suggested that EHMT1 expression is a predictor of prognosis in several malignant tumors; however, the prognostic significance of EHMT1 expression in ESCC has not been determined. A cohort of 50 ESCC cases and 46 paired normal esophageal tissue samples were evaluated to assess the levels of EHMT1 expression by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The SPSS software package was used for statistical data analysis. A significantly upregulated EHMT1 expression was observed in squamous preinvasive lesions and ESCC compared to the matched normal esophageal epithelia (52.0 vs. 21.7%, respectively). The expression of EHMT1 was correlated with tumor grade (G), depth of invasion (T) and lymph node metastasis (N) in ESCC. EHMT1 overexpression was found to be associated with poor cancer-specific survival in squamous cell carcinomas (?(2)=3.922, P=0.048). The expression of EHMT1 was identified as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in ESCC patients. In conclusion, EHMT1 expression is upregulated in ESCC and early preinvasive esophageal squamous lesions and the overexpression of EHMT1 is associated with poor prognosis in ESCC. Therefore, the expression of EHMT1 may be an effective prognostic biomarker for ESCC. PMID:24649311

Guan, Xiaojiao; Zhong, Xinwen; Men, Wanfu; Gong, Shulei; Zhang, Lin; Han, Yuchen

2014-01-01

327

Simple epithelium keratins are required for maintenance of hepatocyte integrity.  

PubMed Central

Keratin 8 (K8)-deficient adult mice develop a severe disease of the gastrointestinal tract characterized mainly by colorectal hyperplasia and inflammation. Given that hepatocytes contain K8/K18 heteropolymers only, this animal model was used to assess the contribution of these simple epithelium keratins to hepatocyte structural and functional integrity. Homozygous mutant (HMZ), heterozygous, and wild-type (WT) mice were examined for hepatocyte structural and metabolic features and their survival to partial hepatectomy. Except for the presence of few necrotic foci, no other tissular or cellular alterations were observed in nonhepatectomized HMZ mouse livers; glycogen and lipid peroxidation levels were essentially normal, but a small reduction in bile flow was observed. In response to a single pentobarbital injection, HMZ mice had longer sleeping times than heterozygous and WT mice. After a two-thirds partial hepatectomy under pentobarbital anesthesia, all HMZ mice died within a few hours, whereas those anesthetized with ether survived for 1 to 2 days. One hour after hepatectomy after pentobarbital anesthesia, many hepatocytes contained erythrocytes and large vacuoles in the cytoplasm, which suggests damage at the plasma membrane level in response to a sudden increase in portal blood flow. In line with these findings, an uptake of trypan blue by HMZ but not WT mouse hepatocytes was observed during a 10 ml/minute perfusion via the portal vein with a dye-supplemented buffer. Subsequent cellular dispersion led to viable WT mouse hepatocytes but largely nonviable HMZ mouse hepatocytes. Better viability was obtained at lower perfusion rates. Partially hepatectomized heterozygous mice developed liver steatosis, a condition that was not associated with a change in K8 content but perhaps linked to the presence of the neo gene. Transgenic HMZ mouse rescue experiments with a full-length K8 gene confirmed that the phenotypic alterations observed in partially hepatectomized HMZ mice were caused by the disruption of the K8 gene. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that simple epithelium keratins are essential for the maintenance of hepatocyte structural and functional integrity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9403718

Loranger, A.; Duclos, S.; Grenier, A.; Price, J.; Wilson-Heiner, M.; Baribault, H.; Marceau, N.

1997-01-01

328

ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF THE UTERINE EPITHELIUM IN THE RABBIT  

PubMed Central

The ultrastructure of the uterine epithelium has been studied in estrous, ovariectomized, pregnant, and pseudopregnant rabbits. Tissue for light microscopy was fixed in Bouin's solution and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, by the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) method, and with methylene blue. Tissue for electron microscopy was fixed in 1 per cent osmium tetroxide in White's saline and embedded in Araldite. The uterine epithelium in estrus is comprised of ciliated and non-ciliated cells. After ovariectomy the epithelium becomes reduced in height and PAS-positive material disappears. Multinucleated cells are formed in the epithelium in pregnancy, pseudopregnancy, and in the non-pregnant horn in unilateral pregnancy. They degenerate during the 3rd week of pseudopregnancy and during the 4th week of pregnancy in the non-pregnant horn. The formation of multinucleated cells is believed to be under hormonal control. The uterine epithelium in contact with the blastocyst changes into a "symplasma," presumably under the influence of a local (chemical?) effect produced by the blastocyst. This change is not seen in pseudopregnancy nor in the non-pregnant horn in unilateral pregnancy. A complex infolding of the basal cell membrane of the epithelium accompanies the "symplasmic" change. The remaining uterine epithelium in pregnancy shows a well developed ergastoplasm suggesting a production of secretion materials, some of which may be available for absorption by the fetus through the yolk sac or paraplacental chorion. PMID:14462496

Larsen, Jørgen Falck

1962-01-01

329

Carbonated Soft Drink Consumption and Risk of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbonated soft drinks (CSDs) have been associated with gastroesophageal refl ux, an established risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. As both CSD consumption and esophageal ade- nocarcinoma incidence have sharply increased in recent decades, we exam- ined CSD as a risk factor for esophageal and gastric cancers in a U.S. multi- center, population-based case-control study. Associations between CSD intake and risk

Susan T. Mayne; Harvey A. Risch; Robert Dubrow; Wong-Ho Chow; Marilie D. Gammon; Thomas L. Vaughan; Lauren Borchardt; Janet B. Schoenberg; Janet L. Stanford; A. Brian West; Heidi Rotterdam; William J. Blot; Joseph F. Fraumeni

2006-01-01

330

Thoracoscopic esophageal atresia repair made easy. An applicable trick.  

PubMed

Thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia is becoming more popular but technical difficulties in handsewn anastomosis still remain challenging. This article presents an easy and applicable maneuver by passing the trans-esophageal tube before starting to suture in order to minimize the gap, reduce the tension over primary sutures and provide a better visualization of posterolateral parts of the anastomosis in thoracoscopic esophageal atresia repair. Using this maneuver makes tying easier and minimizes grasping and crushing damages to the anastomotic site. PMID:23480935

Hiradfar, Mehran; Shojaeian, Reza; Gharavi Fard, Mohammad; Joodi, Marjan; Sabzevari, Alireza; Nazarzade, Reza

2013-03-01

331

Generation of Human Female Reproductive Tract Epithelium from Human Embryonic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have identified stem/progenitor cells in human and mouse uterine epithelium, which are postulated to be responsible for tissue regeneration and proliferative disorders of human endometrium. These progenitor cells are thought to be derived from Müllerian duct (MD), the primordial female reproductive tract (FRT). Methodology/Principal Findings We have developed a model of human reproductive tract development in which inductive neonatal mouse uterine mesenchyme (nMUM) is recombined with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged human embryonic stem cells (hESCs); GFP-hESC (ENVY). We demonstrate for the first time that hESCs can be differentiated into cells with a human FRT epithelial cell phenotype. hESC derived FRT epithelial cells emerged from cultures containing MIXL1+ mesendodermal precursors, paralleling events occurring during normal organogenesis. Following transplantation, nMUM treated embryoid bodies (EBs) generated epithelial structures with a typical MD phenotype that expressed the MD markers PAX2, HOXA10. Functionally, the hESCs derived FRT epithelium responded to exogenous estrogen by proliferating and secreting uterine-specific glycodelin A (GdA). Conclusions/Significance These data show nMUM can induce differentiation of hESC to form the FRT epithelium. This may provide a model to study early developmental events of the human FRT. PMID:21698266

Ye, Louie; Mayberry, Robyn; Lo, Camden Y.; Britt, Kara L.; Stanley, Edouard G.; Elefanty, Andrew G.; Gargett, Caroline E.

2011-01-01

332

Correlation Between Number of Eosinophils and Reflux Index on Same Day Esophageal Biopsy and 24 Hour Esophageal pH Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:The presence of eosinophils on esophageal biopsy is a marker of esophagitis in children. Eosinophilic inflammation without evidence of gastroesophageal reflux has led to the new diagnosis of eosinophilic, or allergic, esophagitis. The aim of this study was to correlate the number of eosinophils with the reflux index on same day esophageal biopsy and 24 h esophageal pH monitoring.METHODS:A retrospective

Steven J. Steiner; Sandeep K. Gupta; Joseph M. Croffie; Joseph F. Fitzgerald

2004-01-01

333

Changes in the Adult Vertebrate Auditory Sensory Epithelium After Trauma  

PubMed Central

Auditory hair cells transduce sound vibrations into membrane potential changes, ultimately leading to changes in neuronal firing and sound perception. This review provides an overview of the characteristics and repair capabilities of traumatized auditory sensory epithelium in the adult vertebrate ear. Injured mammalian auditory epithelium repairs itself by forming permanent scars but is unable to regenerate replacement hair cells. In contrast, injured non-mammalian vertebrate ear generates replacement hair cells to restore hearing functions. Non-sensory support cells within the auditory epithelium play key roles in the repair processes. PMID:23178236

Oesterle, Elizabeth C.

2012-01-01

334

Building and maintaining the epithelium of the lung  

PubMed Central

Airspaces of the lung are lined by an epithelium whose cellular composition changes along the proximal-to-distal axis to meet local functional needs for mucociliary clearance, hydration, host defense, and gas exchange. Advances in cell isolation, in vitro culture techniques, and genetic manipulation of animal models have increased our understanding of the development and maintenance of the pulmonary epithelium. This review discusses basic cellular mechanisms that regulate establishment of the conducting airway and gas exchange systems as well as the functional maintenance of the epithelium during postnatal life. PMID:22850882

Rackley, Craig R.; Stripp, Barry R.

2012-01-01

335

The history of lymphadenectomy for esophageal cancer and the future prospects for esophageal cancer surgery.  

PubMed

I would herein like to look back upon surgery for esophageal cancer, particularly on lymphadenectomy, and to speculate a little on the future prospects for esophageal surgery. There are two schools of thought on lymphadenectomy in esophageal cancer: one believes in en bloc esophagectomy, which is commonly performed in Western countries; the other believes in three-field lymphadenectomy, which is commonly performed in Japan. We esophageal surgeons at Kurume University have contributed to some advances in three-field lymphadenectomy. For example, we initiated functional mediastinal dissection to ensure patient safety, and we proposed the lymph node compartment theory to assess the clinical importance of regional nodes. Oncological surgery has progressed in terms of its safety, radicality and functional preservation, leading to improved quality-of-life for patients after surgery. This then evolved to the current development of multimodal and individualized tailor-made treatments. I believe that surgery for esophageal cancer will become bipolarized in the future. One strand will evolve as salvage surgery for residual or recurrent tumors, which non-surgical therapies have failed to cure, and the other strand will evolve as less invasive surgery, adjuvant surgery, for cancers at the relatively early stage, for which micro-metastasis can be cured by non-surgical therapies. PMID:24519395

Fujita, Hiromasa

2015-02-01

336

Esophageal Motor Disorders in Terms of High-Resolution Esophageal Pressure Topography: What Has Changed?  

