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Sample records for normal healthy stomach

  1. Hyperbilirubinemia in normal healthy donors

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Veena; Kulkarni, R. K.; Cherian, Susan; Pillai, Raji; Shivali, M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out in B.A.R.C. Hospital Blood Bank over a span of five years, and includes 2734 donors. All the bags were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL and the plasma in the pilot tubes of the blood bags was observed to detect any abnormality in color. In 27 cases plasma was found to be icteric and liver function tests were carried out on these samples. Two donors showed higher SGPT level, and were excluded. No significant increases in liver enzymes were recorded in the others. Causes of icteric plasma in these apparently healthy donors are discussed. Differential diagnosis includes Gilbert’s disease, hemolytic anemia, drug-induced anemia and other hepatic causes of hyperbilirubinemia, of which Gilbert’s disease is most probable cause with a prevalence of 0.91% in our population. As there are no studies to document the safety of the recipients receiving such abnormal colored plasma as well as to document the hazards in its transfusion, the question arises whether to transfuse such units or not. This study highlights this dilemma. A reassessment of existing policies and regulations is merited. PMID:20808649

  2. What Is Stomach Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the key statistics about stomach cancer? What is stomach cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... normal structure and function of the stomach. The stomach After food is chewed and swallowed, it enters ...

  3. Immunohistochemical expression of tenascin in normal stomach tissue, gastric carcinomas and gastric carcinoma in lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Y.; Mori, M.; Kajiyama, K.; Haraguchi, Y.; Sasaki, O.; Sugimachi, K.

    1995-01-01

    The immunohistochemical expression of tenascin was examined in the normal adult mucosa of the stomach, primary tumours and lymph node metastases of gastric cancer patients. In normal gastric tissue tenascin was expressed in the muscularis mucosae, muscularis propria and vessel walls, however it was not expressed in either the mucosal connective tissue or the stromal tissue in the submucosal layer. In gastric cancer, tenascin was expressed in 35 of 85 primary tumours, and in 8 of 25 metastases in lymph nodes. Tenascin was located in the fibrous stroma surrounding foci of cancer. The expression of tenascin in the primary tumour did not correlate with the depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis or prognosis. Tenascin appears during the process of either malignant transformation or tumour progression in gastric cancer, and the positive expression of tenascin may be useful as a stromal marker for the early detection of gastric cancer. Images Figure 1 PMID:7541237

  4. Hyaluronan distribution in the normal epithelium of esophagus, stomach, and colon and their cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C.; Tammi, M.; Guo, H.; Tammi, R.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of hyaluronan (HA) in normal gastrointestinal wall and in tumors originating from their epithelium was studied using a specific probe prepared from cartilage proteoglycan (bHABC, biotinylated hyaluronan binding complex). The normal stratified squamous epithelium of esophagus showed an intense HA staining in the basal and lower intermediate layers, whereas the simple epithelia in the stomach and large intestine were HA negative. Esophageal in situ carcinomas expressed HA also in the cell layers close to the luminal surface, in regions normally negative. Most of the invasive squamous cell carcinomas maintained their HA expression, but in very poorly differentiated types the tumor parenchyma was devoid of HA. In both gastric and colonic adenocarcinomas the tumor parenchyma showed no HA. The stromal tissue was intensely HA positive in all tumors. Cancer cells invading the intestinal smooth muscle were surrounded by copious amounts of HA, whereas the muscular layer was otherwise very poor in HA staining. These results show that relatively well differentiated carcinoma cells themselves retain the high or low HA expression pattern of their original epithelium, whereas tumors stimulate HA deposition in the surrounding stroma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8669472

  5. Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue

    PubMed Central

    Teh, S K; Zheng, W; Ho, K Y; Teh, M; Yeoh, K G; Huang, Z

    2008-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a molecular vibrational spectroscopic technique that is capable of optically probing the biomolecular changes associated with diseased transformation. The purpose of this study was to explore near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy for identifying dysplasia from normal gastric mucosa tissue. A rapid-acquisition dispersive-type NIR Raman system was utilised for tissue Raman spectroscopic measurements at 785 nm laser excitation. A total of 76 gastric tissue samples obtained from 44 patients who underwent endoscopy investigation or gastrectomy operation were used in this study. The histopathological examinations showed that 55 tissue specimens were normal and 21 were dysplasia. Both the empirical approach and multivariate statistical techniques, including principal components analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), together with the leave-one-sample-out cross-validation method, were employed to develop effective diagnostic algorithms for classification of Raman spectra between normal and dysplastic gastric tissues. High-quality Raman spectra in the range of 800–1800 cm−1 can be acquired from gastric tissue within 5 s. There are specific spectral differences in Raman spectra between normal and dysplasia tissue, particularly in the spectral ranges of 1200–1500 cm−1 and 1600–1800 cm−1, which contained signals related to amide III and amide I of proteins, CH3CH2 twisting of proteins/nucleic acids, and the C=C stretching mode of phospholipids, respectively. The empirical diagnostic algorithm based on the ratio of the Raman peak intensity at 875 cm−1 to the peak intensity at 1450 cm−1 gave the diagnostic sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 80.0%, whereas the diagnostic algorithms based on PCA-LDA yielded the diagnostic sensitivity of 95.2% and specificity 90.9% for separating dysplasia from normal gastric tissue. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves further confirmed that the most effective

  6. Stomach Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  7. The stomach in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R H; Camilleri, M; Crowe, S E; El-Omar, E M; Fox, J G; Kuipers, E J; Malfertheiner, P; McColl, K E L; Pritchard, D M; Rugge, M; Sonnenberg, A; Sugano, K; Tack, J

    2016-01-01

    The stomach is traditionally regarded as a hollow muscular sac that initiates the second phase of digestion. Yet this simple view ignores the fact that it is the most sophisticated endocrine organ with unique physiology, biochemistry, immunology and microbiology. All ingested materials, including our nutrition, have to negotiate this organ first, and as such, the stomach is arguably the most important segment within the GI tract. The unique biological function of gastric acid secretion not only initiates the digestive process but also acts as a first line of defence against food-borne microbes. Normal gastric physiology and morphology may be disrupted by Helicobacter pylori infection, the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world and the aetiological agent for most peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. In this state-of-the-art review, the most relevant new aspects of the stomach in health and disease are addressed. Topics include gastric physiology and the role of gastric dysmotility in dyspepsia and gastroparesis; the stomach in appetite control and obesity; there is an update on the immunology of the stomach and the emerging field of the gastric microbiome. H. pylori-induced gastritis and its associated diseases including peptic ulcers and gastric cancer are addressed together with advances in diagnosis. The conclusions provide a future approach to gastric diseases underpinned by the concept that a healthy stomach is the gateway to a healthy and balanced host. This philosophy should reinforce any public health efforts designed to eradicate major gastric diseases, including stomach cancer. PMID:26342014

  8. The stomach in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Hunt, R H; Camilleri, M; Crowe, S E; El-Omar, E M; Fox, J G; Kuipers, E J; Malfertheiner, P; McColl, K E L; Pritchard, D M; Rugge, M; Sonnenberg, A; Sugano, K; Tack, J

    2015-10-01

    The stomach is traditionally regarded as a hollow muscular sac that initiates the second phase of digestion. Yet this simple view ignores the fact that it is the most sophisticated endocrine organ with unique physiology, biochemistry, immunology and microbiology. All ingested materials, including our nutrition, have to negotiate this organ first, and as such, the stomach is arguably the most important segment within the GI tract. The unique biological function of gastric acid secretion not only initiates the digestive process but also acts as a first line of defence against food-borne microbes. Normal gastric physiology and morphology may be disrupted by Helicobacter pylori infection, the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world and the aetiological agent for most peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. In this state-of-the-art review, the most relevant new aspects of the stomach in health and disease are addressed. Topics include gastric physiology and the role of gastric dysmotility in dyspepsia and gastroparesis; the stomach in appetite control and obesity; there is an update on the immunology of the stomach and the emerging field of the gastric microbiome. H. pylori-induced gastritis and its associated diseases including peptic ulcers and gastric cancer are addressed together with advances in diagnosis. The conclusions provide a future approach to gastric diseases underpinned by the concept that a healthy stomach is the gateway to a healthy and balanced host. This philosophy should reinforce any public health efforts designed to eradicate major gastric diseases, including stomach cancer. PMID:26342014

  9. Stomach cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - stomach; Gastric cancer; Gastric carcinoma; Adenocarcinoma of the stomach ... Several types of cancer can occur in the stomach. The most common type is called adenocarcinoma. It starts from one of the cell ...

  10. Acid back-diffusion and mucosal H+ handling in the rat stomach under normal and stress-induced conditions.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, K; Okabe, S

    1983-02-01

    We determined acid back-diffusion and pepsin output simultaneously in vagotomized rats after instillation of HCl into the stomach under normal and stress-induced conditions. With exposure to 6 ml of 100 mM HCl, spontaneous acid back-diffusion increased with the duration of the experiment under both conditions, and the magnitude of the acid back-diffusion was decreased significantly by stress. There was no change in the output of pepsin. While disappearance of luminal acid caused by aspirin or taurocholic acid was not altered by stress, the pepsin output in response to H+ increased significantly in the stressed rats. With exposure to various concentrations of HCl for 3 hr, disappearance of the luminal acid increased linearly with the grade of HCl under both conditions. Except for the concentration of 300 mM, the magnitude of the acid back-diffusion was triple in the normal condition, and the ratio of pepsin output/net flux of H+ was significantly increased by stress. Thus, (1) spontaneous acid back-diffusion decreased with stress, while diffusion induced by chemical barrier breakers remained the same; (2) the action of H+ diffused back into the mucosa did not always parallel the amount of diffusion determined from the loss of H+ in the lumen; (3) intramucosal H+ may be largely dissipated in normal mucosa; and (4) the initiation or aggravation of drug-induced mucosal damages by stress may be related to insufficiency of the H+ dissipating mechanisms. PMID:6410110

  11. Ankle brachial pressure index of normal, healthy, younger adults.

    PubMed

    Niblo, Jane; Coull, Alison

    Doppler ultrasound and ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) calculations are used in the assessment of lower limb vascularity, specifically to determine arterial deficiency. ABPI is important as it is used as an indicator when deciding management options for the treatment of leg ulceration. This study aimed to investigate the range of ABPI measurement, using Doppler ultrasound and sphygmomanometry in 36 young healthy adults aged 18-55 years. The findings show a mean ABPI in the left leg of 1.19 and a mean ABPI of 1.17 in the right leg which, while within the normal range, are consistently in the upper range and significantly higher than the acknowledged 'normal' midpoint of 1.0. It would appear that younger people will have ABPIs within the upper aspect of the normal range and well above the established norm of 1.0. PMID:24151719

  12. "Stomach Flu"

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes "Stomach Flu" KidsHealth > For Kids > "Stomach Flu" Print A A A Text Size en español " ... virus estomacal" Many people talk about the "stomach flu" when they're feeling sick to their stomachs. ...

  13. Photodynamic therapy of the normal rat stomach: a comparative study between di-sulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine and 5-aminolaevulinic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Loh, C. S.; Bedwell, J.; MacRobert, A. J.; Krasner, N.; Phillips, D.; Bown, S. G.

    1992-01-01

    Dysplasia in the upper gastrointestinal tract carries a risk of invasive malignant change. Surgical excision of the affected organ is the only treatment available. Photodynamic therapy has been shown to be promising in the treatment of early and superficial tumours and may be useful for the ablation of dysplastic mucosa. Because of the diffuse nature of the disease, such treatment would necessarily involve destruction of large areas of mucosa and it is desirable to confine its effect to the mucosa in order that safe healing can take place. By means of photometric fluorescence microscopy, we have studied the pattern of photosensitisation in the normal rat stomach using di-sulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine (AlS2Pc) and 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) as photosensitisizers. AlS2Pc resulted in a panmural photosensitisation of the gastric wall with the highest level encountered in the submucosa. The mucosa and muscularis propria were sensitised to equal extent. Following light exposure, a full thickness damage resulted. ALA is a natural porphyrin precursor and exogenous administration gave rise to accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) in the cells. The resultant pattern of photosensitisation was predominantly mucosal and its photodynamic effect was essentially confined to the mucosa. ALA produced a selective photosensitisation of the gastric mucosa for its photodynamic ablation with sparing the underlying tissue layers. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 9 PMID:1520582

  14. Stomach (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The stomach is the portion of the digestive system most responsible for breaking down food. The lower esophageal sphincter at the top of the stomach regulates food passing from the esophagus into the ...

  15. Phospholipid Profile of the Stomach and Duodenum of Normal Rabbits Fed with Supplements of Unripe Pawpaw (Carica papaya) and Unripe Plantain (Musa sapientum) Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriyamremu, G. E.; Asagba, S. O.; Osagie, V. E.; Ojeaburu, S. I.; Lolodi, O.

    This study reports the effect of unripe pawpaw and/or unripe plantain extracts on the phospholipid profile of the stomach and duodenum of normal rabbits. Supplementation of chow with unripe pawpaw or plantain extract significantly reduced (p< 0.05) the weight gained by rabbits compared with the control. The total phospholipids content in the stomach and duodenum were significantly increased (p< 0.05) in the test groups compared to the control. In the stomach and duodenum, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and sphingomyelin (SGM) were significantly increased (p< 0.05) in the test groups compared to the control. Pawpaw occasioned a decrease in the PE/PC ratio in both tissues as against an increase observed in the SGM/PC ratio. The results presented suggests that unripe pawpaw meal and unripe plantain extract alter the phospholipid profile of the stomach and duodenum in ways which may affect membrane fluidity of these tissues and would have profound effect on the gastro-duodenal mucosa and thus have implication(s) for gastric and duodenal ulcers in rabbits.

  16. Stomach cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... much higher than in the United States. The value of screening in the United States and other countries with much lower rates of stomach cancer is not clear. The following may help reduce your risk of stomach cancer: DO NOT smoke. Keep a ...

  17. Defining Normal Liver Stiffness Range in a Normal Healthy Chinese Population without Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fung, James; Lee, Cheuk-kwong; Chan, Monica; Seto, Wai-kay; Wong, Danny Ka-ho; Lai, Ching-lung; Yuen, Man-fung

    2013-01-01

    Background For patients with chronic liver disease, different optimal liver stiffness cut-off values correspond to different stages of fibrosis, which are specific for the underlying liver disease and population. Aims To establish the normal ranges of liver stiffness in the healthy Chinese population without underlying liver disease. Methods This is a prospective cross sectional study of 2,528 healthy volunteers recruited from the general population and the Red Cross Transfusion Center in Hong Kong. All participants underwent a comprehensive questionnaire survey, measurement of weight, height, and blood pressure. Fasting liver function tests, glucose and cholesterol was performed. Abdominal ultrasound and transient elastography were performed on all participants. Results Of the 2,528 subjects, 1,998 were excluded with either abnormal liver parenchyma on ultrasound, chronic medical condition, abnormal blood tests including liver enzymes, fasting glucose, fasting cholesterol, high body mass index, high blood pressure, or invalid liver stiffness scan. The reference range for the 530 subjects without known liver disease was 2.3 to 5.9 kPa (mean 4.1, SD 0.89). The median liver stiffness was higher in males compared with females (4.3 vs 4.0 kPa respectively, p<0.001). There was also a decline in median Lliver stiffness in the older age group, from 4.2 kPa in those <25 years to 3.4 kPa for those >55 years (p=0.001). Conclusions The healthy reference range for liver stiffness in the Chinese population is 2.3 to 5.9 kPa. Female gender and older age group was associated with a lower median liver stiffness. PMID:24386446

  18. Stomach ulcer

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the small intestine. It produces acid and various enzymes that break down food into simple substances. The ... the stomach is protected from the acid and enzymes by a mucous lining. Ulcers are caused when ...

  19. Stomach ulcer

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... are absorbed in the small intestine. It produces acid and various enzymes that break down food into ... wall of the stomach is protected from the acid and enzymes by a mucous lining. Ulcers are ...

  20. Brain gray and white matter differences in healthy normal weight and obese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare brain gray and white matter development in healthy normal weight and obese children. Twenty-four healthy 8- to 10-year-old children whose body mass index was either <75th percentile (normal weight) or >95th percentile (obese) completed an MRI examination which included T1-weighted three-d...

  1. Repeat participation among normal healthy research volunteers: professional guinea pigs in clinical trials?

    PubMed

    Tishler, Carl L; Bartholomae, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    The recent death of a normal healthy volunteer, as well as the increased use of normal volunteers as research subjects, has heightened the attention given to the participation of normal volunteers in clinical research. An overlooked sub-population of normal healthy volunteers are repeat, veteran volunteers. This essay discusses ethical and methodological issues associated with the use of repeat volunteers in research, along with existing guidelines regarding the use of repeat healthy volunteers, and concludes with recommendations for safeguarding repeat volunteers and ideas supporting centralized recruiting. PMID:14593220

  2. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a ...

  3. Brain gray and white matter differences in healthy normal weight and obese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare brain gray and white matter development in healthy normal weight and obese children. Twenty-four healthy 8- to 10-year-old children whose body mass index was either 95th percentile (obese) completed an MRI examination which included T1-weighted three-d...

  4. Normal Patterns of Deja Experience in a Healthy, Blind Male: Challenging Optical Pathway Delay Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Akira R.; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old healthy, blind male, MT, who experiences normal patterns of deja vu. The optical pathway delay theory of deja vu formation assumes that neuronal input from the optical pathways is necessary for the formation of the experience. Surprisingly, although the sensation of deja vu is known to be experienced by blind…

  5. Main characteristics of metabolically obese normal weight and metabolically healthy obese phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Tatiana F S; Alves, Raquel D M; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G

    2015-03-01

    In this review, the influence of fat depots on insulin resistance and the main characteristics of metabolically obese normal-weight and metabolically healthy obese phenotypes are discussed. Medline/PubMed and Science Direct were searched for articles related to the terms metabolically healthy obesity, metabolically obese normal weight, adipose tissue, and insulin resistance. Normal weight and obesity might be heterogeneous in regard to their effects. Fat distribution and lower insulin sensitivity are the main factors defining phenotypes within the same body mass index. Although these terms are interesting, controversies about them remain. Future studies exploring these phenotypes will help elucidate the roles of adiposity and/or insulin resistance in the development of metabolic alterations. PMID:26024540

  6. Normalizing electrocardiograms of both healthy persons and cardiovascular disease patients for biometric authentication.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meixue; Liu, Bin; Zhao, Miaomiao; Li, Fan; Wang, Guoqing; Zhou, Fengfeng

    2013-01-01

    Although electrocardiogram (ECG) fluctuates over time and physical activity, some of its intrinsic measurements serve well as biometric features. Considering its constant availability and difficulty in being faked, the ECG signal is becoming a promising factor for biometric authentication. The majority of the currently available algorithms only work well on healthy participants. A novel normalization and interpolation algorithm is proposed to convert an ECG signal into multiple template cycles, which are comparable between any two ECGs, no matter the sampling rates or health status. The overall accuracies reach 100% and 90.11% for healthy participants and cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients, respectively. PMID:23977063

  7. Normalizing Electrocardiograms of Both Healthy Persons and Cardiovascular Disease Patients for Biometric Authentication

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Miaomiao; Li, Fan; Wang, Guoqing; Zhou, Fengfeng

    2013-01-01

    Although electrocardiogram (ECG) fluctuates over time and physical activity, some of its intrinsic measurements serve well as biometric features. Considering its constant availability and difficulty in being faked, the ECG signal is becoming a promising factor for biometric authentication. The majority of the currently available algorithms only work well on healthy participants. A novel normalization and interpolation algorithm is proposed to convert an ECG signal into multiple template cycles, which are comparable between any two ECGs, no matter the sampling rates or health status. The overall accuracies reach 100% and 90.11% for healthy participants and cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients, respectively. PMID:23977063

  8. Histopathological confirmation of similar intramucosal distribution of fluorescein in both intravenous administration and local mucosal application for probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy of the normal stomach

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, Kouichi; Ohata, Ken; Ban, Shinichi; Ichihara, Shin; Takasugi, Rumi; Minato, Yohei; Tashima, Tomoaki; Matsuyama, Yasushi; Takita, Maiko; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Neumann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is capable of acquiring in vivo magnified cross-section images of the gastric mucosa. Intravenous injection of fluorescein sodium is used for confocal imaging. However, it is still under debate if local administration of the dye to the mucosa is also effective for confocal imaging as it is not yet clear if topical application also reveals the intramucosal distribution of fluorescein. The objective of this study was to evaluate the intramucosal distribution of fluorescein sodium after topical application and to compare the distribution to the conventional intravenous injection used for confocal imaging. pCLE of the stomach uninfected with Helicobacter pylori was performed in a healthy male employing intravenous administration and local mucosal application of fluorescein. The mucosa of the lower gastric body was biopsied 1 min and 5 min after intravenous administration or local mucosal application of fluorescein, and the distribution of fluorescein in the biopsy samples was examined histologically. Green fluorescence was already observed in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells in the biopsied deep mucosa 1 min after local mucosal application of fluorescein. It was also observed in the foveolar lumen and inter-foveolar lamina propria, although it was noted at only a few sites. In the tissue biopsied 5 min after the local mucosal application of fluorescein, green fluorescence was more frequently noted in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells than in that 1 min after the local mucosal application of fluorescein, although obvious green fluorescence was not identified in the foveolar lumen or inter-foveolar lamina propria. The distribution of intravenously administered fluorescein in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells was also clearly observed similarly to that after local mucosal application of fluorescein. Green fluorescence in more cells was observed in many cells 5 min after intravenous administration compared

  9. Are Prescription Stimulants "Smart Pills"? The Epidemiology and Cognitive Neuroscience of Prescription Stimulant Use by Normal Healthy Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience…

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure Gradients in Healthy Volunteers and Patients with Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    HAYASHI, Naokazu; MATSUMAE, Mitsunori; YATSUSHIRO, Satoshi; HIRAYAMA, Akihiro; ABDULLAH, Afnizanfaizal; KURODA, Kagayaki

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can depict not only anatomical information, but also physiological factors such as velocity and pressure gradient. Measurement of these physiological factors is necessary to understand the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) environment. In this study we quantified CSF motion in various parts of the CSF space, determined changes in the CSF environment with aging, and compared CSF pressure gradient between patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and healthy elderly volunteers. Fifty-seven healthy volunteers and six iNPH patients underwent four-dimensional (4D) phase-contrast (PC) MRI. CSF motion was observed and the pressure gradient of CSF was quantified in the CSF space. In healthy volunteers, inhomogeneous CSF motion was observed whereby the pressure gradient markedly increased in the center of the skull and gradually decreased in the periphery of the skull. For example, the pressure gradient at the ventral surface of the brainstem was 6.6 times greater than that at the convexity of the cerebrum. The pressure gradient was statistically unchanged with aging. The pressure gradient of patients with iNPH was 3.2 times greater than that of healthy volunteers. The quantitative analysis of 4D-PC MRI data revealed that the pressure gradient of CSF can be used to understand the CSF environment, which is not sufficiently given by subjective impression of the anatomical image. PMID:26226976

  11. Normal range of spinal mobility for healthy young adult Turkish men.

    PubMed

    Cidem, Muharrem; Karacan, Ilhan; Uludag, Murat

    2012-08-01

    Anthropometric characteristics may vary among human populations, especially with differences in race. The aim of the present study is to find normal values of some measures (chest expansion, Schober's test and modified Schober's test) frequently used in the assessment of patients with ankylosing spondylitis, in young adult Turkish men. Initial recruitment identified 2,925 healthy male participants aged 20-30 years, and the final study sample included 1,982 of them. Participants joined the research from all cities except one in Turkey. The measurements of chest expansion, Schober's test, and modified Schober's test were performed by the same researcher using a plastic measuring tape. The mean (±standard error) values of the chest expansion, Schober's test, and modified Schober's test were 6.11 (±0.02), 5.62 (±0.02), and 7.78 (±0.02) cm, respectively. The estimated normal lower bounds for chest expansion, Schober's test, and modified Schober's test may be between 3.71-3.86 cm, 3.86-3.97 cm, and 5.46-5.60 cm, respectively, for young adult Turkish men. No correlation was found between height and spinal mobility. The normal values for spinal mobility in this sample of healthy young adult Turkish men differed from those reported for other young adult male populations (chest expansion ≥5 cm, Schober's test >5 cm, modified Schober's test >7 cm). It is thus useful to consider nationality in interpreting results of spinal mobility tests. PMID:21544633

  12. Stomach Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine Stomach cancer is fairly rare in the US, but ... the early stages. To estimate your risk of stomach cancer and learn about ways to lower that ...

  13. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour in ...

  14. Can Functional Cardiac Age be Predicted from ECG in a Normal Healthy Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd; Starc, Vito; Leban, Manja; Sinigoj, Petra; Vrhovec, Milos

    2011-01-01

    In a normal healthy population, we desired to determine the most age-dependent conventional and advanced ECG parameters. We hypothesized that changes in several ECG parameters might correlate with age and together reliably characterize the functional age of the heart. Methods: An initial study population of 313 apparently healthy subjects was ultimately reduced to 148 subjects (74 men, 84 women, in the range from 10 to 75 years of age) after exclusion criteria. In all subjects, ECG recordings (resting 5-minute 12-lead high frequency ECG) were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate up to 85 different conventional and advanced ECG parameters including beat-to-beat QT and RR variability, waveform complexity, and signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG parameters. The prediction of functional age was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis using the best 5 univariate predictors. Results: Ignoring what were ultimately small differences between males and females, the functional age was found to be predicted (R2= 0.69, P < 0.001) from a linear combination of 5 independent variables: QRS elevation in the frontal plane (p<0.001), a new repolarization parameter QTcorr (p<0.001), mean high frequency QRS amplitude (p=0.009), the variability parameter % VLF of RRV (p=0.021) and the P-wave width (p=0.10). Here, QTcorr represents the correlation between the calculated QT and the measured QT signal. Conclusions: In apparently healthy subjects with normal conventional ECGs, functional cardiac age can be estimated by multiple linear regression analysis of mostly advanced ECG results. Because some parameters in the regression formula, such as QTcorr, high frequency QRS amplitude and P-wave width also change with disease in the same direction as with increased age, increased functional age of the heart may reflect subtle age-related pathologies in cardiac electrical function that are usually hidden on conventional ECG.

  15. Defining the Limits of Normal Conjunctival Fornix Anatomy in a Healthy South Asian Population

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran J.; Ghauri, Abdul-Jabbar; Hodson, James; Edmunds, Matthew R.; Cottrell, Paul; Evans, Simon; Williams, Geraint P.; Rauz, Saaeha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Quantifying the extent of conjunctival fibrosis for documentation of progression in conjunctival scarring disease is a clinical challenge. Measurement of forniceal foreshortening facilitates monitoring of these disorders. This study aims (1) to define the limits of the normal human conjunctival fornices and how these alter with age and (2) to provide normative data for upper and lower fornix depths (FDs) and fornix intercanthal distance (FICD) within a healthy South Asian, racially distinct population. Design Epidemiologic, cross-sectional study. Participants A total of 240 subjects with national origins from South Asia, with no known ocular history and normal adnexal and conjunctival examination, aged 20 to 80 years. Methods An FICD modification of a custom-designed fornix depth measurer (FDM) was validated and used for measurement of both lower and upper FDs together with FICDs in 480 healthy eyes with no ocular comorbidities. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and presented as means with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Main Outcome Measures Mean lower and upper FDs and FICD for the entire cohort, stratified according to age decade and sex. Results For this South Asian population, the overall upper and lower FDs were 15.3 mm (95% CI, 14.9–15.6) and 10.9 mm (95% CI, 10.7–11.1), respectively, with FICD defined as 32.9 mm (95% CI, 32.5–33.4) (upper) and 31.7 mm (95% CI, 31.3–32.1) (lower). With increasing age, a progressive reduction of all measured parameters (P < 0.001) was noted, with female subjects having significantly shallower fornices (upper FD, P < 0.001; lower FD, P < 0.001; upper FICD, P = 0.081; and lower FICD, P = 0.015). Conclusions This is the first study to define the limits of normal upper FD and FICDs in any population group. Our study demonstrates sex variations and progressive conjunctival shrinkage with age. Although it provides important, objective data for normal forniceal anatomy

  16. Assessment of cardiovascular response to treadmill exercise in normal healthy Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pande, Sushma S; Pande, Santosh R; Dhore, Rajendra B; Daphale, Ajay V; Parate, Vrushali R; Patel, Shishir S; Agrekar, Sushil H

    2012-01-01

    The study aims to assess the cardiovascular response to treadmill exercise test in healthy Indian adolescents. A group of 50 healthy adolescents took part in the study. Cardiovascular response was assessed by using treadmill exercise test as per Bruce protocol. Pulse rate, blood pressure and ECG were recorded before, during and after undertaking the treadmill test. Mean age and body mass index (BMI) were 18.7 +/- 0.51 yrs. and 21.4 +/- 3.44 kg/m2 respectively. Karl Pearson Correlation analysis showed highly significant negative correlation between BMI and exercise time (r = -0.598, P<0.001) and between resting DBP and Exercise Time (r = -0.424, P<0.002). While BMI and DBP showed highly significant positive correlation (r = 0.463, P<0.001). During exercise pulse and SBP rose and DBP fell. SBP rose from mean 122 to 175 (rise by 53 mm of Hg) and DBP fell from mean 78 to 65 (fall by 13 mm of Hg). One min recovery pulse was 156 indicating 22% fall from target heart rate. All the parameters returned to near resting value at 6 min recovery. In 30% students DBP showed exaggerated response i.e. rise during exercise. These students had more BMI and higher resting DBP as compared to other students, which could be the reason for exaggerated response in these participants. In ECG there were no significant ST/T changes during exercise or recovery period. This study provides normal data for small sample of healthy Indian adolescents when subjected to treadmill exercise test. PMID:23029962

  17. Oxygen saturation response to exercise in healthy pregnant women: a simple protocol and normal range

    PubMed Central

    Langford, Edward; Khwanda, Ahmad; Langford, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of oxygen saturation on excercise, using a pulse oximeter, has been advocated in the assessment of women with shortness of breath in pregnancy. However, there is currently no standard protocol for this. The aims of this study were to determine the normal range for oxygen saturation at rest and on moderate exercise in healthy women from 24 weeks gestation and to evaluate a simple, widely applicable exercise protocol in which women walked at their own pace for 100 metres then up two flights of stairs. The protocol achieved 60–85% maximum predicted heart rate in 99% of women at a median gestation of 31+3 weeks, with a wide range of Hb and BMI. There was a mean 0.3% fall in oxygen saturation on exertion but oxygen saturation did not fall below 95% in any of the women.

  18. Cognitive Deficits in Healthy Elderly Population With "Normal" Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    PubMed

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether healthy older adults with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores above 23 exhibit cognitive impairment on neuropsychological tests. Participants completed the MMSE and a neuropsychological battery including tests of 10 domains. Results were compared to published normative data. On neuropsychological testing, participants performed well on measures of naming and recall but showed mild to moderate impairment in working memory and processing speed and marked impairment in inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Almost everyone (91%) scored at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean in at least 1 domain. The median number of domains in which individuals scored below 1 SD was 3.0 of 10.0, whereas over 21% scored below 1 SD in 5 domains or more. With the strictest of definitions for impairment, 20% of this population scored below 2.0 SDs below the norm in at least 2 domains, a necessary condition for a diagnosis of dementia. The finding that cognitive impairment, particularly in attention and executive functioning, is found in healthy older persons who perform well on the MMSE has clinical and research implications in terms of emphasizing normal variability in performance and early identification of possible impairment. PMID:26850856

  19. Normal variation in cortical osteocyte lacunar parameters in healthy young males

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Yasmin; Suchorab, Jessica L; Thomas, C David L; Clement, John G; Cooper, David M L

    2014-01-01

    The most abundant cell in bone, osteocytes form an interconnected system upon which the regulation of healthy bone relies. Although the complete nature of the role of osteocytes has yet to be defined, they are generally accepted to play a part in the sensing of load and the initiation of damage repair. A previous study conducted by our group identified variation of up to 30% in osteocyte lacunar density and morphological parameters between regions of a single cross-section of human femoral shaft; that study, however, was limited to a single individual. The aim of the current study was to determine whether this pattern consistently occurs in healthy young male femora. Anterior, posterior, medial and lateral blocks were prepared from the proximal femoral shaft of seven males and synchrotron radiation micro-CT imaged. Average lacunar densities (± SD) from the anterior, posterior, medial and lateral regions were 23 394 ± 1705, 30 180 ± 4860, 35 946 ± 5990 and 29 678 ± 6081 lacunae per mm3 of bone tissue, respectively. These values were significantly different between the anterior and both the medial and posterior regions (P < 0.05). The density of the combined anterior and posterior regions was also significantly lower (P = 0.006) than the density of the combined medial and lateral regions. Although no difference was found in predominant orientation, shape differences were found; with the combined anterior-posterior regions having lacunae that were significantly more elongated and less flat than the combined medial-lateral values (P < 0.001). As expected, in this larger study, there was a dramatic difference in lacunar density between the medial and anterior region (up to ∼ 54%). The study clearly demonstrates that the high variation seen in osteocyte lacunar density as well as other lacunar parameters, noted in a number of biomechanical, age and pathology studies, are well within the range of normal variation; however, the reasons for and

  20. What is normal nasal airflow? A computational study of 22 healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nasal airflow is essential for functioning of the human nose. Given individual variation in nasal anatomy, there is yet no consensus what constitutes normal nasal airflow patterns. We attempt to obtain such information that is essential to differentiate disease-related variations. Methods Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulated nasal airflow in 22 healthy subjects during resting breathing. Streamline patterns, airflow distributions, velocity profiles, pressure, wall stress, turbulence, and vortical flow characteristics under quasi-steady state were analyzed. Patency ratings, acoustically measured minimum cross-sectional area (MCA), and rhinomanometric nasal resistance (NR) were examined for potential correlations with morphological and airflow-related variables. Results Common features across subjects included: >50% total pressure-drop reached near the inferior turbinate head; wall shear stress, NR, turbulence energy, and vorticity were lower in the turbinate than in the nasal valve region. However, location of the major flow path and coronal velocity distributions varied greatly across individuals. Surprisingly, on average, more flow passed through the middle than the inferior meatus and correlated with better patency ratings (r=-0.65, p<0.01). This middle flow percentage combined with peak post-vestibule nasal heat loss and MCA accounted for >70% of the variance in subjective patency ratings and predicted patency categories with 86% success. Nasal index correlated with forming of the anterior dorsal vortex. Expected for resting breathing, the functional impact for local and total turbulence, vorticity, and helicity was limited. As validation, rhinomanometric NR significantly correlated with CFD simulations (r=0.53, p<0.01). Conclusion Significant variations of nasal airflow found among healthy subjects; Key features may have clinically relevant applications. PMID:24664528

  1. In vitro photodynamic effect of aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines on melanoma skin cancer and healthy normal skin cells.

    PubMed

    Maduray, K; Odhav, B; Nyokong, T

    2012-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a medical treatment that uses an inactive dye/drug and lasers as a light source to activate the dye/drug to produce a toxic form of oxygen that destroys the cancer cells. This study aimed at investigating the cytotoxic effects of different concentrations of aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines in its inactive and active state (laser induced) on melanoma skin cancer cells, healthy normal skin fibroblast and keratinocyte cells. Experimentally, 3 × 10⁴ cells/ml were seeded in 24-well plates before treatment with different concentrations of aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines. After 2h, cells were irradiated with a light dose of 4.5 J/cm². Post-irradiated cells were incubated for 24h before cell viability was measured using the CellTiter-Blue Viability Assay. Results showed that aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines at high concentrations were cytotoxic to melanoma cells in the absence of laser activation. In the presence of laser activation of aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines at a concentration of 40 μg/ml decreased cell viability of melanoma cells to 45%, fibroblasts to 78% and keratinocytes to 73%. At this photosensitizing concentration of aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines the efficacy of the treatment light dose 4.5 J/cm² and the cell death mechanism induced by photoactivated aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines was evaluated. A light dose of 4.5 J/cm² was more efficient in killing a higher number of melanoma cells and a lower number of fibroblast and keratinocyte cells than the other light doses of 2.5 J/cm², 7.5 J/cm² and 10.5 J/cm². Apoptosis features such as blebbing, nucleus condensation, nucleus fragmentation and the formation of apoptotic bodies were seen in the photodynamic therapy treated melanoma skin cancer cells. This in vitro photodynamic therapy study concludes that using aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines at a photosensitizing concentration of 40 μg/ml in combination with a laser dose of 4.5 J/cm² was potentially lethal

  2. Effects of GUASHA on Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Volunteers under Normal Condition and Weightlifters after Weightlifting Training Sessions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingze; Chatchawan, Uraiwan; Nakmareong, Saowanee; Silsirivanit, Atit; Wang, Yingying; Xie, Dongbei; Yang, Jinsheng; Eungpinichpong, Wichai

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This paper aims at exploring the effects of GUASHA on heart rate variability between healthy volunteers under normal condition and weightlifters after training sessions. Methods. Ten healthy male volunteers under normal condition and 15 male weightlifters after weightlifting training sessions were recruited into two groups. Electrocardiography was recorded before and immediately after 20-minute GUASHA. HRV was calculated in both the time domain and the frequency domain. Results. Stress index was reduced, while standard deviation of N-N intervals (SDNN), proportion derived by dividing the number of interval differences of successive N-N intervals greater than 50 ms, and root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) were enhanced after GUASHA therapy in the two groups. The changes in SDNN and RMSSD were higher in the healthy men group than in the weightlifters group. In addition, low frequency was decreased whereas high frequency was significantly increased in healthy men after the GUASHA session. Conclusions. GUASHA therapy facilitates the parasympathetic nervous activity and modulates the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic activities in both healthy men under normal condition and weightlifters after training sessions as indicated. Although the changes of the HRV parameters were similar in both groups, the responsiveness was more pronounced in healthy men than in male weightlifters. PMID:26120346

  3. EEG Oscillatory States: Universality, Uniqueness and Specificity across Healthy-Normal, Altered and Pathological Brain Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Fingelkurts, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time the dynamic repertoires and oscillatory types of local EEG states in 13 diverse conditions (examined over 9 studies) that covered healthy-normal, altered and pathological brain states were quantified within the same methodological and conceptual framework. EEG oscillatory states were assessed by the probability-classification analysis of short-term EEG spectral patterns. The results demonstrated that brain activity consists of a limited repertoire of local EEG states in any of the examined conditions. The size of the state repertoires was associated with changes in cognition and vigilance or neuropsychopathologic conditions. Additionally universal, optional and unique EEG states across 13 diverse conditions were observed. It was demonstrated also that EEG oscillations which constituted EEG states were characteristic for different groups of conditions in accordance to oscillations’ functional significance. The results suggested that (a) there is a limit in the number of local states available to the cortex and many ways in which these local states can rearrange themselves and still produce the same global state and (b) EEG individuality is determined by varying proportions of universal, optional and unique oscillatory states. The results enriched our understanding about dynamic microstructure of EEG-signal. PMID:24505292

  4. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on verbal aggressiveness in normal healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Sudheer; Nagendra, H R; Raghuram, Nagarathna

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of yoga on verbal aggressiveness in normal healthy adults. Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects of both sexes who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. These 226 subjects were between the ages of 17 and 62 years and 173/226 completed the eight weeks of intervention. The Yoga (Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction, and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE). Both groups had supervised practices (by trained experts) for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Verbal Aggressiveness was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Verbal Aggressive Scale. Results: The baseline score of the two groups did not differ significantly (P = 0.66). There was a significant decrease in verbal aggressiveness in the yoga group (P = 0.01 paired samples t-test) with a nonsignificant increase in the PE group. ANCOVA using pre- values as covariates showed a significant difference between the groups (P = 0.013). RMANOVA for interaction between the sexes or age groups in change scores were not significant. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that an eight week intervention of an integrated yoga module decreased verbal aggressiveness in the yoga group (in males and those below 25 years of age), with a nonsignificant increase in the PE group. PMID:21829289

  5. Surgery For Stomach Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States as they are in countries (like Japan) where stomach cancer is more common and more ... lymphadenectomy ) when a gastrectomy is done. Surgeons in Japan have had very high success rates by removing ...

  6. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  7. Occurrence of Bifidobacteriaceae in human hypochlorhydria stomach

    PubMed Central

    Mattarelli, Paola; Brandi, Giovanni; Calabrese, Carlo; Fornari, Fabio; Prati, Gian Maria; Biavati, Bruno; Sgorbati, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background The human stomach, when healthy, is not a suitable host for microorganisms, but in pathological conditions such as gastritis, when gastric acid secretion is impaired, microbial overgrowth can be observed. Apart from Helicobacter pylori, the composition of microbiota, resident or exogenously introduced during neutral/high pH conditions, has not been investigated thoroughly. Thus, it is possible that Bifidobacteriaceae, important autochthonous and beneficial bacteria of human gastrointestinal microbiota, could over-colonize the stomach of hypochlorhydria patients suffering from autoimmune atrophic gastritis (AAG) or omeprazole-treated (OME) gastritis. This prompted us to characterize the Bifidobacteriaceae in such patients’ gastric microbiota and to study its abnormal colonization. Methods Samples of gastric juices, and antrum and corpus mucosa from 23 hypochlorhydria patients (13 AAG and 10 OME) and from 10 control volunteers with base-line normochlorhydria, were cultivated in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) and selective Bifidobacterium-Tryptone-Phytone-Yeast extract (Bif-TPY) media. The isolates were characterized by the fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase (F6PPK) test, electrophoresis of cellular proteins, the fermentation test, guanine-cytosine% DNA content, and DNA–DNA hybridization. Negative F6PPK isolates were characterized by order-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results A total of 125 isolates, assigned to the Bifidobacteriaceae family on the basis of their morphology, were obtained from AAG and OME patients, but not from normal subjects. Of these isolates, 55 were assigned to the Bifidobacteriaceae family on the basis of their fructose-6-phosphoketolase (PPK) activity, PPK being the key taxonomic enzyme of this family. The remaining 70 isolates, which were PPK-negative, were attributed to the Actinomycetales order following specific primer PCR analysis. We observed a significantly higher abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae (Bifidobacterium

  8. Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a ...

  9. Are prescription stimulants "smart pills"? The epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience of prescription stimulant use by normal healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Smith, M Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J

    2011-09-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience literatures in search of answers to these questions. Epidemiological issues addressed include the prevalence of nonmedical stimulant use, user demographics, methods by which users obtain prescription stimulants, and motivations for use. Cognitive neuroscience issues addressed include the effects of prescription stimulants on learning and executive function, as well as the task and individual variables associated with these effects. Little is known about the prevalence of prescription stimulant use for cognitive enhancement outside of student populations. Among college students, estimates of use vary widely but, taken together, suggest that the practice is commonplace. The cognitive effects of stimulants on normal healthy people cannot yet be characterized definitively, despite the volume of research that has been carried out on these issues. Published evidence suggests that declarative memory can be improved by stimulants, with some evidence consistent with enhanced consolidation of memories. Effects on the executive functions of working memory and cognitive control are less reliable but have been found for at least some individuals on some tasks. In closing, we enumerate the many outstanding questions that remain to be addressed by future research and also identify obstacles facing this research. PMID:21859174

  10. Mild Memory Impairment in Healthy Older Adults Is Distinct from Normal Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargin, J. Weaver; Maruff, P.; Collie, A.; Masters, C.

    2006-01-01

    Mild memory impairment was detected in 28% of a sample of healthy community-dwelling older adults using the delayed recall trial of a word list learning task. Statistical analysis revealed that individuals with memory impairment also demonstrated relative deficits on other measures of memory, and tests of executive function, processing speed and…

  11. Energy content of stools in normal healthy controls and patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, J L; Wootton, S A; Bond, S A; Jackson, A A

    1991-01-01

    Stool energy losses and the sources of energy within the stool were determined in 20 healthy controls and 20 patients with cystic fibrosis while on their habitual pancreatic enzyme replacement treatment. Stool energy losses were equivalent to 3.5% of gross energy intake in healthy children (range 1.3-5.8%). Despite a comparable gross energy intake, stool energy losses were three times greater in patients with cystic fibrosis than controls averaging 10.6% of gross energy intake (range 4.9-19.7%). Stool lipid could account for only 29% and 41% of the energy within the stool in controls and patients with cystic fibrosis respectively and was poorly related to stool energy. Approximately 30% of the energy within the stool could be attributable to colonic bacteria in both the healthy children and patients with cystic fibrosis. These results suggest that stool energy losses in healthy children are relatively modest but that even when patients with cystic fibrosis are symptomatically well controlled on pancreatic enzyme replacement, raised stool energy losses may continue to contribute towards an energy deficit sufficient to limit growth in cystic fibrosis. As the energy content per gram wet weight remains relatively constant (8 kJ/g), stool energy losses may be estimated from simple measurements of stool wet weight. PMID:2031608

  12. SPM-based count normalization provides excellent discrimination of mild Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment from healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Yakushev, Igor; Hammers, Alexander; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Schmidtmann, Irene; Scheurich, Armin; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Peters, Jürgen; Bartenstein, Peter; Lieb, Klaus; Schreckenberger, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Statistical comparisons of [(18)F]FDG PET scans between healthy subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) usually require normalization of regional tracer uptake via ROIs defined using additional software. Here, we validate a simple SPM-based method for count normalization. FDG PET scans of 21 mild, 15 very mild AD, 11 aMCI patients and 15 age-matched controls were analyzed. First, we obtained relative increases in the whole patient sample compared to controls (i.e. areas relatively preserved in patients) with proportional scaling to the cerebral global mean (CGM). Next, average absolute counts within the cluster with the highest t-value were extracted. Statistical comparisons of controls versus three patients groups were then performed using count normalization to CGM, sensorimotor cortex (SMC) as standard, and to the cluster-derived counts. Compared to controls, relative metabolism in aMCI patients was reduced by 15%, 20%, and 23% after normalization to CGM, SMC, and cluster-derived counts, respectively, and 11%, 21%, and 25% in mild AD patients. Logistic regression analyses based on normalized values extracted from AD-typical regions showed that the metabolic values obtained using CGM, SMC, and cluster normalization correctly classified 81%, 89% and 92% of aMCI and controls; classification accuracies for AD groups (very mild and mild) were 91%, 97%, and 100%. The proposed algorithm of fully SPM-based count normalization allows for a substantial increase of statistical power in detecting very early AD-associated hypometabolism, and very high accuracy in discriminating mild AD and aMCI from healthy aging. PMID:18691659

  13. When patients portray their conduct as normal and healthy: an interactional challenge for thorough substance use history taking.

    PubMed

    Denvir, Paul M

    2012-11-01

    Researchers and medical practitioners have argued that routine substance use histories are performed less frequently and less thoroughly than they should be. Previous research has identified a range of structural, attitudinal, and socio-cultural barriers that help to explain this pattern. Using conversation analytic (CA) methods, this paper complements previous work by exploring a potential interactional barrier to thorough substance use history taking in the USA. In response to routine substance use queries (e.g. "Do you drink alcohol?"), patients often do more than just providing information. They also convey normative stances toward their conduct, essentially making a case for how it should be understood by the physician. One stance that patients may take is that their conduct is normal and healthy. This paper describes three interactional practices that patients used to enact such a stance: 1) employing marked lexical, intonational, or interactional features when indicating no use of a substance; 2) volunteering normalizing details about the type, quantity, frequency, or circumstances of substance use; 3) providing minimizing characterizations of substance use. The paper explores some reasons why physicians treated these as appropriate and sufficient responses and did not seek additional details even when the information provided was quite superficial. Two social functions of patients' "normal/healthy" stances are discussed: 1) redirecting the physician's history taking to other topics and 2) presenting oneself as a health-conscious patient. "Normal/healthy" stances can represent an expression of patient agency, but can also present a dilemma for physicians, who must balance a concern for thoroughness with a concern for rapport. Recommendations for navigating this dilemma are discussed. PMID:22884752

  14. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of stomach cancer. Some studies show that eating fruits and vegetables that are high in vitamin C and beta carotene may lower the risk ... take can prevent cancer. These may include eating fruits and vegetables, exercising, ... vitamins, minerals, or food supplements. New ways to prevent ...

  15. Reaffirming normal: the high risk of pathologizing healthy adults when interpreting the MMPI-2-RF.

    PubMed

    Odland, Anthony P; Lammy, Andrew B; Perle, Jonathan G; Martin, Phillip K; Grote, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were utilized to determine the proportion of the normal population expected to have scale elevations on the MMPI-2-RF when multiple scores are interpreted. Results showed that when all 40 MMPI-2-RF scales are simultaneously considered, approximately 70% of normal adults are likely to have at least one scale elevation at or above 65 T, and as many as 20% will have five or more elevated scales. When the Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales are under consideration, 34% of normal adults have at least one elevated score. Interpretation of the Specific Problem Scales and Personality Psychopathology Five Scales--Revised also yielded higher than expected rates of significant scores, with as many as one in four normal adults possibly being miscategorized as having features of a personality disorder by the latter scales. These findings are consistent with the growing literature on rates of apparently abnormal scores in the normal population due to multiple score interpretation. Findings are discussed in relation to clinical assessment, as well as in response to recent work suggesting that the MMPI-2-RF's multiscale composition does not contribute to high rates of elevated scores. PMID:25643047

  16. Motility Disorders of the Stomach

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stomach Delayed Gastric Emptying (Gastroparesis) Rapid Gastric Emptying (Dumping Syndrome) Functional Dyspepsia Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS) The ... the Stomach Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome CVS in Adults Dumping Syndrome Functional Dyspepsia Gastroparesis Disorders of the Small ...

  17. Sonographic Assessment of the Normal Dimensions of Liver, Spleen, and Kidney in Healthy Children at Tertiary Care Hospital.

    PubMed

    Thapa, N B; Shah, S; Pradhan, A; Rijal, K; Pradhan, A; Basnet, S

    2015-01-01

    Background Ultrasonography is one of the most common imaging modality to measure dimensions of visceral organs in children. However, the normal limit of size of visceral organs according to age and body habitus has not been specified in the standard textbooks. This might result in under detection of organomegaly in pediatrics population. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the normal range of dimensions for the liver, spleen, and kidney in healthy children. Method This is prospective cross-sectional, hospital-based study done at Tertiary-care teaching hospital. Participants included 272 pediatric subjects (152 male and 120 female) with normal physical or sonographic findings who were examined because of problems unrelated to the measured organs. The subjects were one month to 15 year (180 months) old. All measured organs were sonographically normal. Relationships of the dimensions of these organs with sex, age, body weight and height were investigated. Limits of normal dimensions of these organs were defined. Result Normal length of liver, kidneys and spleen were obtained sonographically for 272 children (152 male [55.9%] and 120 female [44.1%]) in the age group from 1 months to 15 (180 months) years. The mean age was 45.78 months (SD, 44.73). The measured dimensions of all these organs showed highest correlation with height and age so the descriptive analysis of the organ dimensions (mean, minimum, and maximum values, SD and 5th and 95th percentiles) were expressed in 10 age groups along with height range of the included children. The mean length of right kidney was shorter than the left kidney length, and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Conclusion This study provides practical and comprehensive guide to the normal visceral organ dimension in pediatric population. The normal range limit of the liver, spleen, and kidney determined in this study could be used as a reference in daily practice in local radiology clinics

  18. P300 EVENT RELATED POTENTIAL IN NORMAL HEALTHY CONTROLS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, R.; Trivedi, J.K.; Singh, R.; Singh, Y.; Chakravorty, P.

    2000-01-01

    P300 event related potential was recorded in 115 healthy controls with a mean age of35.9±14.81 years and a male : female ratio of 72 : 43. There was significant difference in the P300 latency in < 40 years as compared to ≥ 40 years group (p< 0.001). There was no significant difference between males and females. There was a strong positive correlation between age and P300 latency (p< 0.001). The regression equation for P300 latency was Y=287.9+1.492x with an SEE of 20.2 (where Y is the P300 latency in ms, x is the age in years, SEE is the standard error of estimate). There was a negative correlation between age and P300 amplitude which was significant in ≥ 40 years age group while in > 40 years age group it was not significant. PMID:21407977

  19. Lactate: Brain Fuel in Human Traumatic Brain Injury: A Comparison with Normal Healthy Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Neil A.; Horning, Michael A.; McArthur, David L.; Hovda, David A.; Vespa, Paul; Brooks, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the hypothesis that lactate shuttling helps support the nutritive needs of injured brains. To that end, we utilized dual isotope tracer [6,6-2H2]glucose, that is, D2-glucose, and [3-13C]lactate techniques involving arm vein tracer infusion along with simultaneous cerebral (arterial [art] and jugular bulb [JB]) blood sampling. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with nonpenetrating brain injuries (n=12) were entered into the study following consent of patients' legal representatives. Written and informed consent was obtained from control volunteers (n=6). Patients were studied 5.7±2.2 (mean±SD) days post-injury; during periods when arterial glucose concentration tended to be higher in TBI patients. As in previous investigations, the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgluc, i.e., net glucose uptake) was significantly suppressed following TBI (p<0.001). However, lactate fractional extraction, an index of cerebral lactate uptake related to systemic lactate supply, approximated 11% in both healthy control subjects and TBI patients. Further, neither the CMR for lactate (CMRlac, i.e., net lactate release), nor the tracer-measured cerebral lactate uptake differed between healthy controls and TBI patients. The percentages of lactate tracer taken up and released as 13CO2 into the JB accounted for 92% and 91% for control and TBI conditions, respectively, suggesting that most cerebral lactate uptake was oxidized following TBI. Comparisons of isotopic enrichments of lactate oxidation from infused [3-13C]lactate tracer and 13C-glucose produced during hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis (GNG) showed that 75–80% of 13CO2 released into the JB was from lactate and that the remainder was from the oxidation of glucose secondarily labeled from lactate. Hence, either directly as lactate uptake, or indirectly via GNG, peripheral lactate production accounted for ∼70% of carbohydrate (direct lactate uptake+uptake of glucose from lactate) consumed by the

  20. Proposed Use of Thickener According to Fluid Intake on Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Studies: Preliminary Study in Normal Healthy Persons

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Duck; Koo, Jung Hoi; Park, Hee Seon; Kim, Jae Sin; Jang, Ki Hyo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the characteristics and changes in the pharyngeal phase of swallowing according to fluid viscosity in normal healthy persons, to help determine fluid intake methods in more detail than the use of standardized fluid. Methods This was a prospective observational study involving 10 normal healthy adults. While the participants sequentially took in fluids with 10 different viscosities changes in the pharyngeal phase of the swallowing process were monitored using videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS). Twenty parameters of the pharyngeal phase, including epiglottis contact, laryngeal elevation, pharyngeal constriction, and upper esophageal sphincter opening, were determined and compared. Results No significant viscosity-based changes in epiglottis contact, laryngeal elevation, or upper esophageal sphincter-opening duration of the pharyngeal phase were observed. However, pharyngeal transit time and time from the start of the pharyngeal phase to peak pharyngeal constriction were significantly delayed upon intake of fluid with viscosities of 150.0 centipoise (cP) and 200.0 cP. Conclusion VFSS analysis of fluid intake may require the use of fluids of various concentrations to determine a suitable viscosity of thickener mixture for each subject. PMID:27152269

  1. C-type virus particles in placenta of normal healthy Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed Central

    Gross, L; Schidlovsky, G; Feldman, D; Dreyfuss, Y; Moore, L A

    1975-01-01

    C-type virus particles were found on electron-microscopic examination in placentas from two out of four young healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. One of these specimens contained virus particles budding from the plasma membranes of cells in the junctional zone of the placenta, i.e., the region where the fetal and maternal cell layers meet. In the other placenta, immature and mature C-type virus particles were found among cell debris also in the junctional region. This observation adds another species of animals to those recently reported, such as rhesus and baboon monkeys, as well as humans, in which C-type virus particles were found in the placenta. The presence of C-type viicant in view of the fact that a considerable number of these animals develop spontaneously a variety of malignant tumors, occasionally also leukemia and malignant lymphomas; however, none of these spontaneous tumors reveals the presence of virus particles on electron-microscopic examination. The nature of virus particles detected in rat placenta remains to be determined. As a working hypothesis, it is possible to assume that they may represent the passage of latent, presumably oncogenic, viruses transmitted "vertically" from parents to offspring. In the course of this passage some of them may be formed, emerging temporarily from their latency, before losing their identity and being again incorporated into the cell genetic components. Images PMID:171659

  2. Development and Decline of Memory Functions in Normal, Pathological and Healthy Successful Aging

    PubMed Central

    Sanfratello, L.; Adair, J. C.; Knoefel, J. E.; Caprihan, A.; Stephen, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Many neuroimaging studies of age-related memory decline interpret resultant differences in brain activation patterns in the elderly as reflecting a type of compensatory response or regression to a simpler state of brain organization. Here we review a series of our own studies which lead us to an alternative interpretation, and highlights a couple of potential confounds in the aging literature that may act to increase the variability of results within age groups and across laboratories. From our perspective, level of cognitive functioning achieved by a group of elderly is largely determined by the health of individuals within this group. Individuals with a history of hypertension, for example, are likely to have multiple white matter insults which compromise cognitive functioning, independent of aging processes. The health of the elderly group has not been well-documented in most previous studies and elderly participants are rarely excluded, or placed into a separate group, due to health-related problems. In addition, recent results show that white matter tracts within the frontal and temporal lobes, regions critical for higher cognitive functions, continue to mature well into the 4th decade of life. This suggests that a young age group may not be the best control group for understanding aging effects on the brain since development is ongoing within this age range. Therefore, we have added a middle-age group to our studies in order to better understand normal development across the lifespan as well as effects of pathology on cognitive functioning in the aging brain. PMID:21452018

  3. Arrhythmias Seen in Baseline 24-Hour Holter ECG Recordings in Healthy Normal Volunteers During Phase 1 Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Hingorani, Pooja; Karnad, Dilip R; Rohekar, Prashant; Kerkar, Vaibhav; Lokhandwala, Yash Y; Kothari, Snehal

    2016-07-01

    Regulatory agencies encourage sponsors to submit 24-hour ambulatory ECG data for assessing cardiac safety of new drugs, and some arrhythmias, hitherto considered rare, have been observed in some early-phase studies. Interpretation of these observations is difficult given the dearth of published data on the prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias seen during 24-hour continuous ECG monitoring in healthy volunteers (HV) from clinical trials. We analyzed drug-free ambulatory ECG recordings from 1273 HV (1000 males, 273 females; age 18-65 years) from 22 phase 1 studies that were analyzed in a core ECG laboratory; all subjects had normal screening ECGs. Supraventricular arrhythmias such as supraventricular premature complexes were observed in 60.8% of healthy volunteers, supraventricular tachycardia in 2.2%, and atrial fibrillation in 0.1%. Ventricular arrhythmias included premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) in 43.4%, >200 PVCs per 24 hours in 3.3%, multifocal PVCs in 5.3%, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in 0.7%, and accelerated idioventricular rhythm in 0.3%. Bradyarrhythmias included sinus pause >3 seconds in 0.3%, and second-degree AV block in 2.4%. Complete heart block and torsades de pointes were not seen in any subject. Based on the observed incidence, we estimated the maximum number of healthy subjects in whom these arrhythmias may be seen as a matter of chance in studies with smaller sample sizes if the study drug has no arrhythmogenic effect. Our results and these estimates could help interpret whether cardiac arrhythmias observed in early-phase studies are due to chance or possibly are a drug effect. PMID:26626443

  4. Variability of normal vocal fold dynamics for different vocal loading in one healthy subject investigated by phonovibrograms.

