Science.gov

Sample records for normal intrauterine differentiation

  1. Distinction between early normal intrauterine pregnancies and pathological pregnancies by means of a logistic model.

    PubMed

    Thorburn, J; Bryman, I; Hahlin, M

    1992-01-01

    The probability of an unclear very early pregnancy being a normal intrauterine pregnancy was estimated using a logistic model. Five diagnostic measures of prognostic value were identified in the model: (i) daily change in human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG), (ii) results of transvaginal ultrasound, (iii) vaginal bleeding, (iv) serum progesterone level and (v) risk score for ectopic pregnancy. With the use of this model, the probability of a normal intrauterine pregnancy has been estimated as 96.7%. PMID:1551947

  2. Proteome Differences in Placenta and Endometrium between Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang; Wang, Taiji; Feng, Cuiping; Lin, Gang; Zhu, Yuhua; Wu, Guoyao; Johnson, Gregory; Wang, Junjun

    2015-01-01

    Uteroplacental tissue plays a key role in substance exchanges between maternal and fetal circulation, and, therefore, in the growth and development of fetuses. In this study, proteomics and western blotting were applied to investigate the changes of proteome in the placenta and endometrium of normal and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) porcine fetuses during mid to late pregnancy (D60, 90, and 110 of gestation). Our results showed that proteins participating in cell structure, energy metabolism, stress response, cell turnover, as well as transport and metabolism of nutrients were differentially expressed in placenta and endometrium between normal and IUGR fetuses. Analysis of functions of these proteins suggests reductions in ATP production and nutrients transport, increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, and impairment of cell metabolism in IUGR fetuses. Collectively, our findings aid in understanding of the mechanisms responsible for uteroplacental dysfunction in IUGR fetus, and are expected to provide new strategies to reduce fetal growth restriction in pigs and other mammals. PMID:26554841

  3. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia, a case of intrauterine sudden death in a normal-sized fetus

    PubMed Central

    Sudano, Maria Chiara; D’Emidio, Laura; Mangiafico, Lucia; Mobili, Luisa; Giorlandino, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare placental anomaly characterized by placentomegaly and grape-like vesicles which resemble molar pregnancy. Case we report the case of 33-year-old woman (1-gravid) who visited our clinic at 11 weeks of gestation due to a suspected molar pregnancy. Ultrasound examination showed an enlarged placenta with multiple vesicular lesions. Maternal human chorionic gonadotropin level was normal and chorionic villus sampling showed a normal male karyotype (46 XY). The fetus exhibited no specific anomalies and fetal growth was normal during pregnancy with no signs of fetal suffering. At 31 weeks, the pregnancy ended owing to intrauterine fetal death (IUFD). The patient delivered a normal-sized male fetus (1800 g) with no definite anomalies. A pathological examination led to a diagnosis of placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Conclusion in the presence of placental ultrasound anomalies with no other sign of fetal suffering, the pregnancy should be considered at risk and, therefore, should be monitored carefully including the option of hospitalization. PMID:23741541

  4. Intrauterine programming

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghat, Katayoun; Zahediasl, Saleh; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, the intrauterine condition has an important role in the development of fetal physiological systems in later life. Suboptimal maternal environment can alter the regulatory pathways that determine the normal development of the fetus in utero, which in post-natal life may render the individual more susceptible to cardiovascular or metabolic adult-life diseases. Changes in the intrauterine availability of nutrients, oxygen and hormones can change the fetal tissue developmental regulatory planning, which occurs genomically and non-genomically and can cause permanent structural and functional changes in the systems, leading to diseases in early years of life and those that particularly become overt in adulthood. In this review we take a brief look at the main elements which program the fetal system development and consequently induce a crucial impact on the cardiovascular, nervous and hormonal systems in adulthood. PMID:25945232

  5. Normal Forms for Nonautonomous Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    We extend Henry Poincarés normal form theory for autonomous differential equations x=f(x) to nonautonomous differential equations x=f(t, x). Poincarés nonresonance condition λj-∑ni=1 ℓiλi≠0 for eigenvalues is generalized to the new nonresonance condition λj∩∑ni=1 ℓiλi=∅ for spectral intervals.

  6. Intrauterine Contraception.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Jennifer K; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2016-05-01

    Currently, there are only two basic types of intrauterine devices (IUDs): copper and hormonal. However, other types of IUDs are under development, some of which are in clinical trials around the world. Continued development has focused on increasing efficacy, longer duration of use, and noncontraceptive benefits. This review discusses currently available intrauterine contraceptives, such as the Cu380A IUD and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems; novel intrauterine contraceptives that are available in select parts of the world including the intrauterine ball, low-dose copper products, frameless devices, and intrauterine delivery systems impregnated with noncontraceptive medication; and novel products currently in development. PMID:26947701

  7. Circulating levels of fibrin/fibrinogen degradation fragment E in normal pregnancy, and in association with intrauterine growth retardation and perinatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Y B; Ratky, S M; Sola, C M; Lewis, J; Baker, L R; Chard, T

    1975-12-01

    Levels of fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products have been measured by aspecific and sensitive radioimmunoassay for degradation fragment E (FgE) in pregnant patients. Maternal FgE levels rose from the 16th week reaching a plateau at the 36th week in normal pregnancy. There was no correlation between maternal FgE levels and maternal age, parity or the occurrence of perinatal asphyxia. A minority of patients (5 per cent) with evidence of intrauterine growth retardation showed prolonged elevation of FgE levels. PMID:1203212

  8. [Intrauterine mycoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Tsinzerling, A V; Mitrofanov, P M; Shastina, G V

    1977-01-01

    Comparative studies of pathological anatomy of intrauterine mycoplasmosis of man and cattle were carried out. On the basis of investigations of 22 deceased newborns and of 3 stillborns with uterine infection caused by Mycoplasma pneumonia descriptions of lesions of various organs are presented. They most regularly were defected in the liver. In the respiratory organs in this infection, in contrast to respiratory mycoplasmosis, lesions of respiratory departments, not of the respiratory tract, were predominantly observed. The investigation of 18 liveborn and 5 stillborn calfs with intrauterine infection caused by Mycoplasma bovirhinis revealed the same regularities of the pathological process. The localisation of lesions and the presence of changes in the placenta justify the conclusion that the disease developed, as a rule, as a result of hematogenic transplacental infection. PMID:558745

  9. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.; Panjehpour, M.; Overholt, B.F.

    1996-12-03

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample. 5 figs.

  10. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample.

  11. Intrauterine devices.

    PubMed

    Burkman, R T

    1991-08-01

    Approximately 60 million women use the intrauterine device (IUD) worldwide; however, owing primarily to nonmedical reasons, the IUD is far less popular in the United States. Although the contraceptive mechanism of action is unknown, it appears that spermicidal activity may be important. Overall, the efficacy of the copper devices is quite good, such that the overall lifespan can probably be extended. Possible pelvic infection remains the greatest potential risk, although in properly selected women the risk is quite low. Use of prophylactic antibiotics at the time of insertion may offer additional protection against this risk. Although IUD users may have more nonspecific vaginal inflammation than do other women, the clinical significance is probably limited. Further, users do not appear to have elevated risks for cervical infections. Although menometrorrhagia persists as a potential problem, the mechanism for such bleeding is not well understood. Finally, the retroflexed uterine position does not appear to increase the risk of abnormal outcomes. PMID:1878504

  12. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Normal Human Temporal Bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Dong, Wei; Olson, Elizabeth S.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2009-02-01

    We present the first simultaneous sound pressure measurements in scala vestibuli and scala tympani of the cochlea in human cadaveric temporal bones. Micro-scale fiberoptic pressure sensors enabled the study of differential sound pressure at the cochlear base. This differential pressure is the input to the cochlear partition, driving cochlear waves and auditory transduction. Results showed that: pressure of scala vestibuli was much greater than scala tympani except at low and high frequencies where scala tympani pressure affects the input to the cochlea; the differential pressure proved to be an excellent measure of normal ossicular transduction of sound (shown to decrease 30-50 dB with ossicular disarticulation, whereas the individual scala pressures were significantly affected by non-ossicular conduction of sound at high frequencies); the middle-ear gain and differential pressure were generally bandpass in frequency dependence; and the middle-ear delay in the human was over twice that of the gerbil. Concurrent stapes velocity measurements allowed determination of the differential impedance across the partition and round-window impedance. The differential impedance was generally resistive, while the round-window impedance was consistent with a compliance in conjunction with distributed inertia and damping. Our techniques can be used to study inner-ear conductive pathologies (e.g., semicircular dehiscence), as well as non-ossicular cochlear stimulation (e.g., round-window stimulation) - situations that cannot be completely quantified by measurements of stapes velocity or scala-vestibuli pressure by themselves.

  13. Medium-chain TAG improve energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in the liver of intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight weanling piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Yue; Hou, Xiang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-05-01

    We previously reported that medium-chain TAG (MCT) could alleviate hepatic oxidative damage in weanling piglets with intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). There is a relationship between oxidative status and energy metabolism, a process involved in substrate availability and glucose flux. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of IUGR and MCT on hepatic energy metabolism and mitochondrial function in weanling piglets. Twenty-four IUGR piglets and twenty-four normal-birth-weight (NBW) piglets were fed a diet of either soyabean oil (SO) or MCT from 21 d of postnatal age to 49 d of postnatal age. Then, the piglets' biochemical parameters and gene expressions related to energy metabolism and mitochondrial function were determined (n 4). Compared with NBW, IUGR decreased the ATP contents and succinate oxidation rates in the liver of piglets, and reduced hepatic mitochondrial citrate synthase (CS) activity (P<0·05). IUGR piglets exhibited reductions in hepatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contents and gene expressions related to mitochondrial biogenesis compared with NBW piglets (P<0·05). The MCT diet increased plasma ghrelin concentration and hepatic CS and succinate dehydrogenase activities, but decreased hepatic pyruvate kinase activity compared with the SO diet (P<0·05). The MCT-fed piglets showed improved mtDNA contents and PPARγ coactivator-1α expression in the liver (P<0·05). The MCT diet alleviated decreased mRNA abundance of the hepatic PPARα induced by IUGR (P<0·05). It can therefore be postulated that MCT may have beneficial effects in improving energy metabolism and mitochondrial function in weanling piglets. PMID:26960981

  14. Intrauterine contraception.

    PubMed

    Reinprayoon, D

    1992-08-01

    Currently 85 million women use an intrauterine device (IUD), making it the most widely used, reliable, reversible contraceptive method worldwide. Although the exact mechanisms by which copper-bearing IUDs produce contraceptive action are not completely defined, recent evidence indicates that they act primarily to prevent sperm from fertilizing ova. The future of the IUD is brighter than it has been for the past 20 years. The latest generation of IUDs, such as the TCu 380A (Paragard, GynoPharma, Somerville, NJ), are safer and more effective than ever. In World Health Organization large, multicenter trials, pregnancy rates for the TCu 380A are 1.0, 1.4, 1.6, and 1.8 at 3, 5, 7, and 9 years of use, respectively. The ectopic pregnancy rates and removal for pelvic inflammatory disease are very low. The device may soon be the major IUD available in most countries. The acceptability of IUD use can be increased by good clinical management, sympathetic counseling, careful client selection, proper device selection, careful insertion, timing of insertion, and regular follow-up with quick access to medical care. PMID:1324024

  15. Ire1 supports normal ER differentiation in developing Drosophila photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zuyuan; Chikka, Madhusudana Rao; Xia, Hongai; Ready, Donald F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) serves virtually all aspects of cell physiology and, by pathways that are incompletely understood, is dynamically remodeled to meet changing cell needs. Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (Ire1), a conserved core protein of the unfolded protein response (UPR), participates in ER remodeling and is particularly required during the differentiation of cells devoted to intense secretory activity, so-called ‘professional’ secretory cells. Here, we characterize the role of Ire1 in ER differentiation in the developing Drosophila compound eye photoreceptors (R cells). As part of normal development, R cells take a turn as professional secretory cells with a massive secretory effort that builds the photosensitive membrane organelle, the rhabdomere. We find rough ER sheets proliferate as rhabdomere biogenesis culminates, and Ire1 is required for normal ER differentiation. Ire1 is active early in R cell development and is required in anticipation of peak biosynthesis. Without Ire1, the amount of rough ER sheets is strongly reduced and the extensive cortical ER network at the rhabdomere base, the subrhabdomere cisterna (SRC), fails. Instead, ER proliferates in persistent and ribosome-poor tubular tangles. A phase of Ire1 activity early in R cell development thus shapes dynamic ER. PMID:26787744

  16. SRY alone can induce normal male sexual differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, M.; Torres, L.; Cervantes, A.

    1995-01-30

    Most individuals with the rare 46,XX male {open_quotes}syndrome{close_quotes} arise due to an unequal interchange between Xp and Yp termini during paternal meiosis. The pattern of Y-sequences in these patients varies considerably, but very few cases have been reported showing only SRY. The phenotype in these patients is also variable ranging from severe impairment of the external genitalia through hypospadias and/or cryptorchidism to occasional normal male phenotype. We report a Mexican 46,XX male patient without genital ambiguities in whom DNA analysis showed the presence of SRY and the absence of ZFY. We conclude that in this case SRY alone was enough for complete male sexual differentiation. 25 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Mechanisms differentiating normal from abnormal aggression: glucocorticoids and serotonin.

    PubMed

    Haller, Jozsef; Mikics, Eva; Halász, József; Tóth, Máthé

    2005-12-01

    Psychopathology-associated human aggression types are induced by a variety of conditions, are behaviorally variable, and show a differential pharmacological responsiveness. Thus, there are several types of abnormal human aggression. This diversity was not reflected by conventional laboratory approaches that focused on the quantitative aspects of aggressive behavior. Recently, several laboratory models of abnormal aggression were proposed, which mainly model hyperarousal-driven aggressiveness (characteristic to intermittent explosive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, chronic burnout, etc.) and hypoarousal-driven aggressiveness (characteristic mainly to antisocial personality disorder and its childhood antecedent conduct disorder). Findings obtained with these models suggest that hyperarousal-driven aggressiveness has at its roots an excessive acute glucocorticoid stress response (and probably an exaggerated response of other stress-related systems), whereas chronic hypoarousal-associated aggressiveness is due to glucocorticoid deficits that affect brain function on the long term. In hypoarousal-driven aggressiveness, serotonergic neurotransmission appears to lose its impact on aggression (which it has in normal aggression), certain prefrontal neurons are weakly activated, whereas the central amygdala (no, or weakly involved in the control of normal aggression) acquires important roles. We suggest that the specific study of abnormal aspects of aggressive behavior would lead to important developments in understanding the specific mechanisms underlying different forms of aggression, and may ultimately lead to the development of better treatment approaches. PMID:16280125

  18. FOXO1 differentially regulates both normal and diabetic wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenying; Ponugoti, Bhaskar; Tian, Chen; Xu, Fanxing; Tarapore, Rohinton; Batres, Angelika; Alsadun, Sarah; Lim, Jason; Dong, Guangyu

    2015-01-01

    Healing is delayed in diabetic wounds. We previously demonstrated that lineage-specific Foxo1 deletion in keratinocytes interfered with normal wound healing and keratinocyte migration. Surprisingly, the same deletion of Foxo1 in diabetic wounds had the opposite effect, significantly improving the healing response. In normal glucose media, forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) enhanced keratinocyte migration through up-regulating TGFβ1. In high glucose, FOXO1 nuclear localization was induced but FOXO1 did not bind to the TGFβ1 promoter or stimulate TGFβ1 transcription. Instead, in high glucose, FOXO1 enhanced expression of serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 2 (SERPINB2), and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20). The impact of high glucose on keratinocyte migration was rescued by silencing FOXO1, by reducing SERPINB2 or CCL20, or by insulin treatment. In addition, an advanced glycation end product and tumor necrosis factor had a similar regulatory effect on FOXO1 and its downstream targets and inhibited keratinocyte migration in a FOXO1-dependent manner. Thus, FOXO1 expression can positively or negatively modulate keratinocyte migration and wound healing by its differential effect on downstream targets modulated by factors present in diabetic healing. PMID:25918228

  19. Differentiating cancerous from normal breast tissue by redox imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, He N.; Tchou, Julia; Feng, Min; Zhao, Huaqing; Li, Lin Z.

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal metabolism can be a hallmark of cancer occurring early before detectable histological changes and may serve as an early detection biomarker. The current gold standard to establish breast cancer (BC) diagnosis is histological examination of biopsy. Previously we have found that pre-cancer and cancer tissues in animal models displayed abnormal mitochondrial redox state. Our technique of quantitatively measuring the mitochondrial redox state has the potential to be implemented as an early detection tool for cancer and may provide prognostic value. We therefore in this present study, investigated the feasibility of quantifying the redox state of tumor samples from 16 BC patients. Tumor tissue aliquots were collected from both normal and cancerous tissue from the affected cancer-bearing breasts of 16 female patients (5 TNBC, 9 ER+, 2 ER+/Her2+) shortly after surgical resection. All specimens were snap-frozen with liquid nitrogen on site and scanned later with the Chance redox scanner, i.e., the 3D cryogenic NADH/oxidized flavoprotein (Fp) fluorescence imager. Our preliminary results showed that both NADH and Fp (including FAD, i.e., flavin adenine dinucleotide) signals in the cancerous tissues roughly tripled to quadrupled those in the normal tissues (p<0.05) and the redox ratio Fp/(NADH+Fp) was about 27% higher in the cancerous tissues than in the normal ones (p<0.05). Our findings suggest that the redox state could differentiate between cancer and non-cancer breast tissues in human patients and this novel redox scanning procedure may assist in tissue diagnosis in freshly procured biopsy samples prior to tissue fixation. We are in the process of evaluating the prognostic value of the redox imaging indices for BC.

  20. Carleman linearization and normal forms for differential systems with quasi-periodic coefficients.

    PubMed

    Chermnykh, Sergey V

    2016-01-01

    We study the matrix representation of Poincaré normalization using the Carleman linearization technique for non-autonomous differential systems with quasi-periodic coefficients. We provide a rigorous proof of the validity of the matrix representation of the normalization and obtain a recursive algorithm for computing the normalizing transformation and the normal form of the differential systems. The algorithm provides explicit formulas for the coefficients of the normal form and the corresponding transformation. PMID:27588240

  1. The aging mouth: differentiating normal aging from disease.

    PubMed

    Lamster, Ira B; Asadourian, Lynda; Del Carmen, Tessa; Friedman, Paula K

    2016-10-01

    Aging is the physiologic change that occurs over time. In humans, this change occurs at different rates and are related to lifestyle, environment and genetics. It can be challenging to differentiate normal aging from disease. In the oral cavity, with increasing age the teeth demonstrate wearing of the enamel, chipping and fracture lines, and a darker color. The pulp chamber and canals are reduced in size as a result of the deposition of secondary dentin. Coronal or root caries, however, represent disease. A limited amount of periodontal attachment loss occurs in association with aging, usually manifesting as recession on the buccal surface of teeth. Severe periodontitis occurs in 10.5-12% of the population, with the peak incidence being observed at 35-40 years of age. Changes to the mucosal tissue that occur with age include reduced wound-healing capacity. However, environmental factors, such as smoking, dramatically increase the risk of mucosal pathology. Reduced salivary gland function is often seen in association with medication usage, as well as with disorders such as diabetes mellitus. Both medication use and chronic disorders are more common in older adults. Masticatory function is of particular importance for older adults. Maintenance of a nutritionally complete diet is important for avoiding sarcopenia and the frailty syndrome. Successful oral aging is associated with adequate function and comfort. A reduced, but functional, dentition of 20 teeth in occlusion has been proposed as a measure of successful oral aging. Healthy oral aging is important to healthy aging from both biological and social perspectives. PMID:27501493

  2. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System

    MedlinePlus

    ... new system inserted at any time during your menstrual cycle. If you have chosen to use a different ... of your intrauterine system and you have regular menstrual cycles, you should have the system removed during the ...

  3. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System

    MedlinePlus

    ... period begins, or immediately after a first-trimester abortion. If you have given birth, had a miscarriage, or had a second-trimester abortion, your intrauterine system should not be inserted until ...

  4. Differentiating Normal Variability from Inconsistency in Children's Speech: Normative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Alison; Crosbie, Sharon; Dodd, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Background: In young, typically developing children, some word production variability is expected, but highly inconsistent speech is considered a clinical marker for disorder. Speech-language pathologists need to identify variability versus inconsistency, yet these terms are not clearly differentiated. Not only is it important to identify…

  5. The Absolute Differential Area Technique for Testing Distributional Normality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Richard P.

    The results of a study of find alternative techniques for testing distributional normality are presented. A group of statistical techniques--some established and some new--were compared using empirical techniques. One new technique which appears to have higher power than the Lilliefors test was subjected to a better definition. Distributions under…

  6. Glucocorticoid programming of intrauterine development.

    PubMed

    Fowden, A L; Valenzuela, O A; Vaughan, O R; Jellyman, J K; Forhead, A J

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are important environmental and maturational signals during intrauterine development. Toward term, the maturational rise in fetal glucocorticoid receptor concentrations decreases fetal growth and induces differentiation of key tissues essential for neonatal survival. When cortisol levels rise earlier in gestation as a result of suboptimal conditions for fetal growth, the switch from tissue accretion to differentiation is initiated prematurely, which alters the phenotype that develops from the genotype inherited at conception. Although this improves the chances of survival should delivery occur, it also has functional consequences for the offspring long after birth. Glucocorticoids are, therefore, also programming signals that permanently alter tissue structure and function during intrauterine development to optimize offspring fitness. However, if the postnatal environmental conditions differ from those signaled in utero, the phenotypical outcome of early-life glucocorticoid receptor overexposure may become maladaptive and lead to physiological dysfunction in the adult. This review focuses on the role of GCs in developmental programming, primarily in farm species. It examines the factors influencing GC bioavailability in utero and the effects that GCs have on the development of fetal tissues and organ systems, both at term and earlier in gestation. It also discusses the windows of susceptibility to GC overexposure in early life together with the molecular mechanisms and long-term consequences of GC programming with particular emphasis on the cardiovascular, metabolic, and endocrine phenotype of the offspring. PMID:27345310

  7. Normal and Abnormal Epithelial Differentiation in the Female Reproductive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Kurita, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, the female reproductive tract (FRT) develops from a pair of paramesonephric or Müllerian ducts (MDs), which arise from coelomic epithelial cells of mesodermal origin. During development, the MDs undergo a dynamic morphogenetic transformation from simple tubes consisting of homogeneous epithelium and surrounding mesenchyme into several distinct organs namely the oviduct, uterus, cervix and vagina. Following the formation of anatomically distinctive organs, the uniform MD epithelium (MDE) differentiates into diverse epithelial cell types with unique morphology and functions in each organ. Classic tissue recombination studies, in which the epithelium and mesenchyme isolated from the newborn mouse FRT were recombined, have established that the organ specific epithelial cell fate of MDE is dictated by the underlying mesenchyme. The tissue recombination studies have also demonstrated that there is a narrow developmental window for the epithelial cell fate determination in MD-derived organs. Accordingly, the developmental plasticity of epithelial cells is mostly lost in mature FRT. If the signaling that controls epithelial differentiation is disrupted at the critical developmental stage, the cell fate of MD-derived epithelial tissues will be permanently altered and can result in epithelial lesions in adult life. A disruption of signaling that maintains epithelial cell fate can also cause epithelial lesions in the FRT. In this review, the pathogenesis of cervical/vaginal adenoses and uterine squamous metaplasia is discussed as examples of such incidences. PMID:21612855

  8. Differentiation of normal and cancerous lung tissues by multiphoton imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun-Chin; Li, Feng-Chieh; Wu, Ruei-Jr; Hovhannisyan, Vladimir A.; Lin, Wei-Chou; Lin, Sung-Jan; So, Peter T. C.; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2010-02-01

    In this work, we utilized multiphoton microscopy for the label-free diagnosis of non-cancerous, lung adenocarcinoma (LAC), and lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissues from human. Our results show that the combination of second harmonic generation (SHG) and multiphoton excited autofluorescence (MAF) signals may be used to acquire morphological and quantitative information in discriminating cancerous from non-cancerous lung tissues. Specifically, non-cancerous lung tissues are largely fibrotic in structure while cancerous specimens are composed primarily of tumor masses. Quantitative ratiometric analysis using MAF to SHG index (MAFSI or SAAID) shows that the average MAFSI for noncancerous and LAC lung tissue pairs are 0.55 +/-0.23 and 0.87+/-0.15 respectively. In comparison, the MAFSIs for the noncancerous and SCC tissue pairs are 0.50+/-0.12 and 0.72+/-0.13 respectively. Intrinsic fluorescence ratio (FAD/NADH) of SCC and non-cancerous tissues are 0.40+/-0.05 and 0.53+/-0.05 respectively, the redox ratio of SCC diminishes significantly, indicating that increased cellular metabolic activity. Our study shows that nonlinear optical microscopy can assist in differentiating and diagnosing pulmonary cancer from non-cancerous tissues. With additional development, multiphoton microscopy may be used for the clinical diagnosis of lung cancers.

  9. Normal Form of Saddle-Node-Hopf Bifurcation in Retarded Functional Differential Equations and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Heping; Jiang, Jiao; Song, Yongli

    In this paper, we firstly employ the normal form theory of delayed differential equations according to Faria and Magalhães to derive the normal form of saddle-node-Hopf bifurcation for the general retarded functional differential equations. Then, the dynamical behaviors of a Leslie-Gower predator-prey model with time delay and nonmonotonic functional response are considered. Specially, the dynamical classification near the saddle-node-Hopf bifurcation point is investigated by using the normal form and the center manifold approaches. Finally, the numerical simulations are employed to support the theoretical results.

  10. Fetal heart rate variability reveals differential dynamics in the intrauterine development of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Schneider, U; Schleussner, E; Fiedler, A; Jaekel, S; Liehr, M; Haueisen, J; Hoyer, D

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that fetal beat-to-beat heart rate variability (fHRV) displays the different time scales of sympatho-vagal development prior to and after 32 weeks of gestation (wks GA). Ninety-two magnetocardiograms of singletons with normal courses of pregnancy between 24 + 1 and 41 + 6 wks GA were studied. Heart rate patterns were either quiet/non-accelerative (fHRP I) or active/accelerative (fHRP II) and recording quality sufficient for fHRV. The sample was divided into the GA groups <32 wks GA/>32 wks GA. Linear parameters of fHRV were calculated: mean heart rate (mHR), SDNN and RMSSD of normal-to-normal interbeat intervals, power in the low (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high frequency range (0.15-0.4 Hz) and the ratios SDNN/RMSSD and LF/HF as markers for sympatho-vagal balance. fHRP I is characterized by decreasing SDNN/RMSSD, LF/HF and mHR. The decrease is more pronounced <32 wks GA. Beyond that GA SDNN/RMSSD is predominantly determined by RMSSD during fHRP I and by SDNN during fHRP II. In contrast to fHRP I, during fHRP II, mHR is positively correlated to SDNN/RMSSD instead of SDNN >32 wks GA. LF/HF increases in fHRP II during the first half of the third trimester. Non-accelerative fHRP are indicative of parasympathetic dominance >32 wks GA. In contrast, the sympathetic accentuation during accelerative fHRP is displayed in the interrelations between mHR, SDNN and SDNN/RMSSD. Prior to 32 wks GA, fHRV reveals the increasing activity of the respective branches of the autonomic nervous system differentiating the types of fHRP. PMID:19179746

  11. Differentiation of normal and transformed human fibroblasts in vitro is influenced by electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rodemann, H.P.; Bayreuther, K.; Pfleiderer, G.

    1989-06-01

    We studied the effect of symmetric, biphasic sinusoidal electromagnetic fields (EMF) (20 Hz, 6 mT) on the differentiation of normal human skin fibroblasts (HH-8), normal human lung fibroblasts (WI38), and SV40-transformed human lung fibroblasts (WI38SV40) in in vitro cultures. Cells were exposed up to 21 days for 2 x 6 h per day to EMF. Normal mitotic human skin and lung fibroblasts could be induced to differentiate into postmitotic cells upon exposure to EMF. Concomitantly, the synthesis of total collagen as well as total cellular protein increased significantly by a factor of 5-13 in EMF-induced postmitotic cells. As analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled polypeptides, EMF-induced postmitotic cells express the same differentiation-dependent and cell type-specific marker proteins as their spontaneously arising counterparts. In SV40-transformed human lung fibroblasts (cell line WI38SV40) the exposure to EMF induced the differentiation of mitotic WI38SV40 cells into postmitotic and degenerating cells in subpopulations of WI38SV40 cell cultures. Other subpopulations of WI38SV40 cells did not show any effect of EMF on cell proliferation and differentiation. These results indicate that long-term EMF exposure of fibroblasts in vitro induces the differentiation of mitotic to postmitotic cells that are characterized by differentiation-specific proteins and differentiation-dependent enhanced metabolic activities.

  12. Differential Reduction of Tellurite by Growing Colonies of Normal Yeast and Respiration-Deficient Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Susumu

    1965-01-01

    Nagai, Susumu (National Women's University, Nara, Japan). Differential reduction of tellurite by growing colonies of normal yeast and respiration-deficient mutants. J. Bacteriol. 90:220–222. 1965.—A differential reduction of sodium tellurite was observed between normal and respiration-deficient mutant colonies of several species of Saccharomyces. Normal colonies turned black in contrast to mutant colonies which remained nearly white when grown on an agar medium containing 30 to 40 mg per liter of tellurite. Schopfer's medium enriched with yeast extract and a mixture of vitamins was most suitable to develop such black-and-white contrast. The difference was far less obvious when the asparagine of this medium was replaced by other nitrogen sources such as glutamate, peptone, or Casamino Acids. Addition of ammonium sulfate to the medium weakened and sometimes completely reversed the contrast. The usefulness of tellurite medium for diagnostic color differentiation of respiration deficiency was considered. Images PMID:16562020

  13. Utero-placental vascularisation in normal and preeclamptic and intra-uterine growth restriction pregnancies: third trimester quantification using 3D power Doppler with comparison to placental vascular morphology (EVUPA): a prospective controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jie; Chabot-Lecoanet, Anne-Claire; Perdriolle-Galet, Estelle; Christov, Christophe; Hossu, Gabriela; Cherifi, Aboubaker; Morel, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia (PE) and intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) are two major pregnancy complications related to chronic utero-placental hypoperfusion. Three-dimensional power Doppler (3DPD) angiography has been used for the evaluation of utero-placental vascularisation and three vascular indices have been calculated: the vascularisation index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularisation-FI (VFI). However, several technical endpoints hinder the clinical use of 3DPD as physical characteristics and machine settings may affect 3DPD indices, and so its clinical significance is not yet clear. Objectives The primary objective is to better understand the clinical significance of 3DPD indices by evaluating the relationship between these indices and placental morphometry. Secondary objectives are (i) to determine the impact of machine settings and physical characteristics on 3DPD indices, and (ii) to evaluate physio-pathological placental vascularisation patterns. Methods and analysis This is a prospective controlled study. We expect to include 112 women: 84 with normal pregnancies and 28 with PE and/or IUGR (based on our former cohort study on 3DPD indices for PE and/or IUGR prediction (unpublished data)). Within 72 h before planned or semi-urgent caesarean section, utero-placental 3DPD images with five different machine settings will be acquired. Placentas will be collected and examined after surgery and stereological indices (volume density, surface density, length density) calculated. The 3DPD indices (VI, FI and VFI) of the placenta and adjacent myometrium will be calculated. Correlation between Doppler and morphological indices will be evaluated by Pearson or Spearman tests. Agreement between 3DPD indices and morphological indices will be assessed by Bland and Altman plots. The impact of Doppler settings and maternal characteristics on 3DPD indices will be evaluated with a multivariate linear regression model. Ethics The study and related consent forms have

  14. Dietary supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate calcium during the early postnatal period accelerates skeletal muscle fibre growth and maturity in intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight piglets.

    PubMed

    Wan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jiatao; Su, Guoqi; Liu, Yan; Hua, Lun; Hu, Liang; Wu, Caimei; Zhang, Ruinan; Zhou, Pan; Shen, Yong; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2016-04-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7-28 after birth. Blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) samples were collected and analysed for plasma amino acid content, fibre morphology and the expression of genes related to muscle development. The results indicate that, regardless of diet, IUGR piglets had a significantly decreased average daily weight gain (ADG) compared with that of NBW piglets (P<0·05). However, IUGR piglets fed HMB-Ca had a net weight and ADG similar to that of NBW piglets fed the CON diet. Irrespective of body weight (BW), HMB-Ca supplementation markedly increased the type II fibre cross-sectional area and the mRNA expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), insulin-like growth factor-1 and myosin heavy-chain isoform IIb in the LD of piglets (P<0·05). Moreover, there was a significant interaction between the effects of BW and HMB on mTOR expression in the LD (P<0·05). In conclusion, HMB-Ca supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve skeletal muscle growth and maturity by accelerating fast-twitch glycolytic fibre development in piglets. PMID:26917333

  15. Characterization and differentiation of normal and abnormal semen samples using micro-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zufang; Chen, Xiwen; Chen, Jinhua; Li, Yongzeng; Lei, Jinping; Chen, Rong

    2012-12-01

    Growth in the percentage of male infertility has caused extensive concerns. The fast and reliable method is urgently required for diagnosis of semen samples. In our study, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to characterize and differentiate the normal and abnormal semen samples based on the differences of their specific Raman spectra which originated from biochemical components. Our preliminary results demonstrate that micro-Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis methods has the potential of being used to detect and differentiate semen samples.

  16. Robust Modeling of Differential Gene Expression Data Using Normal/Independent Distributions: A Bayesian Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ganjali, Mojtaba; Baghfalaki, Taban; Berridge, Damon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of identifying differentially expressed genes under different conditions using gene expression microarray data, in the presence of outliers, is discussed. For this purpose, the robust modeling of gene expression data using some powerful distributions known as normal/independent distributions is considered. These distributions include the Student’s t and normal distributions which have been used previously, but also include extensions such as the slash, the contaminated normal and the Laplace distributions. The purpose of this paper is to identify differentially expressed genes by considering these distributional assumptions instead of the normal distribution. A Bayesian approach using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method is adopted for parameter estimation. Two publicly available gene expression data sets are analyzed using the proposed approach. The use of the robust models for detecting differentially expressed genes is investigated. This investigation shows that the choice of model for differentiating gene expression data is very important. This is due to the small number of replicates for each gene and the existence of outlying data. Comparison of the performance of these models is made using different statistical criteria and the ROC curve. The method is illustrated using some simulation studies. We demonstrate the flexibility of these robust models in identifying differentially expressed genes. PMID:25910040

  17. Differential gene expression in normal and transformed human mammary epithelial cells in response to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Diego F; Sha, Wei; Hower, Valerie; Blekherman, Greg; Laubenbacher, Reinhard; Akman, Steven; Torti, Suzy V; Shulaev, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in breast carcinogenesis. To investigate whether normal and malignant breast epithelial cells differ in their responses to oxidative stress, we examined the global gene expression profiles of three cell types, representing cancer progression from a normal to a malignant stage, under oxidative stress. Normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), an immortalized cell line (HMLER-1), and a tumorigenic cell line (HMLER-5), were exposed to increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by treatment with glucose oxidase. Functional analysis of the metabolic pathways enriched with differentially expressed genes demonstrates that normal and malignant breast epithelial cells diverge substantially in their response to oxidative stress. While normal cells exhibit the up-regulation of antioxidant mechanisms, cancer cells are unresponsive to the ROS insult. However, the gene expression response of normal HMEC cells under oxidative stress is comparable to that of the malignant cells under normal conditions, indicating that altered redox status is persistent in breast cancer cells, which makes them resistant to increased generation of ROS. This study discusses some of the possible adaptation mechanisms of breast cancer cells under persistent oxidative stress that differentiate them from the response to acute oxidative stress in normal mammary epithelial cells. PMID:21397008

  18. Using the laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in the differentiation between normal and neoplastichuman breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Hage, R; Galhanone, P R; Zângaro, R A; Rodrigues, K C; Pacheco, M T T; Martin, A A; Netto, M M; Soares, F A; da Cunha, I W

    2003-01-01

    This article reports results of the in vitro study for potential evaluation of the laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in the differentiation between normal and neoplastic human breast tissue. A coumarine dye laser pumped by nitrogen laser generated an excitation light centered at 458 nm. In order to collect the fluorescence signal was used an optical fiber catheter coupled to a spectrometer and CCD detector. Fluorescence spectra were recorded from normal and neoplastic (benign and malignant) human breast tissue, adding up 94 different areas. The discrimination between normal and neoplasm groups reach a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. PMID:14505202

  19. Differentiation of normal and cultured preneoplastic tracheal epithellal cells in rats: importance of epithelial mesenchymal interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Terzaghi, M.; Klein-Szanto, A.J.P.

    1980-11-01

    Changes in the dependence on mesenchymal tissues for survival and differentiation in inbred F344 female rats were investigated in tracheal epithelial cells exposed to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Fresh suspensions of normal tracheal epithelium or cultured preneoplastic cells were inoculated into isolated organ segments (trachea, esophagus, bladder, or small intestine) or into Dacron containers that were then implanted subdermally into isogenic recipients. At various times after cell inoculation and implantation, tissues were removed for histologic evaluation. Normal cells inoculated into frozen-thawed trachea, esophagus, bladder, and intestine yielded a regular mucociliary epithelium. Normal cell inocula did not, however, survive in trachea previously heated (100/sup 0/C), fixed in ethanol, or digested with collagenese; nor did normal cells survive in Dacron containers unless tracheal fibroblasts plus epithelial cells were inoculated together. DMBA- and TPA-exposed cell populations with increased growth capacity in vitro survived and differentiated on all of the above substrates. For survival and differentiation in vivo, preneoplastic cells appeared to have less stringent substrate requirements than did normal cells. Application of the described techniques to the study of changes occurring early in the development of neoplastic disease is discussed.

  20. Trophoblastic markers in women using intrauterine contraception.

    PubMed

    Ylikorkala, O; Siljander, M; Huhtaniemi, I; Kauppila, A; Seppälä, M

    1980-03-01

    Serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein (PSBG) were measured in 214 women using Copper-T200 intrauterine devices (CIUDs). In a cross-sectional study the samples were taken between the 25th and 35th cycle days, 1 sample per cycle. Either trophoblastic marker was detectable in 8 women (3.7%), hCG in 3 (1.4%), PSBG in 7 (3.3%), and both markers together in (0.9%). Normal menstruation-like bleeding ensued in all but 1 woman whose bleeding was delayed by 5 days. Our results suggest that the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) prevents pregnancy mainly before significant amounts of trophoblastic products are secreted. Still, the incidence of subclinical abortion based on the demonstration of trophoblastic markers in serum was 7 to 10 times higher than that of established pregnancy in women using a CIUD. PMID:6965779

  1. Cellular differentiation hierarchies in normal and culture-adapted human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Enver, Tariq; Soneji, Shamit; Joshi, Chirag; Brown, John; Iborra, Francisco; Orntoft, Torben; Thykjaer, Thomas; Maltby, Edna; Smith, Kath; Abu Dawud, Raed; Jones, Mark; Matin, Maryam; Gokhale, Paul; Draper, Jonathan; Andrews, Peter W

    2005-11-01

    Human embryonic stem cell (HESC) lines vary in their characteristics and behaviour not only because they are derived from genetically outbred populations, but also because they may undergo progressive adaptation upon long-term culture in vitro. Such adaptation may reflect selection of variants with altered propensity for survival and retention of an undifferentiated phenotype. Elucidating the mechanisms involved will be important for understanding normal self-renewal and commitment to differentiation and for validating the safety of HESC-based therapy. We have investigated this process of adaptation at the cellular and molecular levels through a comparison of early passage (normal) and late passage (adapted) sublines of a single HESC line, H7. To account for spontaneous differentiation that occurs in HESC cultures, we sorted cells for SSEA3, which marks undifferentiated HESC. We show that the gene expression programmes of the adapted cells partially reflected their aberrant karyotype, but also resulted from a failure in X-inactivation, emphasizing the importance in adaptation of karyotypically silent epigenetic changes. On the basis of growth potential, ability to re-initiate ES cultures and global transcription profiles, we propose a cellular differentiation hierarchy for maintenance cultures of HESC: normal SSEA3+ cells represent pluripotent stem cells. Normal SSEA3- cells have exited this compartment, but retain multilineage differentiation potential. However, adapted SSEA3+ and SSEA3- cells co-segregate within the stem cell territory, implying that adaptation reflects an alteration in the balance between self-renewal and differentiation. As this balance is also an essential feature of cancer, the mechanisms of culture adaptation may mirror those of oncogenesis and tumour progression. PMID:16159889

  2. Trbp Is Required for Differentiation of Myoblasts and Normal Regeneration of Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Nie, Mao; Liu, Jianming; Hu, Xiaoyun; Ma, Lixin; Deng, Zhong-Liang; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Global inactivation of Trbp, a regulator of miRNA pathways, resulted in developmental defects and postnatal lethality in mice. Recently, we showed that cardiac-specific deletion of Trbp caused heart failure. However, its functional role(s) in skeletal muscle has not been characterized. Using a conditional knockout model, we generated mice lacking Trbp in the skeletal muscle. Unexpectedly, skeletal muscle specific Trbp mutant mice appear to be phenotypically normal under normal physiological conditions. However, these mice exhibited impaired muscle regeneration and increased fibrosis in response to cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury, suggesting that Trbp is required for muscle repair. Using cultured myoblast cells we further showed that inhibition of Trbp repressed myoblast differentiation in vitro. The impaired myogenesis is associated with reduced expression of muscle-specific miRNAs, miR-1a and miR-133a. Together, our study demonstrated that Trbp participates in the regulation of muscle differentiation and regeneration. PMID:27159388

  3. Trbp Is Required for Differentiation of Myoblasts and Normal Regeneration of Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jian; Nie, Mao; Liu, Jianming; Hu, Xiaoyun; Ma, Lixin; Deng, Zhong-Liang; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Global inactivation of Trbp, a regulator of miRNA pathways, resulted in developmental defects and postnatal lethality in mice. Recently, we showed that cardiac-specific deletion of Trbp caused heart failure. However, its functional role(s) in skeletal muscle has not been characterized. Using a conditional knockout model, we generated mice lacking Trbp in the skeletal muscle. Unexpectedly, skeletal muscle specific Trbp mutant mice appear to be phenotypically normal under normal physiological conditions. However, these mice exhibited impaired muscle regeneration and increased fibrosis in response to cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury, suggesting that Trbp is required for muscle repair. Using cultured myoblast cells we further showed that inhibition of Trbp repressed myoblast differentiation in vitro. The impaired myogenesis is associated with reduced expression of muscle-specific miRNAs, miR-1a and miR-133a. Together, our study demonstrated that Trbp participates in the regulation of muscle differentiation and regeneration. PMID:27159388

  4. Normal and quasinormal forms for systems of difference and differential-difference equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashchenko, Ilya; Kaschenko, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    The local dynamics of systems of difference and singularly perturbed differential-difference equations is studied in the neighborhood of a zero equilibrium state. Critical cases in the problem of stability of its state of equilibrium have infinite dimension. Special nonlinear evolution equations, which act as normal forms, are set up. It is shown that their dynamics defines the behavior of solutions to the initial system.

  5. Differentiating gastrointestinal stromal tumors from gastric adenocarcinomas and normal mucosae using confocal Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheu, Jeng-Horng; Lin, Chia-Wen; Lin, Lien-Fu; Jin, Jong-Shiaw; Chen, Wenlung

    2016-07-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, and gastric adenocarcinomas are a common cancer worldwide. To differentiate GISTs from adenocarcinomas is important because the surgical processes for both are different; the former excises the tumor with negative margins, while the latter requires radical gastrectomy with lymph node dissection. Endoscopy with biopsy is used to distinguish GISTs from adenocarcinomas; however, it may cause tumor bleeding in GISTs. We reported here the confocal Raman microspectroscopy as an effective tool to differentiate GISTs, adenocarcinomas, and normal mucosae. Of 119 patients enrolled in this study, 102 patients underwent gastrectomy (40 GISTs and 62 adenocarcinomas), and 17 patients with benign lesions were obtained as normal mucosae. Raman signals were integrated for 100 s for each spot on the specimen, and 5 to 10 spots, depending on the sample size, were chosen for each specimen. There were significant differences among those tissues as evidenced by different Raman signal responding to phospholipids and protein structures. The spectral data were further processed and analyzed by using principal component analysis. A two-dimensional plot demonstrated that GISTs, adenocarcinomas, and normal gastric mucosae could be effectively differentiated from each other.

  6. High and Low LET Radiation Differentially Induce Normal Tissue Damage Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Niemantsverdriet, Maarten; Goethem, Marc-Jan van; Bron, Reinier; Hogewerf, Wytse; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Luijk, Peter van; Coppes, Robert P.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Radiotherapy using high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation is aimed at efficiently killing tumor cells while minimizing dose (biological effective) to normal tissues to prevent toxicity. It is well established that high LET radiation results in lower cell survival per absorbed dose than low LET radiation. However, whether various mechanisms involved in the development of normal tissue damage may be regulated differentially is not known. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate whether two actions related to normal tissue toxicity, p53-induced apoptosis and expression of the profibrotic gene PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1), are differentially induced by high and low LET radiation. Methods and Materials: Cells were irradiated with high LET carbon ions or low LET photons. Cell survival assays were performed, profibrotic PAI-1 expression was monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and apoptosis was assayed by annexin V staining. Activation of p53 by phosphorylation at serine 315 and serine 37 was monitored by Western blotting. Transfections of plasmids expressing p53 mutated at serines 315 and 37 were used to test the requirement of these residues for apoptosis and expression of PAI-1. Results: As expected, cell survival was lower and induction of apoptosis was higher in high -LET irradiated cells. Interestingly, induction of the profibrotic PAI-1 gene was similar with high and low LET radiation. In agreement with this finding, phosphorylation of p53 at serine 315 involved in PAI-1 expression was similar with high and low LET radiation, whereas phosphorylation of p53 at serine 37, involved in apoptosis induction, was much higher after high LET irradiation. Conclusions: Our results indicate that diverse mechanisms involved in the development of normal tissue damage may be differentially affected by high and low LET radiation. This may have consequences for the development and manifestation of normal tissue damage.

  7. Regulation of Differentiation by Calcium-Sensing Receptor in Normal and Tumoral Developing Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Mateo-Lozano, Silvia; García, Marta; Rodríguez-Hernández, Carlos J.; de Torres, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    During normal development of the nervous system (NS), neural progenitor cells (NPCs) produce specialized populations of neurons and glial cells upon cell fate restriction and terminal differentiation. These sequential processes require the dynamic regulation of thousands of genes. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is temporally and spatially regulated in both neurons and glial cells during development of the NS. In particular, CaSR expression and function have been shown to play a significant role during differentiation of NPCs toward the oligodendrocyte lineage and also in maturation of cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs). Moreover, CaSR regulates axonal and dendritic growth in both central and peripheral nervous systems (PNSs), a process necessary for proper construction of mature neuronal networks. On the other hand, several lines of evidence support a role for CaSR in promotion of cell differentiation and inhibition of proliferation in neuroblastoma, a tumor arising from precursor cells of developing PNS. Thus, among the variety of NS functions in which the CaSR participates, this mini-review focuses on its role in differentiation of normal and tumoral cells. Current knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for CaSR regulation and function in these contexts is also discussed, together with the therapeutic opportunities provided by CaSR allosteric modulators. PMID:27242543

  8. Ultrasonography of intrauterine devices

    PubMed Central

    Nowitzki, Kristina M.; Hoimes, Matthew L.; Chen, Byron; Zheng, Larry Z.; Kim, Young H.

    2015-01-01

    The intrauterine device (IUD) is gaining popularity as a reversible form of contraception. Ultrasonography serves as first-line imaging for the evaluation of IUD position in patients with pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, or absent retrieval strings. This review highlights the imaging of both properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs. The problems associated with malpositioned IUDs include expulsion, displacement, embedment, and perforation. Management considerations depend on the severity of the malposition and the presence or absence of symptoms. Three-dimensional ultrasonography has proven to be more sensitive in the evaluation of more subtle findings of malposition, particularly side-arm embedment. Familiarity with the ultrasonographic features of properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs is essential. PMID:25985959

  9. Low-angle normal faults-low differential stress at mid crustal levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    A simple model for frictional slip on pre-existing faults that considers the local stress state near the fault and the effect of non-hydrostatic fluid pressures predicts that low-angle normal faulting is restricted to areas of the crust characterized by low differential stress and nearly lithostatic fluid pressures. The model considers frictional slip on a cohesionless low-angle normal fault governed by the failure criterion tau = mu sub f (sigma (*) sub n) =mu sub f (sigma sub n - P sub f) where tau and sigma sub n are the shear and normal stresses across the fault plane, mu sub f is the static coefficient of friction, and P sub f is the pore fluid pressure. As a first approximation, the model considers a vertical greatest principal compressive stress, sigma sub 1. It is apparent that if slip on low-angle normal faults is governed by the avove frictional failure criterion, slip on the low-angle normal fault occurs only if the least effective principal stress, sigma (*) sub 3 = sigma sub 3 - P sub f, is tensile, whenever tan superscrip -1(mu sub f d, where d is the dip of the fault. If detachment faulting occurs at any significant depth in the crust, P sub f sigma sub 3 is required. In light of this conclusion I allow P sub f to vary as necessary to allow slip on the low-angle normal fault.

  10. Bone Marrow Cells in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Create a Proinflammatory Microenvironment Influencing Normal Hematopoietic Differentiation Fates

    PubMed Central

    Vilchis-Ordoñez, Armando; Contreras-Quiroz, Adriana; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa; Reyes-López, Alfonso; Quintela-Nuñez del Prado, Henry Martin; Venegas-Vázquez, Jorge; Mayani, Hector; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney; López-Martínez, Briceida; Pelayo, Rosana

    2015-01-01

    B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is a serious public health problem in the pediatric population worldwide, contributing to 85% of deaths from childhood cancers. Understanding the biology of the disease is crucial for its clinical management and the development of therapeutic strategies. In line with that observed in other malignancies, chronic inflammation may contribute to a tumor microenvironment resulting in the damage of normal processes, concomitant to development and maintenance of neoplastic cells. We report here that hematopoietic cells from bone marrow B-ALL have the ability to produce proinflammatory and growth factors, including TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12, and GM-CSF that stimulate proliferation and differentiation of normal stem and progenitor cells. Our findings suggest an apparently distinct CD13+CD33+ population of leukemic cells contributing to a proinflammatory microenvironment that may be detrimental to long-term normal hematopoiesis within B-ALL bone marrow. PMID:26090405

  11. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  12. Differential Expression of MicroRNA Species in Human Uterine Leiomyoma versus Normal Myometrium

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Erica E.; Lin, Zhihong; Yin, Ping; Milad, Magdy; Chakravarti, Debabrata; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether microRNAs are differentially expressed in human leiomyoma versus matched myometrial tissue. Design Microarray with real-time PCR validation. Setting Academic medical center Patients Premenopausal subjects (n=13), who were undergoing hysterectomies for leiomyoma-related symptoms. Interventions none Main Outcome Measure Statistically differential expression of microRNAs in leiomyoma versus myometrium. Results Forty-six miRNA species were differentially expressed in leiomyoma versus normal myometrium with p-values <0.01. Of these, 19 were overexpressed whereas 27 were downregulated in leiomyomas. The fold changes ranged from 1.2 to 11.8. These findings were confirmed using real time RT-PCR for selected miRNAs (miRNAs 21, 34a, 125b, 139 and 323). Conclusions Our findings indicate that miRNAs are differentially expressed between human leiomyoma and matched myometrium. Given this differential expression, miRNAs may play a role in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma and may serve as future therapeutic targets for the treatment of these tumors. PMID:17765232

  13. Human pluripotent stem cells as a model of trophoblast differentiation in both normal development and disease.

    PubMed

    Horii, Mariko; Li, Yingchun; Wakeland, Anna K; Pizzo, Donald P; Nelson, Katharine K; Sabatini, Karen; Laurent, Louise Chang; Liu, Ying; Parast, Mana M

    2016-07-01

    Trophoblast is the primary epithelial cell type in the placenta, a transient organ required for proper fetal growth and development. Different trophoblast subtypes are responsible for gas/nutrient exchange (syncytiotrophoblasts, STBs) and invasion and maternal vascular remodeling (extravillous trophoblasts, EVTs). Studies of early human placental development are severely hampered by the lack of a representative trophoblast stem cell (TSC) model with the capacity for self-renewal and the ability to differentiate into both STBs and EVTs. Primary cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) isolated from early-gestation (6-8 wk) human placentas are bipotential, a phenotype that is lost with increasing gestational age. We have identified a CDX2(+)/p63(+) CTB subpopulation in the early postimplantation human placenta that is significantly reduced later in gestation. We describe a reproducible protocol, using defined medium containing bone morphogenetic protein 4 by which human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can be differentiated into CDX2(+)/p63(+) CTB stem-like cells. These cells can be replated and further differentiated into STB- and EVT-like cells, based on marker expression, hormone secretion, and invasive ability. As in primary CTBs, differentiation of hPSC-derived CTBs in low oxygen leads to reduced human chorionic gonadotropin secretion and STB-associated gene expression, instead promoting differentiation into HLA-G(+) EVTs in an hypoxia-inducible, factor-dependent manner. To validate further the utility of hPSC-derived CTBs, we demonstrated that differentiation of trisomy 21 (T21) hPSCs recapitulates the delayed CTB maturation and blunted STB differentiation seen in T21 placentae. Collectively, our data suggest that hPSCs are a valuable model of human placental development, enabling us to recapitulate processes that result in both normal and diseased pregnancies. PMID:27325764

  14. A subset of methylated CpG sites differentiate psoriatic from normal skin

    PubMed Central

    Roberson, Elisha D.O.; Liu, Ying; Ryan, Caitriona; Joyce, Cailin E.; Duan, Shengui; Cao, Li; Martin, Ann; Liao, Wilson; Menter, Alan; Bowcock, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory immune-mediated disorder affecting the skin and other organs including joints. Over 1,300 transcripts are altered in psoriatic involved skin compared to normal skin. However to our knowledge global epigenetic profiling of psoriatic skin is previously unreported. Here we describe a genome-wide study of altered CpG methylation in psoriatic skin. We determined the methylation levels at 27,578 CpG sites in skin samples from individuals with psoriasis (12 involved, 8 uninvolved) and 10 unaffected individuals. CpG methylation of involved skin differed from normal skin at 1,108 sites. Twelve mapped to the epidermal differentiation complex, upstream or within genes that are highly up-regulated in psoriasis. Hierarchical clustering of 50 of the top differentially methylated (DM) sites separated psoriatic from normal skin samples. CpG sites where methylation was correlated with gene expression are reported. Sites with inverse correlations between methylation and nearby gene expression include those of KYNU, OAS2, S100A12, and SERPINB3, whose strong transcriptional up-regulation are important discriminators of psoriasis. We observed intrinsic epigenetic differences in uninvolved skin. Pyrosequencing of bisulfite-treated DNA from skin biopsies at three DM loci confirmed earlier findings and revealed reversion of methylation levels towards the non-psoriatic state after one month of anti-TNF-α therapy. PMID:22071477

  15. MicroRNAs in B-cells: from normal differentiation to treatment of malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Sara Correia; Laursen, Maria Bach; Bødker, Julie Støve; Kjeldsen, Malene Krag; Falgreen, Steffen; Schmitz, Alexander; Bøgsted, Martin; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Dybkaer, Karen

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play important post-transcriptional regulatory roles in a wide range of biological processes. They are fundamental to the normal development of cells, and evidence suggests that the deregulation of specific miRNAs is involved in malignant transformation due to their function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. We know that miRNAs are involved in the development of normal B-cells and that different B-cell subsets express specific miRNA profiles according to their degree of differentiation. B-cell-derived malignancies contain transcription signatures reminiscent of their cell of origin. Therefore, we believe that normal and malignant B-cells share features of regulatory networks controlling differentiation and the ability to respond to treatment. The involvement of miRNAs in these processes makes them good biomarker candidates. B-cell malignancies are highly prevalent, and the poor overall survival of patients with these malignancies demands an improvement in stratification according to prognosis and therapy response, wherein we believe miRNAs may be of great importance. We have critically reviewed the literature, and here we sum up the findings of miRNA studies in hematological cancers, from the development and progression of the disease to the response to treatment, with a particular emphasis on B-cell malignancies. PMID:25622103

  16. The expression of marker for endometrial stem cell and fibrosis was increased in intrauterine adhesious

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianguo; Zeng, Biao; Jiang, Xingwei; Hu, lina; Meng, Ying; Zhu, Yi; Mao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether fibrotic markers and endometrial stem cell markers were abnormal expressed in endometrium of intrauterine adhesions and a female mouse model for intrauterine adhesions. Methods: We revaluated endometrial fibrosis using Masson’s stain. We detected the expression of endometrium stem cell markers (CD146 and CD140b) and fibrosis markers (TGF-Beta, CTGF, collagen protein I and collagen protein III) in endometrial tissue with intrauterine adhesions using real-time PCR and S-P (Streptavidin-Peroxidase) immunohistochemistry. We create a female mouse model for intrauterine adhesions using mechanical injury, and then revalue the expression of endometrial stem cell markers and fibrosis markers in endometrial tissue of mouse model for intrauterine adhesions. Results: The ratio of the area with endometrial fibrosis to total endometrial area in intrauterine adhesious significantly increased compared with the normal endometrial tissue (P < 0.05); The expression levels of fibrotic markers and endometrial stem cell markers were higher in the endometrial tissue with intrauterine adhesious compared to normal endometrial tissue (P < 0.05). The animal experiments showed that the ratio of the area with endometrial fibrosis to total endometrial area significantly increased compared with the control group (P < 0.05); The expression levels of fibrotic markers and endometrial stem cell markers were higher in the endometrial tissue compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Aberrant activation of fibrosis may be involved in the pathology of intrauterine adhesious. PMID:25973037

  17. Differential gene expression in the testes of different murine strains under normal and hyperthermic conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Zhou, Qing; Hively, Randy; Yang, Lizhong; Small, Christopher; Griswold, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    Cryptorchidism and scrotal heating result in abnormal spermatogenesis, but the mechanism(s) prescribing this temperature sensitivity are unknown. It was previously reported that the AKR/N or MRL/MpJ-+/+ mouse testis is more heat-resistant than the testis from the C57BL/6 strain. We have attempted to probe into the mechanism(s) involved in heat sensitivity by examining global gene expression profiles of normal and heat-treated testes from C57BL/6, AKR/N, and MRL/MpJ-+/+ mice by microarray analysis. In the normal C57BL/6 testis, 415 and 416 transcripts were differentially expressed (at least 2-fold higher or lower) when compared with the normal AKR/N and MRL/MpJ-+/+ testis, respectively. The AKR/N and MRL/MpJ-+/+ strains revealed 268 differentially expressed transcripts between them. There were 231 transcripts differentially expressed between C57BL/6 and 2 purported heat-resistant strains, AKR/N and MRL/MpJ-+/+. Next, the testes of C57BL/6 and AKR/N mice were exposed to 43 degrees C for 15 minutes and harvested at different time points for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) studies and microarrays. An increase of TUNEL-positive germ cell numbers was significant 8 hours after heat exposure in the C57BL/6 mouse. However, this increase was not observed in the AKR/N mouse until 10 hours after heat exposure. All tubules showed germ cell loss and disruption in C57BL/6 testis 24 hours after heat shock. In contrast, although a number of seminiferous tubules showed an abnormal morphology 24 hours post-heat shock in the AKR/N mouse, many tubules still retained a normal structure. Numerous transcripts exhibited differential regulation between the 2 strains within 24 hours after heat exposure. The differentially expressed transcripts in the testes 8 hours after heat exposure were targeted to identify the genes involved in the initial response rather than those attributable to germ cell loss. Twenty transcripts were significantly down

  18. Differential extraction of keratin subunits and filaments from normal human epidermis.

    PubMed

    Eichner, R; Kahn, M

    1990-04-01

    We have investigated keratin interactions in vivo by sequentially extracting water-insoluble proteins from normal human epidermis with increasing concentrations of urea (2, 4, 6, and 9.5 M) and examining each extract by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, immunoblot analysis using monoclonal anti-keratin antibodies, and EM. The viable layers of normal human epidermis contain keratins K1, K2, K5, K10/11, K14, and K15, which are sequentially expressed during the course of epidermal differentiation. Only keratins K5, K14, and K15, which are synthesized by epidermal basal cells, were solubilized in 2 M urea. Extraction of keratins K1, K2, and K10/11, which are expressed only in differentiating suprabasal cells, required 4-6 M urea. Negative staining of the 2-M urea extract revealed predominantly keratin filament subunits, whereas abundant intermediate-sized filaments were observed in the 4-urea and 6-M urea extracts. These results indicate that in normal human epidermis, keratins K5, K14, and K15 are more soluble than the differentiation-specific keratins K1, K2, and K10/11. This finding suggests that native keratin filaments of different polypeptide composition have differing properties, despite their similar morphology. Furthermore, the observation of stable filaments in 4 and 6 M urea suggests that epidermal keratins K1, K2, and K10/11, which ultimately form the bulk of the protective, nonviable stratum corneum, may comprise filaments that are unusually resistant to denaturation. PMID:1691188

  19. Differential expression profiling between the relative normal and dystrophic muscle tissues from the same LGMD patient

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Ye, Jianwei; Chen, Dazhi; Zhao, Xinyi; Xiao, Xingjun; Tai, Sheng; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Dahai

    2006-01-01

    Background Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) is a group of heterogeneous muscular disorders with autosomal dominant and recessive inheritance, in which the pelvic or shoulder girdle musculature is predominantly or primarily involved. Although analysis of the defective proteins has shed some light onto their functions implicated in the etiology of LGMD, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying muscular dystrophy remains incomplete. Methods To give insight into the molecular mechanisms of AR-LGMD, we have examined the differentially expressed gene profiling between the relative normal and pathological skeletal muscles from the same AR-LGMD patient with the differential display RT-PCR approach. The research subjects came from a Chinese AR-LGMD family with three affected sisters. Results In this report, we have identified 31 known genes and 12 unknown ESTs, which were differentially expressed between the relative normal and dystrophic muscle from the same LGMD patient. The expression of many genes encoding structural proteins of skeletal muscle fibers (such as titin, myosin heavy and light chains, and nebulin) were dramatically down-regulated in dystrophic muscles compared to the relative normal muscles. The genes, reticulocalbin 1, kinectin 1, fatty acid desaturase 1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5), Nedd4 family interacting protein 1 (NDFIP1), SMARCA2 (SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2), encoding the proteins involved in signal transduction and gene expression regulation were up-regulated in the dystrophic muscles. Conclusion The functional analysis of these expression-altered genes in the pathogenesis of LGMD could provide additional information for understanding possible molecular mechanisms of LGMD development. PMID:17176482

  20. Sex-differential placentation immunological interactions between male conceptus and gravida during normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Vernier, M C

    1975-01-01

    7,773 placentae of newborns were analyzed in order to test a hypothesis of specific immunological concepto-maternal interactions due to maleness and occurring during normal pregnancy. An association between placental weight of newborn male and the sex of conceptuses of previous pregnancies was found which supports the hypothesis. No such an association was found for female newborn. The confirmation of these results could open new avenues in the study of sex-differential survival of the conceptus throughout gestation. PMID:1148342

  1. Differential Roles of ERα and ERβ in Normal and Neoplastic Development in the Mouse Mammary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Rajendra G.; Hawthorne, Michael; Mehta, Rajeshwari R.; Torres, Karen E. O.; Peng, Xinjian; McCormick, David L.; Kopelovich, Levy

    2014-01-01

    The present experiments were performed to determine the roles of estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ) in normal and neoplastic development in the mouse mammary gland. In wild-type mice, in vivo administration of estradiol (E) + progesterone (P) stimulated mammary ductal growth and alveolar differentiation. Mammary glands from mice in which the ERβ gene has been deleted (βERKO mice) demonstrated normal ductal growth and differentiation in response to E + P. By contrast, mammary glands from mice in which the ERα gene has been deleted (αERKO mice) demonstrated only rudimentary ductal structures that did not differentiate in response to E + P. EGF demonstrates estrogen-like activity in the mammary glands of αERKO mice: treatment of αERKO mice with EGF + P (without E) supported normal mammary gland development, induced expression of progesterone receptor (PR), and increased levels of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR30) protein. Mammary gland development in βERKO mice treated with EGF + P was comparable to that of wild-type mice receiving EGF + P; EGF had no statistically significant effects on the induction of PR or expression of GPR30 in mammary glands harvested from either wild-type mice or βERKO mice. In vitro exposure of mammary glands to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced preneoplastic mammary alveolar lesions (MAL) in glands from wild-type mice and βERKO mice, but failed to induce MAL in mammary glands from αERKO mice. Microarray analysis of DMBA-treated mammary glands identified 28 functional pathways whose expression was significantly different in αERKO mice versus both βERKO and wild-type mice; key functions that were differentially expressed in αERKO mice included cell division, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. The data demonstrate distinct roles for ERα and ERβ in normal and neoplastic development in the mouse mammary gland, and suggest that EGF can mimic the ERα-mediated effects of E in this organ. PMID:25405629

  2. Surface modification of microparticles causes differential uptake responses in normal and tumoral human breast epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patiño, Tania; Soriano, Jorge; Barrios, Lleonard; Ibáñez, Elena; Nogués, Carme

    2015-06-01

    The use of micro- and nanodevices as multifunctional systems for biomedical applications has experienced an exponential growth during the past decades. Although a large number of studies have focused on the design and fabrication of new micro- and nanosystems capable of developing multiple functions, a deeper understanding of their interaction with cells is required. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of different microparticle surfaces on their interaction with normal and tumoral human breast epithelial cell lines. For this, AlexaFluor488 IgG functionalized polystyrene microparticles (3 μm) were coated with Polyethyleneimine (PEI) at two different molecular weights, 25 and 750 kDa. The effect of microparticle surface properties on cytotoxicity, cellular uptake and endocytic pathways were assessed for both normal and tumoral cell lines. Results showed a differential response between the two cell lines regarding uptake efficiency and mechanisms of endocytosis, highlighting the potential role of microparticle surface tunning for specific cell targeting.

  3. Intrauterine steroid contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Scholten, P C; Christaens, G C; Haspels, A A

    1987-11-15

    Progestagen releasing IUDs were specially developed to diminish the problems of bleeding and pain with inert and copper containing IUDs. The intrauterine release of the progestagen causes endometrial atrophy, resulting in impairment of nidation, and interferes with transport of the ovum and the spermatozoa. Two available types, Progestasert, Biograviplan (Alza Corporation, California; Grünenthal) and Levonorgestrel Nova-T (Leiras Pharmaceuticals, Finland), have been sufficiently tested in multinational trials. Compared with Progestasert, LNG Nova-T showed lower pregnancy rates (Pearl Index 0.30), less risk for ectopic pregnancy and a longer effective lifetime (7 years). With both IUDs the amount and duration of menstrual blood loss is decreased. Amenorrhea is a frequent occurring side effect of LNG Nova-T, caused by endometrial atrophy. Intermenstrual blood loss and spotting incidences are not uniformly reduced and are still a frequent reason for removal. Preinsertion counselling may improve the acceptance of these non-health-threatening side effects. With both IUDs a decrease of menstrual cramps during periods is percepted and a low incidence of PID is found. Basically, the progestagen releasing IUD can be recommended to all women who wish an IUD for contraception and to women with contraindications for oral contraceptives, especially to those with menorrhagia, anaemia or risk for anaemia. PMID:3131966

  4. Differential effects on ARF stability by normal vs. oncogenic levels of c-Myc expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Delin; Kon, Ning; Zhong, Jiayun; Zhang, Pingzhao; Yu, Long; Gu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY ARF suppresses aberrant cell growth upon c-Myc overexpression through activating p53 responses. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism by which ARF specifically, restrains the oncogenic potential of c-Myc without affecting its normal physiological function is not well understood. Here, we show that low levels of c-Myc expression stimulate cell proliferation whereas high levels inhibit through activating the ARF-p53 response. Although the mRNA levels of ARF are induced under both scenarios, the accumulation of ARF protein occurs only when ULF-mediated degradation of ARF is inhibited by c-Myc overexpression. Moreover, the levels of ARF are reduced through ULF-mediated ubiquitination upon DNA damage. Blocking ARF degradation by c-Myc overexpression dramatically stimulates the apoptotic responses. Our study reveals that ARF stability control is crucial for differentiating normal (low) vs. oncogenic (high) levels of c-Myc expression and suggests that differential effects on ULF- mediated ARF ubiquitination by c-Myc levels act as a barrier in oncogene-induced stress responses. PMID:23747016

  5. Excretion of biliary compounds during intrauterine life

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Rocio IR; Marin, Jose JG; Serrano, Maria A

    2009-01-01

    In adults, the hepatobiliary system, together with the kidney, constitute the main routes for the elimination of several endogenous and xenobiotic compounds into bile and urine, respectively. However, during intrauterine life the biliary route of excretion for cholephilic compounds, such as bile acids and biliary pigments, is very poor. Although very early in pregnancy the fetal liver produces bile acids, bilirubin and biliverdin, these compounds cannot be efficiently eliminated by the fetal hepatobiliary system, owing to the immaturity of the excretory machinery in the fetal liver. Therefore, the potentially harmful accumulation of cholephilic compounds in the fetus is prevented by their elimination across the placenta. Owing to the presence of detoxifying enzymes and specific transport systems at different locations of the placental barrier, such as the endothelial cells of chorionic vessels and trophoblast cells, this organ plays an important role in the hepatobiliary-like function during intrauterine life. The relevance of this excretory function in normal fetal physiology is evident in situations where high concentrations of biliary compounds are accumulated in the mother. This may result in oxidative stress and apoptosis, mainly in the placenta and fetal liver, which might affect normal fetal development and challenge the fate of the pregnancy. The present article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the hepatobiliary function of the fetal-placental unit and the repercussions of several pathological conditions on this tandem. PMID:19230042

  6. Comparative analysis of differential network modularity in tissue specific normal and cancer protein interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Large scale understanding of complex and dynamic alterations in cellular and subcellular levels during cancer in contrast to normal condition has facilitated the emergence of sophisticated systemic approaches like network biology in recent times. As most biological networks show modular properties, the analysis of differential modularity between normal and cancer protein interaction networks can be a good way to understand cancer more significantly. Two aspects of biological network modularity e.g. detection of molecular complexes (potential modules or clusters) and identification of crucial nodes forming the overlapping modules have been considered in this regard. Methods In the current study, the computational analysis of previously published protein interaction networks (PINs) has been conducted to identify the molecular complexes and crucial nodes of the networks. Protein molecules involved in ten major cancer signal transduction pathways were used to construct the networks based on expression data of five tissues e.g. bone, breast, colon, kidney and liver in both normal and cancer conditions. MCODE (molecular complex detection) and ModuLand methods have been used to identify the molecular complexes and crucial nodes of the networks respectively. Results In case of all tissues, cancer PINs show higher level of clustering (formation of molecular complexes) than the normal ones. In contrast, lower level modular overlapping is found in cancer PINs than the normal ones. Thus a proposition can be made regarding the formation of some giant nodes in the cancer networks with very high degree and resulting in reduced overlapping among the network modules though the predicted molecular complex numbers are higher in cancer conditions. Conclusion The study predicts some major molecular complexes that might act as the important regulators in cancer progression. The crucial nodes identified in this study can be potential drug targets to combat cancer. PMID

  7. LIGHT MICROSCOPICAL AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPICAL COMPARISONS OF NORMAL HEPATOCYTES OF WELL-DIFFERENTIATED HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMAS IN A TELEOST FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC's) induced in the sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variagatus) with N-nitrosodiethylamine, permitted light microscopical and ultrastructural comparisons of normal hepatocytes and adjacent HCC cells. ormal hepatocytes contained typic...

  8. Analysis of differential protein expression in normal and neoplastic human breast epithelial cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.; Chubb, C.; Huberman, E.; Giometti, C.S.

    1997-07-01

    High resolution two dimensional get electrophoresis (2DE) and database analysis was used to establish protein expression patterns for cultured normal human mammary epithelial cells and thirteen breast cancer cell lines. The Human Breast Epithelial Cell database contains the 2DE protein patterns, including relative protein abundances, for each cell line, plus a composite pattern that contains all the common and specifically expressed proteins from all the cell lines. Significant differences in protein expression, both qualitative and quantitative, were observed not only between normal cells and tumor cells, but also among the tumor cell lines. Eight percent of the consistently detected proteins were found in significantly (P < 0.001) variable levels among the cell lines. Using a combination of immunostaining, comigration with purified protein, subcellular fractionation, and amino-terminal protein sequencing, we identified a subset of the differentially expressed proteins. These identified proteins include the cytoskeletal proteins actin, tubulin, vimentin, and cytokeratins. The cell lines can be classified into four distinct groups based on their intermediate filament protein profile. We also identified heat shock proteins; hsp27, hsp60, and hsp70 varied in abundance and in some cases in the relative phosphorylation levels among the cell lines. Finally, we identified IMP dehydrogenase in each of the cell lines, and found the levels of this enzyme in the tumor cell lines elevated 2- to 20-fold relative to the levels in normal cells.

  9. Differentially Expressed miRNAs in Tumor, Adjacent, and Normal Tissues of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fei; Li, Rui; Chen, Zhenzhu; Shen, Yanting; Lu, Jiafeng; Xie, Xueying; Ge, Qinyu

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the major type of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression profiles of miRNAs in adenocarcinoma (AC), one major subtype of NSCLC. In this study, the miRNAs were detected in normal, adjacent, and tumor tissues by next-generation sequencing. Then the expression levels of differential miRNAs were quantified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In the results, 259, 401, and 389 miRNAs were detected in tumor, adjacent, and normal tissues of pooled AC samples, respectively. In addition, for the first time we have found that miR-21-5p and miR-196a-5p were gradually upregulated from normal to adjacent to tumor tissues; miR-218-5p was gradually downregulated with 2-fold or greater change in AC tissues. These 3 miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. Lastly, we predicted target genes of these 3 miRNAs and enriched the potential functions and regulatory pathways. The aberrant miR-21-5p, miR-196a-5p, and miR-218-5p may become biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma. This research may be useful for lung adenocarcinoma diagnosis and the study of pathology in lung cancer. PMID:27247934

  10. An iteration normalization and test method for differential expression analysis of RNA-seq data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Next generation sequencing technologies are powerful new tools for investigating a wide range of biological and medical questions. Statistical and computational methods are key to analyzing massive and complex sequencing data. In order to derive gene expression measures and compare these measures across samples or libraries, we first need to normalize read counts to adjust for varying sample sequencing depths and other potentially technical effects. Results In this paper, we develop a normalization method based on iterating median of M-values (IMM) for detecting the differentially expressed (DE) genes. Compared to a previous approach TMM, the IMM method improves the accuracy of DE detection. Simulation studies show that the IMM method outperforms other methods for the sample normalization. We also look into the real data and find that the genes detected by IMM but not by TMM are much more accurate than the genes detected by TMM but not by IMM. What’s more, we discovered that gene UNC5C is highly associated with kidney cancer and so on. PMID:25285156

  11. Neuronal glycosylation differentials in normal, injured and chondroitinase-treated environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kilcoyne, Michelle; Sharma, Shashank; McDevitt, Niamh; O'Leary, Claire; Joshi, Lokesh; McMahon, Siobhan S.