PubMed Central

The concept of high-resolution manometry (HRM) is to use sufficient pressure sensors such that intraluminal pressure can be monitored as a continuum along luminal length much as time is viewed as a continuum in conventional manometry. When HRM is coupled with pressure topography plots, pressure amplitude is transformed into spectral colors with isobaric conditions indicated by same-colored regions on the display. Together, these technologies are called high-resolution esophageal pressure topography (HREPT). HREPT has several advantages compared with conventional manometry, the technology that it was designed to replace. (i) The contractility of the entire esophagus can be viewed simultaneously in a uniform format, (ii) standardized objective metrics can be systematically applied for interpretation, and (iii) topographic patterns of contractility are more easily recognized and have greater reproducibility than with conventional manometry. Compared with conventional manometry, HREPT has improved sensitivity for detecting achalasia, largely due to the objectivity and accuracy with which it identifies impaired esophagogastric junction (EGJ) relaxation. In addition, it has led to the subcategorization of achalasia into three clinically relevant subtypes based on the contractile function of the esophageal body: classic achalasia, achalasia with esophageal compression, and spastic achalasia. Headway has also been made in understanding hypercontractile conditions, including diffuse esophageal spasm and a newly described entity, spastic nutcracker. Ultimately, clinical experience will be the judge, but it seems likely that HREPT data, along with its well-defined functional implications, will improve the clinical management of esophageal motility disorders. PMID:20179690

Kahrilas, Peter J.

2010-01-01

337

Desmoglein-1 regulates esophageal epithelial barrier function and immune responses in eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

The desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1 (DSG1) is an essential intercellular adhesion molecule that is altered in various human cutaneous disorders; however, its regulation and function in allergic disease remains unexplored. Herein, we demonstrate a specific reduction in DSG1 in esophageal biopsies from patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), an emerging allergic disorder characterized by chronic inflammation within the esophageal mucosa. Further, we show that DSG1 gene silencing weakens esophageal epithelial integrity, and induces cell separation and impaired barrier function (IBF) despite high levels of desmoglein-3 (DSG3). Moreover, DSG1 deficiency induces transcriptional changes that partially overlap with the transcriptome of inflamed esophageal mucosa; notably, periostin, a multipotent pro-inflammatory extracellular matrix molecule, is the top induced overlapping gene. We further demonstrate that IBF is a pathological feature in EoE, which can be partially induced through the downregulation of DSG1 by interleukin-13 (IL-13). Taken together, these data identify a functional role for DSG1 and its dysregulation by IL-13 in the pathophysiology of EoE and suggest that the loss of DSG1 may potentiate allergic inflammation through the induction of pro-inflammatory mediators such as periostin. PMID:24220297

Sherrill, J D; KC, K; Wu, D; Djukic, Z; Caldwell, J M; Stucke, E M; Kemme, K A; Costello, M S; Mingler, M K; Blanchard, C; Collins, M H; Abonia, J P; Putnam, P E; Dellon, E S; Orlando, R C; Hogan, S P; Rothenb, M E

2014-01-01

338

Esophageal cancer: Recent advances in screening, targeted therapy, and management  

PubMed Central

The incidence of esophageal cancer remains on the rise worldwide and despite aggressive research in the field of gastrointestinal oncology, the survival remains poor. Much remains to be defined in esophageal cancer, including the development of an effective screening tool, identifying a good tumor marker for surveillance purposes, ways to target esophageal cancer stem cells as well as circulating tumor cells, and developing minimally invasive protocols to treat early-stage disease. The goal of this chapter is to highlight some of the recent advances and ongoing research in the field of esophageal cancer. PMID:25395880

Gaur, Puja; Kim, Min P.; Dunkin, Brian J.

2014-01-01

339

Primary Culture of Mammalian Taste Epithelium  

PubMed Central

Establishment of primary and immortalized cultures of many cell types has facilitated efforts to understand the signals involved in proliferation and differentiation and yielded tools to rapidly assay new molecules targeting specific receptor pathways. Taste cells are specialized sensory epithelial cells which reside within taste buds on the lingual epithelium. Only recently have successful culturing protocols been developed which maintain essential molecular and functional characteristics. These protocols provide a tractable tool to examine the molecular, regenerative, and functional properties of these unique sensory cells within a controlled environment. The method involves an enzymatic isolation procedure and standardized culture conditions, and may be applied to either dissected rodent tissue or human fungiform papillae obtained by biopsy. Human fungiform cells can be maintained in culture for more than seven passages, without loss of viability and with retention of the molecular and biochemical properties of acutely isolated taste cells. Cultured primary human fungiform papillae cells also exhibit functional responses to taste stimuli indicating the presence of taste receptors and at least some relevant signaling pathways. While the loss of the three-dimensional structure of the intact taste bud must be taken into consideration in interpreting results obtained with these cells, this culture protocol provides a useful model for molecular studies of the proliferation, differentiation, and physiological function of mammalian taste receptor cells. PMID:23097103

Ozdener, Mehmet Hakan; Rawson, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

340

Ultraviolet induced lysosome activity in corneal epithelium.  

PubMed

A 5,000 W Xe-Hg high pressure lamp and a double monochromator were used to produce a 3.3 nm half-bandpass ultraviolet radiation at 295 nm. Pigmented rabbit eyes were irradiated with radiant exposures from 140 Jm-2 to 10,000 Jm-2 and evaluated by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, light and electron microscopy. Corneal threshold (Hc) was 200 Jm-2 and lens threshold (HL) was 7,500 Jm-2. The most repeatable and reliable corneal response to these levels of UV was the development of corneal epithelial granules. Histological changes included a loss of superficial epithelial cells and selective UV induced autolysis of the wing cells. It is suggested that the biomicroscopically observed granules are the clinical manifestation of the secondary lysosomes revealed by light and electron microscopy. It is proposed that UV breaks down the primary lysosome membranes to release hydrolytic enzymes which in turn form the secondary lysosomes during autolysis. Extreme levels of radiant exposure at 295 nm result in indiscriminate destruction of all layers of the corneal epithelium, but the posterior cornea was spared. PMID:6906163

Cullen, A P

1980-01-01

341

TLR-mediated Induction of Pro-allergic Cytokine IL-33 in Ocular Mucosal Epithelium  

PubMed Central

Interleukin (IL) 33 has been recently identified as a ligand to the ST2 receptor that mediates Th2-dominant allergic inflammation. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated innate immunity in IL-33 induction by mucosal epithelium. Human corneal tissues and cultured primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) were treated with a variety of viral or bacterial components without or with different inhibitors to evaluate the IL-33 regulation and signaling pathways. The level of mRNA expression was determined by reverse transcription and real time PCR, and protein was measured by ELISA, immunostaining and Western blotting. IL-33 mRNA and protein were largely induced by various microbial components, mainly by polyI:C and flagellin, the ligands to TLR3 and TLR5, respectively in human corneal epithelium ex vivo and in vitro cultures. Pro-IL-33 protein was normally restricted inside cells, and could be secreted outside when activated by ATP. The PolyI:C induced IL-33 production was blocked by TLR3 antibody or TRIF Inhibitory peptide, while flagellin stimulated IL-33 was blocked by TLR5 antibody or MyD88 Inhibitory peptide. Interestingly, I?B-? inhibitor (BAY11-7082) or NF-?B inhibitor (quinazoline) blocked NF-?B p65 protein nuclear translocation, and suppressed IL-33 production induced by PolyI:C and flagellin. These findings demonstrate that IL-33, an epithelium-derived pro-allergic cytokine, is induced by microbial ligands through TLR-mediated innate signaling pathways, suggesting a possible role of mucosal epithelium in Th2-dominant allergic inflammation. PMID:21684348

Zhang, Lili; Lu, Rong; Zhao, Guiqiu; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Li, De-Quan

2011-01-01

342

Cell-cell junctions: a target of acoustic overstimulation in the sensory epithelium of the cochlea  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to intense noise causes the excessive movement of the organ of Corti, stretching the organ and compromising sensory cell functions. We recently revealed changes in the transcriptional expression of multiple adhesion-related genes during the acute phases of cochlear damage, suggesting that the disruption of cell-cell junctions is an early event in the process of cochlear pathogenesis. However, the functional state of cell junctions in the sensory epithelium is not clear. Here, we employed graded dextran-FITC, a macromolecule tracer that is impermeable to the organ of Corti under physiological conditions, to evaluate the barrier function of cell junctions in normal and noise-traumatized cochlear sensory epithelia. Results Exposure to an impulse noise of 155?dB (peak sound pressure level) caused a site-specific disruption in the intercellular junctions within the sensory epithelium of the chinchilla cochlea. The most vulnerable sites were the junctions among the Hensen cells and between the Hensen and Deiters cells within the outer zone of the sensory epithelium. The junction clefts that formed in the reticular lamina were permeable to 40 and 500 but not 2,000?kDa dextran-FITC macromolecules. Moreover, this study showed that the interruption of junction integrity occurred in the reticular lamina and also in the basilar membrane, a site that had been considered to be resistant to acoustic injury. Finally, our study revealed a general spatial correlation between the site of sensory cell damage and the site of junction disruption. However, the two events lacked a strict one-to-one correlation, suggesting that the disruption of cell-cell junctions is a contributing, but not the sole, factor for initiating acute sensory cell death. Conclusions Impulse noise causes the functional disruption of intercellular junctions in the sensory epithelium of the chinchilla cochlea. This disruption occurs at an early phase of cochlear damage. Understanding the role of this disruption in cochlear pathogenesis will require future study. PMID:22712683

2012-01-01

343

Eosinophils in the Esophagus—Peptic or Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis? Case Series of Three Patients with Esophageal Eosinophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Scattered eosinophils in the distal esophagus traditionally provide the hallmark for peptic esophagitis, but the upper limit of eosinophils and the longitudinal extent of peptic inflammation along the esophagus are unknown. Recently, adults and children with upper intestinal symptoms and >20 eosinophils\\/high-power field (eos\\/HPF) have been given the diagnosis of allergic esophagitis. Standardized diagnostic criteria for allergic esophagitis are lacking

Peter Ngo; Glenn T. Furuta; Donald A. Antonioli; Victor L. Fox

2006-01-01

344

New genetic links in eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is increasingly diagnosed as a disorder throughout the world. It is characterized by eosinophils in the esophagus due to food allergies. Molecular analysis of esophageal biopsies and mouse models have indicated a clear role for the T helper 2 pathway, in particular interleukins 5 and 13, in this disease. Current treatment options for EoE involve avoidance of the allergens or using anti-inflammatory medications such as topical corticosteroids. In the past year, genomic research has led to the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and subsequently in the gene encoding its receptor, as disease susceptibility markers for EoE. Identification of this molecule and its receptor suggest the potential for new treatment options in the future. PMID:20822553

Spergel, Jonathan M

2010-01-01

345

Esophageal atresia and prenatal exposure to mycophenolate.  