    PubMed

    Doellinger, Michael; Lohscheller, Joerg; McWhorter, Andrew; Kunduk, Melda

    2009-03-01

    We investigate the potential of high-speed digital imaging technique (HSI) and the phonovibrogram (PVG) analysis in normal vocal fold dynamics by studying the effects of continuous voice use (vocal loading) during the workday. One healthy subject was recorded at sustained phonation 13 times within 2 consecutive days in the morning before and in the afternoon after vocal loading, respectively. Vocal fold dynamics were extracted and visualized by PVGs. The characteristic PVG patterns were extracted representing vocal fold vibration types. The parameter values were then analyzed by statistics regarding vocal load, left-right PVG asymmetries, anterior-posterior PVG asymmetries, and opening-closing differences. For the first time, the direct impact of vocal load could be determined by analyzing vocal fold dynamics. For same vocal loading conditions, equal dynamical behavior of the vocal folds were confirmed. Comparison of recordings performed in the morning with the recordings after work revealed significant changes in vibration behavior, indicating impact of occurring vocal load. Left-right asymmetries in vocal fold dynamics were found confirming earlier assumptions. Different dynamics between opening and closing procedure as well as for anterior and posterior parts were found. Constant voice usage stresses the vocal folds even in healthy subjects and can be detected by applying the PVG technique. Furthermore, left-right PVG asymmetries do occur in healthy voice to a certain extent. HSI in combination with PVG analysis seems to be a promising tool for investigation of vocal fold fatigue and pathologies resulting in small forms of dynamical changes. PMID:18313896

  5. A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults123

    PubMed Central

    Stote, Kim S; Baer, David J; Spears, Karen; Paul, David R; Harris, G Keith; Rumpler, William V; Strycula, Pilar; Najjar, Samer S; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ingram, Donald K; Longo, Dan L; Mattson, Mark P

    2009-01-01

    Background Although consumption of 3 meals/d is the most common pattern of eating in industrialized countries, a scientific rationale for this meal frequency with respect to optimal health is lacking. A diet with less meal frequency can improve the health and extend the lifespan of laboratory animals, but its effect on humans has never been tested. Objective A pilot study was conducted to establish the effects of a reduced-meal-frequency diet on health indicators in healthy, normal-weight adults. Design The study was a randomized crossover design with two 8-wk treatment periods. During the treatment periods, subjects consumed all of the calories needed for weight maintenance in either 3 meals/d or 1 meal/d. Results Subjects who completed the study maintained their body weight within 2 kg of their initial weight throughout the 6-mo period. There were no significant effects of meal frequency on heart rate, body temperature, or most of the blood variables measured. However, when consuming 1 meal/d, subjects had a significant increase in hunger; a significant modification of body composition, including reductions in fat mass; significant increases in blood pressure and in total, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations; and a significant decrease in concentrations of cortisol. Conclusions Normal-weight subjects are able to comply with a 1 meal/d diet. When meal frequency is decreased without a reduction in overall calorie intake, modest changes occur in body composition, some cardiovascular disease risk factors, and hematologic variables. Diurnal variations may affect outcomes. PMID:17413096

  6. Blood homocysteine and vitamin B levels are not associated with cognitive skills in healthy normally ageing subjects.

    PubMed

    Ravaglia, G; Forti, P; Maioli, F; Zanardi, V; Dalmonte, E; Grossi, G; Cucinotta, D; Macini, P; Caldarera, M

    2000-01-01

    Increased plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) levels are a known risk factor for vascular disease and have been reported in association with cognitive impairment of old age. Alternatively, however, increased tHcy levels may simply be an indicator of B vitamin deficiency. We evaluated the relationship between plasma tHcy levels, serum vitamin B12 and folate levels, and the scores at a battery of neuropsychological tests in 54 healthy cognitively normal subjects aged 65 years and over. Hyperhomocysteinemia prevalence (plasma tHcy>15 micromol/L) was about 24%. In univariate analysis, vitamin B12 levels were associated with both verbal memory and visuo-spatial skills, whereas no association was found between psychometric test scores and folate levels or tHcy levels. However, none of the univariate associations of neuropsychological test scores and serum B12 vitamin levels was confirmed when adjusting for age, education and other confounding variables. In conclusion, although a relationship between homocysteine, B vitamins and poor cognitive skills in the elderly is plausible, this study does not suggests that such relationship is biologically important. PMID:11115804

  7. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer This page lists ... stomach (gastric) cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Cyramza (Ramucirumab) Docetaxel ...

  8. Dysbiotic infection in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Iizasa, Hisashi; Ishihara, Shyunji; Richardo, Timmy; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Yoshiyama, Hironori

    2015-10-28

    Microbiota in human alimentary tract plays important roles for homeostatic maintenance of the body. Compositional difference of gut microbiota is tightly associated with susceptibility of many diseases, including inflammatory diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and atherosclerosis. "Dysbiosis" refers to a state of imbalance among the colonies of microorganisms within the body, which brings abnormal increase of specific minor components and decrease in the normally dominant species. Since stomach secrets strong acid for its digestive role, this organ has long been thought a sterile organ. However, the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has changed the concept. This bacterium has proven to cause gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. However, recent cross-sectional studies revealed that H. pylori carriers had a decreased risk of developing immunological diseases, such as asthma. H. pylori coinfection also suppresses inflammatory bowel diseases. This review describes human gastric microbiota by discussing its mutual interaction and pathogenic enrollment. Gastric "dysbiosis" may affect host inflammatory response and play important role for gastric pathogenesis. We will topically discuss enrollment of dysbiosis for genesis of gastric cancer as well as for disruption of immunological homeostasis affecting oncogenic resistance. PMID:26523109

  9. Dysbiotic infection in the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Iizasa, Hisashi; Ishihara, Shyunji; Richardo, Timmy; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Yoshiyama, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Microbiota in human alimentary tract plays important roles for homeostatic maintenance of the body. Compositional difference of gut microbiota is tightly associated with susceptibility of many diseases, including inflammatory diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and atherosclerosis. “Dysbiosis” refers to a state of imbalance among the colonies of microorganisms within the body, which brings abnormal increase of specific minor components and decrease in the normally dominant species. Since stomach secrets strong acid for its digestive role, this organ has long been thought a sterile organ. However, the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has changed the concept. This bacterium has proven to cause gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. However, recent cross-sectional studies revealed that H. pylori carriers had a decreased risk of developing immunological diseases, such as asthma. H. pylori coinfection also suppresses inflammatory bowel diseases. This review describes human gastric microbiota by discussing its mutual interaction and pathogenic enrollment. Gastric “dysbiosis” may affect host inflammatory response and play important role for gastric pathogenesis. We will topically discuss enrollment of dysbiosis for genesis of gastric cancer as well as for disruption of immunological homeostasis affecting oncogenic resistance. PMID:26523109

  10. Ultra-Deep Sequencing Reveals the microRNA Expression Pattern of the Human Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea; Khayat, André S.; Silva, Artur; Alencar, Dayse O.; Lobato, Jessé; Luz, Larissa; Pinheiro, Daniel G.; Varuzza, Leonardo; Assumpção, Monica; Assumpção, Paulo; Santos, Sidney; Zanette, Dalila L.; Silva, Wilson A.; Burbano, Rommel; Darnet, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Background While microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in tissue differentiation and in maintaining basal physiology, little is known about the miRNA expression levels in stomach tissue. Alterations in the miRNA profile can lead to cell deregulation, which can induce neoplasia. Methodology/Principal Findings A small RNA library of stomach tissue was sequenced using high-throughput SOLiD sequencing technology. We obtained 261,274 quality reads with perfect matches to the human miRnome, and 42% of known miRNAs were identified. Digital Gene Expression profiling (DGE) was performed based on read abundance and showed that fifteen miRNAs were highly expressed in gastric tissue. Subsequently, the expression of these miRNAs was validated in 10 healthy individuals by RT-PCR showed a significant correlation of 83.97% (P<0.05). Six miRNAs showed a low variable pattern of expression (miR-29b, miR-29c, miR-19b, miR-31, miR-148a, miR-451) and could be considered part of the expression pattern of the healthy gastric tissue. Conclusions/Significance This study aimed to validate normal miRNA profiles of human gastric tissue to establish a reference profile for healthy individuals. Determining the regulatory processes acting in the stomach will be important in the fight against gastric cancer, which is the second-leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. PMID:20949028

  11. Gelatin capsule in stomach (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... detect the presence of intestinal parasites. A weighted gelatin capsule attached to a string is swallowed and left in place. After about 4 hours, the gelatin capsule is pulled out of the stomach by ...

  12. Enhanced expression of cytochrome P450 in stomach cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, G. I.; Taylor, M. C.; Burke, M. D.; Melvin, W. T.

    1998-01-01

    The cytochromes P450 have a central role in the oxidative activation and detoxification of a wide range of xenobiotics, including many carcinogens and several anti-cancer drugs. Thus the cytochrome P450 enzyme system has important roles in both tumour development and influencing the response of tumours to chemotherapy. Stomach cancer is one of the commonest tumours of the alimentary tract and environmental factors, including dietary factors, have been implicated in the development of this tumour. This type of tumour has a poor prognosis and responds poorly to current therapies. In this study, the presence and cellular localization of several major forms of P450, CYP1A, CYP2E1 and CYP3A have been investigated in stomach cancer and compared with their expression in normal stomach. There was enhanced expression of CYP1A and CYP3A in stomach cancer with CYP1A present in 51% and CYP3A present in 28% of cases. In contrast, no P450 was identified in normal stomach. The presence of CYP1A and CYP3A in stomach cancer provides further evidence for the enhanced expression of specific forms of cytochrome P450 in tumours and may be important therapeutically for the development of anti-cancer drugs that are activated by these forms of P450. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9569036

  13. Impact of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction on glucose regulation in healthy, normal weight middle-aged men and women.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An unresolved issue in the field of diet and health is if and how changes in meal frequency affect energy metabolism in humans. We therefore evaluated the influence of reduced meal frequency without a reduction in energy intake on glucose metabolism in normal weight healthy male and female subjects...

  14. Risk of Developing Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Metabolically Unhealthy Normal-Weight and Metabolically Healthy Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Aung, KoKo; Hinojosa, Marco A.; Haffner, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) associated with obesity appears to be influenced by the coexistence of other metabolic abnormalities. Objective: We examined the risk of developing CVD and DM in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUH-NW) individuals. Design and Setting: We analyzed prospective data of the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based study among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites (median follow-up, 7.4 y). Participants: Incident DM and CVD were assessed in 2814 and 3700 participants aged 25 to 64 years, respectively. Main Measures: MHO was defined as obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) with no more than one metabolic abnormality, and MUH-NW was defined as body mass index <25 kg/m2 with two or more abnormalities. Results: In logistic regression models, BMI was associated with incident DM after controlling for demographics, family history of DM, and fasting glucose (odds ratio × 1 SD, 1.7 [95% CI, 1.5–2.0]). Both MUH-NW and MHO individuals had an increased DM risk (2.5 [1.1–5.6] and 3.9 [2.0–7.4], respectively). Similarly, BMI was related to incident CVD after adjusting for demographics and Framingham risk score (1.3 [1.1–1.6]). Incident CVD was also increased in MUH-NW and MHO individuals (2.9 [1.3–6.4] and 3.9 [1.9–7.8], respectively). Results were consistent across gender and ethnic categories. Conclusion: The risk of developing DM and CVD is increased in MUH-NW and MHO individuals. Screening for obesity and other metabolic abnormalities should be routinely performed in clinical practice to institute appropriate preventive measures. PMID:24257907

  15. The stomach-brain axis.

    PubMed

    Holtmann, Gerald; Talley, Nicholas J

    2014-12-01

    The stomach has distinct functions in relation to the ingestion and handling of solids and liquids. These functions include storage of the food before it is gradually emptied into the duodenum, mechanical crushing of larger food particles to increase the surface area, secretion of an acidic enzyme rich gastric juice and mixing the ingested food with the gastric juice. In addition, the stomach 'senses' the composition of the gastric content and this information is passed via the vagal nerve to the lateral hypothalamus and the limbic system, most likely as palatability signals that influence eating behaviour. Other sensory qualities related to the stimulation of gastric tension receptors are satiety and fullness. Receptors that respond to macronutrient content or gastric wall tension influence appetite and meal related hormone responses. The ingestion of food - in contrast to an infusion of nutrients into the stomach - has distinct effects on the activation of specific brain regions. Brain areas such as thalamus, amygdala, putamen and praecuneus are activated by the ingestion of food. Gastric nutrient infusion evokes greater activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate. The brain integrates these interrelated neural and hormonal signals arising from the stomach as well as visual, olfactory and anticipatory stimuli that ultimately influence eating and other behavioural patterns. Furthermore, there is now good evidence from experimental studies that gastric afferents influence mood, and animal studies point towards the possibility that gastric dysfunction may be a risk factor for mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. The stomach is also not only colonised by Helicobacter pylori but a large array of bacteria. While there is sufficient evidence to suggest that H. pylori may alter caloric intake and mood, the role of other gastric microbiome for the brain function is unknown. To address this appropriate targeted gastric microbiome studies would be

  16. Advanced carcinoma of the stomach treated with definitive proton therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, S.; Kawanishi, N.; Fukutomi, H.; Osuga, T.; Iijima, T.; Tsujii, H.; Kitagawa, T. )

    1990-04-01

    We report the case of a 72-yr-old man who suffered from severe chronic emphysema with poor pulmonary function, and who had advanced cancer of the stomach. Proton beam radiotherapy was applied to the lesion, since surgery was contraindicated. The total dose to the stomach lesion was 61 Gy in 7 wk. The tumor on the stomach regressed, with flattening of the round wall of the lesion. The reactive changes of the proton beam radiotherapy, based on the histopathological examination, revealed extensive tumor necrosis and sparing of vital architecture of normal tissue around the irradiated tumor tissue. Only small clusters of vital or devitalized tumor cells with less than approximately 5% of the whole tumor tissue remained after treatment. We suggest that a high dose of radiation delivered by well-defined proton field could result in an improved therapeutic outcome without undue risk of injury to normal tissue.

  17. [Regulation factors of stomach emptying in dogs].

    PubMed

    Krejs, G J; Hegglin, J; Säuberli, H; Largiadér, F; Schmid, P; Blum, A L

    1976-03-01

    Gastric emptying of organic acids was studied in 6 healthy mongrel dogs. After chronic esophagostomies were performed according to the method of Komarov, a total of 340 test meals were instilled. Each test meal consisted of 300 ml of 6 different organic acids with decreasing molecular weight and different concentrations. After the experiments were achieved, each dog underwent a proximal gastric vagotomy according to the method of Amdrup, and experiments with citric acid were repeated. The results may be summarized as follows: multiple stepwise regression analysis of the data is consistent with a model in which gastric emptying of organic acids is regulated by 3 receptors. The receptors respond to concentration of the organic acid, the actual volume, and the type of acid. The volume receptor is located in the corpus of the stomach because the effect of volume accelerates the emptying rate after proximal gastric vagotomy while the effects of concentration and type of acid remain unchanged. PMID:1270294

  18. Functional disorders of the stomach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, K. L.; Stern, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Gastroenterologists frequently encounter patients who report vague epigastric discomforts or sensations of fullness, bloating, and distention in the upper abdomen. The discomfort is neither burning in character nor severe in intensity; there is no nocturnal pain. The epigastric location of discomfort and lack of radiation may help to exclude biliary tract and pancreatic diseases. Nausea may be present, but there is little or no vomiting. After these patients ingest liquids or solid foods, the symptoms of easy filling or early satiety and increasing discomfort and nausea are almost always present. The patient may only report "indigestion," but a specific chief complaint, such as pain, discomfort, nausea, or bloating may be elicited with further inquiries. Solid foods usually provoke more symptoms than do liquids. Symptoms of early satiety, nausea, bloating, and abdominal discomfort may culminate in the vomiting of undigested food. These vague upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms have been termed "dyspepsia." When peptic diseases of the stomach are excluded, the symptom complex has been called "nonulcer" dyspepsia, a vague syndrome with symptoms attributed to stomach dysfunction. Nonulcer dyspepsia has been reviewed recently. Such symptoms, commonly attributed to a "functional" disorder, are very common in clinical practice, with an incidence of 30% of patients. In this review, we will discuss an approach to the evaluation and treatment of patients with symptoms of nausea, early satiety, bloating, and vague epigastric discomfort--dyspeptic symptoms associated with functional stomach disorders. We will review the anatomy and motility of the stomach and suggest potential neuromuscular malfunctions of the stomach that may result in epigastric symptoms. The potential role of stress and other brain-gut interactions, which may underlie these symptoms, will also be reviewed.

  19. The influence of high-normal testosterone levels on risk-taking in healthy males in a 1-week letrozole administration study.

    PubMed

    Goudriaan, Anna E; Lapauw, Bruno; Ruige, Johannes; Feyen, Els; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Brand, Matthias; Vingerhoets, Guy

    2010-10-01

    Human studies on the relation between testosterone levels and risk-taking behaviour are scarce. Related functions, like aggression, have been related to higher testosterone levels more consistently, especially in the animal literature. Estradiol affects several neurotransmitter systems that play a role in behaviour regulation. Existing human studies on neurocognitive functions and testosterone levels have largely ignored the interrelatedness of testosterone levels and estradiol levels. Therefore, in this study, the effects of a 1-week combined testosterone and estradiol intervention on risk-taking behaviours were investigated. Twenty-one healthy men, with a normal body mass index, were treated for 7 days with an aromatase inhibitor (letrozole 2.5 mg), resulting in high-normal levels of testosterone and low-normal levels of estradiol, or with a combination of an aromatase inhibitor and estradiol (75 μg/24 h), resulting in low-normal levels of testosterone and high-normal levels of estradiol. A randomized experimenter and participant-blind controlled design was applied. Neurocognitive measures of risk-taking and reward and punishment sensitivity were assessed before starting with the medication and after 7 days of drug administration: Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), Game of Dice Task (GDT), and Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). A group by time effect was present for the BART, indicating that the high-normal testosterone group showed an increase in risk-taking on the BART, from the first drug-naive BART performance, to the second BART performance (aromatase inhibitor), whereas such an increase was not present in the low-normal testosterone/high estradiol group. No group by time interactions were present in GDT or IGT performance. These results implicate that testosterone levels in healthy men are associated with increased risk-taking under conditions of unknown probabilities, but not in conditions of known probabilities (GDT) or of strategic decision making (IGT). PMID

  20. Gradual reintroduction of oxygen reduces reperfusion injury in cat stomach

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, M.A.; Wadhwa, S.S. )

    1988-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that oxygen-derived free radicals are responsible for a major portion of ischemia-reperfusion injury in the stomach. The oxygen radicals are produced during perfusion when oxygen delivery to the tissue increases. In the present study the authors investigate the effect on mucosal injury of regulating the rate of reintroduction of oxygen to the stomach after ischemia. Local gastric ischemia was achieved by reducing celiac artery pressure to 30 mmHg for 1 h. Ischemic injury was assessed by measuring the loss of {sup 51}Cr-labeled red blood cells across the gastric mucosa. Mucosal blood loss was negligible before and during the ischemia period but increased during reperfusion. When blood flow to the stomach was gradually returned to normal after ischemia, the mucosal blood loss was reduced. If the stomach was vascularly perfused with low Po{sub 2} blood for 1 h after ischemia before being returned to normal arterial perfusion, the mucosal blood loss was also reduced. When the stomach was made hypoxemic for 1 h rather than ischemic by perfusing the vasculature with low Po{sub 2} blood then reperfused with normoxic blood, there was very little mucosal bleeding. The data indicate that gastric mucosal bleeding after ischemia is reduced if the tissue is returned slowly to a normal Po{sub 2}. These findings support the concept that reperfusion injury is due largely to the production of oxygen radicals. The low level of injury produced by hypoxemia indicates that hypoxia per se makes only a minor contribution to reperfusion injury in the stomach.

  1. Comparative bioequivalence study of a new levothyroxine solution versus a reference L-thyroxine solution in normal healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chassard, D; Kerihuel, J C; Caplain, H; Tran Quang, N; Thebault, J J

    1991-01-01

    A bioequivalence study between a new Levothyroxine solution and a reference solution was performed in 12 healthy volunteers after one single 3000 g oral administration. Administrations were done according to a cross-over schedule with a three week wash-out period. Plasma profile of Levothyroxine was determined for 72 hours, clinical tolerance being appreciated for 10 days after each administration. No statistical difference was reported for pharmacokinetic parameters and clinical tolerance was good. PMID:1820903

  2. Stomach Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Stomach Disorders URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Stomach Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  3. High intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, affects serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol in healthy, normal-weight adults: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Ingrid V; Helland, Anita; Bratlie, Marianne; Brokstad, Karl A; Rosenlund, Grethe; Sveier, Harald; Mellgren, Gunnar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether high intake of lean or fatty fish (cod and farmed salmon, respectively) by healthy, normal-weight adults would affect risk factors of type 2 diabetes and CVD when compared with lean meat (chicken). More knowledge is needed concerning the potential health effects of high fish intake (>300 g/week) in normal-weight adults. In this randomised clinical trial, thirty-eight young, healthy, normal-weight participants consumed 750 g/week of lean or fatty fish or lean meat (as control) for 4 weeks at dinner according to provided recipes to ensure similar ways of preparations and choices of side dishes between the groups. Energy and macronutrient intakes at baseline and end point were similar in all groups, and there were no changes in energy and macronutrient intakes within any of the groups during the course of the study. High intake of fatty fish, but not lean fish, significantly reduced TAG and increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations in fasting serum when compared with lean meat intake. When compared with lean fish intake, fatty fish intake increased serum HDL-cholesterol. No differences were observed between lean fish, fatty fish and lean meat groups regarding fasting and postprandial glucose regulation. These findings suggest that high intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, could beneficially affect serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol, which are CVD risk factors, in healthy, normal-weight adults, when compared with high intake of lean meat. PMID:27363518

  4. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  5. Glomus tumour of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Troller, Rebekka; Soll, Christopher; Breitenstein, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Glomus tumours are benign tumours typically arising from the glomus bodies and primarily found under the fingernails or toenails. These rare neoplasms account for <2% of all soft tissue tumours and are generally not found in the gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of a 40-year-old man presenting with recurrent epigastric pain and pyrosis. Endoscopy revealed a solitary tumour in the antrum of the stomach. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was suspicious for a gastrointestinal stroma tumour. After CT indicated the resectability of the tumour, showing neither lymphatic nor distant metastases, a laparoscopic-assisted gastric wedge resection was performed. Surprisingly, histology revealed a glomus tumour of the stomach. PMID:27343282

  6. Acute exercise increases feeding latency in healthy normal weight young males but does not alter energy intake.

    PubMed

    King, James A; Wasse, Lucy K; Stensel, David J

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the acute influence of exercise on eating behaviour in an ecologically valid setting whereby healthy active males were permitted complete ad libitum access to food. Ten healthy males completed two, 8h trials (exercise and control) in a randomised-crossover design. In the exercise trials participants consumed a breakfast snack and then rested for 1h before undertaking a 60 min run (72% of VO(2)max) on a treadmill. Participants then rested in the laboratory for 6h during which time they were permitted complete ad libitum access to a buffet meal. The timing of meals, energy/macronutrient intake and eating frequency were assessed. Identical procedures were completed in the control trial except no exercise was performed. Exercise increased the length of time (35 min) before participants voluntarily requested to eat afterwards. Despite this, energy intake at the first meal consumed, or at subsequent eating episodes, was not influenced by exercise (total trial energy intake: control 7426 kJ, exercise 7418 kJ). Neither was there any difference in macronutrient intake or meal frequency between trials. These results confirm that food intake remains unaffected by exercise in the immediate hours after but suggest that exercise may invoke a delay before food is desired. PMID:23137828

  7. Normal values and reproducibility of the real-time index of vagal tone in healthy humans: a multi-center study

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Adam D.; Coen, Steven J.; Kano, Michiko; Weltens, Nathalie; Ly, Huynh Giao; Botha, Claude; Paine, Peter A.; Oudenhove, Lukas Van; Aziz, Qasim

    2014-01-01

    Background The parasympathetic nervous system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of gastrointestinal disorders including irritable bowel syndrome. Within the field, cardiometric parameters of parasympathetic/vagal tone are most commonly derived from time, or frequency, domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), yet it has limited temporal resolution. Cardiac vagal tone (CVT) is a non-invasive beat-to-beat measure of brainstem efferent vagal activity that overcomes many of the temporal limitations of HRV parameters. However, its normal values and reproducibility in healthy subjects are not fully described. The aim of this study was to address these knowledge gaps. Methods 200 healthy subjects (106 males, median age 28 years, range 18-59 years) were evaluated across three study centers. After attachment of CVT recording equipment, 20 min of data (resting/no stimulation) was acquired. 30 subjects, selected at random, were restudied after 1 year. Results The mean CVT was 9.5±4.16 linear vagal scale (LVS). Thus, the normal range (mean±2 standard deviations) for CVT based on this data was 1.9-17.8 LVS. CVT correlated negatively with heart rate (r=-0.6, P=0.001). CVT reproducibility over 1 year, as indexed by an intra-class correlational coefficient of 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.64-0.91), was good. Conclusions In healthy subjects, the normal range for CVT should be considered to be 1.9-17.8 LVS and is reproducible over 1 year. Future research utilizing CVT should refer to these values although further study is warranted in patient groups. PMID:25330916

  8. The relationship between physical activity level and cardiovascular disease biomarkers in healthy, normal-weight 3- to 6-year-old children and their parents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Carol; Cantell, Marja; Crawford, Susan; Dewey, Deborah; Pacaud, Danièle

    2016-08-01

    To determine if physical activity is linked to cardiovascular biomarkers in preschool children at risk, we need information on these biomarkers in healthy normal-weight children. In this population, multi-level modelling analyses found no correlation between accelerometer recorded physical activity and fasting lipids, adiponectin, or insulin sensitivity. Exploratory analyses found positive correlations between adiponectin and time spent in light physical activity, and between triglyceride and time spent in sedentary behaviour; these findings need to be confirmed in longitudinal prospective studies. PMID:27458687

  9. Stomach

    MedlinePlus

    ... Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Review Quiz Endocrine System Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & ... Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other Endocrine Glands ... Cardiovascular System Heart Structure of the Heart Physiology of the ...

  10. Normal Laboratory Reference Intervals among Healthy Adults Screened for a HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Clinical Trial in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Segolodi, Tebogo M.; Henderson, Faith L.; Rose, Charles E.; Turner, Kyle T.; Zeh, Clement; Fonjungo, Peter N.; Niska, Richard; Hart, Clyde; Paxton, Lynn A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Accurate clinical laboratory reference values derived from a local or regional population base are required to correctly interpret laboratory results. In Botswana, most reference intervals used to date are not standardized across clinical laboratories and are based on values derived from populations in the United States or Western Europe. Methods We measured 14 hematologic and biochemical parameters of healthy young adults screened for participation in the Botswana HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Study using tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) (TDF2 Study). Reference intervals were calculated using standard methods, stratified by gender, and compared with the site-derived reference values used for the TDF2 study (BOTUSA ranges), the Division of AIDS (DAIDS) Grading Table for Adverse Events, the Botswana public health laboratories, and other regional references. Results Out of 2533 screened participants, 1786 met eligibility criteria for participation in study and were included in the analysis. Our reference values were comparable to those of the Botswana public health system except for amylase, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), phosphate, total and direct bilirubin. Compared to our reference values, BOTUSA reference ranges would have classified participants as out of range for some analytes, with amylase (50.8%) and creatinine (32.0%) producing the highest out of range values. Applying the DAIDS toxicity grading system to the values would have resulted in 45 and 18 participants as having severe or life threatening values for amylase and hemoglobin, respectively. Conclusion Our reference values illustrate the differences in hematological and biochemical analyte ranges between African and Western populations. Thus, the use of western-derived reference laboratory values to screen a group of Batswana adults resulted in many healthy people being classified as having out-of-range blood analytes. The need to establish accurate local or regional

  11. Large D-Dimer Fluctuation in Normal Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Cohort Study of 4,117 Samples from 714 Healthy Danish Women

    PubMed Central

    Hedengran, Katrine K.; Andersen, Malene R.; Stender, Steen; Szecsi, Pal B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. D-dimer levels increase throughout pregnancy, hampering the usefulness of the conventional threshold for dismissing thromboembolism. This study investigates the biological fluctuation of D-dimer in normal pregnancy. Methods. A total of 801 healthy women with expected normal pregnancies were recruited. D-dimer was repeatedly measured during pregnancy, at active labor, and on the first and second postpartum days. Percentiles for each gestational week were calculated. Each individual D-dimer was normalized by transformation into percentiles for the relevant gestational age or delivery group. The range in percentage points during the pregnancy and the delivery was calculated, and reference intervals were calculated for each pregnancy trimester, during vaginal delivery and scheduled and emergency cesarean section, and for the first and second day postpartum. Results. D-dimer increased during pregnancy; the maximal fluctuation was approximately 20 percentile points in approximately half of the women. In one out of ten women, the D-dimer values fluctuated by more than 50 percentile points. Conclusions. Due to the biological variation in D-dimer within each individual woman during normal pregnancy, repeated D-dimer measurements are of no clinical use in the evaluation of thromboembolic events during pregnancy. PMID:27190521

  12. Intrinsic Brain Activity of Cognitively Normal Older Persons Resembles More That of Patients Both with and at Risk for Alzheimer's Disease Than That of Healthy Younger Persons

    PubMed Central

    Pasquini, Lorenzo; Tonch, Annika; Plant, Claudia; Zherdin, Andrew; Ortner, Marion; Kurz, Alexander; Förstl, Hans; Zimmer, Claus; Grimmer, Timo; Wohlschäger, Afra; Riedl, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Alzheimer's disease (AD), recent findings suggest that amyloid-β (Aβ)-pathology might start 20–30 years before first cognitive symptoms arise. To account for age as most relevant risk factor for sporadic AD, it has been hypothesized that lifespan intrinsic (i.e., ongoing) activity of hetero-modal brain areas with highest levels of functional connectivity triggers Aβ-pathology. This model induces the simple question whether in older persons without any cognitive symptoms intrinsic activity of hetero-modal areas is more similar to that of symptomatic patients with AD or to that of younger healthy persons. We hypothesize that due to advanced age and therefore potential impact of pre-clinical AD, intrinsic activity of older persons resembles more that of patients than that of younger controls. We tested this hypothesis in younger (ca. 25 years) and older healthy persons (ca. 70 years) and patients with mild cognitive impairment and AD-dementia (ca. 70 years) by the use of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, distinct measures of intrinsic brain activity, and different hierarchical clustering approaches. Independently of applied methods and involved areas, healthy older persons' intrinsic brain activity was consistently more alike that of patients than that of younger controls. Our result provides evidence for larger similarity in intrinsic brain activity between healthy older persons and patients with or at-risk for AD than between older and younger ones, suggesting a significant proportion of pre-clinical AD cases in the group of cognitively normal older people. The observed link of aging and AD with intrinsic brain activity supports the view that lifespan intrinsic activity may contribute critically to the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:24689864

  13. Effects of Indoor Horseback Riding and Virtual Reality Exercises on the Dynamic Balance Ability of Normal Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jungseo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effect of indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises on the dynamic balance ability of normal adults. [Subjects] This study enrolled 24 normal adults and divided them into two groups: an indoor horseback riding exercise group (IHREG, n = 12) and a virtual reality exercise group (VREG, n = 12). [Methods] IHREG exercised on indoor horseback riding equipment and VREG exercised using the Nintendo Wii Fit three times a week for six weeks. The Biodex Balance System was used to analyze dynamic balance as measured by the overall stability index (OSI), anteroposterior stability index (APSI), and mediolateral stability index (MLSI). [Results] In the within-group comparison, IHREG and VERG both showed significant decreases in the dynamic balance indexes of OSI, APSI, and MLSI after the intervention, but no significant difference was found between the groups. [Conclusion] Both indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises were effective at improving the subjects’ dynamic balance ability as measured by OSI, APSI, and MLSI, and can be used as additional exercises for patients with conditions affecting postural control. PMID:25540494

  14. Effects of indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises on the dynamic balance ability of normal healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jungseo

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effect of indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises on the dynamic balance ability of normal adults. [Subjects] This study enrolled 24 normal adults and divided them into two groups: an indoor horseback riding exercise group (IHREG, n = 12) and a virtual reality exercise group (VREG, n = 12). [Methods] IHREG exercised on indoor horseback riding equipment and VREG exercised using the Nintendo Wii Fit three times a week for six weeks. The Biodex Balance System was used to analyze dynamic balance as measured by the overall stability index (OSI), anteroposterior stability index (APSI), and mediolateral stability index (MLSI). [Results] In the within-group comparison, IHREG and VERG both showed significant decreases in the dynamic balance indexes of OSI, APSI, and MLSI after the intervention, but no significant difference was found between the groups. [Conclusion] Both indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises were effective at improving the subjects' dynamic balance ability as measured by OSI, APSI, and MLSI, and can be used as additional exercises for patients with conditions affecting postural control. PMID:25540494

  15. Pulsatile intravenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone administration averts fasting-induced hypogonadotropism and hypoandrogenemia in healthy, normal weight men.

    PubMed

    Aloi, J A; Bergendahl, M; Iranmanesh, A; Veldhuis, J D

    1997-05-01

    Fasting or severe caloric restriction in the human or experimental animal suppresses serum LH and sex steroid concentrations. In healthy men undergoing prolonged (5-day) nutrient deprivation, the daily LH secretion rate, the mass of LH secreted per burst, and the serum testosterone concentration fall markedly, with no decrease in responsiveness to a single bolus of GnRH. Here we test the hypothesis that the hypogonadotropic hypoandrogenemia accompanying fasting reflects decreased endogenous GnRH release. To this end, six healthy young men were studied on a fed day and during two 83-h fasting sessions with concurrent saline or pulsatile GnRH administration (100 ng/kg, i.v., every 90 min for 24 h) followed by a single bolus of 10 microg GnRH, i.v., to evaluate pituitary responsiveness. We employed a highly sensitive LH immunoradiometric assay, which correlates well with an in vitro Leydig cell bioassay, and deconvolution analysis to calculate in vivo LH secretory burst frequency, amplitude, duration, mass, and LH half-life. Fasting resulted in 30-50% declines in serum total and free testosterone and LH concentrations, and a 3-fold decrease in the calculated 24-h LH secretion rate (fed, 42 +/- 12; fasting, 14 +/- 1.9 U/L distribution volume x day; mean +/- SEM; P < 0.05, by ANOVA). Reduced LH secretion was accounted for by dual mechanisms, viz. a fall in both the apparent number of computer-resolved LH secretory bursts per 24 h (fed, 16 +/- 1.1; fasting, 10 +/- 1.2; P < 0.01) and the mass of LH secreted per burst (fed, 2.5 +/- 0.5; fasting, 1.5 +/- 0.1 U/L; P < 0.05). Fasting also decreased the mean value of the 24-h (nyctohemeral) rhythm in serum LH concentrations and reduced the approximate entropy (disorderliness) of LH release. Exogenous pulsatile GnRH injections prevented both the reduction in the calculated daily LH secretion rate (fed, 42 +/- 12; fasting plus GnRH, 64 +/- 16 IU/L; P = NS) and the decline in serum testosterone concentrations (fed, 556 +/- 71 ng

  16. Supplemental growth hormone increases the tumor cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells in healthy adults with normal growth hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Crist, D M; Kraner, J C

    1990-12-01

    Using double-blind, placebo-controlled procedures, the effects of methionyl-human growth hormone (met-hGH) on the tumor cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells were studied in seven healthy adults using a repeated measures experiment. Subjects were assigned at random to either a placebo (bacteriostatic water) treatment condition or a met-hGH (16.0 mg/wk of Protropin) treatment condition, then crossed-over to the alternative treatment. Treatments were delivered on alternate days (3 d/wk) for 6 weeks. Without bias from the met-hGH treatment, there was no evidence for GH hyposecretion as measured by the peak circulating GH response to exercise stimulation (14.1 +/- 3.1 ng/mL) or insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) levels (0.82 +/- 0.09 U/mL). When compared with placebo, met-hGH induced a significant overall increase in the percent specific lysis (%SL) of K562 tumor target cells (placebo 22.2 +/- 1.7 v met-hGH 28.5 +/- 2.1 %SL; P = .008). NK activity was increased within the first week of treatment and this level was maintained throughout the remaining period of supplementation. There was a trend (P = .057) for the met-hGH-induced percent change in NK activity (NK%) to be inversely related to placebo IGF-I levels (r = -.761), while there were significant positive correlations between NK% and the met-hGH-induced percent changes in IGF-I (r = .727; P = .035), the fat-free mass (FFM)/fat mass (FM) ratio derived by hydrodensitometry (r = .792; P = .012), and the endogenous GH response to exercise (r = .469; P = .034).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2246974

  17. Urinary insulin-like growth factor-II excretion in healthy infants and children with normal and abnormal growth.

    PubMed

    Quattrin, T; Albini, C H; Sportsman, C; Shine, B J; MacGillivray, M H

    1993-10-01

    The output of urinary IGF-II was measured by RIA in 12-h overnight urine samples obtained from 22 preterm and 15 full-term infants, 40 normal children, 18 children with growth hormone (GH) deficiency, and 25 patients with idiopathic short stature. GH deficiency was defined as a peak to GH provocative tests < or = 9.9 micrograms/L during two provocative tests. The authenticity of urinary IGF-II was confirmed by size exclusion chromatography. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance using the Student Neuman-Keuls test to detect intergroup differences at the level of p < 0.05. The preterm and full-term infants excreted significantly higher amounts of urinary IGF-II (18.4 +/- 1.7 and 5.7 +/- 1.0 pmol/kg, respectively) compared with normal children (2.4 +/- 0.25 pmol/kg; p < 0.001). The output of urinary IGF-II in preterm infants was greater than that observed in full-term infants (F = 84.7, p < 0.001). The control children excreted significantly more IGF-II (2.4 +/- 0.2 pmol/kg) than children with GH deficiency (0.9 +/- 0.1 pmol/kg) or idiopathic short stature (1.0 +/- 0.1 pmol/kg; F = 13.5; p < 0.001). Analysis of urinary IGF-II excretion based on creatinine output yielded similar results. Data on urinary IGF-I and GH previously published were correlated and compared with the excretion pattern of urinary IGF-II.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8255673

  18. Ultrasound of the stomach--the EUROSON lecture 2006.

    PubMed

    Gilja, O H

    2007-02-01

    The stomach is a fascinating organ. It has the capacity to expand its volume substantially to receive and accommodate food after a meal, normally without any conscious notice of the expansion. The aim of this paper is to show how transabdominal ultrasonography can disclose the structural and functional abnormalities of the stomach. Ultrasound of the stomach was initially performed to detect and investigate organic diseases of the gastric wall. Subsequently, different methods were developed to study functional aspects of gastric pathology. Ultrasound can be used to evaluate antral contractility, gastric emptying, transpyloric flow, gastric configuration, intragastric distribution of meals, gastric accommodation and strain measurement of the gastric wall. Advanced methods for 3D ultrasound imaging and tissue Doppler (Strain Rate Imaging) have also been developed to study diseases of the stomach. The Ultrasound Meal Accommodation Test (U-MAT) can be applied to characterise patients with organic and non-organic dyspepsia. Ultrasonography still has a great potential as a clinical method, and some day our patients may receive both diagnosis and treatment in the same session. PMID:17304411

  19. Tissue-specific patterns of gene expression in the epithelium and stroma of normal colon in healthy individuals in an aspirin intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sushma S; Makar, Karen W; Li, Lin; Zheng, Yingye; Yang, Peiying; Levy, Lisa; Rudolph, Rebecca Y; Lampe, Paul D; Yan, Min; Markowitz, Sanford D; Bigler, Jeannette; Lampe, Johanna W; Potter, John D

    2015-12-01

    Regular aspirin use reduces colon adenoma and carcinoma incidence. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) are involved in aspirin metabolism and clearance, and variant alleles in UGT1A6 have been shown to alter salicylic acid metabolism and risk of colon neoplasia. In a randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial of 44 healthy men and women, homozygous for UGT1A6*1 or UGT1A6*2, we explored differences between global epithelial and stromal expression, using Affymetrix U133 + 2.0 microarrays and tested effects of 60-day aspirin supplementation (325 mg/d) on epithelial and stromal gene expression and colon prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. We conducted a comprehensive study of differential gene expression between normal human colonic epithelium and stroma from healthy individuals. Although no statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed in response to aspirin or UGT1A6 genotype, we have identified the genes uniquely and reproducibly expressed in each tissue type and have analyzed the biologic processes they represent. Here we describe in detail how the data, deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) - accession number GSE71571 - was generated including the basic analysis as contained in the manuscript published in BMC Medical Genetics with the PMID 25927723 (Thomas et al., 2015 [9]). PMID:26697360

  20. Age- and Gender Dependent Liver Fat Content in a Healthy Normal BMI Population as Quantified by Fat-Water Separating DIXON MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ulbrich, Erika J.; Fischer, Michael A.; Manoliu, Andrei; Marcon, Magda; Luechinger, Roger; Nanz, Daniel; Reiner, Caecilia S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To establish age- and sex-dependent values of magnetic resonance (MR) liver fat-signal fraction (FSF) in healthy volunteers with normal body-mass index (BMI). Methods 2-point mDIXON sequences (repetition time/echo time, 4.2msec/1.2msec, 3.1msec) at 3.0 Tesla MR were acquired in 80 healthy volunteers with normal BMI (18.2 to 25.7 kg/m2) between 20 and 62 years (10 men/10 women per decade). FSF was measured in 5 liver segments (segment II, III, VI, VII, VIII) based on mean signal intensities in regions of interest placed on mDIXON-based water and fat images. Multivariate general linear models were used to test for significant differences between BMI-corrected FSF among age subgroups. Pearson and Spearman correlations between FSF and several body measures were calculated. Results Mean FSF (%) ± standard deviations significantly differed between women (3.91 ± 1.10) and men (4.69 ± 1.38) and varied with age for women/men (p-value: 0.002/0.027): 3.05 ± 0.49/3.74 ± 0.60 (age group 20–29), 3.75 ± 0.66/4.99 ± 1.30 (30–39), 4.76 ± 1.16/5.25 ± 1.97 (40–49) and 4.09 ± 1.26/4.79 ± 0.93 (50–62). FSF differences among age subgroups were significant for women only (p = 0.003). Conclusions MR-based liver fat content is higher in men and peaks in the fifth decade for both genders. PMID:26554709

  1. Relationship of Physical Activity and Healthy Eating with Mortality and Incident Heart Failure among Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Normal Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmawgoud, Ahmed; Brown, Cynthia J.; Sui, Xuemei; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Kokkinos, Peter F.; Bittner, Vera; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Fletcher, Ross D.; Blair, Steven N.; Ahmed, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Aims Normal body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower mortality and may be achieved by physical activity (PA), healthy eating (HE), or both. We examined the association of PA and HE with mortality and incident heart failure (HF) among 2040 community-dwelling older adults aged ≥ 65 years with baseline BMI 18.5 to 24.99 kg/m2 during 13 years of follow-up in Cardiovascular Health Study. Methods and results Baseline PA was defined as ≥500 weekly metabolic equivalent task-minutes (MET-minutes) and HE as ≥5 daily servings of vegetable and fruit intake. Participants were categorized into 4 groups: (1) PA−/HE− (n=384); (2) PA+/HE− (n=992); (3) PA−/HE+ (n=162); and (4) PA+/HE+ (n=502). Participants had a mean age of 74 (±6) years, mean BMI of 22.6 (±1.5) kg/m2, 61% were women, and 4% African American. Compared with PA−/HE−, age-sex-race-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause mortality for PA−/HE+, PA+/HE−, and PA+/HE+ groups were 0.96 (0.76–1.21), 0.61 (0.52–0.71) and 0.62 (0.52–0.75), respectively. These associations remained unchanged after multivariable adjustment and were similar for cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortalities. Respective demographic-adjusted HRs (95% Cis) for incident HF among 1954 participants without baseline HF were 1.21 (0.81–1.81), 0.71 (0.54–0.94) and 0.71 (0.51–0.98). These later associations lost significance after multivariable-adjustment. Conclusion Among community-dwelling older adults with normal BMI, physical activity, regardless of healthy eating, was associated with lower risk of mortality and incident HF, but healthy eating had no similar protective association in this cohort.

  2. Spleen Size Is Significantly Influenced by Body Height and Sex: Establishment of Normal Values for Spleen Size at US with a Cohort of 1200 Healthy Individuals.

    PubMed

    Chow, Kai Uwe; Luxembourg, Beate; Seifried, Erhard; Bonig, Halvard

    2016-04-01

    Purpose To define height- and sex-corrected normal values for spleen length and volume determined with ultrasonography (US). Materials and Methods The authors performed a retrospective data review of stem cell donors who had provided written informed consent for stem cell donation and use of anonymized data and biologic materials for scientific and quality control purposes. Spleen length, spleen volume, and anthrophometric data were correlated in 1230 healthy volunteers to identify variables that affect spleen size. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to weight effects of various variables on spleen size. Linear regression through the 95th percentile for men and women of different height cohorts generated the formula for the upper limit of normal for spleen length and volume. For validation, the upper limit of normal was calculated for each volunteer and compared with the observed value. Formulae to calculate the additional percentiles were similarly generated and validated. A cohort of 75 volunteers was analyzed twice to assess the stability of spleen length and volume over time. Results Spleen length and volume were significantly and independently associated with sex (length: P < .001; volume: P = .012), body height (P < .001 for both), and weight (P < .001 for both), with men and taller and heavier individuals having longer and larger spleens. The spleen length of 20 of 324 women (6%) and 234 of 906 men (26%) exceeded the previously reported upper limit of normal of 12 cm. Repeat measurements indicated that spleen length (median difference, 0.10 cm; range, -1.8 to 1.7 cm) and volume (median difference, 3 cm(3); range, -106 to 142 cm(3)) were quite stable. A mobile application that performs these calculations is available for download. Conclusion The authors define height- and sex-corrected normal values for spleen length and volume for women with a body height of 155-179 cm and men with a body height of 165-199 cm and propose validated algorithms

  3. [Problems of functional study of the stomach in contemporary gastrology].

    PubMed

    Gorshkov, V A

    2002-01-01

    In the assessment of the functional state of the stomach the interest to its secretory functioning has remained constant and in the center of attention of physiologists and clinicians during the past century. That is understandable. After all, the level of secretion of gastric juice enriched with the acid and pepsins defines numerous aspects in the functioning of this organ and its peptic, bactericidal and even evacuation functions. Moreover, under certain conditions active gastric juice can turn from a mediator in the normal peptic process into a solely pathogenetic factor and promote the development of a number of so-called acid-dependent diseases that have conventionally included stomach ulcer, reflux-esophagitis, postgastrectomy ulcers of the anastomosis and other more infrequent pathological states. A distinct positive reaction to the application of anti-acid preparations is common for all these diseases. At the same time, the role of HCI in their development remains comprehensible only in some aspects. PMID:12619569

  4. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE): Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Corinna; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Schweitzer, Lisa; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat free mass (FFM) in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18-83 years) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)) and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D₂O)) and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry). High metabolic rate organs (HMR) summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM) in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc) using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels) explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i) decreases in fat free mass; (ii) a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii) decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the REE

  5. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE): Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Corinna; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Schweitzer, Lisa; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat free mass (FFM) in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18–83 years) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)) and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D2O)) and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry). High metabolic rate organs (HMR) summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM) in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc) using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels) explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i) decreases in fat free mass; (ii) a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii) decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the REE

  6. A screening of skin changes, with special emphasis on neurochemical marker antibody evaluation, in patients claiming to suffer from "screen dermatitis" as compared to normal healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Johansson, O; Hilliges, M; Han, S W

    1996-10-01

    In the present study, facial skin from so-called "screen dermatitis" patients were compared with corresponding material from normal healthy volunteers. The aim of the study was to evaluate possible markers to be used for future double-blind or blind provocation investigations. Differences were found for the biological markers calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), somatostatin (SOM), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), peptide histidine isoleucine amide (PHI), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY), protein S-100 (S-100), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT). The overall impression in the blind-coded material was such that it turned out easy to blindly separate the two groups from each other. However, no single marker was 100% able to pin-point the difference, although some were quite powerful in doing so (CGRP, SOM, S-100). However, it has to be pointed out that we cannot, based upon the present results, draw any definitive conclusions about the cause of the changes observed. Whether this is due to electric or magnetic fields, a surrounding airborne chemical, humidity, heating, stress factors, or something else, still remains an open question. Blind or double-blind provocations in a controlled environment are necessary to elucidate possible underlying causes for the changes reported in this investigation. PMID:8981027

  7. Normal values of 24-hour ambulatory esophageal impedance-pH monitoring in a rural South African cohort of healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Ndebia, E J; Sammon, A M; Umapathy, E; Iputo, J E

    2016-05-01

    There are no data on 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring in African populations. The purpose of this study was to provide the normal values of esophageal impedance and pH monitoring in a rural African populations. South African healthy rural participants were recruited and underwent 24 hours of esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. The median and the 95th percentiles of the total reflux episodes were 49 and 97, respectively, of which the corresponding number of acidic, weakly acidic, and weakly alkaline reflux were 15 and 55, 17 and 51, and 8 and 36, respectively. The compositions of the total reflux were 5 and 21 for liquid, 27 and 72 for mixed, and 10 and 39 for gas reflux, respectively. The median bolus clearance was 18 seconds and the median bolus exposure was 14 minutes/24 hours. The proximal extent was 6%. The 95th percent time of esophageal exposure to acid was 8.6 in 24 hours. Female and overweight participants were associated with an increased number of reflux events. There were more reflux episodes, and of which, more were weakly alkaline compared with previous similar studies. The findings provide reference values of gastroesophageal reflux for a South African rural population. PMID:25721534

  8. Do We Know What Causes Stomach Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... into chemicals that cause mutations (changes) in the DNA of the cells in the stomach lining. This ... that can block substances that damage a cell’s DNA. During the past few years, scientists have made ...

  9. Chemo Before Surgery May Help Stomach Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Chemotherapy given before surgery for cancer of the lower esophagus and stomach increased the number of patients surviving for five years compared to surgery alone, according to findings presented at the 2007 ASCO meeting in Chicago.

  10. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for stomach (gastric) cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  11. Study of stomach motility using the relaxation of magnetic tracers.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, A A; Baffa, O; Oliveira, R B

    1999-07-01

    Magnetic tracers can be observed in the interior of the human body to give information about their quantity, position and state of order. With the aim of detecting and studying the degree of disorder of these tracers after they have been previously magnetized inside the stomach, a system composed of magnetization coils and magnetic detectors was developed. Helmholtz coils of diameter 84 cm were used to magnetize the sample and the remanent magnetization (RM) was detected with two first-order gradiometric fluxgate arrays each with a 15 cm base line, sensitivity of 0.5 nT and common mode rejection (CMR) of at least 10. The system allows simultaneous measurement in the anterior and posterior projections of the stomach. Measurements of the time evolution of the RM were performed in vitro and in normal subjects after the ingestion of a test meal labelled with magnetic particles. The data were fitted with an exponential curve and the relaxation time tau was obtained. Initial studies were performed to ascertain the action of a drug that is known to affect the gastric motility, showing that the decay of the remanent magnetization was indeed due to stomach contractions. PMID:10442706

  12. Interstitial cells of Cajal mediate inhibitory neurotransmission in the stomach.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, A J; Lomax, A E; Torihashi, S; Sanders, K M; Ward, S M

    1996-01-01

    The structural relationships between interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), varicose nerve fibers, and smooth muscle cells in the gastrointestinal tract have led to the suggestion that ICC may be involved in or mediate enteric neurotransmission. We characterized the distribution of ICC in the murine stomach and found two distinct classes on the basis of morphology and immunoreactivity to antibodies against c-Kit receptors. ICC with multiple processes formed a network in the myenteric plexus region from corpus to pylorus. Spindle-shaped ICC were found within the circular and longitudinal muscle layers (IC-IM) throughout the stomach. The density of these cells was greatest in the proximal stomach. IC-IM ran along nerve fibers and were closely associated with nerve terminals and adjacent smooth muscle cells. IC-IM failed to develop in mice with mutations in c-kit. Therefore, we used W/W(V) mutants to test whether IC-IM mediate neural inputs in muscles of the gastric fundus. The distribution of inhibitory nerves in the stomachs of c-kit mutants was normal, but NO-dependent inhibitory neuro-regulation was greatly reduced. Smooth muscle tissues of W/W(V) mutants relaxed in response to exogenous sodium nitroprusside, but the membrane potential effects of sodium nitroprusside were attenuated. These data suggest that IC-IM play a critical serial role in NO-dependent neurotransmission: the cellular mechanism(s) responsible for transducing NO into electrical responses may be expressed in IC-IM. Loss of these cells causes loss of electrical responsiveness and greatly reduces responses to nitrergic nerve stimulation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8876253

  13. Connectivity pattern differences bilaterally in the cerebellum posterior lobe in healthy subjects after normal sleep and sleep deprivation: a resting-state functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuming; Yan, Zhihan; Wang, Tingyu; Yang, Xiaokai; Feng, Feng; Fan, Luping; Jiang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) differences of the bilaterial cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL) after normal sleep (NS) and after sleep deprivation (SD). Methods A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight males, eight females) underwent an fMRI scan twice at random: once following NS and the other following 24 hours’ SD, with an interval of 1 month between the two scans. The fMRI scanning included resting state and acupuncture stimulation. The special activated regions located during the acupuncture stimulation were selected as regions of interest for rsFC analysis. Results Bilateral CPLs were positively activated by acupuncture stimulation. In the NS group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral CPL, bilateral frontal lobe (BFL), left precuneus and right inferior parietal lobule, while the right CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral temporal lobe, right cerebellum anterior lobe, right CPL, left frontal lobe, left anterior cingulate, right posterior cingulate, and bilateral inferior parietal lobule. In the SD group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the left posterior cingulate gyrus bilateral CPL, left precuneus, left precentral gyrus, BFL, and the left parietal lobe, while the right CPL showed rsFC with bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe, bilateral CPL, left frontal lobe and left temporal lobe. Compared with the NS group, the left CPL had increased rsFC in the SD group with the right inferior frontal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, right thalamus, and bilateral precuneus, and decreased rsFC with the BFL, while the right CPL had increased rsFC with the left superior frontal gyrus and decreased rsFC with the left precentral gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, and the BFL. Conclusion Bilateral CPL are possibly involved in acupuncture stimulation in different manners, and the right CPL showed more rsFC impairment. PMID:26064046

  14. Impact of Reduced Meal Frequency Without Caloric Restriction on Glucose Regulation in Healthy, Normal Weight Middle-Aged Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Olga; Martin, Bronwen; Stote, Kim S.; Golden, Erin; Maudsley, Stuart; Najjar, Samer S.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ingram, Donald K.; Longo, Dan L.; Rumpler, William V.; Baer, David J.; Egan, Josephine; Mattson, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    An unresolved issue in the field of diet and health is if and how changes in meal frequency affect energy metabolism in humans. We therefore evaluated the influence of reduced meal frequency without a reduction in energy intake on glucose metabolism in normal weight healthy male and female subjects. The study was a randomized cross-over design, with 2 eight-week treatment periods (with an intervening 11 week off-diet period) in which subjects consumed all of their calories for weight maintenance distributed in either 3 meals or 1 meal per day (consumed between 17:00 and 21:00). Energy metabolism was evaluated at designated time points throughout the study by performing morning oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and measuring levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Subjects consuming 1 meal/d exhibited higher morning fasting plasma glucose levels, greater and more sustained elevations of plasma glucose concentrations and a delayed insulin response in the OGTT compared to subjects consuming 3 meal/d. Levels of ghrelin were elevated in response to the 1 meal/d regimen. Fasting levels of insulin, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin and BDNF were not significantly affected by meal frequency. Subjects consuming a single large daily meal exhibit elevated fasting glucose levels, and impaired morning glucose tolerance associated with a delayed insulin response, during a 2 month diet period compared to those consuming 3 meals/day. The impaired glucose tolerance was reversible and was not associated with alterations in the levels of adipokines or BDNF. PMID:17998028

  15. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  16. Optical absorption and scattering spectra of pathological stomach tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraev, K. M.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Lakhina, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    Diffuse reflection spectra of biotissues in vivo and transmission and reflection coefficients for biotissues in vitro are measured over 300-800 nm. These data are used to determine the spectral absorption and scattering indices and the scattering anisotropy factor for stomach mucous membranes under normal and various pathological conditions (chronic atrophic and ulcerous defects, malignant neoplasms). The most importan tphysiological (hemodynamic and oxygenation levels) and structural-morphological (scatterer size and density) parameters are also determined. The results of a morphofunctional study correlate well with the optical properties and are consistent with data from a histomorphological analysis of the corresponding tissues.