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbohydrates are important in the CNS and ChABC has been used for spinal cord injury (SCI) treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neuronal glycosylation in injury and after ChABC treatment is unknown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In silico mining verified that glyco-related genes were differentially regulated after SCI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vitro model system revealed abnormal sialylation in an injured environment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model indicated a return to normal neuronal glycosylation after ChABC treatment. -- Abstract: Glycosylation is found ubiquitously throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are a group of molecules heavily substituted with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and are found in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell surfaces. Upon CNS injury, a glial scar is formed, which is inhibitory for axon regeneration. Several CSPGs are up-regulated within the glial scar, including NG2, and these CSPGs are key inhibitory molecules of axonal regeneration. Treatment with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) can neutralise the inhibitory nature of NG2. A gene expression dataset was mined in silico to verify differentially regulated glycosylation-related genes in neurons after spinal cord injury and identify potential targets for further investigation. To establish the glycosylation differential of neurons that grow in a healthy, inhibitory and ChABC-treated environment, we established an indirect co-culture system where PC12 neurons were grown with primary astrocytes, Neu7 astrocytes (which overexpress NG2) and Neu7 astrocytes treated with ChABC. After 1, 4 and 8 days culture, lectin cytochemistry of the neurons was performed using five fluorescently-labelled lectins (ECA MAA, PNA, SNA-I and WFA). Usually {alpha}-(2,6)-linked sialylation scarcely occurs in the CNS but this motif was observed on the neurons in the injured environment only at day 8. Treatment

  12. Aneuploidy in the normal, Alzheimer's disease and ataxia-telangiectasia brain: differential expression and pathological meaning.

    PubMed

    Iourov, Ivan Y; Vorsanova, Svetlana G; Liehr, Thomas; Yurov, Yuri B

    2009-05-01

    Recently it has been suggested that the human brain contains aneuploid cells; however the nature and magnitude of neural aneuploidy in health and disease remain obscure. Here, we have monitored aneuploidy in the cerebral cortex of the normal, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) brain by molecular cytogenetic approaches scoring more than 480,000 neural cells. Using arbitrarily selected set of DNA probes for chromosomes 1, 7, 11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 21, X and Y we have determined the mean rate of stochastic aneuploidy per chromosome as 0.5% in the normal human brain (95%CI 0.2-0.7%; SD 0.2%). The overall proportion of aneuploid cells in the normal brain has been estimated at approximately 10%. In the AT brain, we observed a 2-to-5 fold increase of stochastic aneuploidy randomly affecting different chromosomes (mean 2.1%; 95%CI - 1.5-2.6%; SD 0.8%). The overall proportion of aneuploid cells in the brain of AT individuals was estimated at approximately 20-50%. Compared with sex- and age-matched controls, the level of stochastic aneuploidy in the AD brain was not significantly increased. However, a dramatic 10-fold increase of chromosome 21-specific aneuploidy (both hypoploidy and hyperploidy) was detected in the AD cerebral cortex (6-15% versus 0.8-1.8% in control). We conclude that somatic mosaic aneuploidy differentially contributes to intercellular genomic variation in the normal, AD and AT brain. Neural aneuploidy leading to altered cellular physiology may significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. These data indicate neural aneuploidy to be a newly identified feature of neurodegenerative diseases, similar to other devastative disorders hallmarked by aneuploidy such as chromosome syndromes and cancer. PMID:19344645

  13. A review of cognitive impairment and differential diagnosis in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Picascia, Marta; Zangaglia, Roberta; Bernini, Sara; Minafra, Brigida; Sinforiani, Elena; Pacchetti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a complex and still underestimated pathology. In the early stages, the cognitive profile is characterized mainly by impairments of attention, psychomotor speed and memory, suggesting frontal involvement; patients with more advanced iNPH show overall cognitive deterioration. The memory impairment, however, seems to be milder than that seen in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Clinical and neuroimaging data are crucial for the diagnosis of iNPH, but the presence of different variables, such as comorbidities, and the possible overlapping with other neurodegenerative diseases, AD in particular, make the differential diagnosis difficult. To date studies seeking to identify possible biological markers have provided inconclusive results; moreover reliable indices predictive of a good response to surgery are still lacking. There is a need for further studies with longer follow-ups and for closer interaction among the different professionals involved. PMID:26727700

  14. Experimental design, preprocessing, normalization and differential expression analysis of small RNA sequencing experiments

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the advent of new, deep sequencing methods, small RNA (sRNA) discovery was dependent on Sanger sequencing, which was time-consuming and limited knowledge to only the most abundant sRNA. The innovation of large-scale, next-generation sequencing has exponentially increased knowledge of the biology, diversity and abundance of sRNA populations. In this review, we discuss issues involved in the design of sRNA sequencing experiments, including choosing a sequencing platform, inherent biases that affect sRNA measurements and replication. We outline the steps involved in preprocessing sRNA sequencing data and review both the principles behind and the current options for normalization. Finally, we discuss differential expression analysis in the absence and presence of biological replicates. While our focus is on sRNA sequencing experiments, many of the principles discussed are applicable to the sequencing of other RNA populations. PMID:21356093

  15. How the differential load induced by normal fault scarps controls the distribution of monogenic volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccaferri, Francesco; Acocella, Valerio; Rivalta, Eleonora

    2016-04-01

    Understanding shallow magma transfer and the related vent distribution is crucial for volcanic hazard. In the present study we investigate the link between the stress induced by topographic scarps and the distribution of monogenic volcanoes at divergent plate boundaries. With a numerical model of dyke propagation we show that vertical dykes beneath a normal fault scarp tend to deflect towards the footwall side of the scarp. This effect increases with the scarp height, is stronger for dykes propagating underneath the hanging wall side, and decreases with the distance from the scarp. A comparison to the East African Rift System, Afar and Iceland shows that: 1) the inner rift structure, which shapes the topography, controls shallow dyke propagation; 2) differential loading due to mass redistribution affects magma propagation over a broad scale range (100 - 105 m). Our results find application to any volcanic field with tectonics- or erosion-induced topographic variations.

  16. How the differential load induced by normal fault scarps controls the distribution of monogenic volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccaferri, F.; Acocella, V.; Rivalta, E.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding shallow magma transfer and the related vent distribution is crucial for volcanic hazard. Here we investigate how the stress induced by topographic scarps linked to normal faults affects the distribution of monogenic volcanoes at divergent plate boundaries. Our numerical models of dyke propagation below a fault scarp show that the dykes tend to propagate toward and erupt on the footwall side. This effect, increasing with the scarp height, is stronger for dykes propagating underneath the hanging wall side and decreases with the distance from the scarp. A comparison to the East African Rift System, Afar and Iceland shows that (1) the inner rift structure, which shapes the topography, controls shallow dyke propagation; (2) differential loading due to mass redistribution affects magma propagation over a broad scale range (100-105 m). Our results find application to any volcanic field with tectonics- or erosion-induced topographic variations and should be considered in any volcanic hazard assessment.

  17. Size evolution of ultrafine particles: Differential signatures of normal and episodic events.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Manish; Khan, Arshad; Anand, S; Sapra, B K

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fireworks on the aerosol number characteristics of atmosphere was studied for an urban mega city. Measurements were made at 50 m height to assess the local changes around the festival days. Apart from the increase in total number concentration and characteristic accumulation mode, short-term increase of ultrafine particle concentration was noted. Total number concentration varies an order of magnitude during the measurement period in which peak occurs at a frequency of approximately one per day. On integral scale, it seems not possible to distinguish an episodic (e.g. firework bursting induced aerosol emission) and a normal (ambient atmospheric changes) event. However these events could be differentiated on the basis of size evolution analysis around number concentration peaks. The results are discussed relative to past studies and inferences are drawn towards aerosol signatures of firework bursting. The short-term burst in ultrafine particle concentration can pose an inhalation hazard. PMID:26552523

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Differential Proteome Expression in Bladder Cancer vs. Normal Bladder Cells Using SILAC Method

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ganglong; Xu, Zhipeng; Lu, Wei; Li, Xiang; Sun, Chengwen; Guo, Jia; Xue, Peng; Guan, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The best way to increase patient survival rate is to identify patients who are likely to progress to muscle-invasive or metastatic disease upfront and treat them more aggressively. The human cell lines HCV29 (normal bladder epithelia), KK47 (low grade nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, NMIBC), and YTS1 (metastatic bladder cancer) have been widely used in studies of molecular mechanisms and cell signaling during bladder cancer (BC) progression. However, little attention has been paid to global quantitative proteome analysis of these three cell lines. We labeled HCV29, KK47, and YTS1 cells by the SILAC method using three stable isotopes each of arginine and lysine. Labeled proteins were analyzed by 2D ultrahigh-resolution liquid chromatography LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Among 3721 unique identified and annotated proteins in KK47 and YTS1 cells, 36 were significantly upregulated and 74 were significantly downregulated with >95% confidence. Differential expression of these proteins was confirmed by western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR, and cell staining with specific antibodies. Gene ontology (GO) term and pathway analysis indicated that the differentially regulated proteins were involved in DNA replication and molecular transport, cell growth and proliferation, cellular movement, immune cell trafficking, and cell death and survival. These proteins and the advanced proteome techniques described here will be useful for further elucidation of molecular mechanisms in BC and other types of cancer. PMID:26230496

  19. Heme oxygenase-1 determines the differential response of breast cancer and normal cells to piperlongumine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ha-Na; Jin, Hyeon-Ok; Park, Jin-Ah; Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, BoRa; Kim, Wonki; Hong, Sung-Eun; Lee, Yun-Han; Chang, Yoon Hwan; Hong, Seok-Il; Hong, Young Jun; Park, In-Chul; Surh, Young-Joon; Lee, Jin Kyung

    2015-04-01

    Piperlongumine, a natural alkaloid isolated from the long pepper, selectively increases reactive oxygen species production and apoptotic cell death in cancer cells but not in normal cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying piperlongumine-induced selective killing of cancer cells remains unclear. In the present study, we observed that human breast cancer MCF-7 cells are sensitive to piperlongumine-induced apoptosis relative to human MCF-10A breast epithelial cells. Interestingly, this opposing effect of piperlongumine appears to be mediated by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Piperlongumine upregulated HO-1 expression through the activation of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling in both MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells. However, knockdown of HO-1 expression and pharmacological inhibition of its activity abolished the ability of piperlongumine to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, whereas those promoted apoptosis in MCF-10A cells, indicating that HO-1 has anti-tumor functions in cancer cells but cytoprotective functions in normal cells. Moreover, it was found that piperlongumine-induced Nrf2 activation, HO-1 expression and cancer cell apoptosis are not dependent on the generation of reactive oxygen species. Instead, piperlongumine, which bears electrophilic α,β-unsaturated carbonyl groups, appears to inactivate Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1) through thiol modification, thereby activating the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and subsequently upregulating HO-1 expression, which accounts for piperlongumine-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that direct interaction of piperlongumine with Keap1 leads to the upregulation of Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression, and HO-1 determines the differential response of breast normal cells and cancer cells to piperlongumine. PMID:25813625

  20. Heme Oxygenase-1 Determines the Differential Response of Breast Cancer and Normal Cells to Piperlongumine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ha-Na; Jin, Hyeon-Ok; Park, Jin-Ah; Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, BoRa; Kim, Wonki; Hong, Sung-Eun; Lee, Yun-Han; Chang, Yoon Hwan; Hong, Seok-Il; Hong, Young Jun; Park, In-Chul; Surh, Young-Joon; Lee, Jin Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Piperlongumine, a natural alkaloid isolated from the long pepper, selectively increases reactive oxygen species production and apoptotic cell death in cancer cells but not in normal cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying piperlongumine-induced selective killing of cancer cells remains unclear. In the present study, we observed that human breast cancer MCF-7 cells are sensitive to piperlongumine-induced apoptosis relative to human MCF-10A breast epithelial cells. Interestingly, this opposing effect of piperlongumine appears to be mediated by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Piperlongumine upregulated HO-1 expression through the activation of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling in both MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells. However, knockdown of HO-1 expression and pharmacological inhibition of its activity abolished the ability of piperlongumine to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, whereas those promoted apoptosis in MCF-10A cells, indicating that HO-1 has anti-tumor functions in cancer cells but cytoprotective functions in normal cells. Moreover, it was found that piperlongumine-induced Nrf2 activation, HO-1 expression and cancer cell apoptosis are not dependent on the generation of reactive oxygen species. Instead, piperlongumine, which bears electrophilic α,β-unsaturated carbonyl groups, appears to inactivate Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1) through thiol modification, thereby activating the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and subsequently upregulating HO-1 expression, which accounts for piperlongumine-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that direct interaction of piperlongumine with Keap1 leads to the upregulation of Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression, and HO-1 determines the differential response of breast normal cells and cancer cells to piperlongumine. PMID:25813625

  1. Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    MedlinePlus

    ... height? Your baby will probably catch up in size and have a normal height by about 2 years of age. ... If the mother has an infection, high blood pressure, kidney disease, heart disease or sickle cell anemia, or ...

  2. Circadian Clock Genes Are Essential for Normal Adult Neurogenesis, Differentiation, and Fate Determination.

    PubMed

    Malik, Astha; Kondratov, Roman V; Jamasbi, Roudabeh J; Geusz, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    differentiation, but they generated normal percentages of neuronal cells. Neuronal fate commitment therefore appears to be controlled through a non-clock function of BMAL1. This study provides insight into how cell autonomous circadian clocks and clock genes regulate adult neural stem cells with implications for treating neurodegenerative disorders and impaired brain functions by manipulating neurogenesis. PMID:26439128

  3. Circadian Clock Genes Are Essential for Normal Adult Neurogenesis, Differentiation, and Fate Determination

    PubMed Central

    Kondratov, Roman V.; Jamasbi, Roudabeh J.

    2015-01-01

    differentiation, but they generated normal percentages of neuronal cells. Neuronal fate commitment therefore appears to be controlled through a non-clock function of BMAL1. This study provides insight into how cell autonomous circadian clocks and clock genes regulate adult neural stem cells with implications for treating neurodegenerative disorders and impaired brain functions by manipulating neurogenesis. PMID:26439128

  4. Intrauterine growth restriction

    MedlinePlus

    ... may contribute to IUGR include: Alcohol abuse Smoking Drug addiction Clotting disorders High blood pressure or heart disease Kidney disease Poor nutrition If the mother is small, it may be ... head may be normal size while the rest of the body is small.

  5. Aging and insulin signaling differentially control normal and tumorous germline stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Shih-Han; Tseng, Chen-Yuan; Wan, Chih-Ling; Su, Yu-Han; Hsieh, Chang-Che; Pi, Haiwei; Hsu, Hwei-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aging influences stem cells, but the processes involved remain unclear. Insulin signaling, which controls cellular nutrient sensing and organismal aging, regulates the G2 phase of Drosophila female germ line stem cell (GSC) division cycle in response to diet; furthermore, this signaling pathway is attenuated with age. The role of insulin signaling in GSCs as organisms age, however, is also unclear. Here, we report that aging results in the accumulation of tumorous GSCs, accompanied by a decline in GSC number and proliferation rate. Intriguingly, GSC loss with age is hastened by either accelerating (through eliminating expression of Myt1, a cell cycle inhibitory regulator) or delaying (through mutation of insulin receptor (dinR) GSC division, implying that disrupted cell cycle progression and insulin signaling contribute to age-dependent GSC loss. As flies age, DNA damage accumulates in GSCs, and the S phase of the GSC cell cycle is prolonged. In addition, GSC tumors (which escape the normal stem cell regulatory microenvironment, known as the niche) still respond to aging in a similar manner to normal GSCs, suggesting that niche signals are not required for GSCs to sense or respond to aging. Finally, we show that GSCs from mated and unmated females behave similarly, indicating that female GSC–male communication does not affect GSCs with age. Our results indicate the differential effects of aging and diet mediated by insulin signaling on the stem cell division cycle, highlight the complexity of the regulation of stem cell aging, and describe a link between ovarian cancer and aging. PMID:25470527

  6. Modulation of growth and differentiation in normal human keratinocytes by transforming growth factor-beta

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, K.; Hashimoto, K.; Hashiro, M.; Yoshimasa, H.; Yoshikawa, K. )

    1990-10-01

    The effect of transforming growth factor-type beta 1(TGF-beta) on the growth and differentiation of normal human skin keratinocytes cultured in serum-free medium was investigated. TGF-beta markedly inhibited the growth of keratinocytes at the concentrations greater than 2 ng/ml under low Ca2+ conditions (0.1 mM). Growth inhibition was accompanied by changes in cell functions related to proliferation. Remarkable inhibition of DNA synthesis was demonstrated by the decrease of (3H)thymidine incorporation. The decrease of (3H)thymidine incorporation was observed as early as 3 hr after addition of TGF-beta. TGF-beta also decreased c-myc messenger RNA (mRNA) expression 30 min after addition of TGF-beta. This rapid reduction of c-myc mRNA expression by TGF-beta treatment is possibly one of the main factors in the process of TGF-beta-induced growth inhibition of human keratinocytes. Since growth inhibition and induction of differentiation are closely related in human keratinocytes, the growth-inhibitory effect of TGF-beta under high Ca2+ conditions was examined. TGF-beta inhibited the growth of keratinocytes under high Ca2+ conditions in the same manner as under low Ca2+ conditions, suggesting that it is a strong growth inhibitor in both low and high Ca2+ environments. The induction of keratinocyte differentiation was evaluated by measuring involucrin expression and cornified envelope formation: TGF-beta at 20 ng/ml increased involucrin expression from 9.3% to 18.8% under high Ca2+ conditions, while it decreased involucrin expression from 7.0% to 3.3% under low Ca2+ conditions. Cornified envelope formation was modulated in a similar way by addition of TGF-beta: TGF-beta at 20 ng/ml decreased cornified envelope formation by 53% under low Ca2+ conditions, while it enhanced cornified envelope formation by 30.7% under high Ca2+ conditions.

  7. Intrauterine insemination for treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Keck, C; Gerber-Schäfer, C; Wilhelm, C; Vogelgesang, D; Breckwoldt, M

    1997-01-01

    Intrauterine inseminations (IUI) have been performed since the beginning of this century for treatment of infertility. Despite its widespread use the clinical value of this technique remains unclear. Today, indications for IUI include male factor, cervical factor, immunological and unexplained infertility and infertility due to ejaculatory disorders. IUI is superior to intravaginal (IVI) or intracervical insemination (ICI). Before insemination, semen has to be processed using one of the established sperm preparation techniques. Different techniques seem to be equally effective in preparing a highly concentrated sperm fraction with progressively motile, morphologically normal sperm. Ovarian stimulation further improves pregnancy rates achieved by insemination. Human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) stimulation seems to be superior to clomiphene citrate stimulation. Among other factors, timing and number of inseminations are crucial when influencing the outcome of IUI treatment. PMID:9466187

  8. Global differential expression of genes located in the Down Syndrome Critical Region in normal human brain

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Julio Cesar; Fajardo, Dianora; Peña, Angela; Sánchez, Adalberto; Domínguez, Martha C; Satizábal, José María

    2014-01-01

    Background: The information of gene expression obtained from databases, have made possible the extraction and analysis of data related with several molecular processes involving not only in brain homeostasis but its disruption in some neuropathologies; principally in Down syndrome and the Alzheimer disease. Objective: To correlate the levels of transcription of 19 genes located in the Down Syndrome Critical Region (DSCR) with their expression in several substructures of normal human brain. Methods: There were obtained expression profiles of 19 DSCR genes in 42 brain substructures, from gene expression values available at the database of the human brain of the Brain Atlas of the Allen Institute for Brain Sciences", (http://human.brain-map.org/). The co-expression patterns of DSCR genes in brain were calculated by using multivariate statistical methods. Results: Highest levels of gene expression were registered at caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens and putamen among central areas of cerebral cortex. Increased expression levels of RCAN1 that encode by a protein involved in signal transduction process of the CNS were recorded for PCP4 that participates in the binding to calmodulin and TTC3; a protein that is associated with differentiation of neurons. That previously identified brain structures play a crucial role in the learning process, in different class of memory and in motor skills. Conclusion: The precise regulation of DSCR gene expression is crucial to maintain the brain homeostasis, especially in those areas with high levels of gene expression associated with a remarkable process of learning and cognition. PMID:25767303

  9. Normal proliferation and differentiation of Hoxc-8 transgenic chondrocytes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Stephania A; Mello, Maria Alice; Kappen, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    Background Hox genes encode transcription factors that are involved in pattern formation in the skeleton, and recent evidence suggests that they also play a role in the regulation of endochondral ossification. To analyze the role of Hoxc-8 in this process in more detail, we applied in vitro culture systems, using high density cultures of primary chondrocytes from neonatal mouse ribs. Results Cultured cells were characterized on the basis of morphology (light microscopy) and production of cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (sulfated proteoglycans and type II Collagen). Hypertrophy was demonstrated by increase in cell size, alkaline phosphatase activity and type X Collagen immunohistochemistry. Proliferation was assessed by BrdU uptake and flow cytometry. Unexpectedly, chondrocytes from Hoxc-8 transgenic mice, which exhibit delayed cartilage maturation in vivo [1], were able to proliferate and differentiate normally in our culture systems. This was the case even though freshly isolated Hoxc-8 transgenic chondrocytes exhibited significant molecular differences as measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Conclusions The results demonstrate that primary rib chondrocytes behave similar to published reports for chondrocytes from other sources, validating in vitro approaches for studies of Hox genes in the regulation of endochondral ossification. Our analysis of cartilage-producing cells from Hoxc-8 transgenic mice provides evidence that the cellular phenotype induced by Hoxc-8 overexpression in vivo is reversible in vitro. PMID:12713673

  10. Power source effects of soft plasma jet and the differential response of skin cancer and normal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Nathaniel; Dobrynin, Danil; Fridman, Alexander; Choi, Eun Ha

    2014-10-01

    The effects of pulsed power direct current energy sources were compared using an indirect discharge plasma jet applied to treat cancerous and normal skin cells. Two power supplies with different voltage and current profiles were compared and optimized through the measurement of physical parameters and evaluated through the treatment of skin cells using an atmospheric pressure nitrogen gas plasma jet. Plasma density and temperature, power output, gas output temperature, and reactive species production were measured. Cell morphology, viability, and ROS generation were investigated using staining. A differential response has been shown between the normal and cancerous cell lines. The cancer cells viability reduced while normal cells did not over the same treatment time.

  11. Regulation of expression of collagenase-3 in normal, differentiating rat osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winchester, S. K.; Bloch, S. R.; Fiacco, G. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the regulation of collagenase-3 expression in normal, differentiating rat osteoblasts. Fetal rat calvarial cell cultures showed an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity reaching maximal levels between 7-14 days post-confluence, then declining with the onset of mineralization. Collagenase-3 mRNA was just detectable after proliferation ceased at day 7, increased up to day 21, and declined at later ages. Postconfluent cells maintained in non-mineralizing medium expressed collagenase-3 but did not show the developmental increase exhibited by cells switched to mineralization medium. Cells maintained in non-mineralizing medium continued to proliferate; cells in mineralization medium ceased proliferation. In addition, collagenase-3 mRNA was not detected in subcultured cells allowed to remineralize. These results suggest that enhanced accumulation of collagenase-3 mRNA is triggered by cessation of proliferation or acquisition of a mineralized extracellular matrix and that other factors may also be required. After initiation of basal expression, parathyroid hormone (PTH) caused a dose-dependent increase in collagenase-3 mRNA. Both the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) analogue, 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP), and the protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol myristate acetate, increased collagenase-3 expression, while the calcium ionophore, ionomycin, did not, suggesting that PTH was acting through the protein kinase A (PKA) and PKC pathways. Inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide caused an increase in basal collagenase-3 expression but blocked the effect of PTH, suggesting that an inhibitory factor prevents basal expression while an inductive factor is involved with PTH action. In summary, collagenase-3 is expressed in mineralized osteoblasts and cessation of proliferation and initiation of mineralization are triggers for collagenase-3 expression. PTH also stimulates expression of the enzyme through both PKA and PKC pathways in the

  12. Regulation of normal B-cell differentiation and malignant B-cell survival by OCT2.

    PubMed

    Hodson, Daniel J; Shaffer, Arthur L; Xiao, Wenming; Wright, George W; Schmitz, Roland; Phelan, James D; Yang, Yandan; Webster, Daniel E; Rui, Lixin; Kohlhammer, Holger; Nakagawa, Masao; Waldmann, Thomas A; Staudt, Louis M

    2016-04-01

    The requirement for the B-cell transcription factor OCT2 (octamer-binding protein 2, encoded by Pou2f2) in germinal center B cells has proved controversial. Here, we report that germinal center B cells are formed normally after depletion of OCT2 in a conditional knockout mouse, but their proliferation is reduced and in vivo differentiation to antibody-secreting plasma cells is blocked. This finding led us to examine the role of OCT2 in germinal center-derived lymphomas. shRNA knockdown showed that almost all diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell lines are addicted to the expression of OCT2 and its coactivator OCA-B. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis and gene-expression profiling revealed the broad transcriptional program regulated by OCT2 that includes the expression of STAT3, IL-10, ELL2, XBP1, MYC, TERT, and ADA. Importantly, genetic alteration of OCT2 is not a requirement for cellular addiction in DLBCL. However, we detected amplifications of the POU2F2 locus in DLBCL tumor biopsies and a recurrent mutation of threonine 223 in the DNA-binding domain of OCT2. This neomorphic mutation subtly alters the DNA-binding preference of OCT2, leading to the transactivation of noncanonical target genes including HIF1a and FCRL3 Finally, by introducing mutations designed to disrupt the OCT2-OCA-B interface, we reveal a requirement for this protein-protein interface that ultimately might be exploited therapeutically. Our findings, combined with the predominantly B-cell-restricted expression of OCT2 and the absence of a systemic phenotype in our knockout mice, suggest that an OCT2-targeted therapeutic strategy would be efficacious in both major subtypes of DLBCL while avoiding systemic toxicity. PMID:26993806

  13. Appropriate reference gene selection for real-time PCR data normalization during rat mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Farrokhi, A; Eslaminejad, M B; Nazarian, H; Moradmand, A; Samadian, A; Akhlaghi, A

    2012-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT—qPCR) is one of the best methods for the study of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation by gene expression analysis. This technique needs appropriate reference or housekeeping genes (HKGs) to normalize the expression of the genes of interest. In the present study the expression stability of six widely used HKGs including Actb, Btub, Hprt, B2m, Gusb and Tfrc was investigated during rat MSC differentiation into osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes lineages using geNorm and NormFinder software. RT—qPCR data analyzed by geNorm revealed the different sets of suitable reference genes for each cell type. NormFinder also showed similar results. Analysis of the combined data of MSCs with each differentiated cell type revealed the considerable shift in expression of some reference genes during differentiation; for example Gusb and B2m were among the least stable genes in MSCs but the most stable in chondrocytes. Normalization of specific genes for each lineage by different reference genes showed considerable difference in their expression fold change. In conclusion, for the appropriate analysis of gene expression during rat MSC differentiation and also for monitoring differentiation procedures, it is better to consider precisely the reference gene stability and select suitable reference genes for each purpose. PMID:22595340

  14. Control of growth and squamous differentiation in normal human bronchial epithelial cells by chemical and biological modifiers and transferred genes

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, A.M.; Lechner, J.F.; Masui, T.; Reddel, R.R.; Mark, G.E.; Harris, C.C.

    1989-03-01

    The majority of human lung cancers arise from bronchial epithelial cells. The normal pseudostratified bronchial epithelium is composed of basal, mucous, and ciliated cells. This multi-differentiated epithelium usually responds to xenobiotics and physical injury by undergoing basal cell hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia. One step of the multistage process of carcinogenesis is thought to involve aberrations in control of the squamous metaplastic processes. Decreased responsiveness to regulators of terminal squamous differentiation may confer a selective clonal expansion advantage to an initiated cell. We studied the effects of endogenous (e.g., transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and serum) and exogenous (e.g., 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-phorbol-acetate (TPA), tobacco smoke condensate, and aldehydes) modifiers of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell in a serum-free culture system. NHBE cells are growth inhibited by all of these compounds and induced to undergo squamous differentiation by TGF-beta 1 or TPA. In contrast, lung carcinoma cell lines are relatively resistant to inducers of terminal squamous differentiation which may provide them with a selective growth advantage. Chemical agents and activated protooncogenes (ras,raf,myc) altered the response to endogenous and exogenous inducers of squamous differentiation and caused extended cellular lifespan, aneuploidy, and/or tumorigenicity. The data suggest a close relationship between dysregulation of terminal differentiation pathways and neoplastic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells.

  15. On group classification of normal systems of linear second-order ordinary differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meleshko, S. V.; Moyo, S.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we study the general group classification of systems of linear second-order ordinary differential equations inspired from earlier works and recent results on the group classification of such systems. Some interesting results and subsequent theorem arising from this particular study are discussed here. This paper considers the study of irreducible systems of second-order ordinary differential equations.

  16. Efficacy of Intrauterine Device in the Treatment of Intrauterine Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Salma, Umme; Xue, Min; Md Sayed, Ali Sheikh; Xu, Dabao

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to assess the efficacy of the use of the intrauterine device (IUD) as an adjunctive treatment modality, for intrauterine adhesions (IUAs). All eligible literatures were identified by electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Additional relevant articles were identified from citations in these publications. There were 28 studies included for a systematic review. Of these, 5 studies were eligible for meta-analysis and 23 for qualitative assessment only. Twenty-eight studies related to the use of IUDs as ancillary treatment following adhesiolysis were identified. Of these studies, 25 studies at least one of the following methods were carried out as ancillary treatment: Foley catheter, hyaluronic acid gel, hormonal therapy, or amnion graft in addition to the IUD. There was one study that used IUD therapy as a single ancillary treatment. In 2 studies, no adjunctive therapy was used after adhesiolysis. There was a wide range of reported menstrual and fertility outcomes which were associated with the use of IUD combined with other ancillary treatments. At present, the IUD is beneficial in patients with IUA, regardless of stage of adhesions. However, IUD needs to be combined with other ancillary treatments to obtain maximal outcomes, in particular in patients with moderate to severe IUA. PMID:25254212

  17. Frequency analysis of multispectral photoacoustic images for differentiating malignant region from normal region in excised human prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Saugata; Rao, Navalgund A.; Valluru, Keerthi S.; Chinni, Bhargava K.; Dogra, Vikram S.; Helguera, Maria

    2014-03-01

    Frequency domain analysis of the photoacoustic (PA) radio frequency signals can potentially be used as a tool for characterizing microstructure of absorbers in tissue. This study investigates the feasibility of analyzing the spectrum of multiwavelength PA signals generated by excised human prostate tissue samples to differentiate between malignant and normal prostate regions. Photoacoustic imaging at five different wavelengths, corresponding to peak absorption coefficients of deoxyhemoglobin, whole blood, oxyhemoglobin, water and lipid in the near infrared (NIR) (700 nm - 1000 nm) region, was performed on freshly excised prostate specimens taken from patients undergoing prostatectomy for biopsy confirmed prostate cancer. The PA images were co-registered with the histopathology images of the prostate specimens to determine the region of interest (ROI) corresponding to malignant and normal tissue. The calibrated power spectrum of each PA signal from a selected ROI was fit to a linear model to extract the corresponding slope, midband fit and intercept parameters. The mean value of each parameter corresponding to malignant and adjacent normal prostate ROI was calculated for each of the five wavelengths. The results obtained for 9 different human prostate specimens, show that the mean values of midband fit and intercept are significantly different between malignant and normal regions. In addition, the average midband fit and intercept values show a decreasing trend with increasing wavelength. These preliminary results suggest that frequency analysis of multispectral PA signals can be used to differentiate malignant region from the adjacent normal region in human prostate tissue.

  18. Role of angiogenesis in endometrial repair of patients with severe intrauterine adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuqing; Chang, Yajie; Yao, Shuzhong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To detect vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and micro-vessel density (MVD) in patients with severe intrauterine adhesion before and after therapy, and to preliminarily explore the role of angiogenesis in the therapy of severe intrauterine adhesion. Methods: A total of 36 patients with severe intrauterine adhesion were prospectively recruited into the treatment group. In the control group, 20 patients with normal uterine were recruited. Patients with severe intrauterine adhesion received transcervical resection of adhesions under hysteroscope and then received artificial hormone therapy for 3 months. Methods: The changes in the organelles of endometrial cells were evaluated under an electric microscope; Immunohistochemistry was done to detect the VEGF expression and MVD in patients with severe intrauterine adhesion, which was compared with that in the control group; VEGF expression and MVD were compared among patients with different prognoses. Results: Electric microscopy showed vascular closure and hypoxic changes in the endometrial tissues of patients with intrauterine adhesion. After treatment, angiogenesis was observed, and the hypoxic changes in the endometrial glands and interstitium were also improved. Moreover, the VEGF expression and score of MVD also increased significantly when compared with those before treatment and in the control group. The VEGF expression and MVD score in intrauterine adhesion patients recovering from treatment were significantly higher than those in patients non-responding to treatment. Conclusion: In patients with intrauterine adhesion, the endometrial tissues present with vascular closure, and angiogenesis will be present in the endometrial tissues after treatment. The angiogenesis in the endometrial tissues may affect the endometrial repair. PMID:23826415

  19. Fuel cell system logic for differentiating between rapid and normal shutdown commands

    DOEpatents

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2000-01-01

    A method of controlling the operation of a fuel cell system wherein each shutdown command for the system is subjected to decision logic which determines whether the command should be a normal shutdown command or rapid shutdown command. If the logic determines that the shutdown command should be a normal shutdown command, then the system is shutdown in a normal step-by-step process in which the hydrogen stream is consumed within the system. If the logic determines that the shutdown command should be a rapid shutdown command, the hydrogen stream is removed from the system either by dumping to atmosphere or routing to storage.

  20. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. 884... Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic...

  1. Loss of suppression of normal bone marrow colony formation by leukemic cell lines after differentiation is induced by chemical agents.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, H N; Tsiftsoglou, A S; Robinson, S H

    1985-01-01

    The human leukemic cell lines K562 and HL-60 were cocultured with normal bone marrow (BM) cells. Coculture with 10(4) K562 or HL-60 cells results in 50% inhibition of normal CFU-E and BFU-E colony formation. However, when the same number of K562 and HL-60 cells is first treated for two to five days with agents that induce their differentiation, a gradual loss in their capacity to inhibit CFU-E and BFU-E colony formation is observed. The inhibitory material in K562 cells is soluble and present in conditioned medium from cultures of these cells. The degree to which leukemic cell suppression of CFU-E and BFU-E growth is reversed is correlated with the time of exposure to the inducing agent. Suppression is no longer evident after five days of prior treatment with inducers. In fact, up to a 90% stimulation of CFU-E growth is observed in cocultures with K562 cells that have been pretreated with 30 to 70 mumol/L hemin for five days. K562 cells treated with concentrations of hemin as low as 30 mumol/L demonstrate increased hemoglobin synthesis and grow normally, but no longer have an inhibitory effect on CFU-E growth. Hence, reversal of normal BM growth inhibition must be caused by the more differentiated state of the K562 cells and not by a decrease in the number of these cells with treatment. Thus, induction of differentiation in cultured leukemic cells not only alters the malignant cell phenotype but also permits improved growth of accompanying normal marrow progenitor cells. Both are desired effects of chemotherapy. PMID:3838080

  2. The preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) inhibits myeloid differentiation in normal hematopoietic and leukemic progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Katherine A.; Cummings, Carrie L.; Sabo, Kathleen; Wood, Brent L.; Gooley, Ted; Yang, Taimei; Epping, Mirjam T.; Shou, Yaping; Pogosova-Agadjanyan, Era; Ladne, Paula; Stirewalt, Derek L.; Abkowitz, Janis L.; Radich, Jerald P.

    2009-01-01

    The preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) is expressed in several hematologic malignancies, but either is not expressed or is expressed at only low levels in normal hematopoietic cells, making it a target for cancer therapy. PRAME is a tumor-associated antigen and has been described as a corepressor of retinoic acid signaling in solid tumor cells, but its function in hematopoietic cells is unknown. PRAME mRNA expression increased with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) disease progression and its detection in late chronic-phase CML patients before tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy was associated with poorer therapeutic responses and ABL tyrosine kinase domain point mutations. In leukemia cell lines, PRAME protein expression inhibited granulocytic differentiation only in cell lines that differentiate along this lineage after all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) exposure. Forced PRAME expression in normal hematopoietic progenitors, however, inhibited myeloid differentiation both in the presence and absence of ATRA, and this phenotype was reversed when PRAME was silenced in primary CML progenitors. These observations suggest that PRAME inhibits myeloid differentiation in certain myeloid leukemias, and that its function in these cells is lineage and phenotype dependent. Lastly, these observations suggest that PRAME is a target for both prognostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:19625708

  3. Deubiquitinase MYSM1 Is Essential for Normal Bone Formation and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Yang, Yan-Mei; Sanchez, Suzi; Cui, Dian-Chao; Dang, Rui-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Lin, Qiu-Xia; Wang, Yan; Wang, Changyong; Chen, Da-Fu; Chen, Si-Yi; Jiang, Xiao-Xia; Wen, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Deubiquitinase MYSM1 has been shown to play a critical role in hematopoietic cell differentiation and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells within the bone marrow. MSCs are progenitors to osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, and myocytes. Although, MSCs have been extensively studied, the roles of MYSM1 in these cells remain unclear. Here we describe the function of MYSM1 on MSC maintenance and differentiation. In this report, we found that Mysm1-/- mice had a lower bone mass both in long bone and calvaria compared with their control counterpart. Preosteoblasts from Mysm1-/- mice did not show changes in proliferation or osteogenesis when compared to WT mice. Conversely, Mysm1-/- MSCs showed enhanced autonomous differentiation and accelerated adipogenesis. Our results demonstrate that MYSM1 plays a critical role in MSC maintenance and differentiation. This study also underscores the biological significance of deubiquitinase activity in MSC function. Mysm1 may represent a potential therapeutic target for controlling MSC lineage differentiation, and possibly for the treatment of metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:26915790

  4. Deubiquitinase MYSM1 Is Essential for Normal Bone Formation and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Yang, Yan-Mei; Sanchez, Suzi; Cui, Dian-Chao; Dang, Rui-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Lin, Qiu-Xia; Wang, Yan; Wang, Changyong; Chen, Da-Fu; Chen, Si-Yi; Jiang, Xiao-Xia; Wen, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Deubiquitinase MYSM1 has been shown to play a critical role in hematopoietic cell differentiation and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells within the bone marrow. MSCs are progenitors to osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, and myocytes. Although, MSCs have been extensively studied, the roles of MYSM1 in these cells remain unclear. Here we describe the function of MYSM1 on MSC maintenance and differentiation. In this report, we found that Mysm1−/− mice had a lower bone mass both in long bone and calvaria compared with their control counterpart. Preosteoblasts from Mysm1−/− mice did not show changes in proliferation or osteogenesis when compared to WT mice. Conversely, Mysm1−/− MSCs showed enhanced autonomous differentiation and accelerated adipogenesis. Our results demonstrate that MYSM1 plays a critical role in MSC maintenance and differentiation. This study also underscores the biological significance of deubiquitinase activity in MSC function. Mysm1 may represent a potential therapeutic target for controlling MSC lineage differentiation, and possibly for the treatment of metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:26915790

  5. [Heterotopic pregnancy in intrauterine insemination. Presentation of a case].

    PubMed

    Kably Ambe, A; Garza Rios, P; Serviere Zaragoza, C; Delgado Urdapilleta, J

    1992-04-01

    The heterotopic (ectopic and orthotopic simultaneous) pregnancy shows a frequency of 1 to 15,000 to 1 to 30,000 gestations. The clinical diagnosis is difficult due to the lack of precise indicators, as to diagnose an intrauterine pregnancy eliminates the possibility of ectopic pregnancy. The methods of Assisted Reproduction seem to be factors that have influenced on the increment of this type of gestations. A case of a 32 year patient with primary sterility by pelvic adhesions process, that was surgically treated, as there was no pregnancy after surgery, she was given intrauterine insemination with her husband's semen (IU) pregnancy was obtained, determined at 15 days of menstrual lack by presence of subunit B of HCG in serum and vaginal ultrasound that confirmed gestational sac. One month after she presented at Urgencies with an acute abdominal condition; laparotomy was done and salpingectomy was carried out for ruptured tubal pregnancy confirmed by histopathology. The evolution on intrauterine pregnancy was normal culminating with cesarean section at week 35 by inminence of eclampsia/Mother and child in good conditions. PMID:1601314

  6. Differential Expression of Complement Markers in Normal and AMD Transmitochondrial Cybrids

    PubMed Central

    Nashine, Sonali; Chwa, Marilyn; Kazemian, Mina; Thaker, Kunal; Lu, Stephanie; Nesburn, Anthony; Kuppermann, Baruch D.; Kenney, M. Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Variations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and abnormalities in the complement pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study was designed to determine the effects of mtDNA from AMD subjects on the complement pathway. Methods Transmitochondrial cybrids were prepared by fusing platelets from AMD and age-matched Normal subjects with Rho0 (lacking mtDNA) human ARPE-19 cells. Quantitative PCR and Western blotting were performed to examine gene and protein expression profiles, respectively, of complement markers in these cybrids. Bioenergetic profiles of Normal and AMD cybrids were examined using the Seahorse XF24 flux analyzer. Results Significant decreases in the gene and protein expression of complement inhibitors, along with significantly higher levels of complement activators, were found in AMD cybrids compared to Older-Normal cybrids. Seahorse flux data demonstrated that the bioenergetic profiles for Older-Normal and Older-AMD cybrid samples were similar to each other but were lower compared to Young-Normal cybrid samples. Conclusion In summary, since all cybrids had identical nuclei and differed only in mtDNA content, the observed changes in components of complement pathways can be attributed to mtDNA variations in the AMD subjects, suggesting that mitochondrial genome and retrograde signaling play critical roles in this disease. Furthermore, the similar bioenergetic profiles of AMD and Older-Normal cybrids indicate that the signaling between mitochondria and nuclei are probably not via a respiratory pathway. PMID:27486856

  7. Alteration in Expression and Methylation of IGF2/H19 in Placenta and Umbilical Cord Blood Are Associated with Macrosomia Exposed to Intrauterine Hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Su, Rina; Wang, Chen; Feng, Hui; Lin, Li; Liu, Xinyue; Wei, Yumei; Yang, Huixia

    2016-01-01

    Objective Macrosomia is one of the most common complications in gestational diabetes mellitus. Insulin-like growth factor 2 and H19 are two of the imprinted candidate genes that are involved in fetal growth and development. Change in methylation at differentially methylated region of the insulin-like growth factor 2 and H19 has been proved to be an early event related to the programming of metabolic profile, including macrosomia and small for gestational age in offspring. Here we hypothesize that alteration in methylation at differentially methylated region of the insulin-like growth factor 2 and H19 is associated with macrosomia induced by intrauterine hyperglycemia. Results The expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 is significant higher in gestational diabetes mellitus group (GDM group) compared to normal glucose tolerance group (NGT group) both in umbilical cord blood and placenta, while the expression of H19 is significant lower in GDM group in umbilical cord blood. The expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 is significant higher in normal glucose tolerance with macrosomia group (NGT-M) compared to normal glucose tolerance with normal birthweight group (NGT-NBW group) both in placenta and umbilical cord blood. A model with interaction term of gene expression of IGF2 and H19 found that IGF2 and the joint action of IGF2 and H19 in placenta showed significantly relationship with GDM/NGT and GDM-NBW/NGT-NBW. A borderline significant association was seen among IGF2 and H19 in cord blood and GDM-M/NGT-M. The methylation level at different CpG sites of insulin-like growth factor 2 and H19 in umbilical cord blood was also significantly different among groups. Based on the multivariable linear regression analysis, the methylation of the insulin-like growth factor 2 / H19 is closely related to birth weight and intrauterine hyperglycemia. Conclusions We confirmed the existence of alteration in DNA methylation in umbilical cord blood exposed to intrauterine

  8. Differential negative air ion effects on learning disabled and normal-achieving children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, L. L.; Kershner, J. R.

    1990-03-01

    Forty normal-achieving and 33 learning disabled (LD) children were assigned randomly to either a negative ion or placebo test condition. On a dichotic listening task using consonant-vowel (CV) combinations, both groups showed an ioninduced increase in the normal right ear advantage (REA). However, the mechanisms for this effect were different for each group. The LDs showed the effect at the right ear/left hemisphere (enhancement). The normal achievers showed the effect at the left ear/right hemisphere (inhibition). The results are consistent with an activation-inhibition model of cerebral function and suggest a functional relationship between arousal, interhemispheric activation-inhibition, and learning disabilities. The LDs may have an interhemispheric dysfunction. Both groups showed superior right ear report and the normal achiever showed overall superiority. Normal achievers showed higher consonant intrusion scores, probably due to a greater cognitive capacity. Age was a significant covariate reflecting developmental capacity changes. Negative air ions are seen to be a tool with potential theoretical and remedial applications.

  9. Differentiating Bulimic-Anorexic from Normal Families Using Interpersonal and Behavioral Observational Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Laura Lynn; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Compared interpersonal and behavioral observational systems in their ability to differentiate families with a bulimic-anorexic daughter using the modified Marital Interaction Coding System (MICS) and the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB). Results showed both measures successfully discriminated between groups, accounting for…

  10. Distribution of coniferin in differentiating normal and compression woods using MALDI mass spectrometric imaging coupled with osmium tetroxide vapor treatment.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Arata; Kamitakahara, Hiroshi; Takabe, Keiji

    2016-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI) was employed to detect monolignol glucosides in differentiating normal and compression woods of two Japanese softwoods, Chamaecyparis obtusa and Cryptomeria japonica Comparison of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry collision-induced dissociation fragmentation analysis and structural time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF CID-FAST) spectra between coniferin and differentiating xylem also confirmed the presence of coniferin in differentiating xylem. However, as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and MALDI-TOF CID-FAST spectra of sucrose were similar to those of coniferin, it was difficult to distinguish the distribution of coniferin and sucrose using MALDI-MSI and collision-induced dissociation measurement only. To solve this problem, osmium tetroxide vapor was applied to sections of differentiating xylem. This vapor treatment caused peak shifts corresponding to the introduction of two hydroxyl groups to the C=C double bond in coniferin. The treatment did not cause a peak shift for sucrose, and therefore was effective in distinguishing coniferin and sucrose. Thus, it was found that MALDI-MSI combined with osmium tetroxide vapor treatment is a useful method to detect coniferin in differentiating xylem. PMID:26507270

  11. Differential gene expression in tumorigenic and nontumorigenic HeLa x normal human fibroblast hybrid cells.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, H; Nishizuka, S; Redpath, J L; Stanbridge, E J

    1999-12-01

    Fusion of tumorigenic HeLa cells with human skin fibroblasts results in chromosomally stable hybrids that are nontumorigenic and no longer express the HeLa tumor-associated marker intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP). Previous studies of spontaneous tumorigenic segregants from the nontumorigenic hybrids implicated the loss of one copy of human fibroblast chromosome 11 in the concomitant reexpression of tumorigenicity. In an attempt to identify genes involved in the control of tumorigenic expression, we performed differential display screening of nontumorigenic hybrid cells and tumorigenic segregants. Subsequent northern blot analyses reproducibly showed 17 differentially expressed genes, eight of which were expressed differentially in the nontumorigenic hybrids and nine of which were expressed differentially in the tumorigenic hybrids. The former were genes for 80K-L protein (a substrate of protein kinase C), AXL/UFO (a receptor tyrosine kinase), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3, apolipoprotein AI regulatory protein, collagen type I alpha-2 chain, transforming growth factor-beta-induced gene product 3 (BIGH3), pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein, and fibroblast activation protein alpha. The latter nine genes were genes for serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK; a serine/threonine protein kinase), PTPCAAX1 (a tyrosine phosphatase), CXCR-4 (a G-protein-coupled membrane receptor), L-kynurenine hydrolase, beta-1, 4-galactosyltransferase, keratin 8, keratin 17, and H19 and a novel gene. The differential expression of these genes provided several interesting candidates for regulation of tumorigenic expression, including those involved in signal transduction and the extracellular matrix, cytoskeletal proteins, cell-surface enzyme, and the H19 gene. PMID:10569806

  12. Intrauterine Growth Retardation (IUGR) as a Novel Condition of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Martín-Estal, I; de la Garza, R G; Castilla-Cortázar, I

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an anabolic hormone with several biological activities, such as proliferation, mitochondrial protection, cell survival, tissue growth and development, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antifibrogenic and antiaging. This hormone plays an important role in embryological and postnatal states, being essential for normal foetal and placental growth and differentiation. During gestation, the placenta is one of the major sources of IGF-1, among other hormones. This intrauterine organ expresses IGF-1 receptors and IGF-1 binding proteins (IGFBPs), which control IGF-1 activities. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is the second most frequent cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, defined as the inability to achieve the expected weight for gestational age. Different studies have revealed that IUGR infants have placental dysfunction and low circulating levels of insulin, IGF-1, IGF-2 and IGFBPs. Such data suggest that IGF-1 deficiency in gestational state may be one of the major causes of foetal growth retardation. The aim of this review is to study the epidemiology, physiopathology and possible causes of IUGR. Also, it intends to study the possible role of the placenta as an IGF-1 target organ. The purpose is to establish if IUGR could be considered as a novel condition of IGF-1 deficiency and if its treatment with low doses of IGF-1 could be a suitable therapeutic strategy. PMID:26634242

  13. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A.; Sanmiguel, Claudia P.; Van Horn, John D.; Woodworth, Davis; Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Fling, Connor; Love, Aubrey; Tillisch, Kirsten; Labus, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alterations in the hedonic component of ingestive behaviors have been implicated as a possible risk factor in the pathophysiology of overweight and obese individuals. Neuroimaging evidence from individuals with increasing body mass index suggests structural, functional, and neurochemical alterations in the extended reward network and associated networks. Aim To apply a multivariate pattern analysis to distinguish normal weight and overweight subjects based on gray and white-matter measurements. Methods Structural images (N = 120, overweight N = 63) and diffusion tensor images (DTI) (N = 60, overweight N = 30) were obtained from healthy control subjects. For the total sample the mean age for the overweight group (females = 32, males = 31) was 28.77 years (SD = 9.76) and for the normal weight group (females = 32, males = 25) was 27.13 years (SD = 9.62). Regional segmentation and parcellation of the brain images was performed using Freesurfer. Deterministic tractography was performed to measure the normalized fiber density between regions. A multivariate pattern analysis approach was used to examine whether brain measures can distinguish overweight from normal weight individuals. Results 1. White-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 17 regional connections, achieved 97% accuracy in discriminating overweight individuals from normal weight individuals. For both brain signatures, greater connectivity as indexed by increased fiber density was observed in overweight compared to normal weight between the reward network regions and regions of the executive control, emotional arousal, and somatosensory networks. In contrast, the opposite pattern (decreased fiber density) was found between ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula, and between thalamus and executive control network regions. 2. Gray-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 42

  14. Ultrasonic differentiation of normal versus malignant breast epithelial cells in monolayer cultures.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Timothy E; Goodrich, Jeffrey B; Ambrose, Brady J; Patel, Hemang; Kwon, Soonjo; Pearson, Lee H

    2010-11-01

    Normal and malignant mammary epithelial cells were studied using laboratory measurements, wavelet analysis, and numerical simulations of monolayer cell cultures to determine whether microscopic breast cancer can be detected in vitro with high-frequency ultrasound. Pulse-echo waveforms were acquired by immersing a broadband, unfocused 50-MHz transducer in the growth media of cell culture well plates and collecting the first reflection from the well bottoms. The simulations included a multilayer pulse-reflection model and a model of two-dimensional arrays of spherical cells and nuclei. The results show that normal and malignant cells produce time-domain signals and spectral features that are significantly different. PMID:21110531

  15. Development of Planning Abilities in Normal Aging: Differential Effects of Specific Cognitive Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köstering, Lena; Stahl, Christoph; Leonhart, Rainer; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P.

    2014-01-01

    In line with the frontal hypothesis of aging, the ability to plan ahead undergoes substantial change during normal aging. Although impairments on the Tower of London planning task were reported earlier, associations between age-related declines and specific cognitive demands on planning have not been studied. Here we investigated the impact of…

  16. Differentiation of cancerous and normal brain tissue using label free fluorescence and Stokes shift spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Wang, Leana; Liu, Cheng-hui; He, Yong; Yu, Xinguang; Cheng, Gangge; Wang, Peng; Shu, Cheng; Alfano, Robert R.

    2016-03-01

    In this report, optical biopsy was applied to diagnose human brain cancer in vitro for the identification of brain cancer from normal tissues by native fluorescence and Stokes shift spectra (SSS). 77 brain specimens including three types of human brain tissues (normal, glioma and brain metastasis of lung cancers) were studied. In order to observe spectral changes of fluorophores via fluorescence, the selected excitation wavelength of UV at 300 and 340 nm for emission spectra and a different Stokes Shift spectra with intervals Δλ = 40 nm were measured. The fluorescence spectra and SSS from multiple key native molecular markers, such as tryptophan, collagen, NADH, alanine, ceroid and lipofuscin were observed in normal and diseased brain tissues. Two diagnostic criteria were established based on the ratios of the peak intensities and peak position in both fluorescence and SSS spectra. It was observed that the ratio of the spectral peak intensity of tryptophan (340 nm) to NADH (440 nm) increased in glioma, meningioma (benign), malignant meninges tumor, and brain metastasis of lung cancer tissues in comparison with normal tissues. The ratio of the SS spectral peak (Δλ = 40 nm) intensities from 292 nm to 366 nm had risen similarly in all grades of tumors.

  17. Rhyming Skills: Differentiating among Mildly Mentally Retarded, Learning Disabled, and Normally Achieving Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Marcia S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study of children ages 6-8 found that the rhyming ability of normally achieving students (n=33) and students (n=33) with learning disabilities (LD) was much higher than that of students (n=33) with mild mental retardation (MMR). Most of the LD children could and most of the MMR students could not generate rhymes. (Author/JDD)

  18. Differential responsiveness of normal and simian virus 40-transformed human fibroblast cells to interferon-gamma.

    PubMed

    Karasaki, Y; Katoh, T; Higashi, K; Gotoh, S

    1992-06-01

    The effect of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor binding and the proliferation of normal and simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed human fibroblast cells was compared under identical culture conditions. IFN-gamma induced an enhancement of EGF binding to normal cells, whereas it decreased the EGF binding to SV40-transformed cells. Half-maximal enhancement occurred at 72 h after the normal cells were exposed to 10 U/ml of IFN-gamma, and maximal stimulation was obtained at about 10(2) U/ml of IFN-gamma at 72 h. On the other hand, half-maximal reduction was observed for SV40-transformed cells at less than 10 U/ml of IFN-gamma at 72 h, and maximal reduction was obtained at around 10(3) U/ml of IFN-gamma at 72 h. Scatchard analysis indicated that the number of EGF binding sites of normal and SV40-transformed cells was calculated to be 1.6 x 10(5) and 0.88 x 10(5) per cell, respectively, and was little altered by IFN-gamma treatment. The dissociation constant (Kd) of normal cells, however, decreased from 4.5 nM (control) to 2.0 nM (IFN-gamma-treated), while the Kd of SV40-transformed cells increased from 3.6 nM (control) to 17.0 nM (IFN-gamma-treated). The immunoprecipitation of 125I-labeled EGF-bound EGF receptors with anti-receptor antiserum indicated that a 72-h IFN-gamma treatment did not induce a conformational alteration in the EGF receptors of both normal and transformed cells. The DNA synthesis of normal cells was enhanced by EGF, and IFN-gamma treatment potentiated the effect of EGF on DNA synthesis, probably due to the increased binding affinity of EGF to the cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1640119

  19. The relationship between psychological differentiation and performance expectation in alcoholics and normals.

    PubMed

    Shelley-McIntyre, B; Lapidus, L B

    1989-05-01

    Sixty subjects (20 alcoholic inpatients, 20 outpatient alcoholics, and 20 surgical controls from two Veterans Administration hospitals) were tested on field independence-dependence (measured by the Rod-and-Frame Test), realistic/unrealistic self-expectations (on the Level of Aspiration Board), and degree of alcohol dependence (on the Alcohol Dependence Scale). Response bias and current intelligence were controlled. As predicted, alcoholic inpatients were more alcohol dependent than outpatients, both groups of alcoholics were found to be more field dependent and more unrealistic in their self-expectations than controls, and field dependence was related to unrealistic expectations. Patterns of differentiation and expectation were similar in both alcoholic groups. Results support the consistency of differentiation levels within clinical groups and the relationship between field dependence and unrealistic self-expectation. PMID:2745735

  20. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  1. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  2. Differential PAX3 functions in normal skin melanocytes and melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Medic, Sandra; Rizos, Helen; Ziman, Mel

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} PAX3 retains embryonic roles in adult melanocytes and melanoma cells. {yields} Promotes 'stem' cell-like phenotype via NES and SOX9 in both cells types. {yields} Regulates melanoma and melanocyte migration through MCAM and CSPG4. {yields} PAX3 regulates melanoma but not melanocyte proliferation via TPD52. {yields} Regulates melanoma cell (but not melanocyte) survival via BCL2L1 and PTEN. -- Abstract: The PAX3 transcription factor is the key regulator of melanocyte development during embryogenesis and is also frequently found in melanoma cells. While PAX3 is known to regulate melanocyte differentiation, survival, proliferation and migration during development, it is not clear if its function is maintained in adult melanocytes and melanoma cells. To clarify this we have assessed which genes are targeted by PAX3 in these cells. We show here that similar to its roles in development, PAX3 regulates complex differentiation networks in both melanoma cells and melanocytes, in order to maintain cells as 'stem' cell-like (via NES and SOX9). We show also that mediators of migration (MCAM and CSPG4) are common to both cell types but more so in melanoma cells. By contrast, PAX3-mediated regulation of melanoma cell proliferation (through TPD52) and survival (via BCL2L1 and PTEN) differs from that in melanocytes. These results suggest that by controlling cell proliferation, survival and migration as well as maintaining a less differentiated 'stem' cell like phenotype, PAX3 may contribute to melanoma development and progression.

  3. Regulation of meiotic entry and gonadal sex differentiation in the human: normal and disrupted signaling.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Anne; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2014-08-01

    Meiosis is a unique type of cell division that is performed only by germ cells to form haploid gametes. The switch from mitosis to meiosis exhibits a distinct sex-specific difference in timing, with female germ cells entering meiosis during fetal development and male germ cells at puberty when spermatogenesis is initiated. During early fetal development, bipotential primordial germ cells migrate to the forming gonad where they remain sexually indifferent until the sex-specific differentiation of germ cells is initiated by cues from the somatic cells. This irreversible step in gonadal sex differentiation involves the initiation of meiosis in fetal ovaries and prevention of meiosis in the germ cells of fetal testes. During the last decade, major advances in the understanding of meiosis regulation have been accomplished, with the discovery of retinoic acid as an inducer of meiosis being the most prominent finding. Knowledge about the molecular mechanisms regulating meiosis signaling has mainly been established by studies in rodents, while this has not yet been extensively investigated in humans. In this review, the current knowledge about the regulation of meiosis signaling is summarized and placed in the context of fetal gonad development and germ cell differentiation, with emphasis on results obtained in humans. Furthermore, the consequences of dysregulated meiosis signaling in humans are briefly discussed in the context of selected pathologies, including testicular germ cell cancer and some forms of male infertility. PMID:25372763

  4. [Prevention of intrauterine adhesions after hysteroscopic surgery].

    PubMed

    Revaux, A; Ducarme, G; Luton, D

    2008-03-01

    Intrauterine adhesions are the most frequent complications after hysteroscopic surgery in women of reproductive age. The prevalence of intrauterine adhesions after hysteroscopic surgery is correlated to intrauterine pathology (myoma, polyp, or adhesions). Few clinical trials have demonstrated the efficiency of barrier agents developed in order to prevent adhesions after operative hysteroscopy. Adhesion barriers are mechanic agent (intrauterine device), fluid agents (Seprafilm, Hyalobarrier) and postoperative systemic treatment (estroprogestative treatment). In this article, we evaluate the efficiency of these barrier agents for adhesion prevention in hysteroscopic surgery, undertaking a review of clinical trials published. The most frequent published studies evaluate the anatomic efficiency of antiadhesion agents after hysteroscopic surgery in order to evaluate the fertility. Data are still insufficient to evaluate them for clinical use. There is a need for other randomised controlled trials. PMID:18308609

  5. Gene Profile Identifies Zinc Transporters Differentially Expressed in Normal Human Organs and Human Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Cui, X.; Yao, W.; Yu, X.; Cen, P.; Hodges, S.E.; Fisher, W.E.; Brunicardi, F.C.; Chen, C.; Yao, Q.; Li, M.

    2013-01-01

    Deregulated expression of zinc transporters was linked to several cancers. However, the detailed expression profile of all human zinc transporters in normal human organs and in human cancer, especially in pancreatic cancer is not available. The objectives of this study are to investigate the complete expression patterns of 14 ZIP and 10 ZnT transporters in a large number of normal human organs and in human pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines. We examined the expression patterns of ZIP and ZnT transporters in 22 different human organs and tissues, 11 pairs of clinical human pancreatic cancer specimens and surrounding normal/benign tissues, as well as 10 established human pancreatic cancer cell lines plus normal human pancreatic ductal epithelium (HPDE) cells, using real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that human zinc transporters have tissue specific expression patterns, and may play different roles in different organs or tissues. Almost all the ZIPs except for ZIP4, and most ZnTs were down-regulated in human pancreatic cancer tissues compared to the surrounding benign tissues. The expression patterns of individual ZIPs and ZnTs are similar among different pancreatic cancer lines. Those results and our previous studies suggest that ZIP4 is the only zinc transporter that is significantly up-regulated in human pancreatic cancer and might be the major zinc transporter that plays an important role in pancreatic cancer growth. ZIP4 might serve as a novel molecular target for pancreatic cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:23331012

  6. Differential Expression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Normal and Tumor Tissues from Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Ortiz, Dora; Camacho-Carranza, Rafael; González-Zamora, José Francisco; Shalkow-Kalincovstein, Jaime; Cárdenas-Cardós, Rocío; Ností-Palacios, Rosario; Vences-Mejía, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    Intratumoral expression of genes encoding Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) might play a critical role not only in cancer development but also in the metabolism of anticancer drugs. The purpose of this study was to compare the mRNA expression patterns of seven representative CYPs in paired tumor and normal tissue of child patients with rabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Using real time quantitative RT-PCR, the gene expression pattern of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, CYP2W1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 were analyzed in tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues from 13 child RMS patients. Protein concentration of CYPs was determined using Western blot. The expression levels were tested for correlation with the clinical and pathological data of the patients. Our data showed that the expression levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 were negligible. Elevated expression of CYP1B1 mRNA and protein was detected in most RMS tumors and adjacent normal tissues. Most cancerous samples exhibit higher levels of both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 compared with normal tissue samples. Expression of CYP2E1 mRNA was found to be significantly higher in tumor tissue, however no relation was found with protein levels. CYP2W1 mRNA and/or protein are mainly expressed in tumors. In conclusion, we defined the CYP gene expression profile in tumor and paired normal tissue of child patients with RMS. The overexpression of CYP2W1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in tumor tissues suggests that they may be involved in RMS chemoresistance; furthermore, they may be exploited for the localized activation of anticancer prodrugs. PMID:24699256

  7. Differential expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes in normal and tumor tissues from childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Molina-Ortiz, Dora; Camacho-Carranza, Rafael; González-Zamora, José Francisco; Shalkow-Kalincovstein, Jaime; Cárdenas-Cardós, Rocío; Ností-Palacios, Rosario; Vences-Mejía, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    Intratumoral expression of genes encoding Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) might play a critical role not only in cancer development but also in the metabolism of anticancer drugs. The purpose of this study was to compare the mRNA expression patterns of seven representative CYPs in paired tumor and normal tissue of child patients with rabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Using real time quantitative RT-PCR, the gene expression pattern of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, CYP2W1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 were analyzed in tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues from 13 child RMS patients. Protein concentration of CYPs was determined using Western blot. The expression levels were tested for correlation with the clinical and pathological data of the patients. Our data showed that the expression levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 were negligible. Elevated expression of CYP1B1 mRNA and protein was detected in most RMS tumors and adjacent normal tissues. Most cancerous samples exhibit higher levels of both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 compared with normal tissue samples. Expression of CYP2E1 mRNA was found to be significantly higher in tumor tissue, however no relation was found with protein levels. CYP2W1 mRNA and/or protein are mainly expressed in tumors. In conclusion, we defined the CYP gene expression profile in tumor and paired normal tissue of child patients with RMS. The overexpression of CYP2W1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in tumor tissues suggests that they may be involved in RMS chemoresistance; furthermore, they may be exploited for the localized activation of anticancer prodrugs. PMID:24699256

  8. Differential Expression of GADD45β in Normal and Osteoarthritic Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Ijiri, Kosei; Zerbini, Luiz F.; Peng, Haibing; Otu, Hasan H.; Tsuchimochi, Kaneyuki; Otero, Miguel; Dragomir, Cecilia; Walsh, Nicole; Bierbaum, Benjamin E.; Mattingly, David; van Flandern, Geoff; Komiya, Setsuro; Aigner, Thomas; Libermann, Towia A.; Goldring, Mary B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our previous study suggested that growth arrest and DNA damage–inducible protein 45β (GADD45β) prolonged the survival of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the developing mouse embryo. This study was undertaken, therefore, to investigate whether GADD45β plays a role in adult articular cartilage. Methods Gene expression profiles of cartilage from patients with late-stage osteoarthritis (OA) were compared with those from patients with early OA and normal controls in 2 separate microarray analyses. Histologic features of cartilage were graded using the Mankin scale, and GADD45β was localized by immunohistochemistry. Human chondrocytes were transduced with small interfering RNA (siRNA)–GADD45β or GADD45β-FLAG. GADD45β and COL2A1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction, and promoter activities were analyzed by transient transfection. Cell death was detected by Hoechst 33342 staining of condensed chromatin. Results GADD45β was expressed at higher levels in cartilage from normal donors and patients with early OA than in cartilage from patients with late-stage OA. All chondrocyte nuclei in normal cartilage immunostained for GADD45β. In early OA cartilage, GADD45β was distributed variably in chondrocyte clusters, in middle and deep zone cells, and in osteophytes. In contrast, COL2A1, other collagen genes, and factors associated with skeletal development were up-regulated in late OA, compared with early OA or normal cartilage. In overexpression and knockdown experiments, GADD45β down-regulated COL2A1 mRNA and promoter activity. NF-κB overexpression increased GADD45β promoter activity, and siRNA-GADD45β decreased cell survival per se and enhanced tumor necrosis factor α–induced cell death in human articular chondrocytes. Conclusion These observations suggest that GADD45β might play an important role in regulating chondrocyte homeostasis by modulating collagen gene expression and

  9. Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue

    PubMed Central

    Teh, S K; Zheng, W; Ho, K Y; Teh, M; Yeoh, K G; Huang, Z

    2008-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a molecular vibrational spectroscopic technique that is capable of optically probing the biomolecular changes associated with diseased transformation. The purpose of this study was to explore near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy for identifying dysplasia from normal gastric mucosa tissue. A rapid-acquisition dispersive-type NIR Raman system was utilised for tissue Raman spectroscopic measurements at 785 nm laser excitation. A total of 76 gastric tissue samples obtained from 44 patients who underwent endoscopy investigation or gastrectomy operation were used in this study. The histopathological examinations showed that 55 tissue specimens were normal and 21 were dysplasia. Both the empirical approach and multivariate statistical techniques, including principal components analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), together with the leave-one-sample-out cross-validation method, were employed to develop effective diagnostic algorithms for classification of Raman spectra between normal and dysplastic gastric tissues. High-quality Raman spectra in the range of 800–1800 cm−1 can be acquired from gastric tissue within 5 s. There are specific spectral differences in Raman spectra between normal and dysplasia tissue, particularly in the spectral ranges of 1200–1500 cm−1 and 1600–1800 cm−1, which contained signals related to amide III and amide I of proteins, CH3CH2 twisting of proteins/nucleic acids, and the C=C stretching mode of phospholipids, respectively. The empirical diagnostic algorithm based on the ratio of the Raman peak intensity at 875 cm−1 to the peak intensity at 1450 cm−1 gave the diagnostic sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 80.0%, whereas the diagnostic algorithms based on PCA-LDA yielded the diagnostic sensitivity of 95.2% and specificity 90.9% for separating dysplasia from normal gastric tissue. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves further confirmed that the most effective

  10. A monocrystal graphene domain biosensor array with differential output for real-time monitoring of glucose and normal saline.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junjie; Li, Xin; Chen, Qian; Gao, Kun; Song, Hui; Guo, Shixi; Li, Quanfu; Fang, Ming; Liu, Weihua; Liu, Hongzhong; Wang, Xiaoli

    2015-05-01

    A biosensor array with differential output based on a monocrystal graphene domain is proposed to realize high resolution measurements. The differential output structure can eliminate the noise that comes from graphene crystal orientation and grain boundary, as well as the fluctuation that comes from the contact resistance and experiment process, so as to improve resolution in the lower concentration. We have fabricated a high quality monocrystal graphene domain that has millimeter size by the chemical vapor deposition method. Two identical graphene ribbons that are cut from the same domain are used as field effect transistor source-to-drain channels for the reference and the test of differential output, respectively. The experimental results show that the source-to-drain current has a fast response shorter than 0.5 second in glucose, normal saline and pH buffer solutions of different concentrations. Sensitivity increases exponentially with the increase of concentration of the tested liquid and the high resolution range is 0.01-2 wt% in glucose and 0.0009-0.018 wt% in saline, and the highest resolutions of glucose and saline are 0.01 wt% and 0.0009 wt%, respectively. We have fabricated a 1 × 4 array structure with differential outputs that pave the way for rapidly detecting ultra-low concentration of analytes. PMID:25853238

  11. A monocrystal graphene domain biosensor array with differential output for real-time monitoring of glucose and normal saline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junjie; Li, Xin; Chen, Qian; Gao, Kun; Song, Hui; Guo, Shixi; Li, Quanfu; Fang, Ming; Liu, Weihua; Liu, Hongzhong; Wang, Xiaoli

    2015-04-01

    A biosensor array with differential output based on a monocrystal graphene domain is proposed to realize high resolution measurements. The differential output structure can eliminate the noise that comes from graphene crystal orientation and grain boundary, as well as the fluctuation that comes from the contact resistance and experiment process, so as to improve resolution in the lower concentration. We have fabricated a high quality monocrystal graphene domain that has millimeter size by the chemical vapor deposition method. Two identical graphene ribbons that are cut from the same domain are used as field effect transistor source-to-drain channels for the reference and the test of differential output, respectively. The experimental results show that the source-to-drain current has a fast response shorter than 0.5 second in glucose, normal saline and pH buffer solutions of different concentrations. Sensitivity increases exponentially with the increase of concentration of the tested liquid and the high resolution range is 0.01-2 wt% in glucose and 0.0009-0.018 wt% in saline, and the highest resolutions of glucose and saline are 0.01 wt% and 0.0009 wt%, respectively. We have fabricated a 1 × 4 array structure with differential outputs that pave the way for rapidly detecting ultra-low concentration of analytes.