PubMed

Mycophenolate mofetil is a widely prescribed immunosuppressive agent for transplant patients and autoimmune diseases. Potential teratogenic effects after in utero exposure to mycophenolate mofetil has been described in human clinical observations. The complete clinical pattern is still being delineated. We present four newborns with esophageal atresia and other congenital anomalies, prenatally exposed to mycophenolate mofetil during the first trimester. Two of the cases had other defects related to the embryopathy: microtia, eye abnormalities and oral clefts. Two cases did not show major craniofacial anomalies. We propose that esophageal atresia with or without tracheoesophageal fistula is a feature of mycophenolate embryopathy even without the presence of other major craniofacial anomalies. The human teratogenicity of MMF is reinforced by this report, and the current contraceptive recommendations about its use in fertile women are stressed. PMID:25461910

Martín, M C; Cristiano, E; Villanueva, M; Bonora, M L; Berguio, N; Tocci, A; Groisman, B; Bidondo, M P; Liascovich, R; Barbero, P

2014-12-01

346

Peroral endoscopic myotomy for esophageal achalasia.  

PubMed

Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is one of the alternative treatment for achalasia. Due to concept of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), it becomes popular and widely accepted. With the endoluminal technique, submucosal tunnel was created followed by endoscopic myotomy. POEM is not only indicated in classical achalasia but also other abnormal esophageal motility disorders. Moreover, failures of endoscopic treatment or surgical attempted cases are not contraindicated for POEM. The second attempted POEM is also safe and technically feasible. Even though the legend of success of POEM is fruitful, the possible complications are very frightened. Good training and delicate practice will reduce rate of complications. This review provides a summary of current state-of-the-art of POEM, including indication equipments, technique and complications. This perfect procedure may become the treatment of choice of achalasia and some esophageal motility disorders in the near future. PMID:25333007

Phalanusitthepha, Chainarong; Inoue, Haruhiro; Ikeda, Haruo; Sato, Hiroki; Sato, Chiaki; Hokierti, Chananya

2014-03-01

347

Peroral endoscopic myotomy for esophageal achalasia  

PubMed Central

Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is one of the alternative treatment for achalasia. Due to concept of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), it becomes popular and widely accepted. With the endoluminal technique, submucosal tunnel was created followed by endoscopic myotomy. POEM is not only indicated in classical achalasia but also other abnormal esophageal motility disorders. Moreover, failures of endoscopic treatment or surgical attempted cases are not contraindicated for POEM. The second attempted POEM is also safe and technically feasible. Even though the legend of success of POEM is fruitful, the possible complications are very frightened. Good training and delicate practice will reduce rate of complications. This review provides a summary of current state-of-the-art of POEM, including indication equipments, technique and complications. This perfect procedure may become the treatment of choice of achalasia and some esophageal motility disorders in the near future. PMID:25333007

Inoue, Haruhiro; Ikeda, Haruo; Sato, Hiroki; Sato, Chiaki; Hokierti, Chananya

2014-01-01

348

Aortoesophageal fistula secondary to reflux esophagitis.  

PubMed

Aortoenteric fistula is a rare cause of massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is in the overwhelming majority of cases due to erosion of a suture line of a prosthetic vascular graft into the bowel. We report the case of a massive fatal gastrointestinal hemorrhage from an aortoenteric fistula secondary to erosion from reflux esophagitis. Proper management requires expedient radiographic and endoscopic evaluation, and even with appropriate management mortality remains extremely high. PMID:17369684

Podbielski, Francis J; Rodriguez, Heron E; Zhu, Richard Y; Worley, Todd A; Fontaine, Jacques Pierre; Connolly, Mark M

2007-01-01

349

Esophageal food impaction: treatment with glucagon.  

PubMed

Nineteen patients who had foreign bodies in the distal esophagus were examined prospectively to determine the efficacy of intravenous glucagon in relieving the obstruction. The administration of glucagon resulted in clearance of the impacted food in seven patients. Although the success rate is relatively low, the risk is minimal and justifiable. Use of intravenous glucagon is a safe, worthwhile initial step in the treatment of distal esophageal foreign bodies. PMID:6622682

Trenkner, S W; Maglinte, D D; Lehman, G A; Chernish, S M; Miller, R E; Johnson, C W

1983-11-01

350

Ambulatory Esophageal pH Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraesophageal manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux may be best diagnosed using ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring. This test involves the placemenmt of a thin pH probe in the esophagus, which is connected to a small box on a waistbelt. Studies are done in an ambulatory state in the patient’s home and work environment. Data collected assesses acid exposure time over the circadian

Joel E Richter

1997-01-01

351

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: Pathology and prognosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1985 and 1992 a total of 403 patients with resected thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were evaluated histopathologically, and various pathologic findings related to survival were examined. Concerning depth of tumor invasion, 8 (2%) cases were pTis, 110 (27%) were pT1, 48 (12%) were pT2, 202 (50%) were pT3, and 35 (9%) were pT4. Lymphatic invasion was detected in

Hiroko Ide; Tsutomu Nakamura; Kazuhiko Hayashi; Takeshi Endo; Ataru Kobayashi; Reiki Eguchi; Fujio Hanyu

1994-01-01

352

Stem cell function in the mouse corneal epithelium   

E-print Network

Limbal stem cells maintain the corneal epithelium through a process of clonal growth and ordered migration. In X-inactivation mosaic female mice, that express LacZ from one of their X-chromosomes, random clumps of ...

Mort, Richard Lester

2007-11-27

353

Salicylic acid ingestion leading to esophageal stricture.  

PubMed

Accidental ingestion of caustic substances (acid and alkali) occurs more frequently in children than in adults. The subsequent injury varies from minimal to severe, with perforation and even death as potential complications. Several factors have been shown to mediate the severity of injury, including the pH, concentration and physical state of the ingested substance, tissue contact time, and quantity (volume) of the ingested material. Liquids with a pH of less than 2 (acidic) or a pH of greater than 12 (alkali) are considered to be extremely corrosive and hold the greatest risk for injury. Esophageal injury after caustic ingestion is endoscopically graded with a score of 0 for no injury to IIIb for significant circumferential injury with ulcers and necrosis. Ingestion of either a strong alkali or acid has been documented to result in esophageal necrosis and ulcers (grade IIIb). Alkali ingestions occur more frequently because of their presence in daily life (detergents, degreasers) and therefore have more reports of injury. Despite more than 8200 documented cases of topical salicylic acid ingestions annually in US children younger than 19 years, there are no reported cases of salicylic acid resulting in gastrointestinal pathology. We report 2 cases of salicylic acid ingestion resulting in esophageal strictures. Both patients had more significant injury than anticipated given their initial clinical presentations. Given our recent experience, we recommend close follow-up and evaluation for strictures in patients with exposure to salicylic acid. PMID:20145508

Waasdorp Hurtado, Christine E; Kramer, Robert E

2010-02-01

354

Esophageal duplication cyst containing a foreign body  

PubMed Central

About 10% to 15% of all duplication cysts in the alimentary tract are esophageal. Esophageal duplication cysts are intimately attached to the alimentary tract, are lined by mucous membrane and have smooth muscle. This paper describes a 2-year-old child who presented with symptoms of progressive respiratory distress. A diagnosis of esophageal duplication cyst was made. At surgery a low cervical incision was made and the sternal manubrium split, thereby providing adequate exposure. The cyst was then removed. The most useful investigations were chest roentgenography and barium esophagography. Computerized tomography showed a small, round foreign body in the middle of the cyst that was subsequently found to be a bingo chip. Communication between the cyst and the esophagus was not obvious at the time of surgery and had not been demonstrated by barium esophagography. When complete excision of the cyst is not possible because of inflammatory reaction all the mucosa must be removed to prevent recurrence. Careful postoperative respiratory support and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy are recommended. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:3971270

Stringel, Gustavo; Mercer, Stanley; Briggs, Valerie

1985-01-01

355

Extracellular matrix stiffness and composition jointly regulate the induction of malignant phenotypes in mammary epithelium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vitro models of normal mammary epithelium have correlated increased extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness with malignant phenotypes. However, the role of increased stiffness in this transformation remains unclear because of difficulties in controlling ECM stiffness, composition and architecture independently. Here we demonstrate that interpenetrating networks of reconstituted basement membrane matrix and alginate can be used to modulate ECM stiffness independently of composition and architecture. We find that, in normal mammary epithelial cells, increasing ECM stiffness alone induces malignant phenotypes but that the effect is completely abrogated when accompanied by an increase in basement-membrane ligands. We also find that the combination of stiffness and composition is sensed through ?4 integrin, Rac1, and the PI3K pathway, and suggest a mechanism in which an increase in ECM stiffness, without an increase in basement membrane ligands, prevents normal ?6?4 integrin clustering into hemidesmosomes.

Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Koshy, Sandeep T.; Branco da Cunha, Cristiana; Shin, Jae-Won; Verbeke, Catia S.; Allison, Kimberly H.; Mooney, David J.

2014-10-01

356

Different healing process of esophageal large mucosal defects by endoscopic mucosal dissection between with and without steroid injection in an animal model  

PubMed Central

Background Stricture formation is one of the major complications after endoscopic removal of large superficial squamous cell neoplasms of the esophagus, and local steroid injections have been adopted to prevent it. However, fundamental pathological alterations related to them have not been well analyzed so far. The aim of this study was to analyze the time course of the healing process of esophageal large mucosal defects resulting in stricture formation and its modification by local steroid injection, using an animal model. Methods Esophageal circumferential mucosal defects were created by endoscopic mucosal dissection (ESD) for four pigs. One pig was sacrificed five minutes after the ESD, and other two pigs were followed-up on endoscopy and sacrificed at the time of one week and three weeks after the ESD, respectively. The remaining one pig was followed-up on endoscopy with five times of local steroid injection and sacrificed at the time of eight weeks after the ESD. The esophageal tissues of all pigs were subjected to pathological analyses. Results For the pigs without steroid injection, the esophageal stricture was completed around three weeks after the ESD on both endoscopy and esophagography. Histopathological examination of the esophageal tissues revealed that spindle-shaped ?-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive myofibroblasts arranged in a parallel fashion and extending horizontally were identified at the ulcer bed one week after the ESD, and increased contributing to formation of the stenotic luminal ridge covered with the regenerated epithelium three weeks after the ESD. The proper muscle layer of the stricture site was thinned with some myocytes which seemingly showed transition to the myofibroblast layer. By contrast, for the pig with steroid injection, esophageal stricture formation was not evident with limited appearance of the spindle-shaped myofibroblasts, instead, appearance of stellate or polygocal SMA-positive stromal cells arranged haphazardly in the persistent granulation tissue of the ulcer site. Conclusions Proliferation of spindle-shaped myofibroblasts arranged in a parallel fashion is likely to play an important role in stricture formation after circumferential mucosal defects by esophageal ESD, which may be related to the thinning of the proper muscle layer in the healing course of the defects. Local steroid injection seems to be effective to prevent the stricture through the modification of this process. PMID:23617935

2013-01-01

357

DADS suppresses human esophageal xenograft tumors through RAF/MEK/ERK and mitochondria-dependent pathways.  