  17. Mechanisms for nitrite loss from the stomach.

    PubMed

    Licht, W R; Schultz, D S; Fox, J G; Tannenbaum, S R; Deen, W M

    1986-10-01

    Nitrite loss from the stomach was studied using dogs equipped with Thomas cannulas for direct access to the stomach lumen. Solutions containing sodium nitrite and non-absorbable volume marker (polyethylene glycol, PEG) were infused into the stomach, and samples were taken over 60 min to determine the concentration of 'total nitrite' (including NO2-, HNO2 and other species in equilibrium with NO2-) and rate of dilution of the stomach contents as a function of time. Changes in stomach volume were also measured. Nitrite loss was found to be very rapid, with total nitrite concentrations declining to less than half the initial levels in 10 min. The decay in total nitrite concentrations was due predominantly to gastric absorption, with small additional contributions from dilution of the stomach contents (inferred from PEG concentrations) and chemical reactions (from in vitro kinetic data). Results for initial nitrite concentrations varying over a range of 0.15-4.5 mM showed absorption to be first order in total nitrite. The permeability-area product for nitrite absorption (PA) was about 0.6 l/h, and was unaffected by the addition of 1 mM SCN- or Cl-. All of these results are consistent with nitrite absorption in the form of NO2- or HNO2. Buffering the infusate with HCO3- to increase luminal pH from approximately 2 to 7 caused a three-fold reduction in the apparent value of PA. When pentagastrin was used to stimulate acid secretion, nitrite absorption was only half as fast as when acid secretion was inhibited with cimetidine, or when no drug was given. This effect could not be explained by variations in luminal pH, and suggests that acid secretion either decreases PA or is accompanied by active secretion of nitrite. Based on these data, a mathematical model was developed to stimulate the physical and chemical factors governing nitrite concentrations in the stomach. PMID:3757171

  18. Mortality from stomach cancer in Ontario miners.

    PubMed Central

    Kusiak, R A; Ritchie, A C; Springer, J; Muller, J

    1993-01-01

    An excess of mortality from stomach cancer has been found in Ontario gold miners (observed (obs) 104, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 152, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 125-185) and no excess of stomach cancer could be detected in other miners in Ontario (obs 74, SMR 102, 95% CI 80-128). The excess of stomach cancer appeared five to 19 years after the miners began gold mining in Ontario. In that interval, similar patterns of excess mortality from stomach cancer were found in miners born in north America (obs 14, SMR 268, CI 147-450) and in miners born outside north America (obs 12, SMR 280, 95% CI 145-489). Twenty or more years after the miners began mining gold, an excess of mortality from stomach cancer was found in gold miners born outside of north American (obs 41, SMR 160, 95% CI 115-218) but not in gold miners born in north America (obs 37, SMR 113, 95% CI 80-156). The excess of stomach cancer in gold miners under the age of 60 (obs 45, SMR 167, 95% CI 122-223) seems larger than the excess in gold miners between the ages of 60 and 74 (obs 59, SMR 143, 95% CI 109-184). Exposures to arsenic, chromium, mineral fibre, diesel emissions, and aluminium powder were considered as possible explanations of the excess of stomach cancer in Ontario gold miners. Exposure to diesel emissions and aluminium powder was rejected as gold miners and uranium miners were exposed to both agents but an excess of stomach cancer was noted only in gold miners. The association between the excess of stomach cancer and the time since the miner began mining gold suggested that duration of exposure to dust in gold mines ought to be weighted according to the time since the exposure to dust occurred and that an appropriate time weighting function would be one in the interval five to 19 years after each year of exposure to dust and zero otherwise. A statistically significant association between the relative risk of mortality from stomach cancer and the time weighted duration of exposure to

  19. Uncommon mucosal metastases to the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Kanthan, R; Sharanowski, K; Senger, JL; Fesser, J; Chibbar, R; Kanthan, SC

    2009-01-01

    Background Metastases to the stomach from an extra-gastric neoplasm are an unusual event, identified in less than 2% of cancer patients at autopsy. The stomach may be involved by hematogenous spread from a distant primary (most commonly breast, melanoma or lung), or by contiguous spread from an adjacent malignancy, such as the pancreas, esophagus and gallbladder. These latter sites may also involve the stomach via lymphatic or haematogenous spread. We present three cases of secondary gastric malignancy. Methods/Results The first is a 19-year-old male who received a diagnosis of testicular choriocarcinoma in September 2004. Metastatic malignancy was demonstrated in the stomach after partial gastrectomy was performed to control gastric hemorrhage. The second is a 75-year-old male, generally well, who was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the lung in September 2005. Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lung was demonstrated in a subsequent biopsy of "gastric polyps". The third is an 85-year-old man with no known history of malignancy who presented for evaluation of iron deficiency anemia by endoscopy in February 2006. Biopsies of the colonic and gastric mucosa demonstrated moderately differentiated invasive colonic adenocarcinoma with metastatic deposits in the stomach. Conclusion While the accurate recognition of these lesions at endoscopy is fraught with difficulty, pathological awareness of such uncommon metastases in the gastric mucosa is essential for accurate diagnosis and optimal patient management. PMID:19650900

  20. Expression, Distribution and Role of Aquaporin Water Channels in Human and Animal Stomach and Intestines.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cui; Chen, Zhuang; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-01-01

    Stomach and intestines are involved in the secretion of gastrointestinal fluids and the absorption of nutrients and fluids, which ensure normal gut functions. Aquaporin water channels (AQPs) represent a major transcellular route for water transport in the gastrointestinal tract. Until now, at least 11 AQPs (AQP1-11) have been found to be present in the stomach, small and large intestines. These AQPs are distributed in different cell types in the stomach and intestines, including gastric epithelial cells, gastric glands cells, absorptive epithelial cells (enterocytes), goblet cells and Paneth cells. AQP1 is abundantly distributed in the endothelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract. AQP3 and AQP4 are mainly distributed in the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells in the stomach and intestines. AQP7, AQP8, AQP10 and AQP11 are distributed in the apical of enterocytes in the small and large intestines. Although AQP-null mice displayed almost no phenotypes in gastrointestinal tracts, the alterations of the expression and localization of these AQPs have been shown to be associated with the pathology of gastrointestinal disorders, which suggests that AQPs play important roles serving as potential therapeutic targets. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the expression, localization and distribution of AQPs in the stomach, small and large intestine of human and animals. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the potential roles of AQPs in the physiology and pathophysiology of stomach and intestines. PMID:27589719

  1. Rationale in diagnosis and screening of atrophic gastritis with stomach-specific plasma biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Agréus, Lars; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kupcinskas, Limas; Malfertheiner, Peter; Di Mario, Francesco; Leja, Marcis; Mahachai, Varocha; Yaron, Niv; Van Oijen, Martijn; Perez, Guillermo Perez; Rugge, Massimo; Ronkainen, Jukka; Salaspuro, Mikko; Sipponen, Pentti; Sugano, Kentaro; Sung, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Atrophic gastritis (AG) results most often from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. AG is the most important single risk condition for gastric cancer that often leads to an acid-free or hypochlorhydric stomach. In the present paper, we suggest a rationale for noninvasive screening of AG with stomach-specific biomarkers. Methods The paper summarizes a set of data on application of the biomarkers and describes how the test results could be interpreted in practice. Results In AG of the gastric corpus and fundus, the plasma levels of pepsinogen I and/or the pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II ratio are always low. The fasting level of gastrin-17 is high in AG limited to the corpus and fundus, but low or non-elevated if the AG occurs in both antrum and corpus. A low fasting level of G-17 is a sign of antral AG or indicates high intragastric acidity. Differentiation between antral AG and high intragastric acidity can be done by assaying the plasma G-17 before and after protein stimulation, or before and after administration of the proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Amidated G-17 will rise if the antral mucosa is normal in structure. H. pylori antibodies are a reliable indicator of helicobacter infection, even in patients with AG and hypochlorhydria. Conclusions Stomach-specific biomarkers provide information about the stomach health and about the function of stomach mucosa and are a noninvasive tool for diagnosis and screening of AG and acid-free stomach. PMID:22242613

  2. The denervated stomach as an esophageal substitute is a contractile organ.

    PubMed Central

    Collard, J M; Romagnoli, R; Otte, J B; Kestens, P J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the denervated stomach as an esophageal substitute is an inert conduit or a contractile organ. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The motor response of gastric transplants to deglutition suggests that the stomach pulled up to the neck acts as an inert organ. METHODS: The gastric motility of 11 healthy volunteers and 33 patients having either a gastric tube (GT) (n = 10) or their whole stomach (WS) (n = 23) as esophageal replacement was studied with perfused catheters during the fasting state, after a meal, and after intravenous administration of erythromycin lactobionate. A motility index was established for each period of recording by dividing the sum of the areas under the curves of all contractions of >9 mmHg by the time of recording. RESULTS: Over years, the denervated stomach recovers more and more motor activity, even displaying a real phase 3 motor pattern in 6 of the 10 WS patients and 1 of the 7 GT patients with >3 years of follow-up. Erythromycin lactobionate generates a phase 3-like motor pattern regardless of the length of follow-up. Extrinsic denervation of the whole stomach does not significantly modify the fasting motility index established >3 years after surgery (+17% on average, p > 0.05), but it reduces that in the fed period by an average of 62% (p = 0.0016). Tubulization of the denervated whole stomach lowers the fasting motility index by an average of 60% (p = 0.0248) and further impairs that in the fed period by an average of 67% (p = 0.0388). CONCLUSIONS: The denervated stomach as an esophageal substitute is a contractile organ that may even generate complete migrating motor complexes. Motor recovery is better in the fasting than in the fed period, and it is more marked in WS patients than in GT patients. Images Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. PMID:9445107

  3. Muscle fibre size and type distribution in thoracic and lumbar regions of erector spinae in healthy subjects without low back pain: normal values and sex differences

    PubMed Central

    MANNION, A. F.; DUMAS, G. A.; COOPER, R. G.; ESPINOSA, F. J.; FARIS, M. W.; STEVENSON, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the normal muscle fibre size and type distribution of the human erector spinae, both in thoracic and lumbar regions, in a group of 31 young healthy male (n=17) and female (n=14) volunteers. Two percutaneous muscle biopsy samples were obtained under local anaesthesia, from the belly of the left erector spinae, at the levels of the 10th thoracic and 3rd lumbar vertebrae. Samples were prepared for routine histochemistry for the identification of fibre types. Fibre size (cross-sectional area (CSA) and narrow diameter (ND)) was quantified using computerised image analysis. The mean CSA/ND for each fibre type was greater in the thoracic than the lumbar region, but there was no difference between the 2 regions either for percentage type I (i.e. percentage distribution by number), percentage type I area (i.e. relative area of the muscle occupied by type I fibres) or the ratio describing the size of the type I fibre relative to that of the type II. Men had larger fibres than women, for each fibre type and at both sampling sites. In the men, each fibre type was of a similar mean size, whereas in the women the type I fibres were considerably larger than both the type II A and type II B fibres, with no difference between the latter two. In both regions of the erector spinae there was no difference between men and women for the proportion (%) of a given fibre type, but the percentage type I fibre area was significantly higher in the women. The erector spinae display muscle fibre characteristics which are clearly very different from those of other skeletal muscles, and which, with their predominance of relatively large type I (slow twitch) fibres, befit their function as postural muscles. Differences between thoracic and lumbar fascicles of the muscle, and between the muscles of men and women, may reflect adaptive responses to differences in function. In assessing the degree of any pathological change in the muscle of patients with low back pain

  4. Ectopic Pancreas Imitating Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) In The Stomach.

    PubMed

    Zińczuk, Justyna; Bandurski, Roman; Pryczynicz, Anna; Konarzewska-Duchnowska, Emilia; Kemona, Andrzej; Kędra, Bogusław

    2015-05-01

    Ectopic pancreas is a rare congenital disorder defined as pancreatic tissue lacking vascular or anatomic communication with the normal body of the pancreas. Most cases of ectopic pancreas are asymptomatic, but it may become clinically evident depending on the size, location and the pathological changes similar to those observed in case of the normal pancreas. It is often an incidental finding and can be located at different sites in the gastrointestinal tract. The most common locations are: the stomach, duodenum or the proximal part of small intestine. The risk of malignancy, bleeding and occlusion are the most serious complications. Despite the development in diagnostics, it still remains a challenge for the clinician to differentiate it from neoplasm. In this report, we described a case of 28-years old woman who presented recurrent epigastric pain. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed gastrointestinal stromal tumor on the border of the body and antrum of the back wall of great curvature of the stomach. The histopathological examination after surgery showed heterotopic pancreatic tissue. Ectopic pancreas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastric mass lesions. PMID:26172167

  5. The human gastric microbiota: Is it time to rethink the pathogenesis of stomach diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Compare, Debora

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although long thought to be a sterile organ, due to its acid production, the human stomach holds a core microbiome. Aim To provide an update of findings related to gastric microbiota and its link with gastric diseases. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature. Results The development of culture-independent methods facilitated the identification of many bacteria. Five major phyla have been detected in the stomach: Firmicutes, Bacteroidites, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria. At the genera level, the healthy human stomach is dominated by Prevotella, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Rothia and Haemophilus; however, the composition of the gastric microbiota is dynamic and affected by such factors as diet, drugs and diseases. The interaction between the pre-existing gastric microbiota and Helicobacter pylori infection might influence an individual’s risk of gastric disease, including gastric cancer. Conclusions The maintenance of bacterial homeostasis could be essential for the stomach’s health and highlights the chance for therapeutic interventions targeting the gastric microbiota, even if gastric pH, peristalsis and the mucus layer may prevent bacteria colonization; and the definition of gastric microbiota of the healthy stomach is still an ongoing challenging task. PMID:26137299

  6. Cancer Statistics: Cancer of the Stomach

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 26,370 % of All New Cancer Cases 1.6% Estimated Deaths in 2016 10,730 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 79,843 people living with stomach cancer in ...

  7. Francisella tularensis Peritonitis in Stomach Cancer Patient

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Linus X.; Safdar, Amar

    2004-01-01

    Tularemia with peritonitis developed in a 50-year-old man soon after diagnosis of stomach cancer with metastasis. The ascites grew Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, which was identified by sequencing analysis of the 16S rDNA. The infection resolved with antimicrobial treatment. Antibodies detected 4 weeks after onset disappeared after chemotherapy-associated lymphopenia. PMID:15663872

  8. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  9. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  10. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  11. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  12. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  13. Effects of ingestion of cold and hot water on the course of thermal changes in the stomach and intestine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batinkov, Y. L.

    1979-01-01

    With the use of a thermocouple and mirror galvanometer, calibrated before the experiment and after each test, it was found that the normal temperature in the esophagus is 0.1-0.4 C higher than in the oral cavity, the temperature in the duodenum is somewhat less than in the stomach, but higher with cholecystitis, duodenitis or gastritis, the temperature in the normal stomach equals or is somewhat higher than in the esophagus, and that the temperature of distended stomachs frequently is lower than in the esophagus. It was found that hot water is retained in the stomach longer than cold water, and that both hot and cold water are allowed to pass into the duodenum when the water temperature becomes approximately equal to that of the surrounding organs.

  14. In silico analysis of stomach lineage specific gene set expression pattern in gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pandi, Narayanan Sathiya Suganya, Sivagurunathan; Rajendran, Suriliyandi

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Identified stomach lineage specific gene set (SLSGS) was found to be under expressed in gastric tumors. •Elevated expression of SLSGS in gastric tumor is a molecular predictor of metabolic type gastric cancer. •In silico pathway scanning identified estrogen-α signaling is a putative regulator of SLSGS in gastric cancer. •Elevated expression of SLSGS in GC is associated with an overall increase in the survival of GC patients. -- Abstract: Stomach lineage specific gene products act as a protective barrier in the normal stomach and their expression maintains the normal physiological processes, cellular integrity and morphology of the gastric wall. However, the regulation of stomach lineage specific genes in gastric cancer (GC) is far less clear. In the present study, we sought to investigate the role and regulation of stomach lineage specific gene set (SLSGS) in GC. SLSGS was identified by comparing the mRNA expression profiles of normal stomach tissue with other organ tissue. The obtained SLSGS was found to be under expressed in gastric tumors. Functional annotation analysis revealed that the SLSGS was enriched for digestive function and gastric epithelial maintenance. Employing a single sample prediction method across GC mRNA expression profiles identified the under expression of SLSGS in proliferative type and invasive type gastric tumors compared to the metabolic type gastric tumors. Integrative pathway activation prediction analysis revealed a close association between estrogen-α signaling and SLSGS expression pattern in GC. Elevated expression of SLSGS in GC is associated with an overall increase in the survival of GC patients. In conclusion, our results highlight that estrogen mediated regulation of SLSGS in gastric tumor is a molecular predictor of metabolic type GC and prognostic factor in GC.

  15. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Stomach Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for stomach cancer? What should you ask your doctor about stomach cancer? As you cope with cancer ... we encourage you to talk openly with your doctor, nurse, and cancer care team. You should feel ...

  16. What Are the Key Statistics about Stomach Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the frequent use of antibiotics to treat infections. Antibiotics can kill the bacteria called Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori ), which is thought to be a major cause of stomach cancer. For statistics on survival for stomach cancer, see ...

  17. TCGA researchers identify 4 subtypes of stomach cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Stomach cancers fall into four distinct molecular subtypes, researchers with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network have found. Scientists report that this discovery could change how researchers think about developing treatments for stomach cancer, also c

  18. What's New in Stomach Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Additional resources for stomach cancer What’s new in stomach cancer research and treatment? Research is ... Chemotherapy drugs and combinations Some studies are testing new ways to combine drugs already known to be ...

  19. Healthy living

    MedlinePlus

    ... on an empty stomach will speed up the effects of alcohol. Alcoholism can lead to diseases including: Diseases of ... should talk to their children about the dangerous effects of alcohol. Talk to your provider if you or someone ...

  20. Healthy living

    MedlinePlus

    ... and poor balance. Having a higher amount of body fat and drinking on an empty stomach will speed ... OBESITY Obesity is a serious health concern. Excess body fat can overwork the heart, bones, and muscles. It ...

  1. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  2. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  3. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  4. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  5. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  6. What Are the Risk Factors for Stomach Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... compounds that have been shown to cause stomach cancer in lab animals. On the other hand, eating lots of fresh fruits and vegetables appears to lower the risk of stomach cancer. (See “ Can stomach cancer be prevented ?”) Tobacco use ...

  7. Stomach trichobezoar (rapunzel syndrome) with iatrogenic intussusception.

    PubMed

    Yik, Y I; How, A K

    2016-04-01

    We present a rare case of stomach trichobezoar complicated with iatrogenic intussusception noted intra-operatively after failed attempt of endoscopic removal in a 13-year-old girl. At presentation, she had gastric outlet obstruction with anaemia. Endoscopy established the diagnosis of trichobezoar. Surgical removal was warranted after failed endoscopic removal. Her postoperative course was uneventful. Detailed history and careful examination disclosed trichotillomania and associated trichophagia. Psychiatric referral was sought with the intention to prevent future recurrence. PMID:27326947

  8. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Gülçiçek, Osman Bilgin; Solmaz, Ali; Özdoğan, Kamil; Erçetin, Candaş; Yavuz, Erkan; Yiğitbaş, Hakan; Çelebi, Fatih; Altınay, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach accounts for less than 1% of all gastric malignancies. Less than 100 cases were reported in the literature. Therefore, knowledge about management and prognosis of the disease is limited. Surgical approach is the basic form of treatment. In this study we confirmed a case of primary gastric squamous cell carcinoma with the aim of contribution to the literature, which is seen rare, and the diagnosis was confirmed pathologically. PMID:27528817

  9. [Therapeutic effect of gastrozolum in stomach ulcers].

    PubMed

    Sukhareva, G V; Tsaregorodtseva, T M; Trubitsina, I E; Serova, T I; Goncharenko, L S; Dolgova, N Iu; Zarudnaia, S I; Kuz'mina, O S; Lopatina, I N; Manannikov, I V; Melik-Ogandzhanian, N B

    2003-01-01

    Gastrozolum is the proprietary name of a drug made in Saint Petersburg. Its international nonproprietary name is Omeprazole. The absorption rate is not related to food. Its pharmacotherapeutic action becomes apparent as an inhibitor of the proton pump leading to the inhibition of H+/K(+)-ATPase of the secretory membrane of parietal cells of the stomach mucous membrane and blocking of the concluding stage of hydrochloric acid secretion. The entire action leads to the decrease of the level of basal and induced secretion regardless of the nature of stimulus. As a result of this, symptoms of stomach ulcer decrease, and gastroduodenal ulcers heal faster. Penetrating into the stomach mucous membrane cells, the drug also has a cytoprotective action. The maximum blood concentration (0.6-1.5 mg/l) is found 2-3 hours after a single intake of 40 mg of the drug. It was determined that after the intake of 20 mg of Gastrozolum its action lasts for 24 hours and provides for the inhibition of both night and day secretion. The ricochet syndrome does not take place when the treatment is over. It was proved that Gastrozolum has a bactericidal action on Helicobacter pylori due to the sharp increase of stomach pH, which contributes to the realization of the effect of used components of the anti-helicobacter therapy. The experiment failed to establish any teratogenic or poisonous action on the embryos. The dosage form is a capsule containing 20 mg of Omeprazole in the form of pellets. PMID:14621606

  10. [Normal values of the major parameters of lower limb veins in Russian cosmonauts prior to flight and in healthy untrained subjects].

    PubMed

    Kotovskaya, A R; Fomina, G A; Salnikov, A V

    2015-01-01

    The article presents normal values of the major parameters of lower limb veins in cosmonauts during preparations for space flight and volunteers leading a common life. The authors report the results and discuss the causes for differences in normal leg venous parameters in these groups of subjects. Incomparability of measurements made in cosmonauts and common people is demonstrated. Changes in lower limb veins of a cosmonaut in microgravity can be evaluated only relative to his/her normal values of the major venous parameters (capacitance, compliance and filling) before flight. PMID:25958461

  11. Tuberculosis: Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  12. Fluorescence spectral properties of stomach tissues with pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraev, K. M.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Lahina, M. A.

    2012-05-01

    Steady-state fluorescence and diffuse reflection spectra are measured for in vivo normal and pathological (chronic atrophic and ulcerating defects, malignant neoplasms) stomach mucous lining tissues. The degree of distortion of the fluorescence spectra is estimated taking light scattering and absorption into account. A combination of Gauss and Lorentz functions is used to decompose the fluorescence spectra. Potential groups of fluorophores are determined and indices are introduced to characterize the dynamics of their contributions to the resultant spectra as pathologies develop. Reabsorption is found to quench the fluorescence of structural proteins by as much as a factor of 3, while scattering of the light can increase the fluorescence intensity of flavin and prophyrin groups by as much as a factor of 2.

  13. Effects of coffees before and after special treatment procedure on cell membrane potentials in stomach cells.

    PubMed

    Fiebich, B L; Valente, P; Ferrer-Montiel, A; Candelario-Jalil, E; Menthe, J; Luecker, P

    2006-01-01

    Coffee, one of the most excessively used beverages worldwide, commences the risk of gastroesophageal reflux (GER), which may lead to gastric ulcers and increase the risk of gastric cancer. Many attempts have been made by the coffee industry to diminish the irritating effect on mucosa by means of altering the extraction methods concerning gerbic acids and the roasting processes. This paper describes the effect of differently produced coffees involving two brands of Darboven and two brands of other coffee roasters. The aim of this study was to prove the results of gastric potential measurements we found in literature by using human AGS gastric epithelial cells (human adenocarcinoma). All four coffee extracts tested differentially affected the membrane resting potential of AGS cells. Coffees no. 1 and no. 2 depolarized the cells, presumably by increasing the cation entry into the cytosol. In marked contrast, coffee no. 4 hyperpolarizes the cells, possibly by H(+) extrusion and/or Cl(-) influx, suggesting that this coffee might increase acidity in the stomach, which might negatively affect the stomach, especially in people with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. Overall, our data suggest that different roasting methods of coffees affect the membrane potentials of AGS stomach cells, resulting in increased influx of H+ possibly resulting in decreased stomach acidity and thus reducing GER. These results are in good accordance with clinical pharmacological results from potential difference measurements in healthy volunteers we found in the literature. PMID:16894406

  14. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The equine glandular stomach is commonly affected by erosion and ulceration. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria, including Helicobacter, could be involved in the aetiology of gastric glandular lesions seen in horses. Results Stomach lesions, as well as normal appearing mucosa were obtained from horses slaughtered for human consumption. All samples were tested for urease activity using the Pyloritek® assay, while mucosal bacterial content was evaluated using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation. In selected sub samples, bacteria characterisation was pursued further by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as normal samples, clones with 99% similarities to Lactobacillus salivarius and Sarcina ventriculi were found. Escherichia like bacterium clones and Enterococcus clones were demonstrated in one focal erosion. Based on a phylogenetic tree these clones had 100% similarity to Escherichia fergusonii and Enterococcus faecium. The Enterococcus were found colonising the mucosal surface, while E. fergusonii organisms were also demonstrated intraepithelial. Conclusion Gastric Helicobacter spp. could not be verified as being involved in lesions of the glandular stomach of the horse. Since E. fergusonii has been described as an emerging pathogen in both humans and animals, the finding of this bacterium in gastric erosion warrants further clarification to whether gastric infection with this type bacterium is important for horses. PMID:20298612

  15. Normal ranges of biorbital and interorbital distances in healthy Turkish pregnancies at 19–23 weeks of gestation and correlation with craniofacial structures

    PubMed Central

    Pala, Halil Gürsoy; Artunç-Ülkümen, Burcu; Koyuncu, Faik Mümtaz; Uyar, Yıldız; Bülbül-Baytur, Yeşim

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to determine the normal ranges for biorbital (BOD) and interorbital distances (IOD) during the second trimester in Turkish women with normal pregnancies and to assess the correlation between BOD, IOD, and other fetal craniofacial structures and biometric parameters. Material and Methods Our retrospective study comprised 1328 women with singleton normal pregnancies who had undergone ultrasonography (USG) examinations at 19–23 weeks of gestation in the second trimester screening. The measurements of BOD and IOD were obtained with the coronal section of the fetal face at the plane of orbits. Results Mean BOD was 3.4±0.33 cm, whereas mean IOD was 1.28±0.24 cm. Correlation analysis revealed that BOD was significantly correlated with IOD, transcerebellar diameter (TCD), cisterna manga (CM), nuchal fold (NF), nasal bone (NB), biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL), and gestational week. There was a significant relation between IOD and the lateral ventricle posterior horn, TCD, CM, NF, NB, BPD, HC, AC, and FL. Conclusion The reference ranges obtained in our study enabled accurate evaluation of BOD and IOD in the second trimester of normal pregnancies. USG detection of fetal orbital biometric anomalies may alert the clinician for different anomalies associated with abnormal development of eye. PMID:26401111

  16. Assessment of Blood Glucose Regulation and Safety of Resistant Starch Formula-Based Diet in Healthy Normal and Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Chang, Daw-Ming; Wu, Da-Jen; Peng, Hui-Yu; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of the new resistant starch (RS) formula, PPB-R-203, on glucose homeostasis in healthy subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes.A cohort consisting of 40 healthy participants received test and control diets and was checked for up to 3 hours post-meal. A randomized, 2-regimen, cross-over, comparative study was conducted in 44 subjects with type 2 diabetes and glycemic control was assessed with a continuous glucose monitoring system.In healthy participants, serum glucose values and incremental areas under the glucose curves (AUC) were significantly lower in the PPB-R-203 than the control group (P < 0.05). In patients with type 2 diabetes, mean blood glucose concentrations for subjects on the control regimen were higher than those for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen (7.9 ± 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.4-8.4 vs 7.4 ± 1.6, 95% CI 6.9-7.9 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.023). AUCs for total blood glucose and hyperglycemia (glucose >10 mmol/L) were also reduced for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen as compared with those on control regimen (total blood glucose: 16.2 ± 4.0, 95% CI 14.9-17.4 vs 18.7 ± 4.0, 95% CI 17.6-20.1, P < 0.001; hyperglycemia: 4.9 ± 5.7, 95% CI 3.1-6.6 vs 6.3 ± 6.4, 95% CI 4.3-8.3 mmol/L × day, P = 0.021). However, AUC measurements for hypoglycemia (glucose <3.9 mmol/l) were not statistically significant.A PPB-R-203-based diet reduced postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia or glucose excursion. PMID:26287417

  17. Assessment of Blood Glucose Regulation and Safety of Resistant Starch Formula-Based Diet in Healthy Normal and Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Chang, Daw-Ming; Wu, Da-Jen; Peng, Hui-Yu; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the effects of the new resistant starch (RS) formula, PPB-R-203, on glucose homeostasis in healthy subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes. A cohort consisting of 40 healthy participants received test and control diets and was checked for up to 3 hours post-meal. A randomized, 2-regimen, cross-over, comparative study was conducted in 44 subjects with type 2 diabetes and glycemic control was assessed with a continuous glucose monitoring system. In healthy participants, serum glucose values and incremental areas under the glucose curves (AUC) were significantly lower in the PPB-R-203 than the control group (P < 0.05). In patients with type 2 diabetes, mean blood glucose concentrations for subjects on the control regimen were higher than those for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen (7.9 ± 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.4–8.4 vs 7.4 ± 1.6, 95% CI 6.9–7.9 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.023). AUCs for total blood glucose and hyperglycemia (glucose >10 mmol/L) were also reduced for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen as compared with those on control regimen (total blood glucose: 16.2 ± 4.0, 95% CI 14.9–17.4 vs 18.7 ± 4.0, 95% CI 17.6–20.1, P < 0.001; hyperglycemia: 4.9 ± 5.7, 95% CI 3.1–6.6 vs 6.3 ± 6.4, 95% CI 4.3–8.3 mmol/L × day, P = 0.021). However, AUC measurements for hypoglycemia (glucose <3.9 mmol/l) were not statistically significant. A PPB-R-203-based diet reduced postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia or glucose excursion. PMID:26287417

  18. High diversity of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius lineages and toxigenic traits in healthy pet-owning household members. Underestimating normal household contact?

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Torres, Carmen; Lozano, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    Forty-three unrelated pet-owning households were screened in Spain to study the Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius nasal carriage, their genetic lineages and virulence traits. Sixty-seven healthy owners and 66 healthy pets were investigated. Isolates characterization was performed and potential interspecies transmission was assessed. S. aureus was present in 51.2% of households studied while S. pseudintermedius in 30.2%. Twenty-eight owners (41.8%) carried S. aureus: one methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) [t5173-ST8-SCCmecIVa] and 27 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Three owners (4.5%) were colonized by methicillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius (MSSP). Fifteen pets (22.7%) carried S. pseudintermedius: two methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) [ST71-SCCmecII/III; ST92-SCCmecV] and 13 MSSP; in addition, 8 pets (12.1%) presented MSSA. High diversity of spa and sequence types (STs) was detected. Typical livestock-associated S. aureus lineages (CC398, CC9) were observed in humans and/or companion animals and hospital and/or community-acquired S. aureus lineages (CC45, CC121, CC5, CC8) were detected among pets. Almost 40% of S. pseudintermedius were multidrug-resistant. S. aureus isolates harboured a remarkable high number of virulence genes. The expA gene was detected in 3 S. pseudintermedius isolates. Identical strains from both owners and their pets were identified in 5 households (11.6%): (a) four MSSA (t073-ST45/CC45, t159-ST121/CC121, t209-ST109/CC9, t021-ST1654([new])/singleton) and (b) one multidrug-resistant MSSP (ST142([new])). Highly clonally diverse and toxigenic S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius are common colonizers of healthy humans and pets. The presence of these bacterial species, virulence genes, and interspecies transmission detected, points out to consider pet ownership as a risk factor to acquire, maintain and spread, potential pathogenic bacteria. PMID:23153600

  19. Comparison of stomach contents of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) from the 1981 and 1991 North Sea International Stomach Sampling Projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adlerstein, S.A.; Temming, A.; Mergardt, N.

    2002-01-01

    This study analyses data from over 20 000 haddock stomachs collected during the 1981 and 1991 Stomach Sampling Projects of the North Sea. Sampling was within the framework of the Multispecies Virtual Population Analysis (MSVPA) for fisheries stock assessment. In 1981 stomachs were collected to calculate input feeding parameters from main predators. During 1991 the sampling exercise was repeated to test stability of the parameters in the region. We investigate stability of haddock stomach content weight between years accounting for ontogenic, spatial and temporal variations within the scope of the survey resolution. Analysis using generalized linear and additive models is performed for weight of the stomach content including and excluding empty stomachs and also for proportion of stomachs without food. Results indicate that haddock stomach contents varied significantly between years, quarters and North Sea roundfish areas. Content weights were overall higher in 1981 than in 1991. In 1981 levels were high from spring to fall and in 1991 mostly in spring. During both years levels were lowest in the central North Sea and in winter. Most of the deviance in modelling the stomach weight is explained by the length of the predator. Stomachs sampled in 1981 were most frequently empty in spring and those sampled in 1991 in winter. In both years, proportions decreased with fish length except in winter when levels increased. Proportion of empty stomachs was highest in the central region of the North Sea. Most of the proportion variation is explained by quarterly fluctuation. Variation of content weight can be related to prey composition found in the stomachs. High stomach contents are generally associated with high contribution of fish prey to the total stomach content, mainly sandeels. We propose that sandeels were more vulnerable to predation in 1981 than in 1991 due to colder temperatures. ?? 2002 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Elsevier

  20. Siphonophores eat fish larger than their stomachs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagès, Francesc; Madin, Laurence P.

    2010-12-01

    We report a collection of the siphonophore Halistemma cupulifera, collected at 20 meters depth during a night SCUBA dive in the Sargasso Sea. One of its stomachs (gastrozooids) contained a leptocephalus larva of the eel Ariosoma sp. folded in thirds to fit, but 8.3 cm in length fully extended. This finding shows that in situ observations can reveal previously unknown trophic interactions that may be significant in a changing world ocean where gelatinous organisms seem to increase at the expense of fish.

  1. Morphological characteristics of the canine and feline stomach mucosa.

    PubMed

    Zahariev, P; Sapundzhiev, E; Pupaki, D; Rashev, P; Palov, A; Todorov, T

    2010-12-01

    The stomach mucosa structure in animals belonging to Order Carnivora indicates some specific characteristics in comparison with the other mammals. Between the bases of the mucosal glands and the lamina muscularis mucosae there is an additional plate which most of the morphologists have defined as lamina subglandularis. In currently used Nomina histologica this layer is indicated as stratum compactum in carnivorous stomach mucosa. The investigation aims were to study and compare canine and feline stomach tunica mucosa characteristics as well as to measure the thickness of stratum compactum and to specify some of the certain collagen types and fibronectin compounds. Conventional and differential histological and ultrastructural methods and immuno-histochemical approaches for investigation of the canine and feline stomach samples were used. The specific organization of the carnivorous stomach wall arrangement was established. In the structure of the canine stomach mucosa, no evidence of stratum compactum was observed. The presence of stratum compactum in feline stomach mucosa was ascertained and measured. Using an immunohistochemical method very high expression of collagen type IV and fibronectin, moderate positive reaction of collagen type III, and a comparatively weakest expression of collagen types I and V in the structure of stratum compactum from cat stomach mucosa was shown. The obtained results clarify the characteristics of the stomach mucosa morphology and could be used as a basis for distinguishing the stomach wall structure of the animal species belonging to Canidae and Felidae families although they are both carnivores. PMID:20825386

  2. Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 > Staying Healthy Font: What is Alpha-1? Emphysema Alpha-1 Symptoms Diagnosing Alpha-1 Current Treatments ... Healthy What can people with Alpha-1-related emphysema do to stay as healthy as possible? First ...

  3. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  4. Healthy doctors, healthy communities.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Donna; Katch, Ellen; Anderson, Patricia; Furlong, Mary A

    2004-01-01

    Promoting health and eliminating disease are goals of Healthy People 2010, a national initiative for all communities. Physician-directed interventions that advance these principles are most effective when directed by clinicians who regularly participate in such healthy behaviors themselves. This pilot study describes an 8-week intervention, "Well-being for You and Your Patients," for first-year medical students to experience health behavior change. In the 2-hour sessions, students set goals for changing health behavior in 6 dimensions of wellness; report their progress; and enjoy a 30-minute change-of-pace wellness activity. The authors recommend adapting the course for medical student alumni to facilitate health behavior change with small groups of adults, school-age children, teens, and elders in churches, schools, community health centers, and other community-based organizations. Through continuing medical education and Grand Rounds, residents and physicians in practice could also be trained to implement specific behavioral change strategies. PMID:15495745

  5. Healthy pets, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Wong, S K; Feinstein, L H; Heidmann, P

    1999-08-01

    Zoonoses, diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans, can pose serious health risks to immunocompromised people. Although pets can carry zoonoses, owning and caring for animals can benefit human health. Information exists about preventing transmission of zoonoses, but not all physicians and veterinarians provide adequate and accurate information to immunocompromised pet owners. This disease prevention/health promotion project provides physicians and veterinarians with information, created specifically to share with patients and clients, about the health risks and benefits of pet ownership. Further, "Healthy Pets, Healthy People" encourages communication between veterinarians, physicians, clients, and patients and can serve as a model program for a nation-wide effort to aid health professionals in making recommendations about pet ownership for immunocompromised people. PMID:10434969

  6. Effects of Acidity and Stress on Stomach Motility, Assessed by Biomagnetic Technique: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdova-Fraga, T.; Sosa-Aquino, M.; Huerta-Franco, R.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Gutiérrez-Juárez, G.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.

    2004-09-01

    The human stomach is a J shaped hollowed organ that undergoes a variable luminal volume without significant pressure changes. This organ has two valves: the cardiac localized in the upper part, and the pillory on the lower part of the organ respectively. The main functions of these valves are to storage, carry, triturate and empty the lumen content. However, their activity could be affected for different agents such as chemical stimulus (alcoholic beverages) and psychological stress. In this contribution we show by the first time, the importance of biomagnetic signal technique in order to measure the human stomach peristaltic frequency in healthy subjects who were evaluated in basal conditions, and after to be submitted at the effects of: acidity caused by alcoholic beverages and psychological stress.

  7. The absorption of acetylsalicylic acid from the stomach in relation to intragastric pH.

    PubMed

    Dotevall, G; Ekenved, G

    1976-01-01

    A comparative study on the effect of a buffered (pH 6.5) and an unbuffered (pH 2.9) solution of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on gastric pH, gastric emptying, and gastric absorption of ASA was performed in 10 healthy volunteers. Gastric pH was recorded using radiotelemetry. Gastric emptying and gastric absorption was studied with an aspiration technique and phenol red as nonabsorbable marker. Administration of the unbuffered solution to the fasting subjects resulted in a gastric pH of about 2 and absorption of ASA from the stomach was found to occur. The buffered solution of ASA increased gastric pH to above 5 and gastric absorption of ASA was found to be significantly less than after the unbuffered solution. The buffered solution was emptied from the stomach more rapidly than the unbuffered one. PMID:12558

  8. Management of acute upside-down stomach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Upside-down stomach (UDS) is characterized by herniation of the entire stomach or most gastric portions into the posterior mediastinum. Symptoms may vary heavily as they are related to reflux and mechanically impaired gastric emptying. UDS is associated with a risk of incarceration and volvulus development which both might be complicated by acute gastric outlet obstruction, advanced ischemia, gastric bleeding and perforation. Case presentation A 32-year-old male presented with acute intolerant epigastralgia and anterior chest pain associated with acute onset of nausea and vomiting. He reported on a previous surgical intervention due to a hiatal hernia. Chest radiography and computer tomography showed an incarcerated UDS. After immediate esophago-gastroscopy, urgent laparoscopic reduction, repair with a 360° floppy Nissen fundoplication and insertion of a gradually absorbable GORE® BIO-A®-mesh was performed. Conclusion Given the high risk of life-threatening complications of an incarcerated UDS as ischemia, gastric perforation or severe bleeding, emergent surgery is indicated. In stable patients with acute presentation of large paraesophageal hernia or UDS exhibiting acute mechanical gastric outlet obstruction, after esophago-gastroscopy laparoscopic reduction and hernia repair followed by an anti-reflux procedure is suggested. However, in cases of unstable patients open repair is the surgical method of choice. Here, we present an exceptionally challenging case of a young patient with a giant recurrent hiatal hernia becoming clinically manifest in an incarcerated UDS. PMID:24228771

  9. Inflammatory fibroid polyp of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Stolte, M; Finkenzeller, G

    1990-09-01

    Among 3,200 polyps of the stomach, we diagnosed inflammatory fibroid polyp in 143 patients (4.5%). The average age of the patients was 63.6 years (women) and 63.9 years (men), the sex ratio being 1.6 women to 1.0 men. In 77.6% of the cases, the polyp was located within the antrum, in 9.8% in the angular notch region, 1.4% in the pylorus, and 0.7% each in the fundus and cardia. The characteristic histological feature of these lesions is an eosinophil-containing, loosely structured fibrous tissue comprising an onion-skin-like arrangement of reticular fibers with spindle-shaped nuclei localized in the submucosa and the base of the mucosa. The polypous bulging mucosa was eroded in 26.8% and ulcerated in 3.5% of the cases. A comparison of the 147 cases collected from the literature with our own 143 cases revealed no differences. The rarity of inflammatory fibroid polyps in the stomach, their predominant location in the antrum, the age distribution and the observation that, after removal, these lesions do not recur, all go to suggest that the lesion is a reactive process (allergic or foreign body reaction), possibly a residual state following infestation by a parasite larva. PMID:2242737

  10. Endoscopic knot tying: In vitro assessment in a porcine stomach model

    PubMed Central

    Ciocirlan, Mihai; Ionescu, Mirela Elena; Diculescu, Mircea Mihai

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine if surgical knotting performed via endoscopy is an effective closure method for natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery. METHODS: The proposed method was tested on an in vitro pig stomach model using standard endoscopy suite materials. A single use laparoscopy trocar (Versaport Plus manufactured by Tyco Healthcare) was fixed onto a plastic rectangular box in a horizontal position. A fresh pig stomach was tightly attached via its esophageal end to the trocar opening on the inner side of the box. The stomach cavity was closed at the duodenal end with Kocher forceps. A standard upper gastrointestinal endoscope fitted at its tip with a transparent plastic cap was introduced into the stomach through the outer trocar opening, so that the passage of the surgical trocar would mimic the passage of an esophagus. The stomach was subsequently inflated, followed by irrigation and washing. A neutral electrode of an electrocautery unit was placed inside the plastic box, underneath the pig stomach. The stomach’s outer surface was kept moist using normal saline in order to maintain the natural elasticity and to ensure good contact with the electrode. RESULTS: The submucosal space on the anterior face of the stomach was accessed using the technique of endoscopic submucosal dissection. First, a site on the anterior face of the stomach was chosen, near the angle. Then, saline was injected into the submucosa with a standard endoscopic needle, so as to create a 20 mm diameter elevation. A linear 15 mm vertical incision was created at its center using a Dual Knife (KD650U manufactured by Olympus). This incision was used to access the submucosal space, and about 10 mm was dissected on both sides of the incision. The endoscope was then pushed through to the outside of the stomach after dilating a small puncture made by the Dual Knife in the muscularis propria, which simulated the peritoneoscopy procedure. Then, a 0.025” guidewire (Jagwire/450 cm manufactured

  11. The Stomach-Derived Hormone Ghrelin Increases Impulsive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Anderberg, Rozita H; Hansson, Caroline; Fenander, Maya; Richard, Jennifer E; Dickson, Suzanne L; Nissbrandt, Hans; Bergquist, Filip; Skibicka, Karolina P

    2016-01-01

    Impulsivity, defined as impaired decision making, is associated with many psychiatric and behavioral disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as well as eating disorders. Recent data indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between food reward behavior and impulsivity, but the mechanisms behind this relationship remain unknown. Here we hypothesize that ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone produced by the stomach and known to increase food reward behavior, also increases impulsivity. In order to assess the impact of ghrelin on impulsivity, rats were trained in three complementary tests of impulsive behavior and choice: differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL), go/no-go, and delay discounting. Ghrelin injection into the lateral ventricle increased impulsive behavior, as indicated by reduced efficiency of performance in the DRL test, and increased lever pressing during the no-go periods of the go/no-go test. Central ghrelin stimulation also increased impulsive choice, as evidenced by the reduced choice for large rewards when delivered with a delay in the delay discounting test. In order to determine whether signaling at the central ghrelin receptors is necessary for maintenance of normal levels of impulsive behavior, DRL performance was assessed following ghrelin receptor blockade with central infusion of a ghrelin receptor antagonist. Central ghrelin receptor blockade reduced impulsive behavior, as reflected by increased efficiency of performance in the DRL task. To further investigate the neurobiological substrate underlying the impulsivity effect of ghrelin, we microinjected ghrelin into the ventral tegmental area, an area harboring dopaminergic cell bodies. Ghrelin receptor stimulation within the VTA was sufficient to increase impulsive behavior. We further evaluated the impact of ghrelin on dopamine-related gene expression and dopamine turnover in brain areas key in impulsive behavior control. This study provides the first

  12. The Stomach-Derived Hormone Ghrelin Increases Impulsive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Anderberg, Rozita H; Hansson, Caroline; Fenander, Maya; Richard, Jennifer E; Dickson, Suzanne L; Nissbrandt, Hans; Bergquist, Filip; Skibicka, Karolina P

    2016-04-01

    Impulsivity, defined as impaired decision making, is associated with many psychiatric and behavioral disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as well as eating disorders. Recent data indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between food reward behavior and impulsivity, but the mechanisms behind this relationship remain unknown. Here we hypothesize that ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone produced by the stomach and known to increase food reward behavior, also increases impulsivity. In order to assess the impact of ghrelin on impulsivity, rats were trained in three complementary tests of impulsive behavior and choice: differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL), go/no-go, and delay discounting. Ghrelin injection into the lateral ventricle increased impulsive behavior, as indicated by reduced efficiency of performance in the DRL test, and increased lever pressing during the no-go periods of the go/no-go test. Central ghrelin stimulation also increased impulsive choice, as evidenced by the reduced choice for large rewards when delivered with a delay in the delay discounting test. In order to determine whether signaling at the central ghrelin receptors is necessary for maintenance of normal levels of impulsive behavior, DRL performance was assessed following ghrelin receptor blockade with central infusion of a ghrelin receptor antagonist. Central ghrelin receptor blockade reduced impulsive behavior, as reflected by increased efficiency of performance in the DRL task. To further investigate the neurobiological substrate underlying the impulsivity effect of ghrelin, we microinjected ghrelin into the ventral tegmental area, an area harboring dopaminergic cell bodies. Ghrelin receptor stimulation within the VTA was sufficient to increase impulsive behavior. We further evaluated the impact of ghrelin on dopamine-related gene expression and dopamine turnover in brain areas key in impulsive behavior control. This study provides the first

  13. Label-free identification of intestinal metaplasia in the stomach using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, G.; Wei, J.; Zheng, Z.; Ye, J.; Zeng, S.

    2014-06-01

    The early diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (IM) in the stomach together with effective therapeutic interventions is crucial to reducing the mortality-rates of the patients associated with gastric cancer. However, it is challenging during conventional white-light endoscopy, and histological analysis remains the ‘gold standard’ for the final diagnosis. Here, we describe a label-free imaging method, multiphoton microscopy (MPM), for the identification of IM in the stomach. It was found that multiphoton imaging provides cellular and subcellular details to the identification of IM from normal gastric tissues. In particular, there is significant difference in the population density of goblet cells between normal and IM gastric tissues, providing substantial potential to become a quantitative intrinsic marker for in vivo clinical diagnosis of early gastric lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the potential of MPM for the identification of IM.

  14. Effects of red blood cell lysing solutions on the detection of peripheral basophils of healthy normals and SLE patients by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qingjun; Ye, Ling; Deng, Zhenzhen; Li, Lu; Liu, Huafeng

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of four widely used red blood cell lysing solutions on counting and measurement of activation marker of peripheral basophils in normals and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients by flow cytometry. Our results showed that the light scatter properties including FS and SS value of leukocytes in whole blood were preserved when whole blood samples were lysed in RBC Lysis Buffer and FACS Lysing Solution, while were affected when lysed in distilled water or ACK. By counting basophils, RBC Lysis Buffer and FACS Lysing Solution were almost the same level, while were significantly lower when lysed in distilled water or ACK. The expressions of CD203c on peripheral basophils of SLE patients were significantly higher than those of normals. Comparing the data of CD203c expression obtained demonstrated that there were no significant differences among them, while FACS Lysing Solution treatment leads to a slightly lower staining intensity of CD203c. We provide a solid description that the widely used red blood cell lysing reagents may influence the light scatter properties of leukocytes, the accuracy of quantity of absolute number of the existence of basophil subsets and the quantity of staining intensity of cell-activated marker CD203c fluorescence when measured by flow cytometry. PMID:24593031

  15. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Remnant Stomach after Subtotal Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Sung; Kim, Dong Hee; Park, Seulkee; You, Ji Young; Han, Joon Kil; Kim, Seong Hwan; Lee, Ho Jung

    2016-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the stomach is a very rare disease. However, the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, and prognosis of gastric SCC are controversial and remain to be elucidated. Herein, we report a case of primary gastric SCC of the remnant stomach after subtotal gastrectomy. A 65-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to epigastric discomfort and dizziness. He had undergone subtotal gastrectomy 40 years previously for gastric ulcer perforation. Endoscopy revealed a normal esophagus and a large mass in the remnant stomach. Abdominal computed tomography revealed enhanced wall thickening of the anastomotic site and suspected metachronous gastric cancer. Endoscopic biopsy revealed SCC. Total gastrectomy was performed with Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy. A 10-cm tumor was located at the remnant stomach just proximal to the previous area of anastomosis. Pathologic examination showed well-differentiated SCC extended into the subserosa without lymph node involvement (T3N0M0). The patient received adjuvant systemic chemotherapy with 6 cycles of 5-FU and cisplatin regimen, and he is still alive at the 54-month follow-up. According to the treatment principles of gastric cancer, early detection and radical surgical resection can improve the prognosis. PMID:27433399

  16. High-resolution manometry findings in patients with an intrathoracic stomach.

    PubMed

    Martinelo, Vanderlei; Mardiros Herbella, Fernando Augusto; Patti, Marco G

    2015-04-01

    Intrathoracic stomach is a rare finding. The real value of the high-resolution manometry (HRM) in the preoperative evaluation of these patients has not yet being fully tested. This study aims to evaluate: 1) the HRM pattern of patients with an intrathoracic stomach; and 2) HRM findings as predictors for prosthetic reinforcement of the hiatus. We reviewed 33 patients (27 women, mean age 66 years) with an intrathoracic stomach who underwent HRM. Fifteen patients did the HRM as part of preoperative workup and were operated on in our institution. All patients were submitted to a laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. HRM results show that the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) was transposed in all patients. Hiatal hernia was diagnosed in 21 (63%) patients. The length of the hernia was 4 ± 2 cm (range, 1 to 9 cm). LES oscillation was observed in 23 (69%) patients with a mean of 1 ± 0.4 cm (range, 0.4 to 2 cm). Hiatal mesh reinforcement was necessary in five (33%) of the operated patients. HRM findings did not predict hiatal mesh reinforcement. Our results show that: 1) HRM has a poor sensibility for hiatal hernia diagnosis; 2) half of the patients with an intrathoracic stomach have a normal HRM; and 3) HRM does not predict mesh hiatal hernia repair. PMID:25831180

  17. The Risk of Heart Failure and Cardiometabolic Complications in Obesity May Be Masked by an Apparent Healthy Status of Normal Blood Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Shuchita; Mishra, Manish; Jadhav, Ashok; Gerger, Courtney; Lee, Paul; Weber, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Although many obese individuals are normoglycemic and asymptomatic of cardiometabolic complications, this apparent healthy state may be a misnomer. Since heart failure is a major cause of mortality in obesity, we investigated the effects of heme-oxygenase (HO) on heart failure and cardiometabolic complications in obese normoglycemic Zucker-fatty rats (ZFs). Treatment with the HO-inducer, hemin, reduced markers of heart failure, such as osteopontin and osteoprotegerin, abated left-ventricular (LV) hypertrophy/fibrosis, extracellular matrix/profibrotic proteins including collagen IV, fibronectin, TGF-β1, and reduced cardiac lesions. Furthermore, hemin suppressed inflammation by abating macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1 alpha, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β but enhanced adiponectin, atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP), HO activity, insulin sensitivity, and glucose metabolism. Correspondingly, hemin improved several hemodynamic/echocardiographic parameters including LV-diastolic wall thickness, LV-systolic wall thickness, mean-arterial pressure, arterial-systolic pressure, arterial-diastolic pressure, LV-developed pressure, +dP/dt, and cardiac output. Contrarily, the HO-inhibitor, stannous mesoporphyrin nullified the hemin effect, exacerbating inflammatory/oxidative insults and aggravated insulin resistance (HOMA-index). We conclude that perturbations in insulin signaling and cardiac function may be forerunners to overt hyperglycemia and heart failure in obesity. Importantly, hemin improves cardiac function by suppressing markers of heart failure, LV hypertrophy, cardiac lesions, extracellular matrix/profibrotic proteins, and inflammatory/oxidative mediators, while concomitantly enhancing the HO-adiponectin-ANP axis. PMID:24454978

  18. Evaluation of cytochrome P450 2C9 activity in normal, healthy, adult Western Indian population by both phenotyping and genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Swar, Balkrishna D.; Bendkhale, Shital R.; Rupawala, Abbas; Sridharan, Kannan; Gogtay, Nithya J.; Thatte, Urmila M.; Kshirsagar, Nilima A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) is a member of cytochrome P450 (CYP) family that accounts for nearly 18% of the total CYP protein content in the human liver microsomes and catalyzes almost 15–20% of the drugs. Considering the paucity of data on the polymorphisms of CYP2C9 in Western Indian population, the present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of CYP2C9 polymorphisms (*1, *2 and *3) and correlate it with the activity using flurbiprofen (FLB) as a probe drug. Materials and Methods: A 100 mg FLB capsule was administered to 298 healthy adult participants. Venous blood samples were analyzed at 2 h postdose for the estimation of FLB and 4-hydroxy FLB. Metabolic ratio (MR) was calculated to determine the extent of poor metabolizer (PM) and rapid metabolizer status using probit plot. Genotyping of CYP2C9 polymorphism was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Results: Of the total 298 participants, phenotype was assessable in 288 and genotype was performed in 289 participants. The median (range) MR of the study population was 6.6 (1.65–66.05). Five participants were found to be PMs by phenotype. Of the total 289 participants, 209 (72.3%) (66.7, 77.2) had CYP2C9*1/*1, 25 (8.7%) (5.8, 12.7) with CYP2C9*1/*2, 55 (19%) (14.8, 24.1) had CYP2C9*1/*3, 3 (1%) (0.3, 3.3) had CYP2C9*2/*3 genotype. A significant association between phenotype and genotype was observed. Conclusion: To conclude, the present study found significant association of CYP2C9 activity by both phenotype and genotype and these findings have to be corroborated in different kinds of patients. PMID:27298492

  19. [Late deficiency states in patients with a surgically treated stomach].

    PubMed

    Popova, D; Daskalov, M; Kostadinova, I

    1988-01-01

    37 patients with partial stomach resection because of peptic ulcer, performed 5 to 28 years before, were studied. In 29 patients the serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. In 19 patients several hematologic indices--hemoglobin, serum iron, erythrocyte morphology, proteinogram--were determined, too. The mean serum vit. B12 level was significantly lower than that of the control group of healthy persons. In 1/3 of these patients the low serum vit. B12 level was accompanied by manifested neurologic complications-myelopathy and polyneuropathy. The mean folic acid level was also low but statistically insignificantly and in patients the value was subnormal. In half of the patients a low degree hypochromic anemia was found. The role of vit. B12 deficiency in the pathogenesis of the neurologic manifestations is discussed and the determination of vit. B12 and folic acid levels is recommended in patients who had undergone gastric resection, especially after 5 years following the resection. PMID:3414095

  20. Apelin cells in the rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Susaki, Etsuko; Wang, Guiyun; Cao, Gan; Wang, Hui-Quin; Englander, Ella W; Greeley, George H

    2005-07-15

    Apelin is a recently discovered peptide that is the endogenous ligand for the APJ receptor. Apelin is produced in the central nervous system, heart, lung, mammary gland and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The aim of this study was to identify by immunohistochemistry (IHC) cell types in the rat stomach that produce apelin peptide. IHC revealed abundant apelin-positive cells, primarily in the neck and upper base regions of the gastric glands in the mucosal epithelium. Apelin is not detected in the muscle layer. Apelin-positive cells were identified as mucous neck, parietal cells, and chief cells. Apelin is also identified in gastric epithelial cells that produce chromogranin A (CGA), a marker of enteroendocrine cells. The findings that apelin is expressed in gastric exocrine and endocrine cells agrees with and extends other data showing that apelin peptide is measurable in the gut lumen and in the systemic circulation by immunoassay. PMID:15927696

  1. Morphometric Evaluation of Interrenal Gland and Kidney Macrophages Aggregates in Normal Healthy Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and after Bacterial Challenge with Yersinia ruckeri

    PubMed Central

    Gregori, Michela; Miragliotta, Vincenzo; Leotta, Roberto; Cecchini, Stefano; Prearo, Marino; Abramo, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage aggregates (MA) occur in various organs of fish as discrete aggregations of pigmented macrophages. The study presented herein investigates the quantitative modifications from normal anatomical condition, of interrenal gland (IG) and kidney MA in six treatment groups of adult rainbow trout submitted to either specific or aspecific immune stimulation and subsequently challenged with Yersinia ruckeri. Routinely stained tissue sections from both IG and kidney were analysed. The percentage of tissues occupied by MA and the MA density (number/mm2) were calculated on at least 10 randomly selected nonoverlapping fields taken from each tissue section. MA morphometric findings from challenged fish were compared to those from a control group. Results showed that fish from control group displayed a statistically significant (P < 0.05) higher percentage of tissue occupied by MA and MA density. Among different treatment groups, anti-Yersinia ruckeri immunized fish, which did not show clinical signs of disease after bacterial challenge, displayed higher values of morphometric parameters compared with symptomatic fish from other groups. Our study demonstrates that the quantification of the area occupied by MA might be an efficient parameter to evaluate the general condition of a salmonid population since it positively correlates with the health status and negatively with stress factor such as the acute bacterial infection. PMID:24719776

  2. Metastatic calcification of the stomach imaged on a bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.; Ryo, U.Y.; Pinsky, S.M.

    1984-10-01

    A whole body bone scan obtained on a 21-year-old woman with sickle cell disease and chronic renal failure showed localization of the radionuclide diffusely in the stomach. The localization of the radionuclide represented metastatic calcification of the stomach caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  3. Rupture of embolised coeliac artery pseudoaneurysm into the stomach: is coil embolisation an effective treatment for coeliac anastomotic pseudoaneurysm?

    PubMed

    Onohara, T; Okadome, K; Mii, S; Yasumori, K; Muto, Y; Sugimachi, K

    1992-05-01

    An elderly woman with an anastomotic pseudoaneurysm of the coeliac artery, after previous treatment of a thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm, was treated by stainless steel coil embolisation. One year later, the embolised pseudoaneurysm ruptured into the stomach and total gastrectomy and aneurysmorraphy was necessary. She is leading a normal life 6 months later. PMID:1592138

  4. [Effect of polypeptides isolated from cattle abomasum on stomach regenerative processes in rats].

    PubMed

    Chernukha, I M; Bogatyrev, A N; Dydykin, A S; Aslanova, M A; Fedulova, L V

    2014-01-01

    The effect of polypeptides isolated from cattle abomasum on regenerative processes of rat stomach upon simulating stomach mucosal damage caused by aspirin was studied. Experimental research was carried out on male Wistar rats with initial body weight of 230±20 g. The duration of the experiment was 22 days. The rats were divided into 4 equal groups (n=11). The first (control) group-consisted of the intact animals; animals from experimental groups 2-4 were intragastrically administered acetylsalicylic acid from the 1st to the 7th day for simulating stomach mucosal damage caused by aspirin (300 mg/100 g body weight). From day 8 to day 22, the animals were intragastrically adminitered the tested samples in the quantity of 2 ml per animal according tothe scheme: the 2nd group - distilled water, the 3d group - native abomasum extract; the 4 th group - thermally treated abomasum extract. Abomasum extract was obtained by extraction with 0,87% aqueous sodium chloride crushed abomasum and represented a liquid of cream color with protein mass content of 1,3 g/100 g of the product with high content of glutamic acid (15,5 g/100 g protein) and B-group vitamins. Electrophoretic analysis of the extract revealed several high molecular weight fractions in the range of 72 to 55 kDa. The bands with molecular masses 52, 43, 40, 37, 34, 26, 17 kDa were most pronounced; the intensive bands in the area 12 kDa and in the range lower than 10 kDa were revealed. The results of the conducted study show that the abomasum extracts both in the native and thermally treated form exert therapeutic action on animal with stomach mucosal damage caused by aspirin, have good antiulcer and gastroprotective activities upon stomach mucosa exposure to chemical damaging agents. The analysis of the hematological indices of the animals from the 3rd and 4th groups, which received the test samples after simulation, revealed the normalization of leukocyte, lymphocyte, granulocyte and monocyte content. This

  5. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Training and Jobs Home > Healthy Eyes Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... seeing your best. Read more. What are common vision problems? Some of the most common vision problems ...

  6. Detection of expressed IL-32 in human stomach cancer using ELISA and immunostaining.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eun-Hee; Kang, Jeongwoo; Kim, Ki-Hong; Cho, Min-Chul; Lee, Sojung; Kim, Hee-Jong; Kim, Jung-Hee; Kim, Eun-Jin; Park, Dong-Ki; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Choi, Yang Kyu; Kim, Jin Man; Hong, Jin Tae; Yoon, Do-Young

    2008-09-01

    Interleukin (IL)-32 is a recently identified proinflammatory cytokine that is one of the IL-18 inducible genes, and plays an important role in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We produced antibodies against IL-32 and studied the expression of IL-32 in human stomach cancer. We detected IL-32 secreted from K-562 cells that werw stably transfected with IL-32 and in the sera of stomach cancer patients, by a sandwich ELISA using a monoclonal antibody KU32-52 and a polyclonal antibody. In order to optimize a sandwich immunoassay, recombinant IL-32alpha was added, followed by the addition of a biotinylated KU32-52 into microtiter plate wells precoated with a goat anti-IL-32 antibody. The bound biotinylated KU32-52 was probed with a streptavidin conjugated to HRP. This sandwich ELISA was highly specific and had a minimal detection limit of 80 pg/ml (mean+/-SD of zero calibrator) and measuring up to 3,000 pg/ml. This ELISA showed no cross-reaction with other cytokines such as hIL-1alpha, hIL-1beta, hIL-2, hIL-6, hIL-8, hIL-10, hIL-18, and hTNF-alpha. Intra-assay coefficients of variation were 18.5% to 4.6% (n=10), and inter-assay coefficients were 23% to 9% (n=10). The average IL-32 level in the sera of 16 stomach cancer patients (189 pg/ml) was higher than that of 12 healthy control men (109 pg/ml). Our results indicate that serum IL-32 level can be detected by using an established ELISA, and that this immunoassay and mAb KU32-09 specific for immunohistochemistry can be used in the detection of expressed and secreted IL- 32 in stomach cancer patients. PMID:18852519

  7. Bortezomib With or Without Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Cancer of the Gastroesophageal Junction or Stomach

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-15

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  8. Everolimus and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Stomach or Esophageal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-27

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  9. Spicy food and the stomach. Evaluation by videoendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Graham, D Y; Smith, J L; Opekun, A R

    1988-12-16

    We used videoendoscopy to investigate the effect of eating spicy foods on the gastric mucosa. We employed four meals: a bland meal of unpeppered steak and french fries (negative control), a bland meal with 1950 mg of aspirin (positive control), a spicy Mexican meal (30 g of jalapeño peppers), and a pepperoni pizza. Twelve subjects (eight men and four women, aged 24 to 43 years) were studied in a randomized, crossover trial with the test meal given at the noon and evening meals; each subject received all four test meals. Each study consisted of a baseline endoscopy, which was repeated approximately 12 hours after the last test meal. Gastric and duodenal damage was scored using a modification of the Lanza scale. Eleven of 12 individuals taking the bland meal plus aspirin developed multiple gastric erosions (median score, C; which equates with "severe" injury). In contrast, the median endoscopic score for the other three meals was 0. Single cases of a single erosion were present after the Mexican meals and after the pizza meals. Another experiment was done to examine the effect of spices directly on the gastric mucosa; approximately 30 g of fresh jalapeño peppers was ground in a food processor and then placed directly into the stomach. Endoscopy after 24 hours revealed no visible mucosal damage. The ingestion of highly spiced meals by normal individuals is not associated with endoscopically demonstrable gastroduodenal mucosal damage. PMID:3210286

  10. [Stomach electrostimulation--new possibility for treating gastroparesis].