  12. Modulation of retinoblastoma gene in normal adult hematopoiesis: peak expression and functional role in advanced erythroid differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, G L; Testa, U; Valtieri, M; Vitelli, L; De Luca, A; Barberi, T; Montesoro, E; Campisi, S; Giordano, A; Peschle, C

    1995-01-01

    The retinoblastoma (RB) gene specifies a nuclear phosphoprotein (pRb 105), which is a prototype tumor suppressor inactivated in a variety of human tumors. Recent studies suggest that RB is also involved in embryonic development of murine central nervous and hematopoietic systems. We have investigated RB expression and function in human adult hematopoiesis--i.e., in liquid suspension culture of purified quiescent hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) induced by growth factor stimulus to proliferation and unilinage differentiation/maturation through the erythroid or granulocytic lineage. In the initial HPC differentiation stages, the RB gene is gradually induced at the mRNA and protein level in both erythroid and granulopoietic cultures. In late HPC differentiation and then precursor maturation, RB gene expression is sustained in the erythroid lineage, whereas it is sharply downmodulated in the granulocytic series. Functional studies were performed by treatment of HPC differentiation culture with phosphorothioate antisense oligomer targeting Rb mRNA; coherent with the expression pattern, oligomer treatment of late HPCs causes a dose-dependent and selective inhibition of erythroid colony formation. These observations suggest that the RB gene plays an erythroid- and stage-specific functional role in normal adult hematopoiesis, particularly at the level of late erythroid HPCs. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7761404

  13. Preterm Birth, Intrauterine Infection, and Fetal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) (delivery before 37 weeks’ gestation) is a leading cause of neonatal death and disease in industrialized and developing countries alike. Infection (most notably in high-risk deliveries occurring before 28 weeks’ gestation) is hypothesized to initiate an intrauterine inflammatory response that plays a key role in the premature initiation of labor as well as a host of the pathologies associated with prematurity. As such, a better understanding of intrauterine inflammation in pregnancy is critical to our understanding of preterm labor and fetal injury, as well as on-going efforts to prevent PTB. Focusing on the fetal innate immune system responses to intrauterine infection, the present paper will review clinical and experimental studies to discuss the capacity for a fetal contribution to the intrauterine inflammation associated with PTB. Evidence from experimental studies to suggest that the fetus has the capacity to elicit a pro-inflammatory response to intrauterine infection is highlighted, with reference to the contribution of the lung, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. The paper will conclude that pathological intrauterine inflammation is a complex process that is modified by multiple factors including time, type of agonist, host genetics, and tissue. PMID:25520716

  14. TRIM32 regulates skeletal muscle stem cell differentiation and is necessary for normal adult muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Sarah; Otto, Anthony; Wu, Xiaoli; Miller, Pamela; Stelzer, Sandra; Wen, Yefei; Kuang, Shihuan; Wrogemann, Klaus; Patel, Ketan; Ding, Hao; Schwamborn, Jens C

    2012-01-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H) is an inherited autosomal recessive disease of skeletal muscle caused by a mutation in the TRIM32 gene. Currently its pathogenesis is entirely unclear. Typically the regeneration process of adult skeletal muscle during growth or following injury is controlled by a tissue specific stem cell population termed satellite cells. Given that TRIM32 regulates the fate of mammalian neural progenitor cells through controlling their differentiation, we asked whether TRIM32 could also be essential for the regulation of myogenic stem cells. Here we demonstrate for the first time that TRIM32 is expressed in the skeletal muscle stem cell lineage of adult mice, and that in the absence of TRIM32, myogenic differentiation is disrupted. Moreover, we show that the ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 controls this process through the regulation of c-Myc, a similar mechanism to that previously observed in neural progenitors. Importantly we show that loss of TRIM32 function induces a LGMD2H-like phenotype and strongly affects muscle regeneration in vivo. Our studies implicate that the loss of TRIM32 results in dysfunctional muscle stem cells which could contribute to the development of LGMD2H. PMID:22299041

  15. Disinhibited Social Engagement in Postinstitutionalized Children: Differentiating Normal from Atypical Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lawler, Jamie M.; Hostinar, Camelia E.; Mliner, Shanna B.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly reported socially aberrant behavior in postinstitutionalized (PI) children is disinhibited social engagement (DSE; also known as indiscriminate friendliness). There is no gold standard for measurement of this phenomenon or agreement on how to differentiate it from normative behavior. We adopted a developmental psychopathology approach (Cicchetti, 1984) to study this phenomenon by comparing it to normative social development and by studying its patterns over time in 50 newly adopted PI children (16–36 months at adoption) compared with 41 children adopted early from foster care overseas and 47 nonadopted (NA) controls. Using coded behavioral observations of the child’s interaction with an unfamiliar adult, atypical behaviors were differentiated from normative behaviors. Principal components analysis identified two dimensions of social disinhibition. The nonphysical social dimension (e.g., initiations, proximity) showed wide variation in NA children and is therefore considered a typical form of sociability. Displays of physical contact and intimacy were rare in NA children, suggesting that they represent an atypical pattern of behavior. Both adopted groups demonstrated more physical DSE behavior than NA children. There were no group differences on the nonphysical factor, and it increased over time in all groups. Implications for understanding the etiology of DSE and future directions are discussed. PMID:24621789

  16. Protection against Fatty Liver but Normal Adipogenesis in Mice Lacking Adipose Differentiation-Related Protein†

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Benny Hung-Junn; Li, Lan; Paul, Antoni; Taniguchi, Susumu; Nannegari, Vijayalakshmi; Heird, William C.; Chan, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Adipose differentiation-related protein (ADFP; also known as ADRP or adipophilin), is a lipid droplet (LD) protein found in most cells and tissues. ADFP expression is strongly induced in cells with increased lipid load. We have inactivated the Adfp gene in mice to better understand its role in lipid accumulation. The Adfp-deficient mice have unaltered adipose differentiation or lipolysis in vitro or in vivo. Importantly, they display a 60% reduction in hepatic triglyceride (TG) and are resistant to diet-induced fatty liver. To determine the mechanism for the reduced hepatic TG content, we measured hepatic lipogenesis, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, and lipid uptake and utilization, all of which parameters were shown to be similar between mutant and wild-type mice. The finding of similar VLDL output in the presence of a reduction in total TG in the Adfp-deficient liver is explained by the retention of TG in the microsomes where VLDL is assembled. Given that lipid droplets are thought to form from the outer leaflet of the microsomal membrane, the reduction of TG in the cytosol with concomitant accumulation of TG in the microsome of Adfp−/− cells suggests that ADFP may facilitate the formation of new LDs. In the absence of ADFP, impairment of LD formation is associated with the accumulation of microsomal TG but a reduction in TG in other subcellular compartments. PMID:16428458

  17. Elemental analysis of tissue pellets for the differentiation of epidermal lesion and normal skin by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Moon, Youngmin; Han, Jung Hyun; Shin, Sungho; Kim, Yong-Chul; Jeong, Sungho

    2016-05-01

    By laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of epidermal lesion and dermis tissue pellets of hairless mouse, it is shown that Ca intensity in the epidermal lesion is higher than that in dermis, whereas Na and K intensities have an opposite tendency. It is demonstrated that epidermal lesion and normal dermis can be differentiated with high selectivity either by univariate or multivariate analysis of LIBS spectra with an intensity ratio difference by factor of 8 or classification accuracy over 0.995, respectively. PMID:27231610

  18. The method of normal forms for singularly perturbed systems of Fredholm integro-differential equations with rapidly varying kernels

    SciTech Connect

    Bobodzhanov, A A; Safonov, V F

    2013-07-31

    The paper deals with extending the Lomov regularization method to classes of singularly perturbed Fredholm-type integro-differential systems, which have not so far been studied. In these the limiting operator is discretely noninvertible. Such systems are commonly known as problems with unstable spectrum. Separating out the essential singularities in the solutions to these problems presents great difficulties. The principal one is to give an adequate description of the singularities induced by 'instability points' of the spectrum. A methodology for separating singularities by using normal forms is developed. It is applied to the above type of systems and is substantiated in these systems. Bibliography: 10 titles.

  19. Elemental analysis of tissue pellets for the differentiation of epidermal lesion and normal skin by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Youngmin; Han, Jung Hyun; Shin, Sungho; Kim, Yong-Chul; Jeong, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    By laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of epidermal lesion and dermis tissue pellets of hairless mouse, it is shown that Ca intensity in the epidermal lesion is higher than that in dermis, whereas Na and K intensities have an opposite tendency. It is demonstrated that epidermal lesion and normal dermis can be differentiated with high selectivity either by univariate or multivariate analysis of LIBS spectra with an intensity ratio difference by factor of 8 or classification accuracy over 0.995, respectively. PMID:27231610

  20. Posture and Gender Differentially Affect Heart Rate Variability of Symptomatic Mitral Valve Prolapse and Normal Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chien-Jung; Chen, Ya-Chu; Lee, Chih-Hsien; Yang, Ing-Fang; Yang, Ten-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV) has been shown to be a useful measure of autonomic activity in healthy and mitral valve prolapsed (MVP) subjects. However, the effects of posture and gender on HRV in symptomatic MVP and normal adults had not been elucidated in Taiwan. Methods A total of 118 MVP patients (7 males, 39 ± 7 years old; and 111 females, 42 ± 13 years old) and 148 healthy control (54 males, 28 ± 4 years old; and 94 females, 26 ± 6 years old) were investigated. The diagnosis of MVP was confirmed by cross-sectional echocardiography. A locally developed Taiwanese machine was used to record the HRV parameters for MVP and control groups in three stationary positions. Thereafter, the HRV time-domain parameters, and the frequency-domain parameters derived from fast Fourier transform or autoregressive methods were analyzed. Results The MVP group showed a decrease in time domain parameters and obtunded postural effects on frequency domain parameters moreso than the control group. Though the parasympathetic tone was dominant in female (higher RMSSD, nHF and lower nLF vs. male), the sympathetic outflow was higher in MVP female (lower SDNN, NN50 and higher nLF vs. normal female). While the parasympathetic activity was lower in male, sympathetic outflow was dominant in MVP male (lower nHF and higher nLF vs. normal male). Conclusions Both MVP female and male subjects had elevated levels of sympathetic outflow. The obtunded postural effects on frequency domain measures testified to the autonomic dysregulation of MVP subjects. PMID:27471360

  1. Changes in expression of differentiation markers between normal ovarian cells and derived tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Van Niekerk, C. C.; Ramaekers, F. C.; Hanselaar, A. G.; Aldeweireldt, J.; Poels, L. G.

    1993-01-01

    The marker profile of 18 samples of normal human ovarian tissues and 138 samples of their derived tumors was established using 51 monoclonal antibodies directed against intermediate filaments, ovarian carcinoma-specific antigens, general tumor-associated antigens and MHC-I/II antigens. Our data show that vimentin and keratins 7, 8, 18, and 19 were found in both epithelial and some nonepithelial ovarian tumors. Several tumor samples contained additional keratins 4, 10, 13, and 14, as well as desmin. BW 495/36 and to a lesser extent HMFG-2 were usually found in all ovarian tumors that contained simple epithelial keratins, except the absence of HMFG-2 in gonadal tumors as well as in dysgerminomas. In contrast to the keratin antibodies, these two panepithelial antibodies were negative in normal mesothelial cells and granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles. In general, the marker TAG-72 appeared useful for its discrimination between positively stained mucinous adenomas, the ovarian carcinomas as well as germ cell tumors, and the negatively stained gonadal tumors, serous adenomas, and cystomas. OV632 appeared useful in the distinction between negatively stained serous adenomas and positively stained serous carcinomas. In contrast, the monoclonal antibodies OC 125, OV-TL 3, OV-TL 16, and MOv 18 can be considered as pan-ovarian carcinoma markers, however without the discriminative capability as seen for OV632. These ovarian carcinoma-associated antigens were hardly found expressed in gonadal and germ cell tumors, except in the group of endodermal sinus tumors. HLA-I was found to be expressed in almost all nucleated cells, although loss of HLA-I expression was seen in areas of tumor cells. HLA-DR was negative in normal ovarian tissue, but heterogeneous expression was noticed in most of the epithelial tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7678716

  2. Differential response of normal and malignant urothelial cells to CHK1 and ATM inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, W-T; Catto, J W F; Meuth, M

    2015-05-28

    While DNA damage response pathways are well characterized in cancer cells, much less is known about their status in normal cells. These pathways protect tumour cells from DNA damage and replication stress and consequently present potential therapeutic targets. Here we characterize the response of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-immortalized normal human urothelial (NHU) and bladder cancer cell lines to agents that disrupt the DNA damage response. Effects of replication and DNA damage response inhibitors on cell cycle progression, checkpoint induction and apoptosis were analysed in hTERT-NHU and bladder cancer cell lines. The primary signalling cascade responding to replication stress in malignant cells (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and Rad3-related-checkpoint kinase 1 (ATR-CHK1)) is not activated in hTERT-NHU cells after treatment with a replication inhibitor and these cells do not depend upon CHK1 for protection from apoptosis during replication stress. Instead, ATM signalling is rapidly activated under these conditions. Intriguingly, an ATM inhibitor suppressed S-phase checkpoint activation after exposure to replication inhibitors and stopped entry of cells into S-phase indicating G1 checkpoint activation. Consistent with this, hTERT-NHU cells treated with the ATM inhibitor showed increased levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19(INK4D), reduced levels of cyclin D1 and CDK4, and reduced phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein. In contrast, a bladder cancer cell line cotreated with ATM and replication inhibitors progressed more slowly through S phase and showed a marked increase in apoptosis. Taken together, our findings suggest that ATM and CHK1 signalling cascades have different roles in tumour and normal epithelial cells, confirming these as promising therapeutic targets. PMID:25043304

  3. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: a BNCT approach.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Samereh; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Khojasteh, Nasrin Baghban

    2012-06-01

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. PMID:22484141

  4. Distribution of histocompatibility and leucocyte differentiation antigens in normal human colon and in benign and malignant colonic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Csiba, A; Whitwell, H L; Moore, M

    1984-11-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) directed against the framework determinants of Class I and Class II products of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and against leucocyte differentiation antigens were used in an indirect immunoperoxidase technique to study their expression in normal, benign (adenomatous polyps) and malignant disease of the colon. Class I products (detected by the McAb 2A1) were strongly expressed on all cell types in normal and benign tissues but some carcinomas exhibited a heterogenous pattern of epithelial cell staining and 4/15 were completely negative. Class II products (detected by TDR31.1) were strongly expressed on cells (mainly B lymphocytes) within the lamina propria. In carcinomas TDR31.1 staining was mainly interstitial, but in 2/15, DR + epithelial cells were also detected. In normal and benign tissues, leucocytes (reactive with 2D1) found predominantly in the lamina propria, comprised T cells mainly of the helper/inducer (OKT4) subset, DR + cells in approx. equivalent proportion and a few OKM1+ cells mostly of macrophage morphology. Occasional intraepithelial lymphocytes were of cytotoxic/suppressor (OKT8) phenotype. In malignant neoplasms, there was wide inter and intra-tumour variation in the proportion of leucocytes which were heterogeneous with respect to cell type and confined mainly to the stroma. T cells were consistently predominant, but B cells and macrophages were also present. Two neoplasms showed unequivocal evidence of a shift (relative to peripheral blood) in favour of the OKT8+ subset, but in the majority of tumours OKT4+; and OKT8+ cells were present in roughly similar proportions. Natural killer cells (monitored with Leu7, HNK1) were virtually undetectable in both normal and malignant tissues. There were no apparent correlations between the extent and type of leucocyte infiltration, tumour differentiation or expression of MHC products. Some implications for the extrapolation of in vitro data on leucocyte function

  5. Differential requirements for eIF4E dose in normal development and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Truitt, Morgan L; Conn, Crystal S; Shi, Zhen; Pang, Xiaming; Tokuyasu, Taku; Coady, Alison M; Seo, Youngho; Barna, Maria; Ruggero, Davide

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY eIF4E, the major cap-binding protein, has long been considered limiting for translating the mammalian genome. However, the requirement for eIF4E dose at an organismal level remains unexplored. By generating an Eif4e haploinsufficient mouse, we found that 50% reduction in eIF4E expression, while compatible with normal development and global protein synthesis, significantly impeded cellular transformation. Genome-wide translational profiling uncovered a translational program induced by oncogenic transformation and revealed a critical role for eIF4E dose specifically in translating a network of mRNAs enriched for a unique 5′UTR signature. In particular, we demonstrate that eIF4E dose is essential for translating mRNAs regulating reactive oxygen species that fuel transformation and cancer cell survival in vivo. Our findings indicate that cancer cells hijack the eIF4E level in excess for normal development to drive a translational program supporting tumorigenesis. PMID:26095252

  6. Ubiquitin Specific Protease 21 Is Dispensable for Normal Development, Hematopoiesis and Lymphocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Pannu, Jaspreet; Belle, Jad I.; Förster, Michael; Duerr, Claudia U.; Shen, Shiyang; Kane, Leanne; Harcourt, Katherine; Fritz, Jörg H.; Clare, Simon; Nijnik, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    USP21 is a ubiquitin specific protease that catalyzes protein deubiquitination, however the identification of its physiological substrates remains challenging. USP21 is known to deubiquitinate transcription factor GATA3 and death-domain kinase RIPK1 in vitro, however the in vivo settings where this regulation plays a biologically significant role remain unknown. In order to determine whether USP21 is an essential and non-redundant regulator of GATA3 or RIPK1 activity in vivo, we characterized Usp21-deficient mice, focusing on mouse viability and development, hematopoietic stem cell function, and lymphocyte differentiation. The Usp21-knockout mice were found to be viable and fertile, with no significant dysmorphology, in contrast to the GATA3 and RIPK1 knockout lines that exhibit embryonic or perinatal lethality. Loss of USP21 also had no effect on hematopoietic stem cell function, lymphocyte development, or the responses of antigen presenting cells to TLR and TNFR stimulation. GATA3 levels in hematopoietic stem cells or T lymphocytes remained unchanged. We observed that aged Usp21-knockout mice exhibited spontaneous T cell activation, however this was not linked to altered GATA3 levels in the affected cells. The contrast in the phenotype of the Usp21-knockout line with the previously characterized GATA3 and RIPK1 knockout mice strongly indicates that USP21 is redundant for the regulation of GATA3 and RIPK1 activity during mouse development, in hematopoietic stem cells, and in lymphocyte differentiation. The Usp21-deficient mouse line characterized in this study may serve as a useful tool for the future characterization of USP21 physiological functions. PMID:25680095

  7. Normal Human Lung Epithelial Cells Inhibit Transforming Growth Factor-β Induced Myofibroblast Differentiation via Prostaglandin E2

    PubMed Central

    Epa, Amali P.; Thatcher, Thomas H.; Pollock, Stephen J.; Wahl, Lindsay A.; Lyda, Elizabeth; Kottmann, R. M.; Phipps, Richard P.; Sime, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive disease with very few effective treatments. The key effector cells in fibrosis are believed to be fibroblasts, which differentiate to a contractile myofibroblast phenotype with enhanced capacity to proliferate and produce extracellular matrix. The role of the lung epithelium in fibrosis is unclear. While there is evidence that the epithelium is disrupted in IPF, it is not known whether this is a cause or a result of the fibroblast pathology. We hypothesized that healthy epithelial cells are required to maintain normal lung homeostasis and can inhibit the activation and differentiation of lung fibroblasts to the myofibroblast phenotype. To investigate this hypothesis, we employed a novel co-culture model with primary human lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts to investigate whether epithelial cells inhibit myofibroblast differentiation. Measurements and Main Results In the presence of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, fibroblasts co-cultured with epithelial cells expressed significantly less α-smooth muscle actin and collagen and showed marked reduction in cell migration, collagen gel contraction, and cell proliferation compared to fibroblasts grown without epithelial cells. Epithelial cells from non-matching tissue origins were capable of inhibiting TGF-β induced myofibroblast differentiation in lung, keloid and Graves’ orbital fibroblasts. TGF-β promoted production of prostaglandin (PG) E2 in lung epithelial cells, and a PGE2 neutralizing antibody blocked the protective effect of epithelial cell co-culture. Conclusions We provide the first direct experimental evidence that lung epithelial cells inhibit TGF-β induced myofibroblast differentiation and pro-fibrotic phenotypes in fibroblasts. This effect is not restricted by tissue origin, and is mediated, at least in part, by PGE2. Our data support the hypothesis that the epithelium plays a crucial role in maintaining lung homeostasis

  8. A Rare Case of Jejunal Atresia Due to Intrauterine Intussusception.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sanjeev B; Kinhal, Vidyadhar; Desai, Mahesh; Tilak; Choudhari, Fazal Ur Rehman

    2015-09-01

    Intestinal atresia is generally caused by intrauterine vascular obstructions involving mesenteric vessels. Intrauterine intussusceptions (IUI) are one of these disruptive events. Intestinal intussusceptions affects children commonly between 3 months and 3 years of age, but it rarely affects in intrauterine life. The relationship between intrauterine intussusception and intestinal atresia has been demonstrated by few cases in literature, suggesting intrauterine intussusception as a rare cause of intestinal atresia. We report a 7-day-old full term neonate presenting with intrauterine intussusceptions (jejuno-jejunal) resulting in jejunal atresia. PMID:26500958

  9. Differentiation of normal and abnormal airway protection during swallowing using the penetration-aspiration scale.

    PubMed

    Robbins, J; Coyle, J; Rosenbek, J; Roecker, E; Wood, J

    1999-01-01

    Accidental loss of food or liquids into the airway while eating or drinking is perhaps the most clinically significant consequence of dysphagia. Although videofluoroscopic recording of swallowing is the current gold standard for identifying and determining remediation for aspiration, results are generally described in descriptive terms, thus limiting information and lending to errors of interpretation. We previously published an 8-point scale to quantitate selected aspects of penetration and aspiration conveying depth of airway invasion and whether or not material entering the airway is expelled (Rosenbek et al., 1996, Dysphagia 11:93-98). The present study defines the distribution of the Penetration-Aspiration Scale scores in healthy normal subjects of different genders and ages. The scale was also used with two groups of patients known to have significant dysphagia relative to stroke or head and neck cancer. Significant differences found among groups are discussed. PMID:10467048

  10. Carbohydrate expression and modification during keratinocyte differentiation in normal human and reconstructed epidermis.

    PubMed

    Méhul, Bruno; Corre, Christophe; Capon, Catherine; Bernard, Dominique; Schmidt, Rainer

    2003-10-01

    Using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled lectins we were able to demonstrate the presence of specific carbohydrate moieties in normal human and reconstructed epidermis. Evidence is provided that in both cases the strongly reduced lectin staining at the level of the stratum corneum is the result of a hindered accessibility of the lectins in this lipid-rich hydrophobic environment. Isolated corneocytes and purified cornified envelopes (CEs) exhibited clearly glycosylated structures reacting with distinct lectins. The presence of glycosidase activity, particularly in the upper layers of the epidermis characterized by an acidic environment (pH 5.5), indicates that modifications of the sugar residues might be important in epidermal homeostasis, barrier behavior and desquamation. Absent or strongly reduced glycosidase activity in the stratum corneum of reconstructed epidermis with an impaired pH gradient could be in part responsible for the reduced barrier function and the lack of desquamation in this model. PMID:14705793

  11. Normal form and limit cycle bifurcation of piecewise smooth differential systems with a center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lijun; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we prove that any Σ-center (either nondegenerate or degenerate) of a planar piecewise Cr smooth vector field Z is topologically equivalent to that of Z0: (x ˙ , y ˙) = (- 1 , 2 x) for y ≥ 0, (x ˙ , y ˙) = (1 , 2 x) for y ≤ 0, and that the homeomorphism between Z and Z0 is Cr smoothness when restricted to each side of the switching line except at the center p. We illustrate by examples that there are degenerate Σ-centers whose flows are conjugate to that of Z0, and also there exist nondegenerate Σ-centers whose flows cannot be conjugate to that of Z0. Finally applying the normal form Z0 together with the piecewise smooth equivalence, we study the number of limit cycles which can be bifurcated from the Σ-center of Z.

  12. Differentiating fibroadenoma and ductal carcinoma in situ from normal breast tissue by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yuting; Wu, Yan; Lian, Yuane; Fu, Fangmeng; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-09-01

    Fibroadenoma (FA) is the most common benign tumor of the female breast and several studies have reported that women with it have increased risk of breast cancer. While the ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a very early form of breast cancer. Thus, early detections of FA and DCIS are critical for improving breast tumor outcome and survival. In this paper, we use multiphoton microscopy (MPM) to obtain the high-contrast images of fresh, unfixed, unstained human breast specimens (normal breast tissue, FA and DCIS). Our results show that MPM has the ability to identify the characteristics of FA and DCIS including changes of duct architecture and collagen morphology. These results are consistent with the histological results. With the advancement of MPM, the technique has potential ability to serve as a real-time noninvasive imaging tool for early detection of breast tumor.

  13. Differential thioredoxin reductase activity from human normal hepatic and hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jung, Haeng-Im; Lim, Hye-Won; Kim, Byung-Chul; Park, Eun-Hee; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2004-04-30

    Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), a component of the thioredoxin system, including thioredoxin (Trx) and NADPH, catalyzes the transfer of electrons from NADPH to Trx, acts as a reductant of disulfide-containing proteins and participates in the defense system against oxidative stresses. In this study, the regulation pattern of TrxR in the presence of various stressful reagents was compared between Chang (human normal hepatic cell) and HepG2 (human hepatoma cell) cell lines. Aluminum chloride (0.5 mM) and zinc chloride (0.5 mM) enhanced the TrxR activity in the Chang cell line to a higher degree than in the HepG2 cell line, but cupric chloride (0.2 mM) and cadmium chloride (0.1 mM) enhanced the TrxR activity in the HepG2 cell line to a greater degree. The TrxR activities in both Chang and HepG2 cell lines were similarly induced by treatment with sodium selenite (0.02 mM) and menadione (0.5 and 1.0 mM). Lipopolysaccharide (2 micro g/m1) increased the TrxR activity upto 4.02- and 2.2-fold in the Chang and HepG2 cell lines, respectively, in time-dependent manners. Hydrogen peroxide (5 mM) markedly enhanced the TrxR activity in the HepG2 cell line, but not in the Chang cell line. NO-generating sodium nitroprusside (3.0 and 6.0 mM) induced TrxR activities in both human liver cell lines. The TrxR activity was also induced in human liver cells under limited growth conditions by serum deprivation. These results imply that the TrxR activities in normal hepatic and hepatoma cell lines are subject to different regulatory responses to various stresses. PMID:15118998

  14. ChIPnorm: A Statistical Method for Normalizing and Identifying Differential Regions in Histone Modification ChIP-seq Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Bucher, Philipp; Moret, Bernard M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of high-throughput technologies such as ChIP-seq has made possible the study of histone modifications. A problem of particular interest is the identification of regions of the genome where different cell types from the same organism exhibit different patterns of histone enrichment. This problem turns out to be surprisingly difficult, even in simple pairwise comparisons, because of the significant level of noise in ChIP-seq data. In this paper we propose a two-stage statistical method, called ChIPnorm, to normalize ChIP-seq data, and to find differential regions in the genome, given two libraries of histone modifications of different cell types. We show that the ChIPnorm method removes most of the noise and bias in the data and outperforms other normalization methods. We correlate the histone marks with gene expression data and confirm that histone modifications H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 act as respectively a repressor and an activator of genes. Compared to what was previously reported in the literature, we find that a substantially higher fraction of bivalent marks in ES cells for H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 move into a K27-only state. We find that most of the promoter regions in protein-coding genes have differential histone-modification sites. The software for this work can be downloaded from http://lcbb.epfl.ch/software.html. PMID:22870189

  15. An essential single domain response regulator required for normal cell division and differentiation in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, G B; Lane, T; Ohta, N; Sommer, J M; Newton, A

    1995-01-01

    Signal transduction pathways mediated by sensor histidine kinases and cognate response regulators control a variety of physiological processes in response to environmental conditions. Here we show that in Caulobacter crescentus these systems also play essential roles in the regulation of polar morphogenesis and cell division. Previous studies have implicated histidine kinase genes pleC and divJ in the regulation of these developmental events. We now report that divK encodes an essential, cell cycle-regulated homolog of the CheY/Spo0F subfamily and present evidence that this protein is a cognate response regulator of the histidine kinase PleC. The purified kinase domain of PleC, like that of DivJ, can serve as an efficient phosphodonor to DivK and as a phospho-DivK phosphatase. Based on these and earlier genetic results we propose that PleC and DivK are members of a signal transduction pathway that couples motility and stalk formation to completion of a late cell division cycle event. Gene disruption experiments and the filamentous phenotype of the conditional divK341 mutant reveal that DivK also functions in an essential signal transduction pathway required for cell division, apparently in response to another histidine kinase. We suggest that phosphotransfer mediated by these two-component signal transduction systems may represent a general mechanism regulating cell differentiation and cell division in response to successive cell cycle checkpoints. Images PMID:7664732

  16. Differential Role of Leptin as an Immunomodulator in Controlling Visceral Leishmaniasis in Normal and Leptin-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Radheshyam; Bhattacharya, Parna; Ismail, Nevien; Dagur, Pradeep K.; Joshi, Amritanshu B.; Razdan, Kundan; McCoy, J. Philip; Ascher, Jill; Dey, Ranadhir; Nakhasi, Hira L.

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. There are no vaccines and available drugs against leishmaniasis are toxic. Immunomodulators that specifically boost the anti-microbial activities of the immune cells could alleviate several of these limitations. Therefore, finding novel immunomodulators for VL therapy is a pressing need. This study is aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory role of leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone capable of regulating the immune response, in L. donovani-infected mice. We observed that recombinant leptin treatment reduced splenic parasite burden compared with non-treated infected normal mice. Decrease in parasite burden correlated with an induction of innate immune response in antigen-presenting cells that showed an increase in nitric oxide, enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine (interferon gamma [IFNγ], interleukin12 [IL]12, and IL1β) response in the splenocytes, indicating host-protecting Th1 response mediated by leptin. Moreover, in infected normal mice, leptin treatment induced IFNγ production from both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, compared with non-treated infected mice. Alternatively, leptin-deficient (Ob/Ob) mice had higher splenic and liver parasite burden compared with the infected normal mice. However, leptin treatment failed to reduce the splenic parasite burden and improve a host-protective cytokine response in these mice. In addition, in contrast to dendritic cells (DCs) from a normal mouse, Ob/Ob mouse–derived DCs showed a defect in the induction of innate immune response on Leishmania infection that could not be reversed by leptin treatment. Therefore, our findings reveal that leptin has a differential immunomodulatory effect in controlling VL in normal and Ob/Ob mice. PMID:27114296

  17. Differential Role of Leptin as an Immunomodulator in Controlling Visceral Leishmaniasis in Normal and Leptin-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Radheshyam; Bhattacharya, Parna; Ismail, Nevien; Dagur, Pradeep K; Joshi, Amritanshu B; Razdan, Kundan; McCoy, J Philip; Ascher, Jill; Dey, Ranadhir; Nakhasi, Hira L

    2016-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani There are no vaccines and available drugs against leishmaniasis are toxic. Immunomodulators that specifically boost the anti-microbial activities of the immune cells could alleviate several of these limitations. Therefore, finding novel immunomodulators for VL therapy is a pressing need. This study is aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory role of leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone capable of regulating the immune response, in L. donovani-infected mice. We observed that recombinant leptin treatment reduced splenic parasite burden compared with non-treated infected normal mice. Decrease in parasite burden correlated with an induction of innate immune response in antigen-presenting cells that showed an increase in nitric oxide, enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine (interferon gamma [IFNγ], interleukin12 [IL]12, and IL1β) response in the splenocytes, indicating host-protecting Th1 response mediated by leptin. Moreover, in infected normal mice, leptin treatment induced IFNγ production from both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, compared with non-treated infected mice. Alternatively, leptin-deficient (Ob/Ob) mice had higher splenic and liver parasite burden compared with the infected normal mice. However, leptin treatment failed to reduce the splenic parasite burden and improve a host-protective cytokine response in these mice. In addition, in contrast to dendritic cells (DCs) from a normal mouse, Ob/Ob mouse-derived DCs showed a defect in the induction of innate immune response on Leishmania infection that could not be reversed by leptin treatment. Therefore, our findings reveal that leptin has a differential immunomodulatory effect in controlling VL in normal and Ob/Ob mice. PMID:27114296

  18. Brain gene expression patterns differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment from normal Aged and Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Berchtold, Nicole C.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Beach, Thomas G.; Kim, Ronald C.; Cribbs, David H.; Cotman, Carl W.

    2014-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a cognitive state intermediate between normal aging and early Alzheimer Disease (AD). To investigate if the molecular signature of MCI parallels the clinical picture, we use microarrays to extensively profile gene expression in 4 cortical brain regions (entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, superior frontal gyrus, post-central gyrus) using post-mortem tissue from cognitively normal aged controls, MCI, and AD cases. Our data reveal that gene expression patterns in MCI are not an extension of aging, and for the most part, are not intermediate between aged controls and AD. Functional enrichment analysis of significant genes revealed prominent upregulation in MCI brains of genes associated with anabolic and biosynthetic pathways (notably transcription, protein biosynthesis, protein trafficking and turnover) as well as mitochondrial energy generation. In addition, many synaptic genes showed altered expression in MCI, predominantly upregulation, including genes for central components of the vesicle fusion machinery at the synapse, synaptic vesicle trafficking, neurotransmitter receptors, and synaptic structure and stabilization. These data suggest that there is a rebalancing of synaptic transmission in the MCI brain. To investigate if synaptic gene expression levels in MCI were related to cognitive function, Pearson’s correlation coefficient between MMSE and region-specific mRNA expression were computed for MCI cases. A number of synaptic genes showed strong significant correlations (r>0.8, p<0.01) most notably in the EC, with fewer in the HC, and very few in neocortical regions. The synaptic genes with highly significant correlations were predominantly related to synaptic transmission and plasticity, and myelin composition. Unexpectedly, we found that gene expression changes that facilitate synaptic excitability and plasticity were overwhelmingly associated with poorer MMSE, and conversely that gene expression changes that inhibit

  19. Glucocorticoids differentially regulate Na-bile acid cotransport in normal and chronically inflamed rabbit ileal villus cells.

    PubMed

    Coon, Steven; Kekuda, Ramesh; Saha, Prosenjit; Sundaram, Uma

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that apical Na-bile acid cotransport (ASBT) is inhibited during chronic ileitis by both a decrease in the affinity as well as a decrease in the number of cotransporters. Methylprednisolone (MP), a commonly used treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, e.g., Crohn's disease), has been shown to reverse the inhibition of several other Na-solute cotransporters during chronic enteritis. However, the effect of MP on ASBT in the chronically inflamed ileum is not known. MP stimulated ASBT in villus cells from the normal rabbit ileum by increasing the cotransporter expression without a change in the affinity of the cotransporter for bile acid. Western blot studies demonstrated an increase in cotransporter expression. MP reversed the inhibition of ASBT in villus cells from the chronically inflamed ileum. Kinetic studies demonstrated that the mechanism of MP-mediated reversal of ASBT inhibition was secondary to a restoration of both affinity as well as cotransporter numbers. Western blot analysis demonstrated restoration of cotransporter numbers after MP treatment of rabbits with chronic ileitis. Thus MP stimulates ASBT in the normal ileum by increasing cotransporter numbers. MP reverses the inhibition of ASBT during chronic ileitis. However, MP restores the diminished affinity as well as cotransporter expression levels during chronic ileitis. Thus MP differentially regulates ASBT in the normal and in the chronically inflamed ileum. PMID:20075140

  20. Glucocorticoids differentially regulate Na-bile acid cotransport in normal and chronically inflamed rabbit ileal villus cells

    PubMed Central

    Coon, Steven; Kekuda, Ramesh; Saha, Prosenjit

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that apical Na-bile acid cotransport (ASBT) is inhibited during chronic ileitis by both a decrease in the affinity as well as a decrease in the number of cotransporters. Methylprednisolone (MP), a commonly used treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, e.g., Crohn's disease), has been shown to reverse the inhibition of several other Na-solute cotransporters during chronic enteritis. However, the effect of MP on ASBT in the chronically inflamed ileum is not known. MP stimulated ASBT in villus cells from the normal rabbit ileum by increasing the cotransporter expression without a change in the affinity of the cotransporter for bile acid. Western blot studies demonstrated an increase in cotransporter expression. MP reversed the inhibition of ASBT in villus cells from the chronically inflamed ileum. Kinetic studies demonstrated that the mechanism of MP-mediated reversal of ASBT inhibition was secondary to a restoration of both affinity as well as cotransporter numbers. Western blot analysis demonstrated restoration of cotransporter numbers after MP treatment of rabbits with chronic ileitis. Thus MP stimulates ASBT in the normal ileum by increasing cotransporter numbers. MP reverses the inhibition of ASBT during chronic ileitis. However, MP restores the diminished affinity as well as cotransporter expression levels during chronic ileitis. Thus MP differentially regulates ASBT in the normal and in the chronically inflamed ileum. PMID:20075140

  1. Extrinsic Factors Influencing Fetal Deformations and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Moh, Wendy; Graham, John M.; Wadhawan, Isha; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A.

    2012-01-01

    The causes of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are multifactorial with both intrinsic and extrinsic influences. While many studies focus on the intrinsic pathological causes, the possible long-term consequences resulting from extrinsic intrauterine physiological constraints merit additional consideration and further investigation. Infants with IUGR can exhibit early symmetric or late asymmetric growth abnormality patterns depending on the fetal stage of development, of which the latter is most common occurring in 70–80% of growth-restricted infants. Deformation is the consequence of extrinsic biomechanical factors interfering with normal growth, functioning, or positioning of the fetus in utero, typically arising during late gestation. Biomechanical forces play a critical role in the normal morphogenesis of most tissues. The magnitude and direction of force impact the form of the developing fetus, with a specific tissue response depending on its pliability and stage of development. Major uterine constraining factors include primigravida, small maternal size, uterine malformation, uterine fibromata, early pelvic engagement of the fetal head, aberrant fetal position, oligohydramnios, and multifetal gestation. Corrective mechanical forces similar to those that gave rise to the deformation to reshape the deformed structures are often used and should take advantage of the rapid postnatal growth to correct form. PMID:22888434

  2. The case for intrauterine stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Citra N; Biswas, Arijit; Choolani, Mahesh; Chan, Jerry K Y

    2012-10-01

    The clinical burden imposed by the collective group of monogenic disorders demands novel therapies that are effective at achieving phenotypic cure early in the disease process before the development of permanent organ damage. This is important for lethal diseases and also for non-perinatally lethal conditions that are characterised by severe disability with little prospect of postnatal cure. Where postnatal treatments are limited to palliative options, intrauterine stem-cell therapies may offer the potential to arrest pathogenesis in the early undamaged fetus. Intrauterine stem-cell transplantation has been attempted for a variety of diseases, but has only been successful in immune deficiency states in the presence of a competitive advantage for donor cells. This disappointing clinical record requires preclinical investigations into strategies that improve donor cell engraftment, including optimising the donor cell source and manipulating the microenvironment to facilitate homing. This chapter aims to outline the current challenges of intrauterine stem-cell therapy. PMID:22809469

  3. Multiphoton microscopic imaging of histological sections without hematoxylin and eosin staining differentiates carcinoma in situ lesion from normal oesophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianxin; Xu, Jian; Kang, Deyong; Xu, Meifang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Jiang, Xingshan

    2013-10-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has become a powerful, important tool for tissues imaging at the molecular level. In this paper, this technique was extended to histological investigations, differentiating carcinoma in situ (CIS) lesion from normal oesophagus by imaging histological sections without hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The results show that the histology procedures of dehydration, paraffin embedding, and de-paraffinizing highlighted two photon excited fluorescence of cytoplasm and nucleolus of epithelial cell and collagen in stroma. MPM has the ability to identify the characteristics of CIS lesion including changes of squamous cells and full epithelium, identification of basement membrane, especially prominent nucleolus. The studies described here show that MPM has the potential for future retrospective studies of tumor staging by employing on histological section specimens without H&E staining.

  4. An Efficient Approach for Differentiating Alzheimer's Disease from Normal Elderly Based on Multicenter MRI Using Gray-Level Invariant Features

    PubMed Central

    Li, Muwei; Oishi, Kenichi; He, Xiaohai; Qin, Yuanyuan; Gao, Fei; Mori, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Machine learning techniques, along with imaging markers extracted from structural magnetic resonance images, have been shown to increase the accuracy to differentiate patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) from normal elderly controls. Several forms of anatomical features, such as cortical volume, shape, and thickness, have demonstrated discriminative capability. These approaches rely on accurate non-linear image transformation, which could invite several nuisance factors, such as dependency on transformation parameters and the degree of anatomical abnormality, and an unpredictable influence of residual registration errors. In this study, we tested a simple method to extract disease-related anatomical features, which is suitable for initial stratification of the heterogeneous patient populations often encountered in clinical data. The method employed gray-level invariant features, which were extracted from linearly transformed images, to characterize AD-specific anatomical features. The intensity information from a disease-specific spatial masking, which was linearly registered to each patient, was used to capture the anatomical features. We implemented a two-step feature selection for anatomic recognition. First, a statistic-based feature selection was implemented to extract AD-related anatomical features while excluding non-significant features. Then, seven knowledge-based ROIs were used to capture the local discriminative powers of selected voxels within areas that were sensitive to AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The discriminative capability of the proposed feature was measured by its performance in differentiating AD or MCI from normal elderly controls (NC) using a support vector machine. The statistic-based feature selection, together with the knowledge-based masks, provided a promising solution for capturing anatomical features of the brain efficiently. For the analysis of clinical populations, which are inherently heterogeneous, this approach could

  5. Reduction of Prep1 levels affects differentiation of normal and malignant B cells and accelerates Myc driven lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Iotti, Giorgio; Mejetta, Stefania; Modica, Livia; Penkov, Dmitry; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Blasi, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The Prep1 homeodomain transcription factor has recently been recognized as a tumor suppressor. Among other features, haploinsufficiency of Prep1 is able to strongly accelerate the B-lymphomagenesis in EμMyc mice. Now we report that this occurs concomitantly with a change in the type of B-cell lymphomas generated by the Myc oncogene. Indeed, the tumors generated in the EμMyc-Prep1(+/-) mice are much more immature, being mostly made up of Pro-B or Pre-B cells, while those in the EμMyc-Prep1(+/+) mice are more differentiated being invariably IgM(+). Moreover, we show that Prep1 is in fact required for the differentiation of Pro-B and Pre-B cells into IgM(+) lymphocytes and/or their proliferation, thus showing also how a normal function of Prep1 affects EμMyc lymphomagenesis. Finally, we show that the haploinsufficiency of Prep1 is accompanied with a major decrease of Myc-induced apoptosis and that the haploinsufficieny is sufficient for all these effects because the second allele of Prep1 is not lost even at late stages. Therefore, the tumor-suppressive activity of Prep1 is intertwined with both the interference with Myc-induced apoptosis as well as with natural developmental functions of the protein. PMID:23133585

  6. Differential accumulation and organ-specific metabolism of 5-aminolevulinic acid between cancer cells and normal epithelial and stromal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieg, Rene C.; Rauch, Joachim; Seidl, Juergen; Stepp, Herbert G.; Messmann, Helmut; Knuechel, Ruth

    2001-01-01

    To optimize conditions of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with ALA induced protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), topography of accumulation and metabolism of PPIX were analyzed in vitro. Adenocarcinoma cell lines, urothelial carcinoma cell lines, and a normal fibroblast cell line were cultured in plateau phase. ALA-induced PPIX accumulation, porphobilinogendeaminase-, ferrochelatase- activity, intracellular iron content, transferrin receptor expression and PPIX localization were determined using standard techniques. PBG activity as well as PPIX content were found higher in adenocarcinoma cells than in urothelial cells. Urothelial cell lines showed significant alterations in FC values in contrast to similar levels of FC in adenocarcinoma cell lines overall. Well differentiated cells showed higher iron content than lower differentiated cells. Transferrin receptor expression was found independent of PPIX content and intracellular iron content. In HT29, PPIX localizes mostly in the cell membrane, in SW480 and CaCo2 in mitochondria, and in urothelial cells mainly in cytosol. Data presented encourage the systematic and organ- related analysis of PPIX metabolism, since significant differences have been found between urothelial tumor cells and adenocarcinoma cells which may demand different strategies of therapy optimization and combination therapy regimens.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls disturb differentiation of normal human neural progenitor cells: clue for involvement of thyroid hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Fritsche, Ellen; Cline, Jason E; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ha; Scanlan, Thomas S; Abel, Josef

    2005-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental chemicals that accumulate in adipose tissues over the food chain. Epidemiologic studies have indicated that PCBs influence brain development. Children who are exposed to PCBs during development suffer from neuropsychologic deficits such as a lower full-scale IQ (intelligence quotient), reduced visual recognition memory, and attention and motor deficits. The mechanisms leading to these effects are not fully understood. It has been speculated that PCBs may affect brain development by interfering with thyroid hormone (TH) signaling. Because most of the data are from animal studies, we established a model using primary normal human neural progenitor (NHNP) cells to determine if PCBs interfere with TH-dependent neural differentiation. NHNP cells differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in culture, and they express a variety of drug metabolism enzymes and nuclear receptors. Like triiodothyronine (T3), treatment with the mono-ortho-substituted PCB-118 (2,3',4,4 ,5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.01-1 microM) leads to a dose-dependent increase of oligodendrocyte formation. This effect was congener specific, because the coplanar PCB-126 (3,3',4,4 ,5-pentachlorobiphenyl) had no effect. Similar to the T3 response, the PCB-mediated effect on oligodendrocyte formation was blocked by retinoic acid and the thyroid hormone receptor antagonist NH-3. These results suggest that PCB-118 mimics T3 action via the TH pathway. PMID:16002375

  8. Ultrastructure of the innermost surface of differentiating normal and compression wood tracheids as revealed by field emission scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Sik; Awano, Tatsuya; Yoshinaga, Arata; Takabe, Keiji

    2012-06-01

    The ultrastructure of the innermost surface of Cryptomeria japonica differentiating normal wood (NW) and compression wood (CW) was comparatively investigated by field emission electron microscopy (FE-SEM) combined with enzymatic degradation of hemicelluloses. Cellulose microfibril (CMF) bundles were readily observed in NW tracheids in the early stage of secondary cell wall formation, but not in CW tracheids because of the heavy accumulation of amorphous materials composed mainly of galactans and lignin. This result suggests that the ultrastructural deposition of cell wall components in the tracheid cell wall differ between NW and CW from the early stage of secondary cell wall formation. Delignified NW and CW tracheids showed similar structural changes during differentiating stages after xylanase or β-mannanase treatment, whereas they exhibited clear differences in ultrastructure in mature stages. Although thin CMF bundles were exposed in both delignified mature NW and CW tracheids by xylanase treatment, ultrastructural changes following β-mannanase treatment were only observed in CW tracheids. CW tracheids also showed different degradation patterns between xylanase and β-mannanase. CMF bundles showed a smooth surface in delignified mature CW tracheids treated with xylanase, whereas they had an uneven surface in delignified mature CW tracheids treated with β-mannanase, indicating that the uneven surface of CMF bundles was related to xylans. The present results suggest that ultrastructural deposition and organization of lignin and hemicelluloses in CW tracheids may differ from those of NW tracheids. PMID:22173277

  9. [Ultra sonography for the localization of intra-uterine contraceptive devices (i.u.d.'s) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Meyenburg, M

    1978-11-01

    The localization of uterine devices by ultra-sound techniques was investigated. Seven different types of intra-uterine contraceptive devices were checked under immersion in water and in the uterus of 585 wearers of I.U.D.'s. The quality of the ultra-sound pictures is mostly determined by the type of intra-uterine device. Under optimal conditions the investigated types of I.U.D.'s produced standard ultra-sound pictures which permitted their identification. The evaluation of the localization of the intra-uterine contraceptive devices in the uterus was reasonably accurate. At first the classification of normal localization, lower segment localization and cervical localization was used, and this was later enlarged by the measurement of the distance between the uterine fundus and the end of the device closest to the fundus. It was possible to estimate the contraceptive efficiency with these measurements. In 486 cases (83%) the intra-uterine device was found in normal position. In 24 (4.1%) of the cases removal and repeat insertion of the device was suggested. In 18 (3.1%) cases the device was not localized despite normal intra-uterine localization. PMID:710881

  10. [Intrauterine growth restriction--diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Radoń-Pokracka, Małgorzata; Huras, Hubert; Jach, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of low birth weight affects approximately 3-10% of live-born newborns in developed countries and in developing countries it affects 15-20% of newborns. The most common cause of low birth weight is considered to intrauterine fetal growth resctriction. Low birth weight is responsible for 69.6% of stillbirths and for 66.4% of neonatal deaths. The purpose of this paper is to review reliable scientific data in order to summarize the current guidelines on intrauterine fetal growth restriction, addressed to obstetricians. The present review is based on guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG), the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC), the results of DIGITAT- (ang. The Disproportionate Growth intrauterine Intervention Trial At Term) PORTO Study- (ang. Prospective Observational Trial is the Opitimize Pedriatric Health in intrauterine Growth Restriction), TRUFFLE- (ang. Randomized Trial of Fetal and Umbilical Flow in Europe), and the available literature. PMID:26817352

  11. Laparoscopic treatment of intrauterine fallopian tube incarceration.

    PubMed

    Kondo, William; Bruns, Rafael Frederico; Nicola, Marcelo Chemin; Ribeiro, Reitan; Trippia, Carlos Henrique; Zomer, Monica Tessmann

    2013-01-01

    Herniation of the pelvic structures into the uterine cavity (appendix vermiformis, small bowel, omentum, or fallopian tube) may occur after uterine perforation. In this paper, we describe one case of intrauterine fallopian tube incarceration treated by means of laparoscopic surgery. PMID:23738168

  12. Laparoscopic Treatment of Intrauterine Fallopian Tube Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, William; Bruns, Rafael Frederico; Nicola, Marcelo Chemin; Ribeiro, Reitan; Trippia, Carlos Henrique; Zomer, Monica Tessmann

    2013-01-01

    Herniation of the pelvic structures into the uterine cavity (appendix vermiformis, small bowel, omentum, or fallopian tube) may occur after uterine perforation. In this paper, we describe one case of intrauterine fallopian tube incarceration treated by means of laparoscopic surgery. PMID:23738168

  13. Delayed myelination in an intrauterine growth retardation model is mediated by oxidative stress upregulating bone morphogenetic protein 4.

    PubMed

    Reid, Mary V; Murray, Kaitlin A; Marsh, Eric D; Golden, Jeffrey A; Simmons, Rebecca A; Grinspan, Judith B

    2012-07-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with neurological deficits including cerebral palsy and cognitive and behavioral disabilities. The pathogenesis involves oxidative stress that leads to periventricular white matter injury with a paucity of mature oligodendrocytes and hypomyelination. The molecular mechanisms underlying this damage remain poorly understood. We used a rat model of IUGR created by bilateral ligation of the uterine artery at embryonic Day 19 that results in fetal growth retardation and oxidative stress in the developing brain. The IUGR rat pups showed significant delays in oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination that resolved by 8 weeks. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), which inhibits oligodendrocyte maturation, was elevated in IUGR brains at postnatal time points and returned to near normal by adulthood. Despite the apparent recovery, behavioral deficiencies were found in 8-week-old female animals, suggesting that the early transient myelination defects have permanent effects. In support of these in vivo data, oligodendrocyte precursor cells cultured from postnatal IUGR rats retained increased BMP4 expression and impaired differentiation that was reversed with the BMP inhibitor noggin. Oxidants in oligodendrocyte cultures increased BMP expression, which decreased differentiation; however, abrogating BMP signaling with noggin in vitro and in BMP-deficient mice prevented these effects. Together, these findings suggest that IUGR results in delayed myelination through the generation of oxidative stress that leads to BMP4 upregulation. PMID:22710965

  14. The hepatic transcriptome of young suckling and aging intrauterine growth restricted male rats.

    PubMed

    Freije, William A; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Lee, Regina; Shin, Bo-Chul; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2015-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction leads to the development of adult onset obesity/metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis. Continued postnatal growth restriction has been shown to ameliorate many of these sequelae. To further our understanding of the mechanism of how intrauterine and early postnatal growth affects adult health we have employed Affymetrix microarray-based expression profiling to characterize hepatic gene expression of male offspring in a rat model of maternal nutrient restriction in early and late life. At day 21 of life (p21) combined intrauterine and postnatal calorie restriction treatment led to expression changes in circadian, metabolic, and insulin-like growth factor genes as part of a larger transcriptional response that encompasses 144 genes. Independent and controlled experiments at p21 confirm the early life circadian, metabolic, and growth factor perturbations. In contrast to the p21 transcriptional response, at day 450 of life (d450) only seven genes, largely uncharacterized, were differentially expressed. This lack of a transcriptional response identifies non-transcriptional mechanisms mediating the adult sequelae of intrauterine growth restriction. Independent experiments at d450 identify a circadian defect as well as validate expression changes to four of the genes identified by the microarray screen which have a novel association with growth restriction. Emerging from this rich dataset is a portrait of how the liver responds to growth restriction through circadian dysregulation, energy/substrate management, and growth factor modulation. PMID:25371150

  15. Ecological comparison of cellular stress responses among populations – normalizing RT-qPCR values to investigate differential environmental adaptations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rising temperatures and other environmental factors influenced by global climate change can cause increased physiological stress for many species and lead to range shifts or regional population extinctions. To advance the understanding of species’ response to change and establish links between individual and ecosystem adaptations, physiological reactions have to be compared between populations living in different environments. Although changes in expression of stress genes are relatively easy to quantify, methods for reliable comparison of the data remain a contentious issue. Using normalization algorithms and further methodological considerations, we compare cellular stress response gene expression levels measured by RT-qPCR after air exposure experiments among different subpopulations of three species of the intertidal limpet Nacella. Results Reference gene assessment algorithms reveal that stable reference genes can differ among investigated populations and / or treatment groups. Normalized expression values point to differential defense strategies to air exposure in the investigated populations, which either employ a pronounced cellular stress response in the inducible Hsp70 forms, or exhibit a comparatively high constitutive expression of Hsps (heat shock proteins) while showing only little response in terms of Hsp induction. Conclusions This study serves as a case study to explore the methodological prerequisites of physiological stress response comparisons among ecologically and phylogenetically different organisms. To improve the reliability of gene expression data and compare the stress responses of subpopulations under potential genetic divergence, reference gene stability algorithms are valuable and necessary tools. As the Hsp70 isoforms have been shown to play different roles in the acute stress responses and increased constitutive defenses of populations in their different habitats, these comparative studies can yield insight into

  16. Epidermal differentiation complex (locus 1q21) gene expression in head and neck cancer and normal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Tyszkiewicz, Tomasz; Jarzab, Michal; Szymczyk, Cezary; Kowal, Monika; Krajewska, Jolanta; Jaworska, Magdalena; Fraczek, Marcin; Krajewska, Anna; Hadas, Ewa; Swierniak, Michal; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Lange, Dariusz; Poltorak, Stanislaw; Wiench, Malgorzata; Krecicki, Tomasz; Jarzab, Jerzy; Maciejewski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) comprises a number of genes associated with human skin diseases including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. These genes have also been linked to numerous cancers, among them skin, gastric, colorectal, lung, ovarian and renal carcinomas. The involvement of EDC components encoding S100 proteins, small proline-rich proteins (SPRRs) and other genes in the tumorigenesis of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) has been previously suggested. The aim of the study was to systematically analyze the expression of EDC components on the transcript level in HNSCC. Tissue specimens from 93 patients with HNC of oral cavity and 87 samples from adjacent or distant grossly normal oral mucosawere analyzed. 48 samples (24 tumor and 24 corresponding surrounding tissue) were hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip Human 1.0 ST Arrays. For validation by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) the total RNA from all180 samples collected in the study was analyzed with Real-Time PCR system and fluorescent amplicon specific-probes. Additional set of samples from 14 patients with laryngeal carcinoma previously obtained by HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarray was also included in the analyses. The expression of analyzed EDC genes was heterogeneous. Two transcripts (S100A1 and S100A4) were significantly down-regulated in oral cancer when compared to normal mucosa (0.69 and 0.36-fold change, respectively), showing an opposite pattern of expression to the remaining S100 genes. Significant up-regulation in tumors was found for S100A11, S100A7, LCE3D, S100A3 and S100A2 genes. The increased expression of S100A7 was subsequently validated by QPCR, confirming significant differences. The remaining EDC genes, including all encoding SPRR molecules, did not show any differences between oral cancer and normal mucosa. The observed differences were also assessed in the independent set of laryngeal cancer samples, confirming the role of S100A3 and LCE3D transcripts in

  17. Differential action on cancer and normal tissue by adrenochrome monoaminoguanidine methanesulfonate and cytochrome C combined with radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsugawa, S. ); Sugahara, T. )

    1994-06-15

    The possibility that radioprotective effects on potent natural killer (NK) cells by adrenochrome monoaminoguanidine methanesulfonate (AMM) + cytochrome C during radiotherapy (RT) for lung cancer might result in the radiosensitization of human lung cancer cells in vivo is examined. Human lung cancer xenografts in the right hind legs of KSN mice (10 weeks old) were locally irradiated with 20 Gy of X ray. AMM (10 mg/kg/day) and/or cytochrome C (CCC) (5 mg/kg/day) were given intraperitoneally immediately before or after RT, followed by daily administration for 4 days. Natural killer activities of host splenocytes were also tested with the standard [sup 51]Cr releasing assay with YAC-1 cells as target cells. In a clinical study, 65 patients with lung cancer were treated with more than 50 Gy of RT with or without combination with AMM + CCC, OK-432 or AMM + CCC + OK-432. Before and after RT, lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood were examined with dichromatic analysis using an Ortho Spectrum IIIFCM system and fluorescent MABs. In this study, the change in the absolute number of each subset was investigated. AMM + cytochrome C augumented NK activity in KSN nude mice, protected potent NK cells in patients with lung cancer against RT and sensitized the human lung cancer xenografts to RT. AMM + cytochrome C may have potential as a differential modulator of radiosensitivity of normal tissues and of tumors. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Detection and treatment of lung metastases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in patients with normal chest X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Schlumberger, M.; Arcangioli, O.; Piekarski, J.D.; Tubiana, M.; Parmentier, C.

    1988-11-01

    Lung metastases were demonstrated by total-body /sup 131/I scans in 23 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, at a time when chest x-ray was normal. This total-body /sup 131/I scan was performed after the administration of 2 mCi (in 11 patients) or 100 mCi (in 12 patients). Overall uptake of 131I in lungs was less than 1% of the administered dose in 11 patients. All patients were treated with radioiodine. No lung uptake was found in 20 patients at the last 100 mCi post-therapy scan. Among them, Tg level became undetectable during T4 treatment in eight, lung CT scan showed the disappearance of the micronodules in seven, and lung biopsy did not show evidence of disease in two patients. No patient developed radiation lung fibrosis. In conclusion, favorable responses to radioiodine treatment were observed despite relatively low overall uptake, in relation to the small size of lung metastases. This provides high concentrations of radioiodine and therefore high radiation doses.

  19. Differentiation of three biotypes of Malassezia species on human normal skin. correspondence with M. globosa, M. sympodialis and M. restricta.

    PubMed

    Aspiroz, C; Moreno, L A; Rezusta, A; Rubio, C

    1999-01-01

    One hundred and twenty lipid dependent Malassezia spp. isolates were obtained from the clinically normal skin of 38 healthy adult volunteers by swabbing three different body sites (back, chest and scalp). Ninety-six percent of these strains could be grouped into three biotypes on the basis of microscopic, cultural, metabolic and biochemical (catalase, esculin and lipase (C-14)) characteristics. The differential features were simple to determine and easily reproduced. Moreover, the three biotypes were referable to the species M. globosa (biotype 1), M. sympodialis (biotype 2) and M. restricta (biotype 3). Based on their microscopic features, cultural properties and body site locations, we suggest that biotype 1 /M. globosa corresponds to the description of Pityrosporum orbiculare (round yeast cells with a narrow base, very frequently found on the upper trunk), and biotype 3/M. restricta corresponds to the concept of P. ovale (oval yeast cells with a broad budding base, located mainly on the scalp). Pleomorphic biotype 2/M. sympodialis, most frequently found in the back, does not clearly fit into any of the Pityrosporum species. PMID:10598066

  20. Excitotoxicity as a Common Mechanism for Fetal Neuronal Injury with Hypoxia and Intrauterine Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Burd, I; Welling, J; Kannan, G; Johnston, M V

    2016-01-01

    Excitotoxicity is a mechanism of neuronal injury, implicated in the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic neurologic disorders, including perinatal brain injury associated with hypoxia-ischemia and exposure to intrauterine inflammation. Glutamate, the primary excitatory neurotransmitter, signals through N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA)/α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptors. Proper functioning of both of these receptors, in conjunction with glutamate signaling, is crucial for normal development. However, even a small imbalance can result in perinatal neuronal injury. Therefore, a mechanistic understanding of the role of excitotoxicity and the NMDA/AMPA receptor functions is critical to establishing the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and perinatal brain injury due to exposure to intrauterine inflammation. Evidence from experimental animal models and clinical studies indicates that both oxygen and glucose deficiencies play a major role in fetal neuronal injury. However, the connection between these deficiencies, excitotoxicity, and HIE is not well established. The excitotoxic mechanisms in animal models and humans have many parallels, suggesting that detailed animal studies can elicit clinically relevant discoveries. While current therapies for HIE include hypothermia and other neuroprotective measures, emphasizing prevention of acute injuries, increase of therapeutic time window, and increased neural repair, there are no effective widely used treatment modalities for fetuses and neonates exposed to intrauterine inflammation. Further studies of HIE and intrauterine inflammation (as in cases of preterm birth and chorioamnionitis) will provide a better insight into development of effective therapeutic interventions for these conditions. PMID:27288075

  1. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system and iron overload syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vieira da Motta, Marcia; Vieira da Motta, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Severe fatigue is a common complaint among patients. This report presents a clinical case of a woman complaining of fatigue associated with diarrhea and myalgia that were first attributed to emotional stress and depression. Initially, the patient was diagnosed with chronic fatigue and irritable bowel syndrome. The patient followed nutritional and physical exercise programs without any improvement. Other clinical conditions, such as nutritional deficiencies, endocrine dysfunctions, autoimmune diseases and neoplasias, were then assessed. During clinical investigation, serum ferritin and iron levels were abnormally elevated despite normal hemoglobin levels, which pointed to an iron overload syndrome later diagnosed as hemochromatosis. It is possible that the symptoms were triggered by the amenorrhea caused by the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system used for contraception. PMID:23843714

  2. [Long-term clinical observation on VCu200 intrauterine devices].

    PubMed

    Wu, X Z; Lu, J; Li, H Q

    1994-09-01

    A comparative study was carried out in 350 women using VCu200 intrauterine devices (IUD) and 350 women using stainless steel ring (SSR) IUD for 5-18 years. The endometrial changes and shapes of IUD were studied. The results showed that the pregnancy rate was significantly lower in VCu200 group after 5 years of insertion. In spite of the oxidation, erosion or breakage of the copper wire, calcium deposit of even deformation of the IUD, they were not associated with an increased incidence of endometrial carcinoma and pelvic inflammatory disease. It is suggested that VCu200 IUD need not to be removed if the IUD keeps normal shape and the copper wire remains intact by X ray examination. PMID:7835133

  3. Successful intrauterine treatment of a patient with cobalamin C defect.

    PubMed

    Trefz, Friedrich K; Scheible, Dagmar; Frauendienst-Egger, Georg; Huemer, Martina; Suomala, Terttu; Fowler, Brian; Haas, Dorothea; Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2016-03-01

    Cobalamin C (cblC) defect is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder that affects cobalamin metabolism. Patients are treated with hydroxycobalamin to ameliorate the clinical features of early-onset disease and prevent clinical symptoms in late-onset disease. Here we describe a patient in whom prenatal maternal treatment with 30 mg/week hydroxycobalamin and 5 mg/day folic acid from week 15 of pregnancy prevented disease manifestation in a girl who is now 11 years old with normal IQ and only mild ophthalmic findings. The affected older sister received postnatal treatment only and is severely intellectually disabled with severe ophthalmic symptoms. This case highlights the potential of early, high-dose intrauterine treatment in a fetus affected by the cblC defect. PMID:27014578

  4. Successful intrauterine treatment of a patient with cobalamin C defect

    PubMed Central

    Trefz, Friedrich K.; Scheible, Dagmar; Frauendienst-Egger, Georg; Huemer, Martina; Suomala, Terttu; Fowler, Brian; Haas, Dorothea; Baumgartner, Matthias R.

    2016-01-01

    Cobalamin C (cblC) defect is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder that affects cobalamin metabolism. Patients are treated with hydroxycobalamin to ameliorate the clinical features of early-onset disease and prevent clinical symptoms in late-onset disease. Here we describe a patient in whom prenatal maternal treatment with 30 mg/week hydroxycobalamin and 5 mg/day folic acid from week 15 of pregnancy prevented disease manifestation in a girl who is now 11 years old with normal IQ and only mild ophthalmic findings. The affected older sister received postnatal treatment only and is severely intellectually disabled with severe ophthalmic symptoms. This case highlights the potential of early, high-dose intrauterine treatment in a fetus affected by the cblC defect. PMID:27014578

  5. Placental Nutrient Transport and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Gaccioli, Francesca; Lager, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction refers to the inability of the fetus to reach its genetically determined potential size. Fetal growth restriction affects approximately 5–15% of all pregnancies in the United States and Europe. In developing countries the occurrence varies widely between 10 and 55%, impacting about 30 million newborns per year. Besides having high perinatal mortality rates these infants are at greater risk for severe adverse outcomes, such as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and cerebral palsy. Moreover, reduced fetal growth has lifelong health consequences, including higher risks of developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Numerous reports indicate placental insufficiency as one of the underlying causes leading to altered fetal growth and impaired placental capacity of delivering nutrients to the fetus has been shown to contribute to the etiology of intrauterine growth restriction. Indeed, reduced expression and/or activity of placental nutrient transporters have been demonstrated in several conditions associated with an increased risk of delivering a small or growth restricted infant. This review focuses on human pregnancies and summarizes the changes in placental amino acid, fatty acid, and glucose transport reported in conditions associated with intrauterine growth restriction, such as maternal undernutrition, pre-eclampsia, young maternal age, high altitude and infection. PMID:26909042

  6. Predictive factors for intrauterine growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    Albu, AR; Anca, AF; Horhoianu, VV; Horhoianu, IA

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Reduced fetal growth is seen in about 10% of the pregnancies but only a minority has a pathological background and is known as intrauterine growth restriction or fetal growth restriction (IUGR / FGR). Increased fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity as well as adult pathologic conditions are often associated to IUGR. Risk factors for IUGR are easy to assess but have poor predictive value. For the diagnostic purpose, biochemical serum markers, ultrasound and Doppler study of uterine and spiral arteries, placental volume and vascularization, first trimester growth pattern are object of assessment today. Modern evaluations propose combined algorithms using these strategies, all with the goal of a better prediction of risk pregnancies. Abbreviations: SGA = small for gestational age; IUGR = intrauterine growth restriction; FGR = fetal growth restriction; IUFD = intrauterine fetal demise; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; PAPP-A = pregnancy associated plasmatic protein A; β-hCG = beta human chorionic gonadotropin; MoM = multiple of median; ADAM-12 = A-disintegrin and metalloprotease 12; PP-13 = placental protein 13; VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor; PlGF = placental growth factor; sFlt-1 = soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1; UAD = uterine arteries Doppler ultrasound; RI = resistence index; PI = pulsatility index; VOCAL = Virtual Organ Computer–Aided Analysis software; VI = vascularization index; FI = flow index; VFI = vascularization flow index; PQ = placental quotient PMID:25408721

  7. Ultrastructural study on human placenta from intrauterine growth retardation cases.

    PubMed

    Battistelli, Michela; Burattini, Sabrina; Pomini, Francesco; Scavo, Maria; Caruso, Alessandro; Falcieri, Elisabetta

    2004-10-01

    A morphological study was performed on 27 human placentas from normal gestations (Group 1) and compared with those from eight cases of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) (Group 2). Semithin section light microscopy, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy were carried out on trophoblastic terminal villi, carefully identified under the stereomicroscope. In growth retardation cases, villi appear longer, thinner, and less vascularized, compared to the normal condition. Fibrinoid, an extracellular material of hematic origin, frequently fills villar stroma. The density of apical microvilli appears considerably reduced and occasional microvilli-free areas are observed in growth retardation cases. Moreover, the underlying basal membrane appears significantly thicker than that of normal syncytiotrophoblast. Recently, particular attention has been paid to apoptosis as a possible cell deletion mechanism in growth restriction. In our study, a majority of typical apoptotic features appear indifferently in both IUGR and normal pregnancy. Our data hints that growth retardation might be correlated with a complex of structural changes, suggestive of maternofetal traffic downregulation, but further studies are required to understand the underlying functional mechanisms. PMID:15605416

  8. Consequences in Infants That Were Intrauterine Growth Restricted

    PubMed Central

    Cosmi, Erich; Fanelli, Tiziana; Visentin, Silvia; Trevisanuto, Daniele; Zanardo, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is a condition fetus does not reach its growth potential and associated with perinatal mobility and mortality. Intrauterine growth restriction is caused by placental insufficiency, which determines cardiovascular abnormalities in the fetus. This condition, moreover, should prompt intensive antenatal surveillance of the fetus as well as follow-up of infants that had intrauterine growth restriction as short and long-term sequele should be considered. PMID:21547088

  9. Effect of mid-late mouse fetus' microenvironment on the growth of tumor cells after intrauterine transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fang; Zhou, Lan; Fang, Liao-Qiong; Bai, Jin; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Zhi-Biao

    2007-06-01

    ) cells, AFP expression analyzed by RIA and RT-PCR indicated that no tumor cells were detected in the experimental groups. The F1 progenies developed normally without any signs of tumor development. Fluorescence analysis revealed that expression of PKC and PCNA was markedly reduced in the H(22) cells after injection for 24, 48, and 72 h. Our study showed that the tumor cells did not grow in the mice by intrauterine transplantation, whereas transplantation of the same number of tumor cells resulted in obvious ascites tumor in the adult and newborn mice. Furthermore, the differentiation and proliferation of H(22) cells changed dramatically after injection. Our results suggest that, while the embryonic transplantation of tumor cells does not affect fetal development, the survival and growth of implanted tumor cells may be significantly inhibited in the embryonic microenvironment. PMID:17276703

  10. [Case of intrauterine retardation and fetal death during labor].

    PubMed

    Frundeva, B; Dimitrova, V; Museva, A; Dimitrov, A; Zlatkov, V

    2014-01-01

    The case concerns to a 37 years old pregnant woman with a history of three miscarriages. Ultrasound biometry in early pregnancy corresponds to the term calculated according the last menstrual period (LMP). At 37 week of gestation was determined retardation of 5 weeks. Doppler velocimetry and quantity of amniotic fluid were in normal ranges and the pregnant refused hospitalization. She was admitted to the hospital three days after the appointed term without uterine contractions. The fetal ultrasound biometry meets 33 weeks and the Doppler examination of a. umbilicalis found resistance index (RI) of the upper limit of normal. The cardiotocography record shows: baseline fetal heart rate--143 beats/min, good variability and reactivity. There was one deceleration for 3 minutes, and then the recording returns to normal. Re-monitoring after 30 minutes establishes of a periodic decelerations and a tendency to bradycardia with reserved variability. At the start of the emergency Cesarean Section fetal heart beats are single. The delivered babe was with Apgar O. The reanimation was not successful and the fetus died. From the autopsy signs of severe asphyxia. In conclusion, it can be assumed that in strongly retarded fetuses, cardiotocography recording and Doppler velosimetry are not sufficiently reliable methods for continued monitoring. In late-onset and severe intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) desirable delivery time is after reaching biological maturity at 36-37 week. PMID:25558672

  11. [Intrauterine extraction of intrauterine devices using the BMK-2 extractor of our design].

    PubMed

    Berić, B; Vukelić, J; Marjanović, M; Bujas, M; Tomcova, A

    1989-01-01

    The so-called "lost" IUD's cannot be removed by common vaginocervical traction. The author extracts them by the intrauterine BMK-extractor (Instrumntalia, Zagreb) of his own construction. There were 150 extractions with no complication, performed by the use of the BMK-2 extractor in period from August 1, 1985 to December 31, 1988. PMID:2640268

  12. The myofibroblast markers α-SM actin and β-actin are differentially expressed in 2 and 3-D culture models of fibrotic and normal skin.

    PubMed

    Vozenin, M C; Lefaix, J L; Ridi, R; Biard, D S; Daburon, F; Martin, M

    1998-01-01

    To characterize the differences between fibrotic myofibroblasts and normal fibroblasts, we studied two differentiation markers: α-smooth muscle (SM) actin, a specific marker of myofibroblast differentiation, and β-actin, which is overexpressed in the fibrotic tissue. Experiments were performed on fibroblasts isolated from normal pig skin and on subcutaneous myofibroblasts isolated from pig radiation-induced fibrosis. Three culture models were used: cells in monolayers, equivalent dermis, consisting of fibroblasts embedded into a matrix composed of type I collagen, and in vitro reconstituted skin, in which the matrix and containing life fibroblasts were overlaid with keratinocytes. Samples were studied using immunofluorescence and western-blotting. In monolayers cultures, both fibrosis and normal cells expressed α-SM actin. Furthermore, similar amounts of β-actin protein were found. In these conditions, the resulting alterations in the phenotypes of cells made comparison of cultured fibrotic and normal cells irrelevant. Under the two 3-D culture models, normal fibroblasts no longer expressed α-SM actin. They expressed β-actin at the basal level. Moreover, the fibrotic myofibroblasts in both 3-D models retained their differentiation features, expressing α-SM actin and overexpressing β-actin. We found that this normalization was mainly related to the genomic programmation acquired by the cells in the tissue. Cellular motility and microenvironment were also involved, whereas cellular proliferation was not a major factor. Consequently, both three-dimensional models allowed the study of radiation-induced fibrosis in vitro, provided good extrapolations to in vivo conditions and avoided certain of culture artefacts. PMID:22359004

  13. 21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529... § 529.1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 or 100 milligrams gentamicin sulfate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000010, 000061, 000856,...

  14. 21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529... § 529.1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 or 100 milligrams gentamicin sulfate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000010, 000061, 000856,...

  15. 21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529... § 529.1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 or 100 milligrams gentamicin sulfate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000010, 000061, 000856,...

  16. 21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529... § 529.1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 or 100 milligrams gentamicin sulfate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000010, 000061, 000856,...

  17. Intrauterine Growth and Infant Temperamental Difficulties: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roza, Sabine J.; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Moll, Henriette A.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2008-01-01

    The Generation R Study a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life to young adulthood is conducted to explore the possibility of an association between infant temperament and intrauterine growth trajectories. Results concluded little indication of any association between infant temperament and intrauterine growth trajectories.

  18. 21 CFR 529.50 - Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529.50... Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 250 milligrams of amikacin (as the sulfate). (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 and 059130 in §...