PubMed

Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a natural organosulfur compound isolated from garlic. DADS has various biological properties, including anticancer, antiangiogenic, and antioxidant effects. However, the anticancer mechanisms of DADS in human esophageal carcinoma have not been elucidated, especially in vivo. In this study, MTT assay showed that DADS significantly reduced cell viability in human esophageal carcinoma ECA109 cells, but was relatively less toxic in normal liver cells. The pro-apoptotic effect of DADS on ECA109 cells was detected by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) staining. Flow cytometry analysis showed that DADS promoted apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner and the apoptosis rate could be decreased by caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO. Xenograft study in nude mice showed that DADS treatment inhibited the growth of ECA109 tumor in both 20 and 40 mg/kg DADS groups without obvious side effects. DADS inhibited ECA109 tumor proliferation by down-regulating proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). DADS induced apoptosis by activating a mitochondria-dependent pathway with the executor of caspase-3, increasing p53 level and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and downregulating the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway in ECA109 xenograft tumosr. Based on studies in cell culture and animal models, the findings here indicate that DADS is an effective and safe anti-cancer agent for esophageal carcinoma. PMID:25026173

Yin, Xiaoran; Zhang, Jun; Li, Xiaoning; Liu, Dong; Feng, Cheng; Liang, Rongrui; Zhuang, Kun; Cai, Chenlei; Xue, Xinghuan; Jing, Fuchun; Wang, Xijing; Wang, Jun; Liu, Xinlian; Ma, Hongbing

2014-01-01

358

The essential role of fibroblasts in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-induced angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is known to be a highly angiogenic tumor. Here, we investigate the role of the stromal fibroblasts in the ESCC-induced angiogenic response using a novel 3D model. Methods A novel assay was developed where co-cultures of ESCC and esophageal fibroblasts induced HMVEC cell vascular network formation in a 3D collagen gel. Biochemical studies showed that the ESCC-induced activation of the fibroblasts was required to induce vascular network formation via a TGF-? and VEGF dependent pathway. Results Conditioned media from a panel of 4 ESCC lines trans-differentiated normal esophageal fibroblasts into myofibroblasts via TGF-? signaling. The presence of fibroblasts was essential for efficient HMVEC network formation and the addition of ESCC cells to these cultures greatly enhanced the angiogenic process. The role of TGF-? in this process was demonstrated by the complete inhibition of network formation following TGF-? inhibitor treatment. Finally, we showed that ESCC-derived TGF-? regulates angiogenesis through the release of VEGF from the fibroblasts, and that the VEGF release was blocked following TGF-? inhibition. Conclusions This study demonstrates the essential role of fibroblasts in the ESCC angiogenic-induced response and suggests that the pharmacological targeting of the TGF-? signaling axis could be of therapeutic benefit in this deadly disease. PMID:18439605

Noma, Kazuhiro; Smalley, Keiran S. M.; Lioni, Mercedes; Naomoto, Yoshio; Tanaka, Noriaki; El-Deiry, Wafik; King, Alastair J.; Nagakawa, Hiroshi; Herlyn, Meenhard

2008-01-01

359

Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms not responding to proton pump inhibitor: GERD, NERD, NARD, esophageal hypersensitivity or dyspepsia?  

PubMed Central

Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common gastrointestinal process that can generate symptoms of heartburn and chest pain. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the gold standard for the treatment of GER; however, a substantial group of GER patients fail to respond to PPIs. In the past, it was believed that acid reflux into the esophagus causes all, or at least the majority, of symptoms attributed to GER, with both erosive esophagitis and nonerosive outcomes. However, with modern testing techniques it has been shown that, in addition to acid reflux, the reflux of nonacid gastric and duodenal contents into the esophagus may also induce GER symptoms. It remains unknown how weakly acidic or alkaline refluxate with a pH similar to a normal diet induces GER symptoms. Esophageal hypersensitivity or functional dyspepsia with superimposed heartburn may be other mechanisms of symptom generation, often completely unrelated to GER. Detailed studies investigating the pathophysiology of esophageal hypersensitivity are not conclusive, and definitions of the various disease states may overlap and are often confusing. The authors aim to clarify the pathophysiology, definition, diagnostic techniques and medical treatment of patients with heartburn symptoms who fail PPI therapy. PMID:24719900

Bashashati, Mohammad; Hejazi, Reza A; Andrews, Christopher N; Storr, Martin A

2014-01-01

360

Interleukin-8 production via protease-activated receptor 2 in human esophageal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Interaction between proteases and protease-activated receptor (PAR) 2 has been proposed to mediate inflammatory and immune response in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, increase in interleukin (IL)-8 in the esophageal mucosa has been associated with the pathogenesis of esophagitis induced by reflux of gastric acids, bile acids or trypsin. The aims of the present study were to determine PAR2 expression in normal human esophageal epithelial cells (HEEC) and to evaluate the mediation of IL-8 production by trypsin-PAR2 interaction in HEEC. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis revealed that PAR2 mRNA and protein were constitutively expressed in HEEC without upregulation by the stimulation with tumor necrosis factor alpha or trypsin. IL-8 was produced in a dose-dependent fashion when cells were stimulated with a PAR2 agonist such as trypsin or SLIGKV-amide. Blocking antibody to PAR2, camostat mesilate (a trypsin inhibitor), p-38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors or ERK1/2 inhibitors reduced IL-8 production from trypsin-stimulated HEEC. Mutation of the NFkappaB-, AP-1- and NF-IL-6-binding site on the IL-8 gene promoter abrogated the induction of luciferase activities stimulated with trypsin by 100, 80 and 50%, respectively. These results indicate that PAR2 activation in HEEC by trypsin induces NFkappaB- and AP-1-dependent IL-8 production in association with activation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2, suggesting that esophageal inflammation may be induced by PAR2 activation via reflux of trypsin. PMID:17203209

Yoshida, N; Katada, K; Handa, O; Takagi, T; Kokura, S; Naito, Y; Mukaida, N; Soma, T; Shimada, Y; Yoshikawa, T; Okanoue, T

2007-02-01

361

Prevention of esophageal strictures after endoscopic submucosal dissection.  

PubMed

Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have recently been accepted as less invasive methods for treating patients with early esophageal cancers such as squamous cell carcinoma and dysplasia of Barrett's esophagus. However, the large defects in the esophageal mucosa often cause severe esophageal strictures, which dramatically reduce the patient's quality of life. Although preventive endoscopic balloon dilatation can reduce dysphagia and the frequency of dilatation, other approaches are necessary to prevent esophageal strictures after ESD. This review describes several strategies for preventing esophageal strictures after ESD, with a particular focus on anti-inflammatory and tissue engineering approaches. The local injection of triamcinolone acetonide and other systemic steroid therapies are frequently used to prevent esophageal strictures after ESD. Tissue engineering approaches for preventing esophageal strictures have recently been applied in basic research studies. Scaffolds with temporary stents have been applied in five cases, and this technique has been shown to be safe and is anticipated to prevent esophageal strictures. Fabricated autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets to cover the defective mucosa similarly to how commercially available skin products fabricated from epidermal cells are used for skin defects or in cases of intractable ulcers. Fabricated autologous oral-mucosal-epithelial cell sheets have already been shown to be safe. PMID:25386058

Kobayashi, Shinichiro; Kanai, Nobuo; Ohki, Takeshi; Takagi, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Naoyuki; Isomoto, Hajime; Kasai, Yoshiyuki; Hosoi, Takahiro; Nakao, Kazuhiko; Eguchi, Susumu; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

2014-11-01

362

Population Attributable Risks of Esophageal and Gastric Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several risk factors have been identified for esophageal adenocarcinoma, gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma, but no study has comprehensively exam- ined their contributions to the cancer burden in the general population. Herein, we estimate the population attributable risks (PARs) for various risk factors observed in a multi- center population-based case-control study. Methods: We

Lawrence S. Engel; Wong-Ho Chow; Thomas L. Vaughan; Marilie D. Gammon; Harvey A. Risch; Janet L. Stanford; Janet B. Schoenberg; Susan T. Mayne; Robert Dubrow; Heidrun Rotterdam; A. Brian West; Martin Blaser; William J. Blot; Mitchell H. Gail; Joseph F. Fraumeni

2003-01-01

363

Congenital distal esophageal obstruction caused by intraluminal mucosal web.  

PubMed

Here, we report a case with intraluminal membrane (web) located in the lower esophagus causing complete obstruction. Esophagogram revealed complete obstruction near the esophagogastric junction. Surgical excision of the esophageal membrane was performed. To our knowledge, only a few cases with membranous esophageal atresia have been reported. It must be remembered in neonates who cannot tolerate feeding. PMID:23094548

U?uralp, Sema; Ceran, Canan; Demircan, Mehmet

2012-01-01

364

Endoscopic Management of Difficult or Recurrent Esophageal Strictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esophageal strictures are a common problem in gastroenterological practice. In general, the management of malignant or benign esophageal strictures is different and requires a different treatment approach. In daily clinical practice, stent placement is a commonly used modality for the palliation of incurable malignant strictures causing dysphagia, whereas, if available, intraluminal brachytherapy can be considered in patients with a good

Laetitia R H de Wijkerslooth; Frank P Vleggaar; Peter D Siersema

2011-01-01

365

Pierre Robin sequence with esophageal atresia and congenital radioulnar synostosis.  