    PubMed

    Sobocki, J; Thor, P J; Popiela, T; Wasowicz, P; Herman, R M

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a large range of methods of human gastric pacing. Based on our own experience and literature authors discuss a variety of pacing models, current parameters and place of stimulation. We described a new method of intragastric stimulation as a method of treatment of postoperative, pharmacotherapy resistant gastroparesis. Five patients were included in to the study (3 male and 2 female). The current parameters were as follow: square profile, amplitude 2V (2mA), frequency 6 ips.p.m., duration 3 hours. Two electrodes located on nasogastric catheter (external diameter 1.5 mm) were placed in antral region of the stomach and connected to the computer preprogrammed stimulator. Electrostimulation was accompanied by the continuous cutaneous EGG monitoring (Synectics Sweden). Excellent results were obtained in 3 patients (60%) with disappearance of symptoms, rumbling, normalization in gastric myoelectric rhythm (2-4 cpm > 85%) and with increase in amplitude (average 250%). In one patient with the gastrectasia, symptoms returned next day and stimulation had to be repeated for several days. In another one results were not satisfying. Authors conclude that gastric pacing has made tremendous progress fast developing method in last decade and in most patient is efficient for treatment postoperative gastroparesis. PMID:10909475

  11. The gastrointestinal microbiome - functional interference between stomach and intestine.

    PubMed

    Lopetuso, Loris R; Scaldaferri, Franco; Franceschi, Francesco; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex and dynamic network with interplay between various gut mucosal cells and their defence molecules, the immune system, food particles, and the resident microbiota. This ecosystem acts as a functional unit organized as a semipermeable multi-layer system that allows the absorption of nutrients and macromolecules required for human metabolic processes and, on the other hand, protects the individual from potentially invasive microorganisms. Commensal microbiota and the host are a unique entity in a continuum along the GI tract, every change in one of these players is able to modify the whole homeostasis. In the stomach, Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogen that is widespread all over the world, infecting more than 50% of the world's population. In this scenario, H. pylori infection is associated with changes in the gastric microenvironment, which in turn affects the gastric microbiota composition, but also might trigger large intestinal microbiota changes. It is able to influence all the vital pathways of human system and also to influence microbiota composition along the GI tract. This can cause a change in the normal functions exerted by intestinal commensal microorganisms leading to a new gastrointestinal physiological balance. This review focuses and speculates on the possible interactions between gastric microorganisms and intestinal microbiota and on the consequences of this interplay in modulating gut health. PMID:25439066

  12. Adenocarcinoma of the stomach and exposure to occupational dust

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, W.E.; Bernstein, L.; Peters, J.M.; Garabrant, D.H.; Mack, T.M.

    1988-07-01

    The authors studied 1342 cases of adenocarcinoma of the stomach identified by a population-based cancer registry in Los Angeles County, California. The cases were males aged 20-64 years first diagnosed between 1972 and 1982. To determine whether exposure to occupational dust increased the risk of developing stomach cancer, occupational titles were rated for the likelihood of exposure to various kinds of dust. Men who worked in dusty jobs had a risk for developing stomach cancer 1.3 times that of unexposed men. The association of exposure to dust with stomach cancer was stronger at higher levels of exposure. The risk was not uniform throughout the stomach: the highest risk (1.8 times that of unexposed men) was found for the antrum/pylorus. At that site, exposure to mineral dust carried the greatest risk for cancer (3.7 times the risk for unexposed men). The highest risks from dust exposure were observed in blacks. Risk was related to race, socioeconomic status, and immigrant status, but these factors did not entirely explain the association with dust exposure. The observed relation between dust exposure and stomach cancer is consistent with results of previous mortality and case-control studies of cancer in men who worked in dusty occupations. Ingested dust may be one factor in the etiology of adenocarcinoma of the stomach.

  13. Occupation and stomach cancer in a cohort of Swedish men.

    PubMed

    Chow, W H; McLaughlin, J K; Malker, H S; Weiner, J A; Ericsson, J L; Stone, B J; Blot, W J

    1994-10-01

    Using the Cancer-Environment Registry of Sweden, which links the 1960 census information on employment with cancer incidence data from 1961-1979, we conducted a systematic, population-based assessment of stomach cancer incidence by industry and occupation for men in Sweden. Nearly 17,000 stomach cancer cases were diagnosed during the 19 years of follow-up. Stomach cancer incidence was elevated among miners and quarrymen, farmers and fishermen, and craftsmen and production workers. Men who held white collar jobs, including professional and technical, administrative and management, clerical, and sales jobs, had a reduction in stomach cancer incidence. Examination of specific jobs revealed generally elevated rates of stomach cancer among men who may be exposed to dusty work environments, such as quarry workers, stone cutters, circular and plane operators, construction workers, crane operators, heavy laborers, and shop and construction metal workers. These occupational associations mostly were observed for stomach cancers of noncardia origin, and no significant associations were found with cardia cancers. We had no information on dietary or other potential confounding factors and cannot make inferences about the role of occupation per se, but the current findings support those of earlier investigations and add to the evidence of a small but significant occupational role in stomach carcinogenesis. PMID:7810549

  14. How Does the Stomach Pump?---A Fluid Dynamics Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Anupam; Abrahamsson, Bertil

    2005-11-01

    The stomach is a pump that empties viscous liquid from a flexible bag (fundus) through a valve (pylorus) by slow squeeze of fundic muscle. In addition, peristaltic contraction waves (CW) travel periodically towards the pylorus in the lower stomach to grind/mix content. As each CW approaches the pylorus, it deepens and the pylorus momentarily closes. Since liquid empties from the pyloric region, one expects content at the farthest reaches of the stomach to empty last. To study the patterns of gastric emptying we applied the lattice Boltzmann method with moving boundary conditions coupled with a stomach geometry model parameterized using MRI. By marking fluid particles leaving the stomach over a 10 min period, we discovered that the CWs create a narrow path of emptying, or ``Magenstrasse'' (stomach road) that directs content from the farthest reaches of the stomach to the pylorus with relatively little mixing. Thus, while drug released off the Magenstrasse (MS) can take an hour or more to empty at low concentration, when released on the MS the drug empties within 10 minutes at high concentration---a discovery with potential implications to other pumping systems.

  15. Production of ghrelin by the stomach of patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kizaki, Junya; Aoyagi, Keishiro; Sato, Takahiro; Kojima, Masayasu; Shirouzu, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Poor nutrition and weight loss are important factors contributing to poor quality of life (QOL) after gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer. Ghrelin is a hormone produced by the stomach that, plays a role in appetite increase and fat storage. The present study aims to clarify the location of ghrelin mRNA in the stomach, changes in blood ghrelin concentrations after gastrectomy and whether or not they are associated with the reconstruction method in patients with gastric cancer. We collected seven normal mucosa samples from different parts of six totally resected stomachs with gastric cancer. We extracted RNA from the normal mucosa, synthesized cDNA from total RNA (1 μg), and then quantified ghrelin mRNA using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Ghrelin blood concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits in 74 patients with gastric cancer (total gastrectomy (TG), n=23; distal gastrectomy (DG), n=30; proximal gastrectomy (PG), n=11; pylorus preserving gastrectomy (PPG), n=10). In order, the ghrelin gene was expressed most frequently in the gastric body, followed by the fornix, cardia, antrum and pylorus ring. Blood ghrelin concentrations after surgery similarly changed in all groups. The average blood ghrelin concentrations were significantly higher in the DG and PPG groups than in the TG group on postoperative days (POD) 1, 7, 30, 90 and 180. However, blood ghrelin concentrations did not significantly differ between the DG and TG groups on POD 270 and 360. Cells that produce ghrelin are supposed to be located mostly in the fundic gland of the stomach. We speculate that the production of ghrelin from other organs increases from around nine months after total gastrectomy. Therefore, evaluating the nutritional status and the weight of patients at nine months after total gastrectomy is important to help these patients improve their QOL. PMID:24858413

  16. Studies on the regulation of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) by acid in the esophagus and stomach.

    PubMed

    Banovcin, P; Halicka, J; Halickova, M; Duricek, M; Hyrdel, R; Tatar, M; Kollarik, M

    2016-07-01

    Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR) is the major mechanism of gastroesophageal reflux, but the regulation of TLESR by stimuli in the esophagus is incompletely understood. We have recently reported that acid infusion in the esophagus substantially (by 75%) increased the number of meal-induced TLESR in healthy subjects. We concluded that the TLESR reflex triggered by gastric distention with meal was enhanced by the stimulation of esophageal nerves by acid. However, the possibilities that the acid infused into the esophagus acts after passing though lower esophageal sphincter in stomach to enhance TLESR, or that the acid directly initiates TLESR from the esophagus were not addressed. Here, we evaluated the effect of acid infusion into the proximal stomach on meal-induced TLESR (study 1) and the ability of acid infusion into the esophagus to initiate TLESR without prior meal (study 2). We analyzed TLESRs by using high-resolution manometry in healthy subjects in paired randomized studies. In study 1, we found that acid infusion into the proximal stomach did not affect TLESRs induced by standard meal. The number of meal-induced TLESRs following the acid infusion into the proximal stomach was similar to the number of meal-induced TLESRs following the control infusion. In study 2, we found that acid infusion into the esophagus without prior meal did not initiate TLESRs. We conclude that the increase in the meal-induced TLESRs by acid in the esophagus demonstrated in our previous study is not attributable to the action of acid in the stomach or to direct initiation of TLESR from the esophagus by acid. Our studies are consistent with the concept that the stimuli in the esophagus can influence TLESRs. The enhancement of TLESR by acid in the esophagus may contribute to pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux in some patients. PMID:25873206

  17. Lactobacilli isolated from the stomach of conventional mice.

    PubMed Central

    Roach, S; Savage, D C; Tannock, G W

    1977-01-01

    Twenty strains of lactobacilli isolated from the stomach of conventional mice were tested for their ability to ferment or hydrolyze substrates that may be present in the stomach habitat. The lactobacilli could be placed in four groups (A to D) depending on their ability to ferment N-acetylglucosamine, dextrin, cellobiose, gum arabic, and xylan. The majority of the isolates belonged to groups A and D. Group A strains did not resemble previously described Lactobacillus species, but group D strains were identified as L. leichmannii. A representative group A isolate colonized the surface of the nonsecretory epithelium of the stomach of gnotobiotic mice; a group D isolate did not. Images PMID:879776

  18. Gender and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in MTHFR, BHMT, SPTLC1, CRBP2, CETP, and SCARB1 Are Significant Predictors of Plasma Homocysteine Normalized by RBC Folate in Healthy Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Andrew J.; Chen, Kehui; McWade, Laura; Rincon, Gonzalo; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Holstege, Dirk M.; Owens, Janel E.; Liu, Bitao; Müller, Hans-Georg; Medrano, Juan F.; Fadel, James G.; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Baer, David J.; Novotny, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    Using linear regression models, we studied the main and 2-way interaction effects of the predictor variables gender, age, BMI, and 64 folate/vitamin B-12/homocysteine (Hcy)/lipid/cholesterol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on log-transformed plasma Hcy normalized by RBC folate measurements (nHcy) in 373 healthy Caucasian adults (50% women). Variable selection was conducted by stepwise Akaike information criterion or least angle regression and both methods led to the same final model. Significant predictors (where P values were adjusted for false discovery rate) included type of blood sample [whole blood (WB) vs. plasma-depleted WB; P < 0.001] used for folate analysis, gender (P < 0.001), and SNP in genes SPTLC1 (rs11790991; P = 0.040), CRBP2 (rs2118981; P < 0.001), BHMT (rs3733890; P = 0.019), and CETP (rs5882; P = 0.017). Significant 2-way interaction effects included gender × MTHFR (rs1801131; P = 0.012), gender × CRBP2 (rs2118981; P = 0.011), and gender × SCARB1 (rs83882; P = 0.003). The relation of nHcy concentrations with the significant SNP (SPTLC1, BHMT, CETP, CRBP2, MTHFR, and SCARB1) is of interest, especially because we surveyed the main and interaction effects in healthy adults, but it is an important area for future study. As discussed, understanding Hcy and genetic regulation is important, because Hcy may be related to inflammation, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus. We conclude that gender and SNP significantly affect nHcy. PMID:22833659

  19. Alcohol, Processed Meats May Raise Stomach Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158407.html Alcohol, Processed Meats May Raise Stomach Cancer Risk Excess ... 21, 2016 WEDNESDAY, April 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Alcohol, processed meats -- such as hot dogs, ham and ...

  20. Frequent detection of stomach contents in accidental drowning.

    PubMed

    Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Ryo; Nakao, Ken-Ichiro

    2011-07-01

    We analysed forensic autopsies of 536 consecutive adults to determine the relationship between the presence of stomach contents and the manner of death. Stomach contents were identified in 27 (79.4%) of 34 accidental drownings and in 22 (43.1%) of 51 suicidal drownings (P < 0.01). Accidental drowning was the manner of death most frequently associated with the presence of stomach contents, and stomach contents were found significantly more often in this type of death than in suicidal drowning. These findings indicate that food intake is a factor possibly related to accidental drowning and suggest that fasting may be required before swimming or taking a bath to prevent accidental drowning. PMID:21905572

  1. Gut Feelings About Gastritis: When Your Stomach's Sick

    MedlinePlus

    ... I tell people H. pylori is like having termites in your stomach,” says Dr. David Graham, an ... Texas. “You usually don’t know you have termites until someone tells you, and you ignore it ...

  2. Alcohol, Processed Meats May Raise Stomach Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... unit increase in body mass index -- BMI, a ratio of weight to height -- causes a 23 percent ... stomach cancer, diet, physical activity and weight. The analysis included 89 studies covering 17.5 million adults, ...

  3. The healthy human microbiome.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Price, Jason; Abu-Ali, Galeb; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Humans are virtually identical in their genetic makeup, yet the small differences in our DNA give rise to tremendous phenotypic diversity across the human population. By contrast, the metagenome of the human microbiome-the total DNA content of microbes inhabiting our bodies-is quite a bit more variable, with only a third of its constituent genes found in a majority of healthy individuals. Understanding this variability in the "healthy microbiome" has thus been a major challenge in microbiome research, dating back at least to the 1960s, continuing through the Human Microbiome Project and beyond. Cataloguing the necessary and sufficient sets of microbiome features that support health, and the normal ranges of these features in healthy populations, is an essential first step to identifying and correcting microbial configurations that are implicated in disease. Toward this goal, several population-scale studies have documented the ranges and diversity of both taxonomic compositions and functional potentials normally observed in the microbiomes of healthy populations, along with possible driving factors such as geography, diet, and lifestyle. Here, we review several definitions of a 'healthy microbiome' that have emerged, the current understanding of the ranges of healthy microbial diversity, and gaps such as the characterization of molecular function and the development of ecological therapies to be addressed in the future. PMID:27122046

  4. Rare Synchronous Gastrointestinal Plasmacytomas of Colon and Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Supreet; Dang, Shyam; Aduli, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) plasmacytomas, though relatively uncommon, can occur with or without multiple myeloma. The small intestine is the most commonly involved GI site, followed by stomach, colon, and esophagus. Synchronous plasmacytomas involving 2 anatomically distinct regions of gastrointestinal tract have never been reported in the literature. We report a case of a multiple myeloma patient who had acute-onset hematochezia and was found to have synchronous plasmacytomas of the colon and stomach. PMID:26203446

  5. Rupture of the stomach following mouth-to-mouth respiration

    PubMed Central

    Solowiejczyk, M.; Wapnick, S.; Koren, E.; Mandelbaum, J.

    1974-01-01

    Successful repair and survival after rupture of the stomach in a patient who received mouth-to-mouth respiration is presented. We were able to find only one report in the literature where rupture of the stomach occurred following this manoeuvre—the patient did not survive. The possible aetiological factors and measures designed to avoid this complication are discussed. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:4469046

  6. Rare Synchronous Gastrointestinal Plasmacytomas of Colon and Stomach.

    PubMed

    Syal, Gaurav; Sethi, Supreet; Dang, Shyam; Aduli, Farshad

    2015-07-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) plasmacytomas, though relatively uncommon, can occur with or without multiple myeloma. The small intestine is the most commonly involved GI site, followed by stomach, colon, and esophagus. Synchronous plasmacytomas involving 2 anatomically distinct regions of gastrointestinal tract have never been reported in the literature. We report a case of a multiple myeloma patient who had acute-onset hematochezia and was found to have synchronous plasmacytomas of the colon and stomach. PMID:26203446

  7. A combination of intramural stomach and portal venous air: conservative treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Prabin; Akl, Elias George

    2016-01-01

    Emphysematous gastritis is a severe and rare form of gastritis with characteristic findings of intramural gas in the stomach. It is an acute life-threatening condition resulting from gas-producing microorganisms invading the stomach wall. Early diagnosis and initiation of treatment with bowel rest, hydration, and intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics is imperative for an effective outcome. Surgical intervention is reserved for perforations, peritonitis, strictures, and uncontrolled disseminated sepsis. We present a case of an 82-year-old female with prior history of colon and uterine cancer on remission treated with surgeries who presented with bilious vomiting, abdominal discomfort, and nausea. She was tachycardic and had a diffusely tender abdomen with rebound on examination. Her laboratory results including blood count, serum chemistry, and coagulation studies were normal. She was diagnosed with emphysematous gastritis based on the characteristic radiographic findings of intramural stomach gas and also the presence of gas in the portal venous system. It is important to differentiate emphysematous gastritis from gastric emphysema because of the difference in management and prognosis, as emphysematous gastritis has a worse outcome and requires aggressive management. Despite an anticipated poor prognosis due to the known grave outcomes of emphysematous gastritis, our patient was successfully managed with conservative treatment. We concluded that she developed emphysematous gastritis probably secondary to immunosuppression and possible mucosal tears from multiple bouts of vomiting. She had a stable hospital course and resolution with medical management most likely due to early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment. PMID:26908389

  8. Diets of introduced predators using stable isotopes and stomach contents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meckstroth, A.M.; Miles, A.K.; Chandra, S.

    2007-01-01

    In a study of predation on ground-nesting birds at South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California, USA, we analyzed stomach contents and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to identify commonly consumed prey. We obtained the stomach contents from 206 nonnative red foxes (Vulpes vulpes regalis) collected in the South Bay area and Monterey County during 1995-2001 and from 68 feral cats (Felis silvestris) from the South Bay area during 2001-2002. We determined prey identity, biomass, and frequency, described seasonal diet trends, and derived an Index of Relative Importance. Avian species were the most frequent prey we found in the stomachs of red foxes from South Bay (61%), whereas small rodents were most frequent for red foxes from Monterey County (62%). Small rodents were the most frequent prey we found in feral cats (63%). Carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures for foxes supported stomach content findings. However, isotope results indicated that cats received a majority of their energy from a source other than rodents and outside the natural system, which differed from the stomach content analysis. We demonstrated the utility of both stable isotope and stomach content analyses to establish a more complete understanding of predators' diets. This information aids natural resource managers in planning and evaluating future predator-removal programs and increases our understanding of the impacts of nonnative foxes and cats on native species.

  9. Helicobacter pylori in human oral cavity and stomach.

    PubMed

    Bürgers, Ralf; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Reischl, Udo; Behr, Anke; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Lehn, Norbert; Schmalz, Gottfried; Ruhl, Stefan

    2008-08-01

    The oral cavity has been suspected as an extra-gastroduodenal reservoir for Helicobacter pylori infection and transmission, but conflicting evidence exists regarding the occurrence of H. pylori in the mouth, independently of stomach colonization. Ninety-four gastric biopsy patients were analysed for the concurrent presence of H. pylori in the mouth and stomach. Samples were collected from different areas within the mouth and H. pylori DNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and verified by sequencing. Helicobacter pylori-specific serology was performed, and stomach colonization was determined by culture. In addition, relevant dental and periodontal parameters, as well as general health parameters, were recorded. Helicobacter pylori was found in the stomach of 29 patients and in the oral cavity of 16 patients. In only six patients was the bacterium detected simultaneously in the stomach and mouth. Notably, the 10 patients in whom the bacterium was found solely in the mouth did not have serum antibodies to H. pylori. The occurrence of H. pylori in the mouth was found to be correlated neither to any general or oral health parameters, nor to any particular site of collection. This study shows that H. pylori can occur in the oral cavity independently of stomach colonization. PMID:18705796

  10. A novel broadband Raman endoscopy for in vivo diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia in the stomach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kan; Bergholt, Mads S.; Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Xu, Hongzhi; Ren, Jian-lin; Ho, Khek Yu; Teh, Ming; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2015-03-01

    We report a novel simultaneous fingerprint (FP) and high-wavenumber (HW) fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy developed for in vivo diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (IM) in the stomach under wide-field endoscopic imaging. The FP/HW Raman endoscopy technique was performed to differentiate IM from normal tissues with sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 83%. This study shows the great potential of the FP/HW Raman endoscopic technique for early diagnosis of non-neoplastic gastric disease in vivo during routine endoscopic examination.

  11. Spatial Analysis of Stomach Cancer Incidence in Iran.

    PubMed

    Pakzad, Reza; Khani, Yousef; Pakzad, Iraj; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Mohammadian-Hashejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid; Towhidi, Farhad; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza

    2016-01-01

    Stomach cancer, the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death through the world, is very common in parts of Iran. Geographic variation in the incidence of stomach cancer is due to many different factors. The aim of this study was to assess the geographical and spatial distribution of stomach cancer in Iran using data from the cancer registry program in Iran for the year 2009. The reported incidences of stomach cancer for different provinces were standardized to the world population structure. ArcGIS software was used to analyse the data. Hot spots and high risk areas were determined using spatial analysis (Getis-Ord Gi). Hot and cold spots were determined as more than or less than 2 standard deviations from the national average, respectively. A significance level of 0.10 was used for statistical judgment. In 2009, a total of 6,886 cases of stomach cancers were reported of which 4,891 were in men and 1,995 in women (standardized incidence rates of 19.2 and 10.0, respectively, per 100,000 population). The results showed that stomach cancer was concentrated mainly in northwest of the country in both men and women. In women, northwest provinces such as Ardebil, East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijan, Gilan, and Qazvin were identified as hot spots (p<0.1). In men, all northwest provinces, Ardabil, East Azerbaijan, Gilan, Qazvin, Zanjan and Kurdistan, the incidences were higher than the national average and these were identified as hot spots (P<0.01). As stomach cancer is clustered in the northwest of the country, further epidemiological studies are needed to identify factors contributing to this concentration. PMID:27165203

  12. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

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    MedlinePlus

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    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

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  15. Exceptionally rare cause of a total stomach resection

    PubMed Central

    Snarska, Jadwiga; Jacyna, Krzysztof; Janiszewski, Jacek; Shafie, Danuta; Iwanowicz, Katarzyna; Żurada, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The first-ever case of a 54-year-old woman who overdosed on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in an attempt at suicide. Before that incident, she had not been treated for coexisting diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or depression. At the time of admission to the General Surgery Department, the patient reported pains in the epigastric region with accompanying nausea and vomiting with mucous content as well as the inability to ingest food orally. Despite parenteral and enteral feeding, the patient exhibited a drop in body mass. The histopathologic examination of a sample taken from the stomach during gastroscopy showed some non-specific necrotic and inflammatory masses with granulation. Intraoperatively, a very small, infiltrated stomach with an initial section of duodenum was identified. A total stomach resection together with the reconstruction of digestive tract continuity was performed using the Roux-Y method. Histopathologic examination of the stomach revealed a deep, chronic and exacerbated inflammatory condition with an extensive ulceration over the entire length of the stomach, reaching up to the pylorus. Additionally, numerous lymphatic glands with inflammatory reaction changes were observed. PMID:22654458

  16. Expression of tmp21 in normal adult human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jian; Yang, Yuan; Li, Jianbo; Hou, Jing; Xia, Kun; Song, Weihong; Liu, Shengchun

    2014-01-01

    TMP21, known as p23 protein, is one important member of the p24 protein families. The degradation of TMP21 is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, as with the other presenilin-associated γ-secretase complex members. NFAT plays a very important role in regulation of human TMP21 gene expression. Compared with the function of TMP21, the studies about the distribution of this protein in human tissues are limited. We collected 19 normal adult human tissues from a healthy adult man died in a traffic accident and did examination of all the tissues collected for ICH, western blot and RT-PCR. It was shown that the expression of TMP21 is at high levels in heart, liver, lung, kidney and adrenal gland; moderate levels in brain, pancreas, prostate gland, testicle, small intestine, colon, stomach, gall bladder, thyroid gland and trachea; low levels in skeletal muscle, skin and lymphonodus. TMP21 is widely existed in normal adult human tissues. The current study provided for the first time a comprehensive expression of TMP21 in normal adult human tissues. It will benefit on helping in the design and interpretation of future studies focused on expounding the function of TMP21. PMID:25356171

  17. Rare Helicobacter pylori Infection May Explain Low Stomach Cancer Incidence: Ecological Observations in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tsutomu; Mulyadi, I Ketut; Moestikaningsih; Oka, Tjok Gede; Soeripto; Triningsih, Fx Ediati; Triyono, Teguh; Heriyanto, Didik Setyo; Hosono, Akihiro; Suzuki, Sadao; Tokudome, Shinkan

    2016-01-01

    The incidence rate of stomach cancer in Bali, Indonesia, is estimated to be strikingly lower than that in Japan. We conducted an on-site ecological study to investigate the association between the stomach cancer incidence and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Recruiting 291 healthy persons (136 men and 155 women) from the general population in Bali, Indonesia, we conducted a urea breath test (UBT) to examine H. pylori infection, along with a pepsinogen test to detect chronic atrophic gastritis and urine analysis to estimate sodium and potassium excretion. UBT positivities were 9% (2-15, 95% confidence interval) for men and 7% (1-12) for women, and positive cases for H. pylori IgG antibodies were 1% (0-3) for men and 3% (0-5) for women, significantly lower than the respective values in Japan. Positive pepsinogen tests in Bali were 0% (0-0) for men and 1% (0-4) for women, also significantly lower than the Japanese figures. Computed values for daily salt excretion were 13.3±4.1 g (mean ± SD) for men and 11.1±3.1 g for women, as high as corresponding Japanese consumption values. Moreover, the estimated potassium excretion was 3.2±0.7 g for men and 2.8±0.6 g for women in Bali, significantly higher than the figures in Japan. There were no associations across genetic polymorphisms of IL-beta, TNF-alpha, and PTPN11 with UBT positivity. The low incidence of stomach cancer in Bali may thus mainly be due to the rare H. pylori infection. Namely, the bacterium infection seems to be a critical factor for gastric cancer rather than host or other environmental factors. PMID:27039823

  18. Normal faults, normal friction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collettini, Cristiano; Sibson, Richard H.

    2001-10-01

    Debate continues as to whether normal faults may be seismically active at very low dips (δ < 30°) in the upper continental crust. An updated compilation of dip estimates (n = 25) has been prepared from focal mechanisms of shallow, intracontinental, normal-slip earthquakes (M > 5.5; slip vector raking 90° ± 30° in the fault plane) where the rupture plane is unambiguously discriminated. The dip distribution for these moderate-to-large normal fault ruptures extends from 65° > δ > 30°, corresponding to a range, 25° < θr < 60°, for the reactivation angle between the fault and inferred vertical σ1. In a comparable data set previously obtained for reverse fault ruptures (n = 33), the active dip distribution is 10° < δ = θr < 60°. For vertical and horizontal σ1 trajectories within extensional and compressional tectonic regimes, respectively, dip-slip reactivation is thus restricted to faults oriented at θr ≤ 60° to inferred σ1. Apparent lockup at θr ≈ 60° in each dip distribution and a dominant 30° ± 5° peak in the reverse fault dip distribution, are both consistent with a friction coefficient μs ≈ 0.6, toward the bottom of Byerlee's experimental range, though localized fluid overpressuring may be needed for reactivation of less favorably oriented faults.

  19. Application of 5-ALA for differential diagnostics of stomach diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okhotnikova, Natalja L.; Dadvany, Sergey A.; Kuszin, Michail I.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Zavodnov, Victor Y.; Sklyanskaya, Olga A.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Volkova, Anna I.; Agafonov, Valery V.

    2001-01-01

    59 patients with stomach diseases including gastric cancer or polyp, gastritis, esofagus disease were investigated. Before gastroscopy all patients were given 5-ALA in doses 5mg, 10mg and 20mg per 1kg of body weight orally. Fluorescence diagnostics which estimates concentration of ALA-induced PPIX in regular and alternated tissues of gastric mucosa were carried out in 2-4 hours. Using of 5-ALA has shown high diagnostic effectiveness for differential diagnostics of stomach diseases. This technique has proved 10 diagnosis of cancer and revealed 15 malignant stomach diseases including 4 cancer in situ for patients with preliminary diagnosis of gastric ulcer. It also revealed 5 patients with enhanced fluorescence for which aimed biopsy has shown high degree of inflammation process. The latter were assigned as a risk group.

  20. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation under a High-Fat Diet Modulates Stomach Protein Expression and Intestinal Microbiota in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, Alice; Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Palou, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a physiological interface integrating nutrient and microbiota-host metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to contribute to decreased body weight and fat accretion. The modulation by dietary CLA of stomach proteins related to energy homeostasis or microbiota may be involved, although this has not been previously analysed. This is examined in the present study, which aims to underline the potential mechanisms of CLA which contribute to body weight regulation. Adult mice were fed either a normal fat (NF, 12% kJ content as fat) or a high-fat (HF, 43% kJ content as fat) diet. In the latter case, half of the animals received daily oral supplementation of CLA. Expression and content of stomach proteins and specific bacterial populations from caecum were analysed. CLA supplementation was associated with an increase in stomach protein expression, and exerted a prebiotic action on both Bacteroidetes/Prevotella and Akkermansia muciniphila. However, CLA supplementation was not able to override the negative effects of HF diet on Bifidobacterium spp., which was decreased in both HF and HF+CLA groups. Our data show that CLA are able to modulate stomach protein expression and exert a prebiotic effect on specific gut bacterial species. PMID:25915857

  1. Fish stomach contents in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage assessments.

    PubMed

    Tupinambás, T H; Pompeu, P S; Gandini, C V; Hughes, R M; Callisto, M

    2015-01-01

    The choice of sampling gears to assess benthic macroinvertebrate communities depends on environmental characteristics, study objectives, and cost effectiveness. Because of the high foraging capacity and diverse habitats and behaviors of benthophagous fishes, their stomach contents may offer a useful sampling tool in studies of benthic macroinvertebrates, especially in large, deep, fast rivers that are difficult to sample with traditional sediment sampling gear. Our objective was to compare the benthic macroinvertebrate communities sampled from sediments with those sampled from fish stomachs. We collected benthic macroinvertebrates and fish from three different habitat types (backwater, beach, riffle) in the wet season, drying season, and dry season along a single reach of the Grande River (Paraná River Basin, southeast Brazil). We sampled sediments through use of a Petersen dredge (total of 216 grabs) and used gill nets to sample fish (total of 36 samples). We analyzed the stomach contents of three commonly occurring benthophagous fish species (Eigenmannia virescens, Iheringichthys labrosus, Leporinus amblyrhynchus). Chironomids dominated in both sampling methods. Macroinvertebrate taxonomic composition and abundances from fish stomachs differed from those from sediment samples, but less so from riffles than from backwater and beach habitats. Macroinvertebrate taxa from E. virescens stomachs were more strongly correlated with sediment samples from all three habitats than were those from the other two species. The species accumulation curves and higher mean dispersion values, compared with with sediment samples suggest that E. virescens is more efficient than sediment samples and the other fish studied at collecting benthic taxa. We conclude that by analyzing the stomach contents of benthophagous fishes it is possible to assess important characteristics of benthic communities (dispersion, taxonomic composition and diversity). This is especially true for studies

  2. Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of stomach and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Jeongseon

    2013-01-01

    Stomach and colorectal cancers are common cancers and leading causes of cancer deaths. Because the alimentary tract can interact directly with dietary components, stomach and colorectal cancer may be closely related to dietary intake. We systematically searched published literature written in English via PubMed by searching for terms related to stomach and colorectal cancer risk and dietary flavonoids up to June 30, 2012. Twenty-three studies out of 209 identified articles were finally selected for the analysis. Log point effect estimates and the corresponding standard errors were calculated using covariate-adjusted point effect estimates and 95%CIs from the selected studies. Total dietary flavonoid intake was not associated with a reduced risk of colorectal or stomach cancer [odds ratio (OR) (95%CI) = 1.00 (0.90-1.11) and 1.07 (0.70-1.61), respectively]. Among flavonoid subclasses, the intake of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidins, and proanthocyanidins showed a significant inverse association with colorectal cancer risk [OR (95%CI) = 0.71 (0.63-0.81), 0.88 (0.79-0.97), 0.68 (0.56-0.82), and 0.72 (0.61-0.85), respectively]. A significant association was found only between flavonols and stomach cancer risk based on a limited number of selected studies [OR (95%CI) = 0.68 (0.46-0.99)]. In the summary estimates from case-control studies, all flavonoid subclasses except flavones and flavanones were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, whereas neither total flavonoids nor any subclasses of flavonoids were associated with colorectal cancer risk in the summary estimates based on the cohort studies. The significant association between flavonoid subclasses and cancer risk might be closely related to bias derived from the case-control design. There was no clear evidence that dietary flavonoids are associated with reduced risk of stomach and colorectal cancer. PMID:23467443

  3. Stomach emptiness in fishes: Sources of variation and study design implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vinson, M.R.; Angradi, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    This study summarizes fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections and reports on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs. The mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs among all species, locations, habitats, seasons, regions, and collection methods was 26.4%. Mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs varied significantly among fish collection gear types, taxonomic orders, trophic groups, feeding behaviors, and habitats, and with species length at maturity. Most of the variation in percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was explained by species length at maturity, fish collection gear type, and two autecological factors: trophic group (piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > non-piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs) and feeding habitat (water column feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > benthic feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs). After accounting for variation with fish length, the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs did not vary with the stomach removal collection method (dissection vs. gastric lavage), feeding time (diurnal or nocturnal), or time of collection (day or night). The percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was similar between fresh and saltwater fish, but differed within finer habitat classifications and appeared to follow a general prey availability or productivity gradient: percentage of individuals with empty stomachs of open ocean collections > estuary collections, lentic > lotic, and pelagic > littoral. Gear type (active or passive) was the most influential factor affecting the occurrence of empty stomachs that can be readily controlled by researchers.

  4. Comparison of the tolerability of recombinant human hyaluronidase + normal saline and recombinant human hyaluronidase + lactated ringer's solution administered subcutaneously: A phase IV, double-blind, randomized pilot study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Dychter, Samuel S.; Ebel, David; Mead, Tonya R.; Yocum, Richard C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recombinant human hyaluronidase (rHuPH20) (150 U) is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to facilitate subcutaneous fluid administration in adults and children. Objective: This Phase IV, double-blind, randomized pilot study was designed to compare the tolerability, flow rate, and safety profile of subcutaneous infusions of normal saline (NS) and lactated Ringer's (LR) solutions following subcutaneous administration of rHuPH20. Methods: Healthy volunteers received 1 mL rHuPH20 (150 U) in each thigh, followed by simultaneous gravity-driven subcutaneous infusions of 500 mL of LR solution into 1 thigh and NS solution into the contralateral thigh. Subjects rated infusion-site discomfort in each thigh using a 100-mm (0 = no pain to 100 = most severe pain) visual analog scale (VAS) at baseline (ie, after catheter placement/ rHuPH20 injection and just prior to the start of the infusions) and at the following times: after infusion of 250 mL, after infusion of 500 mL (end of infusion), and when thigh circumference returned to within 5% of baseline. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded throughout the study. The primary tolerability end point was the maximal increase from baseline in infusion-site discomfort on the VAS. Secondary end points included infusion flow rate, change in thigh circumference, subject preference for leftversus right-thigh infusion, and safety profile measures. Results: Fifteen subjects (14 women, 1 man; mean age, 41 years [range, 20–60 years]) were included in the study. Mean (SD) maximal increase from baseline VAS pain score was significantly greater with NS solution than with LR solution (20.0 [19.4] vs 9.4 [18.3] mm, respectively; P = 0.005). Mean infusion flow rate was not significantly different between the NS and LR solutions (384.1 [118.1] vs 395.8 [132.8] mL/h). No significant differences between solutions were observed in mean maximal change in thigh circumference (5.2% [1.6%] vs 5.3% [1.5%]). All subjects expressed

  5. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preparing Food When the person with Alzheimer’s disease lives with you: • Buy healthy foods such as vegetables, fruits, and whole-grain products. ... When a person with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease lives alone, you can buy foods that the person doesn’t need to cook. ...

  6. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Some you cannot control, such as your genetic makeup or your age. But you can make changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of heart disease, cancer, stroke and other serious diseases: Get ...

  7. Healthy Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs. (EV)

  8. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... easy for kids to choose healthy snacks by keeping fruits and vegetables on hand and ready to eat. ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping ... Award-Winning Cafeteria Recipes Garden-Fresh Lunches Go, Slow, and Whoa! A Kid's Guide ...

  9. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... of healthy foods, and limit calories and saturated fat Be physically active Control your blood pressure and cholesterol Don't smoke Protect yourself from too much sun Drink alcohol in moderation, or don't drink at all Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

  10. Anatomical variation of arterial supply to the rabbit stomach.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Reona; Tanimoto, Yoshimasa; Kishimoto, Miori; Shibata, Hideshi

    2016-05-01

    Gastric stasis is common in rabbits, and gastrotomy may be performed to cure this pathological condition. Detailed descriptions of the arterial supply to the stomach are essential for this surgical operation, but published descriptions are limited. Here, we investigated anatomical variations of the arterial supply to the stomach in 43 New Zealand White rabbits by injecting colored latex into arteries. We observed that the left gastric artery that arose as the second branch from the celiac artery provided 1-3 parietal and 1-3 visceral branches to the stomach, with various branching patterns depending on the case. In 34 of 43 cases, the left gastric artery ended upon entering the gastric wall at the lesser curvature, whereas in the remaining cases, the artery continued as the hepatic artery without entering the gastric wall. The right gastric artery that branched off from the gastroduodenal artery also supplied the lesser curvature sinistrally but did not anastomose with the left gastric artery. In 40 cases, the hepatic artery provided 1-4 pyloric branches. In the fundic region, the short gastric arteries arose from the splenic artery and varied in number from 2 to 6. The right and left gastroepiploic arteries anastomosed to give 2-7 branches to the greater curvature. The results showed that many variations occurred in the arteries supplying the rabbit stomach, suggesting that such variations should be considered when performing veterinary surgical treatments in rabbits. PMID:26615866

  11. Anatomical variation of arterial supply to the rabbit stomach

    PubMed Central

    IKEGAMI, Reona; TANIMOTO, Yoshimasa; KISHIMOTO, Miori; SHIBATA, Hideshi

    2015-01-01

    Gastric stasis is common in rabbits, and gastrotomy may be performed to cure this pathological condition. Detailed descriptions of the arterial supply to the stomach are essential for this surgical operation, but published descriptions are limited. Here, we investigated anatomical variations of the arterial supply to the stomach in 43 New Zealand White rabbits by injecting colored latex into arteries. We observed that the left gastric artery that arose as the second branch from the celiac artery provided 1–3 parietal and 1–3 visceral branches to the stomach, with various branching patterns depending on the case. In 34 of 43 cases, the left gastric artery ended upon entering the gastric wall at the lesser curvature, whereas in the remaining cases, the artery continued as the hepatic artery without entering the gastric wall. The right gastric artery that branched off from the gastroduodenal artery also supplied the lesser curvature sinistrally but did not anastomose with the left gastric artery. In 40 cases, the hepatic artery provided 1–4 pyloric branches. In the fundic region, the short gastric arteries arose from the splenic artery and varied in number from 2 to 6. The right and left gastroepiploic arteries anastomosed to give 2–7 branches to the greater curvature. The results showed that many variations occurred in the arteries supplying the rabbit stomach, suggesting that such variations should be considered when performing veterinary surgical treatments in rabbits. PMID:26615866

  12. Management of early asymptomatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Scherübl, Hans; Faiss, Siegbert; Knoefel, Wolfram-Trudo; Wardelmann, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. Approximately two thirds of clinically manifest tumors occur in the stomach, nearly one third in the small bowel, and the rest in the colorectal region with a few cases in the esophagus. GIST originate within the smooth muscle layer in the wall of the tubular gastrointestinal tract and grow mostly toward the serosa, far less often toward the mucosa. In the latter case, ulceration may develop and can cause gastrointestinal bleeding as the cardinal symptom. However, most GIST of the stomach are asymptomatic. They are increasingly detected incidentally as small intramural or submucosal tumors during endoscopy and particularly during endoscopic ultrasound. Epidemiological and molecular genetic findings suggest that early asymptomatic GIST of the stomach (< 1 cm) show self-limiting tumorigenesis. Thus, early (< 1 cm) asymptomatic gastric GIST (synonym: micro-GIST) are found in 20%-30% of the elderly. The mostly elderly people with early gastric GIST have an excellent GIST-specific prognosis. Patients with early GIST of the stomach can therefore be managed by endoscopic surveillance. PMID:25031785

  13. Argon laser photocoagulation in the dog stomach.

    PubMed Central

    Bown, S G; Salmon, P R; Kelly, D F; Calder, B M; Pearson, H; Weaver, B M; Read, A E

    1979-01-01

    Laser photocoagulation is one of a number of methods currently under investigation for the endoscopic treatment of gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The Argon ion and Neodymium Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd YAG) lasers are theoretically suitable as the beam from each may be transmitted via a flexible fibre. Argon laser photocoagulation has been shown to be effective and we have elucidated which factors determine its safety and efficacy. Studies on normal canine gastric mucosa showed that the depth of tissue damage depended chiefly on the total incident laser energy on any one spot, and that below 50 J the risk of perforation was extremely low. The energy density was much less important. The haemostatic effect depended more on the laser power. In artificial bleeding gastric ulcers in heparinised dogs the most effective level was 7--9 W, at which 22 out of 23 ulcers (96%) stopped bleeding completely, compared with one out of 12 controls. Photocoagulation was achieved in these cases with energies well within the safe limits. The procedure was effective endoscopically, and these results justify early clinical studies in man. PMID:573722

  14. Allium Vegetables and Stomach Cancer Risk in China

    PubMed Central

    Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Yu, Guo-Pei; Lu, Qing-Yi; Lu, Ming-Lan; Yu, Shun-Zhang; Mu, Lina; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Kurtz, Robert C; Cai, Lin; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Although the incidence of stomach cancer has been declining, it remains the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Potential protective effects of allium vegetables against cancer have been reported by a few epidemiologic studies in Chinese populations, but the sample sizes of these studies were relatively small. We examined the associations between allium vegetable consumption and stomach cancer in a large population-based case-control study in Shanghai (750 cases and 750 age- and gender-matched controls) and Qingdao (128 cases and 128 age- and gender-matched controls). Epidemiological data were collected by a standard questionnaire, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression in SAS. After adjusting for matching variables, education, body mass index, pack-years of smoking, alcohol drinking, salt intake, and fruit and vegetable intake, inverse relationships with dose response pattern were observed between frequency of onion intake and stomach cancer in Qingdao (P for trend=0.02) and Shanghai (P for trend=0.04) populations. In Shanghai, negative dose-response relationships were observed between monthly intake of onions (P=0.03), monthly intake of garlic stalks (P=0.04) and distal cancer (but not with cardia cancer). Negative association was also noted between intake of garlic stalks (often vs. never) and risk of stomach cancer in Qingdao (OR=0.30; 95% CI: 0.12–0.77). Our results confirm the protective effect of allium vegetables (especially garlic and onions) against stomach cancer. PMID:16236005

  15. Ameliorative effect of vanadium on oxidative stress in stomach tissue of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz-Ozden, Tugba; Kurt-Sirin, Ozlem; Tunali, Sevim; Akev, Nuriye; Can, Ayse; Yanardag, Refiye

    2014-05-01

    Between their broad spectrum of action, vanadium compounds are shown to have insulin mimetic/enhancing effects. Increasing evidence in experimental and clinical studies suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and on the onset of diabetic complications. Thus, preventive therapy can alleviate the possible side effects of the disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of vanadyl sulfate supplementation on the antioxidant system in the stomach tissue of diabetic rats. Male Swiss albino rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control; control+vanadyl sulfate; diabetic; diabetic+vanadyl sulfate. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 65 mg/kg body weight). Vanadyl sulfate (100 mg/kg body weight) was given daily by gavage for 60 days. At the last day of the experiment, stomach tissues were taken and homogenized to make a 10% (w/v) homogenate. Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), myeloperoxidase (MPO), carbonic anhydrase (CA), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were determined in the stomach tissue. CAT, SOD, GR, GPx, GST, CA, G6PD and LDH activities were increased in diabetic rats when compared to normal rats. Vanadium treatment significantly reduced the elevated activities of GR, GPx, GST compared with the diabetic group whereas the decreases in CAT, SOD, CA, G6PD and LDH activities were insignificant. No significant change was seen for MPO activity between the groups. It was concluded that vanadium could be used for its ameliorative effect against oxidative stress in diabetes. PMID:24856383

  16. Day Care Babies Catch Stomach Bugs Earlier, but Get Fewer Later

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158513.html Day Care Babies Catch Stomach Bugs Earlier, But Get ... TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Babies in day care catch their first stomach bug earlier than ...

  17. Day Care Babies Catch Stomach Bugs Earlier, but Get Fewer Later

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158513.html Day Care Babies Catch Stomach Bugs Earlier, But Get ... TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Babies in day care catch their first stomach bug earlier than ...

  18. Nutrition deficiency increases the risk of stomach cancer mortality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study is to determine whether exposure to malnutrition during early life is associated with increased risk of stomach cancer in later life. Methods The design protocol included analyzing the trend of gastric cancer mortality and nutrition and evaluating the association between nutrient deficiency in early life and the risk of gastric cancer by hierarchical age–period–birth cohort (APC) analysis using general log-linear Poisson models and to compare the difference between birth cohorts who were exposed to the 1959–1961 Chinese famine and those who were not exposed to the famine. Data on stomach cancer mortality from 1970 to 2009 and the dietary patterns from 1955 to 1985 which included the 1959–1961 Chinese famine period in the Zhaoyuan County population were obtained. The nutrition information was collected 15 years prior to the mortality data as based on the latest reference of disease incubation. Results APC analysis revealed that severe nutrition deficiency during early life may increase the risk of stomach cancer. Compared with the 1960–1964 birth cohort, the risk for stomach cancer in all birth cohorts from 1900 to 1959 significantly increased; compared with the 1970–1974 cohort, the risk for stomach cancer in the 1975–1979 cohort significantly increased, whereas the others had a steadily decreased risk; compared with 85–89 age group in the 2005–2009 death survey, the ORs decreased with younger age and reached significant levels for the 50–54 age group after adjusting the confounding factors. The 1930 to 1964 group (exposed to famine) had a higher mortality rate than the 1965 to 1999 group (not exposed to famine). For males, the relative risk (RR) was 2.39 and the 95% confidence interval (CI) was 1.51 to 3.77. For females, RR was 1.64 and 95% CI was 1.02 to 2.62. Conclusion The results of the present study suggested that prolonged malnutrition during early life may increase the risk of stomach cancer

  19. Effect of X-irradiation on the stomach of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Breiter, N.; Trott, K.R.; Sassy, T. )

    1989-10-01

    A model for localized 300 kV X-irradiation of the rat stomach was developed. After irradiation with single doses, three distinct gastric disorders were observed which occurred at different latency times. Acute death 2-3 weeks after irradiation was caused by an erosive and ulcerative gastritis and occurred in all animals given 28.5 Gy without diet, in 17% of the animals given 28.5 Gy plus diet, and in 13% of the animals given 23 Gy. Subacute to chronic fatal disorders 4 weeks to 7 months after irradiation were seen as stomach dilatation and gastroparesis, associated with the replacement of the normal gastric mucosa by a hyperkeratinized multilayered squamous epithelium. These disorders occurred in 40-100% of the animals after doses between 16 Gy and 28.5 Gy (+diet). An ED 50 value of 19.2 Gy (16.5-21.2 Gy, 95% confidence interval) was calculated for this gastroparesis. Late gastric obstruction exceeding 7 months after irradiation was seen in the rats because of profound changes in the gastric wall in 13-18% of the animals after doses between 23 Gy and 14 Gy. In animals surviving these three periods, an atrophic mucosa and intestinal metaplasia developed. From functional and morphohistological studies, it can be concluded that there are differences in the pathogenesis of the fatal radiation damage for each of these periods after irradiation.

  20. Alpha-fetoprotein-producing early gastric cancer of the remnant stomach: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yutaka; Sato, Kouhei; Kodama, Masashi; Nanjyo, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    A 67-year-old man initially underwent a distal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer (T1, N0, M0; Stage IA) in March 1995. During the follow-up period, an elevation of the serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level (98.8 ng/ml) and a liver tumor (S4) were detected. A left hepatectomy was performed in December 1996. Immunohistochemically, AFP-positive cells were present in both the primary gastric tumor and metastasized liver tumor. The serum AFP level normalized immediately, but it elevated again to 22.4 ng/ml. An endoscopic examination revealed a protruding lesion in the remnant stomach. A total resection of the remnant stomach was performed in February 2005. The tumor was evaluated T1, N0, M0; Stage IA, with positive staining for AFP. The patient has survived without any sign of recurrence for more than 11 years after the first diagnosis of cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a long-term survival of AFP-producing gastric cancer with successfully resected metachronous liver metastasis and gastric remnant carcinoma. PMID:17952534

  1. Ectopic expression of guanylyl cyclase C in adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and stomach.

    PubMed

    Park, Jason; Schulz, Stephanie; Haaf, Janis; Kairys, John C; Waldman, Scott A

    2002-08-01

    Guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C), a receptor specifically expressed in cells originating from differentiated intestinal epithelium, is a marker and therapeutic target for colorectal cancer metastases. Intestinal metaplasia, in which epithelial cells assume histological and molecular characteristics of differentiated intestinal enterocytes, is a common precursor to adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and stomach. Thus, those tumors, tissues adjacent to them, and their associated regional lymph nodes were assessed for GC-C expression by reverse transcription coupled with the PCR. GC-C mRNA was detected in five of five and eight of nine esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas, respectively. Also, GC-C mRNA was detected in three of five and six of seven tissues adjacent to, but not histologically involved in, esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas, respectively, reflecting molecular changes associated with neoplastic transformation preceding histopathological changes. In contrast, three normal gastric specimens did not express GC-C. Furthermore, GC-C mRNA was detected in 1 of 1 lymph node containing tumor cells by histopathology from a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma and in 3 of 11 lymph nodes, all of which were free of tumor cells by histopathology, from a patient with a gastroesophageal junction tumor. This is the first demonstration that GC-C is ectopically expressed by primary and metastatic adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and stomach and suggests that GC-C may be a sensitive and specific clinical marker and target for adenocarcinomas of the upper gastrointestinal tract. PMID:12163327

  2. [Influence of cattle cord blood fraction below 5 kD on biochemical parameters of blood in experimental chronic stomach ulcer in rats].

    PubMed

    Gulevskiĭ, A K; Abakumova, E S; Moiseeva, N N; Dolgikh, O L

    2008-01-01

    Influence of cattle cord blood fraction (below 5 kD) on lipid peroxidation product content and alkaline phosphatase activity-in peripheral blood was studied on the experimental subchronic stomach ulcer model in rats. It has been shown that the fraction administrations normalize thiobarbituric-active product content and alkaline phosphatase activity in blood, which testifies to decreasing inflammatory reaction in the mucous membrane of the stomach. The fraction administrations accelerate the processes of regeneration of the mucous membrane of the stomach up to complete healing of ulcer defects. Cord blood fraction below 5 kD from cattle possesses antiulcer activity which is analogous to the actovegin activity. It has been shown by gel-penetrating chromatography that the pattern of cord blood fraction low molecular substances is different from the actovegin pattern both qualitatively and quantitatively. PMID:18819383

  3. NITROGEN CONCENTRATION OF STOMACH CONTENTS AS AN INDEX OF DIETARY NITROGEN FOR HISPID COTTON RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the reliability of using nitrogen concentration of stomach contents from hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) as an index of diet nitrogen. Stomach contents of cotton rats fed diets varying in nitrogen concentration were analyzed for stomach nitrogen. Regression a...

  4. The role of dietary nutrition in stomach cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matysiak, Konrad; Duszewski, Michal; Banasiewicz, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Stomach cancer mortality still represents a significant proportion of all cancer deaths. The majority of patients with advanced cancer experience cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome with weight loss, reduced appetite, fatigue, and weakness. Neoplastic cachexia is a very common clinical manifestation of upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer and is generally assumed to be secondary to the mechanical effects of the tumor on the upper digestive tract. The main reasons are obstruction to swallowing, early satiety, nausea and vomiting. Another reason for weight loss is the co-existence of systemic inflammation. Nutritional treatment in the group of patients with gastric cancer is still used too rarely and the knowledge about it is still very limited. Nutritional support should be given for patients both in the pre- and postoperative period. Nutrition should also be used in palliative treatment in patients with unresectable stomach cancer. The main principles of nutritional support and its influence are presented in this publication. PMID:24592120

  5. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Song, Min Jeong; An, Soyeon; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Beom Su; Kim, Jihun

    2016-09-01

    Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) is a highly aggressive small round cell tumor that mainly occurs in the bone or soft tissue of children or young adults but is extremely rare in the stomach. A 55-year-old man presented with melena and anemia. On endoscopy, an ulcerofungating mass was observed in the high body and total gastrectomy was performed. Histologically, the mass consisted of small round cells with scanty cytoplasm and inconspicuous nucleoli. They often formed perivascular pseudorosettes and multinucleated giant cells were frequently observed. The tumor cells strongly expressed CD99, FLI1, and chromogranin and weakly expressed synaptophysin and CD56. EWS-FLI1 fusion transcript was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. ES/PNET is frequently misdiagnosed because of its similarity with small cell carcinoma. Although gastric ES/PNET is very rare, it should be included in differential diagnoses of small round cell tumor in the stomach. PMID:27006299

  6. Metastatic pancreatic cancer presenting as linitis plastica of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Garg, Shivani; Mulki, Ramzi; Sher, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic disease from pancreatic carcinoma involving the stomach is an unusual event, and the pattern of spread in the form of linitis plastica, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously. Local recurrence after curative resection for pancreatic cancer is the most common pattern of disease. We report a case of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma presenting as linitis plastica of the stomach 4 years after curative resection. A 52-year-old man presented with epigastric pain and melaena 4 years after undergoing a Whipple's procedure for a poorly-differentiated pancreatic adenocarcinoma, stage IB; T2N0M0. CT imaging of the abdomen revealed thickening of the gastric wall, and subsequent oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) revealed diffuse friable erythaematous tissue. The biopsy specimen obtained during the OGD revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, with similar appearance to the prior specimen obtained from the pancreas. PMID:26957034

  7. Case Report of an Hepatoid Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach.

    PubMed

    Gaeta, Raffaele; Ugolini, Clara; Castagna, Maura

    2016-02-01

    Hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC) is a rare but important type of extrahepatic tumor that has a morphologic similarity to hepatocellular carcinoma, with production of α-fetoprotein in high amounts and a poor prognosis. Stomach is one of the organs in which HAC has been most commonly identified. We report a case of an old man with a polypoid mass in the prepyloric region. The microscopical aspects were suggestive for an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma, but the positive immunohistochemical staining for α-fetoprotein, α-1-antitrypsin, α-1-antichymotrypsin, and Hep Par1 were crucial for the final diagnosis of hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Because of the poor prognosis for this type of tumor, correct and early-stage diagnosis of HAC is essential and long-term follow-up is required. PMID:26844385

  8. Gelation of mucin: Protecting the stomach from autodigestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansil, Rama

    2011-03-01

    In this talk I will describe the molecular mechanisms involved in the remarkable ability of the mucus lining of the stomach for protecting the stomach from being digested by the acidic gastric juices that it secretes. These physical properties can be attributed to the presence of a high molecular weight glycoprotein found in mucus, called mucin. Rheology and other measurements show that gastric mucin forms a gel under acidic pH. A model of gelation based on the interplay of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions will be discussed. Molecular Dynamics simulation studies of folding and aggregation of mucin domains provide further support for this model. The relevance of gelation to the motion of the ulcer causing bacterium H. pylori will be discussed.

  9. Morphological features of the stomach of Malayan pangolin, Manis javanica.

    PubMed

    Nisa', C; Agungpriyono, S; Kitamura, N; Sasaki, M; Yamada, J; Sigit, K

    2010-10-01

    The morphology of the stomach of Malayan pangolin, Manis javanica was studied at macroscopic, light microscopic, and scanning electron microscopic levels. The stomach of M. javanica was C-shaped with short lesser curvature. At the oesophageal junction, the inner smooth muscle was thickened in the greater curvature side. The entire stomach was lined by a thick cornified stratified squamous epithelium, except at the duct orifices of glands and in the pyloric gland region. The wall of the fundus was thin and devoid of glands. The gastric glands consisted of mucous, oxyntic, and pyloric glands. The mucous glands were observed in the lesser curvature (Mg-L), in the greater curvature (Mg-G), and in the pyloric canal (Mg-C) respectively. The oxyntic glands were organized into gland mass, making an oval mound elevated to the gastric lumen, in the middle of the greater curvature. The oxyntic gland mass has a single common duct with opening directed to the pyloric side. This duct was surrounded by mucus gland (Mg-G). The pyloric glands were located caudal to the pylorus. There was no sphincter at the pyloric-duodenal junction. Large mucosal protuberance, the torus pyloricus was observed in the side of the lesser curvature of the pyloric canal. In the lumen of pyloric canal region, numerous spines and small pebbles were observed. The muscle layers in the wall of this region were considerably thickened. The present results on the stomach of M. javanica are thought to be closely related to the toothless and eating habits of this animal species. PMID:20645954

  10. Microfluidic optoelectronic sensor for salivary diagnostics of stomach cancer.

    PubMed

    Zilberman, Yael; Sonkusale, Sameer R

    2015-05-15

    We present a microfluidic optoelectronic sensor for saliva diagnostics with a potential application for non-invasive early diagnosis of stomach cancer. Stomach cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. The primary identified cause is infection by a gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori. These bacteria secrete the enzyme urease that converts urea into carbon dioxide (CO2) and ammonia (NH3), leading to their elevated levels in breath and body fluids. The proposed optoelectronic sensor will detect clinically relevant levels of CO2 and NH3 in saliva that can potentially be used for early diagnosis of stomach cancer. The sensor is composed of the embedded in a microfluidic device array of microwells filled with ion-exchange polymer microbeads doped with various organic dyes. The optical response of this unique highly diverse sensor is monitored over a broad spectrum, which provides a platform for cross-reactive sensitivity and allows detection of CO2 and NH3 in saliva at ppm levels. PMID:25223554

  11. [The upside-down stomach. Laparoscopic treatment is possible].

    PubMed

    Hohmann, U; Jähnichen, A; Schramm, H

    2000-01-01

    An upside-down-stomach, usually occurring in eldery patients describes an extreme case of paraesophageal hernia. Due to the possibility of life threatening complications there is an urgent need for surgical intervention. In 1998 three patients suffering from complete upside-down-stomach were treated by laparoscopic surgery at our hospital. Two of them received a hiatoplastic with fundo- and corpophrenicopexy. In one case we did a 360 degrees-floppy Nissen's-fundoplication. Perioperatively, one patient developed a left sided pneumothorax Long-term follow-up 6 months postoperatively in our out-patient department revealed unconspicuous clinical and gastroscopical findings and high patient satisfaction with postoperative outcome. Our case reports show the possibility of adequate operating on upside-down-stomach by means of laparoscopic surgery. Minimal invasive methods provide a good overlock on the operating field and are poor in complications when done by an experienced surgeon, so that patients may profit from comfort of laparoscopic surgery. PMID:10829322

  12. Analysis of anomalous pKB values for metiamide and atropine in the isolated stomach of the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Angus, J.A.; Black, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    1 In the isolated, lumen-perfused, stomach preparation of the mouse, metiamide was found by kinetic analysis to behave like a simple competitive antagonist of histamine-stimulated acid secretion. However, the pKB estimate of 5.08 was significantly lower than that found in guinea-pig atrium (6.0) or rat uterus (6.1) suggesting that H2-receptors might not be homogeneous. 2 A similar analysis showed that atropine also behaved like a simple competitive antagonist of bethanechol-stimulated acid secretion and the estimated pKB (7.65) was significantly lower than the standard estimate of this parameter in guinea-pig ileum (9.0). Either the muscarinic cholinoceptors in mouse stomach were also anomalous or the preparation was introducing a systematic error. Lumen perfusion might distort this type of kinetic analysis by allowing steady-state conditions but not true equilibrium to develop at the receptor compartment due to loss of antagonist into the gastric secretion. Drug interactions at receptors in the muscle layers of the stomach would be expected to be much less sensitive to this error. 3 When the atropine—bethanechol interaction was measured on the contraction of the isolated, lumen-perfused, stomach of the mouse the necessary conditions for simple competition were not met even though the sensitivity to atropine was obviously increased. The criteria for the expected simple competition were being obscured by events at low antagonist concentrations. Alterations in agonist or antagonist concentrations could be more or less eliminated so that physiological antagonism, perhaps by release of 5-hydroxytryptamine, was considered. This was supported, to some extent, by finding that, when stomachs from animals pretreated with reserpine were used, the kinetic analysis was normalized and gave a pKB of 8.99. Apparently, the muscarinic receptors in mouse stomach are homogeneous with those in other tissues. 4 Therefore, we conclude that our results no more point to heterogeneity

  13. The origin of pre-neoplastic metaplasia in the stomach: Chief cells emerge from the Mist

    SciTech Connect

    Goldenring, James R.; Nam, Ki Taek; Mills, Jason C.