  19. Intra-uterine hematoma in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Glavind, K; Nøhr, S; Nielsen, P H; Ipsen, L

    1991-06-01

    In 60 patients with a live fetus and an intra-uterine hematoma (IUH) proven by ultrasonic scanning the outcome of pregnancy was spontaneous abortion in 12% and premature delivery in 10%. No correlation between the outcome of the pregnancy and the maximum size of the hematoma or the week of detection was found. A subplacentar localization of the hematoma was associated with a higher, but not statistically significant, incidence of spontaneous abortion than a subchorionic localization. Spontaneous abortion most often occurred in the first weeks after the formation of the hematoma. PMID:1855608

  20. Spontaneous intrauterine umbilical artery thrombosis leading to severe fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Klaritsch, P; Haeusler, M; Karpf, E; Schlembach, D; Lang, U

    2008-04-01

    Intrauterine thrombosis of umbilical cord vessels is a rare event (2.5-4.5/10,000) and usually followed by poor fetal outcome. We present the rare case of spontaneous intrauterine thrombosis of an umbilical artery leading to severe intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and provide clinical and pathological findings. A 28-year-old nulliparous third gravida was referred to our institution because of IUGR at 32+4 weeks of gestation. Fetal growth had been appropriate until the 31st week of gestation and had stopped thereafter. There were no signs of abruption of the placenta and no structural abnormalities except an absent paravesical colour Doppler flow in the region of the right umbilical artery. Other Doppler measurements, karyotype and TORCH serology were normal. Intermittent non-reassuring fetal heart rate led to cesarean section at 34+3 weeks of gestation. A healthy girl with measurements on the 3rd centile was born (weight of 1,590 g, length of 41 cm and head circumference of 29 cm). Gross examination displayed an elongated, highly twisted umbilical cord with a length of 70 cm, central insertion and three umbilical vessels. Microscopic examination confirmed the diagnosis of umbilical artery thrombosis along the entire length of the umbilical cord. Calcification within the thrombus and microcalcification in occluded chorionic vessels were observed as well as hemorrhagic endovasculitis and endangiopathia obliterans in the stem villi arteries. This fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (FTV) comprised about 40% of the parenchyma. The coagulation parameters and blood counts of the mother and the infant were normal apart from transient neonatal thrombocytopenia. The reason for thrombosis remained unclear but could be attributed to the elongated and highly twisted umbilical cord. Intrauterine arterial thrombosis may cause severe IUGR. This condition might be detectable by ultrasound in the course of an IUGR workup, especially when no other reasons can be found. PMID:18289672

  1. AP-1 activity during normal human keratinocyte differentiation: evidence for a cytosolic modulator of AP-1/DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Briata, P; D'Anna, F; Franzi, A T; Gherzi, R

    1993-01-01

    Increased levels of c-fos and c-jun expression have been observed in differentiating epithelial cells. However, no data are available on activator protein 1 (AP-1) activity during keratinocyte differentiation. In this work we investigated c-fos and c-jun gene expression and AP-1-(12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-responsive enhancer element (TRE) binding activity during keratinocyte differentiation utilizing both authentic and in culture-reconstituted human epidermis. We demonstrate that: (i) in reconstituted epidermis, non-differentiated and differentiated keratinocytes express equivalent levels of c-Jun, while in reconstituted epidermis permanently grafted onto athymic mice, as well as in authentic epidermis, c-Jun is predominantly expressed in the granular layer of the tissue. Equivalent levels of c-fos expression have been found in all the layers of both reconstituted and authentic epidermis. (ii) Nuclear extracts from cultures enriched in differentiated keratinocytes display an 80-90% reduction of AP-1 activity when compared to extracts from cultures enriched in nondifferentiated cells. (iii) Cytosolic extracts obtained from cultures enriched in differentiated cells reduce, in a concentration-dependent manner, the AP-1 activity present in nuclear extracts of both mammalian and Drosophila cells. (iv) The specific TRE binding activity of a recombinant c-Jun protein is significantly reduced by cytosolic extracts of differentiated keratinocytes, while the specific DNA binding of the purified recombinant human homeoprotein HOX4B is not. (v) The dephosphorylation, by alkaline phosphatase, of cytosolic extracts increases the inhibitory activity already present or makes evident a latent activity. PMID:8416791

  2. Diffuse fatty metamorphosis of a large, well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma originating in the normal liver: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Satoshi; Okazaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Satoshi; Nishigori, Shuhei; Terada, Masahiro; Hamanaka, Jun; Miura, Yuki; Oka, Hiroyuki; Suzaki, Fumio; Tanaka, Katsuaki

    2015-10-01

    Fatty changes are frequently observed in small, well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), but are rarely observed in large (over 30 mm in diameter) lesions. Here, we report a 76-year-old man who developed a large (58 mm in diameter), well-differentiated HCC with diffuse extensive fatty changes in the right lobe of the liver. He had no history of alcohol abuse, obesity, or hepatitis B or C infection, and no autoantibodies, but he did have type 2 diabetes. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level was within the normal range, and ultrasonography showed a round hyperechoic lesion. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a tumor with inhomogeneous low attenuation in the arterial, portal, and venous phases, mimicking an angiomyolipoma. The patient underwent central bisegmentectomy of the liver, and the histological diagnosis was well-differentiated HCC with diffuse extensive fatty changes. The surrounding non-cancerous area was normal. A review of the published literature found six published cases of large, well-differentiated HCC with extensive fatty changes. Unlike the patients in most previous reports, our patient did not have any underlying liver disease and had no history of alcohol abuse. PMID:26416601

  3. Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Reverses Squamous Metaplasia and Induces Transitional Differentiation in Normal Human Urothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Varley, Claire Lucy; Stahlschmidt, Jens; Smith, Barbara; Stower, Michael; Southgate, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    We observed that in urothelium, both cornifying and noncornifying forms of squamous metaplasia are accompanied by changes in the localization of the nuclear hormone receptors, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) and retinoid X receptor (RXR-α). To obtain objective evidence for a role for PPAR-γ-mediated signaling in urothelial differentiation, we examined expression of the cytokeratin isotypes CK13, CK20, and CK14 as indicators of transitional, terminal transitional, and squamous differentiation, respectively, in cultures of normal human urothelial cells. In control culture conditions, normal human urothelial cells showed evidence of squamous differentiation (CK14+, CK13−, CK20−). Treatment with the high-affinity PPAR-γ agonist, troglitazone (TZ), resulted in gain of CK13 and loss of CK14 protein expression. The effect of TZ was significantly augmented when the autocrine-stimulated epidermal growth factor receptor pathway was inhibited and this resulted in induction of CK20 expression. The RXR-specific inhibitors PA452, HX531, and HX603 inhibited the TZ-induced CK13 expression, supporting a role for RXR in the induction of CK13 expression. Thus, signaling through PPAR-γ can mediate transitional differentiation of urothelial cells and this is modulated by growth regulatory programs. PMID:15111325

  4. Obstetric management of intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Marsál, Karel

    2009-12-01

    The aim of obstetric management is to identify growth-restricted foetuses at risk of severe intrauterine hypoxia, to monitor their health and to deliver when the adverse outcome is imminent. After 30-32 gestational weeks, a Doppler finding of absent or reverse end-diastolic flow in the umbilical artery of a small-for-gestational age foetus is in itself an indication for delivery. In very preterm foetuses, the intrauterine risks have to be balanced against the risk of prematurity. All available diagnostic information (e.g., Doppler velocimetry of umbilical artery, foetal central arteries and veins and of maternal uterine arteries; foetal heart rate with computerised analysis of short-term variability; amniotic fluid amount; and foetal gestational age-related weight) should be collected to support the timing of delivery. If possible, the delivery should optimally take place before the onset of late signs of foetal hypoxia (pathological foetal heart rate pattern, severely abnormal ductus venosus blood velocity waveform, pulsations in the umbilical vein). PMID:19854682

  5. Intrauterine resuscitation: active management of fetal distress.

    PubMed

    Thurlow, J A; Kinsella, S M

    2002-04-01

    Acute fetal distress in labour is a condition of progressive fetal asphyxia with hypoxia and acidosis. It is usually diagnosed by finding characteristic features in the fetal heart rate pattern, wherever possible supported by fetal scalp pH measurement. Intrauterine resuscitation consists of applying specific measures with the aim of increasing oxygen delivery to the placenta and umbilical blood flow, in order to reverse hypoxia and acidosis. These measures include initial left lateral recumbent positioning followed by right lateral or knee-elbow if necessary, rapid intravenous infusion of a litre of non-glucose crystalloid, maternal oxygen administration at the highest practical inspired percentage, inhibition of uterine contractions usually with subcutaneous or intravenous terbutaline 250 microg, and intra-amniotic infusion of warmed crystalloid solution. Specific manoeuvres for umbilical cord prolapse are also described. Intrauterine resuscitation may be used as part of the obstetric management of labour, while preparing for caesarean delivery for fetal distress, or at the time of establishment of regional analgesia during labour in the compromised fetus. The principles may also be applied during inter-hospital transfers of sick or labouring parturients. PMID:15321562

  6. Amniotic fluid embolism after intrauterine fetal demise.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Karl; Langdana, Fali; Clentworth, Howard; Hansby, Chu; Dalley, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of the successful treatment of severe amniotic fluid embolism in a 41-year-old woman undergoing emergency caesarean section at 36 weeks of gestation for placental abruption and intrauterine fetal demise. The treatment included prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation, emergency hysterectomy, re-operation with intra-abdominal packing and intra-aortic balloon pump insertion. The patient made a remarkable recovery and to date has minimal residual morbidity. Amniotic fluid embolism syndrome (AFES) is a rare and often fatal obstetric condition that remains one of the main causes of maternal mortality in developed countries. The incidence varies from 2 to 6 per 100,000 and suggested mortality rates exceed 60%.1-2 The classic triad of sudden hypoxia, hypotension and coagulopathy with acute onset during labour or immediately after delivery forms the hallmark of the AFES diagnosis, however AFES is primarily a clinical diagnosis of exclusion. We present a case of successful maternal outcome following severe amniotic fluid embolism after placental abruption and intrauterine fetal demise. PMID:27607089

  7. CBP histone acetyltransferase activity regulates embryonic neural differentiation in the normal and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome brain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Weaver, Ian C G; Gauthier-Fisher, Andrée; Wang, Haoran; He, Ling; Yeomans, John; Wondisford, Frederic; Kaplan, David R; Miller, Freda D

    2010-01-19

    Increasing evidence indicates that epigenetic changes regulate cell genesis. Here, we ask about neural precursors, focusing on CREB binding protein (CBP), a histone acetyltransferase that, when haploinsufficient, causes Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS), a genetic disorder with cognitive dysfunction. We show that neonatal cbp(+/-) mice are behaviorally impaired, displaying perturbed vocalization behavior. cbp haploinsufficiency or genetic knockdown with siRNAs inhibited differentiation of embryonic cortical precursors into all three neural lineages, coincident with decreased CBP binding and histone acetylation at promoters of neuronal and glial genes. Inhibition of histone deacetylation rescued these deficits. Moreover, CBP phosphorylation by atypical protein kinase C zeta was necessary for histone acetylation at neural gene promoters and appropriate differentiation. These data support a model in which environmental cues regulate CBP activity and histone acetylation to control neural precursor competency to differentiate, and indicate that cbp haploinsufficiency disrupts this mechanism, thereby likely causing cognitive dysfunction in RTS. PMID:20152182

  8. NOTE: Arterio-venous flow between monochorionic twins determined during intra-uterine transfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gemert, Martin J. C.; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Lopriore, Enrico; Pasman, Suzanne A.; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.

    2008-04-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monozygotic (identical) twin fetuses sharing one single (monochorionic) placenta. TTTS is caused by a net inter-twin transfusion of blood through placental anastomoses, from one twin (the donor) to the other (the recipient), which link the two feto-placental circulations. Currently, the only reliable method to measure the net inter-twin transfusion clinically is when incomplete laser therapy of TTTS occurs and one of the twins becomes anemic and requires an intra-uterine transfusion of adult red blood cells. Then, differences between adult hemoglobin concentrations measured during the transfusion and at birth relate not only to the net inter-twin transfusion but also to the finite lifetime of the adult red blood cells. We have analyzed this situation, derived the differential equations of adult hemoglobin in the donor and recipient twins, given the solutions and given expressions relating the net inter-twin flow with clinically measured parameters. We have included single and multiple intra-uterine transfusions. In conclusion, because incomplete laser therapy occurs frequently, and some cases require an intra-uterine transfusion, this method may allow collecting a wealth of net inter-twin flow data from clinicians involved in laser therapy of TTTS. To aid to the widespread use of this method, we have presented the equations as clearly as possible in tables for easy use by others.

  9. Calcium Electroporation: Evidence for Differential Effects in Normal and Malignant Cell Lines, Evaluated in a 3D Spheroid Model

    PubMed Central

    Madi, Moinecha; Gehl, Julie; Rols, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill efficacy–and normal cell sensitivity. Methods Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). Results The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p<0.0001) or electrochemotherapy using bleomycin (p<0.0001). Strikingly, the size of normal fibroblast spheroids was neither affected after calcium electroporation nor electrochemotherapy using bleomycin, indicating that calcium electroporation, like electrochemotherapy, will have limited adverse effects on the surrounding normal tissue when treating with calcium electroporation. The intracellular ATP level, which has previously been shown to be depleted after calcium electroporation, was measured in the spheroids after treatment. The results showed a dramatic decrease in the intracellular ATP level (p<0.01) in all four spheroid types—malignant as well as normal. Conclusion In conclusion, calcium electroporation seems to be more effective in inducing cell death in cancer cell spheroids than in a normal fibroblast spheroid, even though intracellular ATP level is depleted in all spheroid types after treatment. These results may indicate an important therapeutic window for this therapy; although further studies are needed in vivo and in patients to investigate the effect of calcium electroporation on

  10. Correct Timing of Proliferation and Differentiation is Necessary for Normal Inner Ear Development and Auditory Hair Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Kopecky, Benjamin J.; Jahan, Israt; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Background Hearing restoration through hair cell regeneration will require revealing the dynamic interactions between proliferation and differentiation during development to avoid the limited viability of regenerated hair cells. Pax2-Cre N-Myc conditional knockout (CKO) mice highlighted the need of N-Myc for proper neurosensory development and possible redundancy with L-Myc. The late-onset hair cell death in the absence of early N-Myc expression could be due to mis-regulation of genes necessary for neurosensory formation and maintenance, such as Neurod1, Atoh1, Pou4f3, and Barhl1. Results Pax2-Cre N-Myc L-Myc double CKO mice show that proliferation and differentiation are linked together through Myc and in the absence of both Mycs, altered proliferation and differentiation results in morphologically abnormal ears. In particular, the organ of Corti apex is re-patterned into a vestibular-like organization and the base is truncated and fused with the saccule. Conclusions These data indicate that therapeutic approaches to restore hair cells must take into account a dynamic interaction of proliferation and differentiation regulation of basic Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factors in attempts to stably replace lost cochlear hair cells. In addition, our data indicate that Myc is an integral component of the evolutionary transformation process that resulted in the organ of Corti development. PMID:23193000

  11. Use of Spectral/Cepstral Analyses for Differentiating Normal from Hypofunctional Voices in Sustained Vowel and Continuous Speech Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Christopher R.; Awan, Shaheen N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors evaluated the diagnostic value of spectral/cepstral measures to differentiate dysphonic from nondysphonic voices using sustained vowels and continuous speech samples. Methodology: Thirty-two age- and gender-matched individuals (16 participants with dysphonia and 16 controls) were recorded reading a standard…

  12. Differential expression and functional role of GATA-2, NF-E2, and GATA-1 in normal adult hematopoiesis.

    PubMed Central

    Labbaye, C; Valtieri, M; Barberi, T; Meccia, E; Masella, B; Pelosi, E; Condorelli, G L; Testa, U; Peschle, C

    1995-01-01

    We have explored the expression of the transcription factors GATA-1, GATA-2, and NF-E2 in purified early hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) induced to gradual unilineage erythroid or granulocytic differentiation by growth factor stimulus. GATA-2 mRNA and protein, already expressed in quiescent HPCs, is rapidly induced as early as 3 h after growth factor stimulus, but then declines in advanced erythroid and granulocytic differentiation and maturation. NF-E2 and GATA-1 mRNAs and proteins, though not detected in quiescent HPCs, are gradually induced at 24-48 h in both erythroid and granulocytic culture. Beginning at late differentiation/early maturation stage, both transcription factors are further accumulated in the erythroid pathway, whereas they are suppressed in the granulopoietic series. Similarly, the erythropoietin receptor (EpR) is induced and sustainedly expressed during erythroid differentiation, although beginning at later times (i.e., day 5), whereas it is barely expressed in the granulopoietic pathway. In the first series of functional studies, HPCs were treated with antisense oligomers targeted to transcription factor mRNA: inhibition of GATA-2 expression caused a decreased number of both erythroid and granulocyte-monocytic clones, whereas inhibition of NF-E2 or GATA-1 expression induced a selective impairment of erythroid colony formation. In a second series of functional studies, HPCs treated with retinoic acid were induced to shift from erythroid to granulocytic differentiation (Labbaye et al. 1994. Blood. 83:651-656); this was coupled with abrogation of GATA-1, NF-E2, and EpR expression and conversely enhanced GATA-2 levels. These results indicate the expression and key role of GATA-2 in the early stages of HPC proliferation/differentiation. Conversely, NF-E2 and GATA-1 expression and function are apparently restricted to erythroid differentiation and maturation: their expression precedes that of the EpR, and their function may be in part mediated

  13. Differential expression of estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor in the normal and cryptorchid testis of a dog.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyo Young; Yoo, Dae Young; Jo, Young Kwang; Kim, Geon A; Chung, Jin Young; Choi, Jung Hoon; Jang, Goo; Hwang, In Koo

    2016-06-01

    Descending of the testes is an important process for spermatogenesis and cryptorchidism is one of the most relevant genital defects in dogs. In a previous study, we observed abnormal morphology and proliferation of Sertoli cells in a cryptorchid testis. In the present study, we investigated the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the normal and cryptorchid testis of a dog. Elective orchidectomy was performed on the dog's abdominal right testis (undescended, cryptorchid) and scrotal left testis (descended, normal). In the normal testis, estrogen receptor α immunoreactivity was detected in Leydig cells alone, while estrogen receptor α immunoreactivity in the cryptorchid testis was significantly prominent in the Sertoli cells as well. In addition, progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in the control testis was detected in the spermatids, but was not detected in the cryptorchid testis. This result suggests that unilateral cryptorchidism causes increases of estrogen receptor α expression in Sertoli cells. PMID:27382382

  14. Differential expression of estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor in the normal and cryptorchid testis of a dog

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyo Young; Yoo, Dae Young; Jo, Young Kwang; Kim, Geon A; Chung, Jin Young; Choi, Jung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Descending of the testes is an important process for spermatogenesis and cryptorchidism is one of the most relevant genital defects in dogs. In a previous study, we observed abnormal morphology and proliferation of Sertoli cells in a cryptorchid testis. In the present study, we investigated the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the normal and cryptorchid testis of a dog. Elective orchidectomy was performed on the dog's abdominal right testis (undescended, cryptorchid) and scrotal left testis (descended, normal). In the normal testis, estrogen receptor α immunoreactivity was detected in Leydig cells alone, while estrogen receptor α immunoreactivity in the cryptorchid testis was significantly prominent in the Sertoli cells as well. In addition, progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in the control testis was detected in the spermatids, but was not detected in the cryptorchid testis. This result suggests that unilateral cryptorchidism causes increases of estrogen receptor α expression in Sertoli cells. PMID:27382382

  15. Cooperation between HNF-1α, Cdx2, and GATA-4 in initiating an enterocytic differentiation program in a normal human intestinal epithelial progenitor cell line

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Yannick D.; Paré, Fréderic; Francoeur, Caroline; Jean, Dominique; Tremblay, Eric; Boudreau, François; Escaffit, Fabrice

    2010-01-01

    In the intestinal epithelium, the Cdx, GATA, and HNF transcription factor families are responsible for the expression of differentiation markers such as sucrase-isomaltase. Although previous studies have shown that Cdx2 can induce differentiation in rat intestinal IEC-6 cells, no data are available concerning the direct implication of transcription factors on differentiation in human normal intestinal epithelial cell types. We investigated the role of Cdx2, GATA-4, and HNF-1α using the undifferentiated human intestinal epithelial crypt cell line HIEC. These transcription factors were tested on proliferation and expression of polarization and differentiation markers. Ectopic expression of Cdx2 or HNF-1α, alone or in combination, altered cell proliferation abilities through the regulation of cyclin D1 and p27 expression. HNF-1α and GATA-4 together induced morphological modifications of the cells toward polarization, resulting in the appearance of functional features such as microvilli. HNF-1α was also sufficient to induce the expression of cadherins and dipeptidylpeptidase, whereas in combination with Cdx2 it allowed the expression of the late differentiation marker sucrase-isomaltase. Large-scale analysis of gene expression confirmed the cooperative effect of these factors. Finally, although DcamKL1 and Musashi-1 expression were downregulated in differentiated HIEC, other intestinal stem cell markers, such as Bmi1, were unaffected. These observations show that, in cooperation with Cdx2, HNF-1α acts as a key factor on human intestinal cells to trigger the onset of their functional differentiation program whereas GATA-4 appears to promote morphological changes. PMID:20133952

  16. Complications and Continuation of Intrauterine Device Use Among Commercially Insured Teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Abbey B.; Tan, Alai; Hirth, Jacqueline M.; Wilkinson, Gregg S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Many U.S. providers remain reluctant to prescribe intrauterine devices (IUDs) to teenagers due to concerns about serious complications. This study examined whether 15–19 year-old IUD users were more likely to experience complications, failure, or early discontinuation than adult users aged 20–24 and 25–44 years and whether there were differences in between users of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems and copper IUDs. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using health insurance claims obtained from a private insurance company of 90,489 women who had an IUD inserted between 2002 and 2009. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of experiencing complications, method failure, or early discontinuation within 12 months of insertion by age group and type of IUD inserted. Results Serious complications, including ectopic pregnancy and pelvic inflammatory disease, occurred in less than 1% of patients regardless of age or IUD type. Women aged 15–19 years were more likely than those aged 25–44 years to have a claim for dysmenorrhea OR=1.4, CI=1.1, 1.6), amenorrhea (OR=1.3, CI=1.1, 1.5), or normal pregnancy (OR=1.4, CI=1.1, 1.8). Overall, early discontinuation did not differ between teenagers and women aged 25–44 years (13% vs. 11%, p>.05). However, use of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system was associated with fewer complications and less early discontinuation than the copper IUD in all age groups. Conclusions The IUD is as appropriate for teenagers to use as it is for older women, with serious complications occurring infrequently in all groups. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system may be a better choice than copper IUD due to lower odds of complications, discontinuation, and failure. PMID:23635730

  17. Intrauterine Pressure (IUP) Telemetry in Pregnant and Parturient Rats: Potential Applications for Spacecraft and Centrifugation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, A. E.; Baer, L. A.; Wade, C. E.

    2003-01-01

    Rats exposed to spaceflight or centrifugation from mid-to late pregnancy undergo either more or fewer labor contractions at birth, respectively, as compared to those in normal Earth gravity (1-g). In this paper, we report the development and validation of a new telemetric method for quantifying intrauterine pressure (IUP) in freely-moving, late pregnant and parturient rats. We plan to utilize this technique for studies of labor in altered gravity, specifically, to ascertain forces of uterine during birth, which we believe may be changed in micro- and hypergravity. The technique we describe yields precise, reliable measures of the forces experienced by rat fetuses during parturition. A small, surgically-implantable telemetric pressure sensor was fitted within a fluid-filled balloon. The total volume of the sensor-balloon assembly matched that of a full term rat fetus. Real-time videorecordings of sensor-implanted rat dams and non- implanted control dams enabled us to characterize effects of the intrauterine implant on behavioral aspects of parturition. Contraction frequency, duration, pup-to-pup birth intervals and pup-oriented activities of the dams measured during the peri-birth period were unaffected by the sensor implant. These findings establish intrauterine telemetry as a reliable, non-invasive technique for quantifying intrauterine pressures associated with parturition on Earth and in altered gravity environments. This new technology, readily amenable to spaceflight and centrifugation platforms, will enable us to answer key questions regarding the role of altered labor frequency labor in the adaptation of newborn mammals to hypo- and hypergravity.

  18. Nodal lymph flow quantified with afferent vessel input function allows differentiation between normal and cancer-bearing nodes

    PubMed Central

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Gunn, Jason R.; Barth, Richard J.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy could ideally be improved using node assay techniques that are non-invasive. While visible blue dyes are often used to locate the sentinel lymph nodes from draining lymphatic vessels near a tumor, they do not provide an in situ metric to evaluate presence of cancer. In this study, the transport kinetics of methylene blue were analyzed to determine the potential for better in situ information about metastatic involvement in the nodes. A rat model with cancer cells in the axillary lymph nodes was used, with methylene blue injection to image the fluorescence kinetics. The lymphatic flow from injection sites to nodes was imaged and the relative kinetics from feeding lymphatic ducts relative to lymph nodes was quantified. Large variability existed in raw fluorescence and transport patterns within each cohort resulting in no systematic difference between average nodal uptake in normal, sham control and cancer-bearing nodes. However, when the signal from the afferent lymph vessel fluorescence was used to normalize the signal of the lymph nodes, the high signal heterogeneity was reduced. Using a model, the lymph flow through the nodes (FLN) was estimated to be 1.49 ± 0.64 ml/g/min in normal nodes, 1.53 ± 0.45 ml/g/min in sham control nodes, and reduced to 0.50 ± 0.24 ml/g/min in cancer-cell injected nodes. This summarizes the significant difference (p = 0.0002) between cancer-free and cancer-bearing nodes in normalized flow. This process of normalized flow imaging could be used as an in situ tool to detect metastatic involvement in nodes. PMID:25909014

  19. [Intrauterine hypotrophy and programming the health status. Late problems in newborns with intrauterine hypotrophy].

    PubMed

    Mumdzhiev, Hr; Slancheva, B

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, accumulating more and more evidence demonstrating the programming effects of intrauterine development on the subsequent health of the individual. Intrauterine fetal hypotrophy is a consequence of the wide range of pathological processes in different periods of pregnancy. It is the second leading cause of perinatal death after prematurity. Newborns from similar pathological pregnancies are often leaked premature baby and/or small for gestational age (SGA). Premature baby children have not only complicated and postnatal adaptation problems in the neonatal period, but many diseases occurring in later life: 1. Disorders in postnatal growth. 2. Neurological and intellectual consequences of IUH in term children (hyperactivity disorders attention, impaired fine motor skills, speech problems, risk of cerebral palsy). 3. Neurological and intellectual consequences of prematurity IUH (cognitive impairment in children with low birth weight, short stature at birth, and small head circumference for gestational age). 4. Metabolic syndrome (dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, hypertension and high blood sugar). 5. Abnormal sexual development (hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovary syndrome in girls, reduced testicular size and lower testosterone levels in boys. 6. Other complications associated with intrauterine hypotrophy cardiovascular renal, pulmonary complications (BPD) disorders in vision, sensory neural hearing loss. PMID:23807979

  20. 9-O-acetylated sialic acids differentiating normal haematopoietic precursors from leukemic stem cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Suchandra; Chandra, Sarmila; Mandal, Chitra

    2014-10-01

    Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) originates from mutations in haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). For high-risk patients, treated with intensified post-remission chemotherapy, haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is considered. Autologous HSC transplantation needs improvisation till date. Previous studies established enhanced disease-associated expression of 9-O-acetylated sialoglycoproteins (Neu5,9Ac2-GPs) on lymphoblasts of these patients at diagnosis, followed by its decrease with clinical remission and reappearance with relapse. Based on this differential expression of Neu5,9Ac2-GPs, identification of a normal HPC population was targeted from patients at diagnosis. This study identifies two distinct haematopoietic progenitor populations from bone marrow of diagnostic ALL patients, exploring the differential expression of Neu5,9Ac2-GPs with stem cell (CD34, CD90, CD117, CD133), haematopoietic (CD45), lineage-commitment (CD38) antigens and cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Normal haematopoietic progenitor cells (ALDH(+)SSC(lo)CD45(hi)Neu5,9Ac2 -GPs(lo)CD34(+)CD38(-)CD90(+)CD117(+)CD133(+)) differentiated into morphologically different, lineage-specific colonies, being crucial for autologous HSC transplantation while leukemic stem cells (ALDH(+)SSC(lo)CD45(lo)Neu5,9Ac2 -GPs(hi)CD34(+)CD38(+)CD90(-)CD117(-)CD133(-)) lacking this ability can be potential targets for minimal residual disease detection and drug-targeted immunotherapy. PMID:25283637

  1. The Perforated Intrauterine Device: Endoscopic Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Heinberg, Eric M.; McCoy, Travis W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Uterine perforation is the most serious complication associated with an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD). Minimally invasive techniques, such as hysteroscopy and advanced laparoscopy, are ideally suited to the diagnosis and surgical management of the perforated IUD. Case Reports: Three cases of uterine perforation caused by an IUD and treated with endoscopic surgery are presented. In all 3 cases, the IUD was located by using x-rays, ultrasonography, or pelvic magnetic resonance imaging. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed to identify the specific location of the IUD and to remove it. All patients recovered without incident. Conclusion: The gynecologic surgeon should acquire familiarity with the complications of, and proficiency in managing, perforated and ectopic IUDs by using modern surgical techniques that permit the patient's rapid return to health. PMID:18402749

  2. The intrauterine device: dispelling the myths.

    PubMed

    Kimble-Haas, S L

    1998-11-01

    The worldwide popularity and usage of intrauterine devices (IUDs) plummeted in the 1970s, when grim reports of septic abortions and pelvic inflammatory disease were published. Although the Dalkon Shield ultimately was determined to be the culprit for these problems, the reputation of all IUDs was damaged, and their popularity spiraled downward. The stigma continues, despite the proven safety and efficacy of newer IUDs, particularly the ParaGard T 380A and the Progestasert, which are now the only two IUDs approved for use in the United States. This article will review how the IUD works and will focus on dispelling the misconceptions surrounding its use. Rigid patient-selection guidelines and strict aseptic insertion techniques can provide safe, long-term, cost-effective, and highly efficacious contraception for monogamous women. Practitioners who follow these guidelines should not fear prescribing IUDs as a contraceptive device in the appropriate female population. PMID:9834505

  3. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-08-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

  4. CDK2 differentially controls normal cell senescence and cancer cell proliferation upon exposure to reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Chae Young; Lee, Seung-Min; Park, Sung Sup; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} differently adjusted senescence and proliferation in normal and cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} exposure transiently decreased PCNA levels in normal cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} exposure transiently increased CDK2 activity in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21{sup Cip1} is likely dispensable when H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induces senescence in normal cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suggestively, CDK2 and PCNA play critical roles in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cell fate decision. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species modulate cell fate in a context-dependent manner. Sublethal doses of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decreased the level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in normal cells (including primary human dermal fibroblasts and IMR-90 cells) without affecting cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) activity, leading to cell cycle arrest and subsequent senescence. In contrast, exposure of cancer cells (such as HeLa and MCF7 cells) to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} increased CDK2 activity with no accompanying change in the PCNA level, leading to cell proliferation. A CDK2 inhibitor, CVT-313, prevented H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cancer cell proliferation. These results support the notion that the cyclin/CDK2/p21{sup Cip1}/PCNA complex plays an important role as a regulator of cell fate decisions.

  5. Selenoprotein Genes Exhibit Differential Expression Patterns Between Hepatoma HepG2 and Normal Hepatocytes LO2 Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua; Tang, Jiayong; Xu, Jingyang; Cao, Lei; Jia, Gang; Long, Dingbiao; Liu, Guangmang; Chen, Xiaoling; Wang, Kangning

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of selenoprotein genes between hepatoma HepG2 and normal hepatocytes LO2 cell lines. Liver HepG2 and LO2 cells were cultured in 12-well plates under the same condition until cells grew to complete confluence, and then cells were harvested for total RNA and protein extraction. The qPCRs were performed to compare gene expression of 14 selenoprotein genes and 5 cancer signaling-related genes. Enzyme activities were also assayed. The results showed that human hepatoma HepG2 cells grew faster than normal hepatocytes LO2 cells. Among the genes investigated, 10 selenoprotein genes (Gpx1, Gpx3, Gpx4, Selx, Sepp, Sepw1, Sepn1, Selt, Seli, Selh) and 3 cancer signaling-related genes (Bcl-2A, caspase-3, and P38) were upregulated (P < 0.05), while Selo and Bcl-2B were downregulated (P < 0.05) in hepatoma HepG2 cells compared to LO2 cells. Significant correlations were found between selenoprotein genes and the cancer signaling-related genes Caspase3, P53, Bc1-2A, and Bc1-2B. Our results revealed that selenoprotein genes were aberrantly expressed in hepatoma HepG2 cells compared to normal liver LO2 cells, which indicated that those selenoprotein genes may play important roles in the occurrence and development of liver carcinogenesis. PMID:25846212

  6. Postmenopausal Bleeding due to a Cu-7 Intrauterine Device Retained for Thirty Years

    PubMed Central

    Gimpelson, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A retained intrauterine device is a rare, but easily correctable, cause of postmenopausal bleeding (PMB). Case: A 64-year-old woman presented to her gynecologist with PMB. Sonographic evaluation of the endometrium revealed the presence of a Cu-7 IUD retained for at least 30 years. Hysteroscopically assisted retrieval of the IUD resulted in complete resolution of symptoms. Conclusion: A retained IUD should be considered in the differential diagnosis for PMB. In addition, the authors recommend pelvic sonography as the first-line diagnostic modality for PMB to aid the diagnosis of retained IUD as well as other pathology. PMID:23477190

  7. Intra-uterine infection and cord immunoglobulin M II. Clinical analysis of infants with elevated cord serum immunoglobulin M *

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Annette; Dent, P. B.; Emrich, W. H.; Gent, M.; Rahim, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    Cord blood immunoglobulin M was measured in 3474 consecutive newborn infants. A group of 147 infants with elevated IgM values (≥19.0 mg./100 ml.) were compared with 92 unselected newborn infants with normal IgM values. One infant with clinically unsuspected congenital rubella was detected in the study group while no cases of intra-uterine infection were found among the controls. A greater proportion of mothers in the study group had a history of viral infection. The study group also contained a larger number of mothers who might be considered to be at greater risk of infection with agents known to cause intra-uterine disease. Follow-up studies at 6 months of age revealed no differences between the two groups aside from an increased incidence of minor motor abnormalities in the study group. While it is recognized that infants with cord blood IgM levels truly in excess of 30 mg./100 ml. may represent a high-risk group with respect to proved or subclinical intra-uterine infection, it is concluded that routine cord blood screening for elevated IgM values is not a high-yield procedure for the detection of intra-uterine infection in our population. PMID:4203457

  8. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Device Use in Overweight and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Soon, Reni A; Harris, Sara C; Salcedo, Jennifer; Kaneshiro, Bliss E

    2015-01-01

    The levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) is a safe, effective, long-acting, reversible contraceptive that reduces unintended pregnancy and decreases heavy menstrual bleeding. Many procedures such as IUD insertion are more challenging in overweight and obese women. The objective of this study was to describe LNG-IUD insertion, continuation, and complications in overweight and obese women in an ethnically diverse population in Hawai‘i. A retrospective cohort study of women who had a LNG-IUD inserted at the University of Hawai‘i, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Resident and Faculty practice sites between January 2009 and December 2010 was performed. A total of 149 women were followed. The most commonly reported races were Asian (32%), Native Hawaiian (26%), and non-Hawaiian Pacific Islander (20%). The mean BMI of the study population was 28.4 (standard deviation 7.2) with 37% classified as normal weight, 30% as overweight, and 33% as obese. Overall, 76% of women continued the LNG-IUD 12 months after insertion. No statistically significant difference emerged in 12-month IUD continuation between the BMI groups. Difficult (5%) and failed (3%) IUD insertions were rare for all BMI groups. IUD complications occurred in 9% of women and included expulsion and self-removal. In this diverse population, the majority of women continued to use the LNG-IUD one year after insertion with low rates of difficult insertions and complications. PMID:26568900

  9. Keratin 8/18 regulation of glucose metabolism in normal versus cancerous hepatic cells through differential modulation of hexokinase status and insulin signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Jasmin; Loranger, Anne; Gilbert, Stéphane; Faure, Robert; Marceau, Normand

    2013-02-15

    As differentiated cells, hepatocytes primarily metabolize glucose for ATP production through oxidative phosphorylation of glycolytic pyruvate, whereas proliferative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells undergo a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis despite oxygen availability. Keratins, the intermediate filament (IF) proteins of epithelial cells, are expressed as pairs in a lineage/differentiation manner. Hepatocyte and HCC (hepatoma) cell IFs are made solely of keratins 8/18 (K8/K18), thus providing models of choice to address K8/K18 IF functions in normal and cancerous epithelial cells. Here, we demonstrate distinctive increases in glucose uptake, glucose-6-phosphate formation, lactate release, and glycogen formation in K8/K18 IF-lacking hepatocytes and/or hepatoma cells versus their respective IF-containing counterparts. We also show that the K8/K18-dependent glucose uptake/G6P formation is linked to alterations in hexokinase I/II/IV content and localization at mitochondria, with little effect on GLUT1 status. In addition, we find that the insulin-stimulated glycogen formation in normal hepatocytes involves the main PI-3 kinase-dependent signaling pathway and that the K8/K18 IF loss makes them more efficient glycogen producers. In comparison, the higher insulin-dependent glycogen formation in K8/K18 IF-lacking hepatoma cells is associated with a signaling occurring through a mTOR-dependent pathway, along with an augmentation in cell proliferative activity. Together, the results uncover a key K8/K18 regulation of glucose metabolism in normal and cancerous hepatic cells through differential modulations of mitochondrial HK status and insulin-mediated signaling.

  10. Differential expression of utrophin-A and -B promoters in the central nervous system (CNS) of normal and dystrophic mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Baby, Santhosh M; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Willmann, Gabriel; Basu, Utpal; Lozynska, Olga; Khurana, Tejvir S

    2010-03-01

    Utrophin (Utrn) is the autosomal homolog of dystrophin, the Duchene Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) locus product and of therapeutic interest, as its overexpression can compensate dystrophin's absence. Utrn is transcribed by Utrn-A and -B promoters with mRNAs differing at their 5' ends. However, previous central nervous system (CNS) studies used C-terminal antibodies recognizing both isoforms. As this distinction may impact upregulation strategies, we generated Utrn-A and -B promoter-specific antibodies, Taqman Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based absolute copy number assays, and luciferase-reporter constructs to study CNS of normal and dystrophic mdx mice. Differential expression of Utrn-A and -B was noted in microdissected and capillary-enriched fractions. At the protein level, Utrn-B was predominantly expressed in vasculature and ependymal lining, whereas Utrn-A was expressed in neurons, astrocytes, choroid plexus and pia mater. mRNA quantification demonstrated matching patterns of differential expression; however, transcription-translation mismatch was noted for Utrn-B in caudal brain regions. Utrn-A and Utrn-B proteins were significantly upregulated in olfactory bulb and cerebellum of mdx brain. Differential promoter activity, mRNA and protein expressions were studied in cultured C2C12, bEnd3, neurons and astrocytes. Promoter activity ranking for Utrn-A and -B was neurons > astrocytes > C2C12 > bEnd3 and bEnd3 > astrocytes > neurons > C2C12, respectively. Our results identify promoter usage patterns for therapeutic targeting and define promoter-specific differential distribution of Utrn isoforms in normal and dystrophic CNS. PMID:19486009

  11. Interleukin 22 early affects keratinocyte differentiation, but not proliferation, in a three-dimensional model of normal human skin.

    PubMed

    Donetti, Elena; Cornaghi, Laura; Arnaboldi, Francesca; Landoni, Federica; Romagnoli, Paolo; Mastroianni, Nicolino; Pescitelli, Leonardo; Baruffaldi Preis, Franz W; Prignano, Francesca

    2016-07-15

    Interleukin (IL)-22 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine driving the progression of the psoriatic lesion with other cytokines, as Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-17. Our study was aimed at evaluating the early effect of IL-22 alone or in combination with TNF-alpha and IL-17 by immunofluorescence on i) keratinocyte (KC) proliferation, ii) terminal differentiation biomarkers as keratin (K) 10 and 17 expression, iii) intercellular junctions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis was performed. A model of human skin culture reproducing a psoriatic microenvironment was used. Plastic surgery explants were obtained from healthy young women (n=7) after informed consent. Fragments were divided before adding IL-22 or a combination of the three cytokines, and harvested 24 (T24), 48 (T48), and 72 (T72)h later. From T24, in IL-22 samples we detected a progressive decrease in K10 immunostaining in the spinous layer paralleled by K17 induction. By TEM, after IL-22 incubation, keratin aggregates were evident in the perinuclear area. Occludin immunostaining was not homogeneously distributed. Conversely, KC proliferation was not inhibited by IL-22 alone, but only by the combination of cytokines. Our results suggest that IL-22 affects keratinocyte terminal differentiation, whereas, in order to induce a proliferation impairment, a more complex psoriatic-like microenvironment is needed. PMID:27207586

  12. Data on differentially expressed microRNAs in the liver between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and normal Wistar rat using Solexa sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deqing; Wang, Yuqian; Ji, Zhibin; Wang, Zhonghua

    2016-09-01

    The dataset includes data from the Solexa sequencing reported in our paper: "Identification and differential expression of microRNAs associated with fat deposition in the liver of Wistar rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease" [1]. The data collected include small RNAs and microRNAs in liver tissue from high glucose-induced NAFLD Wistar rats, using normal Wistar rats as their negative controls. 6 small RNA libraries were constructed and the expression profiles were compared between the two groups. Here we describe in detail how the data, deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) with the accession number GEO: GSE68411, was generated including the basic analysis. PMID:27331102

  13. Inhibitor of DNA Binding 4 (ID4) Is Highly Expressed in Human Melanoma Tissues and May Function to Restrict Normal Differentiation of Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peretz, Yuval; Wu, Hong; Patel, Shayan; Bellacosa, Alfonso; Katz, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma tissues and cell lines are heterogeneous, and include cells with invasive, proliferative, stem cell-like, and differentiated properties. Such heterogeneity likely contributes to the aggressiveness of the disease and resistance to therapy. One model suggests that heterogeneity arises from rare cancer stem cells (CSCs) that produce distinct cancer cell lineages. Another model suggests that heterogeneity arises through reversible cellular plasticity, or phenotype-switching. Recent work indicates that phenotype-switching may include the ability of cancer cells to dedifferentiate to a stem cell-like state. We set out to investigate the phenotype-switching capabilities of melanoma cells, and used unbiased methods to identify genes that may control such switching. We developed a system to reversibly synchronize melanoma cells between 2D-monolayer and 3D-stem cell-like growth states. Melanoma cells maintained in the stem cell-like state showed a striking upregulation of a gene set related to development and neural stem cell biology, which included SRY-box 2 (SOX2) and Inhibitor of DNA Binding 4 (ID4). A gene set related to cancer cell motility and invasiveness was concomitantly downregulated. Intense and pervasive ID4 protein expression was detected in human melanoma tissue samples, suggesting disease relevance for this protein. SiRNA knockdown of ID4 inhibited switching from monolayer to 3D-stem cell-like growth, and instead promoted switching to a highly differentiated, neuronal-like morphology. We suggest that ID4 is upregulated in melanoma as part of a stem cell-like program that facilitates further adaptive plasticity. ID4 may contribute to disease by preventing stem cell-like melanoma cells from progressing to a normal differentiated state. This interpretation is guided by the known role of ID4 as a differentiation inhibitor during normal development. The melanoma stem cell-like state may be protected by factors such as ID4, thereby potentially identifying a

  14. Extended flow cytometry characterization of normal bone marrow progenitor cells by simultaneous detection of aldehyde dehydrogenase and early hematopoietic antigens: implication for erythroid differentiation studies

    PubMed Central

    Mirabelli, Peppino; Di Noto, Rosa; Lo Pardo, Catia; Morabito, Paolo; Abate, Giovanna; Gorrese, Marisa; Raia, Maddalena; Pascariello, Caterina; Scalia, Giulia; Gemei, Marica; Mariotti, Elisabetta; Del Vecchio, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    Background Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is a cytosolic enzyme highly expressed in hematopoietic precursors from cord blood and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor mobilized peripheral blood, as well as in bone marrow from patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia. As regards human normal bone marrow, detailed characterization of ALDH+ cells has been addressed by one single study (Gentry et al, 2007). The goal of our work was to provide new information about the dissection of normal bone marrow progenitor cells based upon the simultaneous detection by flow cytometry of ALDH and early hematopoietic antigens, with particular attention to the expression of ALDH on erythroid precursors. To this aim, we used three kinds of approach: i) multidimensional analytical flow cytometry, detecting ALDH and early hematopoietic antigens in normal bone marrow; ii) fluorescence activated cell sorting of distinct subpopulations of progenitor cells, followed by in vitro induction of erythroid differentiation; iii) detection of ALDH+ cellular subsets in bone marrow from pure red cell aplasia patients. Results In normal bone marrow, we identified three populations of cells, namely ALDH+CD34+, ALDH-CD34+ and ALDH+CD34- (median percentages were 0.52, 0.53 and 0.57, respectively). As compared to ALDH-CD34+ cells, ALDH+CD34+ cells expressed the phenotypic profile of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells, with brighter expression of CD117 and CD133, accompanied by lower display of CD38 and CD45RA. Of interest, ALDH+CD34- population disclosed a straightforward erythroid commitment, on the basis of three orders of evidences. First of all, ALDH+CD34- cells showed a CD71bright, CD105+, CD45- phenotype. Secondly, induction of differentiation experiments evidenced a clear-cut expression of glycophorin A (CD235a). Finally, ALDH+CD34- precursors were not detectable in patients with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). Conclusion Our study, comparing surface antigen expression of ALDH+/CD34+, ALDH

  15. Early Adolescent Executive Functioning, Intrauterine Exposures and Own Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Soenksen, Shayna; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Cabral, Howard J.; Richardson, Mark A.; Beeghly, Marjorie; Heeren, Timothy C.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in adolescents' executive functioning are often attributed either to intrauterine substance exposure or to adolescents' own substance use, but both predictors typically have not been evaluated simultaneously in the same study. This prospective study evaluated whether intrauterine drug exposures, the adolescents' own substance use, and/or their potential interactions are related to poorer executive functioning after controlling for important contextual variables. Analyses were based on data collected on a sample of 137 predominantly African-American/ African Caribbean adolescents from low-income urban backgrounds who were followed since their term birth. Intrauterine substance exposures (cocaine, marijuana, alcohol, cigarettes) and adolescents' substance use were documented using a combination of biological assays and maternal and adolescent self-report. At 12-14 years of age, examiners masked to intrauterine exposures and current substance use assessed the adolescents using the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), an age-referenced instrument evaluating multiple dimensions of executive functioning (EF). Results of covariate-controlled analyses in this study suggest that when intrauterine substance exposures and young adolescents' substance use variables were in the same analysis models, subtle differences in specific EF outcomes were identifiable in this non-referred sample. While further study with larger samples is indicated, these findings suggest that 1) research on adolescent substance use and intrauterine exposure research should evaluate both predictors simultaneously; 2) subtle neurocognitive effects associated with specific intrauterine drug exposures can be identified during early adolescence; and 3) intrauterine substance exposure effects may differ from those associated with adolescents' own drug use. PMID:21371553

  16. New technique for managing second trimester intrauterine fetal death.

    PubMed

    Malpani, A; Malpani, A; Krishna, U

    1989-03-01

    In this study, a new method for terminating second trimester pregnancies complicated by intrauterine fetal death is analysed. The technique consisted of a combination of extraamniotic ethacridine lactate with intramuscular sulprostone (16-phenoxy-omega-17,18,19,20 tetranor PGE2 methyl sulfonylamide). Objective documentation of the efficacy of this method was obtained by continuous monitoring of intrauterine pressure in two patients. The method was found to be simple, safe, cheap and effective and deserves increased acceptance. PMID:2564363

  17. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Associated with Excessively Long Umbilical Cord

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Ann; Jacquemyn, Yves; Loor, Jeannette De

    2013-01-01

    We present a 37-week female baby, known with intrauterine growth restriction since 25 weeks of pregnancy, born with a placenta with an excessive long umbilical cord (ELUC), without any other abnormalities. ELUC is mostly an incidental finding after delivery, but represents a potentially detectable intrauterine cause of growth restriction. A system that allows ultrasound measurement of the length of the umbilical cord could highly increase antenatal diagnosis of ELUC. PMID:24765511

  18. Differentiation of ICOS+ and ICOS- recent thymic emigrant regulatory T cells (RTE T regs) during normal pregnancy, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wagner, M I; Jöst, M; Spratte, J; Schaier, M; Mahnke, K; Meuer, S; Zeier, M; Steinborn, A

    2016-01-01

    Two different subsets of naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nTregs), defined by their expression of the inducible co-stimulatory (ICOS) molecule, are produced by the human thymus. To examine the differentiation of ICOS(+) and ICOS(-) CD45RA(+) CD31(+) recent thymic emigrant (RTE) T regs during normal pregnancy and in the presence of pre-eclampsia or haemolysis elevated liver enzymes low platelet (HELLP)-syndrome, we used six-colour flow cytometric analysis to determine the changes in the composition of the ICOS(+) and ICOS(-) T reg pools with CD45RA(+) CD31(+) RTE T regs, CD45RA(+) CD31(-) mature naive (MN) T regs, CD45RA(-) CD31(+) and CD45RA(-) CD31(-) memory Tregs. With the beginning of pregnancy until term, we observed a strong differentiation of both ICOS(+) and ICOS(-) CD45RA(+) CD31(+) RTE, but not CD45RA(+) CD31(-) MN T regs, into CD45RA(-) CD31(-) memory T regs. At the end of pregnancy, the onset of spontaneous term labour was associated with a significant breakdown of ICOS(+) CD45RA(-) CD31(-) memory T regs. However, in the presence of pre-eclampsia, there was a significantly increased differentiation of ICOS(+) and ICOS(-) CD45RA(+) CD31(+) RTE T regs into CD45RA(-) CD31(+) memory T regs, wherein the lacking differentiation into CD45RA(-) CD31(-) memory T regs was partially replaced by the increased differentiation of ICOS(+) and ICOS(-) CD45RA(+) CD31(-) MN Tregs into CD45RA(-) CD31(-) memory T regs. In patients with HELLP syndrome, this alternatively increased differentiation of CD45RA(-) CD31(-) MN T regs seemed to be exaggerated, and presumably restored the suppressive activity of magnetically isolated ICOS(+) and ICOS(-) T regs, which were shown to be significantly less suppressive in pre-eclampsia patients, but not in HELLP syndrome patients. Hence, our findings propose that the regular differentiation of both ICOS(+) and ICOS(-) CD45RA(+) CD31(+) RTE T regs ensures a healthy pregnancy course, while their disturbed differentiation is

  19. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of the human cell cycle identifies genes differentially regulated in normal and cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Siegfried, Zahava; Brandeis, Michael; Brors, Benedikt; Lu, Yong; Eils, Roland; Dynlacht, Brian D.; Simon, Itamar

    2008-01-01

    Characterization of the transcriptional regulatory network of the normal cell cycle is essential for understanding the perturbations that lead to cancer. However, the complete set of cycling genes in primary cells has not yet been identified. Here, we report the results of genome-wide expression profiling experiments on synchronized primary human foreskin fibroblasts across the cell cycle. Using a combined experimental and computational approach to deconvolve measured expression values into “single-cell” expression profiles, we were able to overcome the limitations inherent in synchronizing nontransformed mammalian cells. This allowed us to identify 480 periodically expressed genes in primary human foreskin fibroblasts. Analysis of the reconstructed primary cell profiles and comparison with published expression datasets from synchronized transformed cells reveals a large number of genes that cycle exclusively in primary cells. This conclusion was supported by both bioinformatic analysis and experiments performed on other cell types. We suggest that this approach will help pinpoint genetic elements contributing to normal cell growth and cellular transformation. PMID:18195366

  20. Adenosine Stress and Rest T1 Mapping Can Differentiate Between Ischemic, Infarcted, Remote, and Normal Myocardium Without the Need for Gadolinium Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Alexander; Wijesurendra, Rohan S.; Francis, Jane M.; Robson, Matthew D.; Neubauer, Stefan; Piechnik, Stefan K.; Ferreira, Vanessa M.

    2016-01-01

    ; p = 0.92), showed blunted T1 reactivity (3.9 ± 0.6%; p < 0.001). Conclusions T1 mapping at rest and during adenosine stress can differentiate between normal, infarcted, ischemic, and remote myocardium with distinctive T1 profiles. Stress/rest T1 mapping holds promise for ischemia detection without the need for gadolinium contrast. PMID:26684978

  1. Peptide YY expression is an early event in colonic endocrine cell differentiation: evidence from normal and transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Upchurch, B H; Fung, B P; Rindi, G; Ronco, A; Leiter, A B

    1996-04-01

    The hormone peptide YY is produced by endocrine cells in the pancreas, ileum and colon. We have previously shown that peptide YY is coexpressed in all four islet cell types in the murine pancreas when they first appear, suggesting a common peptide YY-producing progenitor. In the colon, peptide YY has been frequently identified in glucagon-expressing L-type endocrine cells. Characterization of colonic endocrine tumors in transgenic mice expressing simian virus 40 large T antigen under the control of the peptide YY gene 5' flanking region revealed tumor cells producing not only peptide YY and glucagon, but also neurotensin, cholecystokinin, substance P, serotonin, secretin, and gastrin. This suggested that multiple enteroendocrine lineages were related to peptide YY-producing cells. Subsequent examination of the ontogeny of colonic endocrine differentiation in nontransgenic mice revealed that peptide YY was the first hormone to appear during development, at embryonic day 15.5. Between embryonic days 16.5 and 18.5, cells expressing glucagon, cholecystokinin, substance P, serotonin, secretin, neurotensin, gastrin and somatostatin first appeared and peptide YY was coexpressed in each cell type at this time. Peptide YY coexpression continued in a significant fraction of most enteroendocrine cell types throughout fetal and postnatal development and into adulthood, with the exception of serotonin-producing cells. This latter population of cells expanded dramatically after birth with rare coexpression of peptide YY. These studies indicate that expression of peptide YY is an early event in colonic endocrine differentiation and support the existence of a common progenitor for all endocrine cells in the colon. PMID:8620842

  2. Respiratory syncytial virus inhibits ciliagenesis in differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells: effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Mata, Manuel; Sarrion, Irene; Armengot, Miguel; Carda, Carmen; Martinez, Isidoro; Melero, Jose A; Cortijo, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Persistent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections have been associated with the exacerbation of chronic inflammatory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This virus infects the respiratory epithelium, leading to chronic inflammation, and induces the release of mucins and the loss of cilia activity, two factors that determine mucus clearance and the increase in sputum volume. These alterations involve reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has proven useful in the management of COPD, reducing symptoms, exacerbations, and accelerated lung function decline. NAC inhibits RSV infection and mucin release in human A549 cells. The main objective of this study was to analyze the effects of NAC in modulating ciliary activity, ciliagenesis, and metaplasia in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cell (NHBEC) cultures infected with RSV. Our results indicated that RSV induced ultrastructural abnormalities in axonemal basal bodies and decreased the expression of β-tubulin as well as two genes involved in ciliagenesis, FOXJ1 and DNAI2. These alterations led to a decrease in ciliary activity. Furthermore, RSV induced metaplastic changes to the epithelium and increased the number of goblet cells and the expression of MUC5AC and GOB5. NAC restored the normal functions of the epithelium, inhibiting ICAM1 expression, subsequent RSV infection through mechanisms involving nuclear receptor factor 2, and the expression of heme oxygenase 1, which correlated with the restoration of the antioxidant capacity, the intracellular H(2)O(2) levels and glutathione content of NHBECs. The results presented in this study support the therapeutic use of NAC for the management of chronic respiratory diseases, including COPD. PMID:23118923

  3. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Inhibits Ciliagenesis in Differentiated Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells: Effectiveness of N-Acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Manuel; Sarrion, Irene; Armengot, Miguel; Carda, Carmen; Martinez, Isidoro; Melero, Jose A.; Cortijo, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Persistent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections have been associated with the exacerbation of chronic inflammatory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This virus infects the respiratory epithelium, leading to chronic inflammation, and induces the release of mucins and the loss of cilia activity, two factors that determine mucus clearance and the increase in sputum volume. These alterations involve reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has proven useful in the management of COPD, reducing symptoms, exacerbations, and accelerated lung function decline. NAC inhibits RSV infection and mucin release in human A549 cells. The main objective of this study was to analyze the effects of NAC in modulating ciliary activity, ciliagenesis, and metaplasia in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cell (NHBEC) cultures infected with RSV. Our results indicated that RSV induced ultrastructural abnormalities in axonemal basal bodies and decreased the expression of β-tubulin as well as two genes involved in ciliagenesis, FOXJ1 and DNAI2. These alterations led to a decrease in ciliary activity. Furthermore, RSV induced metaplastic changes to the epithelium and increased the number of goblet cells and the expression of MUC5AC and GOB5. NAC restored the normal functions of the epithelium, inhibiting ICAM1 expression, subsequent RSV infection through mechanisms involving nuclear receptor factor 2, and the expression of heme oxygenase 1, which correlated with the restoration of the antioxidant capacity, the intracellular H2O2 levels and glutathione content of NHBECs. The results presented in this study support the therapeutic use of NAC for the management of chronic respiratory diseases, including COPD. PMID:23118923

  4. Differential expression of T cell antigens in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes: a quantitative analysis by flow cytometry.

    PubMed Central

    Ginaldi, L; Farahat, N; Matutes, E; De Martinis, M; Morilla, R; Catovsky, D

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To obtain reference values of the level of expression of T cell antigens on normal lymphocyte subsets in order to disclose differences which could reflect their function or maturation stages, or both. METHODS: Peripheral blood from 15 healthy donors was processed by flow cytometry with triple colour analysis. For each sample phycoerythrin (PE) conjugated CD2, CD4, CD5, CD8, and CD56 monoclonal antibodies were combined with Cy5-R-phycoerythrin (TC) conjugated CD3 and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugated CD7; CD2- and CD7-PE were also combined with CD3-TC and CD4-FITC. Standard microbeads with different capacities to bind mouse immunoglobulins were used to convert the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values of the lymphocyte subsets identified by multiparametric flow cytometry into the number of antigen molecules per cell, measured as antibody binding capacity (ABC). RESULTS: CD4+ (helper/inducer) T cells exhibit a higher CD3 antigen expression compared with CD8+ (suppressor/ cytotoxic) T lymphocytes. Within the CD4+ T cells, the CD4+CD7- subset expressed a lower level of CD3 compared with CD4+CD7+ and CD8+CD7+ cells, and higher CD2 and CD5 expression than the main CD3+CD7+ subset. Major differences in antigen expression were also detected between CD3+ T cells and CD3-CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells: NK cells exhibited higher levels of CD7 and CD56 and lower levels of CD2 and CD5 than T cells. Significantly lower CD5 expression was also detected in the small CD5+ B lymphocyte subset compared with T cells. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative flow cytometry with triple colour analysis may be used to detect antigen modulations in disease states and to increase the accuracy of diagnosis by comparison with findings in normal counterparts. Images PMID:8813949

  5. Use of high-throughput protein array for profiling of differentially expressed proteins in normal and malignant breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Hudelist, Gernot; Pacher-Zavisin, Margit; Singer, Christian F; Holper, Tina; Kubista, Ernst; Schreiber, Martin; Manavi, Mahmood; Bilban, Martin; Czerwenka, Klaus

    2004-08-01

    cDNA arrays provide a powerful tool to identify gene expression pattern that are potentially associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. However, genes work at the protein level and, since the transcriptional activity of a gene does not necessarily reflect cellular protein expression, the identification and quantification of proteins is essential for the understanding of molecular events leading to malignant transformation. We have therefore employed a high-throughput protein microarray system which contains 378 well-characterized monoclonal antibodies in order to compare the gene expression pattern of malignant and adjacent normal breast tissue in a patient with primary breast cancer. Using this technique, we have identified a number of proteins that show increased expression levels in malignant breast tissues such as casein kinase Ie, p53, annexin XI, CDC25C, eIF-4E and MAP kinase 7. The expression of other proteins, such as the multifunctional regulator 14-3-3e was found to be decreased in malignant breast tissue, whereas the majority of proteins remained unchanged when compared to the corresponding non-malignant samples. The protein expression pattern was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, in which antibodies against 8 representative proteins known to be involved in carcinogenesis were employed in paraffin-embedded normal and malignant tissue sections deriving from the same patient. In each case, the results obtained by IHC matched the data obtained by antibody microarray system. Taken together, we have described for the first time a tumor cell specificity protein expression pattern by use of a novel commercially available antibody microarray system. We have thus demonstrated the feasibility of high-throughput protein arrays in the proteomic analysis of human breast tissue. We hypothesize that the use of protein arrays will not only increase our understanding of the molecular events, but could prove useful in evaluating prognosis and in determining optimal

  6. Phytoestrogens and carcinogenesis-differential effects of genistein in experimental models of normal and malignant rat endometrium.

    PubMed

    Diel, P; Smolnikar, K; Schulz, T; Laudenbach-Leschowski, U; Michna, H; Vollmer, G

    2001-05-01

    The phytoestrogen genistein was studied in normal and malignant experimental uterine models in vivo. The action of genistein on the uterus and vagina of ovariectomized DA/Han rats after 3 day oral administration (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/BW/d) was compared to ethinyl oestradiol (0.1 mg/kg/BW/d). Effects on uterine and vaginal morphology, uterine growth and uterine gene expression were studied. A dose dependent increase of the uterine wet weight and the uterine and vaginal epithelial height, a dose dependent up-regulation of complement C3, down-regulation of clusterin mRNA expression and a stimulation of the vaginal cornification was observed after administration of genistein. Uterine gene expression and vaginal epithelium respond to genistein at doses where no significant effects on uterine wet weight were detectable. In general the vagina was more sensitive to genistein than the uterus. To analyse the action of genistein in malignant uterine tissue, the impact of a 28 d treatment with 50 mg/kg/d of genistein on the in-vivo tumour growth of RUCA I endometrial adenocarcinoma cells, following subcutaneous inoculation into syngeneic DA/Han rats, was assessed. In contrast to ethinyl oestradiol (0.1 mg/kg/BW/d), a dose of 50 mg/kg/BW/d of genistein did not affect tumour growth. Nevertheless C3 and TRPM2 mRNA expression in the tumour were both significantly stimulated by ethinyl oestradiol and genistein. In comparison to ovariectomized animals genistein up-regulated uterine wet weight and uterine dependent gene expression in tumour bearing animals. In conclusion, four independent uterine and vaginal parameters indicate genistein is a weak oestrogen receptor agonist in the uterus and vagina of female DA/Han rats, and evidence is provided for a selective oestrogen receptor modulator (SERM)-like action of genistein in normal and malignant uterine tissue. PMID:11331651

  7. Abnormal patterns of equine leucocyte differentiation antigen expression in severe combined immunodeficiency foals suggests the phenotype of normal equine natural killer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lunn, D P; McClure, J T; Schobert, C S; Holmes, M A

    1995-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a fatal autosommal disease of Arabian horses that leads to failure of maturation of T- and B-lymphocyte populations, although natural killer (NK) cells are unaffected. Thymic and lymph node tissues from two foals suffering from SCID were examined in an immunohistological study using a panel of monoclonal antibodies recognising equine leucocyte differentiation antigens. In both foals, the majority of cells in lymphoid tissues had an EqCD3-EqCD4-EqCD8+ phenotype, although rare EqCD3+ cells were also detected. The EqCD3-EqCD4-EqCD8+ cells may represent an abnormal lymphocyte differentiation product resulting from the SCID defect, or alternatively may be a normal equine NK cell population. We suggest that the evidence favours the latter proposal, and that equine NK cells in normal horses therefore may be identified by an EqCD3-EqCD8+ phenotype. The implications for the nature of the equine SCID defect are discussed. Images Figure 1 PMID:7751035

  8. Measurements of cross section and normalized differential cross section of top quark pair production in pp collisions at SQRT(S)=7 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Yao

    Two measurements are reported in this thesis. First, the cross section of the top quark pair production in proton proton collisions is measured in the electron plus jets channel, using 857.7 pb-1 of 2011 data recorded by the CMS experiment at s = 7 TeV. This measurement relies on kinematic distributions to statistically separate the signal from the Standard Model backgrounds. Data-driven methods are employed to minimize the dependence on the simulation. The measured cross section is sigmatt¯ = 166.7 +78.2-69.3 (stat. ⊕ syst.) pb, which is in agreement with NLO perturbative QCD calculation. In the second measurement, the tt¯ normalized differential cross section with respect to the jet multiplicity is determined. The data used in the later analysis amounts to 5 fb -1, which was taken during the full 2011 run by CMS. A b- tagging technique is applied to efficiently reject Standard Model backgrounds. The measured total cross section is sigmatt¯ = 161.2 +12.4-11.6 (stat. ⊕ syst.) pb, which is used for normalization. The resulting differential cross section shows good agreement with the Standard Model prediction, and provides an important input for comparisons between different Monte Carlo generators.

  9. NIMROD: a program for inference via a normal approximation of the posterior in models with random effects based on ordinary differential equations.

    PubMed

    Prague, Mélanie; Commenges, Daniel; Guedj, Jérémie; Drylewicz, Julia; Thiébaut, Rodolphe

    2013-08-01

    Models based on ordinary differential equations (ODE) are widespread tools for describing dynamical systems. In biomedical sciences, data from each subject can be sparse making difficult to precisely estimate individual parameters by standard non-linear regression but information can often be gained from between-subjects variability. This makes natural the use of mixed-effects models to estimate population parameters. Although the maximum likelihood approach is a valuable option, identifiability issues favour Bayesian approaches which can incorporate prior knowledge in a flexible way. However, the combination of difficulties coming from the ODE system and from the presence of random effects raises a major numerical challenge. Computations can be simplified by making a normal approximation of the posterior to find the maximum of the posterior distribution (MAP). Here we present the NIMROD program (normal approximation inference in models with random effects based on ordinary differential equations) devoted to the MAP estimation in ODE models. We describe the specific implemented features such as convergence criteria and an approximation of the leave-one-out cross-validation to assess the model quality of fit. In pharmacokinetics models, first, we evaluate the properties of this algorithm and compare it with FOCE and MCMC algorithms in simulations. Then, we illustrate NIMROD use on Amprenavir pharmacokinetics data from the PUZZLE clinical trial in HIV infected patients. PMID:23764196

  10. Differential Item Functioning of the Boston Naming Test in Cognitively Normal African American and Caucasian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Smith, Glenn E.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Willis, Floyd B.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Lucas, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Scores on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) are frequently lower for African American when compared to Caucasian adults. Although demographically-based norms can mitigate the impact of this discrepancy on the likelihood of erroneous diagnostic impressions, a growing consensus suggests that group norms do not sufficiently address or advance our understanding of the underlying psychometric and sociocultural factors that lead to between-group score discrepancies. Using item response theory and methods to detect differential item functioning (DIF), the current investigation moves beyond comparisons of the summed total score to examine whether the conditional probability of responding correctly to individual BNT items differs between African American and Caucasian adults. Participants included 670 adults age 52 and older who took part in Mayo's Older Americans and Older African Americans Normative Studies. Under a 2-parameter logistic IRT framework and after correction for the false discovery rate, 12 items where shown to demonstrate DIF. Six of these 12 items (“dominoes,” “escalator,” “muzzle,” “latch,” “tripod,” and “palette”) were also identified in additional analyses using hierarchical logistic regression models and represent the strongest evidence for race/ethnicity-based DIF. These findings afford a finer characterization of the psychometric properties of the BNT and expand our understanding of between-group performance. PMID:19570311

  11. Long Non-Coding RNAs Differentially Expressed between Normal versus Primary Breast Tumor Tissues Disclose Converse Changes to Breast Cancer-Related Protein-Coding Genes

    PubMed Central

    Reiche, Kristin; Kasack, Katharina; Schreiber, Stephan; Lüders, Torben; Due, Eldri U.; Naume, Bjørn; Riis, Margit; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Horn, Friedemann; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hackermüller, Jörg; Baumbusch, Lars O.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death in women, is a highly heterogeneous disease, characterized by distinct genomic and transcriptomic profiles. Transcriptome analyses prevalently assessed protein-coding genes; however, the majority of the mammalian genome is expressed in numerous non-coding transcripts. Emerging evidence supports that many of these non-coding RNAs are specifically expressed during development, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. The focus of this study was to investigate the expression features and molecular characteristics of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in breast cancer. We investigated 26 breast tumor and 5 normal tissue samples utilizing a custom expression microarray enclosing probes for mRNAs as well as novel and previously identified lncRNAs. We identified more than 19,000 unique regions significantly differentially expressed between normal versus breast tumor tissue, half of these regions were non-coding without any evidence for functional open reading frames or sequence similarity to known proteins. The identified non-coding regions were primarily located in introns (53%) or in the intergenic space (33%), frequently orientated in antisense-direction of protein-coding genes (14%), and commonly distributed at promoter-, transcription factor binding-, or enhancer-sites. Analyzing the most diverse mRNA breast cancer subtypes Basal-like versus Luminal A and B resulted in 3,025 significantly differentially expressed unique loci, including 682 (23%) for non-coding transcripts. A notable number of differentially expressed protein-coding genes displayed non-synonymous expression changes compared to their nearest differentially expressed lncRNA, including an antisense lncRNA strongly anticorrelated to the mRNA coding for histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), which was investigated in more detail. Previously identified chromatin-associated lncRNAs (CARs) were predominantly downregulated in breast tumor samples, including CARs located in the

  12. [Ductus venosus blood flow prior to intrauterine foetal death in severe placental insufficiency can be unaffected as shown by doppler sonography].

    PubMed

    Frauenschuh, I; Frambach, T; Karl, S; Dietl, J; Müller, T

    2014-10-01

    Significant placental insufficiency with Doppler ultrasound findings of absent or reverse end-diastolic flow velocities (AREDV) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. An analysis of blood flow in the ductus venosus assists in the early recognition of threatened foetuses. However, the prognostic value of multivessel Doppler assessment for the timing of delivery is being questioned. Four high-risk pregnancies with umbilical AREDV were repeatedly examined prior to intrauterine foetal demise. Our results demonstrate that ductus venosus Doppler flow velocimetry can be normal prior to intrauterine foetal death. PMID:25353216

  13. Differential Molecular Stress Responses to Low Compared to High Doses of Ionizing Radiation in Normal Human Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Velegzhaninov, Ilya O.; Shadrin, Dmitry M.; Pylina, Yana I.; Ermakova, Anastasia V.; Shostal, Olga A.; Belykh, Elena S.; Kaneva, Anna V.; Ermakova, Olga V.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms producing low dose ionizing radiation specific biological effects represents one of the major challenges of radiation biology. Although experimental evidence does suggest that various molecular stress response pathways may be involved in the production of low dose effects, much of the detail of those mechanisms remains elusive. We hypothesized that the regulation of various stress response pathways upon irradiation may differ from one another in complex dose-response manners, causing the specific and subtle low dose radiation effects. In the present study, the transcription level of 22 genes involved in stress responses were analyzed using RT-qPCR in normal human fibroblasts exposed to a range of gamma-doses from 1 to 200 cGy. Using the alkali comet assay, we also measured the level of DNA damages in dose-response and time-course experiments. We found non-linear dose responses for the repair of DNA damage after exposure to gamma-radiation. Alterations in gene expression were also not linear with dose for several of the genes examined and did not follow a single pattern. Rather, several patterns could be seen. Our results suggest a complex interplay of various stress response pathways triggered by low radiation doses, with various low dose thresholds for different genes. PMID:26675169

  14. Intrauterine transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, J M; Burgess, E C; Wachal, M D; Steinberg, H

    1993-06-01

    To determine whether intrauterine transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi could exist in dogs, 10 female Beagles were inoculated intradermally with approximately 1,000 B burgdorferi on day 1 of proestrus; inoculation was repeated every 2 weeks during the gestation period. Ten female control Beagles were similarly inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline solution. Prior to the start of the study, all females and 3 males used for breeding were seronegative for B burgdorferi on the basis of results of the indirect fluorescent antibody test and immunoblot (western analysis. Similarly, results of culture of blood for B burgdorferi were negative. All 20 of the females were bred naturally. Blood samples were collected weekly for serologic testing and culture. Blood samples were obtained from live pups on day 1 of life, then weekly until pups were 6 weeks old when they were euthanatized. Tissues were obtained for culture and testing by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 10 spirochete-inoculated (SI) females, 8 became infected with B burgdorferi as evidenced by spirochete culture results and/or PCR-detected B burgdorferi DNA in the tissues of females or their pups. Of the 10 SI females, 8 delivered litters (3 to 7 pups) that had at least 1 neonatal or 6-week-old pup with B burgdorferi DNA-positive tissues (by PCR), and spirochetes were cultured from tissues from pups of 2 litters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8323057

  15. [Intrauterine growth retardation and adult outcome].

    PubMed

    Lapillonne, Alexandre

    2011-03-01

    The epidemiologist David Barker was among the first to develop the concept that some adult diseases might have their origins during fetal life, based notably on a strong association between low birth weight and the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood (coronary artery disease, hypertension and stroke, type 2 diabetes, and osteoporosis). Several other groups replicated these results in other populations, thus confirming that birth weight is a determining factor of adult health. Intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) has been widely used as a marker of poor fetal nutrition and health, but some antenatal nutritional disturbances can increase the risk of diseases later in life without affecting fetal growth. The risk of diseases in adulthood appears to be further increased when IUGR is associated with rapid postnatal catch-up growth. This suggests that fetal malnutrition induces adaptations necessary for fetal survival and health, but that it also undermines future health if the postnatal environment is unfavorable. The fetal origins of adult diseases has major public health implications and calls for reinforced pre- and post-natal prevention strategies. PMID:22292298

  16. Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kurjak, Asim; Predojevic, Maja; Stanojevic, Milan; Kadic, Aida Salihagic-; Miskovic, Berivoj; Badreldeen, Ahmed; Talic, Amira; Zaputovic, Sanja; Honemeyer, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can be described as condition in which fetus fails to reach his potential growth. It is common diagnosis in obstetrics, and carries an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Moreover, IUGR has lifelong implications on health, especially on neurological outcome. There is a need for additional neurological assessment during monitoring of fetal well-being, in order to better predict antenatally which fetuses are at risk for adverse neurological outcome. Studies have revealed that the behavior of the fetus reflects the maturational processes of the central nervous system (CNS). Hence, ultrasound investigation of the fetal behavior can give us insight into the integrity and functioning of the fetal CNS. Furthermore, investigations carried out using modern method, four-dimensional (4D) sonography, have produced invaluable details of fetal behavior and its development, opening the door to a better understanding of the prenatal functional development of the CNS. Based on previous observations and several years of investigation, our reaserch group has proposed a new scoring system for the assessment of fetal neurological status by 4D sonography named Kurjak antenatal neurodevelopmental test (KANET). The value of KANET in distinguishing fetal brain and neurodevelopmental alterations due to the early brain impairment in utero is yet to be assessed in large population studies. However, preliminary results are very encouraging. PMID:25473145

  17. Differential Effects of Dabigatran and Warfarin on Bone Volume and Structure in Rats with Normal Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Fusaro, Maria; Dalle Carbonare, Luca; Dusso, Adriana; Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Valenti, Maria Teresa; Aghi, Andrea; Pasho, Sabina; Gallieni, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Background Warfarin, a widely used anticoagulant, is a vitamin K antagonist impairing the activity of vitamin K-dependent Bone Gla Protein (BGP or Osteocalcin) and Matrix Gla Protein (MGP). Because dabigatran, a new anticoagulant, has no effect on vitamin K metabolism, the aim of this study was to compare the impact of warfarin and dabigatran administration on bone structure and vascular calcification. Methods Rats with normal renal function received for 6 weeks warfarin, dabigatran or placebo. Bone was evaluated immuno-histochemically and hystomorphometrically after double labelling with declomycin and calcein. Aorta and iliac arteries were examined histologically. Results Histomorphometric analysis of femur and vertebrae showed significantly decreased bone volume and increased trabecular separation in rats treated with warfarin. Vertebra analysis showed that the trabecular number was higher in dabigatran treated rats. Osteoblast activity and resorption parameters were similar among groups, except for maximum erosion depth, which was higher in warfarin treated rats, suggesting a higher osteoclastic activity. Therefore, warfarin treatment was also associated with higher bone formation rate/bone surface and activation frequency. Warfarin treatment may cause an increased bone turnover characterized by increased remodelling cycles, with stronger osteoclast activity compared to the other groups. There were no differences among experimental groups in calcium deposition either in aortic or iliac arteries. Conclusions These findings suggest for the first time that dabigatran has a better bone safety profile than warfarin, as warfarin treatment affects bone by reducing trabecular size and structure, increasing turnover and reducing mineralization. These differences could potentially result in a lower incidence of fractures in dabigatran treated patients. PMID:26241483

  18. Alcohol-Induced miR-27a Regulates Differentiation and M2 Macrophage Polarization of Normal Human Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Banishree; Bruneau, Johanna C.; Kodys, Karen; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a leading cause of liver disease characterized by liver inflammation, fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, or liver cirrhosis. Immunomodulatory effects of alcohol on monocytes and macrophages contribute to alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol use, an independent risk factor for progression of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection–mediated liver disease, impairs host defense and alters cytokine production and monocyte/macrophage activation. We hypothesized that alcohol and HCV have synergistic effects on the phenotype and function of monocytes. Our data show that acute alcohol binge drinking in healthy volunteers results in increased frequency of CD16+ and CD68+ and M2-type (CD206+, dendritic cell [DC]-SIGN+–expressing and IL-10–secreting) circulating CD14+ monocytes. Expression of HCV-induced CD68 and M2 markers (CD206 and DC-SIGN) in normal monocytes was further enhanced in the presence of alcohol. The levels of microRNA (miR)-27a was significantly upregulated in monocytes cultured in the presence of alcohol or alcohol and HCV as compared with HCV alone. The functional role of miR-27a in macrophage polarization was demonstrated by transfecting monocytes with an miR-27a inhibitor that resulted in reduced alcohol- and HCV- mediated monocyte activation (CD14 and CD68 expression), polarization (CD206 and DC-SIGN expression), and IL-10 secretion. Over-expression of miR-27a in monocytes enhanced IL-10 secretion via activation of the ERK signaling pathway. We found that miR-27a promoted ERK phosphorylation by downregulating the expression of ERK inhibitor sprouty2 in monocytes. Thus, we identified that sprouty2 is a target of miR-27a in human monocytes. In summary, our study demonstrates the regulatory role of miR-27a in alcohol-induced monocyte activation and polarization. PMID:25716995

  19. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 is required for normal osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation during skeletal growth and repair.