PubMed

A wide spectrum of anomalies can be associated with Pierre Robin sequence. This report presents a 3-day-old infant with micrognathia, U-shaped cleft palate, low-set right ear with microtia, glossoptosis, esophageal atresia, and right congenital radioulnar synostosis. The association of congenital radioulnar synostosis and esophageal atresia with Pierre Robin sequence has not been previously described. PMID:16681404

Ozkan, Keramettin Ugur; Coban, Yusuf Kenan; Uzel, Murat; Ergun, Mehmet; Oksuz, Hafize

2006-05-01

366

The efficacy of ozone therapy in experimental caustic esophageal burn  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionOzone has been proposed as an antioxidant enzyme activator, immunomodulator and cellular metabolic activator. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of ozone therapy in the prevention of esophageal damage and stricture formation developed after esophageal caustic injuries in the rat.

Ahmet Guven; Gokhan Gundogdu; Serdar Sadir; Turgut Topal; Esra Erdogan; Ahmet Korkmaz; ?lhami Surer; Haluk Ozturk

2008-01-01

367

Photodynamic Therapy for Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in patients with Barrett's esophagus and esophageal carcinoma. We describe the history of PDT, mechanics, photosensitizers for PDT in patients with esophageal disease. Finally, we discuss its utility and limitations in this setting. PMID:23423151

Qumseya, Bashar J.; David, Waseem

2013-01-01

368

TRIPLE PHASE DYNAMIC COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC PERFUSION CHARACTERISTICS OF SPIROCERCOSIS INDUCED ESOPHAGEAL NODULES IN NON-NEOPLASTIC VERSUS NEOPLASTIC CANINE CASES.  

PubMed

Neoplastic transformation of Spirocerca lupi induced esophageal nodules carries a poor prognosis. Clinical, clinicopathological, endoscopic, and radiographic characteristics may be indicative of neoplastic transformation but variable sensitivity and specificity of these parameters makes their use questionable. We hypothesized that CT would be a better diagnostic modality to discriminate between non-neoplastic and neoplastic nodules. In this prospective study of 38 dogs, the appearance and perfusion characteristics of confirmed spirocercosis-induced neoplastic and non-neoplastic esophageal nodules were described using survey CT and triple phase dynamic CT angiography (CTA). Pre- and post-contrast early arterial, late arterial, and venous CTA images were evaluated. Non-neoplastic nodules were smooth and nonmineralized with a higher proportion of hypoattenuating necropurulent cavities compared to neoplastic nodules that had a more irregular surface, with 93% having mineralized foci and rarely any hypoattenuating pockets. Non-neoplastic nodules were significantly more perfused than neoplastic nodules with the difference being up to 23 Hounsfield units. The difference was most marked in the early and late arterial phases (P = 0.0005 and 0.00005, respectively). Ratios of the normal esophagus adjacent to the neoplastic and non-neoplastic nodules did not differ significantly from each other. Perfusion findings demonstrated relative hypoperfusion of the esophageal sarcomas. Findings from the current study indicated that CT characteristics of relative postcontrast hypoperfusion, combined with nodule irregularity and mineralization warrant a high level of concern for neoplastic transformation in canine spirocercosis-induced esophageal nodules. PMID:25393217

Kirberger, Robert M; Cassel, Nicky; Stander, Nerissa; Mclean, Melanie; Dvir, Eran

2014-11-13

369

The Effect of Beta-Aminopropionitrile and Prednisolone on the Prevention of Fibrosis in Alkali Esophageal Burns: An Experimental Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) and prednisolone on the prevention of esophageal damage and stricture formation after caustic esophageal burn. Method. Twenty-eight rats were divided into four equal groups. In groups 1, 2, and 3, caustic esophageal burns were generated by applying NaOH to the 1.5?cm segment of the abdominal esophagus. Group 4 was for the sham. Normal saline to group 1, BAPN to group 2, and prednisolone to group 3 were administered intraperitoneally as a single daily dose. Results. Treatment with BAPN decreased the stenosis index (SI) and histopathologic damage score (HDS) seen in caustic esophageal burn rats. The SI in group 4 was significantly lower compared with groups 1, 2, and 3. Group 2 had the minimum SI value in corrosive burn groups. The differences related to SI between groups 1, 2, and 3 were not statistically significant. The HDS was significantly lower in group 4 compared with groups 1, 2, and 3. The HDS in group 2 was significantly lower compared with groups 1 and 3. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that BAPN was able to decrease the development of stenosis and tissue damage better than prednisolone. PMID:24391667

Aciksari, Kurtulus; Yanar, Hakan Teoman; Hepgul, Gulcin; Yanar, Fatih; Agcaoglu, Orhan; Eser, Mediha; Tanriverdi, Gamze; Topacoglu, Hakan; Ayvaci, Baris Murat; Dogan, Halil; Gunay, Kayihan; Ertekin, Cemalettin; Celikmen, Ferudun

2013-01-01

370

The efficacy of self-expanding metal stents for palliation of malignant esophageal strictures and fistulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Esophageal strictures and esophagorespiratory fistulas are complications of malignant esophageal tumors, which are difficult to manage. The efficacy of self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) for palliation of malignant esophageal strictures and fistulas was investigated prospectively. Methods: Forty-three SEMS were inserted in 41 patients with malignant esophageal stricture or fistula. Our series included 32 men and nine women, of whom median

Alpay Sarper; Necdet Oz; Cemalettin Cihangir; Abid Demircan; Erol Isin

2003-01-01

371

Relationship of esophageal anastomotic tension to the development of gastroesophageal reflux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common occurrence after repair of congenital esophageal atresia and is believed to be more frequent when the esophageal anastomosis is performed under tension. This study documents that esophageal anastomotic tension correlates directly with the severity of acid reflux into the esophagus in the rabbit model.Methods: Eight adult rabbits underwent complete esophageal transection with immediate

Weihong Guo; Eric W Fonkalsrud; Fresca Swaniker; Anatoly Kodner

1997-01-01

372

Altered expression of androgen receptor in the malignant epithelium and adjacent stroma is associated with early relapse in prostate cancer.  

PubMed

The molecular basis of androgen-independent prostate cancer is unknown; however, functional androgen receptor (AR) signaling is maintained after the acquisition of hormone-refractory disease. Because normal and malignant prostate epithelial cell proliferation is regulated by androgen stimulation via both the AR-positive stroma and epithelium, we sought to evaluate patterns of AR expression in these cells and to determine any relationships with prostate cancer progression. AR expression in the malignant epithelium and associated periepithelial and nonperiepithelial stroma was measured in a cohort of 96 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy. Data were evaluated for disease relapse using the Kaplan-Meier method and in a Cox proportional hazards model with other variables of known clinical relevance, including Gleason score, pathological stage, clinical stage, and pretreatment prostate-specific antigen concentration. Concurrent overexpression of AR (> or = 70% positive nuclei) in the malignant epithelium and loss of AR immunoreactivity in the adjacent periepithelial stroma (< or = 30%) was associated with higher clinical stage (P = 0.01), higher pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level (P = 0.03), and earlier relapse after radical prostatectomy (log-rank P = 0.009). These data identify a pattern of AR expression in malignant epithelium and adjacent stroma that is associated with a poor clinical outcome in prostate cancer. Equally important, they identify the need to further investigate the mechanistic basis of loss of AR expression in the malignant stroma and its potential role in deregulation of prostate epithelial cell proliferation. PMID:11212224

Henshall, S M; Quinn, D I; Lee, C S; Head, D R; Golovsky, D; Brenner, P C; Delprado, W; Stricker, P D; Grygiel, J J; Sutherland, R L

2001-01-15

373

Simultaneous esophageal pH monitoring and scintigraphy during the postprandial period in patients with severe reflux esophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare reflux events detected by intraesophageal pH monitoring with that of scintigraphy, we simultaneously performed both techniques along with esophageal manometry in nine patients with severe reflux esophagitis. Two hundred eighteen reflux events were detected in the recumbent posture after a meal during a 40-min interval. Both techniques simultaneously detected only 23% of all reflux events. Scintigraphy alone detected

Steven S. Shay; Douglas Eggli; Lawrence F. Johnson

1991-01-01

374

Removable esophageal stents have poor efficacy for the treatment of refractory benign esophageal strictures (RBES).  

PubMed

With the recent availability of removable esophageal stents, endoscopic stenting has been utilized to treat refractory benign esophageal strictures (RBES). The objective of this study was to review the feasibility and effectiveness of removable esophageal stents to treat RBES. Patients who received removable esophageal stents for the treatment of RBES at the institution between 2004-2010 using its stent implantation logs and endoscopic database were retrospectively identified. Patient demographics, stricture etiology and location, stent and procedure characteristics, and clinical outcomes were obtained. Twenty-five patients with a mean age of 70 (72% male) underwent initial stent placement; 24 were successful. Overall clinical success was achieved in five of the 19 patients (26%) ultimately undergoing stent removal. RBES etiologies included anastomotic (13), radiation (5), peptic (3), chemotherapy (1), scleroderma (1), and unknown (2). Alimaxx-E (Merit-Endotek, South Jordan, UT, USA) stents were placed in 20 patients and Polyflex (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA) stents were used in five patients. Immediate complications included failed deployment (1) and chest pain (7). Five patients died prior to stent removal. Stent migration was found in 53% (10/19) of patients who underwent stent removal: nine required additional therapy and one had symptom resolution. Out of the nine patients without stent migration, five required additional therapy and four had symptom resolution. Although placement of removable esophageal stents for RBES is technically feasible, it is frequently complicated by stent migration and chest pain. In addition, few patients achieved long-term stricture resolution after initial stenting. In this study, most patients ultimately required repeated stenting and/or dilations to maintain relief of dysphagia. PMID:23121426

Dan, D T; Gannavarapu, B; Lee, J G; Chang, K; Muthusamy, V R

2014-08-01

375

Siglec-F Inhibition Reduces Esophageal Eosinophilia and Angiogenesis in a Mouse Model of Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a disorder characterized histologically by tissue eosinophilia. Sialic acid–binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec-F) is a receptor highly expressed on mouse eosinophils and mediates eosinophilic apoptosis. We investigated whether administration of an anti-Siglec-F Ab would reduce esophageal eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling in a mouse model of egg ovalbumin (OVA)–induced EoE. Subjects and Methods Three groups of mice were studied (no OVA, OVA + anti-Siglec-F Ab, and OVA + isotype control Ab). Mice were sensitized intraperitoneally and then challenged chronically with intraesophageal OVA. Levels of esophageal eosinophils and features of remodeling (angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor expression, deposition of fibronectin, basal zone hyperplasia, and fibrosis) were quantitated by immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Results Administration of an anti-Siglec-F Ab to OVA-challenged mice significantly reduced levels of esophageal eosinophils, down to levels noted in non-OVA-challenged mice. The anti-Siglec-F Ab also reduced features of OVA-induced remodeling, including angiogenesis, basal zone hyperplasia, and fibronectin deposition. The reduced angiogenesis in anti-Siglec-F Ab-treated mice was associated with reduced numbers of vascular endothelial growth factor–positive cells in the esophagus. The anti-Siglec-F antibody did not significantly reduce esophageal fibrosis as assessed by trichrome staining. Conclusions Administration of an anti-Siglec-F antibody significantly decreased the number of eosinophils in the esophagus in a mouse model of OVA-induced EoE. The reduction in eosinophilic inflammation was associated with a significant decrease in levels of angiogenesis, deposition of fibronectin, and basal zone hyperplasia. Studies in this pre-clinical model of EoE suggest that Siglec-F (and its human paralog Siglec-8) may be novel therapeutic targets to reduce eosinophilic inflammation in EoE. PMID:21970996

Rubinstein, Eitan; Cho, Jae Youn; Rosenthal, Peter; Chao, James; Miller, Marina; Pham, Alexa; Aceves, Seema S.; Varki, Ajit; Broide, David H.