    2011-11-15

    The digestive-enzyme secreting, gastric epithelial chief (zymogenic) cell is remarkable and underappreciated. Here, we discuss how all available evidence suggests that mature chief cells in the adult, mammalian stomach are postmitotic, slowly turning over cells that arise via a relatively long-lived progenitor, the mucous neck cell, The differentiation of chief cells from neck cells does not involve cell division, and the neck cell has its own distinct pattern of gene expression and putative physiological function. Thus, the ontogeny of the normal chief cell lineage exemplifies transdifferentiation. Furthermore, under pathophysiogical loss of acid-secreting parietal cell, the chief cell lineage can itself trasndifferentiate into a mucous cell metaplasia designated Spasmolytic Polypeptide Expressing Metaplasia (SPEM). Especially in the presence of inflammation, this metaplastic lineage can regain proliferative capacity and, in humans may also further differentiate into intestinal metaplasia. The results indicate that gastric fundic lineages display remarkable plasticity in both physiological ontogeny and pathophysiological pre-neoplastic metaplasia.

  14. Promoting healthy sleep.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-03-01

    Nurses are accustomed to helping others with their sleep problems and dealing with issues such as pain that may delay or interrupt sleep. However, they may be less familiar with what constitutes a healthy night's sleep. This article examines what is known about the process and purpose of sleep, and examines the ways in which factors that promote wakefulness and sleep combine to help establish a normal circadian rhythm. Theories relating to the function of sleep are discussed and research is considered that suggests that sleep deficit may lead to metabolic risks, including heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and several types of cancer. PMID:26959472

  15. Healthy Water Healthy People Field Monitoring Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 100-page manual serves as a technical reference for the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" and the "Healthy Water Healthy People Testing Kits". Yielding in-depth information about ten water quality parameters, it answers questions about water quality testing using technical overviews, data interpretation guidelines,…

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells induce epithelial proliferation within the inflamed stomach.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Jessica M; Engevik, Amy; Feng, Rui; Xiao, Chang; Boivin, Gregory P; Li, Jing; Houghton, JeanMarie; Zavros, Yana

    2014-06-15

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) sustain cancer cells by creating a microenvironment favorable for tumor growth. In particular, MSCs have been implicated in gastric cancer development. There is extensive evidence suggesting that Hedgehog signaling regulates tumor growth. However, very little is known regarding the precise roles of Hedgehog signaling and MSCs in tumor development within the stomach. The current study tests that hypothesis that Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), secreted from MSCs, provides a proliferative stimulus for the gastric epithelium in the presence of inflammation. Red fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs transformed in vitro (stMSCs) were transduced with lentiviral constructs containing a vector control (stMSC(vect)) or short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting the Shh gene (stMSC(ShhKO)). Gastric submucosal transplantation of wild-type MSCs (wtMSCs), wild-type MSCs overexpressing Shh (wtMSC(Shh)), stMSC(vect), or stMSC(ShhKO) cells in C57BL/6 control (BL/6) or gastrin-deficient (GKO) mice was performed and mice analyzed 30 and 60 days posttransplantation. Compared with BL/6 mice transplanted with wtMSC(Shh) and stMSC(vect) cells, inflamed GKO mice developed aggressive gastric tumors. Tumor development was not observed in mouse stomachs transplanted with wtMSC or stMSC(ShhKO) cells. Compared with stMSC(ShhKO)-transplanted mice, within the inflamed GKO mouse stomach, Shh-expressing stMSC(vect)- and wtMSC(Shh)-induced proliferation of CD44-positive cells. CD44-positive cells clustered in gland-like structures within the tumor stroma and were positive for Patched (Ptch) expression. We conclude that Shh, secreted from MSCs, provides a proliferative stimulus for the gastric epithelium that is associated with tumor development, a response that is sustained by chronic inflammation. PMID:24789207

  17. Radiation treatment planning techniques for lymphoma of the stomach

    SciTech Connect

    Della Biancia, Cesar; Hunt, Margie; Furhang, Eli; Wu, Elisa; Yahalom, Joachim . E-mail: yahalomj@mskcc.org

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: Involved-field radiation therapy of the stomach is often used in the curative treatment of gastric lymphoma. Yet, the optimal technique to irradiate the stomach with minimal morbidity has not been well established. This study was designed to evaluate treatment planning alternatives for stomach irradiation, including intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), to determine which approach resulted in improved dose distribution and to identify patient-specific anatomic factors that might influence a treatment planning choice. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with lymphoma of the stomach (14 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas and 1 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) were categorized into 3 types, depending on the geometric relationship between the planning target volume (PTV) and kidneys. AP/PA and 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) plans were generated for each patient. IMRT was planned for 4 patients with challenging geometric relationship between the PTV and the kidneys to determine whether it was advantageous to use IMRT. Results: For type I patients (no overlap between PTV and kidneys), there was essentially no benefit from using 3DCRT over AP/PA. However, for patients with PTVs in close proximity to the kidneys (type II) or with high degree of overlap (type III), the 4-field 3DCRT plans were superior, reducing the kidney V {sub 15Gy} by approximately 90% for type II and 50% for type III patients. For type III, the use of a 3DCRT plan rather than an AP/PA plan decreased the V {sub 15Gy} by approximately 65% for the right kidney and 45% for the left kidney. In the selected cases, IMRT led to a further decrease in left kidney dose as well as in mean liver dose. Conclusions: The geometric relationship between the target and kidneys has a significant impact on the selection of the optimum beam arrangement. Using 4-field 3DCRT markedly decreases the kidney dose. The addition of IMRT led to further incremental improvements in the left kidney

  18. Boerhaave’s syndrome in a patient with an upside down stomach: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Shin; Hosoya, Yoshinori; Kurashina, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Shiro; Kanamaru, Rihito; Ui, Takashi; Haruta, Hidenori; Kitayama, Joji; Lefor, Alan K.; Sata, Naohiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Spontaneous esophageal perforation, or Boerhaave’s syndrome, is a life-threating condition which usually requires emergent surgery. An upside down stomach is defined as a gastric volvulus in a huge supradiaphragmatic sac. In general, this condition can result in ischemia and perforation of the stomach. This is the first report of a patient with Boerhaave’s syndrome and an upside down stomach. Case presentation A 79-year-old woman presented with sudden epigastric pain following hematemesis. Evaluation of the patient showed both an esophageal perforation and an upside down stomach. Surgical drainage and irrigation of the mediastinum and pleural cavities were undertaken emergently. Due to the concurrent gastric volvulus, a gastrostomy was placed to fix and decompress the stomach. The patient had an uneventful hospital course and was discharged. Discussion and conclusion Boerhaave’s syndrome is a rare but severe complication caused by excessive vomiting, due to a sudden elevation in intraluminal esophageal pressure resulting in esophageal perforation. Acute gastric volvulus can result in ischemia and perforation of the stomach, but has not previously been reported with esophageal perforation. The most likely mechanism associating an upside down stomach with Boerhaave’s syndrome is acute gastric outlet obstruction resulting in vomiting, and subsequent esophageal perforation. Perforation of the esophagus as well as perforation of the stomach must be considered in patients with an upside down stomach although both upside down stomach and Boerhaave’s syndrome are rare clinical entities. PMID:26710329

  19. Metastatic tumors to the stomach: Clinical and endoscopic features

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Giovanni D De; Masone, Stefania; Rega, Maria; Simeoli, Immacolata; Donisi, Mario; Addeo, Pietro; Iannone, Loredana; Pilone, Vincenzo; Persico, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical and endoscopic patterns in a large series of patients with metastatic tumors in the stomach. METHODS: A total of 64 patients with gastric meta-stases from solid malignant tumors were retros-pectively examined between 1990 and 2005. The clinicopathological findings were reviewed along with tumor characteristics such as endoscopic pattern, location, size and origin of the primary sites. RESULTS: Common indications for endoscopy were anemia, bleeding and epigastric pain. Metastases presented as solitary (62.5%) or multiple (37.5%) tumors were mainly located in the middle or upper third of stomach. The main primary metastatic tumors were from breast and lung cancer and malignant melanoma. CONCLUSION: As the prognosis of cancer patients has been improving gradually, gastrointestinal (GI) metastases will be encountered more often. Endoscopic examinations should be conducted carefully in patients with malignancies, and endoscopic biopsies and information on the patient’s clinical history are useful for correct diagnosis of gastric metastases. PMID:17143949

  20. Stomach-interposed cholecystogastrojejunostomy: A palliative approach for periampullary carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Chun-Yi; Su, Xiang-Qian; Ji, Jia-Fu; Huang, Xin-Fu; Xing, Bao-Cai

    2005-01-01

    AIM: For patients of periampullary carcinoma found to be unresectable at the time of laparotomy, surgical palliation is the primary choice of treatment. Satisfactory palliation to maximize the quality of life with low morbidity and mortality is the gold standard for a good procedure. Our aim is to explore such a procedure as an alternative to the traditional ones. METHODS: A modified double-bypass procedure is performed by, in addition to the usual gastrojejunostomy, implanting a mushroom catheter from the gall bladder into the jejunum through the interposed stomach as an internal drainage. A retrospective review was performed including 22 patients with incurable periampullary carcinomas who underwent this surgery. RESULTS: Both jaundice and impaired liver function improved significantly after surgery. No postoperative deaths, cholangitis, gastrojejunal, biliary anastomotic leaks, recurrent jaundice or late gastric outlet obstruction occurred. Delayed gastric emptying occurred in two patients. The total surgical time was 150±26 min. The estimated blood loss was 160±25 mL. The mean length of hospital stay after surgery was 22±6 d. The mean survival was 8 mo (range 1.5-18 mo). CONCLUSION: In patients of unresectable periampullary malignancies, stomach-interposed cholecystogastr-ojejunostomy is a safe, simple and efficient technique for palliation. PMID:15800996

  1. [Differential diagnostics of stomach contents showing blue discoloration].

    PubMed

    Nadjem, Hadi; Perdekamp, Markus Grosse; Auwärter, Volker; Stefan, Pollak; Thierauf, Annette

    2011-01-01

    A 42-year-old man evidently had died from an intoxication. On the basis of the findings at scene it was primarily assumed that the man had ingested a larger quantity of an ethylene glycol-containing antifreeze for suicidal purposes. The man was said to have had an alcohol problem and did not only consume drinking alcohol, but also other alcoholic liquids. At autopsy, a bluish liquid with an aromatic smell was found in the oesophagus and stomach. However, toxicological analyses did not furnish evidence of ethylene glycol--as expected--but a potentially fatal concentration of ethanol (blood alcohol concentration 4.01 per mille). The blue colour (patent blue C.I.42051) came from a liquid used in the wind-screen washer system in winter, which now contains ethanol (denatured with 2-butanone) instead of ethylene glycol. The results of the toxicological findings including the analysis of congener alcohols and the differential diagnostics of blue-coloured stomach contents are discussed. PMID:21404548

  2. Gender and single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR, BHMT, SPTLC1, CRBP2R, and SCARB1 are significant predictors of plasma homocysteine normalized by RBC folate in healthy adults.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using linear regression models, we studied the main and two-way interaction effects of the predictor variables gender, age, BMI, and 64 folate/vitamin B-12/homocysteine/lipid/cholesterol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on log-transformed plasma homocysteine normalized by red blood cell...

  3. Healthy Family 2009: Practicing Healthy Adult Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Practicing Healthy Adult Living Past Issues / Winter ... diabetes, or if heart disease runs in your family, begin checking cholesterol at age 20. Colorectal Cancer : ...

  4. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... please turn Javascript on. 7 Smart Steps to Aging Well 1. Control Blood Pressure You can have ...

  5. Partnership for Healthy Mouths Healthy Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Dentist Campaign Overview Press Releases About the Partnership Our Supporters Contact Us Partner Profile Page Learn ... others in the general population. OUR SOLUTION The Partnership for Healthy Mouths, Healthy Lives (PHMHL) is helping ...

  6. A possibility of substituting Ca2+ by Ba2+ or Mn2+ during the contractile processes of complex stomach smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    Milanov, M P; Stoyanov, I N

    1982-01-01

    In vitro experiments were carried out on muscle strips from different compartments of sheep complex stomach. The following conclusions were drawn: 1. In Ca2+-free medium containing EDTA (0.5 mM) proximal and antral abomasum preparations are mechanically inactive. The addition of BaCl2 (0.2-1 mM) induces phasic contractions in the rumen and antrum strips. In contrast to the simple stomach Ba2+ causes a significant increase in the tone of the rumen and proximal abomasum preparations. This tonic contraction is verapamil resistant and is completely suppressed by sodium nitroprusside. 2. The Ba2+ effect is not mediated by cholinergic or adrenergic systems. Ba2+ can substitute Ca2+ in generating both phasic and tonic contractions in complex stomach smooth muscles. 3. Compared with the simple stomach Mn2+ (0.2-0.8 mM) influences neither the ACh-induced activity in normal nutrient medium nor the tone of the rumen and proximal abomasum preparations in Ca2+-free solution. PMID:7152231

  7. Histopathological studies of acute and chronic effects of Calliandra portoricensis leaf extract on the stomach and pancreas of adult Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Ofusori, David A; Adejuwon, Adebomi O

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the consequence of oral administration of Calliandra portoricensis (C. portoricensis) leaf extract on the stomach and pancreas in Swiss albino mice. Methods Three groups of mice (B, C and D) were treated with 4 mg/kg of C. portoricensis extract. Group A was the control and received an equivalent volume of distilled water. Group B received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 7 days, Group C received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 14 days, and Group D received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 28 days. At different stages in the study, the mice were sacrificed and the stomach and pancreas were excised and fixed in 10% formol saline for histological analysis. Results The result showed a normal microstructural outline in groups B and C as compared with the control. However, animals in group D showed disorganization of the mucosa and discontinuation of epithelial lining of the stomach while the islets of Langerans in the pancreas were at various degree of degeneration as compared with the control mice. Conclusions The present finding suggests that chronic administration (28 days as seen in this study) of C. portoricensis leaf extract may inhibit the proper function of the stomach and pancreas. PMID:23569755

  8. Dynamic holographic endoscopy--ex vivo investigations of malignant tumors in the human stomach.

    PubMed

    Avenhaus, Wolfgang; Kemper, Björn; Knoche, Sabine; Domagk, Dirk; Poremba, Christopher; von Bally, Gert; Domschke, Wolfram

    2005-01-01

    Laser holographic interferometry is based on the superimposition of the holograms of different motional states of an object on a single holographic storing medium. Using a combination of holographic interferometry and endoscopic imaging, we tried to detect areas of focally disturbed tissue elasticity in gastric cancer preparations. By connecting a mobile electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) camera system (light source: double frequency Nd:YAG laser, lambda = 532 nm) to different types of endoscopes, ex vivo experiments were performed on ten formalin fixed human stomachs, nine containing adenocarcinomas and one with a gastric lymphoma. Linking the endoscopic ESPI camera complex to a fast image processing system, the method of double pulse exposure image subtraction was applied at a video frame rate of 12.5 Hz. Speckle correlation patterns and corresponding phase difference distributions resulting from gastric wall deformation by gentle touch with a guide wire were analyzed. Tumor-free gastric areas showed high-contrast concentric fringes around the point of stimulation. In contrast, fringe patterns and filtered phase difference distributions corresponding to the areas of malignancy in all the cases were characterized by largely parallel lines, indicating that stimulation of rigid tumor tissue primarily led to tilting. Our ex vivo investigations of malignant gastric tumors show that the application of dynamic holographic endoscopy makes it possible to distinguish areas of malignancy from surrounding healthy tissue based on the differences in tissue elasticity. PMID:15726298

  9. Gamma scintigraphic evaluation of the fate of microcrystalline chitosan granules in human stomach.

    PubMed

    Säkkinen, Mia; Marvola, Janne; Kanerva, Hanna; Lindevall, Kai; Lipponen, Maija; Kekki, Tommi; Ahonen, Aapo; Marvola, Martti

    2004-01-01

    In several reports of in vitro studies it has been suggested that the mucoadhesive chitosans could be of value in preparing gastro-retentive formulations. The aim of this study was to obtain direct in vivo evidence of whether microcrystalline chitosan (MCCh) formulations acted as gastro-retentive systems in humans. Neutron-activation-based gamma scintigraphy was used to study gastric residence times of MCCh granules in healthy male volunteers. Possible effects of neutron irradiation on the properties of the MCCh granules were studied in advance, in vitro. In vivo gamma scintigraphic evaluations were carried out with the subjects in a fasted state, using granules containing 95% (F1) or 40% (F2) of MCCh of molecular weight 150 kDa. Reference formulation (F3) was lactose granules. The reference granules passed rapidly from the stomach (mean t50% 0.5+/-0.3 h (n=5)). MCCh in granules prolonged gastric residence times of the formulations in only a few cases (in one volunteer in the F1 group (n=4) and in two volunteers in the F2 group (n=5)). Maximum individual t50% values were 2.1 h (F1) and 2.3 h (F2). It was concluded that the in vivo mucoadhesion of MCCh formulations is erratic, and that the formulations studied are not reliable gastro-retentive drug delivery systems. PMID:14729089

  10. Non-contact determination of parasympathetic activation induced by a full stomach using microwave radar.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Shinji; Suzuki, Satoshi; Imuta, Hayato; Kagawa, Masayuki; Badarch, Zorig; Matsui, Takemi

    2009-09-01

    In order to evaluate parasympathetic activation which causes driving errors, without placing any burden on the monitored individuals, we conducted a non-contact parasympathetic activation monitoring through the back of a chair using a compact 24-GHz microwave-radar. We measured the high-frequency (HF, 0.15-0.4 Hz) power spectrum of heart rate variability (HRV) which reflects parasympathetic activation, induced by a full stomach. All participants had a large all-you-can-eat meal with beverages for lunch within 20 min. Before and after the large meals for durations of 10 min, the non-contact measurement was conducted for seven healthy male volunteers (mean age: 23 +/- 1-year-old). In both non-contact (microwave radar) and contact (ECG as a reference) measurement, HF shows similar variations before and after large meal. Large meal significantly (p < 0.05) increased non-contact-derived HF from 1,026 +/- 510 to 1,893 +/- 613 ms(2) (922 +/- 628 to 1,861 +/- 940 ms(2), p < 0.05). This technique allows parasympathetic activation monitoring for safety precautions. PMID:19579041

  11. Development and validation of a new dynamic computer-controlled model of the human stomach and small intestine.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Aurélie; Denis, Sylvain; le Goff, Olivier; Sicardi, Vincent; François, Olivier; Yao, Anne-Françoise; Garrait, Ghislain; Manzi, Aimé Pacifique; Beyssac, Eric; Alric, Monique; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie

    2016-06-01

    For ethical, regulatory, and economic reasons, in vitro human digestion models are increasingly used as an alternative to in vivo assays. This study aims to present the new Engineered Stomach and small INtestine (ESIN) model and its validation for pharmaceutical applications. This dynamic computer-controlled system reproduces, according to in vivo data, the complex physiology of the human stomach and small intestine, including pH, transit times, chyme mixing, digestive secretions, and passive absorption of digestion products. Its innovative design allows a progressive meal intake and the differential gastric emptying of solids and liquids. The pharmaceutical behavior of two model drugs (paracetamol immediate release form and theophylline sustained release tablet) was studied in ESIN during liquid digestion. The results were compared to those found with a classical compendial method (paddle apparatus) and in human volunteers. Paracetamol and theophylline tablets showed similar absorption profiles in ESIN and in healthy subjects. For theophylline, a level A in vitro-in vivo correlation could be established between the results obtained in ESIN and in humans. Interestingly, using a pharmaceutical basket, the swelling and erosion of the theophylline sustained release form was followed during transit throughout ESIN. ESIN emerges as a relevant tool for pharmaceutical studies but once further validated may find many other applications in nutritional, toxicological, and microbiological fields. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1325-1335. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26616643

  12. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  13. Airway Pepsin Levels in Otherwise Healthy Surgical Patients Receiving General Anesthesia With Endotracheal Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Bohman, J. Kyle; Kor, Daryl J.; Kashyap, Rahul; Gajic, Ognjen; Festic, Emir; He, Zhaoping

    2013-01-01

    Background: Airway pepsin has been increasingly used as a potentially sensitive and quantifiable biomarker for gastric-to-pulmonary aspiration, despite lack of validation in normal control subjects. This study attempts to define normal levels of airway pepsin in adults and distinguish between pepsin A (exclusive to stomach) and pepsin C (which can be expressed by pneumocytes). Methods: We performed a prospective study of 51 otherwise healthy adult patients undergoing elective extremity orthopedic surgery at a single tertiary-care academic medical center. Lower airway samples were obtained immediately following endotracheal intubation and just prior to extubation. Total pepsin and pepsin A concentrations were directly measured by an enzymatic activity assay, and pepsin C was subsequently derived. Pepsinogen/pepsin C was confirmed by Western blot analyses. Baseline characteristics were secondarily compared. Results: In all, 11 (22%; 95% CI = 9.9%-33%) had detectable airway pepsin concentrations. All 11 positive specimens had pepsin C, without any detectable pepsin A. Pepsinogen/pepsin C was confirmed by Western blot analyses. In a multivariate logistic regression, men were more likely to have airway pepsin (OR, 12.71, P = .029). Conclusions: Enzymatically active pepsin C, but not the gastric-specific pepsin A, is frequently detected in the lower airways of patients who otherwise have no risk for aspiration. This suggests that nonspecific pepsin assays should be used and interpreted with caution as a biomarker of gastropulmonary aspiration, as pepsinogen C potentially expressed from pneumocytes may be detected in airway samples. PMID:23117366

  14. Histologic analysis of eosinophils and mast cells of the gastrointestinal tract in healthy Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Chernetsova, Elizaveta; Sullivan, Katrina; de Nanassy, Joseph; Barkey, Janice; Mack, David; Nasr, Ahmed; El Demellawy, Dina

    2016-08-01

    Many gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, including GI eosinophilia and inflammatory bowel disease, can be characterized by increased mucosal eosinophils (EOs) or mast cells (MCs). Normal mucosal cellular counts along the GI tract in healthy children have not been established for a Canadian pediatric population. To establish a benchmark reference, we quantified EO and MC from 356 mucosal biopsies of the GI tract obtained during upper and lower endoscopic biopsies of 38 pediatric patients in eastern Ontario. Mean total counts of EO varied for the 11 tissues we examined, from a low of 7.6±6.5/high-power field (HPF) (×40 [×400, 0.55mm(2)]) in the body of the stomach to a high of 50.3±17.4/HPF in the cecum. The lower GI tract (ileum, cecum, colon, sigmoid, and rectum) generally had higher total EO counts than the upper GI tract (antrum and body of stomach, duodenum, and duodenal cap) (combined average of 32.1±20.6 versus 19.3±15.8, respectively). Similarly, the number of mucosal MC was different in the various regions of the GI tract ranging from 0.04±0.2/HPF in the duodenal cap to 0.9±2.6/HPF in the ileum. Total counts for EO and MC in the lamina propria were not significantly different between sexes when adjusted for multiple testing. EO polarity was absent in many cases, irrespective of the GI region. These numeration and localization of EO and MC will provide normative data for upper and lower endoscopic GI biopsies in the pediatric population of Eastern Ontario. PMID:27045513

  15. Geometric Mixing, Peristalsis, and the Geometric Phase of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta, Jorge; Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Piro, Nicolas; Piro, Oreste; Tuval, Idan

    2015-01-01

    Mixing fluid in a container at low Reynolds number— in an inertialess environment—is not a trivial task. Reciprocating motions merely lead to cycles of mixing and unmixing, so continuous rotation, as used in many technological applications, would appear to be necessary. However, there is another solution: movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion to introduce a geometric phase. We show using journal-bearing flow as a model that such geometric mixing is a general tool for using deformable boundaries that return to the same position to mix fluid at low Reynolds number. We then simulate a biological example: we show that mixing in the stomach functions because of the “belly phase,” peristaltic movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion introduces a geometric phase that avoids unmixing. PMID:26154384

  16. Gastric lipase: localization of the enzyme in the stomach

    SciTech Connect

    DeNigris, S.J.; Hamosh, M.; Hamosh, P.; Kasbekar, D.K.

    1986-03-05

    Isolated gastric glands prepared from human and rabbit stomach secrete lipase in response to secretagogues. They have investigated the localization of this enzyme in three species (rabbit, baboon, guinea pig). Gastric mucosa was sampled from the cardia (C), fundus-smooth (FS), fundus-ruggae (FR) and the antral area (A). Lipase activity was measured in mucosal homogenates using /sup 3/H-triolein as substrate and is expressed in units (U) = nmols free fatty acid released/min/mg wet weight. The localization of lipase is compared with that of pepsin (measured by hydrolysis of 2% hemoglobin at pH 1.8 and expressed in I.U.). Lipase is localized in a well defined area in the rabbit and is diffusely distributed in both guinea pig and baboon. The distribution of lipase and pepsin containing cells differs in all three species. The cellular origin of gastric lipase remains to be determined.

  17. Geometric Mixing, Peristalsis, and the Geometric Phase of the Stomach.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Jorge; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Piro, Nicolas; Piro, Oreste; Tuval, Idan

    2015-01-01

    Mixing fluid in a container at low Reynolds number--in an inertialess environment--is not a trivial task. Reciprocating motions merely lead to cycles of mixing and unmixing, so continuous rotation, as used in many technological applications, would appear to be necessary. However, there is another solution: movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion to introduce a geometric phase. We show using journal-bearing flow as a model that such geometric mixing is a general tool for using deformable boundaries that return to the same position to mix fluid at low Reynolds number. We then simulate a biological example: we show that mixing in the stomach functions because of the "belly phase," peristaltic movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion introduces a geometric phase that avoids unmixing. PMID:26154384

  18. Having the stomach for it: a contribution to Neanderthal diets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Laura T.; Stringer, Chris B.

    2014-07-01

    Due to the central position of diet in determining ecology and behaviour, much research has been devoted to uncovering Neanderthal subsistence strategies. This has included indirect studies inferring diet from habitat reconstruction, ethnographic analogy, or faunal assemblages, and direct methods, such as dental wear and isotope analyses. Recently, studies of dental calculus have provided another rich source of dietary evidence, with much potential. One of the most interesting results to come out of calculus analyses so far is the suggestion that Neanderthals may have been eating non-nutritionally valuable plants for medicinal reasons. Here we offer an alternative hypothesis for the occurrence of non-food plants in Neanderthal calculus based on the modern human ethnographic literature: the consumption of herbivore stomach contents.

  19. Gastric mucosal barrier: hydrophobicity of stretched stomach lining.

    PubMed

    Hills, B A; Lichtenberger, L M

    1985-06-01

    Surface hydrophobicity of the luminal lining of the canine stomach has been studied as a very convenient means of following the adsorbed monolayer of surfactant believed to provide the gastric mucosal barrier. Hydrophobicity has been measured as the contact angle (theta) produced when a drop of saline is placed upon the surface. theta was found to decrease from 82 to 62 degrees upon 50% linear extension of samples of oxyntic mucosa from 10 dogs. When the phospholipid believed to cause the hydrophobicity was absorbed to glass slides, the contact angle was found to decrease with lower surface concentration. Thinning or "crazing" of the absorbed surfactant monolayer imparting the very hydrophobic nature of the luminal lining is discussed as a possible reason why ulcers tend to form at the crests of the folds, i.e., at points where the surface has been stretched and the monolayer disrupted. PMID:4003546

  20. Functional properties of submucosal venules in the rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Retsu; Hashitani, Hikaru

    2015-06-01

    Venules in the stomach may have intrinsic properties for maintaining active microcirculation drainage even during gastric filling. Properties of spontaneous and nerve-mediated activity of submucosal venules in the rat stomach were investigated. Changes in vasodiameter and intracellular Ca(2+) in venular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were monitored by video tracking and Fluo-8 Ca(2+) imaging, respectively. Venular SMCs developed synchronous spontaneous Ca(2+) transients and corresponding rhythmic constrictions of the venules. Nominally Ca(2+)-free solution or an L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker (1 μM nifedipine) disrupted the Ca(2+) transient synchrony and abolished spontaneous constrictions. Spontaneous constrictions were also prevented by inhibitors of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (10 μM cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)), IP3 receptors (100 μM 2-APB) or Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (100 μM niflumic acid). Transmural nerve stimulation (TNS) induced a long-lasting venular constriction that was abolished by α-adrenoceptor antagonist (1 μM phentolamine), while TNS evoked a sympathetic transient constriction of arterioles that was abolished by a combination of phentolamine and a P2 purinoceptor antagonist (10 μM pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS)). Consistently, P2X1 purinoceptor immunoreactivity was detected in arteriolar but not venular SMCs. Primary afferent nerve stimulation (300 nM capsaicin) caused a venular dilatation by releasing calcitonin gene-related peptide. Thus, Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum may play a fundamental role in the generation of spontaneous Ca(2+) transients, while electrical coupling amongst venular SMCs via L-type Ca(2+) channel activation appears to be critical for Ca(2+) transient synchrony as well as spontaneous contractions. Sympathetic venular constrictions appear to be exclusively mediated by noradrenaline due to the lack of P2X1 receptor in venular SMCs. PMID:25066613

  1. Attributable risks for stomach cancer in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    La Vecchia, C; D'Avanzo, B; Negri, E; Decarli, A; Benichou, J

    1995-03-16

    The proportions of gastric cancer cases attributable (or attributable risks, AR) to consumption of traditional foods (i.e., pasta, rice and maize), low intake of beta-carotene and vitamin C, short duration of use of an electric refrigerator, low educational level, and family history of gastric cancer were computed using data from a case-control study conducted in Northern Italy. Between 1985 and June 1993 a total of 746 incident, histologically confirmed gastric cancer cases and 2,053 controls admitted to the same network of hospitals for acute, nonneoplastic, non-digestive-tract diseases, unrelated to long-term modifications of diet, were interviewed. The ARs were 48% for low intake of beta-carotene, 40% for high consumption of traditional foods, and 16% for low intake of vitamin C. Overall, these 3 dietary factors explained 73% of the gastric cancer cases in the population. Five percent of all cases were attributable to less than 30 years' use of an electric refrigerator, 15% to low educational level, and 5% to family history of gastric cancer. In individuals over age 60, a greater proportion of cases was attributable to traditional foods, low education and late adoption of electric refrigeration (58% vs. 32% aged under 60), suggesting that correlates of lower social class, influenced lifestyle, and dietary habits more markedly in earlier than in more recent generations. According to our estimates, over 3 quarters of the gastric cancer cases in this area are explainable in terms of the risk factors considered. Increased consumption of vitamin C and beta-carotene, and reduced consumption of traditional foods, would help to avoid over 10,000 out of 14,000 stomach-cancer deaths in Italy every year. Consequently, stomach cancer, which is still the third leading cause of cancer death in Italy, would represent only about 2% of all cancer deaths. PMID:7896439

  2. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of One-Carbon Metabolism and Cancers of the Esophagus, Stomach, and Liver in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shen-Chih; Chang, Po-Yin; Butler, Brendan; Goldstein, Binh Y.; Mu, Lina; Cai, Lin; You, Nai-Chieh Y.; Baecker, Aileen; Yu, Shun-Zhang; Heber, David; Lu, Qing-Yi; Li, Liming; Greenland, Sander; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    One-carbon metabolism (folate metabolism) is considered important in carcinogenesis because of its involvement in DNA synthesis and biological methylation reactions. We investigated the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in folate metabolic pathway and the risk of three GI cancers in a population-based case-control study in Taixing City, China, with 218 esophageal cancer cases, 206 stomach cancer cases, 204 liver cancer cases, and 415 healthy population controls. Study participants were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire, and blood samples were collected after the interviews. We genotyped SNPs of the MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, DNMT1, and ALDH2 genes, using PCR-RFLP, SNPlex, or TaqMan assays. To account for multiple comparisons and reduce the chances of false reports, we employed semi-Bayes (SB) shrinkage analysis. After shrinkage and adjusting for potential confounding factors, we found positive associations between MTHFR rs1801133 and stomach cancer (any T versus C/C, SB odds-ratio [SBOR]: 1.79, 95% posterior limits: 1.18, 2.71) and liver cancer (SBOR: 1.51, 95% posterior limits: 0.98, 2.32). There was an inverse association between DNMT1 rs2228612 and esophageal cancer (any G versus A/A, SBOR: 0.60, 95% posterior limits: 0.39, 0.94). In addition, we detected potential heterogeneity across alcohol drinking status for ORs relating MTRR rs1801394 to esophageal (posterior homogeneity P = 0.005) and stomach cancer (posterior homogeneity P = 0.004), and ORs relating MTR rs1805087 to liver cancer (posterior homogeneity P = 0.021). Among non-alcohol drinkers, the variant allele (allele G) of these two SNPs was inversely associated with the risk of these cancers; while a positive association was observed among ever-alcohol drinkers. Our results suggest that genetic polymorphisms related to one-carbon metabolism may be associated with cancers of the esophagus, stomach, and liver. Heterogeneity across alcohol consumption status of the

  3. Normal Growth of Healthy Infants Born from HIV+ Mothers Fed a Reduced Protein Infant Formula Containing the Prebiotics Galacto-Oligosaccharides and Fructo-Oligosaccharides: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    da Costa Ribeiro, Hugo; Ribeiro, Tereza Cristina Medrado; de Mattos, Angela Peixoto; Pontes, Mariana; Sarni, Roseli Oselka Saccardo; Cruz, Maria Letícia Santos; Nogueira-de-Almeida, Carlos Alberto; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M; de Carvalho Norton, Rocksane; Steenhout, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of the current study was to evaluate the safety of a new reduced protein (2.1 g/100 kcal) infant formula containing 4 g/L of 90% galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and 10% fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). METHODS Healthy term infants from Brazil were enrolled. Those born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive mothers were randomized to a test (n = 65) or control (n = 63) formula group. Infants born to HIV-negative mothers were either exclusively breast-fed (n = 79) or received a mixed diet (breast milk and test formula, n = 65). Between 2 weeks and 4 months of age, infants were exclusively fed according to their assigned group. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months. Digestive tolerance was evaluated during the first 4 months. The primary outcome was mean daily weight gain between 2 weeks and 4 months in the test formula and breast-fed groups. RESULTS Data from all infants (N = 272) were used in the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis and data from 230 infants were used in the per-protocol (PP) analysis. The difference in mean daily weight gain between 2 weeks and 4 months in the test formula and breast-fed groups was 1.257 g/day (one-sided 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.705 to inf, P < 0.001) in the PP analysis, showing that the lower bound of the 95% CI was above the −3.0 g/day non-inferiority margin. Results were similar in the ITT analysis. Symptoms of digestive tolerance and frequency of adverse events were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS The formula containing 2.1 g/100 kcal protein and GOS and FOS was safe and tolerated well. PMID:25788839

  4. Percent Stomach Emptiness in Fish Collections: Sources of Variation and Study Design Implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    We summarized fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections made between 1925 and 2009 and report on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs (PES). The mean PES among all species, locations, habitats, dates, and collection methods was...

  5. Augmentation of gastric acid secretion by chloroquine and amodiaquine in the rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Ajeigbe, K O; Emikpe, B O; Olaleye, S B

    2012-06-01

    Gastrointestinal mucosal integrity has been shown to be altered by chloroquine and amodiaquine, although the exact mechanism is not clear. Since Gastric Acid Secretion (GAS) plays significant role in the etiology of ulcer, the present study was aimed at investigating the effect of chloroquine and amodiaquine on GAS, Parietal Cell Mass (PCM) and Gastric Mucous Cell Population (GMP) in rats. Male albino wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups viz: control, chloroquine (CQ, 3 mg/kg), amodiaquine (AQ, 10 mg/kg). Basal GAS as well as secretion in response to histamine and carbachol was measured by continuous perfusion of the stomach with normal saline (1ml/minute) under urethane anaesthesia (0.6 mg/100 g). After obtaining a steady basal output response to normal saline in all animals, the antimalaria drugs were administered intramuscularly and the peak responses to each drug obtained. Further assessment of the roles of histaminergic and muscarinic receptors were done using ranitidine (H2 antagonist) and atropine (M antagonist) in the treated animals. PCM and GMP were determined in the stomach samples by histometry. The basal acid output was 0.70 ± 0.01 mmol/10 mins. Chloroquine and amodiaquine produced increase in acid output to a peak of 1.35 ±0.03 mmol/10 mins (92.9%) and 1.40 ± 0.03 mmol/10 mins (100%) respectively. Histamine and carbachol elicited 107% and 100% increase acid secretion when compared with the basal output respectively. CQ and AQ potentiated histamine-induced secretory rate which peaked at 1.60 ± 0.02 mmol/10 mins and 1.70 ± 0.03 mmol/10 mins respectively. Similarly, the carbachol-induced acid secretory response was potentiated by CQ and AQ to a peak of 1.45 ± 0.02 mmol/10 mins and 1.50 ± 0.03 mmol/10 mins. Ranitidine and atropine attenuated histamine and carbachol induced acid secretion, but did not abolish it. CQ and AQ increased significantly the parietal cell numbers in the gastric mucosa (21±0.7 and 24±0.7 versus 15.2±0

  6. A case of a glomus tumor of the stomach resected by laparoscopy endoscopy cooperative surgery.

    PubMed

    Nakajo, Keiichiro; Chonan, Akimichi; Tsuboi, Rumiko; Nihei, Kousuke; Iwaki, Tomoyuki; Yamaoka, Hajime; Sato, Shun; Matsuda, Tomomi; Nakahori, Masato; Endo, Mareyuki

    2016-09-01

    A 56-year-old woman who was found to have a submucosal tumor (SMT) of the stomach in a medical check-up was admitted to our hospital for a detailed investigation of the SMT. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed an SMT of 20mm at the anterior wall of the antrum of the stomach. Endoscopic ultrasonography showed a hyperechoic tumor in the fourth layer of the stomach wall. CT examination showed a strongly enhancing tumor on arterial phase images and persistent enhancement on portal venous phase images. Laparoscopy endoscopy cooperative surgery was performed with a diagnosis of SMT of the stomach highly suspicious of a glomus tumor. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of α-SMA but no expression of desmin, c-kit, CD34, or S-100. The tumor was finally diagnosed as a glomus tumor of the stomach. PMID:27593365

  7. Evaluation of stomach tubes and gastric lavage for sampling diets from blue catfish and flathead catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waters, D.S.; Kwak, T.J.; Arnott, J.B.; Pine, William E., III

    2004-01-01

    We compared the ability to extract all stomach contents by using stomach tubes or gastric lavage to sample diets from blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus and flathead catfish Pylodictus olivarus. Pulsed gastric lavage (PGL) removed a significantly greater proportion of stomach content mass (95.6%) from blue catfish than did stomach tubes (14.6%). Percent mass of flathead catfish contents removed with PGL (96.0%) was not significantly different from that removed with stomach tubes (86.9%). Based on the greater effectiveness of PGL for blue catfish, combined with a shorter mean time required per sample (69 versus 118 s) and the better preservation of extracted diet material, we recommend using PGL as a nonlethal technique to collect diet samples from large catfishes.

  8. Intramural gas in stomach along with acute calculus cholecystitis: an unusual association

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Zohaib Gulzar; Shahzad, Noman; Alvi, Abdul Rehman; Effendi, Shahrukh

    2013-01-01

    Intramural gas in stomach is a rare finding, but differential diagnosis of this condition into gastric emphysema and emphysematous gastritis is clinically important because of vastly different aetiologies and prognosis. Emphysematous gastritis is caused by gas producing micro-organisms inside the stomach wall and is a potentially fatal condition, while, on the other hand, gas enters stomach wall through mucosal breach in the case of gastric emphysema and prognosis is usually good with complete resolution. To date, no case has been reported in the literature showing gas in the stomach wall in a patient with acute calculus cholecystitis. We present a case of a young man with upper abdominal pain, and who, upon diagnostic work up was diagnosed with acute calculus cholecystitis with associated intramural gas in the stomach with no known aetiological factors to be positive. Conservative management with close observation resulted in complete symptomatic resolution. PMID:23645637

  9. [Application of "disharmony of stomach leads to insomnia" theory in acupuncture treatment for insomnia].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Li; Liu, Jian-Wu; Chen, Li-Guo; Wang, Chen-Guang; Zhang, Yan-Hong

    2014-12-01

    When looking back to the literature regarding insomnia, it is believed that "disharmony of stomach leads to insomnia" is an important mechanism for the attack of insomnia. This theory is widely accepted in clinical practices by ancient and modern acupuncturists, thus the method treating insomnia from the stomach is developed. But deeper research on its mechanism is still lacking. Through correlation between stomach meridian and heart meridian, spleen and stomach being the pivot of rise and decline of qi movement and yin-yang and being the pivot of five zang-viscera housing spirit, modern abdomen-brain theory and experimental research, the mechanism of treating insomnia from the stomach is discussed in this paper, so as to be better to guide clinical acupoint-selection and treatment. PMID:25876361

  10. Multivariate normality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, H. L.; Falls, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    Sets of experimentally determined or routinely observed data provide information about the past, present and, hopefully, future sets of similarly produced data. An infinite set of statistical models exists which may be used to describe the data sets. The normal distribution is one model. If it serves at all, it serves well. If a data set, or a transformation of the set, representative of a larger population can be described by the normal distribution, then valid statistical inferences can be drawn. There are several tests which may be applied to a data set to determine whether the univariate normal model adequately describes the set. The chi-square test based on Pearson's work in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is often used. Like all tests, it has some weaknesses which are discussed in elementary texts. Extension of the chi-square test to the multivariate normal model is provided. Tables and graphs permit easier application of the test in the higher dimensions. Several examples, using recorded data, illustrate the procedures. Tests of maximum absolute differences, mean sum of squares of residuals, runs and changes of sign are included in these tests. Dimensions one through five with selected sample sizes 11 to 101 are used to illustrate the statistical tests developed.

  11. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of a novel tetramethylpyrazine reservoir-type transdermal patch versus tetramethylpyrazine phosphate oral tablets in healthy normal volunteers, and in vitro/in vivo correlation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Teng; Xu, Huinan; Weng, Weiyu; Zhang, Jianfang

    2013-01-01

    A novel reservoir-type transdermal system of 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) was developed containing eucalyptus oil as a penetration enhancer. The single and multiple-dose pharmacokinetic profiles of TMP administrated by TMP transdermal patch were characterized in healthy volunteers using an in vivo, randomized, open-label, two-way crossover design. 2,3,5,6-Tetramethylpyrazine phosphate (TMPP) oral tablets were chosen as reference. Following single/multiple oral administration of 200/100 mg TMPP tablets, a TMP C(max) of 1284/613.5 ng/mL was observed within 0.75 h. Single/multiple applications of the TMP patch yielded mean C(max) of 309/325 ng/mL at a median T(max) of 5/4 h, with steady state achieved at second application. The mean C(min) of the patch was 131±30.38 ng/mL, contrasting to nearly zero for the tablet. Multiple applications of patch produced an accumulative effect over single application. At steady state 250 mg/20 cm(2) TMP patch given daily provided comparable exposure to 100 mg TMPP tablets three times daily (3753.91 versus 3563.67 ng·h/mL). TMP tablets and patch yielded similar steady-state plasma concentrations: C(av) (148.48±51.27, 156.41±40.31 ng/mL). The results demonstrated that TMP patch can achieve a therapeutic effect that is comparable to oral administration, exhibited prolonged and sustained plasma levels, fewer drug fluctuations, lower adverse effects, more convenience, and improved patient compliance. In-vitro permeation through human skin demonstrated zero-order kinetics with the flux of 364 µg/cm(2)/h. The predicted C(av) (163.9 ng/mL) was in agreement with the observed C(av) (156.4 ng/mL). PMID:23514701

  12. Determinants of symptom pattern in idiopathic severely delayed gastric emptying: gastric emptying rate or proximal stomach dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    Karamanolis, G; Caenepeel, P; Arts, J; Tack, J

    2007-01-01

    Background Idiopathic gastroparesis is a syndrome characterised by severely delayed gastric emptying of solids without an obvious underlying organic cause. Although delayed gastric emptying is traditionally considered the mechanism underlying the symptoms in these patients, poor correlations with symptom severity have been reported. Aims To investigate proximal stomach function and to study the correlation of delayed gastric emptying and proximal stomach dysfunction with symptom pattern and severity in idiopathic gastroparesis. Methods 58 consecutive patients (19 men, mean (standard deviation) age 41 (2) years) with severely delayed solid gastric emptying (gastric half‐emptying time (t1/2)>109 min) without an organic cause were recruited. They filled out a symptom‐severity questionnaire and underwent a gastric barostat study for assessment of gastric sensitivity and accommodation. Correlation of these mechanisms with symptom pattern and overall symptom severity (sum of individual symptoms) was analysed. Results At two different cut‐off levels for gastric emptying (upper limit of normal t1/2 up to 1.5 and 2 times), no significant change in symptom pattern occurred. 25 (43%) patients had impaired accommodation, and this was associated with higher prevalence of early satiety (p<0.005) and weight loss (p = 0.009). 17 (29%) patients had hypersensitivity to gastric distension, and this was associated with higher prevalences of epigastric pain (p = 0.005), early satiety (p = 0.04) and weight loss (p<0.005). Overall symptom severity was not correlated with gastric emptying or accommodation, but only with sensitivity to gastric distension (R = −0.3898, p = 0.003) and body weight (R = −0.4233, p = 0.001). Conclusions In patients with idiopathic gastroparesis, the symptom pattern is determined by proximal stomach dysfunction rather than by the severity of delayed emptying. PMID:16840507

  13. Recurrent Upside-Down Stomach after Endoscopic Repositioning and Gastropexy Treated by Laparoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Toyota, Kazuhiro; Sugawara, Yuji; Hatano, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Patients with an upside-down stomach usually receive surgical treatment. In high-risk patients, endoscopic repositioning and gastropexy can be performed. However, the risk of recurrence after endoscopic treatment is not known. We treated a case of recurrent upside-down stomach after endoscopic therapy that indicated the limits of endoscopic treatment and risk of recurrence. An 88-year-old woman was treated three times for vomiting in the past. She presented to our hospital with periodic vomiting and an inability to eat, and a diagnosis of upside-down stomach was made. Endoscopic repositioning and gastropexy were performed. The anterior stomach wall was fixed to the abdominal wall in three places as widely as possible. Following treatment, she became symptom-free. Three months later, she was hospitalized again because of a recurrent upside-down stomach. Laparoscopic repair of hernias and gastropexy was performed. Using a laparoscope, two causes of recurrence were found. One cause was that the range of adherence between the stomach and the abdominal wall was narrow (from the antrum only to the lower corpus of stomach), so the upper corpus of stomach was rotated and herniated into the esophageal hiatus. The other cause was adhesion between the omentum and the esophageal hiatus which caused the stomach to rotate and repeatedly become herniated. Although endoscopic treatment for upside-down stomach can be a useful alternative method in high-risk patients, its ability to prevent recurrence is limited. Moreover, a repeated case caused by adhesions has risks of recurrence. PMID:24574947

  14. Evaluation and clinical significance of the stomach age model for evaluating aging of the stomach-a multicenter study in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A higher prevalence of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) occurs in younger adults in Asia. We used Stomach Age to examine the different mechanisms of CAG between younger adults and elderly individuals, and established a simple model of cancer risk that can be applied to CAG surveillance. Methods Stomach Age was determined by FISH examination of telomere length in stomach biopsies. Δψm was also determined by flow cytometry. Sixty volunteers were used to confirm the linear relationship between telomere length and age while 120 subjects were used to build a mathematical model by a multivariate analysis. Overall, 146 subjects were used to evaluate the validity of the model, and 1,007 subjects were used to evaluate the relationship between prognosis and Δage (calculated from the mathematical model). ROC curves were used to evaluate the relationship between prognosis and Δage and to determine the cut-off point for Δage. Results We established that a tight linear relationship between the telomere length and the age. The telomere length was obvious different between patients with and without CAG even in the same age. Δψm decreased in individuals whose Stomach Age was greater than real age, especially in younger adults. A mathematical model of Stomach Age (real age + Δage) was successfully constructed which was easy to apply in clinical work. A higher Δage was correlated with a worse outcome. The criterion of Δage >3.11 should be considered as the cut-off to select the subgroup of patients who require endoscopic surveillance. Conclusion Variation in Stomach Age between individuals of the same biological age was confirmed. Attention should be paid to those with a greater Stomach Age, especially in younger adults. The Δage in the Simple Model can be used as a criterion to select CAG patients for gastric cancer surveillance. PMID:25057261

  15. Microsatellites identify depredated waterfowl remains from glaucous gull stomachs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Bowman, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    Prey remains can provide valuable sources of information regarding causes of predation and the species composition of a predator's diet. Unfortunately, the highly degraded state of many prey samples from gastrointestinal tracts often precludes unambiguous identification. We describe a procedure by which PCR amplification of taxonomically informative microsatellite loci were used to identify species of waterfowl predated by glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We found that one microsatellite locus unambiguously distinguished between species of the subfamily Anserinae (whistling ducks, geese and swans) and those of the subfamily Anatidae (all other ducks). An additional locus distinguished the remains of all geese and swan species known to nest on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in western Alaska. The study focused on two waterfowl species which have experienced precipitous declines in population numbers: emperor geese (Chen canagica) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri). No evidence of predation on spectacled eiders was observed. Twenty-six percent of all glaucous gull stomachs examined contained the remains of juvenile emperor geese.

  16. Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Ye, Min-Feng; Tao, Feng; Liu, Fang; Sun, Ai-Jing

    2013-07-21

    Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach (HAS) is a rare form of gastric cancer that has unique clinicopathological features and an extremely poor prognosis. Here, we report on three patients with suspected gastric cancer who were referred to our hospital. Gastrointestinal fiberscopy on the three patients revealed two lesions in the antrum and a third lesion in the gastroesophageal junction. The alpha fetoprotein (AFP) serum levels were markedly elevated in all cases. At the time of diagnosis, two cases were advanced stages with lymph nodes and/or liver metastases. Two patients underwent exploratory laparotomy. A total gastrectomy was performed on the operable lesion, and an expanded gastrectomy was completed in the case with hepatic metastases. Histopathological analysis revealed that the tumors displayed two pathological changes: hepatoid-like foci and adenocarcinomatous. Furthermore, the tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for AFP, alpha-1 antitrypsin, and alpha-1 antichymotrypsin. All three patients received chemotherapy. The follow-up duration ranged from 8-36 mo. Our experience and previous published studies have suggested that HAS is an aggressive type of adenocarcinoma. However, radical surgery and chemotherapy may positively impact clinical outcomes. PMID:23885160

  17. Localized amyloidosis of the stomach mimicking a superficial gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Miwako; Fujino, Yasuteru; Muguruma, Naoki; Murayama, Noriaki; Okamoto, Koichi; Kitamura, Shinji; Kimura, Tetsuo; Kishi, Kazuhiro; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Uehara, Hisanori; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2016-06-01

    A 73-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further examination of a depressed lesion in the stomach found by cancer screening gastroscopy. A barium upper gastrointestinal series showed an area of irregular mucosa measuring 15 mm on the anterior wall of the gastric body. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a 15 mm depressed lesion on the anterior wall of the lower gastric body. We suspected an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma from the appearance and took some biopsies. However, histology of the specimens revealed amyloidal deposits in the submucosal layer without malignant findings. Congo red staining was positive for amyloidal protein and green birefringence was observed under polarized light microscopy. Congo red staining with prior potassium permanganate incubation confirmed the light chain (AL) amyloid type. There were no amyloid deposits in the colon or duodenum. Computed tomography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no remarkable findings. Thus, this case was diagnosed as a localized gastric amyloidosis characterized by AL type amyloid deposition in the mucosal or submucosal layer. As the clinical outcome of gastric AL amyloidosis seems favorable, this case is scheduled for periodic examination to recognize potential disease progression and has been stable for 2 years. PMID:27170299

  18. Irinotecan Hydrochloride With or Without Alvocidib in Treating Patients With Advanced Stomach or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-09

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  19. Microbial and metabolic profile of achlorhydric stomach: comparison of pernicious anaemia and hypogammaglobulinaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Borriello, S P; Reed, P J; Dolby, J M; Barclay, F E; Webster, A D

    1985-01-01

    The microbial flora and some of its metabolites and enzymes in the stomach were compared in patients with achlorhydria, pernicious anaemia, and primary hypogammaglobulinaemia and in patients with dyspepsia with normal gastric acidity. Detailed analysis of the flora of the gastric juice and of the mucosa from the antrum, body, and fundus in six patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia (mean pH 8.2), seven patients with pernicious anaemia (mean pH 7.3), and five patients with dyspepsia (mean pH 1.9) yielded 22 different genera of bacteria, mainly from the patients with achlorhydria, the most common being streptococci, micrococci, staphylococci, veillonella, and lactobacilli. A similar flora was found associated with the mucosa at all three sites. Various metabolites were also looked for. beta Glucoronidase and C14 lipase were found in patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia but not in those with pernicious anaemia or dyspepsia. Volatile fatty acids were not found. Relatively high concentrations of ethanol were found in the patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia compared with those with pernicious anaemia (p = 0.02). Similar concentrations of dimethylamine were found in all three groups, but the concentrations of trimethylamine were much higher in patients with pernicious anaemia and hypogammaglobulinaemia. The high concentrations of some microbial enzymes and ethanol differentiated the group with hypogammaglobulinaemia from the rest, and these may bear some relation to the high incidence of gastric cancer in patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia. PMID:4031106

  20. Ultrastructure of the stomach of the small short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda c.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, C J; Keith, J C

    1985-07-01

    The normal gastric ultrastructure has been characterized for the small short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda c., which is a primitive eutherian and one of the smallest living mammals with extraordinarily high metabolic rate. In general the cell types present and cytologic character of gastric mucosal, submucosal, and muscularis cells were similar to that reported for other more advanced small mammalian species. Chief cells, endocrine cells, and lamina proprial elements were morphologically identical to their counterpart in rats, ferrets and other small carnivores. Distinctive cytologic features in this species of shrew included the scanty monolayer or small number of mucous granules in the simple columnar surface epithelial cells of the mucosa, and the thin elongated shape of their microvilli. Dense bodies were absent in the parietal cell mitochondria of the shrew, though usually abundant in other mammalian parietal cells. Our data indicate few morphologic specializations in the shrew stomach which can be correlated with their high rate of food assimilation and metabolic demands, though future studies of mucosal biochemistry and lower gut morphology may reveal such adaptations. PMID:4020920

  1. Analysis of Stomach and Gut Microbiomes of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) from Coastal Louisiana, USA

    DOE PAGESBeta

    King, Gary M.; Judd, Craig; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Smith, Conor

    2012-12-12

    In this paper, we used high throughput pyrosequencing to characterize stomach and gut content microbiomes of Crassostrea virginica, the Easter oyster, obtained from two sites, one in Barataria Bay (Hackberry Bay) and the other in Terrebonne Bay (Lake Caillou), Louisiana, USA. Stomach microbiomes in oysters from Hackberry Bay were overwhelmingly dominated by Mollicutes most closely related to Mycoplasma; a more rich community dominated by Planctomyctes occurred in Lake Caillou oyster stomachs. Gut communities for oysters from both sites differed from stomach communities, and harbored a relatively diverse assemblage of phylotypes. Phylotypes most closely related to Shewanella and a Chloroflexi strainmore » dominated the Lake Caillou and Hackberry Bay gut microbiota, respectively. While many members of the stomach and gut microbiomes appeared to be transients or opportunists, a putative core microbiome was identified based on phylotypes that occurred in all stomach or gut samples only. The putative core stomach microbiome comprised 5 OTUs in 3 phyla, while the putative core gut microbiome contained 44 OTUs in 12 phyla. These results collectively revealed novel microbial communities within the oyster digestive system, the functions of the oyster microbiome are largely unknown. Finally, a comparison of microbiomes from Louisiana oysters with bacterial communities reported for other marine invertebrates and fish indicated that molluscan microbiomes were more similar to each other than to microbiomes of polychaetes, decapods and fish.« less

  2. Analysis of Stomach and Gut Microbiomes of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) from Coastal Louisiana, USA

    SciTech Connect

    King, Gary M.; Judd, Craig; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Smith, Conor

    2012-12-12

    In this paper, we used high throughput pyrosequencing to characterize stomach and gut content microbiomes of Crassostrea virginica, the Easter oyster, obtained from two sites, one in Barataria Bay (Hackberry Bay) and the other in Terrebonne Bay (Lake Caillou), Louisiana, USA. Stomach microbiomes in oysters from Hackberry Bay were overwhelmingly dominated by Mollicutes most closely related to Mycoplasma; a more rich community dominated by Planctomyctes occurred in Lake Caillou oyster stomachs. Gut communities for oysters from both sites differed from stomach communities, and harbored a relatively diverse assemblage of phylotypes. Phylotypes most closely related to Shewanella and a Chloroflexi strain dominated the Lake Caillou and Hackberry Bay gut microbiota, respectively. While many members of the stomach and gut microbiomes appeared to be transients or opportunists, a putative core microbiome was identified based on phylotypes that occurred in all stomach or gut samples only. The putative core stomach microbiome comprised 5 OTUs in 3 phyla, while the putative core gut microbiome contained 44 OTUs in 12 phyla. These results collectively revealed novel microbial communities within the oyster digestive system, the functions of the oyster microbiome are largely unknown. Finally, a comparison of microbiomes from Louisiana oysters with bacterial communities reported for other marine invertebrates and fish indicated that molluscan microbiomes were more similar to each other than to microbiomes of polychaetes, decapods and fish.

  3. Analysis of Stomach and Gut Microbiomes of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) from Coastal Louisiana, USA

    PubMed Central

    King, Gary M.; Judd, Craig; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Smith, Conor

    2012-01-01

    We used high throughput pyrosequencing to characterize stomach and gut content microbiomes of Crassostrea virginica, the Easter oyster, obtained from two sites, one in Barataria Bay (Hackberry Bay) and the other in Terrebonne Bay (Lake Caillou), Louisiana, USA. Stomach microbiomes in oysters from Hackberry Bay were overwhelmingly dominated by Mollicutes most closely related to Mycoplasma; a more rich community dominated by Planctomyctes occurred in Lake Caillou oyster stomachs. Gut communities for oysters from both sites differed from stomach communities, and harbored a relatively diverse assemblage of phylotypes. Phylotypes most closely related to Shewanella and a Chloroflexi strain dominated the Lake Caillou and Hackberry Bay gut microbiota, respectively. While many members of the stomach and gut microbiomes appeared to be transients or opportunists, a putative core microbiome was identified based on phylotypes that occurred in all stomach or gut samples only. The putative core stomach microbiome comprised 5 OTUs in 3 phyla, while the putative core gut microbiome contained 44 OTUs in 12 phyla. These results collectively revealed novel microbial communities within the oyster digestive system, the functions of the oyster microbiome are largely unknown. A comparison of microbiomes from Louisiana oysters with bacterial communities reported for other marine invertebrates and fish indicated that molluscan microbiomes were more similar to each other than to microbiomes of polychaetes, decapods and fish. PMID:23251548

  4. Establishment of novel in vitro mouse chief cell and SPEM cultures identifies MAL2 as a marker of metaplasia in the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Victoria G.; Petersen, Christine P.; Mills, Jason C.; Tuma, Pamela L.; Whitehead, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Oxyntic atrophy in the stomach leads to chief cell transdifferentiation into spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia (SPEM). Investigations of preneoplastic metaplasias in the stomach are limited by the sole reliance on in vivo mouse models, owing to the lack of in vitro models for distinct normal mucosal lineages and metaplasias. Utilizing the Immortomouse, in vitro cell models of chief cells and SPEM were developed to study the characteristics of normal chief cells and metaplasia. Chief cells and SPEM cells isolated from Immortomice were cultured and characterized at both the permissive (33°C) and the nonpermissive temperature (39°C). Clones were selected on the basis of their transcriptional expression of specific stomach lineage markers (named ImChief and ImSPEM) and protein expression and growth were analyzed. The transcriptional expression profiles of ImChief and ImSPEM cells were compared further by using gene microarrays. ImChief cells transcriptionally express most chief cell markers and contain pepsinogen C and RAB3D-immunostaining vesicles. ImSPEM cells express the SPEM markers TFF2 and HE4 and constitutively secrete HE4. Whereas ImChief cells cease proliferation at the nonpermissive temperature, ImSPEM cells continue to proliferate at 39°C. Gene expression profiling of ImChief and ImSPEM revealed myelin and lymphocyte protein 2 (MAL2) as a novel marker of SPEM lineages. Our results indicate that the expression and proliferation profiles of the novel ImChief and ImSPEM cell lines resemble in vivo chief and SPEM cell lineages. These cell culture lines provide the first in vitro systems for studying the molecular mechanisms of the metaplastic transition in the stomach. PMID:25190476

  5. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  6. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  7. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  8. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  9. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  10. NITROGEN CONCENTRATION OF STOMACH CONTENTS AS AN INDEX OF DIETARY NITROGEN FOR HISPID COTTON RATS (SIGMODON HISPIDUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the reliability of using nitrogen concentration of stomach contents from hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) as an index of diet nitrogen. Stomach contents of cotton rats fed diets varying in nitrogen concentration were analyzed for stomach nitrogen. Regression a...