    PubMed

    Georgy, S R; Pagel, C N; Ghasem-Zadeh, A; Zebaze, R M D; Pike, R N; Sims, N A; Mackie, E J

    2012-03-01

    Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR(2)) is a G-protein coupled receptor expressed by osteoblasts and monocytes. PAR(2) is activated by a number of proteinases including coagulation factors and proteinases released by inflammatory cells. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of PAR(2) in skeletal growth and repair using wild type (WT) and PAR(2) knockout (KO) mice. Micro computed tomography and histomorphometry were used to examine the structure of tibias isolated from uninjured mice at 50 and 90 days of age, and from 98-day-old mice in a bone repair model in which a hole had been drilled through the tibias. Bone marrow was cultured and investigated for the presence of osteoblast precursors (alkaline phosphatase-positive fibroblastic colonies), and osteoclasts were counted in cultures treated with M-CSF and RANKL. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine which proteinases that activate PAR(2) are expressed in bone marrow. Regulation of PAR(2) expression in primary calvarial osteoblasts from WT mice was investigated by quantitative PCR. Cortical and trabecular bone volumes were significantly greater in the tibias of PAR(2) KO mice than in those of WT mice at 50 days of age. In trabecular bone, osteoclast surface, osteoblast surface and osteoid volume were significantly lower in KO than in WT mice. Bone marrow cultures from KO mice showed significantly fewer alkaline phosphatase-positive colony-forming units and osteoclasts compared to cultures from WT mice. Significantly less new bone and significantly fewer osteoclasts were observed in the drill sites of PAR(2) KO mice compared to WT mice 7 days post-surgery. A number of activators of PAR(2), including matriptase and kallikrein 4, were found to be expressed by normal bone marrow. Parathyroid hormone, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D(3), or interleukin-6 in combination with its soluble receptor down-regulated PAR(2) mRNA expression, and fibroblast growth factor-2 or thrombin stimulated PAR(2

  20. Genome-Wide Profiling Identified a Set of miRNAs that Are Differentially Expressed in Glioblastoma Stem Cells and Normal Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Ming-Fei; Murai, Kiyohito; Wu, Xiwei; Wang, Jinhui; Gao, Hanlin; Brown, Christine E.; Liu, Xiaoxuan; Zhou, Jiehua; Peng, Ling; Rossi, John J.; Shi, Yanhong

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in cancer research field is to define molecular features that distinguish cancer stem cells from normal stem cells. In this study, we compared microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in human glioblastoma stem cells and normal neural stem cells using combined microarray and deep sequencing analyses. These studies allowed us to identify a set of 10 miRNAs that are considerably up-regulated or down-regulated in glioblastoma stem cells. Among them, 5 miRNAs were further confirmed to have altered expression in three independent lines of glioblastoma stem cells by real-time RT-PCR analysis. Moreover, two of the miRNAs with increased expression in glioblastoma stem cells also exhibited elevated expression in glioblastoma patient tissues examined, while two miRNAs with decreased expression in glioblastoma stem cells displayed reduced expression in tumor tissues. Furthermore, we identified two oncogenes, NRAS and PIM3, as downstream targets of miR-124, one of the down-regulated miRNAs; and a tumor suppressor, CSMD1, as a downstream target of miR-10a and miR-10b, two of the up-regulated miRNAs. In summary, this study led to the identification of a set of miRNAs that are differentially expressed in glioblastoma stem cells and normal neural stem cells. Characterizing the role of these miRNAs in glioblastoma stem cells may lead to the development of miRNA-based therapies that specifically target tumor stem cells, but spare normal stem cells. PMID:22558405

  1. Eyes with Suspicious Appearance of the Optic Disc and Normal Intraocular Pressure: Using Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics to Differentiate Those with and without Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Marina C.; Dorairaj, Syril; Biteli, Luis G.

    2016-01-01

    Among all glaucoma suspects, eyes with optic nerve head features suspicious or suggestive of early glaucoma are probably those that offer the greatest challenge for clinicians. In contrast with the robust longitudinal data published on ocular hypertension, there is no specific management guideline for these patients. Therefore, evaluating eyes with suspicious optic disc appearance and normal intraocular pressure (IOP), we sought to investigate potential differences in clinical and epidemiological characteristics to differentiate those with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) from those with presumed large physiological optic disc cups (pLPC). In this observational case-control study, we consecutively enrolled individuals with pLPC and NTG. All eyes had vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR)≥0.6 and untreated IOP<21 mmHg. Glaucomatous eyes had reproducible visual field defects. Eyes with pLPC required normal visual fields and ≥30 months of follow-up with no evidence of glaucomatous neuropathy. Clinical and epidemiological parameters were compared between groups. Eighty-four individuals with pLPC and 40 NTG patients were included. Regarding our main results, NTG patients were significantly older and with a higher prevalence of Japanese descendants (p<0.01). Not only did pLPC eyes have smaller mean VCDR, but also larger optic discs (p≤0.04). There were no significant differences for gender, central corneal thickness, and spherical equivalent (p≥0.38). Significant odds ratios (OR) were found for race (OR = 2.42; for Japanese ancestry), age (OR = 1.05), VCDR (OR = 5.03), and disc size (OR = 0.04; p≤0.04). In conclusion, in patients with suspicious optic disc and normal IOP, those with older age, Japanese ancestry, smaller optic discs, and larger VCDR are more likely to have NTG, and therefore, deserve deeper investigation and closer monitoring. PMID:27433805

  2. Dabigatran, a direct thrombin inhibitor, blocks differentiation of normal fibroblasts to a myofibroblast phenotype and demonstrates anti-fibrotic effects on scleroderma lung fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Bogatkevich, Galina S.; Ludwicka-Bradley, Anna; Silver, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Myofibroblasts are the principal mesenchymal cells responsible for tissue remodeling, collagen deposition, and the restrictive nature of lung parenchyma associated with pulmonary fibrosis. We previously reported that thrombin activates protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 thereby inducing normal lung fibroblasts to differentiate to a myofibroblast phenotype resembling scleroderma lung myofibroblasts. Here we demonstrate that the thrombin inhibitor dabigatran inhibits in a dose-dependant manner thrombin's induction of myofibroblasts. Dabigatran inhibits thrombin-induced cell proliferation, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression and organization, and the production of collagen and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Moreover, when treated with dabigatran scleroderma lung myofibroblasts produce less CTGF, α-SMA, and collagen type I. We conclude that dabigatran restrains important profibrotic events in lung fibroblasts and that this oral direct thrombin inhibitor warrants study as a potential anti-fibrotic drug for the treatment of fibrosing lung diseases, e.g. scleroderma lung disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:19877031

  3. Differential gene expression in cumulus oocyte complexes collected by ovum pick up from repeat breeder and normally fertile Holstein Friesian heifers.

    PubMed

    Puglisi, Roberto; Cambuli, Caterina; Capoferri, Rossana; Giannino, Laura; Lukaj, Aleksander; Duchi, Roberto; Lazzari, Giovanna; Galli, Cesare; Feligini, Maria; Galli, Andrea; Bongioni, Graziella

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether perturbed gene expression during cumulus oocyte development causes repeat breeding in cattle. In this study, a repeat breeder was defined as a normal estrous cycling animal that did not become pregnant after three inseminations despite the absence of clinically detectable reproductive disorders. Transcripts of genes extracted from cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) that were collected from three repeat breeder and three normally fertile Holstein Friesian heifers were compared. Up to 40 COC were collected from each heifer by means of repeated sessions of ovum pick up in the absence of hormonal stimulation; immediately plunged into liquid nitrogen; and stored at -80°C until analysis. For each heifer, RNA was extracted from the pooled COC and hybridized on GeneChip(®) Bovine Gene Array (Affymetrix). Analysis of gene expression profiles of repeat breeder and control COC showed that 178 genes were differentially expressed (log2 fold change>1.5). Of these genes, 43 (24%) were up-regulated and 135 (76%) were down-regulated in repeat breeder relative to control heifers. This altered pattern of expression occurred in genes involved in several cellular biological processes and cellular components such as metabolism, angiogenesis, substrate/ion transport, regulation/signaling, cell adhesion and cytoskeleton. From these, 13 genes potentially involved in cumulus oocyte growth were subjected to validation by qRT-PCR and nine genes (annexin A1, ANXA1; lactoferrin, LTF; interferon stimulated exonuclease 20kDa, ISG20/HEM45; oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1, OLR1; fatty acid desaturase 2, FADS2; glutathione S-transferase A2 and A4, GSTA2 and GSTA4; glutathione peroxidase 1, GPX1; endothelin receptor type A, EDNRA) were confirmed to be differentially expressed. This study identified potential marker genes for fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:23911014

  4. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Alters Mouse Intestinal Architecture during Development.

    PubMed

    Fung, Camille M; White, Jessica R; Brown, Ashley S; Gong, Huiyu; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik; Frey, Mark R; McElroy, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk for neonatal and lifelong morbidities affecting multiple organ systems including the intestinal tract. The underlying mechanisms for the risk to the intestine remain poorly understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IUGR affects the development of goblet and Paneth cell lineages, thus compromising the innate immunity and barrier functions of the epithelium. Using a mouse model of maternal thromboxane A2-analog infusion to elicit maternal hypertension and resultant IUGR, we tested whether IUGR alters ileal maturation and specifically disrupts mucus-producing goblet and antimicrobial-secreting Paneth cell development. We measured body weights, ileal weights and ileal lengths from birth to postnatal day (P) 56. We also determined the abundance of goblet and Paneth cells and their mRNA products, localization of cellular tight junctions, cell proliferation, and apoptosis to interrogate cellular homeostasis. Comparison of the murine findings with human IUGR ileum allowed us to verify observed changes in the mouse were relevant to clinical IUGR. At P14 IUGR mice had decreased ileal lengths, fewer goblet and Paneth cells, reductions in Paneth cell specific mRNAs, and decreased cell proliferation. These findings positively correlated with severity of IUGR. Furthermore, the decrease in murine Paneth cells was also seen in human IUGR ileum. IUGR disrupts the normal trajectory of ileal development, particularly affecting the composition and secretory products of the epithelial surface of the intestine. We speculate that this abnormal intestinal development may constitute an inherent "first hit", rendering IUGR intestine susceptible to further injury, infection, or inflammation. PMID:26745886

  5. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Alters Mouse Intestinal Architecture during Development

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ashley S.; Gong, Huiyu; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik; Frey, Mark R.; McElroy, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk for neonatal and lifelong morbidities affecting multiple organ systems including the intestinal tract. The underlying mechanisms for the risk to the intestine remain poorly understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IUGR affects the development of goblet and Paneth cell lineages, thus compromising the innate immunity and barrier functions of the epithelium. Using a mouse model of maternal thromboxane A2-analog infusion to elicit maternal hypertension and resultant IUGR, we tested whether IUGR alters ileal maturation and specifically disrupts mucus-producing goblet and antimicrobial-secreting Paneth cell development. We measured body weights, ileal weights and ileal lengths from birth to postnatal day (P) 56. We also determined the abundance of goblet and Paneth cells and their mRNA products, localization of cellular tight junctions, cell proliferation, and apoptosis to interrogate cellular homeostasis. Comparison of the murine findings with human IUGR ileum allowed us to verify observed changes in the mouse were relevant to clinical IUGR. At P14 IUGR mice had decreased ileal lengths, fewer goblet and Paneth cells, reductions in Paneth cell specific mRNAs, and decreased cell proliferation. These findings positively correlated with severity of IUGR. Furthermore, the decrease in murine Paneth cells was also seen in human IUGR ileum. IUGR disrupts the normal trajectory of ileal development, particularly affecting the composition and secretory products of the epithelial surface of the intestine. We speculate that this abnormal intestinal development may constitute an inherent “first hit”, rendering IUGR intestine susceptible to further injury, infection, or inflammation. PMID:26745886

  6. Risk of intracranial hypertension with intrauterine levonorgestrel

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hao; Gustafson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to quantify the risk of intracranial hypertension (ICH) with the intrauterine levonorgestrel (IUL) device Mirena®. Methods: We used the United States Food and Drug Administration’s Adverse Events Reporting System (FAERS) database to quantify a reporting odds ratio (ROR) for ICH and Mirena®. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study using the IMS LifeLink® database, comparing the risk of two oral contraceptives ethinyl estradiol (EE) with Mirena®. A Bayesian sensitivity analysis was performed to account for the effect of body mass index (BMI). Results: The reported odds ratios (ORs) for ICH and papilledema with Mirena® were 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41–2.25) and 1.50 (95% CI 1.10–2.05), respectively. In the cohort study, the OR for ICH and EE-norgestimate and EE-norethindrone compared with Mirena® were 1.29 (95% CI 0.83–2.00) and 0.31 (95% CI 0.04–2.29), respectively. The presence of a strong confounder BMI did not affect the estimated OR (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 0.73–2.41 for EE-norgestimate; OR = 0.18, 95% CI 0.01–1.27 for EE-norethindrone). Conclusion: We found a higher than expected number of reports of ICH with Mirena® in the FAERS database. We also found a similar risk of ICH with Mirena® compared with the oral contraceptive EE-norgestimate. The higher risk of ICH with EE-norethindrone, another oral contraceptive should be further investigated. PMID:26240745

  7. Differential expression of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) in normal and degenerated human nucleus pulposus tissues and cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Weiguo; Fang, Dejian; Ye, Dongping; Zou, Longqiang; Shen, Yan; Dai, Libing; Xu, Jiake

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • ERK5 involved in NP cells. • ERK5 involved in NP tissue. • It was important modulator. - Abstract: Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and regulates a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, necrosis, apoptosis and degeneration. However, the expression of ERK5 and its role in degenerated human nucleus pulposus (NP) is hitherto unknown. In this study, we observed the differential expression of ERK5 in normal and degenerated human nucleus pulposus tissues by using immunohistochemical staining and Western blot. Treatment of NP cells with Pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α decreased ERK5 gene expression as well as NP marker gene expression; including the type II collagen and aggrecan. Suppression of ERK5 gene expression in NP cells by ERK5 siRNA resulted in decreased gene expression of type II collagen and aggrecan. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK5 activation by BIX02188 (5 μM) decreased the gene expression of type II collagen and aggrecan in NP cells. Our results document the expression of ERK5 in degenerated nucleus pulposus tissues, and suggest a potential involvement of ERK5 in human degenerated nucleus pulposus.

  8. Genetically null mice reveal a central role for epidermal growth factor receptor in the differentiation of the hair follicle and normal hair development.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, L. A.; Alexander, N.; Hogan, M. E.; Sundberg, J. P.; Dlugosz, A.; Threadgill, D. W.; Magnuson, T.; Yuspa, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    Mice harboring a targeted disruption of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) allele exhibit a severely disorganized hair follicle phenotype, fuzzy coat, and systemic disease resulting in death before 3 weeks. This skin phenotype was reproduced in whole skin grafts and in grafts of EGFR null hair follicle buds onto nude mice, providing a model to evaluate the natural evolution of skin lacking the EGFR. Hair follicles in grafts of null skin did not progress from anagen to telogen and scanning electron micrografts revealed wavy, flattened hair fibers with cuticular abnormalities. Many of the EGFR null hair follicles in the grafted skin were consumed by an inflammatory reaction resulting in complete hair loss in 67% of the grafts by 10 weeks. Localization of follicular differentiation markers including keratin 6, transglutaminase, and the hair keratins mHa2 and hacl-1 revealed a pattern of premature differentiation within the null hair follicles. In intact EGFR null mice, proliferation in the interfollicular epidermis, but not hair follicles, was greatly decreased in the absence of EGFR. In contrast, grafting of EGFR null skin resulted in a hyperplastic response in the epidermis that did not resolve even after 10 weeks, although the wound-induced hyperplasia in EGFR wild-type grafts had resolved within 3 to 4 weeks. Thus, epithelial expression of the EGFR has complex functions in the skin. It is important in delaying follicular differentiation, may serve to protect the hair follicle from immunological reactions, and modifies both normal and wound-induced epidermal proliferation but seems dispensable for follicular proliferation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9176390

  9. Hysteroscopic sterilization of patient with intrauterine device Mirena®

    PubMed Central

    Depes, Daniella De Batista; Pereira, Ana Maria Gomes; Yatabe, Salete; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tubal sterilization is the definitive procedure most often used worldwide to control fecundity. Laparoscopic ligature is safe, but invasive and with possible surgical and anesthetic risks. The hysteroscopic approach enables tubal occlusion at outpatient's setting without the need of incisions or anesthesia. A microdevice (Essure®) is inserted directly into the tubes and its polyethelene fibers cause obstruction of tubes in about three months. During this period, it is recommended that patients continue the use of a temporary birth control method. Several women use the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, which is called in the market as Mirena®. This report evaluated the possibility of inserting Essure® without remove the intrauterine device; patient tolerance to the procedure was also assessed. The tubal device was successfully placed in the patient without the need to remove Mirena®. After three months the intrauterine device was removed with no intercurrent events. PMID:23579753

  10. A Lower-Cost Option for Intrauterine Contraception.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Kim

    2016-01-01

    In March 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Liletta (Actavis, Dublin, Ireland), a new intrauterine device for contraception. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) as first-line pregnancy prevention. LARC efficacy rates are similar to those of sterilization, with the possibility for quick return of fertility upon removal of the device. Despite benefits and recommendations for this form of contraception, access and high cost remain barriers to use. Liletta is the first lower-cost option for intrauterine contraception. Available to qualified clinics and health centers at a reduced rate, this device may increase availability and decrease the overall cost to women who desire intrauterine contraception. PMID:27067935

  11. The effect of differentiated curriculum enhancements on the achievement of at-risk and normally achieving students in 5th grade science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpkins, Pamela Mccrea

    2007-12-01

    At-risk students show consistent patterns of under achievement and social maladjustment in school which leads to their demise in high school (McMillian & Reed, 1994). Similarly, special education students are at increased risk of not completing high school and do not perform as well on national achievement tests than their nondisabled peers (Land & Legters, 2002). It is possible that students at-risk for academic failure will not meet graduation requirements unless interventions are put in place to alleviate this problem. It has been documented that science textbooks contain difficult vocabulary and high reading levels that are challenging for struggling students. Using approaches such as activities oriented instruction, which supports the cooperative learning/peer tutoring model is one approach that has been successful with normally achieving and special education students. This research examined the effect of differentiated curriculum enhancements with peer tutoring on the achievement of at-risk and normally achieving students in science. A crossover design was implemented in three fifth grade inclusive classes, consisting of typically achieving students, students at-risk, and students with learning disabilities. The participants included 16 at-risk students, three special education students and 44 normally achieving students. The science review activities were implemented during two consecutive science units. One unit covered Earth and Space science. The other unit covered Light and Sound. Each curriculum enhancement had identification and production level activities. The identification level provided prompts; the production level did not provide prompts. Pretest and posttest were administered. Overall findings of the study revealed a significant interaction between experimental condition and treatment order, suggesting an advantage for students using differentiated curriculum enhancements. Main effects analysis suggested that students performed better on one

  12. [Early intervention in infants with intrauterine growth retardation: its effects on neuropsychological development].

    PubMed

    Padín-Rojas, Y Y; García Coll, C T; Gómez, G; Bonet, L; Escobar, M; Varcárcel, M

    1991-09-01

    Forty-eight term infants in a tertiary center in Puerto Rico during 1985-86 were monitored prospectively since birth completing a neuropsychological evaluation using the Mental Developmental Index of Bayley Scales. All infants were free from perinatal complications and chronic diseases by clinical evaluation. 25 infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and 23 adequate for gestational age (AGA) infants were evaluated. Fourteen IUGR infants were controls and eleven IUGR infants were intervened. However, all AGA infants were used as controls. Mother-infant relationship at one month was scored and none of intervened infants had poor neuropsychological behavior with normal or near normal MDI values. Other relationships and possible explanations are discussed in the article. PMID:1725483

  13. Effects of intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal high-fat diet on hepatic inflammatory response in pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingbo; He, Jian; Yang, Yuekui; Yu, Jie; Mao, Xiangbing; Yu, Bing; Chen, Daiwen

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the glucose and insulin response of pigs with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) to a high-fat (HF) feeding regimen and to observe the underlying toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) signalling pathway. Weaned piglets with IUGR or normal birthweight (NBW) (n = 20 each) received during the whole fattening period control diets (0% lard) or HF diets (HF, 10% lard). At about 110 kg body weight, pigs were euthanised to collect hepatic samples. Compared with NBW pigs, IUGR pigs had lower daily gain and feed intake. Growth rate of pigs was increased by HF feeding. Pigs fed HF diets had lower peak concentrations of glucose and insulin, which decreased more slowly than in pigs that received the control diets. The mRNA expression abundances of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Rn) were significantly affected by HF feeding, and IL-6 and IL-1Rn mRNA expressions were up-regulated in IUGR pigs compared with NBW pigs. Western blot analysis indicated that HF feeding elevated the protein expressions of TLR4 signalling pathway, as TLR4, MyD88, IκB kinase β and nuclear factor-κB, and insulin signalling-related proteins, as phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 and phosphorylated protein kinase B. In summary, hepatic TLR4 signalling pathway and inflammatory response induced by HF feeding played an important role in the aggravated development of insulin resistance in pigs. PMID:24646150

  14. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR): epidemiology and etiology.

    PubMed

    Romo, Agustín; Carceller, Raquel; Tobajas, Javier

    2009-02-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is mainly due to a pathologic slow-down in the fetal growth pace, resulting in a fetus that is unable to reach its growth potential. IUGR frequency will vary depending on the discrimination criteria adopted. It is extremely important to use local or national fetal growth graphs in order to avoid some confounding factors. IUGR incidence in newborns would be between 3% and 7% of the total population. In our experience it is 5.13% a figure similar to the one obtained by other authors but with a progressively higher incidence during the last decade. There are multiple maternal factors that can generally be grouped into constitutional and general factors given that they affect age, weight, race, maternal cardiac volume, etc, socioeconomic factors with key incidence in the mother's nutrition level, where a poor maternal nutrition level would be the key factor in this group. We have evaluated multiple factors as possible contributors to the IUGR risk: race, parents' age, mother's height (cm), mother's birth weight and before pregnancy (kg), ponderal gain and blood pressure during pregnancy, and previous SGA newborns. Socioeconomic factors like social class, parents' profession, habitual residence, salary, immigration, and diet were also evaluated. We also included variables such as total daily working time and time mothers spent standing up, daily sleeping time (hrs), stress self-perception test at work and primiparity age. Toxic factors during pregnancy: tobacco (active and passive), alcohol, drugs and coffee consumption. Fetal or utero-placental factors were considered. In our study, the most significant etiologic factors were: Active and passive tobacco consuming, mother's stress level, increase of total months worked during pregnancy, total daily working hours and time mothers spent standing up and finally, the parent's height. Our data support the main objective of reducing the incidence of SGA newborns after IUGR by fighting

  15. Relationships between intrauterine infusion of N-acetylcysteine, equine endometrial pathology, neutrophil function, post-breeding therapy, and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Gores-Lindholm, Alicia R; LeBlanc, Michelle M; Causey, Robert; Hitchborn, Anna; Fayrer-Hosken, Richard A; Kruger, Marius; Vandenplas, Michel L; Flores, Paty; Ahlschwede, Scott

    2013-08-01

    Persistent endometritis in the mare is associated with hypersecretion of mucus by endometrial epithelium and migration of neutrophils into the uterine lumen. This study examines the relationships between N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a mucolytic agent with anti-inflammatory properties, and endometrial architecture, serum neutrophil function, post-breeding therapy, and reproductive performance of NAC-treated mares in a clinical setting. In study 1, endometrial biopsies from mares receiving intrauterine saline (fertile-control, n = 6) or 3.3% NAC (fertile-treatment, n = 6; barren-treatment, n = 10) were evaluated by histology and image analysis. In study 2, phagocytic activity of serum-derived neutrophils was measured after adding 0.5% or 3% NAC. In study 3, pregnancy rates of repeat breeders (n = 44) receiving an intrauterine infusion of 3.3% NAC 24-36 hours before mating (group 1) was recorded, as was first cycle of the season pregnancy rates of reproductively normal mares (group 2, n = 85), and mares treated for bacterial endometritis the cycle before mating (group 3, n = 25). Intrauterine NAC did not adversely affect endometrial histology. Extracellular mucus thickness and staining intensity were reduced in fertile-treatment mares (P < 0.03). Neutrophil function was inhibited by 3% NAC solution, but not by 0.5% NAC (P < 0.05). In study 3, for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, the first-cycle pregnancy rates were 77%, 74%, and 56%, and early embryonic death rates were 15%, 13%, and 7%. In group 2 mares treated with uterine lavage and oxytocin post-mating, the pregnancy rate was 89% (39/44), whereas in mares treated with uterine lavage and 1 g ceftiofur, it was 60% (24/40). Of the oxytocin-treated mares, 18% (8/44) had ≥ 1 cm of intrauterine fluid or marked uterine edema, whereas 80% (32/40) of the antibiotic-treated mares did. In conclusion, intrauterine infusion of a 3.3% solution of NAC was not irritating and inhibited the oxidative burst of neutrophils. Repeat

  16. Isolated abnormal strict morphology is not a contraindication for intrauterine insemination.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, G M; Deveneau, N E; Shridharani, A N; Strawn, E Y; Sandlow, J I

    2015-11-01

    This study sought to investigate whether isolated abnormal strict morphology (<5% normal forms) and very low strict morphology (0-1% normal forms) affects pregnancy rates in intrauterine insemination (IUI). This was a retrospective study performed at an Academic Medical Center/Reproductive Medicine Center. Four hundred and eight couples were included for 856 IUI cycles. 70 IUI cycles were performed in couples with abnormal strict morphology and otherwise normal semen parameters. Outcomes were measured as clinical pregnancy rate per IUI cycle as documented by fetal heart activity on maternal ultrasound. Clinical pregnancy rate did not significantly differ between the group with abnormal strict morphology [11/70 (15.7%)] and the normal morphology group [39/281 (13.9%)]. Additionally, there was no significant difference between the pregnancy rate in the abnormal morphology group compared to that of our overall institutional IUI pregnancy rate [145/856 (16.9%)]. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between pregnancy rate in the very low morphology group [3/14 (21.4%)] compared to those with normal morphology or the overall IUI pregnancy rate. Patients with isolated abnormal strict morphology have clinical pregnancy rates similar to those with normal morphology for IUI. Even in those with very low normal forms, consideration of IUI for assisted reproduction should not be excluded. PMID:26384603

  17. Immediate postabortal insertion of intrauterine devices.

    PubMed

    Okusanya, Babasola O; Oduwole, Olabisi; Effa, Emmanuel E

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of an effective contraceptive may be necessary after an abortion. Insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD) may be done the same day or later. Immediate IUD insertion is an option since the woman is not pregnant, pain of insertion is less because the cervical os is open, and her motivation to use contraception may be high. However, insertion of an IUD immediately after a pregnancy ends carries risks, such as spontaneous expulsion.Objectives To assess the safety and efficacy of IUD insertion immediately after spontaneous or induced abortion.Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, POPLINE, ClinicalTrials.gov,and ICTRP in January 27, 2014. We also contacted investigators to identify other trials.Selection criteria We sought all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with at least one treatment arm that involved IUD insertion immediately after an induced abortion or after curettage for spontaneous abortion.Data collection and analysis We evaluated the methodological quality of each report and abstracted the data. We focused on discontinuation rates for accidental pregnancy, perforation, expulsion, and pelvic inflammatory disease.We computed the weighted average of the rate ratios.We compute drisk ratios (RRs) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs).We performed an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis by including all randomised participants in the analysis according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions.Main results We identified 12 trials most of which are of moderate risk of bias involving 7,119 participants which described random assignment.Five trials randomised to either immediate or delayed insertion of IUD. One of them randomised to immediate versus delayed insertion of Copper 7 showed immediate insertion of the Copper 7 was associated with a higher risk of expulsion than was delayed insertion(RR 11.98, 95% CI 1.61 to 89.35,1 study, 259 participants); the

  18. Laminin alpha 5, a major transcript of normal and malignant rat liver epithelial cells, is differentially expressed in developing and adult liver.

    PubMed

    Seebacher, T; Medina, J L; Bade, E G

    1997-11-25

    The laminin family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins plays a major role in cell migration and differentiation and in tumor cell invasion. As previously shown, the laminin deposited by normal and malignant rat liver epithelial cells in their extracellular matrix (ECM) and into their ECM migration tracks does not contain a typical (EHS-like) alpha 1 heavy chain. By RT-PCR screening we have now identified two alpha chains among a total of five additional laminin chains produced by these cells. Three of the newly identified chains were not previously known for the rat. Their sequences have been deposited in the EMBL nucleotide sequence data bank. The alpha 5 chain now identified is expressed at comparably high levels by both the normal and the malignant liver epithelial cells. The chain is also expressed in fetal liver together with the alpha 2 and beta 2 chains, but it is only vestigially expressed in the mature organ as shown by RT-PCR. These results suggest for alpha 5 a role in development and production of the chain by only a small subset of cells in adult liver. At the level of detection used, no changes were observed in regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy. In addition to the alpha 5 chain, the cultured cells express the beta 1 and beta 2 light chains, indicating the expression of more than one laminin isoform by the same cell line. The expression of the alpha 5 chain and of the other new non-EHS isoform chains was also analyzed in various tissues. The malignant liver epithelial cells, but not their nontumorigenic parental cells, also express, in addition to the alpha 5 chain the alpha 2 chain, which is expressed at high level by the NBT II bladder carcinoma cell line, suggesting a relationship with malignancy. PMID:9417868

  19. EFFECT OF INTRAUTERINE PCB EXPOSURE ON VISUAL RECOGNITION MEMORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse neonatal outcomes have been associated with intrauterine exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In a follow-up study of exposed and nonexposed infants, 123 infants tested at birth were administered Fagan's test of visual recognition memory at 7 months. 2 measures o...

  20. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. 884.2700 Section 884.2700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... intensity, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions during labor. This generic type of device...

  1. Maternal HCV infection is associated with intrauterine fetal growth disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qi-tao; Hang, Li-lin; Zhong, Mei; Gao, Yun-fei; Luo, Man-ling; Yu, Yan-hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Since the evidence regarding the association between maternal hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and impaired intrauterine fetal growth had not been conclusive, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of maternal HCV infection in association with intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) and/or low birth weight infants (LBW). We performed an extensive literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE through December 1, 2015. The odds ratios (ORs) of HCV infection and IUGR/LBW were calculated and reported with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Statistical analysis was performed using RevMen 5.3 and Stata 10.0. Seven studies involving 4,185,414 participants and 5094 HCV infection cases were included. Significant associations between HCV infection and IUGR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.40–1.68, fixed effect model) as well as LBW were observed (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.43–2.71, random effect model). The results still indicated consistencies after adjusting for multiple risk factors which could affect fetal growth, including maternal age, parity, maternal smoking, alcohol abuse, drugs abuse, coinfected with HBV/HIV and preeclampsia. Our findings suggested that maternal HCV infection was significantly associated with an increased risk of impaired intrauterine fetal growth. In clinical practice, a closer monitoring of intrauterine fetal growth by a series of ultrasound might be necessary for HCV-infected pregnant population. PMID:27583932

  2. Relationship between Intrauterine Bacterial Infection and Early Embryonic Developmental Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shao-Fei; Liu, Xin-Yan; Cheng, Yun-Fei; Li, Zhi-Yi; Ou, Jie; Wang, Wei; Li, Feng-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early embryonic developmental arrest is the most commonly understudied adverse outcome of pregnancy. The relevance of intrauterine infection to spontaneous embryonic death is rarely studied and remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between intrauterine bacterial infection and early embryonic developmental arrest. Methods: Embryonic chorion tissue and uterine swabs for bacterial detection were obtained from 33 patients who underwent artificial abortion (control group) and from 45 patients who displayed early embryonic developmental arrest (trial group). Results: Intrauterine bacterial infection was discovered in both groups. The infection rate was 24.44% (11/45) in the early embryonic developmental arrest group and 9.09% (3/33) in the artificial abortion group. Classification analysis revealed that the highest detection rate for Micrococcus luteus in the early embryonic developmental arrest group was 13.33% (6/45), and none was detected in the artificial abortion group. M. luteus infection was significantly different between the groups (P < 0.05 as shown by Fisher's exact test). In addition, no correlation was found between intrauterine bacterial infection and history of early embryonic developmental arrest. Conclusions: M. luteus infection is related to early embryonic developmental arrest and might be one of its causative factors. PMID:27270541

  3. Measurements of normalized differential cross sections for tt¯ production in pp collisions at (s)=7  TeV using the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; et al

    2014-10-13

    We present measurements of normalized differential cross sections for top-quark pair production as a function of the top-quark transverse momentum, and of the mass, transverse momentum, and rapidity of the t¯t system, in proton–proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √ s=7 TeV. The data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb₋1, recorded in 2011 with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Events are selected in the lepton + jets channel, requiring exactly one lepton and at least four jets with at least one of the jets tagged as originating from a b-quark. The measuredmore » spectra are corrected for detector efficiency and resolution effects and are compared to several Monte Carlo simulations and theory calculations. The results are in fair agreement with the predictions in a wide kinematic range. Nevertheless, data distributions are softer than predicted for higher values of the mass of the t¯t system and of the top-quark transverse momentum. Lastly, the measurements can also discriminate among different sets of parton distribution functions.« less

  4. COMMUNICATION: Folate and S-adenosylmethionine modulate synaptic activity in cultured cortical neurons: acute differential impact on normal and apolipoprotein-deficient mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Michael; Chan, Amy; Dubey, Maya; Gilman, Vladimir; Shea, Thomas B.

    2008-12-01

    Folate deficiency is accompanied by a decline in the cognitive neurotransmitter acetylcholine and a decline in cognitive performance in mice lacking apolipoprotein E (ApoE-/- mice), a low-density lipoprotein that regulates aspects of lipid metabolism. One direct consequence of folate deficiency is a decline in S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Since dietary SAM supplementation maintains acetylcholine levels and cognitive performance in the absence of folate, we examined herein the impact of folate and SAM on neuronal synaptic activity. Embryonic cortical neurons from mice expressing or lacking ApoE (ApoE+/+ or -/-, respectively) were cultured for 1 month on multi-electrode arrays, and signaling was recorded. ApoE+/+ cultures displayed significantly more frequent spontaneous signals than ApoE-/- cultures. Supplementation with 166 µm SAM (not normally present in culture medium) increased signal frequency and decreased signal amplitude in ApoE+/+ cultures. SAM also increased the frequency of tightly clustered signal bursts. Folate deprivation reversibly reduced signal frequency in ApoE+/+ cultures; SAM supplementation maintained signal frequency despite folate deprivation. These findings support the importance of dietary supplementation with folate and SAM on neuronal health. Supplementation with 166 µm SAM did not alter signaling in ApoE-/- cultures, which may be a reflection of the reduced SAM levels in ApoE-/- mice. The differential impact of SAM on ApoE+/+ and -/- neurons underscores the combined impact of nutritional and genetic deficiencies on neuronal homeostasis.

  5. Characterization of six small HSP genes from Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae): Differential expression under conditions of normal growth and heat-induced stress.

    PubMed

    Martín-Folgar, Raquel; de la Fuente, Mercedes; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2015-10-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) comprise the most numerous, structurally diverse, and functionally uncharacterized family of heat shock proteins. Several Hsp genes (Hsp 90, 70, 40, and 27) from the insect Chironomus riparius are widely used in aquatic toxicology as biomarkers for environmental toxins. Here, we conducted a comparative study and characterized secondary structure of the six newly identified sHsp genes Hsp17, Hsp21, Hsp22, Hsp23, Hsp24, and Hsp34. A characteristic α-crystallin domain is predicted in all the new proteins. Phylogenetic analysis suggests a strong relation to other sHSPs from insects and interesting evidence regarding evolutionary origin and duplication events. Comparative analysis of transcription profiles for Hsp27, Hsp70, and the six newly identified genes revealed that Hsp17, Hsp21, and Hsp22 are constitutively expressed under normal conditions, while under two different heat shock conditions these genes are either not activated or are even repressed (Hsp22). In contrast, Hsp23, Hsp24, and Hsp34 are significantly activated along with Hsp27 and Hsp70 during heat stress. These results strongly suggest functional differentiation within the small HSP subfamily and provide new data to help understand the coping mechanisms induced by stressful environmental stimuli. PMID:26129721

  6. PLASMA PROTEIN Z CONCENTRATIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH IDIOPATHIC INTRAUTERINE BLEEDING AND IN WOMEN WITH SPONTANEOUS PRETERM LABOR

    PubMed Central

    Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Espinoza, Jimmy; Romero, Roberto; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Nien, Jyh Kae; Kim, Chong Jai; Erez, Offer; Soto, Eleazar; Fareed, Jawed; Edwin, Sam; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Than, Nandor G.; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Gomez, Ricardo; Papp, Zoltan; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Preterm parturition has been associated with decidual vascular disorders and excessive thrombin generation. The objective of this study was to examine maternal plasma concentrations of protein Z in normal pregnancies, as well as in those presenting with spontaneous preterm labor (PTL) and intrauterine bleeding during pregnancy. Study design A cross-sectional study was designed to include patients with preterm labor and intact membranes and those with idiopathic intrauterine bleeding during pregnancy. Protein Z plasma concentrations were measured in the following groups: 1) normal pregnant women (n=71); 2) patients at term with (n=67) and without labor (n=88); 3) patients with spontaneous PTL before 34 weeks who were classified into: a) PTL with intra-amniotic infection/inflammation (IAI; n=35), b) PTL without IAI (n=54), and c) patients with PTL who delivered at term (n=49); and 4) patients with idiopathic intrauterine bleeding in the second and third trimester who were divided into: a) subsequent spontaneous PTL and delivery, and b) term delivery. Maternal plasma protein Z concentration was measured by a specific and sensitive immunoassay. Moreover, the amniotic fluid concentration of protein Z was determined in a subset of patients with preterm labor (n=30). Results 1) There was no correlation between maternal plasma protein Z concentration and gestational age in normal pregnant women. 2) The mean maternal plasma concentration of protein Z was significantly lower in women during spontaneous labor at term than in those not in labor [mean: 2.15 μg/mL (95% CI: 2.01-2.29) vs. mean: 2.45 ± 0.52 μg/mL (95% CI: 2.34-2.56), respectively; p=0.001]; 3) Women with PTL without IAI who delivered preterm had a significantly lower mean protein Z concentration than normal pregnant women [mean: 2.12 μg/mL (95% CI: 1.98-2.26) vs. mean: 2.39 μg/mL (95% CI: 2.28-2.5); p=0.008); 4) Of interest, PTL with IAI was not associated with lower plasma concentrations of protein

  7. Increased Rat Placental Fatty Acid, but Decreased Amino Acid and Glucose Transporters Potentially Modify Intrauterine Programming.

    PubMed

    Nüsken, Eva; Gellhaus, Alexandra; Kühnel, Elisabeth; Swoboda, Isabelle; Wohlfarth, Maria; Vohlen, Christina; Schneider, Holm; Dötsch, Jörg; Nüsken, Kai-Dietrich

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of placental nutrient transport significantly affects fetal development and may modify intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and fetal programming. We hypothesized that placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by utero-placental insufficiency and prenatal surgical stress. Pregnant rats underwent bilateral uterine artery and vein ligation (LIG), sham operation (SOP) or no operation (controls, C) on gestational day E19. Placentas were obtained by caesarean section 4 h (LIG, n=20 placentas; SOP, n=24; C, n=12), 24 h (LIG, n=28; SOP, n=20; C, n=12) and 72 h (LIG, n=20; SOP, n=20; C, n=24) after surgery. Gene and protein expression of placental nutrient transporters for fatty acids (h-FABP, CD36), amino acids (SNAT1, SNAT2) and glucose (GLUT-1, Connexin 26) were examined by qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, the mean protein expression of h-FABP was doubled in placentas of LIG and SOP animals 4, 24 (SOP significant) and 72 h (SOP significant) after surgery. CD36 protein was significantly increased in LIG after 72 h. SNAT1 and SNAT2 protein and gene expressions were significantly reduced in LIG and SOP after 24 h. Further significantly reduced proteins were GLUT-1 in LIG (4 h, 72 h) and SOP (24 h), and Connexin 26 in LIG (72 h). In conclusion, placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by reduced blood flow and stress, probably modifying the already disturbed intrauterine milieu and contributing to IUGR and fetal programming. Increased fatty acid transport capacity may affect energy metabolism and could be a compensatory reaction with positive effects on brain development. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1594-1603, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26590355

  8. Differential river incision across active normal faults in Grand Canyon: a response to mantle-driven uplift of the western Colorado Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlstrom, K. E.; Crow, R.

    2010-12-01

    High-quality gravel-constrained incision rates have been calculated in western Grand Canyon in a reach between river mile (RM) 177 and 246 where 100-840 ka basalt flows erupted and cascaded into Grand Canyon and flowed downriver over 120 km. Bedrock incision rates are calculated at numerous locations where dated basalts overly gravel-capped bedrock straths; fault slip is measured via Ar-Ar dating of offset basalts. Marked variations in incision rate take place across the active Hurricane and Toroweap normal faults, with incision rates in the footwall of the faults being subequal to the incision rate in the immediate hanging-wall plus the fault slip rate. However incision rates increase progressively away from the fault due to formation of a hanging-wall anticline. Nine new and updated incision rates based on new 40Ar/39Ar analyses from Grand Canyon’s intra-canyon basalts support and extend earlier conclusions that: 1) incision rate discrepancies across active faults are explained by fault dampening of incision rates, 2) incision rate variations in the fault block between the Toroweap and the Hurricane faults shows a hanging-wall anticline with wavelength < 5 km. 3) large-scale ~100 m/Ma discrepancy in incision between eastern (~175 m/Ma) and western Grand Canyon (~65 m/Ma) across the Hurricane fault may reflect broad mantle-driven epeirogenic surface uplift of the Colorado Plateau. This last hypothesis is supported by profile reconstructions and geodynamic models. Postulated sub-equal incision across the eastern Grand Canyon block, which would support epeirogenic uplift, are being further tested using U-Series dating of high terrace flights at RM 65, 69, 95, and 116. Neogene surface uplift of eastern Grand Canyon and the margins of the Colorado Plateau is consistent with: 1) high elevations along the plateau margins, 2) geoid anomalies, 3) tomographic and magnetotelluric data showing low-velocity conductive mantle under plateau margins, 4) temporal and spatial

  9. Intrauterine trophoblast migration: A comparative view of humans and rodents.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juneo F; Serakides, Rogéria

    2016-03-01

    Trophoblast migration and invasion through the decidua and maternal uterine spiral arteries are crucial events in placentation. During this process, invasive trophoblast replace vascular endothelial cells as the uterine arteries are remodeled to form more permissive vessels that facilitate adequate blood flow to the growing fetus. Placentation failures resulting from either extensive or shallow trophoblastic invasion can cause pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, placenta creta, gestational trophoblastic disease and even maternal or fetal death. Consequently, the use of experimental animal models such as rats and mice has led to great progress in recent years with regards to the identification of mechanisms and factors that control trophoblast migration kinetics. This review aims to perform a comparative analysis of placentation and the mechanisms and factors that coordinate intrauterine trophoblast migration in humans, rats and mice under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:26743330

  10. Evaluation of intrauterine adhesion treatment by laser hysteroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutrynowski, Andrzej; Zabielska, Renata

    1996-03-01

    Hysteroscopy, which is a kind of endoscopy, makes it possible to evaluate macroscopically the cervical canal, uterine cavity, and the uterine opening of the oviducts. Laser hysteroscopy is used for removing septa and intrauterine adhesions, polyps, small submucosus myomas, and for endometrium ablation in abnormal metrorrhagias. The paper aims at the initial evaluation of laser hysteroscopy in removing intrauterine adhesions in the cases of 41 infertile women. Among all infertile patients 16 women (39%) conceived. Among others 1 woman (2.5%) did not want to conceive and 19 had other causes of infertility. Thirteen (93%) out of 14 patients with hypomenorrhea before surgery reported improvement of the menstruation cycle after the treatment. Five patients (12%) had adhesions for the second time. The patients had the second laser hysteroscopy. The control diagnostic hysteroscopy showed no adhesions in those cases.

  11. Threatened miscarriage and intrauterine hematomas. Sonographic and biochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Stabile, I; Campbell, S; Grudzinskas, J G

    1989-06-01

    In a prospective study of 406 women with threatened miscarriage (TMC), 22 (5.4%) had an intrauterine hematoma (less than 16 mL) noted ultrasonically, decreasing in size as the patients experienced repeated episodes of bleeding. Twenty (91%) of the hematomas visualized were subchorionic and two (9%) were retroplacental. None of these women subsequently miscarried. Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), Schwangerschafts protein 1 (SP1), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) levels measured in these patients were not significantly different in women with or without hematomas. We conclude that the presence of small intrauterine hematomas in women with TMC does not increase the risk of miscarriage. PMID:2472492

  12. Magnesium sulfate protects fetal skin from intrauterine ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Kaptanoglu, Asli F; Arca, Turkan; Kilinc, Kamer

    2012-09-01

    Intrauterine ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in fetus occurs with multifactorial pathogenesis and results with multiorgan injury including skin. Magnesium has widespread use in obstetric practice. Inn addition to magnesium's tocolytic and neuroprotective properties, it also has free radical reducing effects. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate whether magnesium sulfate could have protective effect on fetal rat skin in intrauterine ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Fetal skin ischemia was induced by clamping the utero-ovarian arteries bilaterally for 30 min, and reperfusion was achieved by removing the clamps for 60 min in 19-day pregnant rats. Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO(4)) was given to pregnant rats 20 min before I/R injury at the dose of 600 mg/kg in magnesium treatment group. No ischemia reperfusion was applied to control and sham-operated groups. Lipid peroxidation from the skin tissues was determined as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was determined for neutrophil activation. The results showed that the levels of TBARS and MPO increased significantly in the fetal rat skin after I/R injury compared to control group. Levels of TBARS and MPO were significantly lower than those of I/R group in Magnesium-treated group. In conclusion, intrauterine ischemia-reperfusion may produce considerable fetal skin injury. Increased TBARS and MPO activity can be inhibited by magnesium treatment. This suggests that magnesium treatment may have protective effect on fetal rat skin in intrauterine I/R injury. PMID:22310734

  13. Intrauterine contraception in nulliparous women: a prospective survey

    PubMed Central

    Kutler, Beth A

    2016-01-01

    Background Intrauterine contraception is a first-line option for young women, yet relatively few prospective studies have been performed in nulliparous women using currently available devices, and many providers are still reluctant to provide this option. Methods Between January 2012 and June 2014, 109 nulliparous women, aged 18–30 years, who had an intrauterine device (IUD) placed at a student health clinic [88 levonorgestrel-intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) users and 21 Cu T 380A (IUD) users] were surveyed at 1, 6, 12 and 18 months after insertion. Results Overall satisfaction was high; at follow-up survey 83% of 100 women (mean use 13.4 months) were ‘happy’ or ‘very happy’ with their IUD, and there were no differences in satisfaction between the two IUD types. Some 75% of participants stated that the insertion procedure went ‘very well’, despite 78% rating insertion pain as moderate to severe, and 46% experiencing vasovagal symptoms. The 12-month continuation rate was 89%, with discontinuations for expulsion (3%), side effects (6%), lack of anticipated benefit (1%) and pregnancy (1%). Users of the Cu T 380A were more likely to have heavy menses (74% vs 2%; p<0.0001) or moderate to severe cramping (68% vs 20%; p=0.0002) compared with LNG-IUS users. There were no uterine perforations or diagnoses of pelvic inflammatory disease. The rate of failed insertions during the study period was 6.2%. Conclusions Despite significant symptoms with insertion, intrauterine contraception is safe, effective and ultimately well tolerated in nulliparous women and should be provided to this population in both university and community health settings. PMID:25854550

  14. Intrauterine nutrition: long-term consequences for vascular health

    PubMed Central

    Szostak-Wegierek, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that improper intrauterine nutrition may negatively influence vascular health in later life. Maternal malnutrition may result in intrauterine growth retardation and, in turn, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, and also enhanced risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular death in the offspring. Energy and/or protein restriction is the most critical determinant for fetal programming. However, it has also been proposed that intrauterine n-3 fatty acid deficiency may be linked to later higher blood pressure levels and reduced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, it has been shown that inadequate supply of micronutrients such as folate, vitamin B12, vitamin A, iron, magnesium, zinc, and calcium may contribute to impaired vascular health in the progeny. In addition, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy that are linked to impaired placental blood flow and suboptimal fetal nutrition may also contribute to intrauterine growth retardation and aggravated cardiovascular risk in the offspring. On the other hand, maternal overnutrition, which often contributes to obesity and/or diabetes, may result in macrosomia and enhanced cardiometabolic risk in the offspring. Progeny of obese and/or diabetic mothers are relatively more prone to develop obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. It was demonstrated that they may have permanently enhanced appetites. Their atheromatous lesions are usually more pronounced. It seems that, particularly, a maternal high-fat/junk food diet may be detrimental for vascular health in the offspring. Fetal exposure to excessive levels of saturated fatty and/or n-6 fatty acids, sucrose, fructose and salt, as well as a maternal high glycemic index diet, may also contribute to later enhanced cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25050077

  15. Factors affecting intrauterine contraceptive device performance. I. Endometrial cavity length.

    PubMed

    Hasson, H M; Berger, G S; Edelman, D A

    1976-12-15

    The relationship of endometrial cavity length to intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) performance was evaluated in 319 patients wearing three types of devices. The rate of events, defined as pregnancy, expulsion, or medical removal, increased significantly when the length of the IUD was equal to, exceeded, or was shorter by two or more centimeters than the length of the endometrial cavity. Total uterine length was found to be a less accurate prognostic indicator of IUD performance than endometrial cavity length alone. PMID:998687

  16. Intrauterine nutrition: long-term consequences for vascular health.

    PubMed

    Szostak-Wegierek, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that improper intrauterine nutrition may negatively influence vascular health in later life. Maternal malnutrition may result in intrauterine growth retardation and, in turn, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, and also enhanced risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular death in the offspring. Energy and/or protein restriction is the most critical determinant for fetal programming. However, it has also been proposed that intrauterine n-3 fatty acid deficiency may be linked to later higher blood pressure levels and reduced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, it has been shown that inadequate supply of micronutrients such as folate, vitamin B12, vitamin A, iron, magnesium, zinc, and calcium may contribute to impaired vascular health in the progeny. In addition, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy that are linked to impaired placental blood flow and suboptimal fetal nutrition may also contribute to intrauterine growth retardation and aggravated cardiovascular risk in the offspring. On the other hand, maternal overnutrition, which often contributes to obesity and/or diabetes, may result in macrosomia and enhanced cardiometabolic risk in the offspring. Progeny of obese and/or diabetic mothers are relatively more prone to develop obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. It was demonstrated that they may have permanently enhanced appetites. Their atheromatous lesions are usually more pronounced. It seems that, particularly, a maternal high-fat/junk food diet may be detrimental for vascular health in the offspring. Fetal exposure to excessive levels of saturated fatty and/or n-6 fatty acids, sucrose, fructose and salt, as well as a maternal high glycemic index diet, may also contribute to later enhanced cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25050077

  17. Intrauterine pregnancy following transperitoneal oocyte and/or sperm migration in a woman with an ectopic (undescended) ovary.

    PubMed

    Ombelet, Willem; Deblaere, Karen; Grieten, Martin; Verswijvel, Geert; Nijs, Martine; Hinoul, Piet; de Jonge, Eric

    2003-01-01

    This is the first report of an intrauterine pregnancy following timed coitus, resulting from transperitoneal sperm and/or oocyte migration as the oocyte originated from an ectopic (undescended) ovary. The patient was treated in the infertility clinic after a history of primary infertility for 2 years. Diagnosis of a moderate teratozoospermia and the presence of a unicornuate uterus with one right-sided normal ovary was made. During the first intrauterine insemination (IUI) treatment cycle with clomiphene citrate stimulation, a discrepancy between oestradiol concentrations and follicular growth was observed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out because the presence of an ectopic ovary was suspected. The diagnosis of a left-sided undescended ovary was made, containing several follicles, the largest measuring 16 mm in diameter. Because of a spontaneous LH surge 2 days later without substantial follicular growth in the normal right-sided ovary, IUI was cancelled and timed intercourse was planned. Surprisingly, and although the largest follicle in the normally located ovary reached a maximum diameter of only 12 mm on repetitive ultrasound monitoring, this patient became pregnant and gave birth to a healthy baby boy. PMID:12930590

  18. Normal faults, normal friction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collettini, Cristiano; Sibson, Richard H.

    2001-10-01

    Debate continues as to whether normal faults may be seismically active at very low dips (δ < 30°) in the upper continental crust. An updated compilation of dip estimates (n = 25) has been prepared from focal mechanisms of shallow, intracontinental, normal-slip earthquakes (M > 5.5; slip vector raking 90° ± 30° in the fault plane) where the rupture plane is unambiguously discriminated. The dip distribution for these moderate-to-large normal fault ruptures extends from 65° > δ > 30°, corresponding to a range, 25° < θr < 60°, for the reactivation angle between the fault and inferred vertical σ1. In a comparable data set previously obtained for reverse fault ruptures (n = 33), the active dip distribution is 10° < δ = θr < 60°. For vertical and horizontal σ1 trajectories within extensional and compressional tectonic regimes, respectively, dip-slip reactivation is thus restricted to faults oriented at θr ≤ 60° to inferred σ1. Apparent lockup at θr ≈ 60° in each dip distribution and a dominant 30° ± 5° peak in the reverse fault dip distribution, are both consistent with a friction coefficient μs ≈ 0.6, toward the bottom of Byerlee's experimental range, though localized fluid overpressuring may be needed for reactivation of less favorably oriented faults.

  19. Maternal thyroid dysfunction affects placental profile of inflammatory mediators and the intrauterine trophoblast migration kinetics.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juneo Freitas; Ocarino, Natália Melo; Serakides, Rogéria

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the gene and immunohistochemical expression of inflammatory mediators involved in the immune activity and the intrauterine trophoblast migration of the placentas in hypothyroid and L-thyroxine (L-T4)-treated rats. A total of 144 adult female rats were divided equally into hypothyroid, l-T4-treated, and euthyroid (control) groups. Hypothyroidism was induced by daily administration of propylthiouracil. Rats were killed at 0, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19 days of gestation. We evaluated the depth of interstitial and endovascular intrauterine trophoblast invasion and the immunohistochemical expression of interferon γ (INFy), migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2 (iNOS)). The gene expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2) and Tlr4, Infy, Mif, tumor necrosis factor (Tnf (Tnfα)), Il10, Nos2, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2) and Mmp9, and placental leptin was also measured in placental disks by real-time RT-PCR. The data were analyzed using an Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test. Hypothyroidism reduced the endovascular and interstitial trophoblast migration, and the expression of TLR4, INFy, MIF, interleukin 10 (IL10), NOS2, MMP2 and MMP9, and placental leptin, while increased the expression of TLR2 (P<0.05). T4-treated rats not only increased the expression of IL10 and NOS2 but also reduced the expression of TNF and MIF at 10 days of gestation (P<0.05). However, at 19 days of gestation, expression of INFy and MIF was increased in T4-treated group (P<0.05). Excess of T4 also increased the gene expression of Mmp2 at 10 days of gestation (P<0.05), but reduced the endovascular trophoblast migration at 18 days of gestation (P<0.05). Hypothyroidism and excess of T4 differentially affect the immune profile and the intrauterine trophoblast migration of the placenta, and these effects are dependent on the gestational period. PMID:24534949

  20. Small RNA Sequencing Uncovers New miRNAs and moRNAs Differentially Expressed in Normal and Primary Myelofibrosis CD34+ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saccoman, Claudia; Mannarelli, Carmela; Coppe, Alessandro; Vannucchi, Alessandro M.; Bortoluzzi, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are chronic myeloid cancers thought to arise at the level of CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. They include essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). All can progress to acute leukemia, but PMF carries the worst prognosis. Increasing evidences indicate that deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) might plays an important role in hematologic malignancies, including MPN. To attain deeper knowledge of short RNAs (sRNAs) expression pattern in CD34+ cells and of their possible role in mediating post-transcriptional regulation in PMF, we sequenced with Illumina HiSeq2000 technology CD34+ cells from healthy subjects and PMF patients. We detected the expression of 784 known miRNAs, with a prevalence of miRNA up-regulation in PMF samples, and discovered 34 new miRNAs and 99 new miRNA-offset RNAs (moRNAs), in CD34+ cells. Thirty-seven small RNAs were differentially expressed in PMF patients compared with healthy subjects, according to microRNA sequencing data. Five miRNAs (miR-10b-5p, miR-19b-3p, miR-29a-3p, miR-379-5p, and miR-543) were deregulated also in PMF granulocytes. Moreover, 3’-moR-128-2 resulted consistently downregulated in PMF according to RNA-seq and qRT-PCR data both in CD34+ cells and granulocytes. Target predictions of these validated small RNAs de-regulated in PMF and functional enrichment analyses highlighted many interesting pathways involved in tumor development and progression, such as signaling by FGFR and DAP12 and Oncogene Induced Senescence. As a whole, data obtained in this study deepened the knowledge of miRNAs and moRNAs altered expression in PMF CD34+ cells and allowed to identify and validate a specific small RNA profile that distinguishes PMF granulocytes from those of normal subjects. We thus provided new information regarding the possible role of miRNAs and, specifically, of new moRNAs in this disease. PMID:26468945

  1. Achondrogenesis type II with normally developed extremities: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kocakoc, Ercan; Kiris, Adem

    2002-07-01

    We present a case of achondrogenesis type II with normally developed extremities that was confirmed with postmortem ultrasonographic and radiographic examination. The length of the long bones may vary and the diagnosis of achondrogenesis should not be ruled out with normally developed extremities. Intrauterine sonographic examination of the vertebrae is very important and the absence of vertebral body ossification may be the unique finding of achondrogenesis type II. Axial ultrasonographic images and postmortem plain radiographs are useful to clarify the pathology. PMID:12124695

  2. Essential nutrient supplementation prevents heritable metabolic disease in multigenerational intrauterine growth-restricted rats

    PubMed Central

    Goodspeed, Danielle; Seferovic, Maxim D.; Holland, William; Mcknight, Robert A.; Summers, Scott A.; Branch, D. Ware; Lane, Robert H.; Aagaard, Kjersti M.

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) confers heritable alterations in DNA methylation, rendering risk of adult metabolic syndrome (MetS). Because CpG methylation is coupled to intake of essential nutrients along the one-carbon pathway, we reasoned that essential nutrient supplementation (ENS) may abrogate IUGR-conferred multigenerational MetS. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral uterine artery ligation causing IUGR in F1. Among the F2 generation, IUGR lineage rats were underweight at birth (6.7 vs. 8.0 g, P < 0.0001) and obese by adulthood (p160: 613 vs. 510 g; P < 0.0001). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry studies revealed increased central fat mass (Δ+40 g), accompanied by dyslipidemic (>30% elevated, P < 0.05) serum triglycerides (139 mg/dl), very-LDLs (27.8 mg/dl), and fatty acids (632 µM). Hyperglycemic-euglycemic clamp studies and glucose tolerance testing revealed insulin resistance. Conversely, IUGR lineage ENS-fed rats did not manifest MetS, with significantly lower body weight (p160: 410 g), >5-fold less central fat mass, normal hepatic glucose efflux, and >70% reduced circulating triglycerides and very-LDLs compared with IUGR control-fed F2 offspring (P < 0.01). Moreover, increased methylation of the IGF-1 P2 transcriptional start site among IUGR lineage F2 offspring was reversed in ENS (P < 0.04). This is an initial demonstration that supplementation along the one-carbon pathway abrogates adult morbidity and associated epigenomic modifications of IGF-1 in a rodent model of multigenerational MetS.—Goodspeed, D., Seferovic, M. D., Holland, W., Mcknight, R. A., Summers, S. A., Branch, D. W., Lane, R. H., Aagaard, K. M. Essential nutrient supplementation prevents heritable metabolic disease in multigenerational intrauterine growth-restricted rats. PMID:25395450

  3. Xenon contrast CT-CBF scanning of the brain differentiates normal age-related changes from multi-infarct dementia and senile dementia of Alzheimer type

    SciTech Connect

    Tachibana, H.; Meyer, J.S.; Okayasu, H.; Shaw, T.G.; Kandula, P.; Rogers, R.L.

    1984-07-01

    Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and partition coefficients (L lambda) were measured during inhalation of stable xenon gas with serial CT scanning among normal volunteers (N . 15), individuals with multi-infarct dementia (MID, N . 10), and persons with senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT, N . 8). Mean gray matter flow values were reduced in both MID and SDAT. Age-related declines in LCBF values in normals were marked in frontal cortex and basal ganglia. LCBF values were decreased beyond normals in frontal and temporal cortices and thalamus in MID and SDAT, in basal ganglia only in MID. Unlike SDAT and age-matched normals, L lambda values were reduced in fronto-temporal cortex and thalamus in MID. Multifocal nature of lesions in MID was apparent. Coefficients of variation for LCBFs were greater in MID compared with SDAT and/or age-matched normals.

  4. [Spontaneous intrauterine rupture of the umbilical cord is very uncommon but a serious condition].

    PubMed

    Åmark, Hanna; Eneroth, Eva

    Spontaneous intrauterine rupture of the umbilical cord is an uncommon and dangerous complication during delivery. We describe a case of a 27-year-old woman with a normal pregnancy. When the membranes broke, the fetal heart sounds suddenly disappeared, and the vaginal bleeding was heavier than normal. An emergency caesarean section was executed and the examination of the placenta revealed a broken umbilical artery. The child was born with an Apgar score of 0,1,1 and a blood gas analysis from the umbilical vein showed pH 6.68 and Base Excess -24.3. Urgent treatment with heart massage, adrenaline, blood transfusion and tribonate was initiated and followed by therapeutic hypothermia. The child was discharged after 10 days with no pathological findings on a MRI examination of the brain. The 6 month follow-up showed a normal development. When a fetal bleeding is suspected, it is important to inform a neonatologist so that correct treatment can be started as early as possible. PMID:25584580

  5. Low Interferon Relative-Response to Cytomegalovirus Is Associated with Low Likelihood of Intrauterine Transmission of the Virus

    PubMed Central

    Eldar-Yedidia, Yifat; Bar-Meir, Maskit; Hillel, Miriam; Abitbol, Guila; Broide, Eti; Falk, Roni; Assous, Marc; Schlesinger, Yechiel

    2016-01-01

    Background Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a very common intrauterine infection which can cause severe mental and hearing impairments. Notably, only 40% of primarily infected women transmit CMV to the fetus. CMV-specific T-cell response has a role in CMV disease but individual immune heterogeneity precludes reliable correlation between measurable T-cells response and intrauterine transmission. Study Aim To establish a correlation between maternal T-cells response and fetal CMV transmission using an individual normalized immune response. Methods We analyzed IFN-γ secretion upon whole blood stimulation from primary CMV-infected pregnant women, with either CMV-peptides or PHA-mitogen. Results We established a new normalization method of individual IFN-γ response to CMV by defining the ratio between specific-CMV response and non-specific mitogen response (defined as IFN-γ relative response, RR), aiming to overcome high person-to-person immune variability. We found a unique subpopulation of women with low IFN-γ RR strongly correlated with absence of transmission. IFN-γ RR lower than 1.8% (threshold determined by ROC analysis) reduces the pre-test probability of transmission from 40% to 8%, revealing an unexpected link between low IFN-γ RR and non-transmission. Conclusion In pregnant women with primary CMV infection, low IFN-γ RR is associated with low risk of transmission. PMID:26881863

  6. Intra-uterine devices, A SEM study on the Dalkon Shield.

    PubMed

    Guidoin, R; Courtney, J M; Brault, R; Domurado, D; Haggis, G H

    1976-01-01

    A SEM study carried on intra-uterine devices (Dalkon Shield) is reported. The poor manufacturing of the devices is stressed, which could increase their efficiency but also the risks of penetration, or worse, perforation. The solution for the future could be copper bearing intra-uterine devices coated by hydrogels. This should maintain efficiency and improve security. PMID:1276332

  7. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

  8. Aspirin for the Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Stephanie; Odibo, Anthony O; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Low-dose aspirin (LDA) has been used for several years for the prevention of preeclampsia (PE). LDA started in early pregnancy is associated with improvement of placental implantation. The best evidence suggest that LDA can prevent more than half of PE cases in high-risk women when started before 16 weeks of gestation. Moreover, LDA started in early pregnancy reduces the risk of other placenta-mediated complications such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and perinatal death. The efficacy of LDA has been demonstrated in women with abnormal first-trimester uterine artery Doppler or with prior history of chronic hypertension or preeclampsia. PMID:27235915

  9. Vesical Calculus 10 Years Post Missing Intrauterine Contraceptive Device

    PubMed Central

    Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Ogunleye, Oluwagbemiga Olabisi

    2013-01-01

    Intravesical migration of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is rare. Early diagnosis of this rare entity is difficult because of its non-specific manifestations and very low index of suspicion. We present this case of bladder stone following intravesical migration of IUCD found to have been missing since insertion 10 years earlier. Lower abdominal discomfort and a missing vaginal string may be the only pointer to this unfortunate event in the immediate post insertion period. It is pertinent to consider the possibility of an intravesical migration of a missing IUCD in a patient presenting with lower abdominal discomfort, urinary frequency, and missing IUCD string on vaginal examination. PMID:24470853

  10. Changes in amniotic fluid and umbilical cord serum proteomic profiles of foetuses with intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Cecconi, Daniela; Lonardoni, Francesco; Favretto, Donata; Cosmi, Erich; Tucci, Marianna; Visentin, Silvia; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Fais, Paolo; Viel, Guido; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2011-12-01

    Foetal growth is a result of a complex net of processes, requiring coordination within the maternal, placental, and foetal compartments, the imbalance or lack of which may lead to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). IUGR is the major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, and is also related to enhanced morbidity and metabolic abnormalities later in life. In the present study, the protein profiles of umbilical cord serum (UCS) and amniotic fluid (AF) of ten IUGR and ten appropriate for gestational age newborns have been analysed by 2-DE, and nanoHPLC-Chip/MS technology. A total of 18 and 13 spots were found to be differentially expressed (p<0.01) in UCS and AF respectively. The unique differentially expressed proteins identified by MS/MS analysis were 14 in UCS, and 11 in AF samples. Protein gene ontology classification indicate that 21% of proteins are involved in inflammatory response, 20% in immune response, while a smaller proportion are related to transport, blood pressure, and coagulation. These results support the conclusion that the IUGR condition alters the expression of proteins involved in the coagulation process, immune mechanisms, blood pressure and iron and copper homeostasis control, offering a new insight into IUGR pathogenesis. PMID:22180211

  11. New operational technology of intrauterine ventilation the fetus lungs by breathing gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urakov, A. L.; Nikityuk, D. B.; Urakova, N. A.; Kasankin, A. A.; Chernova, L. V.; Dementiev, V. B.

    2015-11-01

    New operational technology for elimination intrauterine hypoxia and asphyxia of the fetus using endoscopic artificial ventilation lungs by respiratory gas was developed. For intrauterine ventilation of fetal lung it is proposed to enter into the uterus a special breathing mask and wear it on the head of the fetus using the original endoscopic technology. The breathing mask, developed by us is connected with external breathing apparatus with a hose. The device is called "intrauterine aqualung". Intrauterine aqualung includes a ventilator and breathing circuit with a special fold-out breathing mask that is put on inside the uterus on the head of fetus like a mesh hat. Controlled by ultrasound the technology of the introduction of the mask inside of the uterus through the natural opening in the cervix and technology of putting on the respiratory mask on the head of the fetus with its head previa were developed. The technology intrauterine ventilation of the fetus lungs by respiratory gas was developed.

  12. The promoter methylomes of monochorionic twin placentas reveal intrauterine growth restriction-specific variations in the methylation patterns

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhiming; Lu, Hanlin; Luo, Huijuan; Gao, Fei; Wang, Tong; Gao, Yu; Fang, Qun; Wang, Junwen

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) affects the foetus and has a number of pathological consequences throughout life. Recent work has indicated that variations in DNA methylation might cause placental dysfunction, which may be associated with adverse pregnancy complications. Here, we investigated the promoter methylomes of placental shares from seven monochorionic (MC) twins with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) using the healthy twin as an ideal control. Our work demonstrated that the IUGR placental shares harboured a distinct DNA hypomethylation pattern and that the methylation variations preferentially occurred in CpG island shores or non-CpG island promoters. The differentially methylated promoters could significantly separate the IUGR placental shares from the healthy ones. Ultra‐performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC‐MS/MS) further confirmed the genome‐wide DNA hypomethylation and the lower level of hydroxymethylation statuses in the IUGR placental shares. The methylation variations of the LRAT and SLC19A1 promoters, which are involved in vitamin A metabolism and folate transportation, respectively, and the EFS promoter were further validated in an additional 12 pairs of MC twins with sIUGR. Although the expressions of LRAT, SLC19A1 and EFS were not affected, we still speculated that DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation might serve a functional role during in utero foetal development. PMID:26830322

  13. The promoter methylomes of monochorionic twin placentas reveal intrauterine growth restriction-specific variations in the methylation patterns.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiming; Lu, Hanlin; Luo, Huijuan; Gao, Fei; Wang, Tong; Gao, Yu; Fang, Qun; Wang, Junwen

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) affects the foetus and has a number of pathological consequences throughout life. Recent work has indicated that variations in DNA methylation might cause placental dysfunction, which may be associated with adverse pregnancy complications. Here, we investigated the promoter methylomes of placental shares from seven monochorionic (MC) twins with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) using the healthy twin as an ideal control. Our work demonstrated that the IUGR placental shares harboured a distinct DNA hypomethylation pattern and that the methylation variations preferentially occurred in CpG island shores or non-CpG island promoters. The differentially methylated promoters could significantly separate the IUGR placental shares from the healthy ones. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) further confirmed the genome-wide DNA hypomethylation and the lower level of hydroxymethylation statuses in the IUGR placental shares. The methylation variations of the LRAT and SLC19A1 promoters, which are involved in vitamin A metabolism and folate transportation, respectively, and the EFS promoter were further validated in an additional 12 pairs of MC twins with sIUGR. Although the expressions of LRAT, SLC19A1 and EFS were not affected, we still speculated that DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation might serve a functional role during in utero foetal development. PMID:26830322

  14. The effects of intrauterine cocaine exposure in newborns.

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, D A; Ng, S K; Hansen, C A; Heagarty, M C

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. We sought to determine the effects of intrauterine cocaine exposure in newborns, in an inner-city population in which cocaine use during pregnancy was common. METHODS. During a 1-year period, 12.8% (361 of 2810) of all live singleton infants at Harlem Hospital in New York were identified as cocaine exposed, either by universal urine toxicologic screening or by maternal history. Cocaine-exposed infants were compared with a control group of 387 infants not known to be exposed to cocaine or other illicit drugs. RESULTS. Low birthweight (< 2500 g) was more common among cocaine-exposed infants (31% vs 10%), as was preterm birth (< 37 completed weeks of gestation) (32% vs 14%). In multivariate analyses controlled for demographic and life-style factors and duration of gestation, cocaine was associated with decreased birthweight (154 g), length (1.02 cm), head circumference (0.69 cm), and duration of gestation (0.74 weeks). The birthweight deficits were larger for infants born to mothers who used cocaine in combination with other drugs (195 g) and for infants born to mothers who specifically admitted using crack (200 g). CONCLUSIONS. Intrauterine cocaine exposure is linked with fetal growth retardation and shortened gestation in this population. PMID:8427321

  15. Intrauterine contraceptives: a review of uses, side effects, and candidates.

    PubMed

    Shimoni, Noa'a

    2010-03-01

    This article reviews the two intrauterine devices (IUDs) available in the United States: the TCu380A, marketed as ParaGard (Duramed Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Pomona, NY), and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), marketed as Mirena (Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Wayne, NJ). The properties of the two devices are detailed, as well as noncontraceptive indications and appropriate candidates for use. Studies consistently demonstrate that the devices are safe, effective, and provide cost savings when compared with other reversible methods. The TCu380A may be used as postcoital contraception with close to 100% effectiveness. Menstrual blood loss is likely to increase with the TCu380A and decrease with the LNG-IUS. Reduction in menstrual blood loss and endometrial suppression make the LNG-IUS an increasingly popular treatment for menorrhagia, endometriosis, adenomyosis, and as an adjunct to estrogen therapy. IUDs may be inserted immediately after a first- or second-trimester abortion, immediately postpartum, and >or=4 weeks postpartum. Candidacy for IUDs has expanded, and includes nulliparous women, adolescents, and women with immunocompromised conditions including HIV. PMID:20352561

  16. Recent intrauterine growth parameters of term Sudanese neonates in Khartoum compared to the findings three decades earlier

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Rahman, Sirag Eldin M. Kheir; Ibrahim, Ghada O.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to present anthropometric measurements of term Sudanese neonates which will reflect intrauterine growth. Secondly, to compare such parameters with that of a previous study done about three decades ago to show if there is any secular changes. Normal term neonates born to healthy mothers between the period of October 2010 to January 2011 at Khartoum Teaching Hospital were included in the study. There were certain criteria for inclusion and exclusion of the newborns and their mothers. Measurements of birth weight, crown-heel length and head circumferences were done in the first twenty four hours after birth. Statistical test of the difference between the means was used to show any significant difference. The means of birth weight, crown-heel length and head circumference for both sexes against gestational age were obtained. Comparing this study with the previous one showed no statistical significant difference for both sexes regarding the birth weight, crown-heel length but there is some difference between males head circumference. There is no evidence of upward secular trend regarding the intrauterine parameters.