2014-01-01

376

Esophageal candidiasis in AIDS. Successful therapy with clotrimazole vaginal tablets taken by mouth.  

PubMed

In this paper we describe the results of oral therapy of esophageal candidiasis with clotrimazole vaginal tablets in 25 homosexual men with AIDS, of whom 19 had oral candidiasis and 16 had esophageal symptoms. Therapy with clotrimazole vaginal tablets, 100 mg, taken by mouth cleared the esophageal symptoms, oral candidiasis, and esophageal lesions completely in all 25 men. Clotrimazole vaginal tablets are a useful alternative to other antifungal agents for the treatment of esophageal candidiasis in AIDS patients. PMID:1995261

Lalor, E; Rabeneck, L

1991-03-01

377

FOXJ1 prevents cilia growth inhibition by cigarette smoke in human airway epithelium in vitro.  

PubMed

Airway epithelium ciliated cells play a central role in clearing the lung of inhaled pathogens and xenobiotics, and cilia length and coordinated beating are important for airway clearance. Based on in vivo studies showing that the airway epithelium of healthy smokers has shorter cilia than that of healthy nonsmokers, we investigated the mechanisms involved in cigarette smoke-mediated inhibition of ciliogenesis by assessing normal human airway basal cell differentiation in air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures in the presence of nontoxic concentrations of cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Measurements of cilia length from Day 28 ALI cultures demonstrated that CSE exposure was associated with shorter cilia (P < 0.05), reproducing the effect of cigarette smoking on cilia length observed in vivo. This phenotype correlated with a broad CSE-mediated suppression of genes involved in cilia-related transcriptional regulation, intraflagellar transport, cilia motility, structural integrity, and basal body development but not of control genes or epithelial barrier integrity. The CSE-mediated inhibition of cilia growth could be prevented by lentivirus-mediated overexpression of FOXJ1, the major cilia-related transcription factor, which led to partial reversal of expression of cilia-related genes suppressed by CSE. Together, the data suggest that components of cigarette smoke are responsible for a broad suppression of genes involved in cilia growth, but, by stimulating ciliogenesis with the transcription factor FOXJ1, it may be possible to maintain close to normal cilia length despite the stress of cigarette smoking. PMID:24828273

Brekman, Angelika; Walters, Matthew S; Tilley, Ann E; Crystal, Ronald G

2014-11-01

378

Cyclosporine inhibits apoptosis in experimental murine xerophthalamia conjunctival epithelium.  

PubMed

This study examined the inhibitory effect of topical cyclosporine (CsA) treatment on conjunctiva epithelial apoptosis in a murine model of xerophthalamia. Dry eye was induced in 3 groups of C57BL6 mice by subcutaneous injection of scopolamine (t.i.d) and exposure to an air draft and low-humidity environment for 16 h each day for 12 days. The dry eye control group received no topical treatment; another group received 1 microL of 0.05% CsA topically (t.i.d, dry eye+CsA); and the third group received 1 microL of the castor oil vehicle of CsA topically (t.i.d, dry eye + vehicle). Normal mice were used as untreated controls. Twelve days later, the mice were killed, and their conjunctivas were excised. The number of the conjunctival goblet cells was counted in tissue sections stained with periodic acid Schiff (PAS) reagent. Their conjunctiva epithelium had been investigated by immuno-histochemical staining to detect the goblet cells and the expression of Caspase-3, Bax and bcl-2. Our results showed that compared with dry eye control and dry eye mice + vehicle groups, the number of conjunctival epithelial goblet cells was significantly greater in the untreated controls and dry eye mice receiving CsA (P < 0.01 for both groups). There was no significant difference in the number of conjunctival epithelial goblet cells between the dry eye control and dry eye+vehicle group. It was also true of the number of conjunctival epithelial goblet cells when comparison was made between the normal group and the dry eye+CsA group. Expressions of Caspas-3 and Bax were increased and ex-pression of bcl-2 was decreased in conjunctival epithelial cells in dry eye control and dry eye mice+vehicle groups. There was a significant positive correlation between goblet cell number and the number of cells that expressed bcl-2, and a negative correlation between goblet cells and Caspase-3 and Bax expression. It is concluded that the topical use of CsA could significantly reduce conjunctival epithelial apoptosis and protect goblet cell against the loss in experimental murine xerophathalamia. Inhibition of apoptosis appears to be a key mechanism responsible for the therapeutic effect of CsA on xerophthalamia. PMID:17120751

Sun, Jinghua; Wang, Jingxin

2006-01-01

379

Bronchial epithelium as a target for innovative treatments in asthma.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence of a critical role played by the bronchial epithelium in airway homeostasis is opening new therapeutic avenues. Its unique situation at the interface with the environment suggests that the subtle regulation orchestrated by the epithelium between tolerance and specific immune response might be impaired in asthma. Airway mucus is acting as a physical and a biological fluid between the environment and the epithelium, synergistically moved by the cilia. In asthma, excessive mucus production is a hallmark of airway remodeling. Since many years we tried to therapeutically target mucus hypersecretion, but actually this option is still not achieved. The present review discusses the dynamic processes regulating airway mucus production. Airway inflammation is central in current asthma management. Understanding of how the airway epithelium influences the TH2 paradigm in response to deleterious agents is improving. The multiple receptors expressed by the airway epithelium are the transducers of the biological signals induced by various invasive agents to develop the most adapted response. Airway remodeling is observed in severe chronic airway diseases and may result from ongoing disturbance of signal transduction and epithelial renewal. Chronic airway diseases such as asthma will require assessment of these epithelial abnormalities to identify phenotypic characteristics associated with predicting a clinical benefit for epithelial-directed therapies. PMID:23880290

Gras, Delphine; Chanez, Pascal; Vachier, Isabelle; Petit, Aurélie; Bourdin, Arnaud

2013-12-01

380

Heterogeneous distribution of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in lingual epithelium.  

PubMed

Lingual epithelium undergoes oxidative stress and apoptosis with consequent renewal of superficial keratinized cells by proliferation and differentation of the stem cells of the basal germinative layer. In 3 distinct areas of lingual epithelium of rat and rabbit, the anterior third, central third and posterior third, we determined the activity of hexose monophosphate shunt enzymes and antioxidant enzymes, which are essential for support of cell proliferation and differentation. Enzymatic assays of the epithelium showed that glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity was highest in the anterior third, whereas activity of glutathione peroxidase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase was similar over all areas. Histochemical localization of activity and immunohistochemical localization of protein of G6PD showed that all types of papillae had a similar G6PD content; moreover, the presence of different G6PD isoforms in the 3 areas was excluded by electrophoretic analysis. We conclude that the higher G6PD activity in the anterior part of the epithelium is due only to the anatomical organization of the epithelial surface of this area, in which many filiform and fungiform papillae are arranged in a compact manner, which corresponds with a higher number of proliferating and differentiating cells. These processes need products of G6PD activity. This study indicates that G6PD is a good marker for the number of differentiating cells in tongue epithelium. PMID:10990070

Ninfali, P; Aluigi, G; Capellacci, S; Biagiotti, E

2000-08-01

381

Smoking accelerates aging of the small airway epithelium.  

PubMed

BackgroundAging involves multiple biologically complex processes characterized by a decline in cellular homeostasis over time leading to a loss and impairment of physiological integrity and function. Specific cellular hallmarks of aging include abnormal gene expression patterns, shortened telomeres and associated biological dysfunction. Like all organs, the lung demonstrates both physiological and structural changes with age that result in a progressive decrease in lung function in healthy individuals. Cigarette smoking accelerates lung function decline over time, suggesting smoking accelerates aging of the lung. Based on this data, we hypothesized that cigarette smoking accelerates the aging of the small airway epithelium, the cells that take the initial brunt of inhaled toxins from the cigarette smoke and one of the primary sites of pathology associated with cigarette smoking.MethodsUsing the sensitive molecular parameters of aging-related gene expression and telomere length, the aging process of the small airway epithelium was assessed in age matched healthy nonsmokers and healthy smokers with no physical manifestation of lung disease or abnormalities in lung function.ResultsAnalysis of a 73 gene aging signature demonstrated that smoking significantly dysregulates 18 aging-related genes in the small airway epithelium. In an independent cohort of male subjects, smoking significantly reduced telomere length in the small airway epithelium of smokers by 14% compared to nonsmokers.ConclusionThese data provide biologic evidence that smoking accelerates aging of the small airway epithelium. PMID:25248511

Walters, Matthew S; De, Bishnu P; Salit, Jacqueline; Buro-Auriemma, Lauren J; Wilson, Timothy; Rogalski, Allison M; Lief, Lindsay; Hackett, Neil R; Staudt, Michelle R; Tilley, Ann E; Harvey, Ben-Gary; Kaner, Robert J; Mezey, Jason G; Ashbridge, Beth; Moore, Malcolm A S; Crystal, Ronald G

2014-09-24

382

Pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and esophageal adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

In recent decades there has been a dramatic rise in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in the developed world. Over approximately the same period there has also been an increase in the prevalence of obesity. Obesity, especially visceral obesity, is an important independent risk factor for the development of gastro-esophageal reflux disease, Barrett’s esophagus and EAC. Although the simplest explanation is that this mediated by the mechanical effects of abdominal obesity promoting gastro-esophageal reflux, the epidemiological data suggest that the EAC-promoting effects are independent of reflux. Several, not mutually exclusive, mechanisms have been implicated, which may have different effects at various points along the reflux-Barrett’s-cancer pathway. These mechanisms include a reduction in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection enhancing gastric acidity and possibly appetite by increasing gastric ghrelin secretion, induction of both low-grade systemic inflammation by factors secreted by adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome with insulin-resistance. Obesity is associated with enhanced secretion of leptin and decreased secretion of adiponectin from adipose tissue and both increased leptin and decreased adiponectin have been shown to be independent risk factors for progression to EAC. Leptin and adiponectin have a set of mutually antagonistic actions on Barrett’s cells which appear to influence the progression of malignant behaviour. At present no drugs are of proven benefit to prevent obesity associated EAC. Roux-en-Y reconstruction is the preferred bariatric surgical option for weight loss in patients with reflux. Statins and aspirin may have chemopreventative effects and are indicated for their circulatory benefits. PMID:25400997