  11. C-Met Inhibitor AMG 337, Oxaliplatin, Leucovorin Calcium, and Fluorouracil in Treating Patients With Advanced Stomach or Esophageal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-16

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Gastrointestinal Cancer; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  12. Radiation Dose and Subsequent Risk for Stomach Cancer in Long-term Survivors of Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Smith, Susan A.; Holowaty, Eric; Hall, Per; Pukkala, Eero; Vaalavirta, Leila; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita; Gilbert, Ethel; Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Kaijser, Magnus; Andersson, Michael; Storm, Hans; Joensuu, Heikki; Lynch, Charles F.; and others

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the dose–response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested, matched case–control study of 201 cases and 378 controls among 53,547 5-year survivors of cervical cancer diagnosed from 1943 to 1995, from 5 international, population-based cancer registries. We estimated individual radiation doses to the site of the stomach cancer for all cases and to corresponding sites for the matched controls (overall mean stomach tumor dose, 2.56 Gy, range 0.03-46.1 and after parallel opposed pelvic fields, 1.63 Gy, range 0.12-6.3). Results: More than 90% of women received radiation therapy, mostly with external beam therapy in combination with brachytherapy. Stomach cancer risk was nonsignificantly increased (odds ratio 1.27-2.28) for women receiving between 0.5 and 4.9 Gy to the stomach cancer site and significantly increased at doses ≥5 Gy (odds ratio 4.20, 95% confidence interval 1.41-13.4, P{sub trend}=.047) compared with nonirradiated women. A highly significant radiation dose–response relationship was evident when analyses were restricted to the 131 cases (251 controls) whose stomach cancer was located in the middle and lower portions of the stomach (P{sub trend}=.003), whereas there was no indication of increasing risk with increasing dose for 30 cases (57 controls) whose cancer was located in the upper stomach (P{sub trend}=.23). Conclusions: Our findings show for the first time a significant linear dose–response relationship for risk of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer.

  13. [THE INFLUENCE OF LEU-ENKEPHALIN AND MEDICAL PLANTS ON MOTOR ACTIVITY OF STOMACH IN DOGS].

    PubMed

    Vymjatnina, Z K; Prosekina, E Y; Tomova, T A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the real research was a study influence of leu-enkephalin and extracts from the leaves of goose-grass large, of burdock of felted and root of chicory on the motor function of stomach for dogs. The study was carried out on 6 outbred dogs-males, by mass 14-17 kg, with the fistula of stomach by Basov. A leu-enkephalin ("Vector", Russia) was entered intravenously in a dose 7 mcg/kg. The corresponding plant-based preparations entered perorally during 10-14 days to beginning of experiments, on an empty stomach, in a volume a no more than 20 ml. Experiments put in a morning clock, in 16-18 hours after eating, after the careful washing of stomach. For 30 mines to the record of motive activity of stomach an animal was enter a peptide or gave a corresponding extract as water or spirit infusion. At the choice of doses of vegetable preparations came from the before obtained data about the antiulcerous action of the used plants. The conduct of peptide rendered considerable stimulant influence on motor activity of stomach, that was expressed in the increase of period of work and increase of force of reductions especially tonic. All used plants preparations rendered modulating influence on motive activity of stomach. Changes consisted in strengthening of tonic and oppressing of phase component. The most considerable decline of amount of phase reductions caused application of extract of goose-grass. Not only an amount but also force of phase reductions diminished thus. An extract from the root of chicory less considerably reduced the arnount of Phase reJuctions, but here substantially increased their force. All used herbal medicines stimulated tonic activity. Thus, peptide and all studied herbal medicines stimulated motion activity of the stomach that could cause acceleration of evacuation of food to duodenum. Such effect should be considered while choosing the medicine for correction of stomach functional activity. PMID:26931013

  14. Normalizing Rejection.

    PubMed

    Conn, Vicki S; Zerwic, Julie; Jefferson, Urmeka; Anderson, Cindy M; Killion, Cheryl M; Smith, Carol E; Cohen, Marlene Z; Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Herrick, Linda; Topp, Robert; Benefield, Lazelle E; Loya, Julio

    2016-02-01

    Getting turned down for grant funding or having a manuscript rejected is an uncomfortable but not unusual occurrence during the course of a nurse researcher's professional life. Rejection can evoke an emotional response akin to the grieving process that can slow or even undermine productivity. Only by "normalizing" rejection, that is, by accepting it as an integral part of the scientific process, can researchers more quickly overcome negative emotions and instead use rejection to refine and advance their scientific programs. This article provides practical advice for coming to emotional terms with rejection and delineates methods for working constructively to address reviewer comments. PMID:26041785

  15. CT and MR imaging of gastrointestinal stromal tumor of stomach: a pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jingshan; Kang, Wenyan; Zhu, Jin; Xu, Jianmin

    2012-12-01

    This pictorial review illustrates CT and MR imaging appearance of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the stomach and other lesions with similar imaging appearance. GIST of the stomach appears as well-defined enhanced masses with characteristics of subeppthial neoplasms. Majority are exophytic growth, but can also be of intra-luminal growth. GIST can growth into a large mass without gastrointestinal tract obstruction. Necrosis is often seen in GIST and results in heterogeneous enhancement and communication with gastrointestinal tract. CT and MRI features of several other neoplasms mimicking GISTs in the stomach are also described in this review. PMID:23289087

  16. Bevacizumab and Combination Chemotherapy Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Esophageal or Stomach Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus; Stage IA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer

  17. Characterization of Physiologic (18)F FSPG Uptake in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mosci, Camila; Kumar, Meena; Smolarz, Kamilla; Koglin, Norman; Stephens, Andrew W; Schwaiger, Markus; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Mittra, Erik S

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To evaluate the normal biodistribution and kinetics of (S)-4-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-l-glutamic acid ((18)F FSPG) in healthy volunteers and to compare (18)F FSPG mean and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmean and SUVmax, respectively) with those of (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) across a variety of organs. Materials and Methods This protocol was reviewed and approved by all appropriate regulatory authorities. An 8-mCi (±10%) dose of (18)F FSPG was given to five subjects (three women, two men), and seven whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) scans were performed 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 150, and 240 minutes after injection. Regions of interest were analyzed on the resultant (18)F FSPG images to evaluate the kinetics of this radiotracer. The images obtained 45 minutes after injection were used to measure SUVmean and SUVmax in additional regions of the body. These values were compared with similar values obtained with (18)F FDG PET published previously. Descriptive statistics, including average and standard deviation across the five subjects, were used. (18)F FSPG SUVmean and SUVmax were compared. Results On the (18)F FSPG images obtained 45 minutes after injection, there was only low-grade background activity in the majority of analyzed regions. Prominent activity was seen throughout the pancreas. Clearance of the radiotracer through the kidneys and collection in the bladder also were seen. SUV quantification shows notable differences between (18)F FSPG and (18)F FDG in the pancreas ((18)F FSPG SUVmean, 8.2; (18)F FDG SUVmean, 1.3), stomach ((18)F FSPG SUVmax, 3.6; (18)F FDG SUVmax, 1.6), and brain ((18)F FSPG SUVmean, 0.08; (18)F FDG SUVmean, 7.8). The kinetic data showed rapid clearance of the radiotracer from the blood pool and most organs, except the pancreas. Conclusion (18)F FSPG is a PET radiopharmaceutical characterized by rapid clearance from most healthy tissues, except the pancreas and kidneys. A consistent biodistribution pattern was

  18. Keep Your Kidneys Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... our online catalog . Alternate Language URL Keep Your Kidneys Healthy Page Content The steps you take to ... and heart disease. Tips to help keep your kidneys healthy: Keep your blood pressure at the target ...

  19. Extra-Esophageal Pepsin from Stomach Refluxate Promoted Tonsil Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Jeong, Han-Sin; Kim, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ye Jin; Jung, Myeong Hee; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux is associated with numerous pathologic conditions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Gastric pepsin within reflux contributes to immunologic reactions in the tonsil. In this study, we aimed to find the relationships between pepsin and tonsillar hypertrophy. Methods and finding We explored the notion whether tonsillar hypertrophy was due to pepsin-mediated gastric reflux in tonsil hypertrophy. Fifty-four children with tonsil hypertrophy and 30 adults with tonsillitis were recruited before surgical treatment. Blood and tonsil tissues from each patient were harvested for analysis of changes in lymphocyte and macrophage numbers coupled with histological and biochemical analysis. Pepsin was expressed at different levels in tonsil tissues from each tonsillar hypertrophy. Pepsin-positive cells were found in the crypt epithelium, surrounding the lymphoid follicle with developing fibrosis, and also surrounding the lymphoid follicle that faced the crypt. And also, pepsin staining was well correlated with damaged tonsillar squamous epithelium and TGF-β1 and iNOS expression in the tonsil section. In addition, pepsin and TGF-β1-positive cells were co-localized with CD68-positive cells in the crypt and surrounding germinal centers. In comparison of macrophage responsiveness to pepsin, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were noticeably larger in the presence of activated pepsin in the child group. Furthermore, CD11c and CD163-positive cells were significantly increased by activated pepsin. However, this was not seen for the culture of PBMNCs from the adult group. Conclusions The lymphocytes and monocytes are in a highly proliferative state in the tonsillar hypertrophy and associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors as a result of exposure to stomach reflux pepsin. PMID:27058240

  20. Normal development.

    PubMed

    Girard, Nadine; Koob, Meriam; Brunel, Herv

    2016-01-01

    Numerous events are involved in brain development, some of which are detected by neuroimaging. Major changes in brain morphology are depicted by brain imaging during the fetal period while changes in brain composition can be demonstrated in both pre- and postnatal periods. Although ultrasonography and computed tomography can show changes in brain morphology, these techniques are insensitive to myelination that is one of the most important events occurring during brain maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is therefore the method of choice to evaluate brain maturation. MRI also gives insight into the microstructure of brain tissue through diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Metabolic changes are also part of brain maturation and are assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Understanding and knowledge of the different steps in brain development are required to be able to detect morphologic and structural changes on neuroimaging. Consequently alterations in normal development can be depicted. PMID:27430460

  1. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.; Bourne, Peter G.; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security. PMID:23385371

  2. A microfluidic in vitro system for the quantitative study of the stomach mucus barrier function.

    PubMed

    Li, Leon; Lieleg, Oliver; Jang, Sae; Ribbeck, Katharina; Han, Jongyoon

    2012-10-21

    In the stomach, a layer of gastric mucus protects the epithelial cells of the stomach wall against damage by the acidic digestive juices in the gastric lumen. Despite considerable research, the biophysical mechanisms for this acid barrier are not understood. We present an in vitro microfluidic tool to characterize the stomach acid barrier, in which purified mucin polymers are "secreted" against an acidic zone on chip, mimicking the in vivo secretion of gastric mucus into an acidic stomach lumen. This device reconstitutes both the H(+) concentration gradient and outward flow environment of the mucus layer in vivo. Our experiments demonstrate that a continuously secreted mucin layer hinders acid diffusion, suggesting novel insights into the barrier role of mucins. More broadly, our system may serve as a platform tool for studying the barrier functions provided by mucus layers in the body and for studying mucus drug interactions. PMID:22878692

  3. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Stomach Treated with Laparoscopic and Endoscopic Cooperative Surgery.

    PubMed

    Nabeshima, Kazuhito; Tomioku, Mifuji; Nakamura, Kenji; Yasuda, Seiei

    2015-09-01

    A 43-year-old Japanese woman with melena underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and was preoperatively diagnosed with sarcoma of the stomach. Physical examination revealed no abnormalities. Findings on the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a pedunculated submucosal tumor measuring 17 mm in the antrum. An enhanced computed tomography showed wall thickening in the gastric antrum. The patient underwent a laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS) for wedge resection of the stomach. The excised tumor measured 27 × 20 × 15 mm in size. Histopathology showed spindle-shaped cells in the submucosal layer. Immunohistochemistry showed that the tumor was positive for CD34, bcl-2, and MIC-2. The final diagnosis was solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the stomach. The postoperative course was uneventful, and no evidence of recurrence was observed at the 8-month follow-up. We report a case of SFT arising from the stomach that was treated with wedge resection by LECS. PMID:26369266

  4. Side to Side Esophagogastrojejunoplasty in Post-corrosive Stricture of Distal Esophagus and Proximal Stomach.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Praveen; Pancholi, Mukesh; Patel, Gulab; Sharma, Anju

    2015-12-01

    A four years old female child presented after 2 months of ingestion of battery fluid (sulfuric acid) accidently with stricture of the distal esophagus, esophagogastric junction, and fundus as well as proximal portion of the body of the stomach. Corrosive stricture involving the distal esophagus with the proximal stomach is not a frequently encountered condition. Side to side esophagogastrojejunostomy without removal of the strictured esophagus or stomach (side to side esophagogastrojejunoplasty) can be done in such patient hence preserving the stomach which is important physiologically as a reservoir and for the secretion of gastric juices. In review of literature in search engines like MD Consult, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase and standard textbooks of surgery, we could not find such procedure had been performed till date, so that it is the innovative approach with support of literature and surgical principles. PMID:27011603

  5. Transfixing cardiac injury with perforations in stomach, diaphragm and lung: unusual scenario in penetrating trauma

    PubMed Central

    Karigyo, Carlos Junior Toshiyuki; Fan, Otavio Goulart; Yoshida, Marcelo Miyazaki; Menescal, Roberto Jonathas; Tarasiewich, Marcos Jose

    2014-01-01

    A 23-year-old man suffered a penetrating injury caused by a metallic fragment thrown from a grass-cutting tool, resulting in perforating injuries in the stomach, diaphragm, heart, and lungs. PMID:24896170

  6. Stomach contents of cetaceans incidentally caught along Mangalore and Chennai coasts of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Anoop A.; Yousuf, K. S.; Kumaran, P. L.; Harish, N.; Anoop, B.; Afsal, V. V.; Rajagopalan, M.; Vivekanandan, E.; Krishnakumar, P. K.; Jayasankar, P.

    2008-03-01

    The stomachs of 32 individuals of seven cetacean species incidentally caught in gill net and purseseine fisheries along Mangalore and Chennai coasts (India) between 2004 and 2006 were examined. The whole stomach (fore-gut, mid-gut and hind-gut) was examined in all cases. Prey remains (666 prey items comprising six species of teleosts, one crustacean and one squid species) were found in the stomachs of eight individuals (the remaining 24 stomachs were found to be empty). All cetaceans were found to feed mostly on teleosts with wide range of trophic levels. Based on an index that included frequency of occurrence, percentage by number and by weight, the oil sardine Sardinella longiceps was the main prey in the sample. Cetaceans appear to favour both pelagic as well as demersal prey, possibly indicating surface and benthic feeding habits.

  7. Efficacy of cimetidin in the prevention of ulcer formation in the stomach during immobilization stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorofeyev, G. I.; Litovskiy, I. A.; Gavrovskaya, L. K.; Ivashkin, V. T.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of stress on the formation of ulcers in the mucous membrane of the stomach, the increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate level in the gastric tissues, and parietal cell structure alteration. Use of cimetidin prevents these effects

  8. Pathogenetic effects of salted pork in an area of China with high-risk for stomach cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yuan; Lin, Hui-Zhi; Zhang, Yin-Chang; Wang, Xuan-Jie; Wu, Yie-Qiu; Gao, Hua; Wang, Lan; Liu, Yan-Hou; Lu, Fang; Lou, Su-Qing

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To study the pathogenetic effects of salted pork (SP) (a special food in Zhuanghe City, a region of northern China that is a high-risk area for stomach cancer) on stomach cancer, and a provide scientific basis for the primary prevention of stomach cancer in this high-risk region. METHODS: This study consisted of three distinct parts. The first part involved a study of SP mutagenicity and employed both the Ames test and micronuclei assay using V79 cells. The second part included a study of SP’s effect on the gastric mucosa of residents in the Zhuanghe area who had consumed SP for more than ten years. Additionally, these studies involved an analysis of the dose effect relationship between SP and pathological changes in gastric mucosa, with a total of 300 cases analyzed. The third part of this study involved an observation of the mucosal lesions from experimental dogs by both gastroscopy and mucosal biopsy. Six healthy male dogs were selected, three were fed with SP, and the others served as controls. RESULTS: This study revealed that SP extract could mutate Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and induce an increase in both the micro nuclei rate (MNR) and micro nuclei cell rate (MNCR) of V79 at a dose range of 20-80 μL/mL. There were significant dose-effect relations between SP and either MNR or MNCR. Pathological changes in the gastric mucosa of local residents who had consumed SP were significantly different from those of the control group. In people who had consumed SP for ten years, mucosal lesions were found that contained evidence of necrosis and erosion; In those who consumed SP for ten-20 years, both hyperplasia and dysplasia were seen in addition to the above lesions. In individuals who had consumed SP for 20-30 years, severe dysplasia and malignant changes were found. Furthermore, SP had damaging effect on the gastric mucosa of dogs that were fed SP. The mucosal lesions became more severe with increased feeding time. CONCLUSION: SP is a strong mutagen and

  9. Roles of Radiation Dose and Chemotherapy in the Etiology of Stomach Cancer as a Second Malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W. van den; Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Besseling, Gijs; Bruin, Marie L. de; Hauptmann, Michael; Veer, Mars B. van't; Wit, Ronald de; Ribot, Jacques G.; Noordijk, Evert M.; Kerst, J. Martijn; Gietema, Jourik A.; Leeuwen, Flora E. van

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the roles of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and other factors in the etiology of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma. Methods and Materials: We conducted a cohort study in 5,142 survivors of testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma treated in the Netherlands between 1965 and 1995. In a nested case-control study, detailed information on treatment, smoking, gastrointestinal diseases, and family history was collected for 42 patients with stomach cancer and 126 matched controls. For each subject, the mean radiation dose to the stomach was estimated. Relative risks (RRs) of stomach cancer and the radiation-related excess relative risk (ERR) per gray were calculated by conditional logistic regression analysis. Results: The risk of stomach cancer was 3.4-fold increased compared with the general population. The risk increased with increasing mean stomach dose (p for trend, <0.001), at an ERR of 0.84 per Gy (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12-15.6). Mean stomach doses of more than 20 Gy were associated with a RR of 9.9 (95% CI, 3.2-31.2) compared with doses below 11 Gy. The risk was 1.8-fold (95% CI, 0.8-4.4) increased after chemotherapy and 5.4-fold (95% CI, 1.2-23.9) increased after high doses of procarbazine (>=13,000 mg) vs. <10,000 mg. The RR of smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day vs. no smoking was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.6-4.2). Conclusions: Stomach cancer risk is strongly radiation dose dependent. The role of chemotherapy, particularly of procarbazine and related agents, needs further study, because of the relatively small numbers of chemotherapy-treated subjects.

  10. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach presenting as a huge retroperitoneal tumor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xu-Dong; Zhou, Yong; Fan, Ren-Gen; Zhou, Bin; Shi, Quan; Jia, Jing

    2016-05-01

    A man complained of upper abdominal pain and early satiety for one month. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed nothing specia. A CT scan of the abdomen was perfromed, which demonstrated a huge heterogeneous retroperitoneal mass close to the dorsal wall of the stomach and surrounding the abdominal aortic and celiac trunk. The resected specimen suggested that an un-regular tumor invaded to the dorsal wall of the stomach. Postoperative histological examination confirmed that it was a gastric squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26181433

  11. In vivo formation of nitrosocarbamates in the stomach of rats and guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, R.W.; Dorough, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    The N-nitrosocarbamates are potent mutagens and carcinogens and have been synthesized under acid conditions that prevail in the human stomach. However, it has never been documented that nitrosocarbamates are actually formed in vivo in the stomach of any mammalian species. Using /sup 14/C-labeled carbaryl and carbofuran, attempts were made to isolate the nitroso derivatives from the stomach contents of rats and guinea pigs treated orally with the carbamate and sodium nitrite. Only trace quantities of nitrocarbamate were recovered from the rat stomach, whereas 0.5 to 2.0% of the carbamate doses were isolated as the nitroso derivative from the contents of the guinea pig stomach. The rather low apparent yields resulted in part from the instability of the nitrosocarbamates and from absorption of the carbamate and/or nitrosocarbamate from the stomach. Higher rates of synthesis were indicated by incubating the carbamates with sodium nitrite in the presence of the stomach contents at 37/sup 0/C for 15 min. About 30% nitrosation occurred with the guinea pig and about 0.5% with the rat. The difference was attributed to the pH of the gastric contents. For the rat, the pH ranged from 3 to 5; gastric contents of the guinea pig had a pH between 1 and 2. Since the pH of the human stomach is also in the pH 1-2 range, it is likely that nitrosation of carbamates in humans would be very similar to that in the guinea pig. 21 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  12. The results of Helicobacter pylori eradication on repeated bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Darko; Vcev, Aleksandar; Soldo, Ivan; Timarac, Jasna; Dmitrović, Branko; Misević, Tonci; Ivezić, Zdravko; Kraljik, Nikola

    2005-06-01

    The triple therapy of Helicobacter pylori eradication prevents repeated bleeding from stomach ulcer. The aim of this one-way blind prospective study was to evaluate the efficiency of the two-week triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in preventing renewed bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer within one year. This research included 60 hospitalized patients with bleeding stomach ulcer and positive Helicobacter pylori infection, 34 men and 26 women (average age 59.7 years). The patients were given therapeutic scheme of omeprazol--amoxicilin--metrodinazol (OAM) eradication for 14 days. Eradication of H. pylori infection was defined as lack of proof of the infection one month or several months after therapy suspension. By applying triple OAM therapy within two weeks the eradication was successful in 72%. In the group of 17 H. pylori positive patients there were 8 patients (47.6%) with repeated stomach ulcer and 3 patients (18%) with bleeding. Within the group of 43 H. pylori negative patients there were only 2 patients (4.65%) with repeated stomach ulcer and 1 patient (2%) with bleeding, during the observed period of 12 months. This research confirms the hypothesis about the necessity of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with bleeding stomach ulcer as prevention of repeated bleeding. PMID:16117312

  13. The Evolution of Stomach Acidity and Its Relevance to the Human Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Beasley, DeAnna E; Koltz, Amanda M; Lambert, Joanna E; Fierer, Noah; Dunn, Rob R

    2015-01-01

    Gastric acidity is likely a key factor shaping the diversity and composition of microbial communities found in the vertebrate gut. We conducted a systematic review to test the hypothesis that a key role of the vertebrate stomach is to maintain the gut microbial community by filtering out novel microbial taxa before they pass into the intestines. We propose that species feeding either on carrion or on organisms that are close phylogenetic relatives should require the most restrictive filter (measured as high stomach acidity) as protection from foreign microbes. Conversely, species feeding on a lower trophic level or on food that is distantly related to them (e.g. herbivores) should require the least restrictive filter, as the risk of pathogen exposure is lower. Comparisons of stomach acidity across trophic groups in mammal and bird taxa show that scavengers and carnivores have significantly higher stomach acidities compared to herbivores or carnivores feeding on phylogenetically distant prey such as insects or fish. In addition, we find when stomach acidity varies within species either naturally (with age) or in treatments such as bariatric surgery, the effects on gut bacterial pathogens and communities are in line with our hypothesis that the stomach acts as an ecological filter. Together these results highlight the importance of including measurements of gastric pH when investigating gut microbial dynamics within and across species. PMID:26222383

  14. The Evolution of Stomach Acidity and Its Relevance to the Human Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, DeAnna E.; Koltz, Amanda M.; Lambert, Joanna E.; Fierer, Noah; Dunn, Rob R.

    2015-01-01

    Gastric acidity is likely a key factor shaping the diversity and composition of microbial communities found in the vertebrate gut. We conducted a systematic review to test the hypothesis that a key role of the vertebrate stomach is to maintain the gut microbial community by filtering out novel microbial taxa before they pass into the intestines. We propose that species feeding either on carrion or on organisms that are close phylogenetic relatives should require the most restrictive filter (measured as high stomach acidity) as protection from foreign microbes. Conversely, species feeding on a lower trophic level or on food that is distantly related to them (e.g. herbivores) should require the least restrictive filter, as the risk of pathogen exposure is lower. Comparisons of stomach acidity across trophic groups in mammal and bird taxa show that scavengers and carnivores have significantly higher stomach acidities compared to herbivores or carnivores feeding on phylogenetically distant prey such as insects or fish. In addition, we find when stomach acidity varies within species either naturally (with age) or in treatments such as bariatric surgery, the effects on gut bacterial pathogens and communities are in line with our hypothesis that the stomach acts as an ecological filter. Together these results highlight the importance of including measurements of gastric pH when investigating gut microbial dynamics within and across species. PMID:26222383

  15. Breast cancer metastasis to the stomach confirmed using gastroscopy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    TAN, LINSHEN; PIAO, YING; LIU, ZHAOZHE; HAN, TAO; SONG, FULIN; GAO, FEI; HAN, YALING; XIE, XIAODONG

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer metastasis to the stomach is relatively rare. Unlike infiltrating ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) has a high tendency to metastasize to the stomach. The present study reports a case of a 53-year-old female who had undergone a modified radical mastectomy of the left breast for ILC eight years previously and presented at the clinic seeking treatment for epigastric discomfort from sour regurgitation and belching that had persisted for one month. Gastroscopy revealed multiple apophysis lesions in the stomach, which were diagnosed as metastatic tumors to the stomach. The diagnosis was further established using histological and immunohistochemical analyses for gross cystic disease fluid protein-15, cytokeratin (CK) 7 and CK20. The patient was treated with systemic chemotherapy without surgery. During the treatment, two gastroscopy procedures revealed that the apophysis lesions in the gastric body had narrowed significantly. Few cases of breast cancer metastasizing to the stomach have been reported, particularly those that have been confirmed using gastroscopy. The present study reports a case of breast cancer metastasis to the stomach to raise awareness of the condition. PMID:25120688

  16. Characterization of a normal control group: are they healthy?

    PubMed

    Aine, C J; Sanfratello, L; Adair, J C; Knoefel, J E; Qualls, C; Lundy, S L; Caprihan, A; Stone, D; Stephen, J M

    2014-01-01

    We examined the health of a control group (18-81years) in our aging study, which is similar to control groups used in other neuroimaging studies. The current study was motivated by our previous results showing that one third of the elder control group had moderate to severe white matter hyperintensities and/or cortical volume loss which correlated with poor performance on memory tasks. Therefore, we predicted that cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, high cholesterol) within the control group would account for significant variance on working memory task performance. Fifty-five participants completed 4 verbal and spatial working memory tasks, neuropsychological exams, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and blood tests to assess vascular risk. In addition to using a repeated measures ANOVA design, a cluster analysis was applied to the vascular risk measures as a data reduction step to characterize relationships between conjoint risk factors. The cluster groupings were used to predict working memory performance. The results show that higher levels of systolic blood pressure were associated with: 1) poor spatial working memory accuracy; and 2) lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in multiple brain regions. In contrast, higher levels of total cholesterol corresponded with increased accuracy in verbal working memory. An association between lower FA values and higher cholesterol levels were identified in different brain regions from those associated with systolic blood pressure. The conjoint risk analysis revealed that Risk Cluster Group 3 (the group with the greatest number of risk factors) displayed: 1) the poorest performance on the spatial working memory tasks; 2) the longest reaction times across both spatial and verbal memory tasks; and 3) the lowest FA values across widespread brain regions. Our results confirm that a considerable range of vascular risk factors are present in a typical control group, even in younger individuals, which have robust effects on brain anatomy and function. These results present a new challenge to neuroimaging studies both for defining a cohort from which to characterize 'normative' brain circuitry and for establishing a control group to compare with other clinical populations. PMID:24060318

  17. Effects of acupuncture at the acupoints of 12 meridians on gastrointestinal and cardiac electricity in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiao-Rong; Yan, Jie; Shen, Jing; Liu, Mi; Wang, Xiao-Juan

    2010-09-01

    The effect of acupuncture at the acupoints of 12 meridians on gastrointestinal and cardiac electricity in healthy adults was studied. Specific regulation between meridian points and viscera was also investigated. An electrogastrogram (EGG), electrointestinogram (EIG), carotid pulse graph, phonocardiogram and electrocardiogram were obtained in 30 healthy adults before and after acupuncture at various acupoints of 12 meridians. The effects of acupuncture on the amplitude and frequency of the EGG, EIG, pre-ejection period and the left ventricular ejection time were then analyzed. Acupuncture revealed that LR3 decreased the amplitude of the EGG while LI11 (Quchi), SJ5 (Waiguan), ST36 (Zusanli), SP9 (Yinlingquan) and SI6 (Yanglao) increased the amplitude. Multiple comparisons among the latter five acupoints indicated that there were significant differences between SP9, LI11, SJ5 and ST36 (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, p < 0.05) and SI6, LI11 and SJ5 (p < 0.01, p < 0.05). SP9 effected EGG amplitude the most, followed by SI6, ST36, SJ5 and LI11. Four acupoints increased the amplitude of the EIG (p < 0.05), including HT5 (Tongli), GB34 (Yanglingquan), SP9 and SI6. No significant differences were observed between these acupoints, but SI6 showed the most obvious effect on EIG amplitude, followed by GB34, SP9 and HT5. No significant effects on the frequency of the gastrointestinal slow wave or on cardiac function indexes were observed. Effects were observed, however, on pre-ejection period and left ventricular ejection time. Routine acupuncture had no detrimental effects on the stomach, intestine and heart in healthy adults, but instead regulated physiological function within a normal range. These findings demonstrate the existence of specific connections between the meridian points and the viscera. The results suggest that multiple meridians control the same viscus, and the same meridian can regulate the functions of multiple viscera. PMID:20869017

  18. Are there healthy obese?

    PubMed

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects. PMID:24210176

  19. The expression patterns of Reg IV gene in normal rat reproduction system.

    PubMed

    Du, Fang; Yao, Zhen-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Reg IV, the latest member of the regenerating gene family, has been documented in different tissues of human and rat, such as the colon, small intestine, stomach, and pancreas. Expression of Reg IV gene in distinct cell types has been correlated with its various functions in regeneration, cell growth and survival, proliferation and differentiation, cell adhesion, and resistance to apoptosis. However, there was no evidence to show whether the Reg IV protein is present in the reproductive system of normal rat. The aim of this study was to reveal the expression patterns of Reg IV in rat ovary and uterus. The expression of Reg IV was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot at mRNA and protein levels, respectively. The localization of Reg IV protein within rat ovary and uterus was investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Our results showed that the expression of Reg IV in ovary was significantly higher than that in the uterus. The strong immunoreactive signals of Reg IV was observed in granulosa cells and oocytes of ovarian follicles, corpus luteum, and interstitial cells in rat ovary; only weak signals were detected in luminal and gland epithelium of rat endometrium. These findings first demonstrate the expression of Reg IV in ovary and uterus of the healthy rat at both mRNA and protein levels. It provides an evidence of Reg IV expression in rat reproductive system, which may help elucidate a potential role in cell growth and proliferation of reproductive system. PMID:23203400

  20. Screening Helicobacter pylori genes induced during infection of mouse stomachs

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Aparna; Hodgson, Nathaniel; Yan, Ming; Joo, Jungsoo; Gu, Lei; Sang, Hong; Gregory-Bryson, Emmalena; Wood, William G; Ni, Yisheng; Smith, Kimberly; Jackson, Sharon H; Coleman, William G

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of in vivo environment on gene expression in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) as it relates to its survival in the host. METHODS: In vivo expression technology (IVET) systems are used to identify microbial virulence genes. We modified the IVET-transcriptional fusion vector, pIVET8, which uses antibiotic resistance as the basis for selection of candidate genes in host tissues to develop two unique IVET-promoter-screening vectors, pIVET11 and pIVET12. Our novel IVET systems were developed by the fusion of random Sau3A DNA fragments of H. pylori and a tandem-reporter system of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and beta-galactosidase. Additionally, each vector contains a kanamycin resistance gene. We used a mouse macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 and mice, as selective media to identify specific genes that H. pylori expresses in vivo. Gene expression studies were conducted by infecting RAW 264.7 cells with H. pylori. This was followed by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to determine the relative expression levels of in vivo induced genes. RESULTS: In this study, we have identified 31 in vivo induced (ivi) genes in the initial screens. These 31 genes belong to several functional gene families, including several well-known virulence factors that are expressed by the bacterium in infected mouse stomachs. Virulence factors, vacA and cagA, were found in this screen and are known to play important roles in H. pylori infection, colonization and pathogenesis. Their detection validates the efficacy of these screening systems. Some of the identified ivi genes have already been implicated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of H. pylori and other bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae. Transcription profiles of all ivi genes were confirmed by real time PCR analysis of H. pylori RNA isolated from H. pylori infected RAW 264.7 macrophages. We compared the expression profile of H. pylori and RAW 264

  1. Genomic characterization of symbiotic mycoplasmas from the stomach of deep-sea isopod bathynomus sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Huang, Jiao-Mei; Wang, Shao-Lu; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Zhang, Ai-Qun; Danchin, Antoine; He, Li-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Deep-sea isopod scavengers such as Bathynomus sp. are able to live in nutrient-poor environments, which is likely attributable to the presence of symbiotic microbes in their stomach. In this study we recovered two draft genomes of mycoplasmas, Bg1 and Bg2, from the metagenomes of the stomach contents and stomach sac of a Bathynomus sp. sample from the South China Sea (depth of 898 m). Phylogenetic trees revealed a considerable genetic distance to other mycoplasma species for Bg1 and Bg2. Compared with terrestrial symbiotic mycoplasmas, the Bg1 and Bg2 genomes were enriched with genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTSs) and sodium-driven symporters responsible for the uptake of sugars, amino acids and other carbohydrates. The genome of mycoplasma Bg1 contained sialic acid lyase and transporter genes, potentially enabling the bacteria to attach to the stomach sac and obtain organic carbons from various cell walls. Both of the mycoplasma genomes contained multiple copies of genes related to proteolysis and oligosaccharide degradation, which may help the host survive in low-nutrient conditions. The discovery of the different types of mycoplasma bacteria in the stomach of this deep-sea isopod affords insights into symbiotic model of deep-sea animals and genomic plasticity of mycoplasma bacteria. PMID:27312602

  2. American alligator digestion rate of blue crabs and its implications for stomach contents analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nifong, James C.; Rosenblatt, Adam E.; Johnson, Nathan A.; Barichivich, William; Silliman, Brian; Heithaus, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Stomach contents analysis (SCA) provides a snap-shot observation of a consumer's diet. Interpretation of SCA data can be complicated by many factors, including variation in gastric residence times and digestion rates among prey taxa. Although some SCA methods are reported to efficiently remove all stomach contents, the effectiveness of these techniques has rarely been tested for large irregular shaped prey with hard exoskeletons. We used a controlled feeding trial to estimate gastric residency time and decomposition rate of a large crustacean prey item, the Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus), which is consumed by American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), an abundant apex predator in coastal habitats of the southeastern United States. The decomposition rate of C. sapidus in the stomachs of A. mississippiensis followed a predictable pattern, and some crab pieces remained in stomachs for at least 14 days. We also found that certain portions of C. sapidus were prone to becoming caught within the stomach or esophagus, meaning not all crab parts are consistently recovered using gastric lavage techniques. However, because the state of decomposition of crabs was predictable, it is possible to estimate time since consumption for crabs recovered from wild alligators. This information, coupled with a detailed understanding of crab distributions and alligator movement tactics could help elucidate patterns of cross-ecosystem foraging by the American Alligator in coastal habitats

  3. Stomach of Aplysia depilans (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia): a histochemical, ultrastructural, and cytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Batista-Pinto, Carla

    2003-06-01

    We report the results of a morphological, histochemical, and cytochemical characterization of the Aplysia depilans stomach, an organ little studied in opisthobranchs. Very thin ciliated cells with microvilli on their apical surfaces are predominant in the epithelium lining the lumen of the stomach. Many lysosomes with a strong arylsulphatase activity were present in the apical regions of these cells that could also contain some lipid droplets and glycogen. Small peroxisomes were observed, usually around lipid droplets or mitochondria. Bottle-shaped secretory cells are very common in this epithelium and produce a secretion rich in proteins and acidic mucopolysaccharides. Most of the cytoplasm of these mucus-producing cells was filled with a very high number of granules and the nucleus is dislocated to the basal region. Cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum were abundant around the nucleus and several Golgi stacks were also present in this area. In spite of the variation in the electron density of the granules, only one type of secretory cell seems to be present in the stomach epithelium, since granules with very different electron densities were frequently found in the same cell. A few neurons were also found in the stomach epithelium of this species. Fibrocytes, muscle cells, nerves, and amebocytes were observed in the connective tissue of the stomach wall. PMID:12655617

  4. FNDC5 is produced in the stomach and associated to body composition

    PubMed Central

    Barja-Fernández, S.; Folgueira, C.; Castelao, C.; Al-Massadi, O.; Bravo, S. B.; Garcia-Caballero, T.; Leis, R.; Pardo, M.; Casanueva, F. F.; Seoane, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    The fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) discovered in 2002 has recently gained attention due to its potential role in protecting against obesity. In rat, no data exist regarding FNDC5 production and regulation in the stomach. The aim of the present work was to determine the expression of FNDC5 in the rat stomach and its potential regulation by body composition. The present data shows FNDC5 gene expression in the gastric mucosa. Immunohistochemical studies found FNDC5 immunopositivity in chief cells of gastric tissue. By the use of three different antibodies FNDC5 was found expressed in gastric mucosa and secreted by the stomach. The rate of gastric FNDC5 secretion parallels the circulating levels of FNDC5. The body fat mass increase after intervention with high fat diet coincided with a decrease in the secretion of FNDC5 from the stomach and a diminution in the FNDC5 circulating levels. In summary, the present data shows, for the first time, the expression of FNDC5 in the stomach of rats and its regulation by body composition, suggesting a potential role of gastric FNDC5 in energy homeostasis. PMID:26961074

  5. Recurrent gene loss correlates with the evolution of stomach phenotypes in gnathostome history.

    PubMed

    Castro, L Filipe C; Gonçalves, Odete; Mazan, Sylvie; Tay, Boon-Hui; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Wilson, Jonathan M

    2014-01-22

    The stomach, a hallmark of gnathostome evolution, represents a unique anatomical innovation characterized by the presence of acid- and pepsin-secreting glands. However, the occurrence of these glands in gnathostome species is not universal; in the nineteenth century the French zoologist Cuvier first noted that some teleosts lacked a stomach. Strikingly, Holocephali (chimaeras), dipnoids (lungfish) and monotremes (egg-laying mammals) also lack acid secretion and a gastric cellular phenotype. Here, we test the hypothesis that loss of the gastric phenotype is correlated with the loss of key gastric genes. We investigated species from all the main gnathostome lineages and show the specific contribution of gene loss to the widespread distribution of the agastric condition. We establish that the stomach loss correlates with the persistent and complete absence of the gastric function gene kit--H(+)/K(+)-ATPase (Atp4A and Atp4B) and pepsinogens (Pga, Pgc, Cym)--in the analysed species. We also find that in gastric species the pepsinogen gene complement varies significantly (e.g. two to four in teleosts and tens in some mammals) with multiple events of pseudogenization identified in various lineages. We propose that relaxation of purifying selection in pepsinogen genes and possibly proton pump genes in response to dietary changes led to the numerous independent events of stomach loss in gnathostome history. Significantly, the absence of the gastric genes predicts that reinvention of the stomach in agastric lineages would be highly improbable, in line with Dollo's principle. PMID:24307675

  6. Left-sided renal colic as a symptom of advanced stomach cancer – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kuciel-Lisieska, Grażyna; Licznerska, Grażyna; Tenderenda, Michał

    2012-01-01

    The typical symptoms of advanced cancer of the stomach are well known in clinical practice. The presented case concerns a patient with symptoms of left-sided renal colic, caused by a malignant tumour involving the ureter, which was diagnosed with a CT scan. The multifocal process, involving the stomach, two parts of the colon, the left ovary and the side of the pelvis, was confirmed only during surgery. The resection or partial resection of the above-mentioned organs involved by the malignant process and reconstruction of the alimentary tract as well as the ureter were performed at time of this operation. The patient's recovery was without any complications. The histopathological findings support the diagnosis of this malignant process as disseminated stomach cancer. In the available literature only two cases of stomach cancer metastasis to the ureter have been described. In both cited examples resection of the ureter with nephrectomy was performed. The review of the literature supports the value of stomach palliative resection in prolonging life and improving quality of life. PMID:23788876

  7. FNDC5 is produced in the stomach and associated to body composition.

    PubMed

    Barja-Fernández, S; Folgueira, C; Castelao, C; Al-Massadi, O; Bravo, S B; Garcia-Caballero, T; Leis, R; Pardo, M; Casanueva, F F; Seoane, L M

    2016-01-01

    The fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) discovered in 2002 has recently gained attention due to its potential role in protecting against obesity. In rat, no data exist regarding FNDC5 production and regulation in the stomach. The aim of the present work was to determine the expression of FNDC5 in the rat stomach and its potential regulation by body composition. The present data shows FNDC5 gene expression in the gastric mucosa. Immunohistochemical studies found FNDC5 immunopositivity in chief cells of gastric tissue. By the use of three different antibodies FNDC5 was found expressed in gastric mucosa and secreted by the stomach. The rate of gastric FNDC5 secretion parallels the circulating levels of FNDC5. The body fat mass increase after intervention with high fat diet coincided with a decrease in the secretion of FNDC5 from the stomach and a diminution in the FNDC5 circulating levels. In summary, the present data shows, for the first time, the expression of FNDC5 in the stomach of rats and its regulation by body composition, suggesting a potential role of gastric FNDC5 in energy homeostasis. PMID:26961074

  8. Clearance of Streptococcus suis in Stomach Contents of Differently Fed Growing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Warneboldt, Franziska; Sander, Saara J; Beineke, Andreas; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Kamphues, Josef; Baums, Christoph Georg

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) suis translocates across the intestinal barrier of piglets after intraintestinal application. Based on these findings, an oro-gastrointestinal infection route has been proposed. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the survival of S. suis in the porcine stomach. Whereas surviving bacteria of S. suis serotypes 2 and 9 were not detectable after 60 min of incubation in stomach contents with a comparatively high gastric pH of 5 due to feeding of fine pellets, the number of Salmonella Derby bacteria increased under these conditions. Further experiments confirmed the clearance of S. suis serotypes 2 and 9 within 30 min in stomach contents with a pH of 4.7 independently of the bacterial growth phase. Finally, an oral infection experiment was conducted, feeding each of 18 piglets a diet mixed with 10(10) CFU of S. suis serotype 2 or 9. Thorough bacteriological screenings of various mesenteric-intestinal lymph nodes and internal organs after different times of exposure did not lead to any detection of the orally applied challenge strains. In conclusion, the porcine stomach constitutes a very efficient barrier against oro-gastrointenstinal S. suis infections. Conditions leading to the passage of S. suis through the stomach remain to be identified. PMID:27509526

  9. A method for generating unfolded views of the stomach based on volumetric image deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kensaku; Oka, Hiroki; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Suenaga, Yasuhito

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents a method for virtually generating unfolded views of the stomach using volumetric image deformation. When we observe an organ with a large cavity in it, such as the stomach or the colon, by using a virtual endoscopy system, many changes of viewpoint and view direction are required. If virtually unfolded views of a target organ could be generated, doctors could easily diagnose the organ's inner walls only by one or a several views. In the proposed method, we extract a stomach wall region from a 3-D abdominal CT images and the obtained region is shrunken. For every voxel of the shrunken image, we allocate a hexahedron. In the deformation process, nodes and springs are allocated on the vertices, edges, and diagonals of each hexahedron. Neighboring hexahedrons share nodes and springs, except for the hexahedrons on the cutting line that a user specifies. The hexahedrons are deformed by adding forces that direct the nodes to the stretching plane to the nodes existing on the cutting line. The hexahedrons are deformed using iterative deformation calculation. By using the geometrical relations between hexahedrons before and after deformation, a volumetric image in which the stomach region is unfolded. Finally, the unfolded views are obtained by visualizing the reconstructed volume can be constructed. We applied the proposed method to eleven cases of 3-D abdominal CT images. The results show that the proposed method can accurately reproduce folds and lesions on the stomach.

  10. A case-control study of single and multiple stomach cancers in Saitama Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hoshiyama, Y; Sasaba, T

    1992-09-01

    A case-control study of stomach cancer was done in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, in relation to dietary, smoking, and drinking habits. The study was based on two sets of cases (216 male single and 35 male multiple stomach cancer cases newly diagnosed and of adenocarcinoma type), and 483 male controls derived from residents of Saitama Prefecture. Dietary habits were investigated for the intake of 12 separate foods and 12 food groups by means of a food frequency questionnaire, including individual taste preferences. Among the single stomach cancer series, dose-response relationships were observed for 7 dietary items (preference for salty foods, miso soup, boiled fish, pickled vegetables, nuts, raw vegetables, and seaweed) in the multiple logistic regression analysis. As for the multiple stomach cancer case series, dose-response relationships were observed for 3 dietary items (miso soup, fruits, and seaweed) in the multiple logistic regression analysis. Cigarette smoking and alcohol use were not significantly related to the risk of either single or multiple stomach cancer. PMID:1429203

  11. Xanthogranulomatous gastritis of the remnant stomach mimicking a malignant tumor: A case report

    PubMed Central

    OKAMURA, AKIHIKO; TAKAHASHI, TSUNEHIRO; SAIKAWA, YOSHIRO; NAKADAI, JUMPEI; ONO, TAIKI; NAKAMURA, RIEKO; WADA, NORIHITO; KAWAKUBO, HIROFUMI; TAKEUCHI, HIROYA; EMOTO, KATSURA; SASAKI, AYA; KAMEYAMA, KAORI; KITAGAWA, YUKO

    2016-01-01

    Xanthogranulomas are known to develop in the gallbladder and kidney. Xanthogranuloma of the stomach is a rare disease, and to the best of our knowledge, only a few cases have been reported to date. The present patient was a 64-year-old man who underwent a wide resection of the stomach following a Billroth-I reconstruction for a gastric ulcer ~40 years prior to the current presentation. Due to tarry stools, a gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed, leading to identification of an ulcerated gastric lesion located at the previous suture line at the lesser curvature of the remnant stomach. This lesion was elevated, appearing to indicate a submucosal tumor. Positron emission tomography revealed uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose radiotracer by the tumor. Although not indicated by the biopsy specimens, a malignant tumor of the remnant stomach was suspected, in the form of a malignant gastrointestinal tumor or remnant gastric cancer. Curative resection of the tumor was successfully performed. Histological examination of the resected specimens revealed xanthogranulomatous inflammation consisting of foamy histiocytes and plasma cells, however, no cancer cells were observed. The tumor was diagnosed as xanthogranulomatous gastritis that mimicked a malignant tumor of the remnant stomach. The present study therefore indicates that inflammatory tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of malignant tumors. PMID:26893759

  12. Recurrent gene loss correlates with the evolution of stomach phenotypes in gnathostome history

    PubMed Central

    Castro, L. Filipe C.; Gonçalves, Odete; Mazan, Sylvie; Tay, Boon-Hui; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Wilson, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    The stomach, a hallmark of gnathostome evolution, represents a unique anatomical innovation characterized by the presence of acid- and pepsin-secreting glands. However, the occurrence of these glands in gnathostome species is not universal; in the nineteenth century the French zoologist Cuvier first noted that some teleosts lacked a stomach. Strikingly, Holocephali (chimaeras), dipnoids (lungfish) and monotremes (egg-laying mammals) also lack acid secretion and a gastric cellular phenotype. Here, we test the hypothesis that loss of the gastric phenotype is correlated with the loss of key gastric genes. We investigated species from all the main gnathostome lineages and show the specific contribution of gene loss to the widespread distribution of the agastric condition. We establish that the stomach loss correlates with the persistent and complete absence of the gastric function gene kit—H+/K+-ATPase (Atp4A and Atp4B) and pepsinogens (Pga, Pgc, Cym)—in the analysed species. We also find that in gastric species the pepsinogen gene complement varies significantly (e.g. two to four in teleosts and tens in some mammals) with multiple events of pseudogenization identified in various lineages. We propose that relaxation of purifying selection in pepsinogen genes and possibly proton pump genes in response to dietary changes led to the numerous independent events of stomach loss in gnathostome history. Significantly, the absence of the gastric genes predicts that reinvention of the stomach in agastric lineages would be highly improbable, in line with Dollo's principle. PMID:24307675

  13. Witnessing a Natural, Safe, and Healthy Birth

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2009-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses her experience witnessing a natural, safe, and healthy home birth. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth. PMID:19750213

  14. Developmental Topographical Disorientation in a Healthy Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchini, F.; Incoccia, C.; Palermo, L.; Piccardi, L.; Zompanti, L.; Sabatini, U.; Peran, P.; Guariglia, C.

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of F.G., a healthy, normally developed 22-year-old male subject affected by a pervasive disorder in environmental orientation and navigation who presents no history of neurological or psychiatric disease. A neuro-radiological examination showed no evidence of anatomical or structural alterations to the brain. We submitted the…

  15. Expression of Fas ligand by human gastric adenocarcinomas: a potential mechanism of immune escape in stomach cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, M; O'Connell, J; O'Sullivan, G; Roche, D; Brady, C; Kelly, J; Collins, J; Shanahan, F

    1999-01-01

    Background—Despite being immunogenic, gastric cancers overcome antitumour immune responses by mechanisms that have yet to be fully elucidated. Fas ligand (FasL) is a molecule that induces Fas receptor mediated apoptosis of activated immunocytes, thereby mediating normal immune downregulatory roles including immune response termination, tolerance acquisition, and immune privilege. Colon cancer cell lines have previously been shown to express FasL and kill lymphoid cells by Fas mediated apoptosis in vitro. Many diverse tumours have since been found to express FasL suggesting that a "Fas counterattack" against antitumour immune effector cells may contribute to tumour immune escape. 
Aim—To ascertain if human gastric tumours express FasL in vivo, as a potential mediator of immune escape in stomach cancer. 
Specimens—Thirty paraffin wax embedded human gastric adenocarcinomas. 
Methods—FasL protein was detected in gastric tumours using immunohistochemistry; FasL mRNA was detected in the tumours using in situ hybridisation. Cell death was detected in situ in tumour infiltrating lymphocytes using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL). 
Results—Prevalent expression of FasL was detected in all 30 resected gastric adenocarcinomas examined. In the tumours, FasL protein and mRNA were co-localised to neoplastic gastric epithelial cells, confirming expression by the tumour cells. FasL expression was independent of tumour stage, suggesting that it may be expressed throughout gastric cancer progression. TUNEL staining disclosed a high level of cell death among lymphocytes infiltrating FasL positive areas of tumour. 
Conclusions—Human gastric adenocarcinomas express the immune downregulatory molecule, FasL. The results suggest that FasL is a prevalent mediator of immune privilege in stomach cancer. 

 Keywords: Fas ligand; gastric cancer; immune escape; apoptosis; tumour; mRNA PMID:9895372

  16. Environmental radioactivity and high incidence rates of stomach and esophagus cancer in the Van Lake region: a causal relationship?

    PubMed

    Akan, Zafer; Baskurt, Busranur; Asliyuksek, Hizir; Kam, Erol; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Yuksel, Mehmet Bilgehan; Biyik, Recep; Esen, Ramazan; Koca, Dogan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the incidence rates of cancer cases (averages for 2006-2010) and relationships with environmental radioactivity levels. Soil and water samples were collected from provincial and district centers of Van city and the outdoor gamma doses were determined using a portable gamma scintillation detector. Gross alpha and beta, (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K activities were measured in both tap water and soil samples. Although high rates of stomach and esophagus cancers have been reported previously in Van the underlying reasons have not hitherto been defined. Incidences of cancers were highest in the Gurpinar (326.0) and Ozalp (377.1) counties (p<0.001). As to the results of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity measurements in the drinking water, these two counties also had high beta radionuclide levels: Gurpinar (140 mBq/dm3) and Ozalp (206 mBq/dm3). Even if within the normal range, a relation between the higher rate of the incidence of stomach and esophagus cancers with that of the higher rate of beta radionuclide activity was clear. On Spearman correlation analysis, the relation between higher beta radionuclide levels and cancer incidence was found to be statistically significant (p<0.01). According to the results of the analysis, Van residents receive an average 1.86 mSv/y annual dose from outdoor gamma radiation, ingestion of radionuclides in the drinking water, and indoor 222Rn activity. Moreover, gross alpha and beta activities were found to be extremely high in all of the lakes around the city of Van, Turkey. Further investigations with long-term detailed environmental radiation measurements are needed regarding the relationship between cancer cases and environmental radioactivity in the city of Van. PMID:24528059

  17. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  18. Staying Healthy After Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... http://womenshealth.gov/menopause/menopause-basics/index.html Staying healthy after menopause may mean making some changes in the way you live. Don't smoke. If you do use any type of tobacco, stop—it's never too late to benefit from quitting smoking. Eat a healthy ...

  19. Active and Healthy Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  20. Healthy Homes Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina; Lyon, Melinda; Russ, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Extension is focusing on healthy homes programming. Extension educators are not qualified to diagnose consumers' medical problems as they relate to housing. We cannot give medical advice. Instead, we can help educate consumers about home conditions that may affect their well-being. Extension educators need appropriate healthy homes tools to…

  1. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  2. Choosing Healthy Restaurant Meals

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Your Plate? Smart Food Choices for Healthy Aging. Download the Tip Sheet Choosing Healthy Restaurant Meals (PDF, 513.39 KB) You Might Also Like Drinking Enough Fluids Foot Care Monthly Progress Test STAY INFORMED Follow us on Twitter Visit us ...

  3. Quantitation and identification of organic N-chloramines formed in stomach fluid on ingestion of aqueous hypochlorite

    SciTech Connect

    Scully, F.E. Jr.; Mazina, K.; Sonenshine, D.; Kopfler, F.

    1986-11-01

    The chemical reactions that hypochlorite undergoes in the body when chlorinated water is ingested have received very little attention. Because amino nitrogen compounds are important components of the average diet, the reactions of hypochlorite with amino compounds in the stomach were investigated. Stomach fluid was recovered from Sprague-Dawley rats that had been fasted for 48 hr and administered 4 mL deionized water. The chlorine demand of the stomach fluid was determined. At least part of the chlorine demand is associated with amino acids present in the stomach fluid. Amino acids were identified and quantified in the stomach fluid by precolumn derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). When stomach fluid is chlorinated to concentrations of chlorine between 200 and 1000 mg/L, organic N-chloramines are formed. After derivatization of chlorinated stomach fluid with dansyl sulfinic acid, fluorescent derivatives of chloramines were separated by HPLC. Three chloramino acid derivatives, N-chloroalanine, N-chloroglycine, and N-chlorophenylalanine, were identified by cochromatography with known standards using two chromatographic methods. The yield of a chloramine that would form in stomach fluid on administration of hypochlorite to animals as determined using tritiated piperidine and doses of 200 and 1000 mg/L chlorine. Yields of tritiated N-chloropiperidine in recovered stomach fluid were 70% and 42%, respectively, of the theoretical amount expected.

  4. [Effect of prednisolone on the basal gastric secretion in laboratory rats depending on functional state of the stomach adrenoreceptors].

    PubMed

    Trefilov, A B

    2002-04-01

    Activation of the stomach adrenoreceptors with adrenaline resulting in inhibition of fundal glands promotes stimulating effect of prednisolone glucocorticosteroid action on basal gastric secretion. PMID:12058541

  5. Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Vismodegib in Treating Patients With Advanced Stomach Cancer or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-16

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  6. Body conditions and stomach contents of subadult trout during fall and winter in three Wyoming tailwaters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hebdon, J.L.; Hubert, W.A.

    2001-01-01

    We studied three tailwaters in Wyoming from October 1997 through February 1998 to determine whether body conditions of stocked, subadult rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss or cutthroat trout O. clarki declined from fall through winter and to assess whether lack of food in stomachs might be related to any declines. Body conditions of rainbow trout in two tailwaters remained high through the winter. Body conditions of cutthroat trout in a third tailwater declined between October and February but not to levels anticipated to affect the overwinter survival of the fish. Trout with substantial amounts of food in their stomachs were found throughout the fall and winter in all three tailwaters. In no subadult trout in any of the three tailwaters did we observe rapid declines in body conditions during fall or continuous declines in body conditions to very low levels by the end of winter in association with low biomass of food in stomachs.

  7. Labeling of Tannic Acid with Technetium-99m for Diagnosis of Stomach Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, I. T.; El-Tawoosy, M.; Talaat, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Tannic acid is a polyphenolic compound that could be labeled with technetium-99m. To produce about 90% yield of  99mTc-tannic acid in acidic media (pH), the conditions required were 150 μg tin chloride, 30 min reaction time, and 200 μg of the substrate. 99mTc-tannic was stable for 6 h. Oral biodistribution of 99mTc-tannic showed that it concentrated in the stomach ulcer to reach about 50% of the total injected dose at 1 h after orall administration. This concentration of 99mTc-tannic in stomach ulcer may be sufficient to radio-image the presence of ulcer in the stomach. PMID:22389852

  8. Mortality from stomach cancer in United States cement plant and quarry workers, 1950-80.

    PubMed Central

    Amandus, H E

    1986-01-01

    In 1978 a study of the mortality of United States cement plant and quarry workers was initiated. The vital status of a cohort of 5292 men who had been employed for at least five years in a cement plant between 1950 and 1980 was traced to 1 January 1980. The mortality experience was evaluated for 4231 white men for whom complete work histories and demographic information were available. Deaths from stomach cancer were significantly increased during 1965-9 but not over the entire follow up period (1950-80). Additionally, stomach cancer mortality was not significantly associated with tenure under separate control for age at follow up, latency, nativity, or year of birth. Evidence from this and other epidemiological studies has not confirmed an association between the constituents of cement plant dust exposure and death from stomach cancer. PMID:3637114

  9. Histology of the mucosa of the oesophagogastric junction and the stomach in adult Rana perezi.

    PubMed Central

    Gallego-Huidobro, J; Pastor, L M

    1996-01-01

    The histological structure of the frog digestive mucosa changes at the oesophagogastric junction. The pseudostratified ciliated mucosal epithelium of oesophageal type changes to a simple mucus-secreting epithelium of gastric type. The glands straighten and the muscularis mucosae develops as a complete layer. The muscularis increases in thickness. Unlike the mammalian stomach, in the frog the surface of the plicae forms convoluted ridges that delimit furrow-shaped pits. Two types of gastric glands are distinguished, fundal and pyloric. The former consist of mucous, oxynticopeptic and endocrine cells. The pyloric glandular cells are mainly of mucus-secreting type with scattered endocrine cells. Scattered endocrine cells of P, D, G, A, EC, and EC-L-like types are found in the glands along the stomach. It is concluded that the mucosal structure of the anuran oesophagogastric junction and stomach is less complicated than that of mammals, including man. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8621343

  10. Virtual Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Exploration of Stomach Wall Based on a Cadaver's Sectioned Images.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Koojoo; Shin, Dong Sun; Shin, Byeong-Seok; Park, Hyung Seon; Lee, Sangho; Jang, Hae Gwon; Park, Jin Seo; Chung, Min Suk

    2015-05-01

    We intended to determine that virtual endoscopy and laparoscopy of the stomach based on serially sectioned cadaver images is beneficial. Therefore, the outlines between the gastric wall and lumen were traced using the new female data of the Visible Korean to build a volume model. While the outlines were expanded at appropriate thicknesses, the stomach was observed endoscopically and laparoscopically in comparison with a chosen sectioned image. Four layers (mucosa, submucosa, muscular layer, and serosa) of the stomach were discernible by their proper colors in the sectioned images. All layers except the submucosa were identified in the endoscopic and laparoscopic views by using consistent colors. The stepwise expansion of the outlines revealed thickness of each layer as well as whether the thickness was uniform. Our ideas and the Visible Korean images could be a robust resource of virtual reality learning for medical students and clinicians. PMID:25931800

  11. Reprogrammed Stomach Tissue as a Renewable Source of Functional β Cells for Blood Glucose Regulation.

    PubMed

    Ariyachet, Chaiyaboot; Tovaglieri, Alessio; Xiang, Guanjue; Lu, Jiaqi; Shah, Manasvi S; Richmond, Camilla A; Verbeke, Catia; Melton, Douglas A; Stanger, Ben Z; Mooney, David; Shivdasani, Ramesh A; Mahony, Shaun; Xia, Qing; Breault, David T; Zhou, Qiao

    2016-03-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium is a highly regenerative tissue with the potential to provide a renewable source of insulin(+) cells after undergoing cellular reprogramming. Here, we show that cells of the antral stomach have a previously unappreciated propensity for conversion into functional insulin-secreting cells. Native antral endocrine cells share a surprising degree of transcriptional similarity with pancreatic β cells, and expression of β cell reprogramming factors in vivo converts antral cells efficiently into insulin(+) cells with close molecular and functional similarity to β cells. Induced GI insulin(+) cells can suppress hyperglycemia in a diabetic mouse model for at least 6 months and regenerate rapidly after ablation. Reprogramming of antral stomach cells assembled into bioengineered mini-organs in vitro yielded transplantable units that also suppressed hyperglycemia in diabetic mice, highlighting the potential for development of engineered stomach tissues as a renewable source of functional β cells for glycemic control. PMID:26908146

  12. A comparative study of the major glycoprotein isolated from normal and neoplastic gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Schrager, J; Oates, M D

    1973-04-01

    The isolation and composition of glycoproteins from mucosae of normal stomachs, of stomachs with gastric ulcer, and of stomachs with carcinoma is described. The glycoproteins from the mucosae of normal stomachs and with gastric ulcer showed virtually the same carbohydrate and amino acid content as the principal gastric glycoprotein isolated from gastric aspirates. They all revealed a common basic carbohydrate composition: galactose, fucose, glucosamine, and galactosamine were present in approximate molar ratios of 4:3:3:1. THE RESULTS SUGGEST THAT THE GLYCOPROTEINS ISOLATED FROM GASTRIC ASPIRATES FROM NORMAL AND NEOPLASTIC GASTRIC MUCOSAE SHARE A NUMBER OF STRUCTURAL FEATURES: (1) a protein core with a characteristic amino acid composition; (2) the range of sugars forming the carbohydrate side chains; (3) galactosamine approximately equimolar with the sum of threonine and serine; (4) galactose approximately equimolar with the sum of glucosamine and galactosamine; (5) absence of mannose; (6) a high carbohydrate content (80-85%); and (7) blood group activity. The neoplastic glycoproteins differed from the normal glycoproteins in that the quantitative relationships of the carbohydrate components of the neoplastic glycoproteins showed variations dividing the extracts investigated into groups, each group with a distinctive and constant carbohydrate composition. The blood group specificity of 15 out of 24 cases investigated differed from that of the hosts' red cells. PMID:4706916

  13. An evaluation of in vivo models for toxicokinetics of hexavalent chromium in the stomach

    SciTech Connect

    Sasso, A.F. Schlosser, P.M.