  17. Uterine Healing after Therapeutic Intrauterine Administration of TachoSil (Hemostatic Fleece) in Cesarean Section with Postpartum Hemorrhage Caused by Placenta Previa

    PubMed Central

    Fuglsang, Katrine; Dueholm, Margit; Stæhr-Hansen, Estrid; Petersen, Lone Kjeld

    2012-01-01

    Background. Application of hemostatic fleece (TachoSil) directly onto the bleeding surfaces of the lower uterine segment has been used to obtain hemostasis during cesarean section caused by placenta previa. Methods. Eleven of 15 patients treated with TachoSil for excessive postpartum haemorrhage due to placenta previa were enrolled. An evaluation of the cesarean section scar by transvaginal ultrasound, the uterine cavity and endometrium by hysteroscopy, and the endometrium by biopsy were made. The main outcome measures were intrauterine adhesions, recovery of endometrium at the site of TachoSil application, visible remnants of TachoSil, and scar healing. Results. Eight patients had small remnants of TachoSil in the uterine cavity together with signs of resorption. All had a normal endometrial mucosa, and none had adhesions in the uterine cavity. All cesarean section scars were healed without defects. Conclusion. TachoSil did not seem to impair healing of the endometrium or scar formation in the uterus after intrauterine application. Resorption of TachoSil seems to progress individually. Intrauterine treatment with TachoSil is a valuable supplement to the traditional treatment of post partum haemorrhage and may help retain reproductive capability. This is a small study, and it will require more studies to confirm the reproducibility. PMID:22619722

  18. Monoclonal antibodies to murine thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2 reveal differential expression patterns in cancer and low antigen expression in normal tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Bujak, Emil; Pretto, Francesca; Ritz, Danilo; Gualandi, Laura; Wulhfard, Sarah; Neri, Dario

    2014-09-10

    There is a considerable interest for the discovery and characterization of tumor-associated antigens, which may facilitate antibody-based pharmacodelivery strategies. Thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2 are homologous secreted proteins, which have previously been reported to be overexpressed during remodeling typical for wound healing and tumor progression and to possibly play a functional role in cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. To our knowledge, a complete immunohistochemical characterization of thrombospondins levels in normal rodent tissues has not been reported so far. Using antibody phage technology, we have generated and characterized monoclonal antibodies specific to murine thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2, two antigens which share 62% aminoacid identity. An immunofluorescence analysis revealed that both antigens are virtually undetectable in normal mouse tissues, except for a weak staining of heart tissue by antibodies specific to thrombospondin-1. The analysis also showed that thrombospondin-1 was strongly expressed in 5/7 human tumors xenografted in nude mice, while it was only barely detectable in 3/8 murine tumors grafted in immunocompetent mice. By contrast, a high-affinity antibody to thrombospondin-2 revealed a much lower level of expression of this antigen in cancer specimens. Our analysis resolves ambiguities related to conflicting reports on thrombosponding expression in health and disease. Based on our findings, thrombospondin-1 (and not thrombospondin-2) may be considered as a target for antibody-based pharmacodelivery strategies, in consideration of its low expression in normal tissues and its upregulation in cancer. - Highlights: • High affinity monoclonal antibodies to murine and human TSP1 and 2 were raised. • Both antigens are virtually undetectable in normal mouse tissues. • Strong positivity of human tumor xenografts for TSP1 was detected. • Study revealed much lower level of TSP2 expression in cancer specimens

  19. Texture analysis of collagen second-harmonic generation images based on local difference local binary pattern and wavelets differentiates human skin abnormal scars from normal scars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Cai, Jianyong; Chen, Rong; Xiong, Shuyuan; Chen, Guannan; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative methods for noninvasive diagnosis of scars are a challenging issue in medicine. This work aims to implement a texture analysis method for quantitatively discriminating abnormal scars from normal scars based on second-harmonic generation (SHG) images. A local difference local binary pattern (LD-LBP) operator combined with a wavelet transform was explored to extract diagnosis features from scar SHG images that were related to the alteration in collagen morphology. Based on the quantitative parameters including the homogeneity, directional and coarse features in SHG images, the scar collagen SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal scars by a support vector machine classifier in a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. Our experiments and data analyses demonstrated apparent differences between normal and abnormal scars in terms of their morphological structure of collagen. By comparing with gray level co-occurrence matrix, wavelet transform, and combined basic local binary pattern and wavelet transform with respect to the accuracy and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the method proposed herein was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy and more reliable classification of SHG images. This result indicated that the extracted texture features with the proposed method were effective in the classification of scars. It could provide assistance for physicians in the diagnostic process. PMID:25611867

  20. Texture analysis of collagen second-harmonic generation images based on local difference local binary pattern and wavelets differentiates human skin abnormal scars from normal scars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yao; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Cai, Jianyong; Chen, Rong; Xiong, Shuyuan; Chen, Guannan; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative methods for noninvasive diagnosis of scars are a challenging issue in medicine. This work aims to implement a texture analysis method for quantitatively discriminating abnormal scars from normal scars based on second-harmonic generation (SHG) images. A local difference local binary pattern (LD-LBP) operator combined with a wavelet transform was explored to extract diagnosis features from scar SHG images that were related to the alteration in collagen morphology. Based on the quantitative parameters including the homogeneity, directional and coarse features in SHG images, the scar collagen SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal scars by a support vector machine classifier in a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. Our experiments and data analyses demonstrated apparent differences between normal and abnormal scars in terms of their morphological structure of collagen. By comparing with gray level co-occurrence matrix, wavelet transform, and combined basic local binary pattern and wavelet transform with respect to the accuracy and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the method proposed herein was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy and more reliable classification of SHG images. This result indicated that the extracted texture features with the proposed method were effective in the classification of scars. It could provide assistance for physicians in the diagnostic process.

  1. Progesterone levels and days to luteolysis in mares treated with intrauterine fractionated coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Diel de Amorim, Mariana; Nielsen, Kayla; Cruz, Raissa Karolliny Salgueiro; Card, Claire

    2016-07-15

    Intrauterine plant oil infusion, including fractionated coconut oil, has been previously found to be a safe, inexpensive, and reversible method of prolonging the luteal phase in mares when administered on Day 10 of the estrous cycle. Our objective was to understand the uteroovarian response to the administration of fractionated coconut oil infusion in the uterus of diestrous mares. We hypothesized that intrauterine coconut oil administration on Day 10 would prolong luteal life span in a dose-dependent fashion and would result in higher serum progesterone levels than untreated mares at the expected time of luteolysis. Light-horse mares (n = 18) were examined using transrectal palpation and ultrasonography to determine if they had a normal interovulatory interval and were then examined daily in estrus until the day of ovulation (Day 0) and then every other day during an estrous cycle. Jugular blood was drawn on Day 11, Day 13, Day 15, and Day 17, centrifuged, and serum stored until assayed for progesterone (P4; Siemens Coat-a-Count Progesterone RIA, Los Angeles, CA, USA). Mares were randomly assigned to treatment and studied over one to two estrous cycles with a rest cycle after each treatment cycle. Groups were: control (n = 5), fractionated coconut oil 1.0 mL (Miglyol 810; Sasol Oil, Witten, Germany) infused in the uterus with an artificial insemination pipette on Day 10 (Group 1; n = 5) and fractionated coconut oil 0.5 mL infused in the uterus with an embryo transfer gun, on Day 10 (Group 2; n = 5). All statistical analyses were performed using analytical software (Stata SE, version 13.1, College Station, TX, USA) at P < 0.05. Data were first evaluated using the Shapiro-Wilk test for normality. Differences between groups in days to luteolysis (DTL) were examined using analysis of variance and Bonferroni, and the effect of day and treatment on P4 levels were examined using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's all pairwise test. There was a significant

  2. Nd-YAG laser with a fibertom system in the treatment of intrauterine lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczak, Maciej; Wozniak, Jakub; Sajdak, Stefan; Dydowicz, Piotr; Opala, Tomasz; Cwojdzinski, Marek; Pisarski, Tadeusz

    1997-10-01

    The results of 31 Nd:YAG hysteroscopic laser surgeries done in the Department of Reproduction, Institute of Gynecology and obstetrics, Karon Marcinkowski School of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland were describe. In nine patients the uterine septa and in 22 women the intrauterine adhesion were recognized. Hysteroscopy is a very useful and reliable method in diagnosis and treatment of intrauterine lesions reducing fertility. The laser resection of intrauterine lesions in women with malreproduction is an efficient and safe method. The fertility and parity after laser surgery are highly improved.

  3. Morbidity of low-birthweight infants with intrauterine cocaine exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, S.; Ewing, C.; Waring, P.; Findlay, R.; Bean, X.; Taeusch, H. W.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of intrauterine cocaine exposure on 158 low-birthweight infants (500 g to 2500 g) were compared with 536 low-birthweight infants not known to be exposed to cocaine who were admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit. Univariate analyses indicated that drug-exposed infants had lower birthweights when compared with control infants. Frequency of necrotizing enterocolitis differed between the drug-exposed infants and controls (11% versus 6%). Frequency of severe respiratory distress syndrome, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia did not differ between groups of similar birthweight. We conclude that the most evident risks of prenatal cocaine exposure are low birthweight and increased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis. PMID:8426379

  4. Intrauterine responses to nipple stimulation in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Viegas, O A; Adaikan, P G; Singh, K; Arulkumaran, S; Kottegoda, S R; Ratnam, S S

    1986-01-01

    Characteristics of intrauterine activity in response to nipple stimulation were studied in 9 healthy pregnant subjects at term. All patients showed an increase in uterine activity varying from 10 to 730%. In 1 subject, marked uterine hypertonus was noted which resulted in profound fetal bradycardia. This response was transient, lasting 5.5 min, and fetal outcome unaffected. We believe that nipple stimulation is associated with a higher incidence of increased uterine activity in terms of frequency, intensity and basal tone, than has been previously recognized. This uterine hypertonus may affect the fetal heart rate adversely indicating the need to exercise caution when adopting this manoeuvre in late pregnancy, particularly when there is already evidence of fetal compromise. PMID:3781343

  5. Reappearance of the intrauterine device: a 'user-friendly' contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, A M

    1997-01-01

    Women in the United States, and their physicians, are "rediscovering" intrauterine devices (IUDs). Two IUDs, the 10-year Copper T 380A (Paragard) and 1-year progesterone-releasing T (Progestasert) are currently marketed in this country. In contrast to previous perceptions, recent studies have provided reassurance regarding the safety of these effective and convenient contraceptives. We now recognize that IUDs do not increase salpingitis or infertility risks in long-term users. Likewise, we now better understand the mechanism of action of copper IUDs: both the inert plastic device as well as the copper contribute to a spermicidal effect, preventing fertilization. Finally, we now recognize that copper IUDs reduce a user's overall risk of ectopic pregnancy. For appropriately informed and selected candidates, IUDs represent a safe, effective, convenient, and low-cost contraceptive option. PMID:9160223

  6. Intrauterine Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Congenital Heart Defects.

    PubMed

    Forest, Sharron; Priest, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure during pregnancy are linked to a host of deleterious effects on the pregnancy, fetus, and infant. Health outcomes improve when women quit smoking at any time during the pregnancy. However, the developing heart is vulnerable to noxious stimuli in the early weeks of fetal development, a time when many women are not aware of being pregnant. Congenital heart defects are the most common birth defects. Research shows an association between maternal tobacco exposure, both active and passive, and congenital heart defects. This article presents recent evidence supporting the association between intrauterine cigarette smoke exposure in the periconceptional period and congenital heart defects and discusses clinical implications for practice for perinatal and neonatal nurses. PMID:26813392

  7. Cost effectiveness in obstetrics and gynecology: The levonorgestrel intrauterine system.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Lisa

    2012-03-01

    Use of evidence-based practices that are both cost-effective and acceptable to patients is now a focus in health care. Considerable cost savings can be realized by reducing unintended pregnancies and improving control of menstrual-related morbidity. The levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), often referred to by its brand name Mirena, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration both for contraception and fortreating abnormal uterine bleeding. The device has been available in the United States since 2000 and has been used in Europe since 1990. Despite the fact that several evidence-based guidelines include use of the LNG-IUS, it remains underutilized in this country. This article reviews the benefits of the LNG-IUS as they pertain to women's health and to the cost of health care. PMID:22611822

  8. Massive subchorionic hematoma (Breus' mole) complicated by intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Nishida, N; Suzuki, S; Hamamura, Y; Igarashi, K; Hayashi, Z; Sawa, R; Yoneyama, Y; Asakura, H; Kawabata, K; Shima, Y; Shin, S; Araki, T

    2001-02-01

    We present here a case of massive subchorionic hematoma complicated by intrauterine growth retardation and oligohydramnios diagnosed at 22 weeks' gestation. The patient was managed with the following medications: (1) tocolysis with ritodrine infusion, (2) 10%maltose infusion therapy (1500mL/day), (3) antibiotic infusion (cefotaxim sodium, 2 g/dayx7) and (4) kampo therapy with Sairei-to until delivery. At 33 weeks and 0 days' gestation, a female baby weighing 1,342 g was delivered without complication by caesarean section. During surgery, an escape of about 500~600 g of dark brown blood with no clots was noted from the subchorionic space of the placenta. Examination of the placenta showed a large fibrosis with well-defined margins on the fetal surface. PMID:11180702

  9. Neurological and neurocognitive functions from intrauterine methylmercury exposure.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kado, Yoko; Diez, Midory Higa; Kishikawa, Toshihiro; Sanada, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    In the 1950s, large-scale food poisoning caused by methylmercury was identified in Minamata, Japan. Although severe intrauterine exposure cases (ie, congenital Minamata disease patients) are well known, possible impacts of methylmercury exposure in utero among residents, which is likely at lower levels than in congenital Minamata disease patients, are rarely explored. In 2014, the authors examined neurological and neurocognitive functions among 18 exposed participants in Minamata, focusing on fine motor, visuospatial construction, and executive functions. More than half of the participants had some fine motor and coordination difficulties. In addition, several participants had lower performance for neurocognitive function tests (the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure test and Keio version of the Wisconsin card sorting test). These deficits imply diffuse brain damage. This study suggests possible neurological and neurocognitive impacts of prenatal exposure to methylmercury among exposed residents of Minamata. PMID:26267674

  10. Differential expression of matrix metalloproteinase and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase genes in the mouse central nervous system in normal and inflammatory states.

    PubMed Central

    Pagenstecher, A.; Stalder, A. K.; Kincaid, C. L.; Shapiro, S. D.; Campbell, I. L.

    1998-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) whereas the contribution of the major endogenous counter-regulators of MMPs, the tissue inhibitors of the matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), is unclear. We investigated the temporal and spatial expression patterns in the CNS of nine MMP genes and three TIMP genes in normal mice, in mice with EAE, and in transgenic mice with astrocyte (glial fibrillary acidic protein)-targeted expression of the cytokines interleukin-3 (macrophage/microglial demyelinating disease), interleukin-6 (neurodegenerative disease), or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (lymphocytic encephalomyelitis). In normal mice, the MMPs MT1-MMP, stromelysin 3, and gelatinase B were expressed at low levels, whereas high expression of TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 was observed predominantly in neurons and in the choroid plexus, respectively. In EAE and the transgenic mice, significant induction or up-regulation of various MMP genes was observed, the pattern of which was somewhat specific for each of the models, and there was significant induction of TIMP-1. In situ localization experiments revealed a dichotomy between MMP expression that was restricted to leukocytes and possibly microglia within inflammatory lesions and TIMP-1 expression that was observed in activated astrocytes circumscribing the lesions. These findings demonstrate specific spatial and temporal regulation in the expression of individual MMP and TIMP genes in the CNS in normal and inflammatory states. The distinct localization of TIMP-1 and MMP expression during CNS inflammation suggests a dynamic state in which the interplay between these gene products may determine both the size and resolution of the destructive inflammatory focus. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9502415

  11. Differential dietary habits among 570 young underweight Japanese women with and without a desire for thinness: a comparison with normal weight counterparts.

    PubMed

    Mori, Nagisa; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The strong social pressure for thinness in Japanese society has produced a dramatic increase in underweight (body mass index: <18.5 kg/m2) among young women. Being underweight is associated with several negative health outcomes, including nutritional deficiency, osteoporosis, and unfavourable pregnancy outcomes. However, evidence which would help deal with this problem from a public health perspective is scarce. Here, we aimed to identify the dietary characteristics of underweight female university students, particularly those with a desire for thinness. Data on dietary habits and other lifestyle variables, including the desire for thinness, were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire survey conducted at 54 academic institutions in Japan, from which we selected 3634 female students for analysis. The subjects were divided into three groups of normal weight (84.3%), and underweight with (6.4%) or without (9.3%) a desire for thinness. After adjusting for potential confounders, the underweight subjects with a desire for thinness consumed less cereal and rice, whereas those without a desire for thinness consumed more cereal and rice than the normal weight subjects. In addition, those without a desire for thinness consumed less confectionaries, including candies and ice cream, and less fats and oils than the normal weight subjects. These results suggest that dietary habits differ between underweight women with and without a desire for thinness. Although both groups require nutritional education to maintain appropriate body weight, underweight women with a desire for thinness require particular attention to improve recognition of their constitution and dietary habits. PMID:26965768

  12. Effects of Intrauterine Devices in Mares: A Histomorphological and Immunohistochemical Evaluation of the Endometrium.

    PubMed

    Klein, V; Müller, K; Schoon, H A; Reilas, T; Rivera Del Alamo, M M; Katila, T

    2016-02-01

    Oestrous suppression by intrauterine devices (IUDs) is caused by prolongation of luteal function, but the biological mechanism is unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate mechanisms which could explain the action of IUDs. Thirty mares were age-matched and either inseminated (AI, n = 15) or fitted with an IUD (IUD, n = 15) and subsequently divided into four groups: AI-P, pregnant (n = 8); AI-N, non-pregnant (n = 7); IUD-P, prolonged luteal phase (n = 7); and IUD-N, normal luteal phase (n = 8). The median ages were 5.5 and 7 years in AI-P and IUD-P groups and 14 and 11 years in AI-N and IUD-N groups, respectively. On Day 15 after ovulation, an endometrial biopsy was obtained to study histomorphological and immunohistochemical expression patterns of uterine proteins (uteroferrin, UF; uterocalin, UC; uteroglobin, UG), oestrogen and progesterone receptors (ER, PR), proliferation marker Ki-67 and content of inflammatory cells. Expression of UF was higher in IUD mares; the difference between pregnant and IUD-P mares was significant. Mares exhibiting a prolonged luteal phase (AI-P, IUD-P) showed only mild angiosclerosis and lower expression of both ER and PR than mares with a normal luteal phase (AI-N, IUD-N). No significant differences were detected in the numbers of inflammatory cells, with the exception of macrophages, which were more numerous in AI-P than AI-N mares. Although inflammatory cells were not detected in IUD mares, increased UF levels may indicate chronic inflammation. Young age and normality of the endometrial blood vessels may improve the efficacy of IUDs. PMID:26661561

  13. [Intrauterine contraception by plastic intrauterine devices (2 personal cases of failure)].

    PubMed

    Notter, A; Moulin, R; Grammont, P

    1968-02-18

    IUDs and tubal sterilization (both defined as types of uterine sterilization suitable for medical indications only) are reviewed, and 2 cases of failure, one with a Lippes loop and one with the Madlener sterilization method are presented. The IUD patient had a Lippes loop inserted in Tunis, then had a normal pregnancy diagnosed 11 months later in France. She delivered a 2780 gm boy prematurely 6 months later. The other patient had a Madlener sterilization performed 11 years before in Germany after 4 caesarean births. She carried the 5th pregnancy to term and received an Irving sterilization. It was concluded that plastic IUDs should be used only where oral contraceptives or tubal sterilization are contraindicated, that the same protocol should be followed as for surgical sterilization, and that the patient and doctor should be alert to the possibility of failure (e.g., expulsion, pregnancy) and the dangers (perforation, occlusion) of the IUD. PMID:5746678

  14. Normal birth weight piglets with impaired preweaning growth utilize alternative metabolic pathways in the liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was designed to determine if normal weight pigs that grow poorly during the pre-weaning period have altered hepatic metabolism, as reported for intrauterine growth retarded pigs. Eight pairs of average birth weight pigs (1.57 +/- 0.05 kg) were identified that diverged in weight by...

  15. Metabolic Programming of MEST DNA Methylation by Intrauterine Exposure to Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    El Hajj, Nady; Pliushch, Galyna; Schneider, Eberhard; Dittrich, Marcus; Müller, Tobias; Korenkov, Michael; Aretz, Melanie; Zechner, Ulrich; Lehnen, Harald; Haaf, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic processes are primary candidates when searching for mechanisms that can stably modulate gene expression and metabolic pathways according to early life conditions. To test the effects of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on the epigenome of the next generation, cord blood and placenta tissue were obtained from 88 newborns of mothers with dietetically treated GDM, 98 with insulin-dependent GDM, and 65 without GDM. Bisulfite pyrosequencing was used to compare the methylation levels of seven imprinted genes involved in prenatal and postnatal growth, four genes involved in energy metabolism, one anti-inflammatory gene, one tumor suppressor gene, one pluripotency gene, and two repetitive DNA families. The maternally imprinted MEST gene, the nonimprinted glucocorticoid receptor NR3C1 gene, and interspersed ALU repeats showed significantly decreased methylation levels (4–7 percentage points for MEST, 1–2 for NR3C1, and one for ALUs) in both GDM groups, compared with controls, in both analyzed tissues. Significantly decreased blood MEST methylation (3 percentage points) also was observed in adults with morbid obesity compared with normal-weight controls. Our results support the idea that intrauterine exposure to GDM has long-lasting effects on the epigenome of the offspring. Specifically, epigenetic malprogramming of MEST may contribute to obesity predisposition throughout life. PMID:23209187

  16. Metabolic programming of MEST DNA methylation by intrauterine exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    El Hajj, Nady; Pliushch, Galyna; Schneider, Eberhard; Dittrich, Marcus; Müller, Tobias; Korenkov, Michael; Aretz, Melanie; Zechner, Ulrich; Lehnen, Harald; Haaf, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Epigenetic processes are primary candidates when searching for mechanisms that can stably modulate gene expression and metabolic pathways according to early life conditions. To test the effects of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on the epigenome of the next generation, cord blood and placenta tissue were obtained from 88 newborns of mothers with dietetically treated GDM, 98 with insulin-dependent GDM, and 65 without GDM. Bisulfite pyrosequencing was used to compare the methylation levels of seven imprinted genes involved in prenatal and postnatal growth, four genes involved in energy metabolism, one anti-inflammatory gene, one tumor suppressor gene, one pluripotency gene, and two repetitive DNA families. The maternally imprinted MEST gene, the nonimprinted glucocorticoid receptor NR3C1 gene, and interspersed ALU repeats showed significantly decreased methylation levels (4-7 percentage points for MEST, 1-2 for NR3C1, and one for ALUs) in both GDM groups, compared with controls, in both analyzed tissues. Significantly decreased blood MEST methylation (3 percentage points) also was observed in adults with morbid obesity compared with normal-weight controls. Our results support the idea that intrauterine exposure to GDM has long-lasting effects on the epigenome of the offspring. Specifically, epigenetic malprogramming of MEST may contribute to obesity predisposition throughout life. PMID:23209187

  17. [Changes in the endometrium of the cow after intrauterine administration of different drugs].

    PubMed

    Schnyder, D; Küpfer, U; Zwahlen, R

    1990-01-01

    32 young and healthy cows each received a single intrauterine treatment with one of the following solutions: Lugol's solution, Vetedine, Lorasol, Lotagen, Aureomycin, and normal saline solution as a control. Endometrial biopsies were taken immediately before application and at days 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 20 and 30 thereafter. On day 1, degenerative and inflammatory reactions could already be observed in all groups, with the exception of the control group. The intensity of the lesions varied, not only between treatment groups but also to a lesser extent between individuals within groups. Degeneration and inflammatory reaction found in the subepithelial stromal tissues were more distinct than those seen in the epithelia. Lorasol caused the most severe degenerative changes, regarding the depth of degeneration into the tissue, as well as the intensity of the inflammatory reaction. Lugol's solution also showed a high degree of change, followed by Lotagen and Vetedine showing moderate change, respectively. Reaction to the antibiotic treatment with Aureomycin was only slight. The regeneration time of these lesions was proportional to the intensity of the induced changes, amounting to 10-15 days for Lorasol and 3-6 days for Aureomycin, respectively. The clinical significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:2218470

  18. Increased aggressive and affiliative display behavior in intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) baboons

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Hillary F; Ford, Susan M; Bartlett, Thad Q; Nathanielsz, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    Background We hypothesized intrauterine growth restricted offspring (IUGR) demonstrate higher rates of aggression and higher dominance ranks than control (CTR) offspring with normal weight at term; if aggressive behavior is advantageous during resource scarcity, developmental programming may lead to an association between aggression and IUGR. Methods We studied 22 group-housed baboons (ages 3-5 years). CTR (male n=8, female n=5) mothers ate ad libitum. IUGR (male n=4, female n=5) mothers were fed 70% feed eaten by CTR mothers during pregnancy and lactation. Results IUGR showed higher rates of aggressive displays (p<0.01) and friendly displays (p<0.02). Dominance ranks and physical aggression rates did not differ between groups. Conclusions High rates of IUGR aggressive display might reflect developmental programming of behavioral phenotypes enhancing fitness. Friendly displays may reflect reconciliation. Potential mechanisms include neurodevelopment and learning. Exploration of IUGR as a risk factor for behavioral patterns is important for developing diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:25891005

  19. Altered Platelet Function in Intrauterine Growth Restriction: A Cause or a Consequence of Uteroplacental Disease?

    PubMed

    Müllers, Sieglinde M; Burke, Naomi; Flood, Karen; Cowman, Jonathan; O'connor, Hugh; Cotter, Brian; Kearney, Morgan; Dempsey, Mark; Dicker, Patrick; Tully, Elizabeth; Geary, Michael P; Kenny, Dermot; Malone, Fergal D

    2016-07-01

    Objective A limited number of platelet function studies in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have yielded conflicting results. We sought to evaluate platelet reactivity in IUGR using a novel platelet aggregation assay. Study Design Pregnancies with IUGR were recruited from 24 weeks' gestation (estimated fetal weight < 10th centile) and had platelet function testing performed after diagnosis. A modification of light transmission aggregometry created dose-response curves of platelet reactivity in response to multiple agonists at differing concentrations. Findings were compared with healthy third trimester controls. IUGR cases with a subsequent normal birth weight were analyzed separately. Results In this study, 33 pregnancies retained their IUGR diagnosis at birth, demonstrating significantly reduced platelet reactivity in response to all agonists (arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, collagen, thrombin receptor-activating peptide, and epinephrine) when compared with 36 healthy pregnancy controls (p < 0.0001). Similar results were obtained for cases demonstrating an increasing in utero growth trajectory. When IUGR preceded preeclampsia or gestational hypertension, platelet function was significantly reduced compared with normotensive IUGR. Conclusion Using this comprehensive platelet assay, we have demonstrated a functional impairment of platelets in IUGR. This may reflect platelet-derived placental growth factor release. Further evaluation of platelet function may aid in the development of future platelet-targeted therapies for uteroplacental disease. PMID:26906182

  20. Quantitative analysis of the mRNA expression levels of BCL2 and BAX genes in human osteoarthritis and normal articular cartilage: An investigation into their differential expression.

    PubMed

    Karaliotas, Georgios I; Mavridis, Konstantinos; Scorilas, Andreas; Babis, George C

    2015-09-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is primarily characterized by articular cartilage degeneration and chondrocyte loss. Although the role of apoptosis in cartilage pathobiology remains to be elucidated, the apoptotic B‑cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) gene family is considered to be involved in OA. The purpose of the present study was to quantitatively analyze the mRNA expression profiles of the BCL2‑associated X protein (BAX) and BCL2 genes in human OA and in normal cartilage. Cartilage tissue samples were obtained from 78 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty for OA (OA group) and orthopedic interventions for causes other than OA (control group). Total RNA was isolated from the cartilage tissue specimens and reverse transcribed into cDNA. A highly sensitive and specific reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay was developed for quantification of the mRNA levels of BAX and BCL2, using beta‑2 microglobulin as an endogenous control for normalization purposes. Gene expression analysis was performed using the comparative Ct (2(‑ΔΔCt)) method. The mRNA expression of BAX presented an increasing trend in the OA group compared with the control group, although without statistically significace (P=0.099). By contrast, the expression ratio of BCL2/BAX was found to be significantly decreased (2.76‑fold) in the OA group compared with the normal cartilage control group (P=0.022). A notable 4.6‑fold overexpression of median mRNA levels of BAX was also observed in patients with stage III OA compared with the control (P=0.034), while the BCL2/BAX ratio was markedly (2.5‑fold) decreased (P=0.024). A marked positive correlation was observed between the mRNA levels of BAX and BCL2 in the control group (r(s)=0.728; P<0.001), which was also present in the OA group, although to a lesser degree (r(s)=0.532; P<0.001). These results further implicate apoptosis in the pathogenesis of OA, through molecular mechanisms, which include the aberrant expression of the

  1. Specific Lipopolysaccharide Serotypes Induce Differential Maternal and Neonatal Inflammatory Responses in a Murine Model of Preterm Labor.

    PubMed

    Migale, Roberta; Herbert, Bronwen R; Lee, Yun S; Sykes, Lynne; Waddington, Simon N; Peebles, Donald; Hagberg, Henrik; Johnson, Mark R; Bennett, Phillip R; MacIntyre, David A

    2015-09-01

    Intrauterine inflammation is recognized as a key mediator of both normal and preterm birth but is also associated with neonatal neurological injury. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is often used to stimulate inflammatory pathways in animal models of infection/inflammation-induced preterm labor; however, inconsistencies in maternal and neonatal responses to LPS are frequently reported. We hypothesized that LPS serotype-specific responses may account for a portion of these inconsistencies. Four different Escherichia coli LPS serotypes (O111:B4, O55:B5, O127:B8, and O128:B12) were administered to CD1 mice via intrauterine injection at gestational day 16. Although control animals delivered at term 60 ± 15 hours postinjection (p.i.), those administered with O111:B4 delivered 7 ± 2 hours p.i., O55:B5 delivered 10 ± 3 hours p.i., O127:B8 delivered 16 ± 10 hours p.i., and O128:B12 delivered 17 ± 2 hours p.i. (means ± SD). A correlation between the onset of preterm labor and myometrial activation of the inflammatory transcription factor, activator protein 1, but not NF-κB was observed. Specific LPS serotypes induced differential activation of downstream contractile and inflammatory pathways in myometrium and neonatal pup brain. Our findings demonstrate functional disparity in inflammatory pathway activation in response to differing LPS serotypes. Selective use of LPS serotypes may represent a useful tool for targeting specific inflammatory response mechanisms in these models. PMID:26212908

  2. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Associated with Hematologic Abnormalities: Probable Manifestations of Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Payo, Cristina; Bernabeu, Rocio Alvarez; Villar, Isabel Salas; Goy, Enrique Iglesias

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is a rare vascular disease associated with intrauterine growth restriction, fetal demise as well as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Some neonates present hematologic abnormalities possibly related to consumptive coagulopathy and hemolytic anemia in the placental circulation. Case report We present a case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia in a fetus with intrauterine growth restriction and cerebellar hemorrhagic injury diagnosed in the 20th week of pregnancy. During 26th week, our patient had an intrauterine fetal demise in the context of gestational hypertension. We have detailed the ultrasound findings that made us suspect the presence of hematologic disorders during 20th week. Discussion We believe that the cerebellar hematoma could be the consequence of thrombocytopenia accompanied by anemia. If hemorrhagic damage during fetal life is found, above all associates with an anomalous placental appearance and with intrauterine growth restriction, PMD should be suspected along other etiologies. PMID:26495159

  3. Protein-DNA array-based identification of transcription factor activities differentially regulated in skeletal muscle of normal and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Charu; Srivastava, Daya Shankar; Kumar, Ashok

    2008-05-01

    Inactivation of dystrophin gene is the primary cause of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in humans and mdx mice. However, the underpinning mechanisms, which govern the pathogenesis of dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle, remain poorly understood. We have previously reported activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), and phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathways in diaphragm muscle of mdx mice. In this study, using a protein-DNA array-based approach, we have investigated the activation of 345 transcription factors in diaphragm muscle of 6-week old normal and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Our data demonstrate increased activation of a number nuclear transcription factors including AP1, HFH-3, PPARalpha, c.myb BP, ETF, Fra-1/JUN, kBF-A, N-rasBP, lactoferrin BP, Myb(2), EBP40_45, EKLF(1), p53(2), TFEB, Myc-Max; c-Rel; E2, ISRE; NF-kB; Stat1 p84/p91, Antioxidant RE, EVI-1, Stat3, AP3, p53, Stat4, AP4, HFH-1, FAST-1, Pax-5, and Beta-RE in the diaphragm muscle of mdx mice compared to corresponding normal mice. The level of activation for p53 was highest among all the transcription factors studied. Furthermore, higher activation of p53 in diaphragm muscle of mdx mice was associated with its increased phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Collectively, our data suggest that the primary deficiency of dystrophin leads to the aberrant activation of nuclear transcription factors which might further contribute to muscle pathogenesis in mdx mice. PMID:18278580

  4. Differential hypoxic regulation of the microRNA-146a/CXCR4 pathway in normal and leukemic monocytic cells: impact on response to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Spinello, Isabella; Quaranta, Maria Teresa; Paolillo, Rosa; Pelosi, Elvira; Cerio, Anna Maria; Saulle, Ernestina; Coco, Francesco Lo; Testa, Ugo; Labbaye, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    High expression of the chemokine receptor 4, CXCR4, associated with a negative prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia, is related to hypoxia. Because CXCR4 expression is under the post-transcriptional control of microRNA-146a in normal and leukemic monocytic cells, we first investigated the impact of hypoxia on microRNA-146a and CXCR4 expression during monocytopoiesis and in acute monocytic leukemia. We then analyzed the effects of hypoxia on drug sensitivity of CXCR4-expressing leukemic cells. We found that microRNA-146a is a target of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α or -2α in relation to the stage of monocytopoiesis and the level of hypoxia, and demonstrated the regulation of the microRNA-146a/CXCR4 pathway by hypoxia in monocytes derived from CD34+ cells. Thus, in myeloid leukemic cell lines, hypoxia-mediated control of the microRNA-146a/CXCR4 pathway depends only on the capacity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α to up-regulate microRNA-146a, which in turn decreases CXCR4 expression. However, at variance with normal monocytic cells and leukemic cell lines, in acute monocytic leukemia overexpressing CXCR4, hypoxia up-modulates microRNA-146a but fails to down-modulate CXCR4 expression. We then investigated the effect of hypoxia on the response of leukemic cells to chemotherapy alone or in combination with stromal-derived factor-1α. We found that hypoxia increases stromal-derived factor-1α-induced survival of leukemic cells by decreasing their sensitivity to anti-leukemic drugs. Altogether, our results demonstrate that hypoxia-mediated regulation of microRNA-146a, which controls CXCR4 expression in monocytic cells, is lost in acute monocytic leukemia, thus contributing to maintaining CXCR4 overexpression and protecting the cells from anti-leukemic drugs in the hypoxic bone marrow microenvironment. PMID:26045293

  5. Production of active oxygen species by blood phagocytes of pregnant women and their newborns with intrauterine infection.

    PubMed

    Safronova, V G; Matveeva, N K; Lomova, N A; Belyaeva, A S; Vanko, L V

    2013-09-01

    We studied the relationship between changes in the maternal and newborn granulocyte functions under conditions of infection risk and realization. Women with normal gestation and their healthy newborns, pregnant women with a high risk of infection and their newborns, healthy or with intrauterine infection, were examined. Changes in the active oxygen species-dependent phagocytosis system were found in the blood of risk group patients. An inverse relationship between the parameters venous and umbilical cord blood was detected indicating a relationship between changes in functional activities of maternal and newborn granulocytes. The percentage of CD11b(+)cells in venous and umbilical cord blood strictly correlated with the percent of cells that phagocytosed FITC-labeled E. coli. Deviations in the generation of active oxygen species in phagocytosis seemed to be related to the expression of surface receptors in the risk groups. PMID:24288724

  6. Differential binding of fibroblast growth factor-2 and -7 to basement membrane heparan sulfate: comparison of normal and abnormal human tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Friedl, A.; Chang, Z.; Tierney, A.; Rapraeger, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play multiple roles during development and in adult tissues as paracrine regulators of growth and differentiation. FGFs signal through transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases, but heparan sulfate is also required for signaling by members of the FGF family. In addition, heparan sulfate may be involved in determining tissue distribution of FGFs. Using biotinylated FGF-2 and FGF-7 (KGF) as probes, we have identified specific interactions between FGFs and heparan sulfates in human tissues. Both FGF species bind to tissue mast cells and to epithelial cell membranes. Binding to basement membrane heparan sulfate is tissue source dependent and specific. Although FGF-2 strongly binds to basement membrane heparan sulfate in skin and most other tissue sites examined, FGF-7 fails to bind to basement membrane heparan sulfate in most locations. However, in subendothelial matrix in blood vessels and in the basement membrane of a papillary renal cell carcinoma, strong FGF-7 binding is seen. In summary, distinct and specific affinities of heparan sulfates for different FGFs were identified that may affect growth factor activation and local distribution. Heparan sulfate may have a gatekeeper function to either restrict or permit diffusion of heparin-binding growth factors across the basement membrane. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9094999

  7. Intrauterine growth restricted piglets defined by their head shape ingest insufficient amounts of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Amdi, C; Krogh, U; Flummer, C; Oksbjerg, N; Hansen, C F; Theil, P K

    2013-12-01

    The increasing litter sizes of modern pig breeds have led to a significant number of piglets that are born undersized ("small" piglets) and some have been exposed to different degrees of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The aim of this study was to investigate the physiology and capability to ingest colostrum of these small piglets, suffering from various degrees of IUGR, to see if their IUGR score could be a useful tool for easy identification of piglets in need of intervention in the colostrum period. Piglets were classified at birth based on head morphology. Piglets were classified either "normal," "mildly IUGR" (m-IUGR), or "severe IUGR" (s-IUGR), based on head morphology. Blood samples were collected at birth and at 24 h, and colostrum intake during two 12-h periods and blood metabolites at 0 and 24 h were measured. At 24 h, piglets weighing <900 g at birth and the median piglet in birth order were sacrificed, and organ weights and hepatic glycogen were measured. Overall, there was an influence of the piglets' classification on most characteristics, with normal piglets having a greater colostrum intake between 0 and 12 h (P < 0.001) and between 12 and 24 h (P < 0.05), and higher birth weight, crown rump length, body mass index, and ponderal index (P < 0.001), and a tendency toward a higher vitality score (P < 0.069) than s-IUGR piglets. There was a time × IUGR interaction, with plasma glucose levels being lowered (P < 0.001) and lactate levels elevated (P < 0.001) in s-IUGR piglets at 24 h compared with normal and m-IUGR piglets. Some differences were found in electrolytes; sodium plasma concentrations were greatest for normal piglets (P < 0.05) and highest at 0 h (P < 0.05). At 24 h of age, s-IUGR piglets had a higher heart (P < 0.001) and brain percentage (P < 0.001), and a lower liver percentage (P < 0.001) relative to body weight, compared with normal piglets. In addition, s-IUGR piglets had less hepatic glycogen than m-IUGR piglets and normal

  8. An intrauterine catch-up growth regimen increases food intake and post-natal growth in rats.

    PubMed

    Baik, M; Rajasekar, P; Lee, M S; Kim, J; Kwon, D-H; Kang, W; Nguyen, T H; Vu, T-T T

    2014-12-01

    Nutritional conditions during the intrauterine stage are an important developmental programming factor that can affect the growth and metabolic status during foetal development and permanently alter the phenotypes of newborn offspring and adults. This study was performed to examine the effects of intrauterine catch-up growth (IUCG) on food intake, post-natal body growth and the metabolic status of offspring and growing rats. Control pregnant rats were fed ad libitum during the entire gestation period. For the IUCG regimen, pregnant rats were fed 50% of the food of the controls from pregnancy days 4 through 11 (8 days), followed by ad libitum feeding from pregnancy days 12 through parturition. The birth weight of offspring was not affected by the IUCG regimen. At weaning, offspring from each treatment group were assigned to two groups and given either a normal diet or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks until 103 days of age. In the normal diet group, the IUCG offspring showed a 9.0% increase (P < 0.05) in total food intake, were 11.2% heavier (p < 0.05) at 103 days of age and had an 11.0% greater (p < 0.05) daily weight gain compared with control offspring. The IUCG regimen did not affect body glucose and lipid metabolism. After exposure to the HFD, the IUCG regimen has not exacerbated metabolic disorders. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the IUCG nutritional regimen during pregnancy can increase the food intake and post-natal body growth of offspring without inducing metabolic disorders such as obesity and insulin resistance. The IUCG nutritional regimen might be used to improve the food intake and post-natal body growth of domestic animals. PMID:24495271

  9. Differential effects of L-propionylcarnitine on the electrical and mechanical properties of guinea pig ventricular muscle in normal and acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Aomine, M; Arita, M

    1987-11-01

    We studied the effects of L-propionylcarnitine (PC) on transmembrane action potentials and isometric contractile tension in isolated guinea pig ventricular papillary muscles. The effects of 5 concentrations of PC (10(-5), 10(-4), 10(-3), 10(-2) and 3 X 10(-2)M) were examined in both normal (pH 7.4) and acidic (pH 6.9) conditions. The concentrations of 10(-5) to 10(-2)M had no significant effect on action potential amplitude, maximum upstroke velocity of phase 0 and resting potential, in either condition. At pH 7.4, action potential duration (ADP) was significantly (P less than 0.05) or insignificantly shortened by the drug depending upon the concentration used. At pH 6.9, however, the APD was prolonged by moderate PC concentrations (10(-3) and 10(-2)M), in which the effective refractory period (ERP) was also lengthened, associated with an increased ERP/APD ratio. In both pH conditions, the highest concentration (3 X 10(-2)M) significantly (P less than 0.05) decreased all these action potential parameters. PC had a biphasic effect on the developed tension. In both pH conditions, low PC concentrations (10(-5) to 10(-3)M) produced an initial augmentation of the contraction, followed by subsequent reduction. The initial augmentation disappeared by pretreatment with reserpine or propranolol, suggesting the involvement of beta-adrenoceptors. In the steady state, all PC concentrations produced a negative inotropic effect at pH 7.4, while at pH 6.9 only high concentrations (10(-2)M and 3 X 10(-2)M) had this effect. These results suggest that the effects of PC in an acidic condition differ considerably from those in a normal pH condition and that limited concentrations of PC (10(-3) to 10(-2)M) may prevent re-entrant arrhythmias from developing under acidic conditions via lengthening of the ERP, without deleterious effects on the contractile force. PMID:3430099

  10. Genetic heterogeneity of prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation: clues from the Old Order Amish.

    PubMed

    Khoury, M J; Cohen, B H

    1987-08-01

    We studied differences in the role of genetic factors in prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation with the use of data on 312 Amish singleton live children ascertained from Amish records in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, between 1969 and 1980. Birth and death certificates were obtained on all children, and inbreeding coefficients of child, mother, and father were computed by use of the path method of tracing common ancestors in a unique genealogic registry of Amish ancestors dating back to the 1700s. Multivariate analysis with linear and log linear models showed that a lower mean gestational age and a higher risk of prematurity (less than 37 weeks) and borderline maturity (37 to 38 weeks) were significantly associated with increased maternal inbreeding but not child or paternal inbreeding. On the other hand, a higher risk of intrauterine growth retardation (less than the tenth percentile in birth weight for gestational age) and mild intrauterine growth delay (tenth to twenty-fifth percentile) were associated with increased child inbreeding but not maternal or paternal inbreeding. The analysis suggests the presence of genetic heterogeneity in the etiology of prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation; while prematurity is mostly related to the maternal genotype, intrauterine growth retardation is related to the fetal genotype. The study reemphasizes the need for separating low birth weight into prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation in genetic and epidemiologic studies. PMID:3618690

  11. The effect of intrauterine HCG injection on IVF outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Osman, A; Pundir, J; Elsherbini, M; Dave, S; El-Toukhy, T; Khalaf, Y

    2016-09-01

    In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the effect of intrauterine HCG infusion before embryo transfer on IVF outcomes (live birth rate, clinical pregnancy rate and spontaneous aboretion rate) was investigated. Searches were conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. Randomized studies in women undergoing IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection comparing intrauterine HCG administration at embryo transfer compared with no intrauterine HCG were eligible for inclusion. Eight randomized controlled trials were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. A total of 3087 women undergoing IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were enrolled (intrauterine HCG group: n = 1614; control group: n = 1473). No significant difference was found in the live birth rate (RR 1.13; 95% CI 0.84 to 1.53) and spontaneous abortion rate (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.34) between women who received intrauterine HCG and those who did not receive HCG. Although this review was extensive and included randomized controlled trials, no significant heterogeneity was found, and the overall included numbers are relatively small. In conclusion the current evidence does not support the use of intrauterine HCG administration before embryo transfer. Well-designed multicentre trials are needed to provide robust evidence. PMID:27317131

  12. Intrauterine contraception in Saint Louis: A Survey of Obstetrician and Gynecologists’ knowledge and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Tessa; Allsworth, Jenifer E.; Hladky, Katherine J.; Secura, Gina M.; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Many obstacles to intrauterine contraception use exist, including provider and patient misinformation, high upfront cost, and clinician practice patterns. The aim of our study was to investigate knowledge and attitudes about intrauterine contraception among obstetricians and gynecologists in the area of Saint Louis. Study Design We mailed a self-administered, anonymous survey to 250 clinicians who provide obstetric and gynecologic care in Saint Louis City and County which included questions about demographics, training, family planning visits, and intrauterine contraceptive knowledge and use. Results The overall survey response rate among eligible clinicians was 73.7%. Clinicians who had recently finished training or saw higher numbers of contraceptive patients per week were more likely to insert intrauterine contraception than clinicians who completed training prior to 1989 or saw fewer contraceptive patients. Several misconceptions among clinicians were identified, including an association between intrauterine contraceptives and an elevated risk of pelvic inflammatory disease. Conclusions Physician misconceptions about the risks of intrauterine contraception continue to occur. Improved clinician education is greatly needed to facilitate the use of these highly effective, long-acting, reversible methods of contraception. PMID:20103447

  13. High sodium intake increases blood pressure and alters renal function in intrauterine growth-retarded rats.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Marijke W; Fazzi, Gregorio E; Janssen, Ger M J; Blanco, Carlos E; De Mey, Jo G R

    2005-07-01

    A suboptimal fetal environment increases the risk to develop cardiovascular disease in the adult. We reported previously that intrauterine stress in response to reduced uteroplacental blood flow in the pregnant rat limits fetal growth and compromises renal development, leading to an altered renal function in the adult offspring. Here we tested the hypothesis that high dietary sodium intake in rats with impaired renal development attributable to intrauterine stress, results in increased blood pressure, altered renal function, and organ damage. In rats, intrauterine stress was induced by bilateral ligation of the uterine arteries at day 17 of pregnancy. At the age of 12 weeks, the offspring was given high-sodium drinking water (2% sodium chloride). At the age of 16 weeks, rats were instrumented for monitoring of blood pressure and renal function. After intrauterine stress, litter size and birth weight were reduced, whereas hematocrit at birth was increased. Renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, and the glomerular filtration fraction were increased significantly after intrauterine stress. High sodium intake did not change renal function and blood pressure in control animals. However, during high sodium intake in intrauterine stress offspring, renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, and the filtration fraction were decreased, and blood pressure was increased. In addition, these animals developed severe albuminuria, an important sign of renal dysfunction. Thus, a suboptimal fetal microenvironment, which impairs renal development, results in sodium-dependent hypertension and albuminuria. PMID:15956110

  14. A Report of Three Cases and Review of Intrauterine Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Lucila; Levy, Moise L.; Munoz, Flor M.; Palazzi, Debra L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Intrauterine herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection often is omitted from descriptions of neonatal HSV disease. Previous characterizations of intrauterine HSV infection limit manifestations to the triad of cutaneous, central nervous system (CNS), and ophthalmologic findings. We report 3 cases of intrauterine HSV infection and provide a contemporary literature review of this disease. Methods Cases published between 1963 and January 2009 were identified. Selected cases fit the clinical description of intrauterine HSV infection, had manifestations present at birth, and had virologic confirmation of infection. Results This review yielded 64 cases, 3 of which were our own, of intrauterine HSV infection. Less than one-third fit the typical triad. Of the patients with cutaneous findings at birth, 24 (44%) had manifestations other than vesicles or bullae. Confirmation of HSV infection by culture of cutaneous lesions present at birth was delayed beyond 72 hours after birth in 15 patients and occurred at a median of 10 days of age. Nine of these patients had lesions at birth that were neither vesicles nor bullae, and 14 cases were confirmed by culture of new vesicles. Conclusions More than two-thirds of reported cases do not present with the typical triad. Cutaneous findings are not limited to vesicles or bullae. A high index of suspicion and recognition of varied cutaneous manifestations is necessary to diagnose infants with intrauterine HSV infection. PMID:20811312

  15. Microelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for the Differentiation between Normal and Cancerous Human Urothelial Cell Lines: Real-Time Electrical Impedance Measurement at an Optimal Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yangkyu; Kim, Hyeon Woo; Yun, Joho; Seo, Seungwan; Park, Chang-Ju; Lee, Jeong Zoo; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To distinguish between normal (SV-HUC-1) and cancerous (TCCSUP) human urothelial cell lines using microelectrical impedance spectroscopy (μEIS). Materials and Methods. Two types of μEIS devices were designed and used in combination to measure the impedance of SV-HUC-1 and TCCSUP cells flowing through the channels of the devices. The first device (μEIS-OF) was designed to determine the optimal frequency at which the impedance of two cell lines is most distinguishable. The μEIS-OF trapped the flowing cells and measured their impedance at a frequency ranging from 5 kHz to 1 MHz. The second device (μEIS-RT) was designed for real-time impedance measurement of the cells at the optimal frequency. The impedance was measured instantaneously as the cells passed the sensing electrodes of μEIS-RT. Results. The optimal frequency, which maximized the average difference of the amplitude and phase angle between the two cell lines (p < 0.001), was determined to be 119 kHz. The real-time impedance of the cell lines was measured at 119 kHz; the two cell lines differed significantly in terms of amplitude and phase angle (p < 0.001). Conclusion. The μEIS-RT can discriminate SV-HUC-1 and TCCSUP cells by measuring the impedance at the optimal frequency determined by the μEIS-OF. PMID:26998490

  16. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Human Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cultured on Normal Tissue Culture Surface and Hyaluronan-Coated Surface

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Tzyy Yue; Chen, Ying-Hui; Liu, Szu-Heng; Solis, Mairim Alexandra; Yu, Chen-Hsiang; Chang, Chiung-Hsin; Huang, Lynn L. H.

    2016-01-01

    Our previous results showed that hyaluronan (HA) preserved human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PDMSC) in a slow cell cycling mode similar to quiescence, the pristine state of stem cells in vivo, and HA was found to prevent murine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells from senescence. Here, stable isotope labeling by amino acid in cell culture (SILAC) proteomic profiling was used to evaluate the effects of HA on aging phenomenon in stem cells, comparing (1) old and young passage PDMSC cultured on normal tissue culture surface (TCS); (2) old passage on HA-coated surface (CHA) compared to TCS; (3) old and young passage on CHA. The results indicated that senescence-associated protein transgelin (TAGLN) was upregulated in old TCS. Protein CYR61, reportedly senescence-related, was downregulated in old CHA compared to old TCS. The SIRT1-interacting Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) increased by 2.23-fold in old CHA compared to old TCS, and is 0.48-fold lower in old TCS compared to young TCS. Results also indicated that components of endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD) pathway were upregulated in old CHA compared to old TCS cells, potentially for overcoming stress to maintain cell function and suppress senescence. Our data points to pathways that may be targeted by HA to maintain stem cells youth. PMID:27057169

  17. The 2010 Russian Drought Impact on Satellite Measurements of Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence: Insights from Modeling and Comparisons with the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Joiner, J.; Tucker, C.; Berry, J.; Lee, J. -E.; Walker, G.; Reichle, R.; Koster, R.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We examine satellite-based measurements of chlorophyll solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) over the region impacted by the Russian drought and heat wave of 2010. Like the popular Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) that has been used for decades to measure photosynthetic capacity, SIF measurements are sensitive to the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically-active radiation (fPAR). However, in addition, SIF is sensitive to the fluorescence yield that is related to the photosynthetic yield. Both SIF and NDVI from satellite data show drought-related declines early in the growing season in 2010 as compared to other years between 2007 and 2013 for areas dominated by crops and grasslands. This suggests an early manifestation of the dry conditions on fPAR. We also simulated SIF using a global land surface model driven by observation-based meteorological fields. The model provides a reasonable simulation of the drought and heat impacts on SIF in terms of the timing and spatial extents of anomalies, but there are some differences between modeled and observed SIF. The model may potentially be improved through data assimilation or parameter estimation using satellite observations of SIF (as well as NDVI). The model simulations also offer the opportunity to examine separately the different components of the SIF signal and relationships with Gross Primary Productivity (GPP).

  18. Three-dimensional cultures of normal human osteoblasts: proliferation and differentiation potential in vitro and upon ectopic implantation in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, D; Poggi, S; Biassoni, C; Dickson, G R; Astigiano, S; Barbieri, O; Favre, A; Franzi, A T; Strangio, A; Federici, A; Manduca, P

    2002-05-01

    We report the establishment in vitro of three-dimensional (3D) cultures of human osteoblasts (hOB) derived from normal adults and supported uniquely by the extracellular matrix (ECM) they deposit. Osteoblasts were cultured in 3D cultures in vitro for up to 120 days. The 3D cultures, examined at 25, 31, and 48 days, expressed protein markers of osteoblastic cells, namely osteonectin, collagen type I, fibronectin, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, biglycan, and decorin. Sequentially, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and then Ca incorporation, mineralization of matrix (monitored by histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy), and finally osteocalcin expression, were detected in the 3D cultures. Ultrastructurally, morphology progressed from early to mature osteoblast and to osteocyte-like. Cells were embedded in a matrix with organized collagen type I fibers containing, increasingly with time of culture, needle-shaped crystals, often associated with matrix vesicles, characteristic of those in bone. During the culture (up to 120 days) there was an outgrowth of proliferating osteogenic cells from the 3D structure. Subcutaneous implantation in nude mice for 20 days of osteoblasts cultured in 3D culture for different lengths of time in vitro, showed progression of mineralization from the inner region of the implant outward, with peripheral cells being embedded in nonmineralized, collagen-rich matrix. The 3D implants were invaded by vessels derived from the host. PMID:11996910

  19. Developmental regulation of collagenase-3 mRNA in normal, differentiating osteoblasts through the activator protein-1 and the runt domain binding sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winchester, S. K.; Selvamurugan, N.; D'Alonzo, R. C.; Partridge, N. C.

    2000-01-01

    Collagenase-3 mRNA is initially detectable when osteoblasts cease proliferation, increasing during differentiation and mineralization. We showed that this developmental expression is due to an increase in collagenase-3 gene transcription. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site decreased collagenase-3 promoter activity, demonstrating that these sites are responsible for collagenase-3 gene transcription. The activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites bind members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor family of transcription factors, respectively. We identified core-binding factor a1 binding to the runt domain binding site and JunD in addition to a Fos-related antigen binding to the activator protein-1 site. Overexpression of both c-Fos and c-Jun in osteoblasts or core-binding factor a1 increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Furthermore, overexpression of c-Fos, c-Jun, and core-binding factor a1 synergistically increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site resulted in the inability of c-Fos and c-Jun or core-binding factor a1 to increase collagenase-3 promoter activity, suggesting that there is cooperative interaction between the sites and the proteins. Overexpression of Fra-2 and JunD repressed core-binding factor a1-induced collagenase-3 promoter activity. Our results suggest that members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor families, binding to the activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites are responsible for the developmental regulation of collagenase-3 gene expression in osteoblasts.

  20. Postnatal Anthropometric and Body Composition Profiles in Infants with Intrauterine Growth Restriction Identified by Prenatal Doppler

    PubMed Central

    Mazarico, E.; Martinez-Cumplido, R.; Díaz, M.; Sebastiani, G.; Ibáñez, L.; Gómez-Roig, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infant anthropometry and body composition have been previously assessed to gauge the impact of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at birth, but the interplay between prenatal Doppler measurements and postnatal development has not been studied in this setting. The present investigation was performed to assess the significance of prenatal Doppler findings relative to postnatal anthropometrics and body composition in IUGR newborns over the first 12 months of life. Patients and Methods Consecutive cases of singleton pregnancies with suspected IUGR were prospectively enrolled over 12 months. Fetal biometry and prenatal Doppler ultrasound examinations were performed. Body composition was assessed by absorptiometry at ages 10 days, and at 4 and12 months. Results A total of 48 pregnancies qualifying as IUGR were studied. Doppler parameters were normal in 26 pregnancies. The remaining 22 deviated from normal, marked by an Umbilical Artery Pulsatility Index (UA-PI) >95th centil or Cerebro-placental ratio (CPR) <5th centile. No significant differences emerged when comparing anthropometry and body composition at each time point, in relation to Doppler findings. Specifically, those IUGR newborns with and without abnormal Doppler findings had similar weight, length, body mass index, lean and fat mass, and bone mineral content throughout the first 12 months of life. In a separate analysis, when comparing IUGR newborns by Doppler (abnormal UA-PI vs. abnormal CPR), anthropometry and body composition did not differ significantly. Conclusions Infants with IUGR maintain a pattern of body composition during the first year of life that is independent of prenatal Doppler findings. Future studies with larger sample sizes and correlating with hormonal status are warranted to further extend the phenotypic characterization of the various conditions now classified under the common label of IUGR. PMID:26938993

  1. Mechanisms behind intrauterine device-induced luteal persistence in mares.

    PubMed

    Rivera Del Alamo, M M; Reilas, T; Kindahl, H; Katila, T

    2008-08-01

    Intrauterine glass balls are used to prevent oestrous signs in sports mares, but the mechanism of action is unknown. It has been suggested that the glass ball can mimic an embryo or act via an induced chronic uterine inflammation and absent or continuous low-grade prostaglandin (PG) release. The purpose of this study was to induce prolonged luteal function in mares using a small intrauterine device (IUD) and to study the mechanisms behind prolonged IUD-induced luteal function. A uterine swab and a biopsy specimen were obtained in early oestrus. A water-filled plastic ball, diameter 20mm and weight 3.6g, was inserted into the uterus 2-4 days after ovulation; the control mares underwent similar cervical manipulation without ball insertion. The mares were examined three times per week until day 23 and twice weekly thereafter until they returned to oestrus (transrectal palpation, ultrasonography and progesterone determination). The location of the IUD was recorded and ultrasound scans were video-recorded to assess the frequency of uterine contractions. When the mare returned to oestrus, a uterine swab and biopsy specimen were obtained and the bacteriological, cytological and histological (inflammation and glandular dilation) results compared with the samples obtained before the IUD insertion. The PG F(2alpha) metabolite levels were measured in the plasma of four control mares and eight IUD mares on days 11-16. The IUD induced a prolonged luteal phase in 75% of the mares (9/12; IUD-P); the mean dioestrous length was 57.0 days. The three mares that did not respond to the IUD (IUD-N) showed a mean dioestrous length of 15.7 days and the 12 control mares 16.1 days. The inflammation and glandular dilation scores were not significantly different in pre- and post-manipulation biopsy specimens. Although locational changes of the IUD were observed, they occurred over very small distances and were mostly limited within the body-bifurcation area. The IUD-N and control mares showed

  2. Data Mining of Determinants of Intrauterine Growth Retardation Revisited Using Novel Algorithms Generating Semantic Maps and Prototypical Discriminating Variable Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Buscema, Massimo; Grossi, Enzo; Montanini, Luisa; Street, Maria E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intra-uterine growth retardation is often of unknown origin, and is of great interest as a “Fetal Origin of Adult Disease” has been now well recognized. We built a benchmark based upon a previously analysed data set related to Intrauterine Growth Retardation with 46 subjects described by 14 variables, related with the insulin-like growth factor system and pro-inflammatory cytokines, namely interleukin -6 and tumor necrosis factor -α. Design and Methods We used new algorithms for optimal information sorting based on the combination of two neural network algorithms: Auto-contractive Map and Activation and Competition System. Auto-Contractive Map spatializes the relationships among variables or records by constructing a suitable embedding space where ‘closeness’ among variables or records reflects accurately their associations. The Activation and Competition System algorithm instead works as a dynamic non linear associative memory on the weight matrices of other algorithms, and is able to produce a prototypical variable profile of a given target. Results Classical statistical analysis, proved to be unable to distinguish intrauterine growth retardation from appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) subjects due to the high non-linearity of underlying functions. Auto-contractive map succeeded in clustering and differentiating completely the conditions under study, while Activation and Competition System allowed to develop the profile of variables which discriminated the two conditions under study better than any other previous form of attempt. In particular, Activation and Competition System showed that ppropriateness for gestational age was explained by IGF-2 relative gene expression, and by IGFBP-2 and TNF-α placental contents. IUGR instead was explained by IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IL-6 gene expression in placenta. Conclusion This further analysis provided further insight into the placental key-players of fetal growth within the insulin-like growth

  3. Differential Superiority of Heavy Charged-Particle Irradiation to X-Rays: Studies on Biological Effectiveness and Side Effect Mechanisms in Multicellular Tumor and Normal Tissue Models.

    PubMed

    Walenta, Stefan; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This review is focused on the radiobiology of carbon ions compared to X-rays using multicellular models of tumors and normal mucosa. The first part summarizes basic radiobiological effects, as observed in cancer cells. The second, more clinically oriented part of the review, deals with radiation-induced cell migration and mucositis. Multicellular spheroids from V79 hamster cells were irradiated with X-rays or carbon ions under ambient or restricted oxygen supply conditions. Reliable oxygen enhancement ratios could be derived to be 2.9, 2.8, and 1.4 for irradiation with photons, (12)C(+6) in the plateau region, and (12)C(+6) in the Bragg peak, respectively. Similarly, a relative biological effectiveness of 4.3 and 2.1 for ambient pO2 and hypoxia was obtained, respectively. The high effectiveness of carbon ions was reflected by an enhanced accumulation of cells in G2/M and a dose-dependent massive induction of apoptosis. These data clearly show that heavy charged particles are more efficient in sterilizing tumor cells than conventional irradiation even under hypoxic conditions. Clinically relevant doses (3 Gy) of X-rays induced an increase in migratory activity of U87 but not of LN229 or HCT116 tumor cells. Such an increase in cell motility following irradiation in situ could be the source of recurrence. In contrast, carbon ion treatment was associated with a dose-dependent decrease in migration with all cell lines and under all conditions investigated. The radiation-induced loss of cell motility was correlated, in most cases, with corresponding changes in β1 integrin expression. The photon-induced increase in cell migration was paralleled by an elevated phosphorylation status of the epidermal growth factor receptor and AKT-ERK1/2 pathway. Such a hyperphosphorylation did not occur during (12)C(+6) irradiation under all conditions registered. Comparing the gene toxicity of X-rays with that of particles using the γH2AX technique in organotypic cultures of the oral

  4. Differential Superiority of Heavy Charged-Particle Irradiation to X-Rays: Studies on Biological Effectiveness and Side Effect Mechanisms in Multicellular Tumor and Normal Tissue Models

    PubMed Central

    Walenta, Stefan; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This review is focused on the radiobiology of carbon ions compared to X-rays using multicellular models of tumors and normal mucosa. The first part summarizes basic radiobiological effects, as observed in cancer cells. The second, more clinically oriented part of the review, deals with radiation-induced cell migration and mucositis. Multicellular spheroids from V79 hamster cells were irradiated with X-rays or carbon ions under ambient or restricted oxygen supply conditions. Reliable oxygen enhancement ratios could be derived to be 2.9, 2.8, and 1.4 for irradiation with photons, 12C+6 in the plateau region, and 12C+6 in the Bragg peak, respectively. Similarly, a relative biological effectiveness of 4.3 and 2.1 for ambient pO2 and hypoxia was obtained, respectively. The high effectiveness of carbon ions was reflected by an enhanced accumulation of cells in G2/M and a dose-dependent massive induction of apoptosis. These data clearly show that heavy charged particles are more efficient in sterilizing tumor cells than conventional irradiation even under hypoxic conditions. Clinically relevant doses (3 Gy) of X-rays induced an increase in migratory activity of U87 but not of LN229 or HCT116 tumor cells. Such an increase in cell motility following irradiation in situ could be the source of recurrence. In contrast, carbon ion treatment was associated with a dose-dependent decrease in migration with all cell lines and under all conditions investigated. The radiation-induced loss of cell motility was correlated, in most cases, with corresponding changes in β1 integrin expression. The photon-induced increase in cell migration was paralleled by an elevated phosphorylation status of the epidermal growth factor receptor and AKT-ERK1/2 pathway. Such a hyperphosphorylation did not occur during 12C+6 irradiation under all conditions registered. Comparing the gene toxicity of X-rays with that of particles using the γH2AX technique in organotypic cultures of the oral mucosa, the

  5. Prospective risk of intrauterine fetal death in monoamniotic twin pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Mamoru; Yamada, Takashi; Yamada, Takahiro; Sato, Shoji; Minakami, Hisanori

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted to review the overall short-term outcome of monoamniotic twins in Japan and to determine the prospective risk of fetal death so as to adequately counsel parents with monoamniotic twins. Study subjects were 101 women with monoamniotic twins who were registered with the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology Successive Pregnancy Birth Registry System and who had given birth at ≥22 weeks of gestation during 2002-2009. The gestational week at delivery (mean±SD) was 31.8±3.7. Fourteen women experienced intrauterine fetal death (IUFD). Short-term outcomes of co-twins born to the 14 women included 8 IUFDs, one early neonatal death within 7 days of life (END), and 5 survivors. Four other women experienced 5 ENDs. Thus, 13.9% (28/202) of infants died perinatally (22 IUFDs and 6 ENDs), 13.9% (14/101) of women experienced IUFD, and 82.2% (83/101) of women experienced neither IUFD nor END. Structural anomalies and twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome explained 17.9% (five infants) and 10.7% (three infants) of the 28 perinatal deaths, respectively. The prospective risk of IUFD was 13.9% (14/101) for women who reached gestational week 22(-0/7), gradually decreasing thereafter but remaining at between 4.5% and 8.0% between gestational week 30(-0/7) and 36(-0/7). PMID:22853819

  6. [Placental epigenetic programming in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)].