Alexandre, Leo; Long, Elizabeth; Beales, Ian LP

2014-01-01

383

Distinct compartmental distribution of mature and immature dendritic cells in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in generating anti-tumor immunity. DC functional defect has been related to the growth and progression of various human cancers. In esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the examination of DCs using immunohistochemistry (IHC) with anti-S100 antibody has demonstrated an increased infiltration of DCs into the tumor mass, however, the distribution patterns of DCs at different maturation states in ESCC are not fully evaluated. In this study, we immunohistochemically analyzed the DC maturation status by examining the S100-positive DCs, CD1alpha-positive immature DCs (iDCs), and CD208-positive mature DCs (mDCs) and their distribution patterns in 45 ESCCs and 10 control tissues. The IHC analysis showed that the number of S100-positive DCs was increased in both the cancer epithelium and tumor stroma. Further phenotypic analyses revealed that intraepithelial DCs in the cancer mass were predominantly CD1alpha-positive iDCs. Whereas DCs presented in the tumor stroma were exclusively CD208-positive mDCs, CD208-positive mDCs were particularly dense in the margin of cancerous lesions and formed clusters with CD3-positive lymphocytes. The number of CD208-positive mDCs in the tumor mass was significantly lower than the number of CD1alpha-positive iDCs. The current results suggest that ESCC tissue comprises a high frequency of iDCs in the cancerous epithelium and a low density of mDCs in the tumor stroma. Such a distinct distribution pattern may reflect the ongoing DC tracking in ESCCs. PMID:20547010

Liu, Jinzhong; Lu, Gaofeng; Li, Zhenfeng; Tang, Fuai; Liu, Yiqing; Cui, Guanglin

2010-09-15

384

Microbiome, innate immunity, and esophageal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

With the development of culture-independent technique, a complex microbiome has been established and described in the distal esophagus. The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has increased dramatically in the United States. Studies documenting an altered microbiome associated with EAC and its precedents suggest that dysbiosis may be contributing to carcinogenesis, potentially mediated by interactions with toll-like receptors. Investigations attempting to associate viruses with EAC have not been as consistent. Currently available data are cross-sectional and therefore cannot prove causal relationships. Prospectively, microbiome studies open a new avenue to the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of reflux disorders and EAC. PMID:25439272

Baghdadi, Jonathan; Chaudhary, Noami; Pei, Zhiheng; Yang, Liying

2014-12-01

385

Emerging Therapeutic Options for Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the esophagus that often occurs in atopic persons. Management strategies include pharmacotherapy, dietary modification, and endoscopic therapy, although patients will often have a relapsing and remitting course. Currently, the primary pharmacotherapy for EoE consists of corticosteroids. Immuno-modulators, leukotriene antagonists, biologies, and monoclonal antibodies are currently under study for treatment of EoE. The role of immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic reactions has been well documented and may provide insight into the etiology and effective therapy of EoE. PMID:24803874

Dougherty, Timothy; Stephen, Sindu; Borum, Marie L.

2014-01-01

386

Eponyms in esophageal surgery, part 2.  

PubMed

Eponyms in medicine are frequently criticized because they may not represent the person who first described a syndrome or disease. Although eponyms are very commonly used, most readers are probably unaware of who it was that named the diseases and whether the original description of the disease still corresponds to the modern definition. The 10 most common eponyms in esophageal diseases were revisited. The men and the disease behind Barrett's esophagus, Boerhaave's syndrome, Mallory-Weiss syndrome, Cameron ulcer, Schatzki ring, Paterson-Kelly syndrome, Plummer-Vinson, Chagas's disease, Zenker diverticulum and Killian diverticulum are reviewed here. PMID:15773835

Herbella, F A M; Matone, J; Del Grande, J C

2005-01-01

387

Esophageal stricture in a cougar (Puma concolor).  

PubMed

A 7-mo-old female cougar (Puma concolor) was presented with a 2-wk history of anorexia and a 1-wk history of regurgitation. Barium contrast esophagogram and gastroesophagoscopy revealed the presence of a segmental intraluminal esophageal stricture in the middle third of the esophagus. The stricture was potentially secondary to a previous anesthetic episode. Three endoscopic balloon dilations allowed increasing the luminal diameter to a size that enabled the cougar to eat food softened with water without any signs of discomfort or regurgitation. Two months after being discharged, the cougar was doing well, had gained weight and was eating horsemeat softened with water. PMID:19569481

Desmarchelier, Marion; Lair, Stéphane; Defarges, Alice; Lécuyer, Manon; Langlois, Isabelle

2009-06-01

388

Exploring the physiologic role of human gastroesophageal reflux by analyzing time-series data from 24-h gastric and esophageal pH recordings.  

PubMed

Our previous finding of a fractal pattern for gastric pH and esophageal pH plus the statistical association of sequential pH values for up to 2 h led to our hypothesis that the fractal pattern encodes information regarding gastric acidity and that depending on the value of gastric acidity, the esophagus can signal the stomach to alter gastric acidity by influencing gastric secretion of acid or bicarbonate. Under our hypothesis values of gastric pH should provide information regarding values of esophageal pH and vice versa. We used vector autoregression, a theory-free set of inter-related linear regressions used to measure relationships that can change over time, to analyze data from 24-h recordings of gastric pH and esophageal pH. We found that in pH records from normal subjects, as well as from subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease alone and after treatment with a proton pump inhibitor, gastric pH values provided important information regarding subsequent values of esophageal pH and values of esophageal pH provided important information regarding subsequent values of gastric pH. The ability of gastric pH and esophageal pH to provide information regarding subsequent values of each other was reduced in subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease compared to normal subjects. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that depending on the value of gastric acidity, the esophagus can signal the stomach to alter gastric acidity, and that this ability is impaired in subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:25347850

Lu, Luo; Mu, John C; Sloan, Sheldon; Miner, Philip B; Gardner, Jerry D

2014-01-01

389

Endoscopic assessment and management of early esophageal adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Esophageal carcinoma affects more than 450000 people worldwide and the incidence is rapidly increasing. In the United States and Europe, esophageal adenocarcinoma has superseded esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in its incidence. Esophageal cancer has a high mortality rates secondary to the late presentation of most patients at advanced stages. Endoscopic screening is recommended for patients with multiple risk factors for cancer in Barrett’s esophagus. These risk factors include chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease, hiatal hernia, advanced age, male sex, white race, cigarette smoking, and obesity. The annual risk of esophageal cancer is approximately 0.25% for patients without dysplasia and 6% for patients with high-grade dysplasia. Twenty percent of all esophageal adenocarcinoma in the United States is early stage with disease confined to the mucosa or submucosa. The significant morbidity and mortality of esophagectomy make endoscopic treatment an attractive option. The American Gastroenterological Association recommends endoscopic eradication therapy for patients with high-grade dysplasia. Endoscopic modalities for treatment of early esophageal adenocarcinoma include endoscopic resection techniques and endoscopic ablative techniques such as radiofrequency ablation, photodynamic therapy and cryoablation. Endoscopic therapy should be precluded to patients with no evidence of lymphovascular invasion. Local tumor recurrence is low after endoscopic therapy and is predicted by poor differentiation of tumor, positive lymph node and submucosal invasion. Surgical resection should be offered to patients with deep submucosal invasion. PMID:25132925

Hammoud, Ghassan M; Hammad, Hazem; Ibdah, Jamal A

2014-01-01

390

Esophageal hypomotility and spastic motor disorders: current diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Esophageal hypomotility (EH) is characterized by abnormal esophageal peristalsis, either from a reduction or absence of contractions, whereas spastic motor disorders (SMD) are characterized by an increase in the vigor and/or propagation velocity of esophageal body contractions. Their pathophysiology is not clearly known. The reduced excitation of the smooth muscle contraction mediated by cholinergic neurons and the impairment of inhibitory ganglion neuronal function mediated by nitric oxide are likely mechanisms of the peristaltic abnormalities seen in EH and SMD, respectively. Dysphagia and chest pain are the most frequent clinical manifestations for both of these dysfunctions, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is commonly associated with these motor disorders. The introduction of high-resolution manometry (HRM) and esophageal pressure topography (EPT) has significantly enhanced the ability to diagnose EH and SMD. Novel EPT metrics in particular the development of the Chicago Classification of esophageal motor disorders has enabled improved characterization of these abnormalities. The first step in the management of EH and SMD is to treat GERD, especially when esophageal testing shows pathologic reflux. Smooth muscle relaxants (nitrates, calcium channel blockers, 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitors) and pain modulators may be useful in the management of dysphagia or pain in SMD. Endoscopic Botox injection and pneumatic dilation are the second-line therapies. Extended myotomy of the esophageal body or peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) may be considered in highly selected cases but lack evidence. PMID:25376746

Valdovinos, Miguel A; Zavala-Solares, Monica R; Coss-Adame, Enrique

2014-11-01

391

The effect of concurrent esophageal pathology on bariatric surgical planning.  