    2015-09-15

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr6) is a drinking water contaminant that has been detected in most of the water systems throughout the United States. In 2-year drinking water bioassays, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) found clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in male and female rats and mice. Because reduction of Cr6 to trivalent chromium (Cr3) is an important detoxifying step in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract prior to systemic absorption, models have been developed to estimate the extent of reduction in humans and animals. The objective of this work was to use a revised model of ex vivo Cr6 reduction kinetics in gastric juice to analyze the potential reduction kinetics under in vivo conditions for mice, rats and humans. A published physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was adapted to incorporate the new reduction model. This paper focuses on the toxicokinetics of Cr6 in the stomach compartment, where most of the extracellular Cr6 reduction is believed to occur in humans. Within the range of doses administered by the NTP bioassays, neither the original nor revised models predict saturation of stomach reducing capacity to occur in vivo if applying default parameters. However, both models still indicate that mice exhibit the lowest extent of reduction in the stomach, meaning that a higher percentage of the Cr6 dose may escape stomach reduction in that species. Similarly, both models predict that humans exhibit the highest extent of reduction at low doses. - Highlights: • We outline a new in vivo model for hexavalent chromium reduction in the stomach. • We examine in vivo reduction for mice, rats, and humans under varying conditions. • Species differences in toxicokinetics may explain susceptibility. • We show that a simplified stomach reduction model is adequate for extrapolation. • Internal dose uncertainties still exist.

  14. Stress-Induced Stroke and Stomach Cancer: Sex Differences in Oxygen Saturation.

    PubMed

    Ulanova, Maria; Gekalyuk, Artem; Agranovich, Ilana; Khorovodov, Alexander; Rezunbaeva, Victoria; Borisova, Ekaterina; Sharif, Aly Esmat; Navolokin, Nikita; Shuvalova, Ekaterina; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in stress-related diseases such as stroke and stomach cancer are well established, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unknown. Despite the fact that sexual hormones play an important role in the high resistance of females to harmful effects of stress compared with males, the regulation of oxygenation status can be a potential factor, which might explain sex differences in stress-induced cerebrovascular catastrophes in newborn rats and in mutagens activation in adult rats with stomach cancer. PMID:27526135

  15. Absence of point mutation in the 12th codon of transformed c-Ha-rasl genes of human cancer of the breast, stomach, melanoma, and neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Knyazev, P.G.; Schafer, R.; Willecke, K.V.; Seitz, I.F.

    1985-11-01

    In the authors' previous investigations, they established that the tumorous cell lines SK-BR-3 (breast cancer), LAN-1 (neuroblastoma), and a heterotransplant of malignant melanoma Jal contain transforming genes of Ha-ras type. Now, the authors report their results using restriction endonucleases of MspI and HpaII restriction to study nucleotide sequences 5'-CCGGC-3' and 3'GGCCG-5', which contain the 12th codon of GGC for the amino acid glycine in the normal allele of c-Ha-rasl in the three tumors listed above, in addition to human adenocarcinoma of the stomach (CaVSt) and normal cells corresponding to them. For hybridization of MspI/HpaII, fragments of chromosomal DNA isolated from cell lines SK-BR-3, and LAN-1, Ja-1 heterotransplant, and stomach adenocarcinoma CaVSt, the XmaI section of EJ oncogene, c-Ha-rasl (plasmid pEJ 6.6), labeled with /sup 32/P was used in down-translation reaction. Hybridization was performed in 3 x SSC buffer containing 5x Deinhardt's reagent and 10% dextran sulfate at 68/sup 0/C for 16-18 h. Washing of filters was conducted under rigid conditions. For autoradiography, Kodak XR-5 x-ray film in cartridges with reinforcing shields was used at -70/sup 0/C, exposure time of four to six days.

  16. Planning For a Healthy School Year: Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Planning For A Healthy School Year Healthy Eating Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of Contents How ... federal government releases a set of guidelines on healthy eating. The guidelines suggest balancing calories with physical activity. ...

  17. Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds

    MedlinePlus

    Flaxseeds contain fiber, vitamins, minerals, protein, healthy plant-based fats, and antioxidants that help prevent cell damage. Flaxseeds are a good source of soluble and insoluble fiber which help ...

  18. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... clean up the air are enforced. Learn more Climate Change Climate change threatens the health of millions of people, with ... What Makes Air Unhealthy Fighting for Healthy Air Climate Change Emergencies & Natural Disasters Tobacco Education and Training Ask ...

  19. Healthy Sleep Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  20. Healthy Muscles Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my muscles more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles ... If you have been inactive, “start low and go slow” by gradually increasing how often and how ...

  1. Healthy Bones Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my bones more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Reprinted from The Surgeon General’s Report on ... women who don’t smoke, and they often go through menopause earlier. Smokers also may absorb less ...

  2. Healthy Dining Hall Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... with healthy foods will help fuel both your body and your mind. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  3. 4 Top Healthy Snacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity 4 Top Healthy Snacks Past Issues / Spring - Summer ... looking at whether or not the risks for childhood obesity could actually start before birth. The subject needs ...

  4. Healthy grocery shopping

    MedlinePlus

    ... for meats that are 97% lean ground meats. Fish, such as salmon, whitefish, sardines, herring, tilapia, and ... healthy foods are: Choose tuna and other canned fish that is packed in water, not oil. Check ...

  5. Application of SPECT/CT imaging system and radiochemical analysis for investigation of blood kinetics and tissue distribution of radiolabeled plumbagin in healthy and Plasmodium berghei-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Sumsakul, W; Karbwang, J; Na-Bangchang, K

    2016-02-01

    Plumbagin is a derivative of napthoquinone which is isolated from the roots of plants in several families. These compound exhibits a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities including antimalarial, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities. The aim of the study was to investigate blood kinetics and tissue distribution of plumbagin in healthy and Plasmodium berghei-infected mice using Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) and radiochemical analysis by gamma counter. Plumbagin was labeled with (99m)technetium and the reducing agent stannous chloride dihydrate (50 μg/ml) at pH 6.5. Blood kinetics and tissue distribution of the radiolabeled plumbagin were investigated in healthy and P. berghei-infected mice (2 males and 2 females for each experimental group). In vitro and in vivo stability of plumbagin complex suggested satisfactory stability profiles of (99m)Tc-plumbagin complex in plasma and normal saline (92.21-95.47%) within 24 h. Significant difference in blood kinetics parameters (Cmax, AUC, t1/2, MRT, Vd, and CL) were observed between P. berghei-infected and healthy mice. The labeled complex distributed to all organs of both healthy and infected mice but with high intensity in liver, followed by lung, stomach, large intestine and kidney. Accumulation in spleen was markedly noticeable in the infected mice. Plumbagin-labeled complex was rapidly cleared from blood and major routes of excretion were hepatobiliary and pulmonary routes. In P. berghei-infected mice, t1/2 was significantly decreased, while Vd and CL were increased compared with healthy mice. Result suggests that malaria disease state influenced the pharmacokinetics and disposition of plumbagin. SPECT/CT imaging with radiolabeled (99m)Tc is a viable non-invasive technique that can be applied for investigation of kinetics and biodistribution of plumbagin in animal models. PMID:26713669

  6. Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index of Water-Related Topics Featured Partners Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global WASH Other Uses of Water WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related ...

  7. Parasites in Kentucky Thoroughbreds at necropsy: emphasis on stomach worms and tapeworms.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Drudge, J H; Swerczek, T W; Crowe, M W

    1983-05-01

    A total of 363 Thoroughbreds (62 males, 292 females, and 9 geldings), 1 to 26 years of age, were examined at necropsy for internal parasites for about a 12-month period from February 1981 through February 1982. Emphasis was on examining the stomach for nematodes and the small intestine and cecum for tapeworms. Parasites recovered from the stomach and infection rates were: Habronema spp--immature (24%), H muscae--adult (38%), Draschia megastoma--immature (13%), D megastoma--adult (62%), and Trichostrongylus axei--adult (4%); lesions caused by D megastoma were found upon gross observation in 58% of the stomachs. The tapeworm, Anoplocephala perfoliata, was recovered from 54% of the horses; A magna was not found. There was no obvious difference in infection rates of the stomach worms and tapeworms according to age or sex of the horses. Seasonal differences were apparent only for immature Habronema spp and immature D megastoma for which infection rates began increasing in June, peaking in October, and declining thereafter. Presence of 4 additional species of parasites was recorded, but only a cursory examination was made for them. These were the large strongyles, Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, and S equinus, from the cecum and a filariid, Setaria spp (probably S equina), from the abdominal cavity, for which recovery rates from the horses were 8%, 8%, 1%, and 7%, respectively. PMID:6869991

  8. Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Early Gastric Neoplasia Occurring in the Remnant Stomach after Distal Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Young; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Jung Gyu; Noh, Donghyo; Lee, Jun Haeng; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Jae J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for tumors occurring in the remnant stomach is technically difficult to perform because of limited working space and severe fibrosis and staples present around the suture line. We aimed to elucidate the feasibility and clinical outcomes of performing ESD for tumors in the remnant stomach. Methods: Between December 2007 and January 2013, 18 patients underwent ESD for tumors (six adenomas and 12 differentiated-type early gastric cancers [EGCs]) occurring in the remnant stomach after distal gastrectomy. Clinicopathologic features and clinical outcomes after ESD were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Two-thirds of the lesions were located on the body, and half were located on the suture line. En bloc resection, R0 resection, and en bloc with R0 resection rates were 88.9%, 100%, and 88.9%, respectively. Curative resection rate for EGC was 91.7%. Perforation occurred in one patient (5.6%) and was successfully managed by endoscopic closure with metallic clips and conservative management. There was no significant bleeding after ESD. During a median follow-up of 47.5 months, no local, metachronous, or extragastric recurrence was seen for either EGC or adenoma lesions. Conclusions: ESD is a feasible and effective treatment modality and can be considered a primary intervention for early gastric neoplasia occurring in the remnant stomach. PMID:26879552

  9. Illicit drug detection with laser 1: investigation of optimal parameters in stomach tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özer, Ayşen Gürkan; Tabakoğlu, Haşim Özgür; Cengiz, Salih

    2014-05-01

    The main purpose of this study is to establish radiation-safe scanning of passersby at high security areas, such as airports and customs. The stomach was selected as the organ to be analyzed. In order to determine whether a substance found inside a human body as wrapped in a plastic bag is filled narcotics or not, many substances in white powder form including morphine-HCL were inspected. Inspection was carried out with on-ionizing radiation by irradiating stomach tissue with laser light. Optical transmittance of lamb stomach tissue was analyzed at different wavelengths. We showed that detection by 650-nm diode laser irradiation would be suitable for such a radiation-safe scan. Different materials were also investigated for absorptive properties, and closed system Raman studies were performed. The spectrum of a molecule found inside white powder placed behind the lamb stomach tissue was detected as a fingerprint. This allowed the detection of target substances without any physical contact or damage to the biological tissue.

  10. Development of a High Resolution 3D Infant Stomach Model for Surgical Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudry, Qaiser; Raza, S. Hussain; Lee, Jeonggyu; Xu, Yan; Wulkan, Mark; Wang, May D.

    Medical surgical procedures have not changed much during the past century due to the lack of accurate low-cost workbench for testing any new improvement. The increasingly cheaper and powerful computer technologies have made computer-based surgery planning and training feasible. In our work, we have developed an accurate 3D stomach model, which aims to improve the surgical procedure that treats the infant pediatric and neonatal gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). We generate the 3-D infant stomach model based on in vivo computer tomography (CT) scans of an infant. CT is a widely used clinical imaging modality that is cheap, but with low spatial resolution. To improve the model accuracy, we use the high resolution Visible Human Project (VHP) in model building. Next, we add soft muscle material properties to make the 3D model deformable. Then we use virtual reality techniques such as haptic devices to make the 3D stomach model deform upon touching force. This accurate 3D stomach model provides a workbench for testing new GERD treatment surgical procedures. It has the potential to reduce or eliminate the extensive cost associated with animal testing when improving any surgical procedure, and ultimately, to reduce the risk associated with infant GERD surgery.

  11. A method to directly measure maximum volume of fish stomachs or digestive tracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burley, C.C.; Vigg, S.

    1989-01-01

    A new method for measuring maximum stomach or digestive tract volume of fish incorporates air injection at constant pressure with water displacement to measure directly the internal volume of a stomach or analogous structure. The method was tested with coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), which has a true stomach, and northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis(Richardson), which has a modified foregut as a functional analogue. Both species were collected during July-October 1987 from the Columbia River, U.S.A. Relationships between fish weight (= volume) and maximum volume of the digestive organ were best fitted for coho salmon by an allometric model and for northern squawfish by an exponential model. Least squares regression analysis of individual measurements showed less variability in the volume of coho salmon stomachs (R2= 0.85) than in the total digestive tracts (R2= 0.55) and foreguts (R2= 0.61) of northern squawfish, relative to fish size. Compared to previous methods, the new technique has the advantage of accurately measuring the internal volume of a wide range of digestive organ shapes and sizes.

  12. Fulminant phlegmonitis of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum due to Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hisatake; Ogura, Hiroshi; Seki, Masafumi; Ohnishi, Mitsuo; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2015-03-28

    We report a case of phlegmonitis of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum in patient in an immunocompromised state. Culture of gastric juice and blood yielded Bacillus thuringiensis. This case showed that even low-virulence bacilli can cause lethal gastrointestinal phlegmonous gastritis in conditions of immunodeficiency. PMID:25834344

  13. Computer simulation of the impact of different dimensions of the stomach on the validity of electrogastrograms.

    PubMed

    Mintchev, M P; Bowes, K L

    1998-01-01

    The impact of the dimensions of the stomach on cutaneous recordings of gastric electrical activity (GEA) has not been adequately studied. The stomach was represented as a truncated conoid in a spherical coordinate system. The gastric electric field was modelled using a previously described methodology. Electrical potentials were calculated from sets of points simulating standard cutaneous recordings. The frequency of the signals was maintained at 3 cycles min-1 (period of repetition: 20 s), while the velocity of propagation of the depolarisation waves was reduced relative to the reduction in gastric dimensions. The signals were digitally contaminated with a random artificial artefact with a constant amplitude range of 0.2 mV, while the dimensions of the conoid (the circumferential radii and the length of the central axis) were decreased by factors of 1.5, two, four, six and eight. Simulated EGG signals were evaluated quantitatively. Simulated EGG records contaminated with random signals recorded from stomachs with decreasing dimensions exhibited non-linearly increasing standard deviations (p < 0.001). Randomly contaminated EGGs calculated from stomachs with dimensions reduced four, six and eight times were abnormal according to previously established quantitative criteria. Computer modelling indicated that gastric dimensions can significantly influence the validity of EGGs. These findings could be particularly important in a paediatric electrogastrography. PMID:9614741

  14. Krukenberg carcinoma metastasized from stomach resembling mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Doğanay, Melike; Topçu, Hasan Onur; Kokanali, Mahmut Kuntay; Güzel, Ali Irfan; Oskovi, Asli; Akbay, Serap; Cavkaytar, Sabri

    2015-01-01

    The ovaries are common site of metastasis in a variety of primary neoplasms. Multiple tumors such as breast, lung, and pancreas have been reported to metastasize to the ovary, however; the colon and stomach are the most common primary cancer sites that of ovarian metastasis. An ovarian mass mostly originates from its self-tissue, but sometimes it can be a metastasis of a gastrointestinal system tumor. Such cases are often misdiagnosed as primary ovarian cancers. A 42-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with pelvic pain. She had a history of her complaints for two months. Bilateral large ovarian mass was detected in transvaginal ultrasound. Laparotomy was performed, the pathologist suggested inspection of the stomach after the frozen section analysis; therefore, an irregular mass on the stomach was detected. The general surgeon was attended to the operation, and an inoperative stomach tumor was reported by the general surgeon. After that due to the partial obstruction of jejunum, a gastrojejunostomy was performed. It is in fact difficult to distinguish between metastatic mucinous carcinomas and primary mucinous carcinomas of the ovary, due to the similar appearance of as cystic tumors on gross examination. The clinicians should be aware of the likely concomitant gastrointestinal system tumor when a large and bilaterally mass was detected on physical examination. This case also reminds that a systemic examination is necessary even if the large ovarian tumors suspicious of primary malignancy were noticed. PMID:26259386

  15. What's in a frog stomach? Solving a 150 year old mystery (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxon Acanthosoma chrysalis Mayer, 1844, described from Germany on a number of alleged parasites encysted in the peritoneal wall of the stomach of edible frogs, is revised and shown to be first instar larvae of blow flies (Calliphoridae). Based on the shape of mouthhooks and abdominal cuticular ...

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF ORGANIC N-CHLORAMINES IN VITRO IN STOMACH FLUID FROM THE RAT AFTER CHLORINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    When 36Cl-N-chloropiperidine (NCP)(300 mg/L as Cl2) was mixed with stomach fluid from laboratory rats (fasted either 24 or 48 hr and incubated in the dark for 30 min at 37 degrees C and at higher pH values, approximately one-third was reduced to chloride and between 7% and 63% of...

  17. Functional morphology of the honey stomach wall of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The honey bee crop, or honey stomach, is designed with cords of muscles that are numerous enough in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to fully enclose and confine the underlying, cuticle-lines epithelium. Although appressed against the inner wall of this enclosure by the crop's contents,...

  18. An evaluation of in vivo models for toxicokinetics of hexavalent chromium in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Sasso, A F; Schlosser, P M

    2015-09-15

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr6) is a drinking water contaminant that has been detected in most of the water systems throughout the United States. In 2-year drinking water bioassays, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) found clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in male and female rats and mice. Because reduction of Cr6 to trivalent chromium (Cr3) is an important detoxifying step in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract prior to systemic absorption, models have been developed to estimate the extent of reduction in humans and animals. The objective of this work was to use a revised model of ex vivo Cr6 reduction kinetics in gastric juice to analyze the potential reduction kinetics under in vivo conditions for mice, rats and humans. A published physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was adapted to incorporate the new reduction model. This paper focuses on the toxicokinetics of Cr6 in the stomach compartment, where most of the extracellular Cr6 reduction is believed to occur in humans. Within the range of doses administered by the NTP bioassays, neither the original nor revised models predict saturation of stomach reducing capacity to occur in vivo if applying default parameters. However, both models still indicate that mice exhibit the lowest extent of reduction in the stomach, meaning that a higher percentage of the Cr6 dose may escape stomach reduction in that species. Similarly, both models predict that humans exhibit the highest extent of reduction at low doses. PMID:26123277

  19. Mussel-inspired nanofibrous sheet for suture-less stomach incision surgery.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J; Wan, W; Ge, L; Bu, S; Zhong, W; Xing, M

    2015-05-21

    We report a dopamine-based crosslinker-conjugated gelatin/polycaprolactone nanofibrous sheet. The nanosheet was then employed to treat stomach incisions without sutures during surgery. The mussel-inspired nanosheets, combining the advantages adhesion and tissue repair, show promise for use in treatments of fragile tissues and to avoid suture-caused stress concentration. PMID:25912340

  20. An unusual complication after percutaneous drainage of a pancreatic pseudocyst into the stomach.

    PubMed

    Pleskovic, A; Sever, M; Vidmar, D; Zorc-Pleskovic, R; Vraspir-Porenta, O

    2000-10-01

    In the period between September 1995 and June 1999, we performed percutaneous drainage into the stomach in 12 patients. There were no complications or pseudocyst recurrences on insertion or after endoscopic removal of the catheter, which was left in site for 1 year on average. After endoscopic removal of the drainage catheter, one of the patients presented with a cystic formation in the stomach wall, which caused stomach emptying disorder. Therefore, the patient had to be reoperated. The cyst wall was incised and a part of the cystic wall sampled for histological examination. The cyst was then drained into the isolated Roux loop of the jejunum. Histological findings of the cystic wall specimen showed the presence of granulation tissue and smooth muscle layers with ganglia cells of myenteric nerve plexus. Despite this complication, we believe that percutaneous endoscopically and ultrasonographically guided drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst into the stomach by means of a double pigtail catheter is a good method that yields encouraging results in sonographically selected cases. The position of the drainage catheter needs to be checked endoscopically, and the catheter should be removed only after 1 year. PMID:11285528

  1. Detection of Anthropogenic Particles in Fish Stomachs: An Isolation Method Adapted to Identification by Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Collard, France; Gilbert, Bernard; Eppe, Gauthier; Parmentier, Eric; Das, Krishna

    2015-10-01

    Microplastic particles (MP) contaminate oceans and affect marine organisms in several ways. Ingestion combined with food intake is generally reported. However, data interpretation often is circumvented by the difficulty to separate MP from bulk samples. Visual examination often is used as one or the only step to sort these particles. However, color, size, and shape are insufficient and often unreliable criteria. We present an extraction method based on hypochlorite digestion and isolation of MP from the membrane by sonication. The protocol is especially well adapted to a subsequent analysis by Raman spectroscopy. The method avoids fluorescence problems, allowing better identification of anthropogenic particles (AP) from stomach contents of fish by Raman spectroscopy. It was developed with commercial samples of microplastics and cotton along with stomach contents from three different Clupeiformes fishes: Clupea harengus, Sardina pilchardus, and Engraulis encrasicolus. The optimized digestion and isolation protocol showed no visible impact on microplastics and cotton particles while the Raman spectroscopic spectrum allowed the precise identification of microplastics and textile fibers. Thirty-five particles were isolated from nine fish stomach contents. Raman analysis has confirmed 11 microplastics and 13 fibers mainly made of cellulose or lignin. Some particles were not completely identified but contained artificial dyes. The novel approach developed in this manuscript should help to assess the presence, quantity, and composition of AP in planktivorous fish stomachs. PMID:26289815

  2. Effect of stomaching on numbers of bacteria recovered from chicken skin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compared to rinsing, stomaching releases only a few more bacteria from a skin sample, but successive rinses continue to remove almost as many bacteria as the first rinse. One hypothesis to explain this observation is that relatively violent treatment of skin generates smaller pieces of skin thus in...

  3. Effect of stomaching on numbers of bacteria recovered from chicken skin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stomaching of skin samples releases only a few more bacteria than a single rinse. Successive rinses, however, continue to remove almost as many bacteria as the first rinse. One hypothesis to explain this observation is that relatively violent treatment of skin generates smaller pieces of skin, thu...

  4. Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23 Modulates Urea Hydrolysis in the Murine Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Charlotte M.; Loach, Diane; Lawley, Blair; Bell, Tracey; Sims, Ian M.; O'Toole, Paul W.; Zomer, Aldert

    2014-01-01

    Comparisons of in vivo (mouse stomach) and in vitro (laboratory culture) transcriptomes of Lactobacillus reuteri strain 100-23 were made by microarray analysis. These comparisons revealed the upregulation of genes associated with acid tolerance, including urease production, in the mouse stomach. Inactivation of the ureC gene reduced the acid tolerance of strain 100-23 in vitro, and the mutant was outcompeted by the wild type in the gut of ex-Lactobacillus-free mice. Urine analysis showed that stable isotope-labeled urea, administered by gavage, was metabolized to a greater extent in Lactobacillus-free mice than animals colonized by strain 100-23. This surprising observation was associated with higher levels of urease activity and fecal-type bacteria in the stomach digesta of Lactobacillus-free mice. Despite the modulation of urea hydrolysis in the stomach, recycling of urea nitrogen in the murine host was not affected since the essential amino acid isoleucine, labeled with a stable isotope, was detected in the livers of both Lactobacillus-free and 100-23-colonized animals. Therefore, our experiments reveal a new and unexpected impact of Lactobacillus colonization on urea hydrolysis in the murine gut. PMID:25063664

  5. Effect of rabeprazole on the transport and distribution of levofloxacin in rat stomachs

    PubMed Central

    BAO, JUNJUN; HU, YONGMEI; MEI, QIAO; ZHEN, HAILUN; XU, JIANMING

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the transport and distribution characteristics of levofloxacin in the rat stomach and investigate the effects of combination treatment with rabeprazole. A total of 160 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: 50 mg/kg levofloxacin, 100 mg/kg levofloxacin, 50 mg/kg levofloxacin + rabeprazole and 100 mg/kg levofloxacin + rabeprazole. For two hours after intravenous administration, serum, gastric juice and stomach mucosa samples were collected at 15-min intervals, and the levofloxacin concentrations in all the samples were measured to determine the transport and distribution characteristics of levofloxacin in the rat stomach. In the 50 mg/kg levofloxacin and the 100 mg/kg levofloxacin groups, the drug concentration in the gastric juice gradually exceeded the serum concentration within 45–60 min of administration (P<0.05) and the drug concentrations in the gastric body and antrum were higher than those in the serum and the forestomach (P<0.05). At 15–30 min after administration, the drug concentrations in the gastric juice in the 50 mg/kg levofloxacin + rabeprazole and the 100 mg/kg levofloxacin + rabeprazole groups gradually exceeded the serum concentration (P<0.05). However, the levofloxacin concentration in the gastric body and in the antrum did not significantly differ between the two groups (P>0.05). The levofloxacin concentrations in each stomach region in the groups also treated with rabeprazole were higher than those treated with levofloxacin alone, but the differences were not significant. The levofloxacin transport fractions in the stomach in the 50 mg/kg levofloxacin, 100 mg/kg levofloxacin, 50 mg/kg levofloxacin + rabeprazole and 100 mg/kg levofloxacin + rabeprazole groups were 2.36, 2.52, 2.42 and 2.55, respectively, and no significant difference was identified. Levofloxacin may be actively transported in the rat stomach. The levofloxacin concentration in the gastric antrum exceeded that in

  6. Adenocarcinoma arising from a gastric duplication cyst with invasion to the stomach: a case report with literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kuraoka, K; Nakayama, H; Kagawa, T; Ichikawa, T; Yasui, W

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of adenocarcinoma arising from a gastric duplication cyst, with invasion to the stomach wall, in a 40 year old Japanese man. A cystic lesion was found between the stomach and the spleen. The cyst had a well circumscribed smooth muscle layer, corresponding to the muscularis propria of the stomach and the mucosa of the alimentary tract. A well differentiated adenocarcinoma was found within the duplication cyst, invading its serosa. Well differentiated adenocarcinoma was independently found in the fundus of the stomach; the tumour of the cyst was connected by fibrous tissue. Microscopically, there was neither adenocarcinoma in situ nor precancerous lesions, such as epithelial dysplasia, suggesting that the carcinoma derived from a gastric duplication cyst that invaded the stomach. Duplication cysts should be included in the differential diagnosis of cystic masses of the gastrointestinal tract, and the possibility of malignancy within these cysts should be considered. PMID:15047751

  7. [Theoretical and clinical application of insomnia caused by "stomach disorder could lead to excess of yang-qiao meridian"].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jian-Ning

    2013-02-01

    To explore the mechanism of insomnia caused by "stomach disorder could lead to excess of yang-qiao meridian" and clinical application of treating insomnia with acupoints in qiao meridian as the main points. From meridian theory, intersection between stomach meridian of Foot-Yangming and yang-qiao meridian is through Chengqi (ST 1). Qiao meridian for sleep is mainly because it is connected with eyes through the Bladder Meridian of Foot-Taiyang. For Stomach Meridian of Foot-Yangming is intersected with the Bladder Meridian of Foot-Taiyang in Jingming (BL 1), and intersected with yin and yang qiao meridian beside the mouth and under the eye, once functional disorder of the stomach, it can affect qi movements of the whole body and give rise to various pathological changes that cause insomnia. Meanwhile examples are given to explain the clinical application of treating subborn insomnia with corresponding acupoint of stomach and yang-qiao meridian. PMID:23620952

  8. Foreign Body Ingestion in Children: Should Button Batteries in the Stomach Be Urgently Removed?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Jee Hoo; Lee, Jung Hwa; Eun, Baik-Lin; Yoo, Kee Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Foreign body (FB) ingestion is common in children, and button battery (BB) ingestion has been increasing in recent years. This study was to identify factors related to outcomes of FB ingestion, particularly BBs in the stomach. We evaluated whether the current recommendations are appropriate and aimed to suggest indications for endoscopic removal of BB in the stomach in young children. Methods We investigated patient age, shape, size, location of FBs, spontaneous passage time and resulting complications among 76 children. We observed types, size, location of BB and outcomes, and analyzed their associations with complications. Results Coins and BB were the two most common FBs. Their shapes and sizes were not associated with the spontaneous passage time. Size, spontaneous passage time, and age were also not associated with any specific complications. For BB ingestion, all 5 cases with lithium batteries (≥1.5 cm, 3 V) presented moderate to major complications in the esophagus and stomach without any symptoms, even when the batteries were in the stomach and beyond the duodenum, while no complications were noted in 7 cases with alkaline batteries (<1.5 cm, 1.5 V) (p=0.001). All endoscopies were conducted within 24 hours after ingestion. Conclusion The type and voltage of the battery should be considered when determining whether endoscopy is required to remove a BB in the stomach. For lithium battery ingestion in young children, urgent endoscopic removal might be important in order to prevent complications, even if the child is asymptomatic and the battery is smaller than 2 cm. PMID:27066446

  9. Tools for Healthy Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Fleischhacker, Sheila; Byrd, Randi R.; Ramachandran, Gowri; Vu, Maihan; Ries, Amy; Bell, Ronny A.; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing recognition that policymakers can promote access to healthy, affordable foods within neighborhoods, schools, childcare centers, and workplaces. Despite the disproportionate risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes among American Indian children and adults, comparatively little attention has been focused on the opportunities tribal policymakers have to implement policies or resolutions to promote access to healthy, affordable foods. This paper presents an approach for integrating formative research into an action-oriented strategy of developing and disseminating tribally led environmental and policy strategies to promote access to and consumption of healthy, affordable foods. This paper explains how the American Indian Healthy Eating Project evolved through five phases and discusses each phase’s essential steps involved, outcomes derived, and lessons learned. Using community-based participatory research and informed by the Social Cognitve Theory and ecologic frameworks, the American Indian Healthy Eating Project was started in fall 2008 and has evolved through five phases: (1) starting the conversation; (2) conducting multidisciplinary formative research; (3) strengthening partnerships and tailoring policy options; (4) disseminating community-generated ideas; and (5) accelerating action while fostering sustainability. Collectively, these phases helped develop and disseminate Tools for Healthy Tribes—a toolkit used to raise awareness among participating tribal policymakers of their opportunities to improve access to healthy, affordable foods. Formal and informal strategies can engage tribal leaders in the development of culturally appropriate and tribe-specific sustainable strategies to improve such access, as well as empower tribal leaders to leverage their authority toward raising a healthier generation of American Indian children. PMID:22898161

  10. Investigation of the role of extracellular calcium in the control of acid secretion in the isolated whole stomach of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Bunce, K.T.; Honey, A.C.; Parsons, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    1 An isolated stomach preparation from immature rats has been used to study the role of extracellular calcium in the control of gastric acid secretion. Calcium was removed from both the serosal and mucosal solutions either in the absence of a chelating agent or in the presence of EGTA. 2 Removal of calcium in the absence of EGTA had no significant effect on basal acid secretion or the acid responses to gastrin and dibutyryl cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (db cyclic AMP). Under the same conditions there was a marked potentiation of the acid response to histamine, and a reduction of the acid response to acetylcholine which was readily reversed on restoring calcium to the bathing solutions. 3 Removal of calcium in the presence of EGTA caused an inhibition of basal acid secretion and of the acid responses to histamine and db cyclic AMP. In each case this reduction in acid output was readily reversed on bathing the stomachs in normal calcium-containing (2.5 mM Ca2+) EGTA-free solutions. 4 The inhibition of the acid response to histamine produced by Ca2+-free solutions which contained EGTA was not reversed on bathing the stomachs in solutions that contained both EGTA (0.1 mM) and an excess of calcium (2.5 mM). 5 The removal of extracellular calcium in the absence of EGTA provided evidence that the secretion of H+ ions is dependent under some conditions on calcium ions. The possibility cannot be excluded that EGTA itself exerts an inhibitory influence on the process of acid secretion. PMID:227506

  11. A New Suggestion for the Radiation Target Volume After a Subtotal Gastrectomy in Patients With Stomach Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Heerim; Lim, Do Hoon Kim, Sung; Kang, Won Ki; Sohn, Tae Sung; Noh, Jae Hyung; Kim, Yong Il; Park, Chan Hyung; Park, Chul Keun; Ahn, Yong Chan; Huh, Seung Jae

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To compare treatment results between the use of two different radiation fields including and excluding remnant stomach and suggest new target volumes excluding remnant stomach after subtotal gastrectomy (STG) in patients with stomach cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 291 patients treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy after STG and D2 dissection at the Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea. Eighty-three patients registered from 1995 to 1997 underwent irradiation according to the INT 0116 protocol that recommended the inclusion of remnant stomach within the target volume (Group A). After this period, we excluded remnant stomach from the target volume for 208 patients (Group B). Median follow-up was 67 months. Results: Treatment failure developed in 93 patients (32.0%). Local and regional recurrence rates for Group A vs. Group B were 10.8% vs. 5.3% (p = not significant) and 9.6% vs. 6.3% (p = not significant), and recurrence rates for remnant stomach were 7.2% vs. 1.4% (p = 0.018), respectively. Overall and disease-free survival rates were not different between the two groups. Grade 3 or 4 vomiting and diarrhea developed more frequently in Group A than Group B (4.8% vs. 1.4% and 6.0% vs. 1.9%, respectively; p = 0.012; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Exclusion of remnant stomach from the radiation field had no effect on failure rates or survival, and a low complication rate occurred in patients treated excluding remnant stomach. We suggest that remnant stomach be excluded from the radiation target volume for patients with stomach cancer who undergo STG and D2 dissection.

  12. Healthy human gut phageome.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; Young, Mark J

    2016-09-13

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20-50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health. PMID:27573828

  13. Three-dimensional volume-rendered imaging of normal and abnormal fetal fluid-filled structures using inversion mode.

    PubMed

    Hata, Toshiyuki; Mori, Nobuhiro; Tenkumo, Chiaki; Hanaoka, Uiko; Kanenishi, Kenji; Tanaka, Hirokazu

    2011-11-01

    A total of six normal and eight abnormal fetuses at 16-38 weeks of gestation were studied using transabdominal three-dimensional sonography with an inversion mode. In normal fetuses, the stomach, gallbladder and bladder could be depicted. In particular, peristalsis of the stomach was noted. In the case of holoprosencephaly, fused hemispheres were evident. In the case of hydrocephalus, the enlargement of ventricular cavities was noted. In the case of bilateral pleural effusion, the spatial relationship and size of the effusions were depicted. In the case of meconium peritonitis, the spatial relationship between the dilated intestines and ascites was depicted. In two cases of hydronephrosis, the dilated renal pelvis and calyces were clearly shown. In the case of multicystic dysplastic kidney, the number and size of cysts were clearly identified. In the case of left ovarian cyst, the anatomical relationships among the ovarian cyst, kidney, stomach and bladder could be easily understood. PMID:21790889

  14. Healthy obesity and objective physical activity123

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Joshua A; Hamer, Mark; van Hees, Vincent T; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika; Sabia, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disease risk is lower in metabolically healthy obese adults than in their unhealthy obese counterparts. Studies considering physical activity as a modifiable determinant of healthy obesity have relied on self-reported measures, which are prone to inaccuracies and do not capture all movements that contribute to health. Objective: We aimed to examine differences in total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity between healthy and unhealthy obese groups by using both self-report and wrist-worn accelerometer assessments. Design: Cross-sectional analyses were based on 3457 adults aged 60–82 y (77% male) participating in the British Whitehall II cohort study in 2012–2013. Normal-weight, overweight, and obese adults were considered “healthy” if they had <2 of the following risk factors: low HDL cholesterol, hypertension, high blood glucose, high triacylglycerol, and insulin resistance. Differences across groups in total physical activity, based on questionnaire and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer assessments (GENEActiv), were examined by using linear regression. The likelihood of meeting 2010 World Health Organization recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous activity (≥2.5 h/wk) was compared by using prevalence ratios. Results: Of 3457 adults, 616 were obese [body mass index (in kg/m2) ≥30]; 161 (26%) of those were healthy obese. Obese adults were less physically active than were normal-weight adults, regardless of metabolic health status or method of physical activity assessment. Healthy obese adults had higher total physical activity than did unhealthy obese adults only when assessed by accelerometer (P = 0.002). Healthy obese adults were less likely to meet recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than were healthy normal-weight adults based on accelerometer assessment (prevalence ratio: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.79) but were not more likely to meet these recommendations than were unhealthy obese adults (prevalence ratio: 1

  15. Prediction of the location and size of the stomach using patient characteristics for retrospective radiation dose estimation following radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamart, Stephanie; Imran, Rebecca; Simon, Steven L.; Doi, Kazutaka; Morton, Lindsay M.; Curtis, Rochelle E.; Lee, Choonik; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Maass-Moreno, Roberto; Chen, Clara C.; Whatley, Millie; Miller, Donald L.; Pacak, Karel; Lee, Choonsik

    2013-12-01

    Following cancer radiotherapy, reconstruction of doses to organs, other than the target organ, is of interest for retrospective health risk studies. Reliable estimation of doses to organs that may be partially within or fully outside the treatment field requires reliable knowledge of the location and size of the organs, e.g., the stomach, which is at risk from abdominal irradiation. The stomach location and size are known to be highly variable between individuals, but have been little studied. Moreover, for treatments conducted years ago, medical images of patients are usually not available in medical records to locate the stomach. In light of the poor information available to locate the stomach in historical dose reconstructions, the purpose of this work was to investigate the variability of stomach location and size among adult male patients and to develop prediction models for the stomach location and size using predictor variables generally available in medical records of radiotherapy patients treated in the past. To collect data on stomach size and position, we segmented the contours of the stomach and of the skeleton on contemporary computed tomography (CT) images for 30 male patients in supine position. The location and size of the stomach was found to depend on body mass index (BMI), ponderal index (PI), and age. For example, the anteroposterior dimension of the stomach was found to increase with increasing BMI (≈0.25 cm kg-1 m2) whereas its craniocaudal dimension decreased with increasing PI (≈-3.3 cm kg-1 m3) and its transverse dimension increased with increasing PI (≈2.5 cm kg-1 m3). Using the prediction models, we generated three-dimensional computational stomach models from a deformable hybrid phantom for three patients of different BMI. Based on a typical radiotherapy treatment, we simulated radiotherapy treatments on the predicted stomach models and on the CT images of the corresponding patients. Those dose calculations demonstrated good

  16. 99Tcm-MAG3 renogram deconvolution in normal subjects and in normal functioning kidney grafts.

    PubMed

    González, A; Puchal, R; Bajén, M T; Mairal, L; Prat, L; Martin-Comin, J

    1994-09-01

    This study provides values of transit times obtained by 99Tcm- mercaptoacetyl triglycine (99Tcm-MAG3) renogram deconvolution for both normal subjects and kidney graft recipients. The analysis included 50 healthy kidney units from 25 volunteers and 28 normal functioning kidney grafts. The parameters calculated for the whole kidney (WK) and for the renal parenchyma (P) were: mean transit time (MTT) and times at 20% (T20) and 80% (T80) of renal retention function initial height. For healthy kidneys the WK MTT was 174 +/- 27 s and P MTT 148 +/- 22 s. The WK T20 values were 230 +/- 33 s and P T20 231 +/- 34 s. The WK T80 was 108 +/- 19 s and P T80 106 +/- 12 s. Whole kidney and parenchymal values of transit times for normal functioning kidney grafts do not present significant differences with respect to healthy kidneys. PMID:7816379

  17. Healthy Schools Network, 2011 Yearbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the 2011 Yearbook of the Healthy Schools Network. This yearbook contains: (1) Tough Time To Be a Child: Parents and Taxpayers Should Be Enraged; (2) National Coalition For Healthier Schools: Healthy Schools 2015--Sustaining Momentum In Tough Times; (3) Healthy Schools Heroes Award Program; (4) National Healthy Schools Day…

  18. Differential ability of Ptf1a and Ptf1a-VP16 to convert stomach, duodenum and liver to pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Jarikji, Zeina H.; Vanamala, Sandeep; Beck, Caroline W.; Wright, Chris V.E.; Leach, Steven D.; Horb, Marko E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Determining the functional attributes of pancreatic transcription factors is essential to understand how the pancreas is specified distinct from other endodermal organs, such as liver, stomach and duodenum, and to direct the differentiation of other cell types into pancreas. Previously, we demonstrated that Pdx1-VP16 was sufficient to convert liver to pancreas. In this paper we characterize the functional ability of another pancreatic transcription factor, Ptf1a, in promoting ectopic pancreatic fates at early stages throughout the endoderm and later in during organogenesis. Using the transthyretin promoter to drive expression in the early liver region/bud of transgenic Xenopus tadpoles, we find that Ptf1a-VP16 is able to convert liver to pancreas. Overexpression of the unmodified Ptf1a on the other hand, has no effect in liver, but is able to convert stomach and duodenum to pancreas. When overexpressed at earlier embryonic stages throughout the endoderm, Ptf1a activity is similarly limited, whereas Ptf1a-VP16 has increased activity. Interestingly, in all instances we find that Ptf1a-VP16 is only capable of promoting acinar cell fates, whereas Ptf1a promotes both acinar and endocrine fates. Lastly, we demonstrate that, similar to mouse and zebrafish, Xenopus Ptf1a is essential for the initial specification of both endocrine and exocrine cells during normal pancreas development. PMID:17320068

  19. Preliminary assessment of avian stomach oils: a vector of contaminants to chicks and potential for diet analysis and biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Foster, Karen L; Wang, Shiway W; Mackay, Don; Mallory, Mark L; Blais, Jules M

    2010-09-01

    Bird species from the order Procellariiformes or petrels, including the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), produce high lipid and high energy content stomach oils from the prey they consume, which enables them to exploit distant marine food sources. Stomach oils are also used as a food source for chicks and for defensive purposes. Samples of stomach oils from two Arctic colonies, St. George Island Alaska, USA and Cape Vera, Devon Island Nunavut, Canada, were collected and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. SigmaPCB concentrations ranged from 13 to 236 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww) and SigmaDDT concentrations from 5 to 158 ng g(-1) ww and were similar in both sites, though differences in chemical signatures were apparent. Stomach oils are a rich energy source; however, they may also provide a higher dose of contaminants per unit energy than the direct consumption of prey items, as illustrated using mass and energy balance calculations to estimate chick exposure to SigmaDDT for hypothetical stomach oil and whole prey diets. The results of this study suggest that stomach oils are an important vector of organochlorine contaminants to chicks and should be considered in future risk assessments of northern fulmars and other species of petrels. To our knowledge this is the first study of stomach oils as an overlooked vector of organochlorine contaminants to chicks and as a potentially valuable medium for dietary analysis and noninvasive biomonitoring both of petrel dietary exposure and of marine contaminant concentrations. PMID:20707316

  20. Serum Acylated Ghrelin Concentrations in Response to Short-Term Overfeeding in Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Wadden, Danny; Cahill, Farrell; Amini, Peyvand; Randell, Edward; Vasdev, Sudesh; Yi, Yanqing; Zhang, Weizhen; Sun, Guang

    2012-01-01

    Background Ghrelin, an orexigenic gut hormone secreted primarily from the stomach, is involved in energy homeostasis. However, little data is available regarding its response to energy surplus and the development of human obesity. Objective The present study investigated the response of circulating acylated ghrelin to a 7-day positive energy challenge. Design A total of 68 healthy young men were overfed 70% more calories than required, for 1-week. Subjects were classified based on percent body fat (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) as normal weight, overweight, and obese. Serum acylated ghrelin concentration was measured before and after the positive energy challenge. Additionally, the relationship between acylated ghrelin and obesity-related phenotypes including weight, body mass index, percent body fat, cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, glucose, insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and β-cell function at baseline and change due to overfeeding, were assessed. Results Contrary to our expectations, serum acylated ghrelin was significantly increased in response to overfeeding and the increase was independent of obesity status. There was no significant difference in fasting acylated ghrelin between normal weight, overweight, and obese men at baseline. Acylated ghrelin was negatively correlated with weight and BMI for normal weight and with BMI in overweight men. Also ghrelin was correlated with change in weight and BMI in overweight (negative relationship) and obese (positive relationship) groups. Conclusion Our results showed that circulating acylated ghrelin was increased after a 7-day positive energy challenge regardless of adiposity status. However, acylated ghrelin was correlated with change in weight and BMI in opposing directions, in overweight and obese subjects respectively, thus dependent on obesity status. PMID:23029221

  1. Healthy food trends -- microgreens

    MedlinePlus

    ... that can turn into vitamin A ) Garnet amaranth -- Vitamin K Eating lots of fruits and vegetables in any form is good for ... not well-proven, a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables may reduce the ... you may need to limit vitamin K foods. Vitamin K can affect how these ...

  2. Healthy People 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, Catherine M.

    2001-01-01

    Major Healthy People (HP) 2000 goals closely tied to prevention were not met nationally: physical activity did not improve; evidence that it actually decreased; obesity did not decrease but instead increased in all groups, actually doubling in children; and incidence of type 2 diabetes did not decrease, but instead evidence showed that it increased in all age groups.

  3. Pilot Trial of CRLX101 in Treatment of Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Stomach, Gastroesophageal, or Esophageal Cancer That Cannot be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-03

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  4. Self-Reported Stomach Upset in Travellers on Cruise-Based and Land-Based Package Holidays

    PubMed Central

    Launders, Naomi J.; Nichols, Gordon L.; Cartwright, Rodney; Lawrence, Joanne; Jones, Jane; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Background International travellers are at a risk of infectious diseases not seen in their home country. Stomach upsets are common in travellers, including on cruise ships. This study compares the incidence of stomach upsets on land- and cruise-based holidays. Methods A major British tour operator has administered a Customer Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) to UK resident travellers aged 16 or more on return flights from their holiday abroad over many years. Data extracted from the CSQ was used to measure self-reported stomach upset in returning travellers. Results From summer 2000 through winter 2008, 6,863,092 questionnaires were completed; 6.6% were from cruise passengers. A higher percentage of land-based holiday-makers (7.2%) reported stomach upset in comparison to 4.8% of cruise passengers (RR = 1.5, p<0.0005). Reported stomach upset on cruises declined over the study period (7.1% in 2000 to 3.1% in 2008, p<0.0005). Over 25% of travellers on land-based holidays to Egypt and the Dominican Republic reported stomach upset. In comparison, the highest proportion of stomach upset in cruise ship travellers were reported following cruises departing from Egypt (14.8%) and Turkey (8.8%). Conclusions In this large study of self-reported illness both demographic and holiday choice factors were shown to play a part in determining the likelihood of developing stomach upset while abroad. There is a lower cumulative incidence and declining rates of stomach upset in cruise passengers which suggest that the cruise industry has adopted operations (e.g. hygiene standards) that have reduced illness over recent years. PMID:24427271

  5. Quantification of loosely associated and tightly associated bacteria on broiler carcass skin using swabbing, stomaching, and grinding methods.

    PubMed

    Singh, P; Lee, H C; Chin, K B; Ha, S D; Kang, I

    2015-12-01

    This research was conducted to quantify bacterial populations after swabbing or stomaching, followed by grinding the swabbed or stomached broiler skins. For each of 3 replications, 3 eviscerated broilers were randomly taken from a processing line in a local broiler processing plant. Ten swabs and 10 stomachs per bird were conducted on the left- and the right-side skins (10×7 cm), respectively, which were then finally ground. Results indicated that mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB) in the first swabbed sample were significantly lower than those in the first stomached sample (P<0.05), with no difference seen for the remaining sampling times (P>0.05). During 10 swabbings followed by final grinding, 8, 9, and 83% of MAB were detected after the first swabbing, after the second through 10th swabbings, and after final grinding of the skin, respectively. During 10 stomachings followed by the final grinding, 17, 18, and 65% of MAB were detected after the first stomaching, after the second through 10th stomachings, and after final grinding of the skin, respectively. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coliforms were significantly higher in the first stomaching than those in the first swabbing (P<0.05), with no difference seen between the 2 sampling methods for the rest sampling times (P>0.05). Populations of E. coli and coliforms decreased step-wisely from the highest after grinding to the intermediate after first and second sampling, and to the least after 10th sampling (P<0.05), regardless of swabbing or grinding. In this study, less than 35% of MAB seemed loosely associated in the skin of eviscerated broiler, whereas more than 65% of MAB looked tightly associated, which were not recovered by stomaching or swabbing even 10 times but were recovered by grinding the skin. PMID:26467007

  6. Molecular identification of prey in the stomach contents of Harp Seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) using species-specific oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Marshall, H D; Hart, K A; Yaskowiak, E S; Stenson, G B; McKinnon, D; Perry, E A

    2010-01-01

    All methods of diet analysis in marine mammals, including hard part analysis (HPA), have biases affecting the accuracy of prey-species identification and frequency in the estimated diet due to differential consumption, digestion and retention. Using PCR amplification of specific prey DNA with species-specific primers, we developed a DNA-based method that complements HPA and provides an alternative means to detect prey from stomach contents of Harp Seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus). The target size that could be reliably amplified was determined using a digestion time-series of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) tissue in simulated seal stomachs. Various target lengths were trialed using general teleost primers; amplicons of approximately 800 bp or less were consistently obtained. Prey species-specific PCR primers for Atlantic Cod, Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida) and Capelin (Mallotus villosus) were designed and tested with DNA from the stomach contents of 31 Harp Seals. Amplicons were obtained for all three species-specific primer sets. Amplification results compared with HPA revealed: (i) Atlantic Cod hard parts were found in five stomachs where no Atlantic Cod DNA amplified, suggesting that Atlantic Cod may be over-represented in the estimated diet, (ii) amplification of Arctic Cod DNA occurred for 17 stomachs, including all 12 stomachs with, and five stomachs without, Arctic Cod hard parts, and (iii) Capelin DNA amplified for four of five stomachs with Capelin hard parts and for one stomach without Capelin hard parts. We conclude that PCR amplification of specific prey DNA provides a viable means to complement Harp Seal diet analysis by HPA, but suggest that valuable information for quantitative diet analysis rests in a quantitative PCR approach. PMID:21565007

  7. Optical spectroscopy diagnosis for serum of normal and digestive canal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Jin, Huiqiang; Wang, Yuepeng

    2003-07-01

    To investigate the spectral specialities of digestive cancer serum for diagnosis, fluorescence and Raman spectra of normal, digestive cancer (both before and after operation), such as stomach cancer, esophagus cancer and atrophic gastritis sera were measured in the visible region in this study. Results demonstrate several points. First, all spectra except esophagus cancer were characterized by three sharp peaks (A, B and C), but we cannot differentiate them from each other at once. The intensity of each peak was different in different spectrum. Second, after samples were radiated by laser, fluorescence weakend along with red shift of its band center, and spectral changes of normal and stomach cancer (after operation) cases were different from other samples. It was also observed that spectral changes of atrophic gastritis were very similar with stomach cancer (such as the red shift of fluorescence peak is more than 12 nm) after radiated by laser, however, there are still some distinctions that can be used to differentiate them from each other. At last, a notable difference is that the relative intensity of peak C excited by 488.0 nm is higher than excited by 514.5 nm in spectrum of stomach cancer, whereas lower in other cases.

  8. Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach – proper identification and treatment remain a challenge

    PubMed Central

    Søreide, Jon Arne; Greve, Ole Jacob; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Størset, Svein

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The term hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC) of the stomach was introduced three decades ago with the observation of high serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels in some gastric adenocarcinoma patients. This very rare gastric cancer patient subgroup is likely frequently misdiagnosed. Material Two patients who were recently diagnosed with HAC of the stomach at our institution are presented. We also performed a structured literature search and reviewed pertinent articles to provide knowledge to improve the proper identification, diagnosis and management of patients with gastric HAC. Results HAC is a rare subgroup of gastric carcinoma with poor prognosis. Clinical management of this population may be challenging. The scientific literature is largely based on very small patient series or case reports, and the evidence for proper decision making and management is considered weak. Conclusion All physicians involved in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with gastric cancer should pay attention to this rare subgroup to improve identification. PMID:26728165

  9. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Stomach and Small Bowel

    SciTech Connect

    Kavanagh, Brian D.; Pan, Charlie C.; Dawson, Laura A.; Das, Shiva K.; Li, X. Allen; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Miften, Moyed

    2010-03-01

    Published data suggest that the risk of moderately severe (>=Grade 3) radiation-induced acute small-bowel toxicity can be predicted with a threshold model whereby for a given dose level, D, if the volume receiving that dose or greater (VD) exceeds a threshold quantity, the risk of toxicity escalates. Estimates of VD depend on the means of structure segmenting (e.g., V15 = 120 cc if individual bowel loops are outlined or V45 = 195 cc if entire peritoneal potential space of bowel is outlined). A similar predictive model of acute toxicity is not available for stomach. Late small-bowel/stomach toxicity is likely related to maximum dose and/or volume threshold parameters qualitatively similar to those related to acute toxicity risk. Concurrent chemotherapy has been associated with a higher risk of acute toxicity, and a history of abdominal surgery has been associated with a higher risk of late toxicity.

  10. A Case of Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Stomach With Focal Intestinal Metaplasia and Hypergastrinemia

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Hayato; Sakurai, Shinji; Nakazawa, Nobuhiro; Yoshida, Tomonori; Tabe, Yuichi; Saitoh, Kana; Fukasawa, Takaharu; Kiriyama, Shinsuke; Naitoh, Hiroshi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Among neuroendocrine neoplasms, mixed exocrine and endocrine characteristics with at least 30% of each component are classified into mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC), according to the 2010 World Health Organization classification. We experienced a rare case of MANEC of the stomach with focal intestinal metaplasia and hypergastrinemia. A 76-year-old Japanese male was diagnosed as having gastric adenocarcinoma and underwent total gastrectomy. The pathologic diagnosis was MANEC of the stomach accompanied by unusual mucosal atrophy without Helicobacter pylori infection, the characteristics of which were different from both type A and type B atrophic gastritis. The patient has a history of long-term use of a proton pump inhibitor. Additional serum chemistry examination using preoperatively obtained plasma from the patient revealed hypergastrinemia. The mechanism of gastric MANEC carcinogenesis is still unclear, but that might be correlated with unusual intestinal metaplasia and hypergastrinemia in this case. PMID:25785345

  11. A case of mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma of the stomach with focal intestinal metaplasia and hypergastrinemia.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Hayato; Sakurai, Shinji; Nakazawa, Nobuhiro; Yoshida, Tomonori; Tabe, Yuichi; Saitoh, Kana; Fukasawa, Takaharu; Kiriyama, Shinsuke; Naitoh, Hiroshi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    Among neuroendocrine neoplasms, mixed exocrine and endocrine characteristics with at least 30% of each component are classified into mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC), according to the 2010 World Health Organization classification. We experienced a rare case of MANEC of the stomach with focal intestinal metaplasia and hypergastrinemia. A 76-year-old Japanese male was diagnosed as having gastric adenocarcinoma and underwent total gastrectomy. The pathologic diagnosis was MANEC of the stomach accompanied by unusual mucosal atrophy without Helicobacter pylori infection, the characteristics of which were different from both type A and type B atrophic gastritis. The patient has a history of long-term use of a proton pump inhibitor. Additional serum chemistry examination using preoperatively obtained plasma from the patient revealed hypergastrinemia. The mechanism of gastric MANEC carcinogenesis is still unclear, but that might be correlated with unusual intestinal metaplasia and hypergastrinemia in this case. PMID:25785345

  12. Implementation of a Magnetic Stimulator to Study the Human Stomach Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdova-Fraga, T.; Sosa-Aquino, M.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Gutiérrez-Juárez, G.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.

    2004-09-01

    Implementation of a magnetic stimulator, arranged in a Helmholtz configuration, to study the mechanical activity on human stomachs is presented. In this work, a biomagnetic modality was used, this include swallowed of an oral magnetic contrast made up with 2, 3, 4 or 5 g of ferromagnetic particles diluted in 250 mL of yogurt. After a volunteer had swallowed the oral contrast, a biomagnetic pulse around 15 mT was applied, and then the remanent field is relaxed by mechanical contractions produced on the stomach wall. These studies were performed in 11 health male volunteers, where peristaltic frequencies were measured and a average value of 3.18 cpm was obtained.