    PubMed

    Casanello, Paola; Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Uauy, Ricardo; Krause, Bernardo J

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a perinatal condition affecting foetal growth, with under the 10th percentile of the weight curve expected for gestational age. This condition has been associated with higher cardiovascular and metabolic risk and post-natal obesity. There are also major changes in placental function, and particularly in a key molecule in this regulation, nitric oxide. The synthesis of nitric oxide has numerous control mechanisms and competition with arginase for their common substrate, the amino acid L-arginine. This competition is reflected in various vascular diseases and particularly in the endothelium of the umbilical vessels of babies with IUGR. Along with this, there is regulation at the epigenetic level, where methylation in specific regions of some gene promoters, such as the nitric oxide synthase, regulating their expression. It is currently of great interest to understand the mechanisms by which diseases such as IUGR may be conditioned, particularly by maternal nutritional and metabolic conditions, and epigenetic mechanisms that could eventually be modifiable, and thus a focus of interest for health interventions. PMID:27209119

  7. Role of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system in effective contraception

    PubMed Central

    Attia, Abdelhamid M; Ibrahim, Magdy M; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M

    2013-01-01

    Norgestrel, a synthetic progestin chemically derived from 19-nortestosterone, is six times more potent than progesterone, with variable binding affinity to various steroid receptors. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG IUS) provides a long-acting, highly effective, and reversible form of contraception, with a pearl index of 0.18 per 100 women-years. The locally released hormone leads to endometrial concentrations that are 200–800 times those found after daily oral use and a plasma level that is lower than that with other forms of levonorgestrel-containing contraception. The contraceptive effect of the LNG IUS is achieved mainly through its local suppressive effect on the endometrium, leading to endometrial thinning, glandular atrophy, and stromal decidualization without affecting ovulation. The LNG IUS is generally well tolerated. The main side effects are related to its androgenic activity, which is usually mild and transient, resolving after the first few months. Menstrual abnormalities are also common but well tolerated, and even become desirable (eg, amenorrhea, hypomenorrhea, and oligomenorrhea) with proper counseling of the patient during the choice of the method of contraception. The satisfaction rates after 3 years of insertion are high, reaching between 77% and 94%. The local effect of the LNG IUS on the endometrium and low rates of systemic adverse effects have led to its use in other conditions rather than contraception, as for the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia, benign menorrhagia, endometriosis, adenomyosis, and uterine fibroids. PMID:23990713

  8. Variation in guideline adherence in intrauterine insemination care.

    PubMed

    Haagen, Esther C; Nelen, Willianne L D M; Grol, Richard P T M; Braat, Didi D M; Hermens, Rosella P M G; Kremer, Jan A M

    2010-04-01

    Health-care delivery according to clinical practice guidelines is thought to be critical in achieving optimal outcomes. This study aimed to assess the extent to which practice performance in intrauterine insemination (IUI) care is consistent with guideline recommendations and to evaluate the association between guideline adherence and outcome of IUI care. In a retrospective cohort study, 1100 infertile couples who underwent IUI treatment at 10 Dutch hospitals were asked to grant access to their medical record for assessment of guideline adherence using 25 systematically developed guideline-based performance indicators. A total of 558 couples who started 2334 IUI cycles participated. Guideline adherence regarding 20 process and five structure aspects of IUI care was often substandard and varied considerably between hospitals. Out of 10 possible associations investigated, guideline adherence regarding sperm quality and guideline adherence regarding the total number of IUI cycles were associated with improved ongoing pregnancy rates after IUI. Thus, guideline adherence in IUI care is far from optimal and varies substantially between hospitals. As associations between guideline adherence and ongoing pregnancy after IUI were mainly non-significant, further research is needed to evaluate associations between guideline adherence and other outcomes of IUI care besides ongoing pregnancy, such as patient safety and cost effectiveness. PMID:20129823

  9. G-CSF Intrauterine for Thin Endometrium, and Pregnancy Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Tehraninejad, Ensieh; Davari Tanha, Fateme; Asadi, Ebrahim; Kamali, Koorosh; Aziminikoo, Elham; Rezayof, Elahe

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate effects of G-CSF on a cancelled ART cycle due to thin endometrium. Materials and methods: In a nonrandomized clinical trial from January 2011 to January 2013 in two tertiary university based hospitals fifteen patients undergoing embryo transfer and with the history of cycle cancellation due to thin endometrium were studied. Intrauterine infusion of G-CSF was done on the day of oocyte pick-up or 5 days before embryo transfer. The primary outcome to be measured was an endometrium thickened to at least 6 mm and the secondary outcome was clinical pregnancy rate and consequently take-home baby. All previous cycles were considered as control for each patient. Results: The G-CSF was infused at the day of oocyte retrieval or 5 days before embryo transfer. The endometrial thickness reached from 3.593±0.251 mm to 7.120 ± 0.84 mm. The mean age, gravidity, parity, and FSH were 35.13± 9.531 years, 3, 1 and 32.78 ± 31.10 mIU/ml, respectively. The clinical pregnancy rate was 20%, and there was one missed abortion, a mother death at 34 weeks, and a preterm labor at 30 weeks due to PROM. Conclusion: G-CSF may increase endometrial thickness in the small group of patients who had no choice except cycle cancellation or surrogacy. PMID:26622308

  10. Immediate Postabortion Intrauterine Device Insertion: Continuation and Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    McNicholas, Colleen; Hotchkiss, Taylor; Madden, Tessa; Zhao, Qiuhong; Allsworth, Jenifer; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2013-01-01

    Background The provision of intrauterine devices (IUDs) immediately postabortion has the potential to decrease unintended pregnancy in the United States. Studies have demonstrated safety and efficacy; however, there are limited data about continuation, satisfaction, and bleeding patterns among women receiving immediate postabortion IUDs. Study Design We performed a retrospective cohort study of women undergoing immediate postabortion IUD insertion. Demographics and clinical data were collected from intake forms and procedure notes. We attempted to contact women by telephone to administer a short questionnaire to assess continuation, satisfaction, and bleeding patterns. Results We were able to contact 77 of 225 (34%). Women lost to follow-up were more likely to have higher parity or a pregnancy of greater gestational age at the time of abortion compared with women who were successfully contacted. Continuation and satisfaction rates were high (80.5% and 80.6%, respectively). Reported bleeding patterns with IUD use were similar to previously reported patterns. Conclusion Follow-up of women undergoing immediate postabortion IUD insertion is challenging. However, we found that women choosing immediate postabortion IUD had high rates of continuation and satisfaction. PMID:22749197

  11. Intrauterine contraceptive device embedded in the omentum - case report.

    PubMed

    Zolnierczyk, Piotr; Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Sawicki, Wlodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the case of a 29-year-old patient, female (nulliparous) who had an intrauterine device (IUD) inserted in 2010 and who has had no gynecological control since then (for 4 years). After this time, the asymptomatic patient had a gynecological appointment, during which a doctor did not find the strings of IUD in the speculum. Ultrasound examination did not reveal the presence of the IUD in the uterine cavity, which led to the suspicion of its presence outside the uterus. The patient was referred to a hospital, where she underwent ultrasound and X-ray examination of the pelvis that confirmed the presence of the IUD outside the uterus. Laparoscopy was performed during which the IUD was localized as being embedded in the omentum. It was removed by performing a resection of a part of the omentum with inflammatory infiltration. The patient was discharged home on the second postoperative day in a good condition. This case confirms the need for gynecological control and ultrasound examination shortly after insertion. An ultrasound or/and X-ray is mandatory in any case of absence of IUD strings previously visible in the vagina, if the patient did not observe its expulsion. PMID:26664227

  12. Morphofunctional renal alterations in rats induced by intrauterine hyperglycemic environment

    PubMed Central

    França-Silva, Nathane; Oliveira, Natácia Dreyce Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The renal development of rats begins in intrauterine life, finishing by 15 days after birth. Diabetes and other diseases during pregnancy can cause systemic changes in the offspring. We evaluated the structural and functional renal alterations of the offspring from diabetic mothers. Material and methods Pregnant rats were separated and 1, 7, 30 and 90 days-old (DO) pups were divided into groups according to the treatment that the mothers received: G1: control, G2: untreated diabetic and G3: insulin-treated diabetic. The kidneys from offspring at 1, 7 and 30 DO were removed for immunohistochemical and histological studies. Furthermore, blood and urine samples were collected from animals at 30 DO to determine the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by creatinine clearance, and the animals at 90 DO were subjected to blood pressure measurement by plethysmography. Results Our results show an increase of PCNA+ glomerular cells at 7 DO and a reduction in 30 DO animals as well as increased α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) tubulointerstitial expression at 1 and 7 DO in animals from G2, when compared with controls. The adult offspring from G2 showed reduced GFR and increased blood pressure. Conclusions Maternal diabetes may have induced programming of renal damage in offspring of hyperglycemic mothers, which may have contributed to the impairment of renal function. PMID:27186167

  13. Ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in meconium and hair-potential biomarkers of intrauterine exposure to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Morini, L; Marchei, E; Vagnarelli, F; Garcia Algar, O; Groppi, A; Mastrobattista, L; Pichini, S

    2010-03-20

    This study investigated ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) concentration in meconium and in maternal and neonatal hair (HEtG and HFAEEs, respectively) as potential markers of intrauterine exposure to ethanol together with meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in a cohort of 99 mother-infant dyads, 49 coming from the Arcispedale of Reggio Emilia (Italy) and 50 from the Hospital del Mar of Barcelona (Spain). FAEEs, EtG and EtS were measured in meconium samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A head space-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to test HEtG and HFAEEs in hair samples from mothers and their newborns. Eighty-two meconium samples (82.8%) tested positive for EtG, 19 (19.2%) for EtS while 22 (22.2%) showed FAEEs levels higher than 2 nmol/g, the cut-off used to differentiate daily maternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy from occasional or no use. Although EtG and EtS in meconium did not correlate with total FAEEs concentration, a good correlation between EtG, EtS and ethyl stearate was observed. Moreover, EtG correlated well with ethyl palmitoleate, while EtS with ethyl laurate, myristate and linolenate. Neither maternal nor neonatal hair appears as good predictors of gestational ethanol consumption and subsequent fetal exposure in these mother-infant dyads. In conclusion, these data show that meconium is so far the best matrix in evaluating intrauterine exposure to ethanol, with EtG and EtS being potentially good alternative biomarkers to FAEEs. PMID:20060246

  14. Adult monozygotic twins discordant for intra-uterine growth have indistinguishable genome-wide DNA methylation profiles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low birth weight is associated with an increased adult metabolic disease risk. It is widely discussed that poor intra-uterine conditions could induce long-lasting epigenetic modifications, leading to systemic changes in regulation of metabolic genes. To address this, we acquire genome-wide DNA methylation profiles from saliva DNA in a unique cohort of 17 monozygotic monochorionic female twins very discordant for birth weight. We examine if adverse prenatal growth conditions experienced by the smaller co-twins lead to long-lasting DNA methylation changes. Results Overall, co-twins show very similar genome-wide DNA methylation profiles. Since observed differences are almost exclusively caused by variable cellular composition, an original marker-based adjustment strategy was developed to eliminate such variation at affected CpGs. Among adjusted and unchanged CpGs 3,153 are differentially methylated between the heavy and light co-twins at nominal significance, of which 45 show sensible absolute mean β-value differences. Deep bisulfite sequencing of eight such loci reveals that differences remain in the range of technical variation, arguing against a reproducible biological effect. Analysis of methylation in repetitive elements using methylation-dependent primer extension assays also indicates no significant intra-pair differences. Conclusions Severe intra-uterine growth differences observed within these monozygotic twins are not associated with long-lasting DNA methylation differences in cells composing saliva, detectable with up-to-date technologies. Additionally, our results indicate that uneven cell type composition can lead to spurious results and should be addressed in epigenomic studies. PMID:23706164

  15. Detection of expressional changes induced by intrauterine growth restriction in the developing rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Chen, Wei; Dai, Yuee; Zhu, Ziyang; Liu, Qianqi

    2016-07-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a disorder that can result in permanent changes in the physiology and metabolism of the newborn, which increased the risk of disease in adulthood. Evidence supports IUGR as a risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus, which could reflect changes in pancreas developmental pathways. We sought to characterize the IUGR-induced alterations of the complex pathways of pancreas development in a rat model of IUGR. We analyzed the pancreases of Sprague Dawley rats after inducing IUGR by feeding a maternal low calorie diet from gestational day 1 until term. IUGR altered the pancreatic structure, islet areas, and islet quantities and resulted in abnormal morphological changes during pancreatic development, as determined by HE staining and light microscopy. We identified multiple differentially expressed genes in the pancreas by RT-PCR. The genes of the insulin/FoxO1/Pdx1/MafA signaling pathway were first expressed at embryonic day 14 (E14). The expressions of insulin and MafA increased as the fetus grew while the expressions of FoxO1 and Pdx1 decreased. Compared with the control rats, the expressions of FoxO1, Pdx1, and MafA were lower in the IUGR rats, whereas insulin levels showed no change. Microarray profiling, in combination with quantitative real-time PCR, uncovered a subset of microRNAs that changed in their degree of expression throughout pancreatic development. In conclusion, our data support the hypothesis that IUGR influences the development of the rat pancreas. We also identified new pathways that appear to be programmed by IUGR. PMID:27190278

  16. Analytical study of intrauterine fetal death cases and associated maternal conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Susmita; Sidhu, Harpreet; Kaur, Sukhbir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Intrauterine fetal death is an important indicator of maternal and perinatal health of a given population. This study was undertaken to study the maternal and fetal factors associated with intrauterine fetal death. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective single center study. The details were entered in a preformed proforma. The details of complaints at admission, obstetrics history, menstrual history, examination findings, per vaginal examination findings, mode of delivery and fetal outcomes, placental examination, condition of cord and investigation reports were recorded. Results: A total of 250 intrauterine fetal deaths were reported amongst 6942 deliveries conducted during the study period. The incidence rate of intrauterine fetal death was 36/1000 live births. Two hundred and twenty-two deliveries were unbooked and unsupervised. The other observations were rural population (58%), low socioeconomic group (71.2%), previous stillbirth (9.2%), gestational hypertension (32.8%), anemia (74.4%), antepartum hemorrhage (18.8%), and congenital malformations (CMFs) (8.8%). Conclusions: The incidence of intrauterine fetal deaths in our population is higher than that reported from developed countries. This is associated with anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, illiteracy, low socioeconomic status, and higher incidence of undiagnosed CMFs. PMID:26958515

  17. Unruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy presenting with acute haemoperitoneum with combined intrauterine pregnancy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Lallar, Meenakshi; Nandal, Rajesh; Sharma, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of rudimentary heterotopic uterine horn pregnancy varies from 1:76,000 to 1:140,000. However the incidence of twin pregnancy i.e. intrauterine pregnancy in unicornuate uterus and its associated rudimentary horn pregnancy is estimated to be around 1 in 10 million gestations. Case: Here, we present 19 year old pramigravida women with acute haemoperitoneum with diagnosis of unruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy combined by intrauterine pregnancy. The patient was managed with emergency laparatomy and resuscitation. Rudimentary horn containing foetus was excised and intrauterine pregnancy was left untouched. The intrauterine pregnancy was supported with progesterone and tocolytics and the patient delivered a newborn of 2.8 kg through spontaneous labor at 37 weeks of gestation. Conclusion: Heterotopic pregnancies incidence have increased in comparison to past and there should be high level of suspicion for this rare event as this is often associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality where diagnosis is difficult and challenging and easily missed. . Timely intervention provides survival of intrauterine pregnancy in case of twin pregnancy, even in low resource settings where usually the diagnosis is missed before acute event. PMID:25653676

  18. Open randomised study of use of levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system as alternative to hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lähteenmäki, Pekka; Haukkamaa, Maija; Puolakka, Jukka; Riikonen, Ulla; Sainio, Susanna; Suvisaari, Janne; Nilsson, Carl Gustaf

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether the levonorgestrel intrauterine system could provide a conservative alternative to hysterectomy in the treatment of excessive uterine bleeding. Design: Open randomised multicentre study with two parallel groups: a levonorgestrel intrauterine system group and a control group. Setting: Gynaecology departments of three hospitals in Finland. Subjects: Fifty six women aged 33-49 years scheduled to undergo hysterectomy for treatment of excessive uterine bleeding. Interventions: Women were randomised either to continue with their current medical treatment or to have a levonorgestrel intrauterine system inserted. Main outcome measure: Proportion of women cancelling their decision to undergo hysterectomy. Results: At 6 months, 64.3% (95% confidence interval 44.1 to 81.4%) of the women in the levonorgestrel intrauterine system group and 14.3% (4.0 to 32.7%) in the control group had cancelled their decision to undergo hysterectomy (P<0.001). Conclusions: The use of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system is a good conservative alternative to hysterectomy in the treatment of menorrhagia and should be considered before hysterectomy or other invasive treatments. PMID:9552948

  19. [Prevention and treatment of intra-uterine synechiae: Review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Warembourg, S; Huberlant, S; Garric, X; Leprince, S; de Tayrac, R; Letouzey, V

    2015-04-01

    Intra-uterine adhesions are a major cause of secondary infertility. The prevalence of adhesions is probably underestimated due to the heterogeneity of the symptoms. An exhaustive literature search using search engines MEDLINE, Pubmed, Cochrane library and Web of Science was performed to make a focus on the origins, consequences and methods of prevention of intra-uterine adhesions. Intra-uterine adhesions are likely to occur after any endo-uterine surgery via dysregulated activation of coagulation chain linked to the inflammatory process. Early and late obstetric complications are also recognized as caused by adhesions. The diagnosis is currently performed by hysteroscopy but it remains an invasive procedure even if it can be done with an ambulatory management. Several research approaches inspired by intra-abdominal surgery for the prevention of pelvic adhesions have been developed. However, no current method of prevention has proven its effectiveness in terms of improving spontaneous fertility. The improvement in surgical practices, the design of new intra-uterine medical devices and new research especially in the field of endometrial stem cells can maybe reduce the rate of adhesions end their complications after intra-uterine surgery. PMID:25479692

  20. Normal and Malignant Megakaryopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Qiang; Goldenson, Benjamin; Crispino, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Megakaryopoiesis is the process by which bone marrow progenitor cells develop into mature megakaryocytes (MKs), which in turn produce platelets required for normal hemostasis. Over the past decade, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to MK development and differentiation have begun to be elucidated. In this review, we provide an overview of megakaryopoiesis and summarize the latest developments in this field. Specially, we focus on polyploidization, a unique form of the cell cycle that allows MKs to increase their DNA content, and the genes that regulate this process. In addition, since megakaryocytes play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMKL) and a subset of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), including essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF), we discuss the biology and genetics of these disorders. We anticipate that an increased understanding of normal megakaryocyte differentiation will provide new insights into novel therapeutic approaches that will directly benefit patients. PMID:22018018

  1. In vitro beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) secretion by normal and leukaemic B-cells: effects of recombinant cytokines and evidence for a differential response to the combined stimulus of phorbol ester and calcium ionophore.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R. A.; Drexler, H. G.; Gignac, S. M.; Child, J. A.; Scott, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    Due to the increasing therapeutic use of immunoregulatory agents and the potential effects on cellular function, we examined the modulation of in vitro beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) production rates by 'normal' tonsil and leukaemic B-cells in response to a number of these agents. Tonsil B-cells responded to phorbol ester (TPA) by an increased beta 2m production rate, which was further enhanced by the combined stimuli of TPA plus the calcium ionophore A23187. In marked contrast, however, lymphocytes from a majority (8/11) of B-cell malignancies showed a suppression of the TPA-induced beta 2m production rate in response to the combined TPA/A23187 stimulus. These different responses of 'normal' and malignant B-cells were not apparent when IgM production rates were examined. The recombinant cytokines IL-1, IL-2, IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma and TNF also enhanced beta 2m production rates of both normal and leukaemic B-cells, but to a considerably lesser extent than did TPA. Bryostatin-1 increased beta 2m production to a level intermediate between that obtained by TPA and the cytokines. It is suggested that beta 2m production rates may correspond to the degree of B-cell differentiation, and/or to the degree of cellular 'activation'. The results further indicate that the in vitro measurement of beta 2m production provides a different index of the cellular response than that obtained by the conventional measurement of IgM production. PMID:2110813

  2. Long-term reorganization of structural brain networks in a rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Batalle, Dafnis; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; Illa, Miriam; Figueras, Francesc; Eixarch, Elisenda; Gratacos, Eduard

    2014-10-15

    Characterization of brain changes produced by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is among the main challenges of modern fetal medicine and pediatrics. This condition affects 5-10% of all pregnancies and is associated with a wide range of neurodevelopmental disorders. Better understanding of the brain reorganization produced by IUGR opens a window of opportunity to find potential imaging biomarkers in order to identify the infants with a high risk of having neurodevelopmental problems and apply therapies to improve their outcomes. Structural brain networks obtained from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising tool to study brain reorganization and to be used as a biomarker of neurodevelopmental alterations. In the present study this technique is applied to a rabbit animal model of IUGR, which presents some advantages including a controlled environment and the possibility to obtain high quality MRI with long acquisition times. Using a Q-Ball diffusion model, and a previously published rabbit brain MRI atlas, structural brain networks of 15 IUGR and 14 control rabbits at 70 days of age (equivalent to pre-adolescence human age) were obtained. The analysis of graph theory features showed a decreased network infrastructure (degree and binary global efficiency) associated with IUGR condition and a set of generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) weighted measures associated with abnormal neurobehavior. Interestingly, when assessing the brain network organization independently of network infrastructure by means of normalized networks, IUGR showed increased global and local efficiencies. We hypothesize that this effect could reflect a compensatory response to reduced infrastructure in IUGR. These results present new evidence on the long-term persistence of the brain reorganization produced by IUGR that could underlie behavioral and developmental alterations previously described. The described changes in network organization have the potential to be used

  3. Postnatal nutritional restriction affects growth and immune function of piglets with intra-uterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liang; Liu, Yan; Yan, Chuan; Peng, Xie; Xu, Qin; Xuan, Yue; Han, Fei; Tian, Gang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Zhang, Keying; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De; Che, Lianqiang

    2015-07-14

    Postnatal rapid growth by excess intake of nutrients has been associated with an increased susceptibility to diseases in neonates with intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR). The aim of the present study was to determine whether postnatal nutritional restriction could improve intestinal development and immune function of neonates with IUGR using piglets as model. A total of twelve pairs of normal-birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets (7 d old) were randomly assigned to receive adequate nutrient intake or restricted nutrient intake (RNI) by artificially liquid feeding for a period of 21 d. Blood samples and intestinal tissues were collected at necropsy and were analysed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, immune cells and expression of innate immunity-related genes. The results indicated that both IUGR and postnatal nutritional restriction delayed the growth rate during the sucking period. Irrespective of nutrient intake, piglets with IUGR had a significantly lower villous height and crypt depth in the ileum than the NBW piglets. Moreover, IUGR decreased alkaline phosphatase activity while enhanced lactase activity in the jejunum and mRNA expressions of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in the ileum of piglets. Irrespective of body weight, RNI significantly decreased the number and/or percentage of peripheral leucocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes of piglets, whereas the percentage of neutrophils and the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ were increased. Furthermore, RNI markedly enhanced the mRNA expression of TLR-9 and DNMT1, but decreased the expression of NOD2 and TRAF-6 in the ileum of piglets. In summary, postnatal nutritional restriction led to abnormal cellular and innate immune response, as well as delayed the growth and intestinal development of IUGR piglets. PMID:26059215

  4. Cryoconservation of Oocytes in a Patient with Breast Cancer and Intrauterine Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Werling, M.; Tandler-Schneider, A.; Siemann, A.; Stief, G.; Kentenich, H.

    2012-01-01

    Case Report: A 38-year-old patient newly diagnosed with invasive ductal breast cancer wished to cryoconserve her unfertilised oocytes. Stimulation was started on the 26th day of her menstrual cycle with daily administration of 300 IE hMG s. c. and a GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix 0.25 mg s. c.). The patient additionally received an aromatase inhibitor during the first 5 days of stimulation (letrozole 5 mg p. o.). Induction of ovulation occurred on the 11th day of stimulation with hCG (10 000 IE s. c.) and a GnRH agonist (triptorelin 0.2 mg s. c.). Seventeen oocytes were retrieved during follicle puncture and 11 were cryopreserved. Despite the administration of cetrotide (a GnRH antagonist) no luteolysis occurred during stimulation. A pregnancy test was therefore done on the 11th day of stimulation and the result was positive (β-HCG 3493 mIU/ml). Sonography showed an intrauterine pregnancy. The patient was in gestational week 5 + 0. The aspirated oocytes mostly showed a normal morphology (metaphase II) despite high progesterone levels during stimulation. The patient decided to terminate the pregnancy before starting adjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusion: We describe the case of a patient who underwent stimulation for cryopreservation of oocytes during a spontaneous pregnancy conceived in the same cycle just before starting stimulation. Stimulation was done over a short period using a combination of a GnRH antagonist and an aromatase inhibitor to ensure the lowest possible estradiol levels. The quality of the oocytes does not appear to have been negatively affected by the high progesterone levels of early pregnancy. PMID:25258460

  5. Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations from Ovarian Stimulation (AMIGOS) Trial: Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Michael P.; Legro, Richard S.; Coutifaris, Christos; Alvero, Ruben; Robinson, Randal D.; Casson, Peter; Christman, Gregory M.; Ager, Joel; Huang, Hao; Hansen, Karl R.; Baker, Valerie; Usadi, Rebecca; Seungdamrong, Aimee; Bates, G. Wright; Rosen, R. Mitchell; Haisonleder, Daniell; Krawetz, Stephen A.; Barnhart, Kurt; Trussell, J.C.; Jin, Yufeng; Santoro, Nanette; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify baseline characteristics of women with unexplained infertility to determine whether treatment with an aromatase inhibitor will result in a lower rate of multiple gestations than current standard ovulation induction medications. Design Randomized, prospective clinical trial Patients 900 couples with unexplained infertility Interventions: Ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins, clomiphene citrate, or letrozole in conjunction with intrauterine insemination. Setting Multicenter University based clinical practices. Main Outcome Measures Demographic, laboratory, imaging, and survey characteristics. Interventions Collection of baseline demographics, blood samples, and ultrasonographic assessments. Results Demographic characteristics of women receiving clomiphene citrate, letrozole, or gonadotropins for ovarian stimulation were very consistent. Their mean age was 32.2 ± 4.4 years and infertility duration was 34.7± 25.7 months, with 59% primary infertility. More than 1/3 of the women were current or past smokers. The mean BMI was 27 and mean AMH level was 2.6; only 11 women (1.3%) had antral follicle counts of less than 5. Similar observations were identified for hormonal profiles, ultrasound characterization of the ovaries, semen parameters, and quality of life assessments in both male and female partners. Conclusion The cause of infertility in the couples recruited to this treatment trial is elusive, as the women were regularly ovulating and had evidence of good ovarian reserve both by basal FSH, AMH levels, and antral follicle counts; the male partners had normal semen parameters. The three treatment subgroups have common baseline characteristics, thereby providing comparable patient populations for testing the hypothesis that use of letrozole for ovarian stimulation can reduce the rates of multiples from that observed with gonadotropin and clomiphene citrate treatment. PMID:25707331

  6. Unilateral intrauterine horn insemination of frozen semen in cats.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, T; Tanaka, A; Takagi, Y; Nakagawa, K; Fujimoto, Y; Murai, M; Anzai, M; Hori, T

    2000-12-01

    Frozen feline semen was prepared using two types of extenders, egg yolk Tris-fructose citric acid (EYT-FC) and egg yolk sodium citrate solution (EYC), and the semen qualities after thawing and the conception rates obtained by unilateral intrauterine horn insemination (UIUI) were investigated. Cats used in the experiment were six males and 11 females aged 2-12 years (the number of experimental cases was 17). For preparation of frozen semen, semen collected by the artificial vagina method was adjusted to I x 10(8) sperm/m/ and 7% glycerol, put in 250 microl straws, and then frozen using a cell freezer. The mean sperm motility after thawing was 30.0+/-9.7 (SE) % in the semen prepared with EYT-FC and 30.0+/-3.3% in the semen prepared with EYC. Four of seven animals were fertilized by UIUI using two straws in both extenders, and the conception rate was 57.1%. The mean ratios of number of kits to the number of ovulations in the inseminated side were 61.1+/-24.5% and 30.5+/-3.4% for EYT-FC and EYC, respectively, showing that the ratio tended to be higher in the semen prepared with EYT-FC. The above findings, comparing the two extenders for preparation of frozen feline semen, showed that EYT-FC is slightly superior to EYC. To increase conception and fertility rates, it may be important to increase the sperm count for insemination and to inseminate both uterine horns. PMID:11193339

  7. Multivariate normality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, H. L.; Falls, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    Sets of experimentally determined or routinely observed data provide information about the past, present and, hopefully, future sets of similarly produced data. An infinite set of statistical models exists which may be used to describe the data sets. The normal distribution is one model. If it serves at all, it serves well. If a data set, or a transformation of the set, representative of a larger population can be described by the normal distribution, then valid statistical inferences can be drawn. There are several tests which may be applied to a data set to determine whether the univariate normal model adequately describes the set. The chi-square test based on Pearson's work in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is often used. Like all tests, it has some weaknesses which are discussed in elementary texts. Extension of the chi-square test to the multivariate normal model is provided. Tables and graphs permit easier application of the test in the higher dimensions. Several examples, using recorded data, illustrate the procedures. Tests of maximum absolute differences, mean sum of squares of residuals, runs and changes of sign are included in these tests. Dimensions one through five with selected sample sizes 11 to 101 are used to illustrate the statistical tests developed.

  8. Antenatal taurine supplementation increases taurine content in intrauterine growth restricted fetal rat brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Teng, Hui-Yun; Liu, Jing; Wang, Hua-Wei; Zeng, Li; Zhao, Li-Fang

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of antenatal taurine supplementation on taurine content in the brains of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Experiments were performed at the Central Laboratory of Bayi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital in China from January to June 2013. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls, an IUGR group and an IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement group (Taurine group) (n = 5). The IUGR model was induced using a low-protein diet throughout gestation. Rats in the taurine group were fed a diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine for 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Two fetal rats were randomly selected in every litter, and taurine levels in the brains of rats were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that (1) the mean body weight of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement groups was 6.619 ± 0.4132, 4.509 ± 0.454, and 5.176 ± 0.436 g (F = 429.818, P < 0.01), respectively, and (2) that taurine levels in the brains of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and taurine groups were (2.399 ± 0.134) × 10(5), (1.881 ± 0.166) × 10(5) and (2.170 ± 0.191) × 10(5) μg/g (F = 24.828, P < 0.01), respectively. Overall, our results indicated that taurine levels in IUGR fetal rat brains were lower than in the control animals, and that antenatal taurine supplementation could significantly increase taurine levels in the brains of fetal rats with IUGR. PMID:24676564

  9. Effects of Choline on Meat Quality and Intramuscular Fat in Intrauterine Growth Retardation Pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Li, Wei; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Chao; Wang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of choline supplementation on intramuscular fat (IMF) and lipid oxidation in IUGR pigs. Twelve normal body weight (NBW) and twelve intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) newborn piglets were collected and distributed into 4 treatments (Normal: N, Normal+Choline: N+C, IUGR: I, and IUGR+Choline: I+C) with 6 piglets in each treatment. At 23 d of age, NBW and IUGR pigs were fed basal or choline supplemented diets. The results showed that the IUGR pigs had significantly lower (P<0.05) BW as compared with the NBW pigs at 23 d, 73 d, and 120 d of age, however, there was a slight decreased (P>0.05) in BW of IUGR pigs than the NBW pigs at 200 d. Compared with the NBW pigs, pH of meat longissimus dorsi muscle was significantly lower (P<0.05), and the meat color was improved in IUGR pigs. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly decreased (P<0.05), while triglyceride (TG) and IMF contents were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the IUGR pigs than the NBW pigs. IUGR up-regulated the mRNA gene expression of fatty acid synthetase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Dietary choline significantly increased (P<0.05) the BW at 120d of age, however, significantly decreased (P<0.05) the TG and IMF contents in both IUGR and NBW pigs. FAS and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1 (SREBP1) mRNA gene expressions were increased (P<0.05) while the muscle-carnitine palmityl transferase (M-CPT) and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptorγ (PPARγ) mRNA (P<0.05) gene expressions were decreased in the muscles of the IUGR pigs by choline supplementation. Furthermore, choline supplementation significantly increased (P<0.05) the MDA content as well as the O2•¯ scavenging activity in meat of IUGR pigs. The results suggested that IUGR pigs showed a permanent stunting effect on the growth performance, increased fat deposition and oxidative stress in muscles. However, dietary supplementation of choline improved the fat

  10. Barriers to prescribing the Copper T 380A intrauterine device by physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Kooiker, C. H.; Scutchfield, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    From a questionnaire sent to all obstetricians and gynecologists and all family and general practitioners in San Diego County, California, regarding the Copper T 380A intrauterine device, substantial barriers to prescribing it were identified. Of all physicians responding, 40% reported that they were not recommending the Copper T 380A to anyone, the single most common reason given being concern about medical liability. A lack of knowledge about the new device, a lack of intrauterine device insertion skills, and certain medical practice settings were also important barriers to prescribing it. The new intrauterine device is considered in the context of innovation-diffusion theory. Substantial amounts of education and training and improvement in the medical-legal climate are needed before current barriers to prescribing the new device are removed. Images PMID:2219892

  11. Comparison between scissor and laser resections of intrauterine septa in hysteroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczak, Maciej; Wozniak, Jakub; Cwojdzinski, Marek; Sajdak, Stefan; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarski, Tadeusz

    1996-03-01

    The comparison between results of scissors- and Nd-YAG laser-resection of intrauterine septa in hysteroscopy was shown. In 12 patients the scissors-resection and in 11 women the laser- resection was done. In the group of patients after laser procedure 10 of them were pregnant and 9 delivered healthy children. One missed abortion was diagnosed in the twenty-first week of gestation. After scissors-resection 7 women became pregnant and 5 of them bore mature children. Two of those seven lost their gestation (spontaneous abortions in the nineteenth and twentieth weeks of pregnancy). In the authors' opinion hysteroscopy is a very useful method of diagnostics and therapy of intrauterine septa. The Nd-YAG laser-resection of intrauterine septa seems to be the method with the lowest number of complications. Fertility and parity highly improves after removal of the septa localized in the uterine cavity.

  12. Long-term prognosis of pregnancies in women with intrauterine hematomas.

    PubMed

    Børlum, K G; Thomsen, A; Clausen, I; Eriksen, G

    1989-08-01

    To evaluate the long-term significance of intrauterine hematomas in patients with threatened abortion, 380 women with a living fetus of more than 8 weeks were studied. On ultrasound, intrauterine hematomas, defined as an echo-poor subchorionic collection, were found in 86 women. Two hundred ninety-four patients without hematomas served as controls. The rate of miscarriage was significantly increased in the study group (22.1 versus 8.2%; P less than .05). Patients discharged from the initial hospitalization without aborting still had a higher abortion risk than controls (16.3 versus 5.6%; P less than .05). Second-trimester debut of symptoms was followed more often by preterm delivery. Thus, patients with intrauterine hematomas continue to be a high-risk group for the remainder of their pregnancies. PMID:2664611

  13. Epidemiological Aspects of Neonatal Mortality Due To Intrauterine Infection in Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    MAMYRBAYEVA, Marzya; IGISSINOV, Nurbek; ZHUMAGALIYEVA, Galina; SHILMANOVA, Akmanat

    2015-01-01

    Background: In this study, we examined the epidemiological aspects of neonatal mortality due to intrauterine infections with regard to regional characteristics. Methods: Consolidated report of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan on children deceased during their first 28 days of life due to intrauterine infections (P23 – congenital pneumonia, P35–39 – infectious diseases specific to the perinatal period) in the country and its regions for 2010 – 2014 was used in this investigation. Descriptive and analytical methods of medical statistics and epidemiology were used as the main method of this 5-year (2010–2014) retrospective study. Results: Overall, 3,298 neonatal deaths from intrauterine infections were recorded in Kazakhstan during the period of 2010–2014, 1,925 of which were early and 1,373 were late neonatal deaths. The average annual rate of neonatal mortality rate from intrauterine infection in the country amounted to 1.73±0.23‰ (95% CI=1.27–2.19‰), whereas trends during the study period decreased (T=−15.3%). Regional characteristics of neonatal mortality were established. Different levels for cartograms of neonatal mortality from intrauterine infections were defined: low (up to 1.28‰), average (from 1.28‰ to 2.12‰) and high (by 2.12‰ and above). Neonatal mortality in the early and late periods was also analyzed. Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological study of neonatal mortality from intrauterine infection, which contains a detailed space-time evaluation. The results of this investigation can be used to improve the state program to combat infant mortality. PMID:26576344

  14. Offspring birth weights after maternal intrauterine undernutrition: a comparison within sibships.

    PubMed

    Lumey, L H; Stein, A D

    1997-11-15

    The authors examined the effects of maternal intrauterine undernutrition on offspring birth weights in a cohort of women born between August 1944 and April 1946 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. This period included the Dutch Hunger Winter, a war-induced famine. Undernutrition was defined separately for each trimester of pregnancy as an average supply of less than 1,000 calories per day from government food rations. For maximum control of potential maternal confounding factors related to offspring birth weight, the authors performed a within-family analysis, including 437 families with two siblings and 107 families with three siblings born between 1960 and 1985. As in other studies of the famine, maternal birth weight itself was decreased after third trimester intrauterine exposure but not after first trimester exposure. The expected increase in offspring birth weights with increasing birth order was not seen after maternal intrauterine exposure in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this group, second born infants weighed, on average, 252 g less at birth than their firstborn siblings (95% confidence interval (CI) -419 to -85), and thirdborn infants weighed 419 g less (95% CI -926 to 87), even after adjustment for trimester of maternal intrauterine exposure, maternal birth weight, smoking during pregnancy, and sex of infants in the sibling pairs. Additional adjustment for the birth weight of the elder sibling did not materially change this abnormal pattern. There were no abnormal patterns in offspring birth weights after maternal intrauterine exposure in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The study outcomes could not be explained by other selected determinants of birth weight, by lack of control for socioeconomic status, or by loss to follow-up of the 1944-1946 birth cohort. This study suggests that there may be long-term biologic effects, even into the next generation, of maternal intrauterine undernutrition which do not correspond to the effects on the

  15. Pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance controls pancreatic β-cell differentiation through the ERK1/2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hoarau, E; Chandra, V; Rustin, P; Scharfmann, R; Duvillie, B

    2014-01-01

    During embryogenesis, the intrauterine milieu affects cell proliferation, differentiation, and function by modifying gene expression in susceptible cells, such as the pancreatic β-cells. In this limited energy environment, mitochondrial dysfunction can lead to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to a decline in β-cell function. In opposition to this toxicity, ROS are also required for insulin secretion. Here we investigated the role of ROS in β-cell development. Surprisingly, decreasing ROS production in vivo reduced β-cell differentiation. Moreover, in cultures of pancreatic explants, progenitors were highly sensitive to ROS stimulation and responded by generating β-cells. ROS enhanced β-cell differentiation through modulation of ERK1/2 signaling. Gene transfer and pharmacological manipulations, which diminish cellular ROS levels, also interfered with normal β-cell differentiation. This study highlights the role of the redox balance on β-cell development and provides information that will be useful for improving β-cell production from embryonic stem cells, a step in cell therapy for diabetes. PMID:25341041

  16. Clinical findings in children with congenital anomalies and misoprostol intrauterine exposure: a study of 38 cases

    PubMed Central

    Vendramini-Pittoli, Siulan; Guion-Almeida, Maria L.; Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Santos, Juliana M.; Kokitsu-Nakata, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe the clinical findings of 38 children with congenital anomalies and misoprostol intrauterine exposure. This study included 38 cases, ascertained from case series of the Hospital of Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies from University of São Paulo, with evidence of intrauterine exposure to misoprostol in the first trimester of the pregnancy. Information about misoprostol intake and drug administration route was obtained through interviews with mothers. Clinical evaluation showed 18 individuals with facial phenotype compatible with Moebius syndrome; 11 individuals with multiple congenital anomalies; and nine individuals with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or cleft palate. This study showed a widening of the phenotypic spectrum associated with misoprostol embryotoxicity.

  17. Using the Normalized Differential Wetness Index to Scale Leaf Area Index, Create Three-Dimensional Classification Maps, and Scale Seasonal Evapotranspiration Depletions in Canopies Along the Middle Rio Grande Riparian CorridorCorridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, D. E.; Cleverly, J. R.; Dahm, C. N.; Coonrod, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    This research creates temporally and spatially explicit data layers of vegetation, leaf area index (LAI), three dimensional (3D) vegetation classification maps, and seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) depletions along the middle Rio Grande riparian corridor. The first part of this work produces two dimensional (2D) classification maps of native and non-native canopy vegetation using temporal patterns and the decision tree classifier in ENVI 4.0 (Research Systems Inc. Boulder, Colorado). The second part of this work correlates the normalized differential wetness index (NDWI) with field measurements of plant area index (PAI), stem area index (SAI), and leaf area index (LAI) using the LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer (PCA) (LICOR Inc., Lincoln, Nebraska). SAI is measured in winter to capture only branches and stems. PAI is measured during the growing season. Field measurements taken within 10 days of image capture dates provide adequate correlations though the closer the dates the better the correlation. LAI represents the surface area of active green leafy vegetation. NDWI correlates with both PAI and estimated LAI in both Tamarisk chinensis and Populus deltoides ssp. Wislizeni sites better than the more traditional normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI). This study also suggests that winter PCA measurements approximate SAI which should be subtracted from PAI in woody vegetation like T. chinensis and Salix exigua stands. The results show that correcting for leaf geometry by multiplying T. chinensis areas with cylindrical cladophylls by pi and the remaining flat leaf vegetation by two yields the best relationship between NDWI and total LAI. The 2Dclassification maps can be placed on top of relief maps of LAI to produce 3D classification maps. The final part of this research scales ET from four 3D eddy covariance towers located in two T. chinensis and two P. deltoides study sites. ET is regressed with LAI, percent daylight (PD), and average hourly incoming net

  18. N- and C-terminal isoforms of Arg quantified by real-time PCR are specifically expressed in human normal and neoplastic cells, in neoplastic cell lines, and in HL-60 cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Perego, Roberto A; Corizzato, Matteo; Bianchi, Cristina; Eroini, Barbara; Bosari, Silvano

    2005-04-01

    The human ABL2 (or ARG) gene codes for a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase is involved in translocation with the ETV6 gene in human leukemia and has an altered expression in several human carcinomas. Two isoforms of Arg with different N-termini (1A and 1B) have been described. The C-terminal domain of Arg contains two F-actin-binding sequences that perform a number of actions related to cell morphology and motility by interacting with actin filaments. We have identified different-sized specific cDNAs in hematopoietic, epithelial, nervous, and fibroblastic cells by means of the reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of human Arg mRNA. Some of these cDNAs showed an adjunctive alternative splice event involving the 63 bp sequence of exon II, thus leading to four cDNA types with different N-termini: 1A long and short, and 1B long and short. Other cDNAs lacked a 309 bp sequence in the last exon involving one of the C-terminal F-actin binding domains, thus giving rise to two cDNA types: C-termini long and short. Quantified by real-time PCR-quantitative RT-PCR-these Arg transcript isoforms have specific expression patterns not only in different normal and tumor cell types, but also during cell differentiation and growth arrest. These isoforms maintained the open reading frames, and eight putative proteins were predicted. The different C-termini isoforms seem to retain the same quantitative reciprocal ratio of their respective transcripts. The Arg protein isoforms with different C-terminal actin-binding domains and different N-termini might have specific cellular localizations/concentrations, and differently regulated catalytic activity with different implications in normal and neoplastic cells. PMID:15765532

  19. DNA methylation analysis of multiple tissues from newborn twins reveals both genetic and intrauterine components to variation in the human neonatal epigenome.

    PubMed

    Ollikainen, Miina; Smith, Katherine R; Joo, Eric Ji-Hoon; Ng, Hong Kiat; Andronikos, Roberta; Novakovic, Boris; Abdul Aziz, Nur Khairunnisa; Carlin, John B; Morley, Ruth; Saffery, Richard; Craig, Jeffrey M

    2010-11-01

    Mounting evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that the epigenome is in constant drift over the life course in response to stochastic and environmental factors. In humans, this has been highlighted by a small number of studies that have demonstrated discordant DNA methylation patterns in adolescent or adult monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs. However, to date, it remains unclear when such differences emerge, and how prevalent they are across different tissues. To address this, we examined the methylation of four differentially methylated regions associated with the IGF2/H19 locus in multiple birth tissues derived from 91 twin pairs: 56 MZ and 35 dizygotic (DZ). Tissues included cord blood-derived mononuclear cells and granulocytes, human umbilical vein endothelial cells, buccal epithelial cells and placental tissue. Considerable variation in DNA methylation was observed between tissues and between unrelated individuals. Most interestingly, methylation discordance was also present within twin pairs, with DZ pairs showing greater discordance than MZ pairs. These data highlight the variable contribution of both intrauterine environmental exposures and underlying genetic factors to the establishment of the neonatal epigenome of different tissues and confirm the intrauterine period as a sensitive time for the establishment of epigenetic variability in humans. This has implications for the effects of maternal environment on the development of the newborn epigenome and supports an epigenetic mechanism for the previously described phenomenon of 'fetal programming' of disease risk. PMID:20699328

  20. Present status of amniocentesis in intrauterine diagnosis of genetic defects.

    PubMed

    Nadler, H L; Gerbie, A

    1971-11-01

    Practical and scientific aspects of prenatal detection of genetic disorders is discussed. The indications for intrauterine detection of familial biochemical and particular chromosomal disorders require assessment of the risks of transabdominal amniocentesis and of the reliability of diagnosis. A high degree of experience in cultivating amniotic fluid cells and in performing diagnostic tests is required. The obstetrician performing the amniocentesis should be responsible for referring the family to a physician who will perform the abortion. A high-risk group for which amniocentesis may be especially important includes families in which 1 parent is a carrier of a chromosomal rearrangement and in which the woman is a known carrier of an X-linked recessive disorder so that sex determination is important. A moderate-risk group includes women who become pregnant after age 40 in which the risk of having a child with a chromosomal aberration is greater than 1%. A low-risk group includes women over 35 and women who have previously borne a child with trisomic Down's syndrome. The experience gained in over 300 patients suggests that transabdominal aminocentesis carries minimal risks to mother and fetus. Analyses of amniotic fluid obtained by amniocentesis have resulted in antenatal diagnoses of Pompe's disease (deficient alpha-1, 4-glucosidase), Tay-Sachs disease (deficient hexosaminidase A), mucopolysaccharidosis (quantitative and qualitative changes in mucopolysaccharides), methylmalonic aciduria (increased methylamlonate), and adrenogenital syndrome (increase 17-ketosteroids and pregnanetriol). There is a lack of consensus on the reliability of several of these diagnoses resulting from the direct analysis of amniotic fluid. Analyses of uncultured amniotic fluid cells have resulted in diagnoses of Pompe's disease (ultrastructural changes) and Tay-Sachs disease. Analyses of cultivated amniotic fluid cells have enabled diagnoses of galactosemia (deficient galactose-1

  1. Metabolomic Research on Newborn Infants With Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Xin-Xin; Li, Xiang-Wen; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Wan-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To compare differences in metabolites between newborns with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and those who are appropriate for gestational age (AGA) in order to understand the changes in metabolites of newborns with IUGR and to explore the possible metabolic mechanism of tissue and organ damages in patients with IUGR, with the ultimate goal of providing the basis for clinical intervention. A total of 60 newborns with IUGR and 60 AGA newborns who were hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit of our hospital between January 2011 and December 2015 and who underwent metabolic disease screening were enrolled in this study. The differences in 21 amino acids and 55 carnitines in peripheral blood, as well as changes in the ratios of free carnitine and acylcarnitine to total carnitine, were compared. Metabolites, particularly alanine, homocysteine, leucine, methionine, ornithine, serine, tyrosine, isovaleryl carnitine, and eicosenoyl carnitine, differed according to newborns’ birth weight (<3rd percentile, 3rd–5th percentiles, 5th–10th percentiles, and 10th–90th percentiles), with those with lower birth weight showing the greater difference (P < 0.05). Metabolites also differed by gestational age, and the differences observed were mainly as follows: preterm and full-term newborns showed differences in metabolites, mainly in alanine, proline, cerotoyl carnitine, and tetradecanedioyl carnitine (P < 0.05); preterm and full-term AGA newborns showed differences in metabolites, mainly in alanine, glutamine, homocysteine, pipecolic acid, proline, heptanoyl carnitine, and sebacoyl carnitine (P < 0.05); and preterm and full-term newborns with IUGR showed differences in metabolites, mainly in arginine, glutamic acid, homocysteine, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, ornithine, serine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, heptanoyl carnitine, decanoyl carnitine, linoleyl carnitine, methylmalonyl carnitine, glutarylcarnitine, sebacoyl carnitine

  2. Metabolomic Research on Newborn Infants With Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Xin-Xin; Li, Xiang-Wen; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Wan-Qiao

    2016-04-01

    To compare differences in metabolites between newborns with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and those who are appropriate for gestational age (AGA) in order to understand the changes in metabolites of newborns with IUGR and to explore the possible metabolic mechanism of tissue and organ damages in patients with IUGR, with the ultimate goal of providing the basis for clinical intervention.A total of 60 newborns with IUGR and 60 AGA newborns who were hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit of our hospital between January 2011 and December 2015 and who underwent metabolic disease screening were enrolled in this study. The differences in 21 amino acids and 55 carnitines in peripheral blood, as well as changes in the ratios of free carnitine and acylcarnitine to total carnitine, were compared.Metabolites, particularly alanine, homocysteine, leucine, methionine, ornithine, serine, tyrosine, isovaleryl carnitine, and eicosenoyl carnitine, differed according to newborns' birth weight (<3rd percentile, 3rd-5th percentiles, 5th-10th percentiles, and 10th-90th percentiles), with those with lower birth weight showing the greater difference (P < 0.05). Metabolites also differed by gestational age, and the differences observed were mainly as follows: preterm and full-term newborns showed differences in metabolites, mainly in alanine, proline, cerotoyl carnitine, and tetradecanedioyl carnitine (P < 0.05); preterm and full-term AGA newborns showed differences in metabolites, mainly in alanine, glutamine, homocysteine, pipecolic acid, proline, heptanoyl carnitine, and sebacoyl carnitine (P < 0.05); and preterm and full-term newborns with IUGR showed differences in metabolites, mainly in arginine, glutamic acid, homocysteine, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, ornithine, serine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, heptanoyl carnitine, decanoyl carnitine, linoleyl carnitine, methylmalonyl carnitine, glutarylcarnitine, sebacoyl carnitine, hydroxyacetyl carnitine

  3. Unilateral intrauterine horn insemination of fresh semen in cats.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, T; Tanaka, A; Takagi, Y; Nakagawa, K; Fujimoto, Y; Murai, M; Anzai, M; Hori, T

    2000-12-01

    The sperm count required were investigated to obtain a conception rate of 80% by unilateral intrauterine insemination (UIUI) of fresh semen in cats. The conception rates obtained by insemination before and after ovulation were also examined. Thirty-six female cats aged 1-7 years were used in the experiments, and the number of experimental cases was 44. Seven male cats aged 2-12 years from which semen could be collected by the artificial vagina method were used. In artificial insemination, 100 iu x 2 or 250 iu of hCG was administered on days 2-4 of estrus, and sperm were introduced into the uterine horn with a greater number of ovulations (or mature follicles) 15, 20 and 30 hr after hCG administration by laparotomy. The inseminated sperm counts were 2 x 10(6) (Exp. 1). 4 x 10(6) (Exp. 2), and 8 x 10(6) (Exp. 3). As a result, ovulation was induced in 42 of 44 cases (induction rate: 95.5%) regardless of the dosage of hCG. Conception was obtained by UIUI in two of 16 animals (conception rate: 12.5%) in the Exp. 1, five of 16 animals (31.3%) in Exp. 2, and eight of 10 animals (80.0%) in Exp. 3. Regarding the relationship between the ovulation state at insemination and conception, the conception rate obtained by insemination before ovulation was clearly higher than that obtained by insemination after ovulation (p<0.05). Regarding the number of kits compared to the number of ovulations on the inseminated side, the percentages of cases in which the number of kits exceeded the number of ovulations on the inseminated side were similar in all groups inseminated with a different number of sperm. It is therefore necessary to investigate conception rates obtained by bilateral insemination to increase the fertility rate. Based on the above findings, it was shown that the sperm count required for fertilization by UIUI is 8 x 10(6). PMID:11193338

  4. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia, a case of intrauterine sudden death of fetus with rupture of cirsoid periumbilical chorionic vessels

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report a 32-year-old woman (1-gravid, 1-para) with a vesicular lesion in her uterus that was pointed out on ultrasound at 8 weeks' gestation. Amniocentesis at 15 weeks' gestation showed a normal female karyotype, 46XX. As the pregnancy advanced, the mole-like lesion became relatively reduced. Throughout gestation, the maternal human chorionic gonadotropin level was normal, but the serum alpha fetoprotein level rose as her pregnancy progressed. Her fetus did not exhibit any remarkable anomalies. The patient visited our hospital complaining of a diminished feeling of fetal movements at 36 weeks 5 days' gestation, and intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) was confirmed. She delivered a 2336-g female without any definite anomalies. A pathological examination led to a diagnosis of placental mesenchymal dysplasia, and androgenetic/biparental mosaicism in the placenta was identified using p57kip2 immunohistochemical staining. And it also revealed that the rupture of the cirsoid chorionic vessels had led to IUFD. PMID:21513565

  5. Normalizing Rejection.

    PubMed

    Conn, Vicki S; Zerwic, Julie; Jefferson, Urmeka; Anderson, Cindy M; Killion, Cheryl M; Smith, Carol E; Cohen, Marlene Z; Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Herrick, Linda; Topp, Robert; Benefield, Lazelle E; Loya, Julio

    2016-02-01

    Getting turned down for grant funding or having a manuscript rejected is an uncomfortable but not unusual occurrence during the course of a nurse researcher's professional life. Rejection can evoke an emotional response akin to the grieving process that can slow or even undermine productivity. Only by "normalizing" rejection, that is, by accepting it as an integral part of the scientific process, can researchers more quickly overcome negative emotions and instead use rejection to refine and advance their scientific programs. This article provides practical advice for coming to emotional terms with rejection and delineates methods for working constructively to address reviewer comments. PMID:26041785

  6. Vaginal microbial flora in normal young women.

    PubMed

    Goldacre, M J; Watt, B; Loudon, N; Milne, L J; Loudon, J D; Vessey, M P

    1979-06-01

    Vaginal swabs were taken from 1498 women attending a family planning clinic. The flora was assessed in the absence of any information about the women to whom the swabs related. Yeasts and fungi were present in 311 women (21%) and were no more prevalent among "pill" users than others. Candida albicans was significantly associated with vulval itching and with a vaginal discharge described as heavier than normal or curdy on clinical examination, though these abnormalities were present in only a minority of women with the organism. Trichomonas vaginalis was found in 14 women (1%) and was associated with abnormalities of vaginal discharge in all but one. Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli were significantly more common in women with a troublesome vaginal discharge and those who used an intrauterine device than others. No associations were found between fungi other than C albicans or the other bacteria sought and either symptoms or clinical abnormalities of vaginal discharge. PMID:380743

  7. Radioimmunoassay of ''free thyroxin'' in dried blood spots on filter paper - preliminary observations on the effective differentiation of subjects with congenital hypothyroidism from those with subnormal thyroxin-binding globulin and normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuta, H.; Miyai, K.; Ichihara, K.; Amino, N.; Harada, T.; Nose, O.; Tanizawa, O.

    1982-03-01

    In this sensitive, simple method for measuring ''free thyroxin'' (FT/sub 4/) in eluates of dried blood spots on filter paper by use of a radioimmunoassay kit (Amerlex Free T/sub 4/ RIA), the measurable range of FT/sub 4/ is 1.8 to 57 ng/L (equivalent to the concentration in serum), or 7 to 237 fg/tube. The mean coefficients of variation for within assay-within spots, within assay-between spots, and between assays were 5.3%, 5.0%, and 6.2%, respectively. FT/sub 4/ in blood spotted on filter paper is stable for at least a month when dried and kept at either -20/sup 0/C, 4/sup 0/C, room temperature (about 25/sup 0/C), or 37/sup 0/C. The results for FT/sub 4/ in dried blood spots correlated closely with the free-T/sub 4/ concentration in serum (r = 0.99). The method can be used to differentiate cases of primary and secondary hypothyroidism from normal subjects and those with subnormal thyroxin-binding globulin. This method may be useful in screening for congenital hypothyroidism, because sample-retesting is not necessary.

  8. Measurements of the Differential Cross Sections for the Elastic n-H3 and n-H2 Scattering at 14.1 MeV by Using an Inertial Confinement Fusion Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Casey, D. T.; Petrasso, R. D.; McNabb, D. P.; Navratil, P.; Quaglioni, S.; Sangster, T. C.; Glebov, V. Y.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2011-09-15

    For the first time the differential cross section for the elastic neutron-triton (n-3H) and neutron-deuteron (n-2H) scattering at 14.1 MeV has been measured by using an inertial confinement fusion facility. In these experiments, which were carried out by simultaneously measuring elastically scattered 3H and 2H ions from a deuterium-tritium gas-filled inertial confinement fusion capsule implosion, the differential cross section for the elastic n-3H scattering was obtained with significantly higher accuracy than achieved in previous accelerator experiments. The results compare well with calculations that combine the resonating-group method with an ab initio no-core shell model, which demonstrate that recent advances in ab initio theory can provide an accurate description of light-ion reactions.

  9. Normal development.

    PubMed

    Girard, Nadine; Koob, Meriam; Brunel, Herv

    2016-01-01

    Numerous events are involved in brain development, some of which are detected by neuroimaging. Major changes in brain morphology are depicted by brain imaging during the fetal period while changes in brain composition can be demonstrated in both pre- and postnatal periods. Although ultrasonography and computed tomography can show changes in brain morphology, these techniques are insensitive to myelination that is one of the most important events occurring during brain maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is therefore the method of choice to evaluate brain maturation. MRI also gives insight into the microstructure of brain tissue through diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Metabolic changes are also part of brain maturation and are assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Understanding and knowledge of the different steps in brain development are required to be able to detect morphologic and structural changes on neuroimaging. Consequently alterations in normal development can be depicted. PMID:27430460

  10. Intrauterine bacterial inoculation and level of dietary methionine alter amino acid metabolism in nulliparous yearling ewes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using an intrauterine bacterial inoculation method, our objective was to determine the effects of acute sepsis and level of dietary metabolizable-methionine on splanchnic metabolism of amino acids in ewes. Twenty-five nulliparous yearling Rambouillet-cross ewes (initial BW = 65.1 ± 0.6 kg), surgical...

  11. Intrauterine growth retardation and premature delivery: the influence of maternal smoking and psychosocial factors.

    PubMed Central

    Nordentoft, M; Lou, H C; Hansen, D; Nim, J; Pryds, O; Rubin, P; Hemmingsen, R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study investigated the influence of psychosocial stress, maternal schooling, social support, psychological well-being, alcohol, and smoking on intrauterine growth retardation and premature delivery. METHODS. At a Copenhagen university hospital, 2432 pregnant women completed a questionnaire on general health, psychosocial stressors, and sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS. In 212 cases (8.7%) the women delivered prematurely. Preterm delivery as associated with psychosocial stress (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.14 for each 1-point increase on the psychosocial stressor 5-point scale and 1.92 for the whole scale) and poor school education (adjusted OR=2.62 for 7-9 years of schooling, 1.91 for 10 years, and 1.0 for 11-13 years). In 152 cases (6.3%), infants had a birthweight below the 10th percentile. Intrauterine growth retardation was associated with smoking, daily drinking, school education, and social network variables. In a multiple logistic regression model, intrauterine growth retardation was associated with smoking habits (adjusted OR=2.40 for 0-9 cigarettes daily, 2.68 for 10-15 daily, and 2.88 for more than 15 daily). CONCLUSIONS. Psychosocial stressors and limited duration of schooling appeared to influence preterm delivery. Smoking habits influenced intrauterine growth retardation. PMID:8604759

  12. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system: Safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Megan N; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2009-01-01

    The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is a safe, effective and acceptable form of contraception used by over 150 million women worldwide. It also has a variety of noncontraceptive benefits including treatment for menorrhagia, endometriosis, and endometrial hyperplasia. The LNG-IUS has also been used in combination with estrogen for hormone replacement therapy and as an alternative to hysterectomy. Overall, the system is very well tolerated and patient satisfaction is quite high when proper education regarding possible side effects is provided. However, despite all of the obvious benefits of the LNG-IUS, utilization rates remain quite low in the developed countries, especially in the United States. This is thought to be largely secondary to the persistent negative impressions from the Dalkon Shield intrauterine experience in the 1970s. This history continues to negatively influence the opinions of both patients and health care providers with regards to intrauterine devices. Providers should resolve to educate themselves and their patients on the current indications and uses for this device, as it, and intrauterine contraception in general, remains a largely underutilized approach to a variety of women’s health issues. PMID:19707273

  13. Cytologic atypias in the uterine fluid of intrauterine contraceptive device users.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T K; Casslén, B; Stormby, N

    1983-01-01

    A peculiar cell pattern, characterized as an atypical glandular cell cluster (AGCC), was found in the uterine fluid from women using intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs). This atypia can mimic adenocarcinoma. Since the atypical cells were present in much higher frequency in the uterine fluid than in the cervical mucus, it is suggested that they originated in the endometrium. PMID:6573085

  14. Cesarean Scar Dehiscence Associated with Intrauterine Balloon Tamponade Placement After a Second Trimester Dilation and Evacuation

    PubMed Central

    Aeby, Tod; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2011-01-01

    While surgical abortion is a safe procedure, the most common complication is excessive bleeding. Methods to conservatively manage hemorrhage are gaining popularity. The authors present a case of a Cesarean scar rupture that occurred after an intrauterine balloon tamponade was placed to treat postabortion bleeding. PMID:21886300

  15. Exploring Trends in Intrauterine Device (IUD) Usage among Women in the United States: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobiling, Brandye; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs) have not been popular contraceptives in the US for the past 40 years. Recent evidence, however, has shown a slight rebirth in use, from a rate of approximately 2% in 2002 to over 5% in 2008 (Guttmacher Institute, 2010). Empirical evidence is favorable of IUD use in most women, but the still-low usage rate suggests…

  16. Detection of Expressional Changes Induced by Intrauterine Growth Restriction in the Developing Rat Mammary Gland via Exploratory Pathways Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Beinder, Lea; Faehrmann, Nina; Wachtveitl, Rainer; Winterfeld, Ilona; Hartner, Andrea; Menendez-Castro, Carlos; Rauh, Manfred; Ruebner, Matthias; Huebner, Hanna; Noegel, Stephanie C.; Doerr, Helmuth G.; Rascher, Wolfgang; Fahlbusch, Fabian B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is thought to lead to fetal programming that in turn contributes to developmental changes of many organs postnatally. There is evidence that IUGR is a risk factor for the development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease later in life. A higher incidence of breast cancer was also observed after IUGR. This could be due to changes in mammary gland developmental pathways. We sought to characterise IUGR-induced alterations of the complex pathways of mammary development at the level of the transcriptome in a rat model of IUGR, using pathways analysis bioinformatics. Methodology/Principal Findings We analysed the mammary glands of Wistar rats with IUGR induced by maternal low protein (LP) diet at the beginning (d21) and the end (d28) of pubertal ductal morphogenesis. Mammary glands of the LP group were smaller in size at d28, however did not show morphologic changes. We identified multiple differentially expressed genes in the mammary gland using Agilent SurePrint arrays at d21 and d28. In silico analysis was carried out using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis. In mammary gland tissue of LP rats at d21 of life a prominent upregulation of WT1 and CDKN1A (p21) expression was observed. Differentially regulated genes were associated with the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)-1/-2 pathway. Western Blot analysis showed reduced levels of phosphorylated ERK-1/-2 in the mammary glands of the LP group at d21. To identify possible changes in circulating steroid levels, serum LC-Tandem mass-spectrometry was performed. LP rats showed higher serum progesterone levels and an increased corticosterone/dehydrocorticosterone-ratio at d28. Conclusions/Significance Our data obtained from gene array analysis support the hypothesis that IUGR influences pubertal development of the rat mammary gland. We identified prominent differential regulation of genes and pathways for factors regulating cell cycle and growth. Moreover, we detected new

  17. Barcoded sequencing reveals diverse intrauterine microbiomes in patients suffering with endometrial polyps

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Rui-Li; Chen, Lin-Xing; Shu, Wen-Sheng; Yao, Shu-Zhong; Wang, Si-Wen; Chen, Yu-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Results of this study showed that the bacterial composition in vagina (V) greatly differed from intrauterine microbiome (I). Microbiomes were present in all intrauterine samples of healthy women (Group H (I)) and patients with endometrial polyps (EP) (including Group EP (I) and Group EP/chronic endometritis (CE) (I)). Indeed, the intrauterine bacteria population in Group EP/CE (I) were more diverse than those in Groups EP (I) and H (I). The result also confirmed the bacterial composition differences between vagina and uterus as well as the intrauterine microbiome alteration in the patients, compared to the healthy. Although bacteria of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, dominated the intrauterine microbiome in all samples, however, proportions of Firmicutes from Group EP/CE (I) and Group EP (I) were much higher than that from Group H (I), in contrast, the proportions of Proteobacteria were far lower than the healthy. At the genus level, compared to Group H (I), it is found that proportions of Lactobacillus, Gardnerella, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus, and Alteromonas were significantly higher, and that of Pseudomonas were significantly lower in Group EP/CE (I) or Group EP (I). In addition, lower proportions of Enterobacter and Sphingomonas and a higher proportion of Prevotella were also observed in Group EP/CE (I). In conclusion, uterine microbiomes between patients with EP and the healthy are significantly different and all the potentially important variation of uterine microbes may cause EP, but not definitively related to CE. Further experiments should be performed to test these relationships to endometritis occurrence. PMID:27186283

  18. Barcoded sequencing reveals diverse intrauterine microbiomes in patients suffering with endometrial polyps.

    PubMed

    Fang, Rui-Li; Chen, Lin-Xing; Shu, Wen-Sheng; Yao, Shu-Zhong; Wang, Si-Wen; Chen, Yu-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Results of this study showed that the bacterial composition in vagina (V) greatly differed from intrauterine microbiome (I). Microbiomes were present in all intrauterine samples of healthy women (Group H (I)) and patients with endometrial polyps (EP) (including Group EP (I) and Group EP/chronic endometritis (CE) (I)). Indeed, the intrauterine bacteria population in Group EP/CE (I) were more diverse than those in Groups EP (I) and H (I). The result also confirmed the bacterial composition differences between vagina and uterus as well as the intrauterine microbiome alteration in the patients, compared to the healthy. Although bacteria of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, dominated the intrauterine microbiome in all samples, however, proportions of Firmicutes from Group EP/CE (I) and Group EP (I) were much higher than that from Group H (I), in contrast, the proportions of Proteobacteria were far lower than the healthy. At the genus level, compared to Group H (I), it is found that proportions of Lactobacillus, Gardnerella, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus, and Alteromonas were significantly higher, and that of Pseudomonas were significantly lower in Group EP/CE (I) or Group EP (I). In addition, lower proportions of Enterobacter and Sphingomonas and a higher proportion of Prevotella were also observed in Group EP/CE (I). In conclusion, uterine microbiomes between patients with EP and the healthy are significantly different and all the potentially important variation of uterine microbes may cause EP, but not definitively related to CE. Further experiments should be performed to test these relationships to endometritis occurrence. PMID:27186283

  19. DISJUNCTIVE NORMAL SHAPE MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Nisha; Mesadi, Fitsum; Cetin, Mujdat; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    A novel implicit parametric shape model is proposed for segmentation and analysis of medical images. Functions representing the shape of an object can be approximated as a union of N polytopes. Each polytope is obtained by the intersection of M half-spaces. The shape function can be approximated as a disjunction of conjunctions, using the disjunctive normal form. The shape model is initialized using seed points defined by the user. We define a cost function based on the Chan-Vese energy functional. The model is differentiable, hence, gradient based optimization algorithms are used to find the model parameters. PMID:27403233

  20. Intrauterine growth restriction perturbs nucleosome depletion at a growth hormone-responsive element in the mouse IGF-1 gene.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Robert A; Yost, Christian C; Yu, Xing; Wiedmeier, Julia E; Callaway, Christopher W; Brown, Ashley S; Lane, Robert H; Fung, Camille M

    2015-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a common human pregnancy complication. IUGR offspring carry significant postnatal risk for early-onset metabolic syndrome, which is associated with persistent reduction in IGF-1 protein expression. We have previously shown that preadolescent IUGR male mice have decreased hepatic IGF-1 mRNA and circulating IGF-1 protein at postnatal day 21, the age when growth hormone (GH) normally upregulates hepatic IGF-1 expression. Here we studied nucleosome occupancy and CpG methylation at a putative growth hormone-responsive element in intron 2 (in2GHRE) of the hepatic IGF-1 gene in normal, sham-operated, and IUGR mice. Nucleosome occupancy and CpG methylation were determined in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and in liver at postnatal days 14, 21, and 42. For CpG methylation, additional time points out to 2 yr were analyzed. We confirmed the putative mouse in2GHRE was GH-responsive, and in normal mice, a single nucleosome was displaced from the hepatic in2GHRE by postnatal day 21, which exposed two STAT5b DNA binding sites. Nucleosome displacement correlated with developmentally programmed CpG demethylation. Finally, IUGR significantly altered the nucleosome-depleted region (NDR) at the in2GHRE of IGF-1 on postnatal day 21, with either complete absence of the NDR or with a shifted NDR exposing only one of two STAT5b DNA binding sites. An NDR shift was also seen in offspring of sham-operated mothers. We conclude that prenatal insult such as IUGR or anesthesia/surgery could perturb the proper formation of a well-positioned NDR at the mouse hepatic IGF-1 in2GHRE necessary for transitioning to an open chromatin state. PMID:26487705

  1. Increased Fetal Plasma Erythropoietin in Monochorionic Twin Pregnancies With Selective Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Abnormal Umbilical Artery Doppler.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Lung; Chao, An-Shine; Peng, Hsiu-Huei; Chang, Shuenn-Dyh; Su, Sheng-Yuan; Chen, Kuan-Ju; Cheng, Po-Jen; Wang, Tzu-Hao

    2016-08-01

    Hypoxia is the primary stimulus for the production of erythropoietin (EPO) in both fetal and adult life. Here, we investigated fetal plasma EPO concentrations in monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) and abnormal umbilical artery (UA) Doppler. We diagnosed sIUGR in presence of (1) birth-weight discordance >20% and (2) either twin with a birth weight <10th percentile. An abnormal UA Doppler was defined as a persistent absent-reverse end diastolic flow (AREDF). The intertwin EPO ratio was calculated as the plasma EPO level of the smaller (or small-for-gestational-age) twin divided by the EPO concentration of the larger (or appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA)) twin. Thirty-two MC twin pairs were included. Of these, 17 pairs were normal twins (Group 1), seven pairs were twins with sIUGR without UA Doppler abnormalities (Group 2), and eight pairs were twins with sIUGR and UA Doppler abnormalities (Group 3). The highest EPO ratio was identified in Group 3 (p < .001) but no significant differences were observed between Groups 1 and 2. Fetal hemoglobin levels did not differ significantly in the three groups, and fetal EPO concentration did not correlate with gestational age at birth. We conclude that fetal plasma EPO concentrations are selectively increased in MC twin pregnancies with sIUGR and abnormal UA Doppler, possibly as a result of uncompensated hypoxia. PMID:27161360

  2. Role for the thromboxane A2 receptor β-isoform in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Katie L.; Stevens, Veronica; Upton, Dannielle H.; McCracken, Sharon A.; Simpson, Ann M.; Cheng, Yan; Tasevski, Vitomir; Morris, Jonathan M.; Ashton, Anthony W.

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pathology of pregnancy that results in failure of the fetus to reach its genetically determined growth potential. In developed nations the most common cause of IUGR is impaired placentation resulting from poor trophoblast function, which reduces blood flow to the fetoplacental unit, promotes hypoxia and enhances production of bioactive lipids (TXA2 and isoprostanes) which act through the thromboxane receptor (TP). TP activation has been implicated as a pathogenic factor in pregnancy complications, including IUGR; however, the role of TP isoforms during pregnancy is poorly defined. We have determined that expression of the human-specific isoform of TP (TPβ) is increased in placentae from IUGR pregnancies, compared to healthy pregnancies. Overexpression of TPα enhanced trophoblast proliferation and syncytialisation. Conversely, TPβ attenuated these functions and inhibited migration. Expression of the TPβ transgene in mice resulted in growth restricted pups and placentae with poor syncytialisation and diminished growth characteristics. Together our data indicate that expression of TPα mediates normal placentation; however, TPβ impairs placentation, and promotes the development of IUGR, and represents an underappreciated pathogenic factor in humans. PMID:27363493

  3. Placental Expression Patterns of Galectin-1, Galectin-2, Galectin-3 and Galectin-13 in Cases of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR)

    PubMed Central

    Hutter, Stefan; Knabl, Julia; Andergassen, Ulrich; Hofmann, Simone; Kuhn, Christina; Mahner, Sven; Arck, Petra; Jeschke, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Galectins (gal) are members of the mammalian β-galactoside-binding proteins and recognize Galβ1-4GlcNAc and Galβ1-4GalNac (Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF)) sequences of several cell surface oligosaccharides. In this study, gal-1, -2, -3 and -13 were investigated systematically in the trophoblast and decidua compartment of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) placentas and normal third trimester control placentas and stratified by fetal gender and gestational age. Within this study, 29 third trimester placentas after delivery were analyzed. Fetal gender was equally divided within both groups, and immunohistochemical staining was analyzed according to fetal gender and gestational age. Double immune-fluorescence with trophoblast-specific markers was used to identify galectin-expressing cells at the feto-maternal interface in the decidua. Gal-3 was significantly downregulated only in the extravillous trophoblast of IUGR placentas. In contrast, expressions of gal-2 and gal-13 were downregulated in both villous and extravillous trophoblast cells of IUGR placentas. In addition, gal-2 and gal-13 showed a highly correlated expression scheme in the placenta. There are significant gender-specific expression patterns for single prototype galectins with downregulation of gal-2 and gal-13 of male gender placentas in cases of IUGR. Gal-3 as the chimera type galectin shows only little gender-specific differences in expression, which disappear in IUGR cases. PMID:27070577

  4. The Nexus of Prematurity, Birth Defects, and Intrauterine Growth Restriction: A Role for Plac1-Regulated Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Fant, Michael E.; Fuentes, Juan; Kong, Xiaoyuan; Jackman, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increased prevalence of birth defects and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) among infants born prematurely suggesting they share common biological determinants. The identification of key regulatory pathways contributing to this nexus is essential to ongoing efforts to develop effective intervention strategies. Plac1 is a paternally imprinted and X-linked gene that conforms to this paradigm. Examination of a mutant mouse model has confirmed that Plac1 is essential for normal placental development and function. Moreover, it is expressed throughout the developing embryo indicating that it also has broad relevance to embryogenesis. Most notably, its absence in the developing embryo is associated with abnormal brain development and an increased risk of lethal, postnatal hydrocephalus identifying it as a novel, X-linked determinant of brain development. The essential and non-redundant roles of Plac1 in placental and neurological development represent a novel regulatory paradigm for embryonic growth and pregnancy maintenance. Regulatory pathways influenced, in part, by Plac1 are likely to contribute to the observed nexus of IUGR, prematurity, and birth defects. PMID:24600606

  5. Placental Expression Patterns of Galectin-1, Galectin-2, Galectin-3 and Galectin-13 in Cases of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR).

    PubMed

    Hutter, Stefan; Knabl, Julia; Andergassen, Ulrich; Hofmann, Simone; Kuhn, Christina; Mahner, Sven; Arck, Petra; Jeschke, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Galectins (gal) are members of the mammalian β-galactoside-binding proteins and recognize Galβ1-4GlcNAc and Galβ1-4GalNac (Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF)) sequences of several cell surface oligosaccharides. In this study, gal-1, -2, -3 and -13 were investigated systematically in the trophoblast and decidua compartment of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) placentas and normal third trimester control placentas and stratified by fetal gender and gestational age. Within this study, 29 third trimester placentas after delivery were analyzed. Fetal gender was equally divided within both groups, and immunohistochemical staining was analyzed according to fetal gender and gestational age. Double immune-fluorescence with trophoblast-specific markers was used to identify galectin-expressing cells at the feto-maternal interface in the decidua. Gal-3 was significantly downregulated only in the extravillous trophoblast of IUGR placentas. In contrast, expressions of gal-2 and gal-13 were downregulated in both villous and extravillous trophoblast cells of IUGR placentas. In addition, gal-2 and gal-13 showed a highly correlated expression scheme in the placenta. There are significant gender-specific expression patterns for single prototype galectins with downregulation of gal-2 and gal-13 of male gender placentas in cases of IUGR. Gal-3 as the chimera type galectin shows only little gender-specific differences in expression, which disappear in IUGR cases. PMID:27070577

  6. Markers of early endothelial dysfunction in intrauterine growth restriction-derived human umbilical vein endothelial cells revealed by 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry analyses.