PubMed

In the presence of esophageal pathology, there is risk of worse outcomes after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). This study reviewed how an esophageal workup affected a bariatric operative plan in patients with concurrent esophageal pathology. We retrospectively reviewed patients planning bariatric surgery referred with significant reflux, dysphagia, and hiatal hernia (>3 cm) to determine how and why a thorough esophageal workup changed a bariatric operative plan. We identified 79 patients for analysis from 2009 to 2013. In 10/41 patients (24.3 %) planning LAGB and 5/9 patients planning SG (55.5 %), a Roux was preferred because of severe symptoms of reflux and aspiration, dysphagia, manometric abnormalities (aperistaltic or hypoperistaltic esophagus with low mean wave amplitudes), large hiatal hernia (>5 cm), and/or presence of Barrett's esophagus. Patients without these characteristics had a decreased risk of foregut symptoms after surgery. We recommend a thorough esophageal workup in bariatric patients with known preoperative esophageal pathology. The operative plan might need to be changed to a Roux to prevent adverse outcomes including dysphagia, severe reflux, or suboptimal weight loss. An esophageal workup may improve surgical decision making and improve patient outcomes. PMID:25213580

Bradley, Daniel Davila; Louie, Brian E; Chen, Judy; Aye, Ralph W; McMahon, Ross; Farivar, Alexander S

2015-01-01

392

Endoscopic assessment and management of early esophageal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Esophageal carcinoma affects more than 450000 people worldwide and the incidence is rapidly increasing. In the United States and Europe, esophageal adenocarcinoma has superseded esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in its incidence. Esophageal cancer has a high mortality rates secondary to the late presentation of most patients at advanced stages. Endoscopic screening is recommended for patients with multiple risk factors for cancer in Barrett's esophagus. These risk factors include chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease, hiatal hernia, advanced age, male sex, white race, cigarette smoking, and obesity. The annual risk of esophageal cancer is approximately 0.25% for patients without dysplasia and 6% for patients with high-grade dysplasia. Twenty percent of all esophageal adenocarcinoma in the United States is early stage with disease confined to the mucosa or submucosa. The significant morbidity and mortality of esophagectomy make endoscopic treatment an attractive option. The American Gastroenterological Association recommends endoscopic eradication therapy for patients with high-grade dysplasia. Endoscopic modalities for treatment of early esophageal adenocarcinoma include endoscopic resection techniques and endoscopic ablative techniques such as radiofrequency ablation, photodynamic therapy and cryoablation. Endoscopic therapy should be precluded to patients with no evidence of lymphovascular invasion. Local tumor recurrence is low after endoscopic therapy and is predicted by poor differentiation of tumor, positive lymph node and submucosal invasion. Surgical resection should be offered to patients with deep submucosal invasion. PMID:25132925

Hammoud, Ghassan M; Hammad, Hazem; Ibdah, Jamal A

2014-08-15

393

New Endoscopic Indicator of Esophageal Achalasia: “Pinstripe Pattern”  

PubMed Central

Background and Study Aims Endoscopic diagnosis of esophageal achalasia lacking typical endoscopic features can be extremely difficult. The aim of this study was to identify simple and reliable early indicator of esophageal achalasia. Patients and Methods This single-center retrospective study included 56 cases of esophageal achalasia without previous treatment. As a control, 60 non-achalasia subjects including reflux esophagitis and superficial esophageal cancer were also included in this study. Endoscopic findings were evaluated according to Descriptive Rules for Achalasia of the Esophagus as follows: (1) esophageal dilatation, (2) abnormal retention of liquid and/or food, (3) whitish change of the mucosal surface, (4) functional stenosis of the esophago-gastric junction, and (5) abnormal contraction. Additionally, the presence of the longitudinal superficial wrinkles of esophageal mucosa, “pinstripe pattern (PSP)” was evaluated endoscopically. Then, inter-observer diagnostic agreement was assessed for each finding. Results The prevalence rates of the above-mentioned findings (1–5) were 41.1%, 41.1%, 16.1%, 94.6%, and 43.9%, respectively. PSP was observed in 60.7% of achalasia, while none of the control showed positivity for PSP. PSP was observed in 26 (62.5%) of 35 cases with shorter history < 10 years, which usually lacks typical findings such as severe esophageal dilation and tortuosity. Inter-observer agreement level was substantial for food/liquid remnant (k = 0.6861) and PSP (k = 0.6098), and was fair for abnormal contraction and white change. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for achalasia were 83.8%, 64.7%, and 100%, respectively. Conclusion “Pinstripe pattern” could be a reliable indicator for early discrimination of primary esophageal achalasia. PMID:25664812

Minami, Hitomi; Isomoto, Hajime; Miuma, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yasutoshi; Yamaguchi, Naoyuki; Urabe, Shigetoshi; Matsushima, Kayoko; Akazawa, Yuko; Ohnita, Ken; Takeshima, Fuminao; Inoue, Haruhiro; Nakao, Kazuhiko

2015-01-01

394

Cystic fibrosis airway epithelium remodelling: involvement of inflammation.  

PubMed

Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease and airway epithelium damage and remodelling are important components of lung pathology progression in CF. Whether this remodelling is secondary to deleterious infectious and inflammatory mediators, or to alterations of CF human airway epithelial (HAE) cells, such as their hyper inflammatory phenotype or their basic cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) default, remains debated. In this study, we evaluated the involvement of alterations of CF HAE cells in airway epithelium remodelling. HAE cells from non-CF and CF patients were cultured in an air-liquid interface, with and without inflammatory stimulation, along the regeneration process, and the remodelling of the reconstituted epithelium was analysed. We confirmed that CF HAE cells showed a hyperinflammatory phenotype which was lost with time. In comparison to non-CF epithelium, CF epithelium regeneration in the absence of exogenous inflammation was higher and exhibited basal cell hyperplasia. This remodelling was mimicked by inflammatory stimulation of non-CF cells and was absent when CF HAE cells were no longer hyperinflamed. Moreover, the number of goblet cells was similar in non-CF and CF cultures and increased equally under inflammatory stimulation. Finally, whatever the inflammatory environment, CF cultures showed a delay in ciliated cell differentiation. In conclusion, alterations of CF HAE cells partly regulate airway epithelium remodelling following injury and regeneration. This remodelling, together with goblet cell hyperplasia induced by exogenous inflammation and alteration of ciliated cell differentiation, may worsen mucociliary clearance impairment, leading to injury. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25348090

Adam, Damien; Roux-Delrieu, Jacqueline; Luczka, Emilie; Bonnomet, Arnaud; Lesage, Julien; Mérol, Jean-Claude; Polette, Myriam; Abély, Michel; Coraux, Christelle

2015-02-01

395

Influence of Ionizing Radiation on Stromal-Epithelial Intercellular Communication in Esophageal Carcinogenesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Esophageal cancer is the 6th leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Its development is associated with a variety of risk factors including tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, human papilloma virus infection, and certain dietary factors such as trace mineral and vitamin deficiencies. An association with ionizing radiation exposure is revealed by the high excess relative risk for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus observed in the survivors of the atomic bomb detonations in Japan. It is also seen as a secondary malignancy in patients who received radiotherapy for breast and thoracic cancers; additionally, patients with head/neck and oral squamous cell cancers are at increased risk for metachronous esophageal squamous cell cancers. This malignancy is rapidly fatal, mainly because it remains asymptomatic until late, advanced stages when the disease is rarely curable. The stromal microenvironment plays an essential role in the maintenance and modulation of normal epithelial cell growth and differentiation and cross talk between the epithelial and stromal compartments can influence many aspects of malignant progression, including tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion and recruitment of new blood vessels. To test the hypothesis that radiation exposure plays a role in esophageal carcinogenesis via non-targeted mechanisms involving stromal-epithelial cell communication, we are studying radiation effects on hTERT-immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells and genetic variants grown in co-culture with human esophageal stromal fibroblasts (Okawa et al., Genes & Dev. 2007. 21: 2788-2803). We examined how radiation treatment of stromal fibroblasts affected epithelial migration and invasion, behaviors associated with cancer promotion and progression. Chemotactic and haptotactic migration of epithelial cells stimulated by conditioned media from irradiated fibroblasts was measured using assays conducted in Transwell cell culture chambers. Our results using low LET radiation showed a dose-dependent increase in migration of epithelial cells when exposed to conditioned media from irradiated vs. non-irradiated fibroblasts. We also observed enhanced invasion through a basement membrane simulant. To identify chemotactic proteins secreted by irradiated stromal fibroblasts, we used antibody capture cytokine arrays and have identified several proteins as candidates. Increased secretion of these factors by irradiated fibroblasts was confirmed using ELISA. We are currently analyzing the contribution of these individual factors on epithelial migration and invasion, as well as their influence on cell survival and DNA repair. Studies using high-LET radiation will help determine radiation quality effects on these processes. These results should further our understanding of the mechanisms by which radiation impacts the tissue microenvironment and how it influences cancer development processes.

Patel, Zarana S.; Kalabis, Jiri; Rustgi, Anil K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Huff, Janice L.

2010-01-01

396

Electrodes for long-term esophageal electrocardiography.  

PubMed

The emerging application of long-term and high-quality ECG recording requires alternative electrodes to improve the signal quality and recording capability of surface skin electrodes. The esophageal ECG has the potential to overcome these limitations but necessitates novel recorder and lead designs. The electrode material is of particular interest, since the material has to ensure conflicting requirements like excellent biopotential recording properties and inertness. To this end, novel electrode materials like PEDOT and silver-PDMS as well as established electrode materials such as stainless steel, platinum, gold, iridium oxide, titanium nitride, and glassy carbon were investigated by long-term electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and model-based signal analysis using the derived in vitro interfacial properties in conjunction with a dedicated ECG amplifier. The results of this novel approach show that titanium nitride and iridium oxide featuring microstructured surfaces did not degrade when exposed to artificial acidic saliva. These materials provide low electrode potential drifts and insignificant signal distortion superior to surface skin electrodes making them compatible with accepted standards for ambulatory ECG. They are superior to the noble and polarizable metals such as platinum, silver, and gold that induced more signal distortions and are superior to esophageal stainless steel electrodes that corrode in artificial saliva. The study provides rigorous criteria for the selection of electrode materials for prolonged ECG recording by combining long-term in vitro electrode material properties with ECG signal quality assessment. PMID:23649132

Niederhauser, Thomas; Haeberlin, Andreas; Marisa, Thanks; Jungo, Michael; Goette, Josef; Jacomet, Marcel; Abacherli, Roger; Vogel, Rolf

2013-09-01

397

Antesternal colonic interposition for corrosive esophageal stricture.  

PubMed

Restoration of swallowing in a patient with dysphagia due to nondilatable corrosive stricture of esophagus remains a surgical challenge. Organs available for replacement are stomach, jejunum, or colon. Jejunum is useful to replace a small segment, whereas stomach and colon are required for a long-segment replacement. In cases where the stomach is also injured, colon remains the only option. The route of colonic interposition has also been a subject of debate over the years. Antesternal, retrosternal, or esophageal bed passage are the routes described. In the present series, the data of antesternal colonic interposition (ACI) performed for nondilatable benign esophageal strictures in 32 patients (1988-2011) have been retrospectively analyzed. The results indicate that ACI for corrosive strictures is a quick and simple procedure. Thoracotomy is avoided and anastomosis is easily performed in the neck, and mortality rate due to anastomotic failure or graft failure is diminished. This retrospective analysis discusses the ease, effectiveness, quality of life, morbidity, and mortality of ACI and compares the pros and cons of ACI with other procedures described in the literature. PMID:24799785

Gvalani, Anil Kumar; Deolekar, Samir; Gandhi, Jignesh; Dalvi, Abhay

2014-02-01

398

[Management of caustic esophagitis in children].  

PubMed

In children, caustic ingestion is due to accidents at home and inadequate storage of caustic agents. In emergency, it is useful to remove the soiled clothes, rinse the affected a