  13. Late Migration of a Covered Stent into the Stomach after Repair of a Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Rebonato, Alberto; Maiettini, Daniele; Krokidis, Miltiadis; Graziosi, Luigina; Rossi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We would like to report our experience of a rather rare complication that occurred in a 76-year old patient tree years after endovascular repair of a splenic artery pseudoaneurysm with a covered stent. Three years after stent insertion, the patient complained of mild abdominal pain and melena; it was revealed endoscopically that the covered stent has eroded the stomach wall and migrated into the stomach. The splenic artery is the most common location among the spectrum of potential presentation sites of visceral arteries aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms. Endovascular treatment with the use of coils or stents is the first option due to lower morbidity and mortality than open surgery. Endovascular repair may also lead to complications and patients need to be followed up in order to confirm aneurysm sealing, and exclude late complication. Minor stent graft migration may occur in the long term, however extra vascular migration is extremely rare. PMID:27200159

  14. Comparison of plants used for skin and stomach problems in Trinidad and Tobago with Asian ethnomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary evaluation of fifty-eight ethnomedicinal plants used in Trinidad and Tobago for skin problems, stomach problems, pain and internal parasites for safety and possible efficacy. Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000 on medicinal plant use for health problems. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad and one in Tobago. The uses are compared to those current in Asia. Bambusa vulgaris, Bidens alba, Jatropha curcas, Neurolaena lobata, Peperomia rotundifolia and Phyllanthus urinaria are possibly efficacous for stomach problems, pain and internal parasites. Further scientific study of these plants is warranted. PMID:17207273

  15. Comparison of plants used for skin and stomach problems in Trinidad and Tobago with Asian ethnomedicine.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary evaluation of fifty-eight ethnomedicinal plants used in Trinidad and Tobago for skin problems, stomach problems, pain and internal parasites for safety and possible efficacy. Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000 on medicinal plant use for health problems. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad and one in Tobago. The uses are compared to those current in Asia. Bambusa vulgaris, Bidens alba, Jatropha curcas, Neurolaena lobata, Peperomia rotundifolia and Phyllanthus urinaria are possibly efficacious for stomach problems, pain and internal parasites. Further scientific study of these plants is warranted. PMID:17207273

  16. Synchronous Appearance of Adenocarcinoma and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST) of the Stomach: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pushparaj, Magesh; Masih, Dipti; Pulimood, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological type of gastric tumour, accounting for approximately 95% of all gastric carcinomas. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of the digestive tract. Synchronous adenocarcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) occurring in the stomach is rare and very few cases have been reported in literature. Synchronous tumours in the stomach are rarely diagnosed preoperatively. A 63-year-old gentleman was diagnosed with a gastric adenocarcinoma on endoscopic biopsy and underwent surgery. Postoperative histopathologic examination revealed 2 synchronous tumours with both adenocarcinoma and GIST. The adenocarcinoma was determined to be the aggressive tumour based on histologic features. GIST was categorized as a very low risk of malignancy, based on its size and mitosis. The patient underwent chemotherapy for adenocarcinoma. He is under follow up and is currently disease free. Careful histopathologic evaluation is required to detect co-existing rare synchronous tumours. Presence of the second tumour may require additional procedures or protocols. PMID:27042477

  17. Synchronous Appearance of Adenocarcinoma and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST) of the Stomach: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Telugu, Ramesh Babu; Pushparaj, Magesh; Masih, Dipti; Pulimood, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological type of gastric tumour, accounting for approximately 95% of all gastric carcinomas. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of the digestive tract. Synchronous adenocarcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) occurring in the stomach is rare and very few cases have been reported in literature. Synchronous tumours in the stomach are rarely diagnosed preoperatively. A 63-year-old gentleman was diagnosed with a gastric adenocarcinoma on endoscopic biopsy and underwent surgery. Postoperative histopathologic examination revealed 2 synchronous tumours with both adenocarcinoma and GIST. The adenocarcinoma was determined to be the aggressive tumour based on histologic features. GIST was categorized as a very low risk of malignancy, based on its size and mitosis. The patient underwent chemotherapy for adenocarcinoma. He is under follow up and is currently disease free. Careful histopathologic evaluation is required to detect co-existing rare synchronous tumours. Presence of the second tumour may require additional procedures or protocols. PMID:27042477

  18. Helicobacter spp. in the saliva, stomach, duodenum and faeces of colony dogs.

    PubMed

    Ekman, E; Fredriksson, M; Trowald-Wigh, G

    2013-01-01

    The role of Helicobacter spp. infection in canine gastrointestinal disease is unclear and routes of transmission are of epidemiological and zoonotic importance. The aim of this study was to identify Helicobacter spp. in the saliva, stomach, duodenum and faeces of dogs using a multiplex PCR, and to evaluate any attendant histopathological changes. Helicobacter canis was the most common species detected in saliva and faeces and no correlation between the presence of Helicobacter spp. and histopathological changes in either the stomach or duodenum was observed. All dogs examined were co-infected with up to four species of the organism. This is the first time these bacteria have been studied at species level at multiple sites within the canine alimentary tract. PMID:22683393

  19. Stomach and duodenum ulcer: comparing the efficiency of three laser therapeutic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myslovich, L. V.

    2001-04-01

    An investigation was made of how effective various therapeutic techniques are in treating stomach and duodenum ulcers. The investigation was made on 105 patients (70 patients were affected by duodenum ulcer and 25 patients suffered from stomach ulcer). Three different complex laser therapeutic techniques were compared with each other and with a generally accepted drug treatment. It was found that the most pronounced therapeutic effect was observed in patients administered a complex laser technique that included drug therapy, the intravenous laser irradiation of blood, and the focal-segmental laser therapy. This complex laser therapy enabled ulcer scarring within 8 to 15 days after the beginning of the treatment (with the average scarring term of 9 days).

  20. [Cholinomimetics effects of carnitine on isolated and denervated rat stomach preparations].

    PubMed

    Bettini, V; Martino, R; Norani, M; Ton, P; Legrenzi, E

    1986-07-01

    According to various suggestions in the literature of cholinomimetic effects of carnitine on nervous structures, and experimental results of previous work on vascular smooth muscle, we studied the influence of this substance on the rat isolated and denervated stomach responses to acetylcholine (Ach). We found that Ach invariably induces contraction of the preparation, this effect being abolished by means of atropine or prifinium bromide or reduced by means of fendiline or flunarizine. We found also that carnitine invariably enhances the contractile responses of the preparation to Ach, and this effect is not modified by indomethacin or lysine acetylsalicylate, but usually abolished by fendiline and flunarizine. Our opinion is that the potentiation of stomach contractile responses to Ach by carnitine, is not due to prostaglandin mediation but it is due to sensitisation of the muscarinic receptors, which are stimulating contraction (here and in vascular smooth muscle) by means of: facilitation of calcium transit across the cellular membrane; intracellular deposit site release activation. PMID:3743746

  1. Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach - proper identification and treatment remain a challenge.

    PubMed

    Søreide, Jon Arne; Greve, Ole Jacob; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Størset, Svein

    2016-06-01

    Objective The term hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC) of the stomach was introduced three decades ago with the observation of high serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels in some gastric adenocarcinoma patients. This very rare gastric cancer patient subgroup is likely frequently misdiagnosed. Material Two patients who were recently diagnosed with HAC of the stomach at our institution are presented. We also performed a structured literature search and reviewed pertinent articles to provide knowledge to improve the proper identification, diagnosis and management of patients with gastric HAC. Results HAC is a rare subgroup of gastric carcinoma with poor prognosis. Clinical management of this population may be challenging. The scientific literature is largely based on very small patient series or case reports, and the evidence for proper decision making and management is considered weak. Conclusion All physicians involved in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with gastric cancer should pay attention to this rare subgroup to improve identification. PMID:26728165

  2. Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory meloxicam on stomach, kidney, and liver of rats.

    PubMed

    Burukoglu, Dilek; Baycu, Cengiz; Taplamacioglu, Fulya; Sahin, Erhan; Bektur, Ezgi

    2016-06-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs are the most commonly used group of drugs today. Increase in the use of standard NSAI for treating pain and inflammation was restricted by the fact that these drugs were proven to possibly cause gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. Meloxicam is a NSAI that has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects. This study aims to investigate the effects of meloxicam on stomach, kidney, and liver of rats under light microscopy level. Based on the light microscopic observations, mononuclear cell infiltration and pseudolobular formation was established in liver samples of animals in the experimental group. Metaplasia in surface and glandular epithelia and atrophy were observed in stomach samples. Glomerular stasis-related hypertrophy and focal interstitial nephritis were found in kidneys. It was concluded in this study that meloxicam might cause hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and gastric metaplasia in rats at a used dose and duration. PMID:24958741

  3. Culture of a gastric non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter from the stomach of a 14-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Wüppenhorst, Nicole; von Loewenich, Friederike; Hobmaier, Beate; Vetter-Knoll, Marianne; Mohadjer, Sona; Kist, Manfred

    2013-02-01

    Helicobacter felis belongs to the fastidious gastric non-Helicobacter pylori helicobacter species that are typically found in the stomach of cats and dogs. These bacteria have the potential to colonize the human stomach and are then associated with gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers, and MALT lymphoma. Strains cultured from the human stomach are rare. Here, we present the first isolation of H. felis from a gastric biopsy specimen of a 14-year-old girl who presented with persistent epigastric pain. The strain was cultured using our routine protocol for H. pylori and identified by phylogenetic analyses of partial urease AB and gyrB gene sequences. PMID:23067246

  4. Upside-down stomach – results of mini-invasive surgical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Vrba, Radek; Aujesky, Rene; Vomackova, Katherine; Zbrozkova, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    Aim The authors evaluate the results of mini-invasive therapy in patients diagnosed with upside-down stomach. Material and methods From 1998 to 2008, a total of 27 patients diagnosed with upside-down stomach were surgically treated at the 1st Department of Surgery, University Hospital Olomouc. Before the operation, patients were examined endoscopically and a barium swallow was performed. In all 27 patients (100%), the operation was performed electively laparoscopically. The principle of the operation in all cases was reposition of the stomach into the abdominal cavity, resection of the hernial sac and hiatoplasty. In addition, in 15 patients (56%) with reflux symptoms or endoscopic findings of reflux oesophagitis, fundoplication in Nissen's modification was also performed. Fundopexy was indicated in 12 patients (44%). Results In all patients (100%), the operation was performed mini-invasively; conversion to an open procedure was never necessary. In 3 cases (11%), the left pleural cavity was opened during the operation; this was treated by introducing a chest drain. The operation mortality in the patient set was zero; morbidity was 11%. A year after the operation, patients were re-examined, and follow-up endoscopy and barium swallow were performed. Conclusions In all patients diagnosed with upside-down stomach, surgical treatment is indicated due to the risk of developing severe complications. Mini-invasive surgical therapy in the hands of an experienced surgeon is a safe procedure which offers patients all the benefits of mini-invasive therapy with promising short- and long-term results. PMID:23255985

  5. Carcinoma of the stomach: A review of epidemiology, pathogenesis, molecular genetics and chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Nagini, Siddavaram

    2012-01-01

    Carcinoma of the stomach is still the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide, although the incidence and mortality have fallen dramatically over the last 50 years in many regions. The incidence of gastric cancer varies in different parts of the world and among various ethnic groups. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, the 5-year survival rate of stomach cancer is only 20 per cent. Stomach cancer can be classified into intestinal and diffuse types based on epidemiological and clinicopathological features. The etiology of gastric cancer is multifactorial and includes both dietary and nondietary factors. The major diet-related risk factors implicated in stomach cancer development include high content of nitrates and high salt intake. Accumulating evidence has implicated the role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. The development of gastric cancer is a complex, multistep process involving multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, DNA repair genes, cell cycle regulators, and signaling molecules. A plausible program for gastric cancer prevention involves intake of a balanced diet containing fruits and vegetables, improved sanitation and hygiene, screening and treatment of H. pylori infection, and follow-up of precancerous lesions. The fact that diet plays an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer offers scope for nutritional chemoprevention. Animal models have been extensively used to analyze the stepwise evolution of gastric carcinogenesis and to test dietary chemopreventive agents. Development of multitargeted preventive and therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer is a major challenge for the future. PMID:22844547

  6. Carcinoma of the stomach: A review of epidemiology, pathogenesis, molecular genetics and chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Nagini, Siddavaram

    2012-07-15

    Carcinoma of the stomach is still the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide, although the incidence and mortality have fallen dramatically over the last 50 years in many regions. The incidence of gastric cancer varies in different parts of the world and among various ethnic groups. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, the 5-year survival rate of stomach cancer is only 20 per cent. Stomach cancer can be classified into intestinal and diffuse types based on epidemiological and clinicopathological features. The etiology of gastric cancer is multifactorial and includes both dietary and nondietary factors. The major diet-related risk factors implicated in stomach cancer development include high content of nitrates and high salt intake. Accumulating evidence has implicated the role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. The development of gastric cancer is a complex, multistep process involving multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, DNA repair genes, cell cycle regulators, and signaling molecules. A plausible program for gastric cancer prevention involves intake of a balanced diet containing fruits and vegetables, improved sanitation and hygiene, screening and treatment of H. pylori infection, and follow-up of precancerous lesions. The fact that diet plays an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer offers scope for nutritional chemoprevention. Animal models have been extensively used to analyze the stepwise evolution of gastric carcinogenesis and to test dietary chemopreventive agents. Development of multitargeted preventive and therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer is a major challenge for the future. PMID:22844547

  7. Successful endoscopic treatment of an intestinal diospyrobezoar migrated from the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Bin; Wan, Xiao Long; Guo, Xiao Yan; Dong, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Diospyrobezoars are a rare cause of small intestinal obstruction. A 78-year-old man, with a history of persimmons ingestion and gastrectomy, presented with upper abdominal pain and weight loss. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a huge bezoar in the stomach. After initial endoscopic fragmentation, the abdominal X-ray revealed intestinal obstruction and the colonoscopy showed large fragments of the bezoar filling the terminal ileum. The migrated bezoar pieces were successfully removed by endoscopic fragmentation with a cutting lithotripter. PMID:25100813

  8. Insectivorous Bats Digest Chitin in the Stomach Using Acidic Mammalian Chitinase

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Sara; Roswag, Anna; Becker, Nina I.; Trenczek, Tina E.; Encarnação, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of animals is adapted to their primary source of food to optimize resource use and energy intake. Temperate bat species mainly feed on arthropods. These contain the energy-rich carbohydrate chitin, which is indigestible for the endogenous enzymes of a typical mammalian gastrointestinal tract. However, the gastrointestinal tract of bat species should be adapted to their diet and be able to digest chitin. We hypothesized that (i) European vespertilionid bat species have the digestive enzyme chitinase and that (ii) the chitinolytic activity is located in the intestine, as has been found for North American bat species. The gastrointestinal tracts of seven bat species (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Plecotus auritus, Myotis bechsteinii, Myotis nattereri, Myotis daubentonii, Myotis myotis, and Nyctalus leisleri) were tested for chitinolytic activity by diffusion assay. Gastrointestinal tracts of P. pipistrellus, P. auritus, M. nattereri, M. myotis, and N. leisleri were examined for acidic mammalian chitinase by western blot analysis. Tissue sections of the gastrointestinal tract of P. pipistrellus were immunohistochemically analyzed to locate the acidic mammalian chitinase. Chitinolytic activity was detected in the stomachs of all bat species. Western blot analysis confirmed the acidic mammalian chitinase in stomach samples. Immunohistochemistry of the P. pipistrellus gastrointestinal tract indicated that acidic mammalian chitinase is located in the stomach chief cells at the base of the gastric glands. In conclusion, European vespertilionid bat species have acidic mammalian chitinase that is produced in the gastric glands of the stomach. Therefore, the gastrointestinal tracts of insectivorous bat species evolved an enzymatic adaptation to their diet. PMID:24019876

  9. Insectivorous bats digest chitin in the stomach using acidic mammalian chitinase.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Sara; Roswag, Anna; Becker, Nina I; Trenczek, Tina E; Encarnação, Jorge A

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of animals is adapted to their primary source of food to optimize resource use and energy intake. Temperate bat species mainly feed on arthropods. These contain the energy-rich carbohydrate chitin, which is indigestible for the endogenous enzymes of a typical mammalian gastrointestinal tract. However, the gastrointestinal tract of bat species should be adapted to their diet and be able to digest chitin. We hypothesized that (i) European vespertilionid bat species have the digestive enzyme chitinase and that (ii) the chitinolytic activity is located in the intestine, as has been found for North American bat species. The gastrointestinal tracts of seven bat species (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Plecotus auritus, Myotis bechsteinii, Myotis nattereri, Myotis daubentonii, Myotis myotis, and Nyctalus leisleri) were tested for chitinolytic activity by diffusion assay. Gastrointestinal tracts of P. pipistrellus, P. auritus, M. nattereri, M. myotis, and N. leisleri were examined for acidic mammalian chitinase by western blot analysis. Tissue sections of the gastrointestinal tract of P. pipistrellus were immunohistochemically analyzed to locate the acidic mammalian chitinase. Chitinolytic activity was detected in the stomachs of all bat species. Western blot analysis confirmed the acidic mammalian chitinase in stomach samples. Immunohistochemistry of the P. pipistrellus gastrointestinal tract indicated that acidic mammalian chitinase is located in the stomach chief cells at the base of the gastric glands. In conclusion, European vespertilionid bat species have acidic mammalian chitinase that is produced in the gastric glands of the stomach. Therefore, the gastrointestinal tracts of insectivorous bat species evolved an enzymatic adaptation to their diet. PMID:24019876

  10. Burkitt’s Lymphoma of the Rectosigmoid and Stomach Presenting as Hematochezia

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante-Bernal, Marco; Galvis, Juan; Matos, Dubier; Sosa, Omar; Syed, Saad H.; Padilla, Osvaldo; Davis, Brian; Zuckerman, Marc J.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 51 Final Diagnosis: Burkitt’s lymphoma of the rectum and stomach Symptoms: Hematochezia Medication: — Clinical Procedure: EGD and colonoscopy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) is an uncommon cause of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adults and accounts for only 0.1–0.5% of all malignant tumors of the colon and rectum. Very few cases of rectosigmoid and stomach BL have been reported in adults. Case Report: A 51-year-old Hispanic woman presented with a 1-month history of hematochezia, associated with a foreign-body sensation in the rectum and 7 kg weight loss. Initial laboratory workup showed normocytic anemia and positive fecal occult blood. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed an asymmetric appearance of the stomach and pylorus with nodularity of the mucosa and thickening of the posterior wall, and a 10.8-cm rectal mass. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy were performed and biopsies of the stomach and rectum were obtained; histopathology demonstrated involvement by Burkitt’s lymphoma in the gastric body nodule and rectal mass. After 4 cycles of chemotherapy, a follow-up abdominal CT demonstrated complete resolution of the mural thickening of the rectum and no intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy. Conclusions: Our case illustrates the importance of considering BL in the extensive differential diagnosis of rectal bleeding, change in bowel habits, and other lower and upper GI symptoms, since the rapidly growing nature of this rare malignancy requires a prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy. PMID:26876112

  11. [The prevention of the entry of foreign bodies into the stomach and intestines].

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, N M; Belyĭ, I S; Gaponov, V V

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of the results of treatment of 320 patients, the organization and sanitary-instructive measures aimed at prevention of getting, or development of the foreign bodies in the stomach and intestine are suggested. The primary prophylaxis (prevention of penetration of the substances which are alien to the organism into its cavities and tissues) and the secondary one (removal of the foreign bodies from the organism of a patient before their penetration into the intestine) are distinguished. PMID:10912057

  12. Evolution of the Helicobacter pylori Vacuolating Cytotoxin in a Human Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Aviles-Jimenez, Francisco; Letley, Darren P.; Gonzalez-Valencia, Gerardo; Salama, Nina; Torres, Javier; Atherton, John C.

    2004-01-01

    We describe two subclones of Helicobacter pylori, isolated contemporaneously from a human stomach, which differ markedly in the vacuolating cytotoxin gene, vacA, but whose near identity in sequences outside this locus implies a very recent common origin. The differences are consistent with homologous recombination with DNA from another strain and result in a changed vacA midregion and, importantly, in changed toxicity. PMID:15262958

  13. Effects of metoclopramide and domperidone on cholinergically mediated contractions of human isolated stomach muscle.

    PubMed

    Sanger, G J

    1985-09-01

    The experiments examine the actions of metoclopramide and domperidone on the responses evoked by electrical field stimulation or by acetylcholine, in longitudinal muscle strips obtained from human stomach. Electrical field stimulation evoked contractions which were predominantly cholinergically mediated; metoclopramide 0.28-28 microM caused a concentration-dependent increase in the height of these contractions. In the presence of atropine and barium chloride, electrical stimulation evoked relaxations of the stomach muscle, probably by stimulating non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic inhibitory nerves; metoclopramide 28 microM had no effect on these relaxations. Metoclopramide 0.003-2.8 microM had no effect on contractions evoked by exogenous acetylcholine, although higher concentrations of the drug increased the contractions. The results suggest that in human isolated stomach, low concentrations of metoclopramide may increase electrically evoked cholinergic activity by increasing the release of neuronal acetylcholine. Stimulation by metoclopramide of cholinergic activity in the gut may therefore be an important mechanism by which the drug increases gastrointestinal motility during therapy. Cholinergically mediated contractions were not increased by domperidone, and other mechanism(s) of action may therefore be important for this drug. PMID:2867191

  14. Stomach cancer and occupational exposure to asbestos: a meta-analysis of occupational cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, L; Rushton, L

    2015-01-01

    Background: A recent Monographs Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there is limited evidence for a causal association between exposure to asbestos and stomach cancer. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate this association. Random effects models were used to summarise the relative risks across studies. Sources of heterogeneity were explored through subgroup analyses and meta-regression. Results: We identified 40 mortality cohort studies from 37 separate papers, and cancer incidence data were extracted for 15 separate cohorts from 14 papers. The overall meta-SMR for stomach cancer for total cohort was 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.03–1.27), with heterogeneous results across studies. Statistically significant excesses were observed in North America and Australia but not in Europe, and for generic asbestos workers and insulators. Meta-SMRs were larger for cohorts reporting a SMR for lung cancer above 2 and cohort sizes below 1000. Conclusions: Our results support the conclusion by IARC that exposure to asbestos is associated with a moderate increased risk of stomach cancer. PMID:25928706

  15. Structural investigation of porcine stomach mucin by X-ray fiber diffraction and homology modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Veluraja, K.; Vennila, K.N.; Umamakeshvari, K.; Jasmine, A.; Velmurugan, D.

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Techniques to get oriented mucin fibre. {yields} X-ray fibre diffraction pattern for mucin. {yields} Molecular modeling of mucin based on X-ray fibre diffraction pattern. -- Abstract: The basic understanding of the three dimensional structure of mucin is essential to understand its physiological function. Technology has been developed to achieve orientated porcine stomach mucin molecules. X-ray fiber diffraction of partially orientated porcine stomach mucin molecules show d-spacing signals at 2.99, 4.06, 4.22, 4.7, 5.37 and 6.5 A. The high intense d-spacing signal at 4.22 A is attributed to the antiparallel {beta}-sheet structure identified in the fraction of the homology modeled mucin molecule (amino acid residues 800-980) using Nidogen-Laminin complex structure as a template. The X-ray fiber diffraction signal at 6.5 A reveals partial organization of oligosaccharides in porcine stomach mucin. This partial structure of mucin will be helpful in establishing a three dimensional structure for the whole mucin molecule.

  16. BRAF mutation in multiple primary cancer with colorectal cancer and stomach cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hyun; Ahn, Byung-Kwon; Baek, Sung-Uhn; Chang, Hee-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Recently, BRAF mutation testing has been introduced as a marker in differentiating Lynch syndrome from sporadic colorectal cancers or in predicting colorectal cancers with worse prognosis. Individuals with hereditary predisposition to cancer development are at an increased risk of developing multiple primary cancers. The purpose of this study is to identify mutation in the BRAF gene in multiple primary cancers with colorectal cancer and stomach cancer. Methods: BRAF mutation was analysed in 45 patients with colorectal cancer and stomach cancer, synchronously or metachronously. Results: Mean age was 64.07 years (range: 47–83 years). For the colorectal cancer, tumors were located at the sigmoid colon in eight patients (17.8%) and at the rectum in 22 patients (48.9%). Twenty-three patients (51.1%) had synchronous cancer. Four patients (8.9%) had family members with cancer. BRAF mutation was identified in three patients (6.7%). All three of these patients had metachronous cancers. The colorectal cancers were located in the sigmoid colon (1 patient) and the rectum (2 patients). Conclusions: BRAF mutation rate was low in the multiple primary cancer with colorectal cancer and stomach cancer. With only BRAF gene study, it was not possible to identify any correlation with family history of colorectal cancer. Further study means considering other genes – MSI, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6. PMID:24759670

  17. A prospective study of stomach cancer and its relation to diet, cigarettes, and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Nomura, A; Grove, J S; Stemmermann, G N; Severson, R K

    1990-02-01

    From 1965 to 1968 in Hawaii, 7990 American men of Japanese ancestry were interviewed and examined in a cohort study. The intake of 20 separate foods in a food frequency questionnaire and the intake of carbohydrate and other nutrients, based on a 24-h diet recall history, were recorded. Since then, 150 incident cases of stomach cancer have been identified. Although men with stomach cancer (cases) consumed pickles and ham/bacon/sausages more often and fruits and fried vegetables less often than men without cancer (noncases), none of the differences was statistically significant. Current cigarette smokers had an increased risk (relative risk = 2.7; 95% confidence interval = 1.8 to 4.1) compared with nonsmokers, but there was no dose-response effect with heavier cigarette smoking. The consumption of alcohol, either from beer, spirits, or wine, did not affect the incidence of stomach cancer. The failure to detect an association with dietary foods in this study may be due to the omission of many oriental foods in the questionnaire and the limitations of the 24-h diet recall history. PMID:2297702

  18. Neuronal release of endogenous dopamine from corpus of guinea pig stomach.

    PubMed

    Shichijo, K; Sakurai-Yamashita, Y; Sekine, I; Taniyama, K

    1997-11-01

    Neuronal release of endogenous dopamine was identified in mucosa-free preparations (muscle layer including intramural plexus) from guinea pig stomach corpus by measuring tissue dopamine content and dopamine release and by immunohistochemical methods using a dopamine antiserum. Dopamine content in mucosa-free preparations of guinea pig gastric corpus was one-tenth of norepinephrine content. Electrical transmural stimulation of mucosa-free preparations of gastric corpus increased the release of endogenous dopamine in a frequency-dependent (3-20 Hz) manner. The stimulated release of dopamine was prevented by either removal of external Ca2+ or treatment with tetrodotoxin. Dopamine-immunopositive nerve fibers surrounding choline acetyltransferase-immunopositive ganglion cells were seen in the myenteric plexus of whole mount preparations of gastric corpus even after bilateral transection of the splanchnic nerve proximal to the junction with the vagal nerve (section of nerves between the celiac ganglion and stomach). Domperidone and sulpiride potentiated the stimulated release of acetylcholine and reversed the dopamine-induced inhibition of acetylcholine release from mucosa-free preparations. These results indicate that dopamine is physiologically released from neurons and from possible dopaminergic nerve terminals and regulates cholinergic neuronal activity in the corpus of guinea pig stomach. PMID:9374701

  19. Artificial micromotors in the mouse's stomach: a step toward in vivo use of synthetic motors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Dong, Renfeng; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Li, Jinxing; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph

    2015-01-27

    Artificial micromotors, operating on locally supplied fuels and performing complex tasks, offer great potential for diverse biomedical applications, including autonomous delivery and release of therapeutic payloads and cell manipulation. Various types of synthetic motors, utilizing different propulsion mechanisms, have been fabricated to operate in biological matrices. However, the performance of these man-made motors has been tested exclusively under in vitro conditions (outside the body); their behavior and functionalities in an in vivo environment (inside the body) remain unknown. Herein, we report an in vivo study of artificial micromotors in a living organism using a mouse model. Such in vivo evaluation examines the distribution, retention, cargo delivery, and acute toxicity profile of synthetic motors in mouse stomach via oral administration. Using zinc-based micromotors as a model, we demonstrate that the acid-driven propulsion in the stomach effectively enhances the binding and retention of the motors as well as of cargo payloads on the stomach wall. The body of the motors gradually dissolves in the gastric acid, autonomously releasing their carried payloads, leaving nothing toxic behind. This work is anticipated to significantly advance the emerging field of nano/micromotors and to open the door to in vivo evaluation and clinical applications of these synthetic motors. PMID:25549040

  20. Identification of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum from honey stomach of honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Tajabadi, Naser; Mardan, Makhdzir; Saari, Nazamid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Bahreini, Rasoul; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to isolate and identify Lactobacillus in the honey stomach of honeybee Apis dorsata. Samples of honeybee were collected from A. dorsata colonies in different bee trees and Lactobacillus bacteria isolated from honey stomachs. Ninety two isolates were Gram-stained and tested for catalase reaction. By using bacterial universal primers, the 16S rDNA gene from DNA of bacterial colonies amplified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Forty-nine bacterial 16S rDNA gene were sequenced and entrusted in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis showed they were different phylotypes of Lactobacillus. Two of them were most closely relevant to the previously described species Lactobacillus plantarum. Other two phylotypes were identified to be closely related to Lactobacillus pentosus. However, only one phylotype was found to be distantly linked to the Lactobacillus fermentum. The outcomes of the present study indicated that L. plantarum, L. pentosus, and L. fermentum were the dominant lactobacilli in the honey stomach of honeybee A. dorsata collected during the dry season from Malaysia forest area - specifically “Melaleuca in Terengganu”. PMID:24516438

  1. Identification and Comparison of Aberrant Key Regulatory Networks in Breast, Colon, Liver, Lung, and Stomach Cancers through Methylome Database Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byungtak; Kang, Seongeun; Jeong, Gookjoo; Park, Sung-Bin; Kim, Sun Jung

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant methylation of specific CpG sites at the promoter is widely responsible for genesis and development of various cancer types. Even though the microarray-based methylome analyzing techniques have contributed to the elucidation of the methylation change at the genome-wide level, the identification of key methylation markers or top regulatory networks appearing common in highly incident cancers through comparison analysis is still limited. In this study, we in silico performed the genome-wide methylation analysis on each 10 sets of normal and cancer pairs of five tissues: breast, colon, liver, lung, and stomach. The methylation array covers 27,578 CpG sites, corresponding to 14,495 genes, and significantly hypermethylated or hypomethylated genes in the cancer were collected (FDR adjusted p-value <0.05; methylation difference >0.3). Analysis of the dataset confirmed the methylation of previously known methylation markers and further identified novel methylation markers, such as GPX2, CLDN15, and KL. Cluster analysis using the methylome dataset resulted in a diagram with a bipartite mode distinguishing cancer cells from normal cells regardless of tissue types. The analysis further revealed that breast cancer was closest with lung cancer, whereas it was farthest from colon cancer. Pathway analysis identified that either the “cancer” related network or the “cancer” related bio-function appeared as the highest confidence in all the five cancers, whereas each cancer type represents its tissue-specific gene sets. Our results contribute toward understanding the essential abnormal epigenetic pathways involved in carcinogenesis. Further, the novel methylation markers could be applied to establish markers for cancer prognosis. PMID:24842468

  2. Empowering a healthy practice environment.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Jodi; Ruffin, Tasha

    2015-03-01

    This article provides frontline nurses a tool kit so they can advocate a healthy practice environment. The healthy nurse, healthy work hours, job satisfaction, adequate sleep, power naps at work, and balancing family/work are discussed. The overweight nurse, nurse fatigue, compassion fatigue, shift work sleep disorder, and role strain are discussed as barriers to a healthy practice environment. Case reports with analysis and recommendations are discussed to overcome these barriers. Resources are presented for frontline nurses to develop a tool kit for transforming their environment to a healthy practice environment and to empower them to become healthy nurses. PMID:25680495

  3. Healthy Weight, Healthy Child | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity Healthy Weight, Healthy Child Past Issues / Spring - Summer ... to help achieve healthier weights for our children. Obesity in Children Obesity means having too much body ...

  4. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Information Page Synonym(s): Hydrocephalus - Normal Pressure Table ... Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus? Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is an abnormal ...

  5. Healthy Aging in China

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James P.; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist. Other positive forces include increasing detection and treatment of disease and the availability of health insurance and health services so that diseases like hypertension and diabetes do not remain silent killers in China. Transparency is eased on the research level by publicly available data such as CHARLS, a sharp departure from prior scientific norm in China. Negative forces center on disturbing trends in personal health behaviors such as growing rates of smoking (among men) and obesity (for both genders), and pollution—,especially in urban centers. Public health campaigns and incentives are needed on all these fronts so that predictable long-term consequences of these behaviors on older age disease are not realized. There will not be a simple demographic fix to healthy aging in China as fertility rates are unlikely to rise much, while migration will likely continue to rise leaving growing numbers of elderly parents geographically separated from their adult children. Government policy will have to allow migration of elderly parents to live with their adult children while reducing the rigid connection of policy (health insurance and health services) with place of residence. PMID:25621202

  6. A comparative analysis of double-crested cormorant diets from stomachs and pellets from two Lake Ontario colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Ross, Robert M.; McCullough, Russell D.; Mathers, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) diets were compared with evidence from the stomachs of shot birds and from regurgitated pellets at High Bluff Island and Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario. The highest similarity in diets determined by stomach and pellet analyses occurred when both samples were collected on the same day. Diet overlap dropped substantially between the two methods when collection periods were seven to ten days apart, which suggested differences in prey availability between the two periods. Since the average number of fish recovered in pellets was significantly higher than that in stomachs, use of pellets to determine fish consumption of double-crested cormorants may be more valid than stomach analysis because pellet content represent an integrated sampling of food consumed over approximately 24 hours.

  7. Stomach Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the following: Blood when you have a bowel movement Severe abdominal pain Heartburn not relieved by antacids Unintended weight loss Ongoing vomiting or diarrhea NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  8. Probiotic and technological properties of Lactobacillus spp. strains from the human stomach in the search for potential candidates against gastric microbial dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Susana; Leite, Analy M O; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Mayo, Baltasar

    2014-01-01

    This work characterizes a set of lactobacilli strains isolated from the stomach of healthy humans that might serve as probiotic cultures. Ten different strains were recognized by rep-PCR and PFGE fingerprinting among 19 isolates from gastric biopsies and stomach juice samples. These strains belonged to five species, Lactobacillus gasseri (3), Lactobacillus reuteri (2), Lactobacillus vaginalis (2), Lactobacillus fermentum (2) and Lactobacillus casei (1). All ten strains were subjected to a series of in vitro tests to assess their functional and technological properties, including acid resistance, bile tolerance, adhesion to epithelial gastric cells, production of antimicrobial compounds, inhibition of Helicobacter pylori, antioxidative activity, antibiotic resistance, carbohydrate fermentation, glycosidic activities, and ability to grow in milk. As expected, given their origin, all strains showed good resistance to low pH (3.0), with small reductions in counts after 90 min exposition to this pH. Species- and strain-specific differences were detected in terms of the production of antimicrobials, antagonistic effects toward H. pylori, antioxidative activity and adhesion to gastric epithelial cells. None of the strains showed atypical resistance to a series of 16 antibiotics of clinical and veterinary importance. Two L. reuteri strains were deemed as the most appropriate candidates to be used as potential probiotics against microbial gastric disorders; these showed good survival under gastrointestinal conditions reproduced in vitro, along with strong anti-Helicobacter and antioxidative activities. The two L. reuteri strains further displayed appropriated technological traits for their inclusion as adjunct functional cultures in fermented dairy products. PMID:25642213

  9. Probiotic and technological properties of Lactobacillus spp. strains from the human stomach in the search for potential candidates against gastric microbial dysbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Susana; Leite, Analy M. O.; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Mayo, Baltasar

    2015-01-01

    This work characterizes a set of lactobacilli strains isolated from the stomach of healthy humans that might serve as probiotic cultures. Ten different strains were recognized by rep-PCR and PFGE fingerprinting among 19 isolates from gastric biopsies and stomach juice samples. These strains belonged to five species, Lactobacillus gasseri (3), Lactobacillus reuteri (2), Lactobacillus vaginalis (2), Lactobacillus fermentum (2) and Lactobacillus casei (1). All ten strains were subjected to a series of in vitro tests to assess their functional and technological properties, including acid resistance, bile tolerance, adhesion to epithelial gastric cells, production of antimicrobial compounds, inhibition of Helicobacter pylori, antioxidative activity, antibiotic resistance, carbohydrate fermentation, glycosidic activities, and ability to grow in milk. As expected, given their origin, all strains showed good resistance to low pH (3.0), with small reductions in counts after 90 min exposition to this pH. Species- and strain-specific differences were detected in terms of the production of antimicrobials, antagonistic effects toward H. pylori, antioxidative activity and adhesion to gastric epithelial cells. None of the strains showed atypical resistance to a series of 16 antibiotics of clinical and veterinary importance. Two L. reuteri strains were deemed as the most appropriate candidates to be used as potential probiotics against microbial gastric disorders; these showed good survival under gastrointestinal conditions reproduced in vitro, along with strong anti-Helicobacter and antioxidative activities. The two L. reuteri strains further displayed appropriated technological traits for their inclusion as adjunct functional cultures in fermented dairy products. PMID:25642213

  10. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... than ever after menopause. But for other women, physical changes, illness, disabilities, and some medicines make sex painful, ... in Later Life - This brochure describes the normal physical changes in men and women that come with age. ...

  11. A hybrid transducer to evaluate stomach emptying by ultrasound and susceptometric measurements: an in vivo feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Alexandre C; Sampaio, Diego R T; Pavan, Theo Z; Baffa, Oswaldo; Carneiro, Antonio A O

    2015-07-01

    Gastric emptying reflects a diversity of important physiological functions. Alternating current biosusceptometry (ACB) is an inexpensive, radiation-free, and minimally invasive method to evaluate gastric emptying, but its response depends on the spatial distribution of the magnetized material and does not provide precise anatomical information. The hybrid transducer, which combines ACB and an ultrasound probe, is an alternative to improve susceptometry measurements, namely the spatial localization of the magnetized source. In this study, initial stomach emptying, in rats, was monitored with the aid of the hybrid transducer. Yogurt mixed with ferrite particles was injected into the rat's stomach. The hybrid transducer was placed on the rat's abdomen during experiments, and the susceptometry signal and magnetomotive ultrasound (MMUS) images were saved and postprocessed. MMUS highlighted the movement of magnetic particles due to magnetic force from ACB excitation coils, and showed the rat's stomach location. In this feasibility study, we monitored the stomach emptying of 4 rats for 20 min. The mean relative ACB signal decayed by 4.6 ± 0.1%, and the mean relative area of MMUS images decreased by 4.5 ± 0.2%, after 20 min postingestion of the magnetic meal due to stomach emptying. In a second experiment, 3-D MMUS images from axial sequences were obtained by spatially translating the hybrid transducer, providing details of the stomach wall, which may enable minimally invasive detection of abnormalities. In conclusion, the MMUS image increased ACB spatial resolution and furnished additional anatomical information. PMID:26168175

  12. Regulation of oxidative stress and somatostatin, cholecystokinin, apelin gene expressions by ghrelin in stomach of newborn diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Zeynep Mine; Sacan, Ozlem; Karatug, Ayse; Turk, Neslihan; Yanardag, Refiye; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Bolkent, Sema

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether ghrelin treatment has a protective effect on gene expression and biochemical changes in the stomach of newborn streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. In this study, four groups of Wistar rats were used: control, ghrelin control, diabetic and diabetic+ghrelin. The rats were sacrificed after four weeks of treatment for diabetes. The gene expressions of: somatostatin, cholecystokinin, apelin and the altered active caspase-3, active caspase-8, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, were investigated in the pyloric region of the stomach and antioxidant parameters were measured in all the stomach. Although ghrelin treatment to diabetic rats lowered the stomach lipid peroxidation levels, the stomach glutathione levels were increased. Exogenous ghrelin caused an increased activities of stomach catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase in diabetic rats. Numbers of somatostatin, cholecystokinin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunoreactive cells decreased in the diabetic+ghrelin group compared to the diabetic group. Apelin mRNA expressions were remarkably less in the diabetic+ghrelin rats than in diabetic rats. The results may indicate that ghrelin treatment has a protective effect to some extent on the diabetic rats. This protection is possibly accomplished through the antioxidant activity of ghrelin observed in type 2 diabetes. Consequently exogenous ghrelin may be a candidate for therapeutic treatment of diabetes. PMID:23566555

  13. Smart Substitutions for Healthy Cooking

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  14. Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  15. Healthy Post-Play Snacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  16. The Healthy Weight Collaborative: quality improvement methods promoting healthy weight.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Marianne E; Vanderkruik, Rachel; Reims, Kathy; Coulouris, Natasha; Anand, Shikha; Linde-Feucht, Sarah; Homer, Charles J

    2012-08-01

    Promoting healthy weight requires innovative approaches and a concerted response across all sectors of society. This commentary features the framework guiding the Healthy Weight Collaborative, a two-phased quality improvement (QI) learning collaborative and key activity of the Collaborate for Healthy Weight initiative. Multi-sector teams from primary care, public health, and community-based organizations use QI to identify, test, and implement program and policy changes in their communities related to promoting healthy weight. We describe the Collaborative's overall design based on the Action Model to Achieve Healthy People 2020 Goals and our approach of applying QI methods to advance implementation of sustainable ways to promote healthy weight and healthy equity. We provide specifics on measurement and change strategies as well as examples of Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles from teams participating in Phase 1 of the Collaborative. These teams will serve as leaders for sustainable, positive change in their communities. PMID:22864485

  17. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  18. NORMAL PSYCHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN ADOLESCENCE

    PubMed Central

    Teicher, Joseph D.

    1956-01-01

    It behooves physicians to be aware that adolescents are different people, that they have a vast capacity for change, that they often exhibit the sickest kind of behavior, which may be very frightening to us and to them. Physicians have to be able to wait and not become panicked by the turbulences, confusions, and contradictions that mark the adolescent's behavior; to keep in mind at all times that much of what is going on is relatively normal behavior in the drive toward maturation and adulthood; that the adolescent has to cope with his sexual drive which is continually frustrated, that he has to cope with the problems of emancipation from parental authority, that he has to cope with an aggressive drive to achieve and to dominate. Parents, too, have to be understanding and ready to render unselfish support, for they continue to be the source of strength and security, and even the source of healthy restrictions. Adults must be aware that the adolescent struggles with his conscience and its dictates, and we should look upon cliques, groups and clubs as a healthy assistance in the preservation of standards, ethics, and mores. PMID:13356179

  19. Modeling the Fluid Dynamics in a Human Stomach to Gain Insight of Food Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Ferrua, MJ; Singh, RP

    2010-01-01

    During gastric digestion, food is disintegrated by a complex interaction of chemical and mechanical effects. Although the mechanisms of chemical digestion are usually characterized by using in vitro analysis, the difficulty in reproducing the stomach geometry and motility has prevented a good understanding of the local fluid dynamics of gastric contents. The goal of this study was to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to develop a 3-D model of the shape and motility pattern of the stomach wall during digestion, and use it to characterize the fluid dynamics of gastric contents of different viscosities. A geometrical model of an averaged-sized human stomach was created, and its motility was characterized by a series of antral-contraction waves of up to 80% relative occlusion. The flow field within the model (predicted using the software Fluent™) strongly depended on the viscosity of gastric contents. By increasing the viscosity, the formation of the 2 flow patterns commonly regarded as the main mechanisms driving digestion (i.e., the retropulsive jet-like motion and eddy structures) was significantly diminished, while a significant increase of the pressure field was predicted. These results were in good agreement with experimental data previously reported in the literature, and suggest that, contrary to the traditional idea of a rapid and complete homogenization of the meal, gastric contents associated with high viscous meals are poorly mixed. This study illustrates the capability of CFD to provide a unique insight into the fluid dynamics of the gastric contents, and points out its potential to develop a fundamental understanding and modeling of the mechanisms involved in the digestion process. Practical Application This study illustrates the capability of computational fluid dynamic techniques to provide a unique insight into the dynamics of the gastric contents, pointing out its potential to develop a fundamental understanding and modeling of the human

  20. Heterogeneity in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lowsky, David J.; Olshansky, S. Jay; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-01-01

    For a surprisingly large segment of the older population, chronological age is not a relevant marker for understanding, measuring, or experiencing healthy aging. Using the 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the 2004 Health and Retirement Study to examine the proportion of Americans exhibiting five markers of health and the variation in health-related quality of life across each of eight age groups, we find that a significant proportion of older Americans is healthy within every age group beginning at age 51, including among those aged 85+. For example, 48% of those aged 51–54 and 28% of those aged 85+ have excellent or very good self-reported health status; similarly, 89% of those aged 51–54 and 56% of those aged 85+ report no health-based limitations in work or housework. Also, health-related quality of life ranges widely within every age group, yet there is only a comparatively small variation in median quality of life across age groups, suggesting that older Americans today may be experiencing substantially different age-health trajectories than their predecessors. Patterns are similar for medical expenditures. Several policy implications are explored. PMID:24249734

  1. Is My Penis Normal?

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Is My Penis Normal? KidsHealth > For Teens > Is My Penis Normal? Print A A A Text Size en ... any guy who's ever worried about whether his penis is a normal size. There's a fairly wide ...

  2. A Rare Case of Sarcina ventriculi of the Stomach in an Asymptomatic Patient.

    PubMed

    Haroon Al Rasheed, Mohamed Rizwan; Kim, George J; Senseng, Carmencita

    2016-04-01

    Sarcina ventriculi is a gram-positive coccus that grows in a tetrad arrangement in the stomach. In the past 35 years, less than 20 cases have been reported in the literature, and it has been associated with life-threatening complications such as emphysematous gastritis and perforation. Treatment of S ventriculi generally consists of proton pump inhibitors with or without adjuvant antibiotic therapy. We report the first ever case of S ventriculi, including the morphological and immunohistochemical features, occurring in an asymptomatic patient with a history of Helicobacter pylori gastric ulcers. PMID:26453674

  3. Molecular cloning of an activated human oncogene, homologous to v-raf, from primary stomach cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, K; Nakatsu, Y; Sekiguchi, M; Hokamura, K; Tanaka, K; Terada, M; Sugimura, T

    1985-01-01

    Transfection with high molecular weight DNA from a primary stomach cancer induced foci of transformed NIH 3T3 cells, and the transformed cells were tumorigenic in nude mice. By screening with a human Alu-family probe, we isolated the human DNA sequence from the secondary transformant cells. This transforming sequence encompasses about 60 kilobase pairs and is unrelated to known human transforming genes. Examination of homologies between this sequence and retroviral oncogenes revealed that the human transforming sequence is closely related to the v-raf oncogene of murine transforming retrovirus 3611-MSV. Images PMID:3862088

  4. A specimen of Rhamphorhynchus with soft tissue preservation, stomach contents and a putative coprolite

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Donald M.; Therrien, François; Habib, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Despite being known for nearly two centuries, new specimens of the derived non-pterodactyloid pterosaur Rhamphorhynchus continue to be discovered and reveal new information about their anatomy and palaeobiology. Here we describe a specimen held in the collections of the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, Alberta, Canada that shows both preservation and impressions of soft tissues, and also preserves material interpreted as stomach contents of vertebrate remains and, uniquely, a putative coprolite. The specimen also preserves additional evidence for fibers in the uropatagium. PMID:26312182

  5. Infectivity of Cryptosporidium muris directly isolated from the murine stomach for various laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Y; Ozkul, I A

    1996-11-15

    Oocysts of Cryptosporidium muris, directly isolated from the stomach of experimentally infected laboratory mice were orally inoculated into rats, gerbils, guinea pigs, dogs, and rabbits. Weaned rats developed patent C. muris infection as evidenced by the endogenous stages in gastric glands and oocyst shedding 10-17 days later. No signs of clinical illness or macroscopic findings were detected in mice and rats. Laboratory raised suckling rabbits, guinea pigs, gerbils and dogs fed C. muris rarely developed patent infections and they were considered not a true host for C. muris. PMID:9017888

  6. Fungating carcinoma of the stomach: en bloc multiple organ resection and abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, K. M.; Lai, D. T.; Stern, H. S.; Sheldon, D. M.

    1995-01-01

    A patient with carcinoma of the stomach invading multiple adjacent organs and fungating through the anterior abdominal wall was treated by en bloc multiple organ resection and abdominal wall reconstruction. The patient is alive and well at the time of writing, six months after the operation. The rationale for embarking on multiple organ resection for gastric cancer is discussed. However, such an aggressive surgical approach should only be applied to carefully selected patients who are medically fit and have no evidence of widespread systemic metastases. Images Figure PMID:7596940

  7. Inflammatory Fibroid Polyp of the Stomach Mimics Malignancy on 18F FDG PET/CT Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Sabriye Sennur; Bilgin, Mehmet; Savas, Recep; Erdogan, Ezgi Basak

    2016-09-01

    Inflammatory fibroid polyps (IFPs) are rare non-neoplastic and proliferating submucosal lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. The classic IFP, which was first described by Vanek, consists of prominent blood vessels and is characterized by a heavy inflammatory infiltrate, which is rich in eosinophilic granulocytes. The clinical presentation depends on the size and location. Inflammatory fibroid polyps cannot be differentiated from malignancy without histological examination. We report a case of IFP in the stomach that mimicked a primary gastric malignancy showing an increased F-FDG uptake. PMID:27454603

  8. Slow Wave Conduction Patterns in the Stomach: From Waller’s Foundations to Current Challenges

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This review provides an overview of our understanding of motility and slow wave propagation in the stomach. It begins by reviewing seminal studies conducted by Walter Cannon and Augustus Waller on in vivo motility and slow wave patterns. Then our current understanding of slow wave patterns in common laboratory animals and humans is presented. The implications of slow wave dysrhythmic patterns that have been recorded in animals and patients suffering from gastroparesis are discussed. Finally, current challenges in experimental methods and techniques, slow wave modulation and the use of mathematical models are discussed. PMID:25313679

  9. A body-packer with a cocaine bag stuck in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Beauverd, Yan; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Wolff, Hans; Ris, Frédéric; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Elger, Bernice S

    2011-06-28

    Management of patients carrying packets of drugs in the digestive tract is a frequent medical problem. We report on a patient who was referred by the police after ingestion of packets of cocaine. After spontaneous elimination of 81 drug packets, the patient had three unremarkable stools. A plain abdominal X-ray disclosed no residual packet but computed tomography (CT) scan showed one in the stomach. As this was not eliminated during the 10 d following ingestion, it was removed through gastrotomy. This case stresses the usefulness of the CT scan to ensure that no residual packet is present before hospital discharge. PMID:21860710

  10. Water intake after stomach loads of NaCl in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Kozub, F J; Hodges, J; Yutzy, S

    1980-10-01

    Sixty mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), 30 male and 30 female, were stomach loaded (2% b.w.) with either water or .9, 2, 6, 10, or 12% NaCl (wt x vol.). Unlike male rats, male gerbils did not lose weight. Female gerbils, like female rats, did not lose weight. However, female gerbils did not increase their water intake at any concentration, whereas males increased their water intake only at the 10 and 12% levels. These data are very much unlike those for the rat (male and female) which show an increase in water intake in response to NaCl solutions above isotonicity. PMID:7441220

  11. Follicular Viability and Histological Alterations after Auto-transplantation of Dog Ovaries by Experimentally Inducing Blood Sinus on Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Khoram, Hazhir; Najafpour, Alireza; Razi, Mazdak

    2011-01-01

    Background Currently, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are considered most effective methods for cancer treatment, however these strategies often result in fertility problems. A favorable alternative to prevent fertility loss in cancer patients is the cryopreservation and transplantation of sexual tissues (ovaries and/or testes). There is a low rate of fertilization following cryopreservation of ovaries prior to implantation. Therefore, in our opinion, this low rate is caused by instable blood flow during organ transplantation. Thus, this study researches a canine ovarian model that focuses on direct exposure of ovaries with blood in an experimentally induced sinus-like cavity. We implanted this tissue on the muscular layer of the stomach, which is its most vascularized region. Materials and Methods Ovarian transplantation was conducted on T1 animals (n=5), bilateral ovariectomy was performed on T2 animals (n=5), unilateral ovariectomy was conducted on T3 cases and animals in the control-sham group (n=5) did not undergo ovariectomy or transplantation. Results All isotransplanted ovaries survived. Ovaries resumed follicular growth and revascularization. Transplanted ovaries contained 75%-76% of survived small follicles (pre antral) after 60 days. The ovarian granulosa cells showed considerable resistance against ischemia. After day 30 no statistically significant differences in the level of estradiol and progesterone were observed between T1 animals and the T3 group. T1 animals showed considerably high levels of progesterone and estradiol in comparison to T2 cases. Conclusion This study showed that using blood sinus method for ovarian isotransplantation helps ovarian tissue to survive from post implantation ischemia which confirms with normal follicles presentation and intact endocrine function of the implanted ovaries. PMID:24917921

  12. Stomach Chitinase from Japanese Sardine Sardinops melanostictus: Purification, Characterization, and Molecular Cloning of Chitinase Isozymes with a Long Linker

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Satoshi; Ikehata, Hiroki; Tada, Chihiro; Ogino, Tomohiro; Kakizaki, Hiromi; Ikeda, Mana; Fukushima, Hideto; Matsumiya, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Fish express two different chitinases, acidic fish chitinase-1 (AFCase-1) and acidic fish chitinase-2 (AFCase-2), in the stomach. AFCase-1 and AFCase-2 have different degradation patterns, as fish efficiently degrade chitin ingested as food. For a comparison with the enzymatic properties and the primary structures of chitinase isozymes obtained previously from the stomach of demersal fish, in this study, we purified chitinase isozymes from the stomach of Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus, a surface fish that feeds on plankton, characterized the properties of these isozymes, and cloned the cDNAs encoding chitinases. We also predicted 3D structure models using the primary structures of S. melanostictus stomach chitinases. Two chitinase isozymes, SmeChiA (45 kDa) and SmeChiB (56 kDa), were purified from the stomach of S. melanostictus. Moreover, two cDNAs, SmeChi-1 encoding SmeChiA, and SmeChi-2 encoding SmeChiB were cloned. The linker regions of the deduced amino acid sequences of SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 (SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2) are the longest among the fish stomach chitinases. In the cleavage pattern groups toward short substrates and the phylogenetic tree analysis, SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 were classified into AFCase-1 and AFCase-2, respectively. SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 had catalytic domains that consisted of a TIM-barrel (β/α)8–fold structure and a deep substrate-binding cleft. This is the first study showing the 3D structure models of fish stomach chitinases. PMID:26805857

  13. Population-based cohort studies of type 2 diabetes and stomach cancer risk in Chinese men and women

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong-Li; Tan, Yu-Ting; Epplein, Meira; Li, Hong-Lan; Gao, Jing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Although positive associations have been found for diabetes and a number of cancer sites, investigations of stomach cancer are limited and the results lack consistency. In this prospective study we investigated the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and stomach cancer risk in mainland China. We assessed the associations among T2DM, T2DM duration, and stomach cancer risk in two prospective population-based cohorts, the Shanghai Women's Health Study and the Shanghai Men's Health Study. Included in the study were 61 480 men and 74 941 women. Stomach cancer cases were identified through annual record linkage to the Shanghai Cancer Registry, and verified through home visits and review of medical charts. After a median follow-up of 7.5 years for the Shanghai Men's Health Study and 13.2 years for the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a total of 755 incident cases of stomach cancer (376 men and 379 women) were identified through to September 2013. Overall, we did not find any evidence that T2DM was associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer either in men (multi-adjusted hazard ratio = 0.83, 95% confidence interval, 0.59–1.16) or in women (multi-adjusted hazard ratio = 0.92, 95% confidence interval, 0.68–1.25). Our findings from two large prospective population-based cohorts suggest that T2DM was not associated with stomach cancer risk. PMID:25557005

  14. Steps of Healthy Swimming: Protection against Recreational Water Illnesses (RWIs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work: Healthy Swimming Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... has moved to Steps of Healthy Swimming. Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ...

  15. Do normal hips dislocate?

    PubMed

    Alshameeri, Zeiad; Rehm, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    There have been a small number of case reports describing late normal-hip dislocations in children who were later diagnosed with developmental dysplasia of the hip. Here, we contest the assumption that normal hips can dislocate. We argue that (as in our case) the ultrasound scans in all published case reports on late dislocated normal hips did not show results that were entirely normal and therefore, so far, there has been no convincing evidence of a dislocation of a normal hip. We also want to highlight the importance of meticulous ultrasound and clinical assessments of high-risk children by an experienced orthopaedic surgeon. PMID:25144883

  16. Bicervical Normal Uterus with Normal Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, CE; Anele, TI; Onyejelam, CC

    2014-01-01

    This is a report of the form of uterine anomaly involving a dual cervical canal in a side-by-side disposition with normal uterine cavity and normal vagina. It portrays a form of congenital uterine anomaly not explicable by the existing classical theory of mullerian anomalies. However, there has been a proposed reclassification of mullerian anomalies, which includes this type of anomaly under Type IIIc. The patient was a 31-year-old woman being managed for “secondary infertility.” To report a case of uterine anomaly that is not explicable by the existing classical theory of mullerian anomalies. To the best of our knowledge, only few cases of bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina exist in the literature; one of the cases had an anterior-posterior disposition. This form of uterine abnormality is not explicable by the existing classical theory of mullerian anomalies and suggests that a complex interplay of events beyond the classical postulate gives rise to the female genital tract. PMID:25364608

  17. Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang, a kampo medicine, promotes adaptive relaxation in isolated guinea pig stomachs.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, T; Arakawa, T; Kase, Y; Akiyama, S; Ishige, A; Takeda, S; Sasaki, H; Uno, H; Fukuda, T; Higuchi, K; Kobayashi, K

    1999-01-01

    Some patients with dysmotility-like functional dyspepsia present impaired reservoir functions such as gastric adaptive relaxation. A traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang, has been identified as an effective drug against dyspeptic symptoms and is widely used for therapy in such patients. In this study, we examined the effects of this drug on the gastric adaptive relaxation in isolated guinea pig stomachs. The changes in intragastric volume and pressure were recorded in the presence of atropine and guanethidine. Gastric adaptive relaxation was induced by luminal distention. Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang (100 mg/ml) induced gastric adaptive relaxation at a lower intragastric pressure and increased the % volume of the gastric adaptive relaxation and the absolute intragastric volume. Metoclopramide (2 mg/ml), trimebutine (6 mg/ml) and cisapride (2 mg/ml) did not affect gastric adaptive relaxation. It was inhibited by means of the incubation of the stomach with NG-nitro-L-arginine (100 microM). Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang (100 mg/ml), but not gastroprokinetics overcame the effect of NG-nitro-L-arginine. These results suggested that Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang promoted gastric adaptive relaxation. This effect might, at least in part, contribute to the symptom relief in patients with functional dyspepsia. PMID:10568209

  18. Iodine deficiency induces a VEGF-dependent microvascular response in salivary glands and in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Vanderstraeten, Jessica; Derradji, Hanane; Craps, Julie; Sonveaux, Pierre; Colin, Ides M; Many, Marie-Christine; Gérard, Anne-Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Despite efforts to optimize iodine supply in iodine deficient countries, iodine deficiency (ID) remains a global problem worldwide. Activation of the local microvasculature by ID in the thyroid gland aims at improving the local supply of iodide. For this purpose, the thyrocytes secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that acts on adjacent capillaries, via a reactive oxygen species (ROS)/Hypoxia Inducible factor (HIF)-dependent pathway. Beside the thyroid, other organs including salivary glands and the stomach do express the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and are able to take iodide up, potentially rendering them sensitive to ID. To verify this hypothesis, ID-induced effects on the local microvasculature were studied in salivary glands and in the stomach. ID was induced by feeding young mice with an iodide-deficient diet and NIS inhibitor perchlorate in the drinking water. In salivary glands, ID induced a transient increase in HIF-1α protein expression accompanied by a transient, VEGF-dependent increase in blood flow. In the gastric mucosa, ID transiently increased VEGF expression in the mucin-secreting epithelium and in ghrelin-secreting endocrine cells. These observations suggest that microvascular changes in response to ID occur in NIS-expressing tissues other than the thyroid. NIS expressing cells could be viewed as iodide sensors that respond to ID by inducing vascular changes, probably to optimize iodide bioavailability at regional or systemic levels. PMID:26838679

  19. Jasmonates trigger prey-induced formation of 'outer stomach' in carnivorous sundew plants.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoko; Reichelt, Michael; Mayer, Veronika E; Mithöfer, Axel

    2013-05-22

    It has been widely accepted that the growth-related phytohormone auxin is the endogenous signal that initiates bending movements of plant organs. In 1875, Charles Darwin described how the bending movement of leaves in carnivorous sundew species formed an 'outer stomach' that allowed the plants to enclose and digest captured insect prey. About 100 years later, auxin was suggested to be the factor responsible for this movement. We report that prey capture induces both leaf bending and the accumulation of defence-related jasmonate phytohormones. In Drosera capensis fed with fruitflies, within 3 h after prey capture and simultaneous with leaf movement, we detected an increase in jasmonic acid and its isoleucine conjugate. This accumulation was spatially restricted to the bending segment of the leaves. The application of jasmonates alone was sufficient to trigger leaf bending. Only living fruitflies or the body fluids of crushed fruitflies induced leaf curvature; neither dead flies nor mechanical treatment had any effect. Our findings strongly suggest that the formation of the 'outer stomach' in Drosera is a chemonastic movement that is triggered by accumulation of endogenous jasmonates. These results suggest that in carnivorous sundew plants the jasmonate cascade might have been adapted to facilitate carnivory rather than to defend against herbivores. PMID:23516244

  20. Estimating diets of pre-spawning Atlantic bluefin tuna from stomach content and stable isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, José L.; Rodríguez-Marín, Enrique; Medina, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    Stomach content analysis (SCA) and stable isotope analysis (SIA) coupled with isotopic mixing model analysis were used to estimate diet composition of pre-spawning Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT), Thunnus thynnus, caught by trap in the Strait of Gibraltar area. SCA provided poor information on diet as most of the stomachs appeared empty or contained only hard remains. Mixing model diet compositions estimated from muscle tissue SIA data did not show clear inter-annual variations and suggested that ABFT fed on prey that occupy high and intermediate level positions of the food web. Otherwise, diet compositions estimated from liver tissue SIA showed greater inter-annual variations and appeared to indicate that ABFT fed on prey located at lower trophic levels. The different dietary compositions inferred from muscle and liver samples were most probably due to the different turnover rates of these organs, which would provide trophic information at two distinct time scales. Our findings suggest that a combination of SCA and SIA is more suitable than using SCA alone to determine temporal and regional variations in ABFT diet composition.