    PubMed

    Caniuguir, Andres; Krause, Bernardo J; Hernandez, Cherie; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola

    2016-05-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) associates with fetal and placental vascular dysfunction, and increased cardiovascular risk later on life. We hypothesize that endothelial cells derived from IUGR umbilical veins present significant changes in the proteome which could be involved in the endothelial dysfunction associated to this conditions. To address this the proteome profile of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) isolated from control and IUGR pregnancies was compared by 2D-Differential In Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) and further protein identification by MALDI-TOF MS. Using 2D-DIGE 124 spots were identified as differentially expressed between control and IUGR HUVEC, considering a cut-off of 2 fold change, which represented ∼10% of the total spots detected. Further identification by MALDI-TOF MS and in silico clustering of the proteins showed that those differentially expressed proteins between control and IUGR HUVEC were mainly related with cytoskeleton organization, proteasome degradation, oxidative stress response, mRNA processing, chaperones and vascular function. Finally Principal Component analysis of the identified proteins showed that differentially expressed proteins allow distinguishing between control and IUGR HUVEC based on their proteomic profile. This study demonstrates for the first time that IUGR-derived HUVEC maintained in primary culture conditions present an altered proteome profile, which could reflect an abnormal programming of endothelial function in this fetal condition. PMID:27208404

  7. Quantitative analysis of hormones and inflammatory cytokines in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected women with tubal ectopic pregnancy and early intrauterine pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Ruijin; Feng, Yi; Zou, Shien; Li, Xin; Cui, Peng; Billig, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    In this data, non-pregnant women during the menstrual cycle, women with normal intrauterine pregnancy (IUP), and women with tubal ectopic pregnancy (EP) after informed consent were included. The serum levels of 17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), epidermal growth factor, the Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis IgG and HSP60 were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the diagnostic discrimination of tubal EP and gestational age-matched IUP. Our data show that C. trachomatis infection is associated with IL-8 levels, which had excellent discriminative validity in positively identifying tubal EP (concomitant with C. trachomatis infection) from IUP and non-pregnant conditions regardless of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:26858978

  8. Micronutrients and intrauterine infection, preterm birth and the fetal inflammatory response syndrome.

    PubMed

    Romero, Roberto; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Espinoza, Jimmy

    2003-05-01

    Prematurity is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Intrauterine infection has emerged as a major cause of premature labor and delivery. It has been estimated that 25% of all preterm deliveries occur to mothers who have microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity, although these infections are mostly subclinical in nature. This article describes the pathways leading to intrauterine infection, microbiology, frequency and clinical consequences of infection. The pathophysiology of the fetal inflammatory response syndrome is reviewed, as is its relationship to long-term handicap, such as cerebral palsy and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. A possible role for two micronutrients, vitamins C and E, in the prevention of the preterm prelabor rupture of membranes and the consequences of fetal inflammation is considered. Research needs are listed. PMID:12730483

  9. Do Endometrial Movements Affect The Achievement of Pregnancy during Intrauterine Insemination?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ari; Young Lee, Ji; Il Ji, Yong; Hyeog Lee, Hae; Sil Lee, Eun; Yeol Kim, Heung; Oh, Young Lim

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was aimed to assess the effect of endometrial movements on pregnancy achievement in intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles. Materials and Methods The population of this observational study was composed of unexplained infertility couples undergoing first-time IUI with clomiphene citrate between September 2010 and October 2011. Not only endometrial movements, but also thickness, volume, pattern, and echogenic change of endometrium were analyzed prospectively in prediction of pregnancy. Results The total number of 241 cycles of IUI with 49 intrauterine pregnancies (20.3%) was analyzed. Pregnancy was not related to endometrial thickness and endometrial volume, but significantly related to endometrial movements associated with the number of contraction, strong movement, cervicofundal direction, and hyperechoic change (p<0.05). Pregnant group showed higher cervicofundal movement rate (89.8 vs. 75.5%). Conclusion For IUI cycles stimulated by clomiphene citrate in unexplained infertility women, endometrial movements on the day of IUI could be a predictor of pregnancy. PMID:25780522

  10. Secondary Vesical Calculus Resulting from Migration of an Intrauterine Contraceptive Device

    PubMed Central

    Vagholkar, Suvarna; Vagholkar, Ketan

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is the commonest form of contraception used in view of less systemic side effects. However, there are a multitude of local complications caused by it. Of all the local complications described, migration of the device into adjacent organs is the most morbid of all complications. A patient presenting with history of loss or disappearance of the intrauterine contraceptive device accompanied by urinary symptoms should raise the doubt of a migrated device with the formation of a secondary calculus. This prompts further radiological investigations and merits surgical intervention either endourologically or by open surgery depending upon the merits of the case. A case report elucidating this fact is presented. PMID:22852102

  11. Cardiovascular Disease Risk in the Offspring of Diabetic Women: The Impact of the Intrauterine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Marco, Laura J.; McCloskey, Kate; Vuillermin, Peter J.; Burgner, David; Said, Joanne; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of gestational diabetes is increasing worldwide, exposing large numbers of infants to hyperglycaemia whilst in utero. This exposure may have a long-term negative impact on the cardiovascular health of the offspring. Novel methods to assess cardiovascular status in the neonatal period are now available—including measuring arterial intima-media thickness and retinal photography. These measures will allow researchers to assess the relative impact of intrauterine exposures, distinguishing these from genetic or postnatal environmental factors. Understanding the long-term impact of the intrauterine environment should allow the development of more effective health policy and interventions to decrease the future burden of cardiovascular disease. Initiating disease prevention aimed at the developing fetus during the antenatal period may optimise community health outcomes. PMID:23133443

  12. Intrauterine growth restriction: impact on cardiovascular development and function throughout infancy.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Emily; Wong, Flora Y; Horne, Rosemary S C; Yiallourou, Stephanie R

    2016-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) refers to the situation where a fetus does not grow according to its genetic growth potential. One of the main causes of IUGR is uteroplacental vascular insufficiency. Under these circumstances of chronic oxygen and nutrient deprivation, the growth-restricted fetus often displays typical circulatory changes, which in part represent adaptations to the suboptimal intrauterine environment. These fetal adaptations aim to preserve oxygen and nutrient supply to vital organs such as the brain, the heart, and the adrenals. These prenatal circulatory adaptations are thought to lead to an altered development of the cardiovascular system and "program" the fetus for life long cardiovascular morbidities. In this review, we discuss the alterations to cardiovascular structure, function, and control that have been observed in growth-restricted fetuses, neonates, and infants following uteroplacental vascular insufficiency. We also discuss the current knowledge on early life surveillance and interventions to prevent progression into chronic disease. PMID:26866903

  13. Specific Lipopolysaccharide Serotypes Induce Differential Maternal and Neonatal Inflammatory Responses in a Murine Model of Preterm Labor

    PubMed Central

    Migale, Roberta; Herbert, Bronwen R.; Lee, Yun S.; Sykes, Lynne; Waddington, Simon N.; Peebles, Donald; Hagberg, Henrik; Johnson, Mark R.; Bennett, Phillip R.; MacIntyre, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine inflammation is recognized as a key mediator of both normal and preterm birth but is also associated with neonatal neurological injury. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is often used to stimulate inflammatory pathways in animal models of infection/inflammation-induced preterm labor; however, inconsistencies in maternal and neonatal responses to LPS are frequently reported. We hypothesized that LPS serotype-specific responses may account for a portion of these inconsistencies. Four different Escherichia coli LPS serotypes (O111:B4, O55:B5, O127:B8, and O128:B12) were administered to CD1 mice via intrauterine injection at gestational day 16. Although control animals delivered at term 60 ± 15 hours postinjection (p.i.), those administered with O111:B4 delivered 7 ± 2 hours p.i., O55:B5 delivered 10 ± 3 hours p.i., O127:B8 delivered 16 ± 10 hours p.i., and O128:B12 delivered 17 ± 2 hours p.i. (means ± SD). A correlation between the onset of preterm labor and myometrial activation of the inflammatory transcription factor, activator protein 1, but not NF-κB was observed. Specific LPS serotypes induced differential activation of downstream contractile and inflammatory pathways in myometrium and neonatal pup brain. Our findings demonstrate functional disparity in inflammatory pathway activation in response to differing LPS serotypes. Selective use of LPS serotypes may represent a useful tool for targeting specific inflammatory response mechanisms in these models. PMID:26212908

  14. Neurodegenerative changes and apoptosis induced by intrauterine and extrauterine exposure of radiofrequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Güler, Göknur; Ozgur, Elcin; Keles, Hikmet; Tomruk, Arin; Vural, Sevil Atalay; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    Adverse health effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on the ongoing developmental stages of children from conception to childhood are scientifically anticipated subject. This study was performed to identify the effects of global system for mobile communications (GSM) modulated mobile phone like RFR in 1800MHz frequency on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation beside the apoptotic cell formation, using histopathological and immunohistochemical methods in the brain tissue of 1-month-old male and female New Zealand White rabbits that were exposed to these fields at their mother's womb and after the birth. Oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation levels were investigated by measuring the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, respectively. Histopathological changes were observed using by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Apoptotic cells were detected in the examined organs by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining. For both male and female infants; 8-OHdG levels increased in the group exposed to RFR in both intrauterine and extrauterine periods compared to the infants that were never exposed to RFR and the ones were exposed when they reached one month of age (p<0.05). MDA results were different for male and female rabbits. There was no difference between all female infant groups (p>0.05), while only intrauterine exposure significantly causes MDA level increase for the male infants. HE staining revealed mild lessions in neuronal necrobiosis in brain tissues of female rabbits that had only intaruterine exposure and male rabbits had only extrauterine exposure. Gliosis were mildly positive in brain tissues of rabbits that are exposed only intrauterine period, also the group exposed both intrauterine and extrauterine periods. However, there was no apoptotic change detected by TUNEL staining in the brain tissues of all groups. PMID:26520616

  15. Intrauterine synechiae after myomectomy; laparotomy versus laparoscopy: Non-randomized interventional trial

    PubMed Central

    Asgari, Zahra; Hafizi, Leili; Hosseini, Rayhaneh; Javaheri, Atiyeh; Rastad, Hathis

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leiomyomata is the most frequent gynecological neoplasm. One of the major complications of myomectomy is intrauterine adhesion (synechiae). Objective: To evaluate and compare the rate and severity of synechiae formation after myomectomy by laparotomy and laparoscopy. Materials and Methods: In this non-randomized interventional trial, hysteroscopy was performed in all married fertile women who had undergone myomectomy (type 3-6 interamural and subserosal fibroids) via laparotomy and laparoscopy in Tehran’s Arash Hospital from 2010 to 2013. Three months after the operation, the occurrence rate and severity of intrauterine synechiae, and its relationship with type, number and location of myomas were investigated and compared in both groups. Results: Forty patients (19 laparoscopy and 21 laparotomy cases) were studied. Both groups were similar regarding the size, type (subserosal or intramural), number and location of myoma. The occurrence rate of synechiae in the laparoscopy and laparotomy group was 21% and 19%, respectively; showing no significant difference (p=0.99). Among all patients, no significant relationship was found between the endometrial opening (p=0.92), location (p=0.14) and type of myoma (p=0.08) with the occurrence rate of synechiae. However, a significant relationship was observed between myoma’s size (p=0.01) and the location of the largest myoma with the occurrence of synechiae (p=0.02). Conclusion: With favorable suturing methods, the outcome of intrauterine synechiae formation after myomectomy, either performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy, is similar. In all cases of myomectomy in reproductive-aged women, postoperative hysteroscopy is highly recommended to better screen intrauterine synechiae. PMID:26000007

  16. Diversity and health status specific fluctuations of intrauterine microbial communities in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wagener, K; Prunner, I; Pothmann, H; Drillich, M; Ehling-Schulz, M

    2015-02-25

    For the interpretation of clinical findings of endometritis and the development of disease prevention and intervention strategies a better understanding of the dynamics and interactions within intrauterine bacterial communities in healthy and diseased cows is required. To gain deeper insights into fluctuations within the uterine microbiota, intrauterine samples were collected from 122 cows at the day of calving, days 3, 9, 15, 21 and 28 postpartum. A total of 2052 bacterial isolates were identified by Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy. This culturomics-based approach showed that the aerobic uterine microflora comprised a huge diversity of bacteria belonging to 202 different species, representing 76 genera, with members of the genus Staphylococcus (24.2%) being predominant. On species level the uterine microflora was dominated by Trueperella pyogenes (13.2%), Escherichia coli (11.2%), Staphylococcus xylosus (5.4%), Bacillus pumilus (5.2%) and Streptococcus uberis (4.9%). Comparative analysis of uterine bacteria from cows with different vaginal discharge scores (VDS) revealed health status specific temporal microbial diversifications. Although the intrauterine flora of all VDS groups was dominated by T. pyogenes, E. coli and Staphylococcus spp., the relative number of bacteria differed between VDS groups. The presence of T. pyogenes on days 15 and 21 significantly increased the risk of VDS 2 and 3 at day 21, whereas Staphylococci at day 9 reduced the likelihood of VDS 3 (P<0.05). This study demonstrates that intrauterine bacterial infections are highly dynamic processes and that bacterial species follow specific patterns of progression, which require further research to decipher their potential role in uterine disease development. PMID:25497238

  17. ITE and TCDD differentially regulate the vascular remodeling of rat placenta via the activation of AhR.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanming; Chen, Xiao; Zhou, Qian; He, Qizhi; Kang, Jiuhong; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Kai; Duan, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Vascular remodeling in the placenta is essential for normal fetal development. The previous studies have demonstrated that in utero exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, an environmental toxicant) induces the intrauterine fetal death in many species via the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In the current study, we compared the effects of 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) and TCDD on the vascular remodeling of rat placentas. Pregnant rats on gestational day (GD) 15 were randomly assigned into 5 groups, and were exposed to a single dose of 1.6 and 8.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) ITE, 1.6 and 8.0 µg/kg bw TCDD, or an equivalent volume of the vehicle, respectively. The dams were sacrificed on GD20 and the placental tissues were gathered. The intrauterine fetal death was observed only in 8.0 µg/kg bw TCDD-exposed group and no significant difference was seen in either the placental weight or the fetal weight among all these groups. The immunohistochemical and histological analyses revealed that as compared with the vehicle-control, TCDD, but not ITE, suppressed the placental vascular remodeling, including reduced the ratio of the placental labyrinth zone to the basal zone thickness (at least 0.71 fold of control), inhibited the maternal sinusoids dilation and thickened the trophoblastic septa. However, no marked difference was observed in the density of fetal capillaries in the labyrinth zone among these groups, although significant differences were detected in the expression of angiogenic growth factors between ITE and TCDD-exposed groups, especially Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), Endoglin, Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and placenta growth factor (PIGF). These results suggest ITE and TCDD differentially regulate the vascular remodeling of rat placentas, as well as the expression of angiogenic factors and their receptors, which in turn may alter the blood flow in the late gestation and partially resulted in

  18. ITE and TCDD Differentially Regulate the Vascular Remodeling of Rat Placenta via the Activation of AhR

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qian; He, Qizhi; Kang, Jiuhong; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Kai; Duan, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Vascular remodeling in the placenta is essential for normal fetal development. The previous studies have demonstrated that in utero exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, an environmental toxicant) induces the intrauterine fetal death in many species via the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In the current study, we compared the effects of 2-(1′H-indole-3′-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) and TCDD on the vascular remodeling of rat placentas. Pregnant rats on gestational day (GD) 15 were randomly assigned into 5 groups, and were exposed to a single dose of 1.6 and 8.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) ITE, 1.6 and 8.0 µg/kg bw TCDD, or an equivalent volume of the vehicle, respectively. The dams were sacrificed on GD20 and the placental tissues were gathered. The intrauterine fetal death was observed only in 8.0 µg/kg bw TCDD-exposed group and no significant difference was seen in either the placental weight or the fetal weight among all these groups. The immunohistochemical and histological analyses revealed that as compared with the vehicle-control, TCDD, but not ITE, suppressed the placental vascular remodeling, including reduced the ratio of the placental labyrinth zone to the basal zone thickness (at least 0.71 fold of control), inhibited the maternal sinusoids dilation and thickened the trophoblastic septa. However, no marked difference was observed in the density of fetal capillaries in the labyrinth zone among these groups, although significant differences were detected in the expression of angiogenic growth factors between ITE and TCDD-exposed groups, especially Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), Endoglin, Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and placenta growth factor (PIGF). These results suggest ITE and TCDD differentially regulate the vascular remodeling of rat placentas, as well as the expression of angiogenic factors and their receptors, which in turn may alter the blood flow in the late gestation and partially resulted in

  19. Tissue and serum concentrations of amikacin after intramuscular and intrauterine administration to mares in estrus.

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, J A; Park, M I; Spencer, P A

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of amikacin in endometrial tissue and plasma were studied in mares in estrus after intrauterine infusion of 1.0 or 2.0 g once a day for 3 consecutive d, and after 9.7 or 14.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) had been injected intramuscularly once a day for 3 consecutive d to determine concentrations of amikacin sulfate in plasma and endometrial tissues, and whether parenteral administration provides any advantages over intramuscular infusion. No amikacin was detected in serum at the 1.0 g dose. At the infusion dose of 2.0 g once a day, very low levels of serum amikacin were detected at 1 and 4 h postinfusion on the 1st treatment day. Amikacin was found to penetrate the endometrium after intramuscular injection; however, the levels attained were not as high as those achieved following intrauterine infusion. Based on the tissue and serum concentrations of amikacin, an intrauterine infusion at a dose of 4.4 mg/kg BW/d would appear to be an appropriate therapeutic regimen for the treatment of gram-negative endometritis. PMID:8681283

  20. Altered levels of brain neurotransmitter from new born rabbits with intrauterine restriction.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Andrade, E; Cortés-Camberos, A J; Díaz, N F; Flores-Herrera, H; García-López, G; González-Jiménez, M; Santamaría, A; Molina-Hernández, A

    2015-01-01

    Fetal intrauterine growth restriction generates chronic hypoxia due to placental insufficiency. Despite the hemodynamic process of blood flow, redistributions are taking place in key organs such as the fetal brain during intrauterine growth restriction, in order to maintain oxygen and nutrients supply. The risk of short- and long-term neurological effects are still present in hypoxic offspring. Most studies previously reported the effect of hypoxia on the levels of a single neurotransmitter, making it difficult to have a better understanding of the relationship among neurotransmitter levels and the defects reported in products that suffer intrauterine growth restriction, such as motor development, coordination and execution of movement, and the learning-memory process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, dopamine and serotonin in three structures of the brain related to the above-mentioned function such as the cerebral cortex, the striatum, and the hippocampus in the chronic hypoxic newborn rabbit model. Our results showed a significant increase in glutamate and dopamine levels in all studied brain structures and a significant decrease in gamma-aminobutyric acid levels but only in the striatum, suggesting that the imbalance on the levels of several neurotransmitters could be involved in new born brain damage due to perinatal hypoxia. PMID:25304540

  1. Intrauterine effect of dam on prenatal development of craniofacial complex of mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, K; Sasaki, Y; Yanagita, K; Matsumoto, T; Watanabe, Y; Nakata, M

    1993-01-01

    Embryo transfer effect and intrauterine effect of the dam on prenatal development of the craniofacial complex of mice embryos were investigated with the use of embryo transfer and cephalostat. DDD strain embryos were transferred to the three strains of recipients (DDD, C57BL, and DBA). The cephalometric observation of newborn offspring developed from transferred embryos was performed just after parturition. Dorso-ventral craniofacial size of newborn offspring was calculated using values of X- and Y-coordinates on a dorsoventral cephalogram. Statistical analysis showed that a significant intergroup difference in craniofacial size between transferred and nontransferred groups as well as a significant inter-strain difference among those of the three strains of recipients were observed. Thus, it was disclosed that embryo transfer technique might retard the prenatal development of craniofacial complex of transferred embryo and that the three strains of recipients contributed unequally to the prenatal development of craniofacial complex of transferred embryo through each of their intrauterine environments as a prenatal maternal effect. These results indicated that the intrauterine environment of the recipient played an important role in the prenatal development of the craniofacial complex of the mice embryo. PMID:8227293

  2. [Pathologic-anatomical changes in newborn goats caused by an intrauterine Schmallenberg virus infection].

    PubMed

    Wagner, Henrik; Eskens, Ulrich; Nesseler, Anne; Riesse, Karin; Kaim, Ute; Volmer, Renate; Hamann, Hans-Peter; Sauerwald, Claudia; Wehrend, Axel

    2014-01-01

    A complex of various malformations in newborns was observed to an increased extent in sheep farms in the 2011/2012 lambing season. An intrauterine Schmallenberg virus (SBV) infection was identified as the cause of these malformations. To date, a detailed pathological description of the deformity complex has only been given for bovine and ovine newborns.The aim of this study was therefore to provide a description of pathologic-anatomical congenital malformations in goat kids caused by intrauterine SBV infection. To this end, pathologic-anatomical and molecular biological investigations by PCR were carried out on 37 goat kids and 457 lambs from 238 sheep and goat farms in order to carry out an interspecies comparison. Of the 37 goat kids dissected, it was possible to identify a SBV infection in twelve animals (32.4%) by RT-PCR. In nine animals (24.3%) displaying pathological-anatomical malformations SBV could not be detected by PCR. The following malformations were observed: athrogryposis, deformation of spinal column, torticollis, asymmetry of the skull, brachygnathia inferior, cerebellar hypoplasia, cerebellar aplasia and internal hydrocephalus. Arthogryposis was the most common malformation, both in animals with positive PCR results and those with negative PCR results. This study documents congenital malformations caused by an intrauterine SBV infection for the first time on a large number of newborn goats. PMID:24693655

  3. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system use in premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine leiomyoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenxiao; Shen, Qi; Chen, Miaomiao; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Qingfeng; Zhu, Xuejie; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2014-08-01

    A systematic review is done to determine the efficacy and safety of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems as a treatment using in premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine leiomyoma. We searched the Medline, Central and ICTRP databases for all articles published from inception through July 2013 that examined the following outcomes: uterine volume, uterine leiomyoma volume, endometrial thickness, then menstrual blood loss, blood haemoglobin, ferritin and hematocrit levels, treatment failure rate, device expulsion rate, hysterectomy rate and side effects. From 645 studies, a total of 11 studies met our inclusion criteria with sample sizes ranging from 10 to 104. Evidence suggested that levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems could decrease uterine volume and endometrial thickness, significantly reduce menstrual blood loss, and increase blood haemoglobin, ferritin and hematocrit levels. There was no evidence for decreasing uterine leiomyoma volume. There were no adverse effects on the ovarian function except for ovarian cysts. Device expulsion rates were low, which associated with leiomyoma size (larger than 3cm) but not with leiomyoma location. Irregular bleeding/spotting was observed at the beginning of the follow-up period and then decreased progressively. Results of this systematic review indicate that levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems may be effective and safe treatment for symptomatic uterine leiomyoma in premenopausal women. PMID:24832215

  4. Preterm labor and neonatal sepsis caused by intrauterine Helicobacter cinaedi infection.

    PubMed

    Maki, Yohei; Furukawa, Seishi; Kodama, Yuki; Sumiyoshi, Kaeko; Kino, Emi; Sameshima, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter cinaedi is a rare pathogen but known to cause bacteremia, cellulitis and enterocolitis. Recently, cases of involving various organs are increasingly reported such as endocarditis, meningitis, and kidney cyst infection. We report a case of intrauterine H. cinaedi infection leading preterm birth and neonatal sepsis. A 29-year-old pregnant women who was no underlying disease hospitalized due to threatened preterm labor at 22 weeks of gestation. Clinical findings showed uterine tenderness, fever, leukocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein. H. cinaedi was isolated from amniotic fluid obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis. We diagnosed as intrauterine H. cinaedi infection and administered intravenous ampicillin followed by oxytocin to terminate pregnancy. A live 446 g male infant was delivered. The patient was no signs of infection throughout postpartum course and discharged on post-delivery day 5. The neonate was admitted in neonatal intensive care unit and administered ampicillin and amikacin. H. cinaedi was isolated from umbilical cord blood culture. He has no signs of infection on day 5 but died from uncontrollable hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis on 15 days of age. H. cinaedi can cause intrauterine infection during pregnancy and lead preterm labor and neonatal sepsis. PMID:26806147

  5. The Overexpression of TGF-β and CCN2 in Intrauterine Adhesions Involves the NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xiang; Chen, Qing; Zhao, Gang; Zhao, Jin-Yan; Duan, Zhao; Zheng, Peng-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine adhesions (IUA) are a significant cause of menstrual disturbance and infertility, but their pathogenesis still remains unclear. Here, we investigated the expression of TGF-β and CCN2 in IUA endometrial tissue by immunohistochemistry, western blotting and qRT-PCR assays, and found the expression of TGF-β and CCN2 in the endometrial tissue of IUA was significantly increased compared to normal endometrium and uterine septum (P<0.01), suggesting that TGF-β and CCN2 may play an important role in the formation of IUA. Moreover, the activity of the NF-κB signaling pathway in endometrial tissue of IUA was also significantly enhanced compared to normal endometrial and uterine septum (P<0.01) and positively correlated with the expression of TGF-β and CCN2, which suggested that TGF-β and CCN2 expression may be involved in the NF-κB signaling pathway. Blocking the NF-κB signaling pathway using SN50 resulted in the reduced expression of TGF-β in RL95-2 cells, which confirmed the association of the NF-κB signaling pathway and TGF-β in endometrial cells. Additionally, the expression of TGF-β and CCN2 was associated with IUA recurrence, which provides a potential prognostic indictor for IUA. Together, these results demonstrated that TGF-β and CCN2 play an important role in IUA formation, whose mechanism was associated with the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:26719893

  6. Placental Underperfusion in a Rat Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction Induced by a Reduced Plasma Volume Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Bibeau, Karine; Sicotte, Benoit; Béland, Mélanie; Bhat, Menakshi; Gaboury, Louis; Couture, Réjean; St-Louis, Jean; Brochu, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    Lower maternal plasma volume expansion was found in idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) but the link remains to be elucidated. An animal model of IUGR was developed by giving a low-sodium diet to rats over the last week of gestation. This treatment prevents full expansion of maternal circulating volume and the increase in uterine artery diameter, leading to reduced placental weight compared to normal gestation. We aimed to verify whether this is associated with reduced remodeling of uteroplacental circulation and placental hypoxia. Dams were divided into two groups: IUGR group and normal-fed controls. Blood velocity waveforms in the main uterine artery were obtained by Doppler sonography on days 14, 18 and 21 of pregnancy. On day 22 (term = 23 days), rats were sacrificed and placentas and uterine radial arteries were collected. Diameter and myogenic response of uterine arteries supplying placentas were determined while expression of hypoxia-modulated genes (HIF-1α, VEGFA and VEGFR2), apoptotic enzyme (Caspase -3 and -9) and glycogen cells clusters were measured in control and IUGR term-placentas. In the IUGR group, impaired blood velocity in the main uterine artery along with increased resistance index was observed without alteration in umbilical artery blood velocity. Radial uterine artery diameter was reduced while myogenic response was increased. IUGR placentas displayed increased expression of hypoxia markers without change in the caspases and increased glycogen cells in the junctional zone. The present data suggest that reduced placental and fetal growth in our IUGR model may be mediated, in part, through reduced maternal uteroplacental blood flow and increased placental hypoxia. PMID:26727492

  7. Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Interferes with the Maintenance and Differentiation of Trophoblast Progenitor Cells of the Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Tabata, Takako; Petitt, Matthew; Zydek, Martin; Fang-Hoover, June; Larocque, Nicholas; Tsuge, Mitsuru; Gormley, Matthew; Kauvar, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    , hearing loss, visual impairment, and pregnancy complications, including intrauterine growth restriction, preterm delivery, and stillbirth. Currently, there is neither a vaccine nor any approved treatment for congenital HCMV infection during gestation. The molecular mechanisms underlying structural deficiencies in the placenta that undermine fetal development are poorly understood. Here we report that HCMV replicates in trophoblast progenitor cells (TBPCs)—precursors of the mature placental cells, syncytiotrophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts, in chorionic villi—in clinical cases of congenital infection. Virus replication in TBPCs in vitro dysregulates key proteins required for self-renewal and differentiation and inhibits normal division and development into mature placental cells. Our findings provide insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms by which HCMV replication interferes with placental maturation and transport functions. PMID:25741001

  8. Normal Untreated Jurkat Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. The objective of the research was to define a way to differentiate between effects due to microgravity and those due to possible stress from non-optimal spaceflight conditions. These Jurkat cells, a human acute T-cell leukemia was obtained to evaluate three types of potential experimental stressors: a) Temperature elevation; b) Serum starvation; and c) Centrifugal force. The data from previous spaceflight experiments showed that actin filaments and cell shape are significantly different for the control. These normal cells serve as the baseline for future spaceflight experiments.

  9. AB106. Differential regulation of LncRNA-SARCC suppresses VHL-mutant RCC cell proliferation yet promotes VHL-normal RCC cell proliferation via modulating androgen receptor/HIF-2α/C-MYC axis under hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is well established that hypoxia contributes to tumor progression in a HIF-2α-dependent manner in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), yet the role of LncRNAs involved in hypoxia-mediated RCC progression remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that LncRNA-SARCC is differentially regulated by hypoxia in a VHL-dependent manner both in tissue culture and in human RCC clinical samples. LncRNA-SARCC can suppress hypoxic cell cycle progression in the VHL-mutant RCC cells while derepress it in the VHL-restored RCC cells. Mechanism dissection reveals that LncRNA-SARCC can post-transcriptionally regulate androgen receptor (AR) by physically binding and destabilizing AR protein to suppress AR/HIF-2α/C-MYC signals. In return, HIF-2α can transcriptionally regulate the LncRNA-SARCC expression via binding to hypoxia responsive elements (HREs) on the promoter of LncRNA-SARCC. The negative feedback modulation between LncRNA-SARCC/AR complex and HIF-2α signaling may then lead to differentially modulate RCC progression in a VHL-dependent manner. Together, these results may provide us a new therapeutic approach via targeting this newly identified signal from LncRNA-SARCC to AR-mediated HIF-2α/C-MYC signals against RCC progression. Methods Human samples—surgical specimens from human ccRCC tissues were obtained from 16 patients in the Department of Urology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji Medical School (Shanghai, China), freshly frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80 °C until use. OCT-embedded blocks were sectioned until cut planes were >70% tumor. Sections were collected for DNA, RNA, and protein extraction. Samples were cataloged, clinical information on cases was obtained through chart review, and patient identifiers were removed before analysis. Informed consent was obtained from patients and the study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Tongji Medical College. Immunohistochemistry—immunohistochemical staining was performed as previously

  10. TRIENNIAL REPRODUCTION SYMPOSIUM: Environmental programming of reproduction during fetal life: Effects of intrauterine position and the endocrine disrupting chemical bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Vom Saal, F S

    2016-07-01

    During critical periods in fetal life, there is an increased vulnerability to perturbations in endocrine function due to environmental factors. Small shifts in concentrations of hormones that regulate the differentiation of organs, such as estradiol and testosterone, can have permanent effects on morphology, enzymatic activity, and hormone receptors in tissues as well as neurobehavioral effects. These changes can lead to effects throughout life, including impacting the risk for various diseases (referred to as the Developmental Origins of Adult Health and Disease hypothesis). The intrauterine position phenomenon concerns the consequence for fetuses of randomly implanting next to embryos of the same or opposite sex. An intrauterine position next to males vs. females results in small differences in serum testosterone and estradiol during fetal life that are associated with marked effects on life history (such as lifetime fecundity) in both males and females born in litters (mice, rats, gerbils, rabbits, and swine) as well as human twins. Research with mice subsequently demonstrated that a very small experimental change in fetal serum estradiol levels altered organogenesis and caused permanent changes in organ function. Taken together, these findings led to the hypothesis that environmental chemicals that mimic or antagonize hormone action (e.g., endocrine disrupting chemicals) could also be causing harm at very low exposures (the "low dose" hypothesis) within the range of exposure of humans, domesticated animals, and wildlife. There is now extensive evidence from experimental laboratory animals, sheep, and humans that fetal exposure to very low (presumably safe) doses of the endocrine disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA), which exhibits estrogenic activity, can cause permanent changes that can increase the risk of a wide array of diseases. The reasons that federal regulatory agencies are ignoring the massive literature showing adverse effects of BPA and other

  11. [Effect of drug preparation combinations on intrauterine development].

    PubMed

    Bariliak, I R

    1977-01-01

    On the 13th day of pregnancy chloridine (50 mg/kg) or 6-mercaptopurine (60 mg/kg) was administered to rats. Thirty minutes before this the anomals received insulin (40 IU/kg), pentoxyl (100 mg/kg), ethonium (15 mg/kg), dimexide (5500 mg/kg), or magnesium sulphate (250 mg/kg). Oi the 20th day of preganancy the animals were sacrificed. While chloridine and 6-mercaptopurine caused abnormal development in all live embryos, their damaging (teratogenic and embryolethal) and action was sharply reduced when teratogens were used in combination with other drugs. The author feels that the normalizing effect of the study agents is due to the influence of these compounds on the functioning of the lysosome-segregational system. PMID:923784

  12. Genetic variant in CXCL13 gene is associated with susceptibility to intrauterine infection of hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Wan, Zhihua; Lin, Xiaofang; Li, Tongyang; Zhou, Aifen; Yang, Mei; Hu, Dan; Feng, Li; Peng, Songxu; Fan, Linlin; Tu, Si; Bin Zhang; Du, Yukai

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV), which accounts for the majority of mother-to-child transmission, is one of the main reasons for the failure of combined immunoprophylaxis against the transmission. Recent studies have identified that genetic background might influence the susceptibility to intrauterine infection of HBV. We conducted this study to investigate the associations between 10 genetic variants in 9 genes (SLC10A1, HLA-DP, HLA-C, CXCR5, CXCL13, TLR3, TLR4, TLR9 and UBE2L3) of mothers and their neonates and HBV intrauterine infection. A significantly decreased risk of HBV intrauterine transmission were found among mothers who carried the rs355687 CT genotypes in CXCL13 gene compared to those with CC genotypes (OR = 0.25, 95% CI, 0.08-0.82, P = 0.022); and a marginally significantly decreased risk was also observed under the dominant model (OR = 0.34, 95% CI, 0.11-1.01, P = 0.052). Besides, neonatal rs3130542 in HLA-C gene was found to be marginally significantly associated with decreased risk of HBV intrauterine infection under the additive model (OR = 0.55, 95% CI, 0.29-1.04, P = 0.064). However, we found no evidence of associations between the remaining 8 SNPs and risk of HBV intrauterine infection among mothers and their neonates. In conclusion, this study suggested that genetic variant in CXCL13 gene was associated with susceptibility to intrauterine infection of HBV. PMID:27212637

  13. Genetic variant in CXCL13 gene is associated with susceptibility to intrauterine infection of hepatitis B virus

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Zhihua; Lin, Xiaofang; Li, Tongyang; Zhou, Aifen; Yang, Mei; Hu, Dan; Feng, Li; Peng, Songxu; Fan, Linlin; Tu, Si; Bin Zhang; Du, Yukai

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV), which accounts for the majority of mother-to-child transmission, is one of the main reasons for the failure of combined immunoprophylaxis against the transmission. Recent studies have identified that genetic background might influence the susceptibility to intrauterine infection of HBV. We conducted this study to investigate the associations between 10 genetic variants in 9 genes (SLC10A1, HLA-DP, HLA-C, CXCR5, CXCL13, TLR3, TLR4, TLR9 and UBE2L3) of mothers and their neonates and HBV intrauterine infection. A significantly decreased risk of HBV intrauterine transmission were found among mothers who carried the rs355687 CT genotypes in CXCL13 gene compared to those with CC genotypes (OR = 0.25, 95% CI, 0.08–0.82, P = 0.022); and a marginally significantly decreased risk was also observed under the dominant model (OR = 0.34, 95% CI, 0.11–1.01, P = 0.052). Besides, neonatal rs3130542 in HLA-C gene was found to be marginally significantly associated with decreased risk of HBV intrauterine infection under the additive model (OR = 0.55, 95% CI, 0.29–1.04, P = 0.064). However, we found no evidence of associations between the remaining 8 SNPs and risk of HBV intrauterine infection among mothers and their neonates. In conclusion, this study suggested that genetic variant in CXCL13 gene was associated with susceptibility to intrauterine infection of HBV. PMID:27212637

  14. [Prenatal diagnosis and treatments of intrauterine growth retardation (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kaneoka, T; Shimizu, H; Matsuoka, I; Taguchi, S; Shirakawa, K

    1982-02-01

    Prenatal management consisting of bed rest, high protein diet and oral administration of allylestrenol was assessed in prospective studies of 22 IUGR pregnancies, in which ultrasonographically determined fetal body weight was less than 10th percentile of Japanese population. In these cases, the gestational age was ascertained and corrected in the first trimester of pregnancy by the routine sonar measurements of CRL and BPD. Early in the third trimester, the fetal body weight was estimated by BPD and AC using the method of Warsof et al. Following the prenatal treatment, sonar measurements and biochemical determinations of maternal plasma and urinary E3, plasma HPL and progesterone, and serum HSAP and LAP were made biweekly. As results: (1) The fetal estimated body weight, averaging initially 1431 +/- 284 g at 33.8 +/- 2.1 weeks of gestation, increased finally up to 2612 +/- 451 g at 39.5 +/- 1.8 weeks. (2) Average delta/week weight gain, being 212 +/- 67 g in these cases, exceeded significantly that, being 162 +/- 43 g, of normal 50th percentile level. (3) Fifty percent of the newborn was larger than 10th percentile of normal population, at the delivery. (4) Neonatal birth weight correlated significantly with finally estimated fetal body weight (r = 0.82, Y = 1.01 X + 17.5). (5) Maternal plasma E3, which was initially low in 20 out of 22 cases (91%), being 2.1 +/- 1.5 ng/ml, elevated to 4.1 +/- 3.6 ng/ml following 2 weeks treatment. Urinary E3 increased significantly from 14.0 +/- 6.9 mg/day to 23.7 +/- 11.2 mg/day. Plasma progesterone raised significantly from 110 +/- 14 ng/ml to 133 +/- 31 ng/ml. Those results suggested that maternal increases in steroid levels were at least partly due to a stimulation of placental function by allylestrenol. PMID:7061905

  15. Precision intrauterine contraception may significantly increase continuation of use: a review of long-term clinical experience with frameless copper-releasing intrauterine contraception devices

    PubMed Central

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Pett, Ansgar; Jandi, Sohela; Hasskamp, Thomas; Rowe, Patrick; Vrijens, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to review the experience with the frameless, anchored, GyneFix copper-releasing intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs/IUDs) (Contrel Europe, Belgium), and to demonstrate their high acceptability and low rate of discontinuation of use, which could contribute to current efforts that aim to reduce radically the high number of unintended pregnancies and induced abortions, particularly in young women. Materials and methods This paper is based on studies that examined the differences in uterine volume and cavity size, related to age and parity, and on original clinical research data and practical experience with frameless copper IUDs, as well as on literature data on the IUD–endometrial cavity relationship of conventional IUDs, with special reference to side effects and user discontinuation. Results The mean transverse diameter in nulliparous and parous women is significantly less than the length of the transverse arm of the TCu380A IUD (ParaGard, Duramed, NY, USA) or the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (Mirena, Bayer, Germany). Small, frameless, flexible, and unidimensional copper IUDs appear to be well tolerated, with less impact on menstrual bleeding, resulting in low discontinuation rates when compared with standard-size conventional IUDs, which often result in increased expulsion rates, complaints of pain and erratic or increased menstrual bleeding, and subsequent high rates of discontinuation, particularly in young women. Conclusion The unidimensional GyneFix IUDs fit the majority of uterine cavities. An IUD that fits is likely to result in increased tolerance and continued use of the method. As this would appeal to women, the logical result should be greater use of the method and fewer unintended pregnancies and induced abortions. Recommending the standard TCu380A (ParaGard) IUD or the Mirena levonorgestrel intrauterine system, primarily developed for use in parous women, for general use in nulliparous and adolescent

  16. Normal evaporation of binary alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    In the study of normal evaporation, it is assumed that the evaporating alloy is homogeneous, that the vapor is instantly removed, and that the alloy follows Raoult's law. The differential equation of normal evaporation relating the evaporating time to the final solute concentration is given and solved for several important special cases. Uses of the derived equations are exemplified with a Ni-Al alloy and some binary iron alloys. The accuracy of the predicted results are checked by analyses of actual experimental data on Fe-Ni and Ni-Cr alloys evaporated at 1600 C, and also on the vacuum purification of beryllium. These analyses suggest that the normal evaporation equations presented here give satisfactory results that are accurate to within an order of magnitude of the correct values, even for some highly concentrated solutions. Limited diffusion and the resultant surface solute depletion or enrichment appear important in the extension of this normal evaporation approach.

  17. Normal black kidney

    PubMed Central

    Yarmohamadi, Aliasghar; Rezayat, Ali Reza Akhavan; Memar, Bahram; Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Cand, PhD

    2014-01-01

    A black kidney has 3 major differential diagnoses: hemosiderosis, lipofuscin pigment and melanotic renal cell carcinoma. Excluding lipofuscin, the other 2 are accompanied by an abnormal renal function. We report on a 25-year-old man who intended to donate a kidney to his cousin. On the operating room table when we incised the left flank region and exposed the kidney, we found a firm and black kidney so the operation was cancelled due to potential vascular injuries. Days after the incomplete procedure, we reviewed the donor’s biochemistry and imaging to reassess his renal function, but the results showed quite normal renal function again. The result of Ham test was also negative. Two weeks later, we began the operation, removed the same left kidney and found that it was in the same conditions as it was before. We took the opportunity to send needle biopsies of the kidney for histopathologic analysis. The analysis showed a melanotic kidney without pathological changes in glomeruli and interstitium and vessels. A black kidney may result in hemosiderin, lipofuscin or melanin deposits in the kidney, which can confirm the diagnosis; however, special tests for underlying disease and renal function should be considered. Some causes of black kidney lead to abnormal function, but our patients’s kidney returned to normal. PMID:24839502

  18. In Vivo Detection of Perinatal Brain Metabolite Changes in a Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR)

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Rui V.; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Carbajo, Rodrigo J.; González-Tendero, Anna; Illa, Miriam; Sanz-Cortés, Magdalena; Pineda-Lucena, Antonio; Gratacós, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Background Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for abnormal neurodevelopment. We studied a rabbit model of IUGR by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS), to assess in vivo brain structural and metabolic consequences, and identify potential metabolic biomarkers for clinical translation. Methods IUGR was induced in 3 pregnant rabbits at gestational day 25, by 40–50% uteroplacental vessel ligation in one horn; the contralateral horn was used as control. Fetuses were delivered at day 30 and weighted. A total of 6 controls and 5 IUGR pups underwent T2-w MRI and localized proton MRS within the first 8 hours of life, at 7T. Changes in brain tissue volumes and respective contributions to each MRS voxel were estimated by semi-automated registration of MRI images with a digital atlas of the rabbit brain. MRS data were used for: (i) absolute metabolite quantifications, using linear fitting; (ii) local temperature estimations, based on the water chemical shift; and (iii) classification, using spectral pattern analysis. Results Lower birth weight was associated with (i) smaller brain sizes, (ii) slightly lower brain temperatures, and (iii) differential metabolite profile changes in specific regions of the brain parenchyma. Specifically, we found estimated lower levels of aspartate and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus (suggesting neuronal impairment), and higher glycine levels in the striatum (possible marker of brain injury). Our results also suggest that the metabolic changes in cortical regions are more prevalent than those detected in hippocampus and striatum. Conclusions IUGR was associated with brain metabolic changes in vivo, which correlate well with the neurostructural changes and neurodevelopment problems described in IUGR. Metabolic parameters could constitute non invasive biomarkers for the diagnosis and abnormal neurodevelopment of perinatal origin. PMID:26208165

  19. Does intrauterine tobacco exposure increase the pain perception of newborns?

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Mustafa; Yıldırım, Şule; Aylanç, Hakan; Kaymaz, Nazan; Battal, Fatih; Topaloğlu, Naci; Başer, Esra; Binnetoğlu, Fatih Köksal

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess whether there was a difference in the pain-perception levels of newborns born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy and newborns born to mothers who were not exposed to active or passive smoking during pregnancy. Materials and methods A total of 60 newborns born by normal spontaneous vaginal birth between June 2013 and June 2014 were included in the study: 30 born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy, and 30 born to mothers not exposed to smoking. Mothers or newborns who had taken analgesics or sedative medications in the previous 24 hours, newborns not born at term, and sick newborns were not included in the study. During the routine hepatitis B-vaccination injection given at postnatal 48 hours, the newborns’ behavior was monitored and recorded by video camera. The data obtained from the recordings were evaluated according to the Neonatal Pain, Agitation, and Sedation Scale and analyzed with SPSS 20. Results The median pain score of the group exposed to tobacco smoke in utero was 8.5, while the median pain score of the unexposed group was 6 (P<0.001). Conclusion Exposure to tobacco smoke in utero may increase the pain-perception levels of newborns. PMID:27330324

  20. Adrenal Demedullation and Oxygen Supplementation Independently Increase Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Concentrations in Fetal Sheep With Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Macko, Antoni R; Yates, Dustin T; Chen, Xiaochuan; Shelton, Leslie A; Kelly, Amy C; Davis, Melissa A; Camacho, Leticia E; Anderson, Miranda J; Limesand, Sean W

    2016-05-01

    In pregnancies complicated by placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), fetal glucose and oxygen concentrations are reduced, whereas plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations are elevated throughout the final third of gestation. Here we study the effects of chronic hypoxemia and hypercatecholaminemia on β-cell function in fetal sheep with placental insufficiency-induced IUGR that is produced by maternal hyperthermia. IUGR and control fetuses underwent a sham (intact) or bilateral adrenal demedullation (AD) surgical procedure at 0.65 gestation. As expected, AD-IUGR fetuses had lower norepinephrine concentrations than intact-IUGR fetuses despite being hypoxemic and hypoglycemic. Placental insufficiency reduced fetal weights, but the severity of IUGR was less with AD. Although basal plasma insulin concentrations were lower in intact-IUGR and AD-IUGR fetuses compared with intact-controls, glucose-stimulated insulin concentrations were greater in AD-IUGR fetuses compared with intact-IUGR fetuses. Interestingly, AD-controls had lower glucose- and arginine-stimulated insulin concentrations than intact-controls, but AD-IUGR and AD-control insulin responses were not different. To investigate chronic hypoxemia in the IUGR fetus, arterial oxygen tension was increased to normal levels by increasing the maternal inspired oxygen fraction. Oxygenation of IUGR fetuses enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin concentrations 3.3-fold in intact-IUGR and 1.7-fold in AD-IUGR fetuses but did not lower norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations. Together these findings show that chronic hypoxemia and hypercatecholaminemia have distinct but complementary roles in the suppression of β-cell responsiveness in IUGR fetuses. PMID:26937714

  1. Hepatic IGF1 DNA methylation is influenced by gender but not by intrauterine growth restriction in the young lamb.

    PubMed

    Carr, D J; Milne, J S; Aitken, R P; Adam, C L; Wallace, J M

    2015-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and postnatal catch-up growth confer an increased risk of adult-onset disease. Overnourishment of adolescent ewes generates IUGR in ∼ 50% of lambs, which subsequently exhibit increased fractional growth rates. We investigated putative epigenetic changes underlying this early postnatal phenotype by quantifying gene-specific methylation at cytosine:guanine (CpG) dinucleotides. Hepatic DNA/RNA was extracted from IUGR [eight male (M)/nine female (F)] and normal birth weight (12 M/9 F) lambs. Polymerase chain reaction was performed using primers targeting CpG islands in 10 genes: insulin, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)1, IGF2, H19, insulin receptor, growth hormone receptor, IGF receptors 1 and 2, and the glucocorticoid receptor. Using pyrosequencing, methylation status was determined by quantifying cytosine:thymine ratios at 57 CpG sites. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of IGF system genes and plasma IGF1/insulin were determined. DNA methylation was independent of IUGR status but sexual dimorphism in IGF1 methylation was evident (MF (both P<0.001). IGF1 mRNA expression correlated negatively with IGF1 methylation (r=-0.507, P=0.002) and positively with plasma IGF1 (r=0.884, P<0.001). Carcass and empty body weights were greater in males (P=0.002-0.014) and this gender difference in early body conformation was mirrored by sexual dimorphism in hepatic IGF1 DNA methylation, mRNA expression and plasma IGF1 concentrations. PMID:26310177

  2. Knowledge and attitudes of Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists regarding intrauterine contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Bahamondes, Luis; Makuch, Maria Y; Monteiro, Ilza; Marin, Victor; Lynen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background Intrauterine contraceptives (IUCs), including the copper intrauterine device and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), are among the reversible contraceptive methods with high effectiveness. However, use is low in many settings, including some Latin American countries, mainly due to the influences of myths, fears, and negative attitudes, not only of users and potential users, but also of different cadres of health care professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of a group of Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists regarding IUCs. Methods A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting organized in Chile in 2014 to present and discuss updated information about contraception. Obstetricians and gynecologists from 12 Latin American countries, who reported that they provide daily contraception services in both the public and private sectors, participated in the meeting. Participants who agreed to take part in the survey responded to a multiple-choice questionnaire on issues regarding knowledge, use, and attitudes about IUCs. Results Of the 210 obstetricians and gynecologists participating in the meeting, the respondents to each question varied from 168 (80.0%) to 205 (97.6%). Almost 50% recognized that the failure rate of combined oral contraceptives, patches, and vaginal rings is 8%–10%. Furthermore, 10% of the participants did not recognize the high contraceptive effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods. Additionally, almost 80% of the respondents answered that they did not offer IUCs to nulligravidas and almost 10% did not offer IUCs to adolescents, albeit almost 90% of the respondents reported that nulligravidas are candidates for an LNG-IUS. Conclusion Some deficiencies and contradictions in terms of knowledge and attitudes were identified from the answers of the Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists who participated in the survey. The knowledge and

  3. Small Size at Birth or Abnormal Intrauterine Growth Trajectory: Which Matters More for Child Growth?

    PubMed

    Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Jacobsen, Geir W; Kramer, Michael S; Martinussen, Marit; Platt, Robert W

    2016-06-15

    Small size at birth is linked with lifelong adverse health implications. However, small size is only a proxy for the pathological process of interest, intrauterine growth restriction. We examined the extent to which information on intrauterine growth patterns improved prediction of childhood anthropometry, above and beyond birth weight alone. We obtained fetal weights estimated via serial ultrasound for 478 children in the Scandinavian Successive Small-for-Gestational-Age Births Study (1986-1988). Size at birth was classified using birth weight-for-gestational-age z scores and conditional fetal growth z scores (reflecting growth between 25 weeks' gestation and birth) using internal references. Conditional z scores were also expressed as residuals of birth weight z scores. Growth measures were linked with age-5-years anthropometric characteristics using linear regression. In univariable analyses, conditional fetal growth z scores were positively associated with z scores for child height, body mass index, total skinfold thickness, and head circumference (β = 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18, 0.31), β = 0.16 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.23), β = 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.16), and β = 0.37 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.52), respectively). However, conditional z scores were highly correlated with birth weight z scores (r = 0.9), and residuals explained minimal additional variation in anthropometric factors (null coefficients; adjusted R(2) increases < 0.01). Information on the intrauterine trajectory through which birth weight was attained provided little additional insight into child growth beyond that obtained from absolute size at birth. PMID:27257112

  4. Are There Effects of Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure on Delinquency during Early Adolescence? A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Gerteis, Jessie; Chartrand, Molinda; Martin, Brett; Cabral, Howard J.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Crooks, Denise; Frank, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To ascertain whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) is associated with early adolescent delinquent behavior, after accounting for prenatal exposures to other psychoactive substances and relevant psychosocial factors. Methods Ninety-three early adolescents (12.5–14.5 years old) participating since birth in a longitudinal study of IUCE reported delinquent acts via an audio computer assisted self interview (ACASI). Level of IUCE and exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana were determined by maternal report, maternal and infant urine assays, and infant meconium assays at birth. Participants reported their exposure to violence on the Violence Exposure Scale for Children – Revised (VEX-R) at ages 8.5, 9.5, 11 years and during early adolescence, and the strictness of supervision by their caregivers during early adolescence. Results Of the 93 participants, 24 (26%) reported ≥3 delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. In the final multivariate model (including level of IUCE and cigarette exposure, childhood exposure to violence, and caregiver strictness/supervision) ≥ 3 delinquent behaviors were not significantly associated with level of IUCE but were significantly associated with intrauterine exposure to half a pack or more of cigarettes per day and higher levels of childhood exposure to violence, effects substantially unchanged after control for early adolescent violence exposure. Conclusions In this cohort, prospectively ascertained prenatal exposure to cigarettes and childhood exposure to violence are associated with self-reported delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. Contrary to initial popular predictions, intrauterine cocaine is not a strong predictor of adolescent delinquent behaviors in this cohort. PMID:21558951

  5. Behavioral and Physiological Analyses of Parturition In Pregnant Rats: Insights Derived from Intrauterine Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villareal, J.; Mallery, E.; Lynch, A.; Mills, N.; Baer, L.; Wade, C.; Ronca, A.; Dalton, Donnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During labor and birth, fetuses are exposed to considerable physical stimulation associated with labor contractions and expulsion from the womb These forces are important for the neonates' adaptation to tile extrauterine environment. To further our understanding of the relationship between labor and postpartum outcome, we developed a novel method for measuring intrauterine pressure (IUP) in freely-moving, late pregnant and parturient rats that enables us to make precise, reliable measures of the forces experienced by rat fetuses during parturition. A small (1.25 x 4 cm) telemetric blood pressure sensor was fitted within a fluid-filled balloon, similar in size to a full term rat fetus. On Gestational day (G) 19 of the rats' 22/23 day pregnancy, each dam was anesthetized and a balloon/sensor unit surgically implanted within the uterus following removal of two fetuses. Comparisons were made between sensor-implanted dams (IMPL) and a control conditions: 1) LAP-R, laparotomy with two fetuses removed or 2) LAP-NR, laparotomy with no fetuses removed. IUP signals were sampled at 10s intervals from the IMPL dams during labor and birth. Dams in all three conditions were videorecorded enabling us to analyze the effect of the implant on behavioral expressions of parturition. Contraction frequency, duration, pup-to-pup birth intervals and pup-oriented activities of the dams measured from one hour prior to the first pup birth until the birth of the third pup were unaffected by the sensor implant. Intrauterine telemetry of freely-moving dams offers significant advantages over conventional hardwired IUP measurement techniques. These findings establish and validate intrauterine telemetry as a reliable, non-invasive technique for quantifying pressures associated with parturition.

  6. Intrauterine insemination versus fallopian tube sperm perfusion in non-tubal infertility

    PubMed Central

    Shekhawat, G.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) combined with intrauterine insemination (IUI), using a volume of 0.5 ml of inseminate is commonly offered to couples with non-tubal sub fertility. Another method is Fallopian tube sperm perfusion (FSP) which is based on a pressure injection of 4 ml of sperm suspension while attempting to seal the cervix to prevent semen reflux. This technique ensures the presence of higher sperm density in the fallopian tubes at the time of ovulation than standard IUI. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of standard intrauterine insemination (IUI) and Fallopian tube sperm perfusion (FSP) in the treatment of non-tubal infertility. Methods 200 consecutive patients with infertility in 404 stimulated cycles were included in the study. Those randomized to standard IUI included 100 patients in 184 cycles [158 clomiphene citrate/human menopausal gonadotrophin cycles and 26 Letrozole/FSH cycles exclusively for polycystic ovarian disease patients] (group A). Patients subjected to FSP included 100 patients in 220 cycles (193 clomiphene citrate/human menopausal gonadotrophin cycles and 27 Letrozole/FSH cycles exclusively for polycystic ovarian disease patients] (group B). Swim up semen preparation technique was used in all cases. Insemination was performed in both groups 34–37 h after hCG administration. Standard IUI was performed using 0.5 ml of inseminate. In FSP 4 ml inseminate was used. Results In group A (184 IUI cycles in 100 patients), 22 clinical pregnancies (presence of gestational sac with fetal cardiac activity) occurred (11.95% per cycle over four cycles). In group B, (220 cycles of FSP in 100 patients), 48 clinical pregnancies occurred (21.81% per cycle over four cycles) and this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions For non-tubal sub fertility, the results indicate clear benefit for FSP (Fallopian tube sperm perfusion) over IUI (Intrauterine insemination). PMID:24532873

  7. Modulation of body fluids and angiotensin II receptors in a rat model of intra-uterine growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    Bédard, Sophie; Sicotte, Benoit; St-Louis, Jean; Brochu, Michèle

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that sodium restriction during pregnancy reduces plasma volume expansion and promotes intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) in rats while it activates the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS). In the present study, we proceeded to determine whether expression of the two angiotensin II (ANGII) receptor subtypes (AT1 and AT2) change in relation to maternal water–electrolyte homeostasis and fetal growth. To this end, pregnant (gestation day 15) and non-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups fed either normal, or Na+-restricted diets for 7 days. At the end of the treatment period, plasma aldosterone and renin activity as well as plasma and urine electrolytes were measured. Determinations for AT1 and AT2 mRNA and protein were made by RNase protection assay and photoaffinity labelling, respectively, using a number of tissues implicated in volume regulation and fetal growth. In non-pregnant rats, Na+ restriction decreases Na+ excretion without altering plasma volume, plasma Na+ concentration or the expression of AT1 and AT2 mRNA or protein in the tissues examined. In normally fed pregnant rats when compared to non-pregnant controls, AT1 mRNA increases in the hypothalamus as well as pituitary and declines in uterine arteries, while AT1 protein decreases in the kidney and AT2 mRNA declines in the adrenal cortex. In pregnant rats, Na+ restriction induces a decrease in plasma Na+, an increase in plasma urea, as well as a decline in renal urea and creatinine clearance rates. Protein levels for both AT1 and AT2 in the pituitary and AT2 mRNA in the adrenal cortex are lower in the Na+-restricted pregnant group when compared to normally fed pregnant animals. Na+ restriction also induces a decrease in AT1 protein in the placenta. In conclusion, these results suggest that pregnancy may increase sensitivity to Na+ depletion by the tissue-specific modulation of ANGII receptors. Finally, these receptors may be implicated

  8. Cell proliferation in normal epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, G.D.; McCullough, J.L.; Ross, P.

    1984-06-01

    A detailed examination of cell proliferation kinetics in normal human epidermis is presented. Using tritiated thymidine with autoradiographic techniques, proliferative and differentiated cell kinetics are defined and interrelated. The proliferative compartment of normal epidermis has a cell cycle duration (Tc) of 311 h derived from 3 components: the germinative labeling index (LI), the duration of DNA synthesis (ts), and the growth fraction (GF). The germinative LI is 2.7% +/- 1.2 and ts is 14 h, the latter obtained from a composite fraction of labeled mitoses curve obtained from 11 normal subjects. The GF obtained from the literature and from human skin xenografts to nude mice is estimated to be 60%. Normal-appearing epidermis from patients with psoriasis appears to have a higher proliferation rate. The mean LI is 4.2% +/- 0.9, approximately 50% greater than in normal epidermis. Absolute cell kinetic values for this tissue, however, cannot yet be calculated for lack of other information on ts and GF. A kinetic model for epidermal cell renewal in normal epidermis is described that interrelates the rate of birth/entry, transit, and/or loss of keratinocytes in the 3 epidermal compartments: proliferative, viable differentiated (stratum malpighii), and stratum corneum. Expected kinetic homeostasis in the epidermis is confirmed by the very similar ''turnover'' rates in each of the compartments that are, respectively, 1246, 1417, and 1490 cells/day/mm2 surface area. The mean epidermal turnover time of the entire tissue is 39 days. The Tc of 311 h in normal cells in 8-fold longer than the psoriatic Tc of 36 h and is necessary for understanding the hyperproliferative pathophysiologic process in psoriasis.

  9. West Nile virus (WNV) transmission routes in the murine model: intrauterine, by breastfeeding and after cannibal ingestion.

    PubMed

    Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Sáiz, Juan-Carlos

    2010-08-01

    Since its first detection in New York in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has already caused over 1000 human deaths in the U.S. Although the virus is usually transmitted by mosquito bites; other routes, such as intrauterine and breastfeeding, have been occasionally reported in humans. To investigate alternative routes of WNV transmission, mice were inoculated during gestation and after delivery, and offspring from infected and non-infected mothers were interchanged and nursed as foster babies. Intrauterine and breastfeeding transmission was confirmed after WNV detection, by quantitative RT-PCR and viral culture infectivity, in babies born to infected mothers and in newborns that were nursed by mothers infected after delivery. All infected mothers, either experimentally or after cannibal ingestion of infected fostered babies, succumbed to the disease, as did most of their nursed babies. These results indicate that WNV is efficiently transmitted by vertical routes (intrauterine and lactation) and after cannibal ingestion of infected animals. PMID:20438776

  10. Intrauterine device infection causing concomitant streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and pelvic abscess with Actinomyces odontolyticus bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Carolyn M Yu; Noska, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are rarely associated with serious infections. We report an unusual concomitant infection of group A Streptococcus (GAS) causing toxic shock syndrome and pelvic abscess with Actinomyces odontolyticus associated with an IUD in a healthy 50-year-old patient. The IUD was subsequently removed and the patient recovered on the appropriate antibiotics. This case highlights the importance of clinicians' high index of suspicion of an IUD infection and prompt removal of the infected foreign body to obtain source control. PMID:26965406

  11. [Caloric balance in infants with intrauterine dystrophy fed formulas containing unmodified fats].

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Z; Symonowicz, H; Koziej, M

    1979-01-01

    The small-for-Date (S-f-D) infants are treated as high risk infants with regard to some metabolic disorders. Special attention should be paid to disorders of energy metabolism. The S-f-D infants already at birth showed the symptoms and results of intrauterine undernutrition, analogical to protein-calorie malnutrition in infants with postnatal dystrophy. The most important effect of intrauterine undernutrition influencing energy metabolism of S-f-D infants were discussed. Higher calorie requirement and higher calorie losses than in full-size (FS) infants were underlined. It was noted that proper feeding may, to a great extent, lessen the results of deficits in gestational age, as well as to increase the survival ability and assure the best possible physical and mental development. As the knowledge of energy metabolism in infants, particularly in those born with intrauterine undernutrition, is insufficient the studies of calorie balance were undertaken. The investigations were carried out in 26 infants observed longitudinally and crossectionally . All infants were fed ad libitum unmodified fat and protein cow's milk formulas containing glucose instead of saccharose in the first trimester and from second trimester gluten--free flour instead of wheat flour. Other meals were given according to obligatory scheme of infants' nutrition. The results of calorie balance studies were compared with the roper data of FS infants in I trimester and II semester of life, which were described in our previous paper. The results of fat an nitrogen balances were also taken into consideration. It was found, that the calorie intake in S-f-D infants is higher, particularly in first months of life, than in FS infants. It is closely related to the degree of intrauterine dystrophy. In this respect S-f-D infants behave similarly as the infants with postnatal dystrophy, which are capable to catch-up by increased calorie intake in answer to previous undernutrition. The calorie excretion in feces

  12. Use of intrauterine devices as a means of contraception in a colony of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Porteous, I S; Mundy, N I; Grall, C

    1994-08-01

    The uncontrolled reproduction of the captive chimpanzee colony at the Primate Centre, CIRMF, Gabon, has led to high neonatal mortality. The only solution meeting ethical, financial, and practical considerations was to attempt reversible physical contraception using intrauterine devices (IUDs). Human IUDs were inserted into 21 females of various ages, parities, and stages of the menstrual cycle. Over a 30-month period, five of the study animals became pregnant. This reduction of conception rate, with minimal side effects, demonstrates the reliability of IUDs for controlling reproduction of chimpanzee colonies. PMID:7897642

  13. Anti-prostglandin therapy in prevention of side-effects of intrauterine contraceptive devices.

    PubMed

    Ylikorkala, O; Kauppila, A; Siljander, M

    1978-08-19

    The efficacy of an anti-prostaglandin, tolfenamic acid (T.A.), in the prevention of side-effects after insertion of a copper-T200 intrauterine contraceptive device (I.U.D.) was evaluated in a double-blind trial in 160 women. T.A. relieved pain and reduced bleeding after insertion and during three subsequent menstruations without serious side-effects. A scoring system for the assessment of I.U.D. side-effects showed that the acceptability of I.U.D. was significantly better in women treated with T.A. than in those given placebo. PMID:79760

  14. Multiple large brain abscesses in a newborn that may have resulted from intrauterine infection.

    PubMed

    Celik, Istemi Han; Demirel, Gamze; Erdeve, Omer; Uraş, Nurdan; Dilmen, Uğur

    2011-01-01

    Brain abscess is a focal, intracerebral infection that begins as a localized area of cerebritis and develops into a collection of pus surrounded by a well-vascularized capsule. Here, we report a case with multiple, large brain abscesses diagnosed coincidentally on postnatal day 11. This case is noteworthy because the organized abscesses were present as early as day 11 with no significant neurological signs or symptoms. Brain abscess in newborns is a very rare disease that may not exhibit the expected neurological signs and symptoms. Depending on the radiological organization, an abscess in a neonate in the first weeks may be the result of an intrauterine infection. PMID:22272460

  15. Fetomaternal Hemorrhage following Placement of an Intrauterine Pressure Catheter: Report of a New Association

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Fadi G.; Thaker, Harshwardhan M.; Flejter, Wendy L.; D'Alton, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) can be associated with significant perinatal mortality. Our review of the literature did not identify any cases of FMH following placement of an intrauterine pressure catheter (IUPC). In our case, an IUPC was inserted in a patient undergoing induction of labor at term. Fetal bradycardia ensued shortly after placement, warranting an emergent cesarean delivery. Severe neonatal anemia was identified, and evaluation of maternal blood was consistent with massive FMH. This is the first reported association between FMH and IUPC placement. If this relationship is validated in future reports, appropriate changes in clinical practice may be warranted. PMID:26417466

  16. Barriers to Intrauterine Device Uptake in a Rural Setting in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Nuriya; Moshabela, Mosa; Owusu-Ansah, Lydia; Kapungu, Chisina; Geller, Stacie

    2016-01-01

    Long-acting reversible contraception is an underutilized method in low-resource areas. Our study aims to: (a) assess knowledge and attitudes around contraception; (b) identify barriers to intrauterine device (IUD) uptake; and (c) develop interventions to address this gap in contraceptive care. We conducted focus group discussions with pregnant, postpartum, and reproductive-aged women, males, and health care workers in rural Ghana. Lack of IUD-specific knowledge, provider discomfort with insertion, and incomplete contraceptive counseling contribute to lack of IUD use. Participant- and provider-related barriers contribute to poor uptake of IUDs within the community. Targeted interventions are necessary to improve IUD use. PMID:25153448

  17. Evaluation of quality of life and sexual functioning of women using levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine contraceptive system--Mirena.

    PubMed

    Skrzypulec, Violetta; Drosdzol, Agnieszka

    2008-12-01

    The advantages ensuing from the high contraceptive efficacy, positive effect on the parameters of the menstrual cycle as well as other values of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system may play an important role in women's sexual life. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system on the quality of life and sexual functioning of women. The research encompassed 200 women aged between 30 and 45. 52 women using the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system were qualified to the study as the research group (Mirena Group). The control groups consisted of 48 women using a different type of intrauterine device (Control Group I--Other IUD) and 50 women using no contraception (Control Group II). A specific questionnaire with a general part concerning socio-demographic conditions, a part dealing with contraception and Polish version of self-evaluation inventories: Short Form-36 Health Survey, Female Sexual Function Index and Mell-Krat Scale was used as a research tool. Quality of life parameters for women using the Mirena system were higher than for the control groups, especially in the aspect of general health, energy/fatigue and emotional well-being. A significant beneficial effect of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system on sexual functioning (sexual desire and arousal) was also revealed in the study. Sexual dysfunctions were diagnosed in 20.8% of Other IUD, 34.7% of Control Group II and 9.6% of Mirena Group. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system increases female quality of life and sexual functioning parameters. PMID:19149209

  18. Use of the Mirena LNG-IUS and Paragard CuT380A intrauterine devices in nulliparous women.

    PubMed

    Lyus, Richard; Lohr, Patricia; Prager, Sarah

    2010-05-01

    Two intrauterine devices (IUDs) are available in the United States, the levonorgestrel-bearing intrauterine system (Mirena) and the copper-bearing T380A (Paragard). These devices have very low typical-use failure rates but are used by only a minority of women. In particular, there is concern about their use in nulliparous women. We review the available data to address common concerns about using IUDs in this population and show that nulliparous women desiring effective contraception should be considered candidates for IUDs. PMID:20399942

  19. Clinical application of intrauterine bone marrow transplantation for treatment of genetic diseases--feasibility studies.

    PubMed

    Slavin, S; Naparstek, E; Ziegler, M; Lewin, A

    1992-01-01

    Intrauterine bone marrow transplantation (BMT) may represent a new approach for correction of a large variety of genetic disorders in utero. The procedure may become feasible for more genetic disorders in the future, since a large majority of potentially correctible diseases can be diagnosed at an early stage of gestation in utero using molecular probes that permit analysis of small biologic samples and even few cells that may be obtained by chorionic villi biopsy and/or amniocentesis. Haploidentical paternal marrow (2 cases) and sibling bone marrow cells from a disease-free family members, were infused into the fetus. GVHD was avoided following in vitro T-lymphocyte depletion using monoclonal antilymphocyte (CDW52) antibodies (Campath-1) without affecting stem cell viability, similarly to the procedures in routine use in clinical BMT programs in man. Three women underwent intrauterine BMT at 34, 23 and 25 weeks of gestation for metachromatic leucodystrophy (Arylsulfatase A deficiency, 2 cases) and beta thalassemia major (1 case), respectively. A total of 33 x 10(8), 30 x 10(8) and 30 x 10(8) bone marrow cells were infused intraperitoneally (1 case), intraportally plus intraperitoneally (2 cases) with no fetal distress. Although the procedure was uneventful and no clinical evidence of GVHD was observed following delivery, correction of the basic disorders was not accomplished because of anticipated rejection of marrow allografts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1504665

  20. Intrauterine Exposure to Paracetamol and Aniline Impairs Female Reproductive Development by Reducing Follicle Reserves and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Mazaud-Guittot, Severine; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels Banhos; Chalmey, Clementine; Jensen, Benjamin; Nørregård, Mette Marie; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Styrishave, Bjarne; Svingen, Terje; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Koch, Holger Martin; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter; Jégou, Bernard; Kristiansen, Karsten; Kristensen, David Møbjerg

    2016-03-01

    Studies report that fetal exposure to paracetamol/acetaminophen by maternal consumption can interfere with male reproductive development. Moreover, recent biomonitoring data report widespread presence of paracetamol in German and Danish populations, suggesting exposure via secondary (nonpharmaceutical) sources, such as metabolic conversion from the ubiquitous industrial compound aniline. In this study, we investigated the extent to which paracetamol and aniline can interfere with female reproductive development. Intrauterine exposure to paracetamol by gavage of pregnant dams resulted in shortening of the anogenital distance in adult offspring, suggesting that fetal hormone signaling had been disturbed. Female offspring of paracetamol-exposed mothers had ovaries with diminished follicle reserve and reduced fertility. Fetal gonads of exposed animals had also reduced gonocyte numbers, suggesting that the reduced follicle count in adults could be due to early disruption of germ cell development. However, ex vivo cultures of ovaries from 12.5 days post coitum fetuses showed no decrease in proliferation or expression following exposure to paracetamol. This suggests that the effect of paracetamol occurs prior to this developmental stage. Accordingly, using embryonic stem cells as a proxy for primordial germ cells we show that paracetamol is an inhibitor of cellular proliferation, but without cytotoxic effects. Collectively, our data show that intrauterine exposure to paracetamol at levels commonly observed in pregnant women, as well as its precursor aniline, may block primordial germ cell proliferation, ultimately leading to reduced follicle reserves and compromised reproductive capacity later in life. PMID:26732887

  1. Estimated economic impact of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system on unintended pregnancy in active duty women.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Mumford, Sunni L; Hill, Micah J; Armstrong, Alicia Y

    2014-10-01

    Unintended pregnancy is reportedly higher in active duty women; therefore, we sought to estimate the potential impact of the levonorgestrel-containing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) could have on unintended pregnancy in active duty women. A decision tree model with sensitivity analysis was used to estimate the number of unintentional pregnancies in active duty women which could be prevented. A secondary cost analysis was performed to analyze the direct cost savings to the U.S. Government. The total number of Armed Services members is estimated to be over 1.3 million, with an estimated 208,146 being women. Assuming an age-standardized unintended pregnancy rate of 78 per 1,000 women, 16,235 unintended pregnancies occur each year. Using a combined LNG-IUS failure and expulsion rate of 2.2%, a decrease of 794, 1588, and 3970 unintended pregnancies was estimated to occur with 5%, 10% and 25% usage, respectively. Annual cost savings from LNG-IUS use range from $3,387,107 to $47,352,295 with 5% to 25% intrauterine device usage. One-way sensitivity analysis demonstrated LNG-IUS to be cost-effective when the cost associated with pregnancy and delivery exceeded $11,000. Use of LNG-IUS could result in significant reductions in unintended pregnancy among active duty women, resulting in substantial cost savings to the government health care system. PMID:25269131

  2. Mother's prior intrauterine position affects the sex ratio of her offspring in house mice.

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbergh, J G; Huggett, C L

    1994-01-01

    Sex ratio alterations related to environmental factors occur in several mammals, but no mechanism has been identified to explain the adjustment. Intrauterine position (IUP) may provide the context in which such alterations occur. Previous studies on house mice and gerbils reveal that the position of a fetus in the uterus in relation to the sex of its neighbors influences its later anatomy, physiology, and behavior. The anogenital distance (AGD) of females located between two males (2M) is longer than that of females not between two males (OM). We have found that the IUP, as determined by cesarean section and by an index of the AGD, correlates with the sex ratio of the litters produced by female mice. The sex ratio of the first litter born to 2M females was 58% males, for 1M females was 51% males and for OM females was 42% males. The effect on sex ratio continues into the second litter. The number of pups produced by mothers of different IUPs in her first two litters did not differ, suggesting that the sex ratio adjustment occurs prior to parturition. These results provide a basis for the natural variability observed in sex ratios of litter-bearing mammals and suggest that one or more intrauterine mechanisms may be responsible for environmentally related sex ratio alterations. PMID:7972008

  3. Effects of intrauterine substance and postnatal violence exposure on aggression in children.

    PubMed

    Barthelemy, Olivier J; Richardson, Mark A; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Forman, Leah S; Cabral, Howard J; Frank, Deborah A

    2016-05-01

    During the cocaine epidemic of the 1980s and early 1990s, many expressed fears that children with intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) would grow up to be unusually violent. The present study examines the relationship of caregiver reports of school-age children's aggressive behavior with IUCE and postnatal exposure to violence. Respondents were 140 low-income, primarily African American children, ages 8-11, and each child's current primary caregiver from a longitudinal study evaluating potential long term sequelae of IUCE. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the independent and interactive effects of level of IUCE (None (n = 69), Lighter (n = 47), Heavier (n =  24)) and exposure to violence (Violence Exposure Scale for Children-Revised) on aggressive behavior (Child Behavior Checklist), while also controlling for other intrauterine substance exposures and additional contextual factors. Children's self-reported exposure to violence was significantly positively associated with caregivers' reports of aggressive behavior (β = 2.17, P = .05), as was concurrent caregiver's psychiatric distress (β = .15, P = .003). However, neither IUCE nor its interaction with exposure to violence showed a significant association with aggressive behavior. Findings suggest the importance of postnatal social environment rather than IUCE in predicting aggressive behavior in childhood. Aggr. Behav. 42:209-221, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26660077

  4. Study of femoral torsion during prenatal growth: interpretations associated with the effects of intrauterine pressure.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, Noémie; Simonis, Caroline; Seringe, Raphaël; Tardieu, Christine

    2011-07-01

    The developing fetus is protected from external environmental influences by maternal tissues. However, these structures have a limited elasticity, such that the fetus must grow in a confined space, constraining its size at the end of pregnancy. Can these constraints modify the morphology of the fetal skeleton? The intensity of these constraints increases between 5 months and birth, making it the most appropriate period to address this question. A sample of 89 fetal femora was analyzed, and results provide evidence that during this period, the torsion of the femoral shaft (quantified by means of a new three-dimensional method) increases gradually. Two explanations were considered: this increase could signal effects of constraints induced by the intrauterine cavity, developmental patterning, or some combination of these two. Different arguments tend to support the biomechanical explanation, rather than a programming pattern formation. Indeed, the identification of the femur as a first degree lever, created by the hyperflexion of the fetal lower limbs on the pelvis, could explain the increase in femoral shaft torsion during prenatal life. A comparison with femora of infants is in accordance with this mechanical interpretation, which is possible through bone modeling/remodeling. Although genetic and epigenetic mechanisms may regulate timing of fetal development, our data suggest that at birth, the fetal skeleton also has an intrauterine mechanical history through adaptive bone plasticity. PMID:21541926

  5. The risk of childhood cancer from intrauterine and preconceptional exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeford, R.

    1995-11-01

    The findings of studies investigating whether exposures to ionizing radiation before birth, either pre- or post-conception, increase the risk of childhood cancer have provoked much scientific controversy. An epidemiological association between the abdominal exposure or pregnant women